Loose heterogeneous collection of cells in the anterior hypothalamus, continuous rostrally with the medial and lateral PREOPTIC AREAS and caudally with the TUBER CINEREUM.
An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.
A nucleus of the middle hypothalamus, the largest cell group of the tuberal region with small-to-medium size cells.
The affective response to an actual current external danger which subsides with the elimination of the threatening condition.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.
The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.
The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.
Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A drive stemming from a physiological need for WATER.
The condition that results from excessive loss of water from a living organism.
Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The front portion of the HYPOTHALAMUS separated into the preoptic region and the supraoptic region. The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS.
Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
The motor activity of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The evacuation of food from the stomach into the duodenum.
Peptides with the ability to stimulate pigmented cells MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates. By stimulating the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in these pigmented cells, they increase coloration of skin and other tissue. MSHs, derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC), are produced by MELANOTROPHS in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY; CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS OF HYPOTHALAMUS.
A 13-amino acid peptide derived from proteolytic cleavage of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE, the N-terminal segment of ACTH. ACTH (1-13) is amidated at the C-terminal to form ACTH (1-13)NH2 which in turn is acetylated to form alpha-MSH in the secretory granules. Alpha-MSH stimulates the synthesis and distribution of MELANIN in MELANOCYTES in mammals and MELANOPHORES in lower vertebrates.
Cell surface receptors that bind CORTICOTROPIN; (ACTH, adrenocorticotropic hormone) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes. Pharmacology suggests there may be multiple ACTH receptors. An ACTH receptor has been cloned and belongs to a subfamily of G-protein-coupled receptors. In addition to the adrenal cortex, ACTH receptors are found in the brain and immune systems.
Cell surface proteins that bind pituitary hormones with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Since many pituitary hormones are also released by neurons as neurotransmitters, these receptors are also found in the nervous system.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
An 11-amino acid peptide derived from the N-terminal fragment of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Gamma-MSH stimulates adrenal steroidogenesis and has an regulatory role in the cardiovascular and the renal systems.
Cell surface receptors for obesity factor (LEPTIN), a hormone secreted by the WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Upon leptin-receptor interaction, the signal is mediated through the JAK2/STAT3 pathway to regulate food intake, energy balance and fat storage.
An adrenocortical steroid that has modest but significant activities as a mineralocorticoid and a glucocorticoid. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1437)
The interactions between the anterior pituitary and adrenal glands, in which corticotropin (ACTH) stimulates the adrenal cortex and adrenal cortical hormones suppress the production of corticotropin by the anterior pituitary.
A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
A peptide of about 41 amino acids that stimulates the release of ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE. CRH is synthesized by neurons in the PARAVENTRICULAR NUCLEUS of the HYPOTHALAMUS. After being released into the pituitary portal circulation, CRH stimulates the release of ACTH from the PITUITARY GLAND. CRH can also be synthesized in other tissues, such as PLACENTA; ADRENAL MEDULLA; and TESTIS.
Use of a device for the purpose of controlling movement of all or part of the body. Splinting and casting are FRACTURE FIXATION.
Deficient oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD.
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.
Severe gender dysphoria, coupled with a persistent desire for the physical characteristics and social roles that connote the opposite biological sex. (APA, DSM-IV, 1994)
An antipsychotic phenothiazine derivative with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROMAZINE.
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
Persons having a sense of persistent identification with, and expression of, gender-coded behaviors not typically associated with one's anatomical sex at birth, and with or without a desire to undergo SEX REASSIGNMENT PROCEDURES.
Mental disorders related to sexual dysfunction, paraphilias, and gender identity disorders.
A dead body, usually a human body.

Neonatal handling and the expression of immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase in the hypothalamus of adult male rats. (1/22)

Neonatal handling has long-lasting effects on behavior and stress reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of neonatal handling on the number of dopaminergic neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei of adult male rats as part of a series of studies that could explain the long-lasting effects of neonatal stimulation. Two groups of Wistar rats were studied: nonhandled (pups were left undisturbed, control) and handled (pups were handled for 1 min once a day during the first 10 days of life). At 75-80 days, the males were anesthetized and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. An anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method were used. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons were counted bilaterally in the arcuate, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in 30-microm sections at 120-microm intervals. Neonatal handling did not change the number of TH-IR neurons in the arcuate (1021 +/- 206, N = 6; 1020 +/- 150, N = 6; nonhandled and handled, respectively), paraventricular (584 +/- 85, N = 8; 682 +/- 62, N = 9) or periventricular (743 +/- 118, N = 7; 990 +/- 158, N = 7) nuclei of the hypothalamus. The absence of an effect on the number of dopaminergic cells in the hypothalamus indicates that the reduction in the amount of neurons induced by neonatal handling, as shown by other studies, is not a general phenomenon in the brain.  (+info)

Effects of microinjection of melatonin and its receptor antagonists into anterior hypothalamic area on blood pressure and heart rate in rats. (2/22)

AIM: To examine the effects of microinjection of melatonin and its receptor antagonists into the anterior hypothalamic area (AHA) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in normotensive and stress-induced hypertensive rats. METHODS: Melatonin and its receptor antagonists were microinjected into the AHA, then BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and HR were synchronously recorded. RESULTS: Microinjection of melatonin produced a fall in MAP. Prazosin, an antagonist of melatonin ML2 receptor, could not antagonize the depressive response induced by melatonin. While luzindole, a competitive antagonist of melatonin ML1 receptor, was able to almost completely prevented the depressive response induced by injection of melatonin. CONCLUSION: Melatonin acts as a hypotensive factor and the effects are mainly due to activation of ML1 receptors in rat brain, and the AHA may be one of the important central areas where melatonin can exert modulatory effects on BP and HR.  (+info)

Alpha2A-adrenergic receptors mediate sympathoinhibitory responses to atrial natriuretic peptide in the mouse anterior hypothalamic nucleus. (3/22)

In the rat, activation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus inhibits sympathetic nervous system activity. Furthermore, local release of atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits norepinephrine release in this nucleus, blocking local activation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors, and thereby contributes to NaCl-sensitive hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. To further test the specificity of this mechanism, either alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists or atrial natriuretic peptide was microinjected into anterior hypothalamic nucleus of conscious C57BL/6 mice in which the alpha2-adrenergic receptor was functionally deleted by a single point mutation (n=10 per group). In control mice, microinjection of either clonidine or guanabenz (10-3 to 10-7 mol/L) caused a rapid fall in mean arterial pressure that lasted for several minutes. In the knockout mice there was no response to the injection of either dose of either agonist. Microinjection of atrial natriuretic peptide (10-6 to 10-7 mol/L) caused a rapid increase in mean arterial pressure (8.2+/-1.3 and 6.55+/-1.2 mm Hg, respectively) in the control mice that was similar to the responses previously observed in Wistar-Kyoto rats. In contrast, the microinjections did not significantly alter mean arterial pressure in the knockout mice. These experiments demonstrate that in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus of the mouse (and probably in the rat) alpha2A-adrenergic receptors mediate both sympathoinhibitory responses to alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists and the action of atrial natriuretic peptide.  (+info)

Blocking hypothalamic AT1 receptors lowers blood pressure in salt-sensitive rats. (4/22)

Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that microinjection of DuP 753 (2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]imidazole, potassium salt), a highly selective nonpeptide antagonist of type 1 angiotensin II receptors, into the anterior hypothalamic area produces a dose-related depressor response in salt-sensitive spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a basal (1%) salt diet. The current study tested the hypothesis that the depressor response to anterior hypothalamic type 1 angiotensin II receptor blockade with DuP 753 or its metabolite EXP 3174 is enhanced by high (8%) salt feeding in this model. DuP 753 or EXP 3174 (40 micrograms in 100 nl artificial cerebrospinal fluid vehicle) or vehicle alone was microinjected into the anterior hypothalamic area of conscious salt-sensitive spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats that had been fed 1% or 8% salt diets for 3 weeks. Both DuP 753 and EXP 3174 caused significant decreases in mean arterial pressure in spontaneously hypertensive but not in Wistar-Kyoto rats fed either diet. The magnitude and duration of the depressor responses to DuP 753 and EXP 3174 were significantly greater in the 8% salt-fed spontaneously hypertensive rats than in 1% salt-fed rats. Vehicle injections had no effect on blood pressure in either strain-diet group. Microinjection of angiotensin II (2 micrograms in 100 nl artificial cerebrospinal fluid vehicle) into the anterior hypothalamic area caused significant pressor and bradycardiac responses in all strain-diet groups; dietary salt supplementation enhanced these effects in salt-sensitive spontaneously hypertensive rats but not in Wistar-Kyoto rats. These responses were blocked by pretreatment with EXP 3174.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

Prostaglandin E2-increased thermosensitivity of anterior hypothalamic neurons is associated with depressed inhibition. (5/22)

Temperature responses of anterior hypothalamic neurons are considered key elements in the regulation of the temperature setpoint of homeotherms. We have investigated the sensitivity to warming of cultured neurons of the AH from mice with electrophysiological and immunocytochemical techniques. In control experiments, only approximately 9% of the 3- to 5-week-old cells exhibited changes of their basic firing rate when the temperature was raised from 37 degrees C to 40 degrees C. This ratio was increased to 27% after the cultures were "primed" by adding prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an endogenous pyrogen, in the extracellular medium. In these neurons the firing rate was significantly increased, and the frequency of the gamma gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory postsynaptic potentials was markedly decreased. In contrast, the resting potential and membrane resistance of the recorded cells remained unchanged. PGE2 was found to decrease the level of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 in a subset of GABAergic neurons that express the E-prostanoid receptor type 3. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 mimicked the effects of PGE2. These data indicate that PGE2 acts primarily on the excitability of GABAergic presynaptic cells, most likely via alterations of voltage-gated K+ channels. Our results also suggest that far from being an inherent property of a specialized class of neurons, the degree of thermosensitivity can be strongly modulated by synaptic activity and is a more adaptive property of hypothalamic neurons than previously thought.  (+info)

Evidence that atrazine and diaminochlorotriazine inhibit the estrogen/progesterone induced surge of luteinizing hormone in female Sprague-Dawley rats without changing estrogen receptor action. (6/22)

High oral doses of atrazine (ATRA) disrupt normal neuroendocrine function, resulting in suppression of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in adult, ovariectomized (OVX) estrogen-primed female rats. While the mechanism by which ATRA inhibits LH secretion is not known, current data indicate that ATRA does have anti-estrogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. In the body, ATRA is rapidly converted to diaminochlorotriazine (DACT). The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ATRA and DACT on the estradiol benzoate (EB)/progesterone (P) induced LH surge and to determine if such changes correlate with impaired estrogen receptor (ER) function. ATRA, administered by gavage for five consecutive days to adult OVX, female Sprague-Dawley rats, caused a dose-dependent suppression of the EB/P induced LH surge. Although to a lesser degree than ATRA, DACT significantly suppressed total plasma LH and peak LH surge levels in EB/P primed animals by 60 and 58%, respectively. DACT treatment also decreased release of LH from the pituitary in response to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) by 47% compared to control. Total plasma LH secretion was reduced by 37% compared to control, suggesting that in addition to potential hypothalamic dysfunction, pituitary function is altered. To further investigate the mechanism by which hypothalamic function might be altered, potential anti-estrogenicity of ATRA and DACT were assessed by evaluating ER function treated rats. Using an in vitro receptor binding assay, ATRA, but not DACT, inhibited binding of [(3)H]-estradiol to ER. In contrast, ATRA, administered to female rats under dosing conditions which suppressed the LH surge, neither changed the levels of unoccupied ER nor altered the estrogen induced up-regulation of progesterone receptor mRNA. Collectively, these results indicate that although ATRA is capable of binding ER in vitro, the suppression of LH after treatment with high doses of ATRA is not due to alterations of hypothalamic ER function.  (+info)

Inhibition of the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus by tetrodotoxin alters thermoregulatory functions in exercising rats. (7/22)

We have previously demonstrated a functional role of the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH) in thermoregulation in freely moving rats at various temperature conditions by using microdialysis and biotelemetry methods. In the present study, we perfused tetrodotoxin (TTX) solution into the PO/AH to investigate whether this manipulation can modify thermoregulation in exercising rats. Male Wistar rats were trained for 3 wk by treadmill running. Body core temperature (Tb), heart rate (HR), and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. Rats ran for 120 min at speed of 10 m/min, with TTX (5 microM) perfused into the left PO/AH during the last 60 min of exercise through a microdialysis probe (control, n=12; TTX, n=12). Tb, HR, and Ttail increased during the first 20 min of exercise. Thereafter, Tb, HR, and Ttail were stable in both groups. Perfusion of TTX into the PO/AH evoked an additional rise in Tb (control: 38.2 +/- 0.1 degrees C, TTX: 39.3 +/- 0.2 degrees C; P <0.001) with a significant decrease in Ttail (control: 31.2 +/- 0.5 degrees C, TTX: 28.3 +/- 0.7 degrees C; P <0.01) and a significant increase in HR (control: 425.2 +/- 12 beats/min, TTX: 502.1 +/- 13 beats/min; P <0.01). These results suggest that the TTX-induced hyperthermia was the result of both an impairment of heat loss and an elevation of heat production during exercise. We therefore propose the PO/AH as an important thermoregulatory site in the brain during exercise.  (+info)

Analysis of in vitro glucose utilization in a circadian pacemaker model. (8/22)

An in vitro glucose utilization method, based upon 14C-2-deoxyglucose kinetics in brain slices, has been used to study circadian rhythms in hypothalamic slices containing the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Spontaneous SCN metabolic activity in vitro is similar to that observed in vivo with higher metabolic rates in subjective daytime and lower rates during subjective night. However, in vitro SCN metabolic activity during late subjective day is above that seen when glucose utilization is measured in vivo, suggesting that an inhibitory influence normally active in vivo is lost during slice isolation. Incubation of slices containing SCN in the presence of TTX exposes a TTX-insensitive component of metabolic activity in early subjective day, supporting prior suggestions that glucose utilization by the circadian oscillator continues in the absence of Na(+)-dependent action potentials. Studies with high Mg2+ concentrations are consistent with the hypothesis that most metabolic activity above the basal level observed with the glucose utilization method is related to synaptic activity. Pharmacological studies of the SCN brain slice model with radiotracers offer potential for analysis of both circadian rhythmicity and neural regulation.  (+info)

Objective: Diabetes insipidus centralis with hypernatremia is a common phenomenon after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) known for adverse effects on outcome. Possible underlying pathomechanism is a hypothalamic dysregulation through direct injury to the anterior hypothalamic nuclei. In this[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL ...
Definitions of behaviors. The behavioral criteria by which we scored behavioral transitions were designed to both accurately reflect the nature of the transitions and make it easier for a human observer to score them objectively and reliably. Accordingly, behavior was analyzed in terms of three main behavioral states: forward, reversal, and omega turn; these three states accounted for 98% of total observation time in our experiments. A fourth state, called other, was used for the rare instances in which behavior fell into none of the three main categories. The forward state was defined as anterior translation of the body associated with a head-to-tail body wave. The reversal state was defined as caudal translation of the body associated with a tail-to-head body wave. The omega-turn state was defined as head-to-body contact with the head moving forward. Note that our classification scheme omits deep bends, which resemble omega turns, except that there is no contact between head and tail. This ...
Definitions of behaviors. The behavioral criteria by which we scored behavioral transitions were designed to both accurately reflect the nature of the transitions and make it easier for a human observer to score them objectively and reliably. Accordingly, behavior was analyzed in terms of three main behavioral states: forward, reversal, and omega turn; these three states accounted for 98% of total observation time in our experiments. A fourth state, called other, was used for the rare instances in which behavior fell into none of the three main categories. The forward state was defined as anterior translation of the body associated with a head-to-tail body wave. The reversal state was defined as caudal translation of the body associated with a tail-to-head body wave. The omega-turn state was defined as head-to-body contact with the head moving forward. Note that our classification scheme omits deep bends, which resemble omega turns, except that there is no contact between head and tail. This ...
Division of labor represents a major advantage of social insect communities that accounts for their enormous ecological success. In colonies of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, division of labor comprises different tasks of fertile queens and drones (males) and, in general, sterile female workers. Division of labor also occurs among workers in form of an age-related polyethism. This helps them to deal with the great variety of tasks within the colony. After adult eclosion, workers spend around three weeks with various duties inside the hive such as tending the brood or cleaning and building cells. After this period workers switch to outdoor tasks and become foragers collecting nectar, pollen and water. With this behavioral transition, workers face tremendous changes in their sensory environment. In particular, visual sensory stimuli become important, but also the olfactory world changes. Foragers have to perform a completely new behavioral repertoire ranging from long distance navigation based on ...
All MMG seminars are at 4:10 P.M., TUESDAY, 1415 Biomedical Physical Sciences, unless noted otherwise. Seminar Coordinators: Yann Dufour & John ...
Looking for online definition of anterior hypothalamic area in the Medical Dictionary? anterior hypothalamic area explanation free. What is anterior hypothalamic area? Meaning of anterior hypothalamic area medical term. What does anterior hypothalamic area mean?
TY - JOUR. T1 - Neonatal handling selectively alters the phosphorylation of a 47,000 mol. wt. protein in male rat hippocampus. AU - Cain, Scott. AU - Routtenberg, Aryeh. PY - 1983/5/9. Y1 - 1983/5/9. N2 - Beginning on postnatal day 1, rat pups were handled for 7 min daily for 23-30 days. This treatment diminished the in vitro phosphorylation of phosphoprotein F-1 [mol. wt. ≈ 47 K daltons, protein B-5014,15] in the hippocampus of male rats. Other major phosphoproteins (D-1-2, mol. wt. 80-86 K daltons; E-2-3, mol. wt. 50-55 K daltons) were not influenced by handling. These findings confirm and extend the results of Holmes et al.5 who observed a decrease in ECS-induced protein kinase activity subsequent to handling.. AB - Beginning on postnatal day 1, rat pups were handled for 7 min daily for 23-30 days. This treatment diminished the in vitro phosphorylation of phosphoprotein F-1 [mol. wt. ≈ 47 K daltons, protein B-5014,15] in the hippocampus of male rats. Other major phosphoproteins (D-1-2, ...
Quantity100 testsVolume2.0 mLImmunogenLeukocytes of a patient suffering from LGL-type leukemiaBackground InformationCD18 (integrin β2 subunit) forms …
Quantity100 testsVolume2.0 mLImmunogenPeripheral blood mononuclear cellsBackground InformationCD18 (integrin β2 subunit) forms heterodimers with four…
This is the fourth part on the evolution of human mating behavior, comparing evidence for promiscuity and pair-bonding in our species. Please see the introduction here. ____________________________________________________________________ … We left off with a list of eight traits in humans suggesting promiscuity in humans. Admittedly, the previous post was a little thick, as it dealt…
This is the fourth part on the evolution of human mating behavior, comparing evidence for promiscuity and pair-bonding in our species. Please see the introduction here. ____________________________________________________________________ … We left off with a list of eight traits in humans suggesting promiscuity in humans. Admittedly, the previous post was a little thick, as it dealt…
Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure activity in three frontal cortical areas, the lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC)/ventromedial frontal cortex (vmPFC), and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), when expectations about type of reward, and not just reward presence or absence, could be learned. Two groups of human subjects learned 12 stimulus-response pairings. In one group (Consistent), correct performances of a given pairing were always reinforced with a specific reward outcome, whereas in the other group (Inconsistent), correct performances were reinforced with randomly selected rewards. The mOFC/vmPFC and lOFC were not distinguished by simple differences in relative preference for positive and negative outcomes. Instead lOFC activity reflected updating of reward-related associations specific to reward type; lOFC was active whenever informative outcomes allowed updating of reward-related associations, regardless of whether the outcomes were
So why are pair-bonding mammals more susceptible to substance abuse? Because the same neural circuitry that governs pair-bonding also governs susceptibility to substance abuse, and pair-bonders seem to have a more sensitive version of it than most mammals. When pair-bonding mammals are longing for a mate (whether or not they correctly analyze the roots of that longing), they are vulnerable to any neurochemical buzz that signals relief.. Scientists saw this recently when they compared the effects of amphetamine on two types of voles: pair-bonding prairie voles, and promiscuous montane voles. Dopamine rose significantly more in response to the drug use in the pair-bonding voles than in the voles who were not wired to seek long-term mates. The monogamous voles were inclined to find certain dopamine-based rewards more rewarding than their promiscuous vole cousins. In short, a lonely pair-bonder would have a greater risk of becoming an addict than would a mammal with no built-in urge to form a ...
Infants exposed to high concentration of testosterone hormone in the womb are more likely to develop autistic characteristics in childhood, a study reported. Researchers recorded testosterone levels of fetus in the amniotic fluid of 235 pregnant women. Then they made the comparative study of the questionnaires, considered to measure childrens autistic characters between the ages Read more ...
The ventromedial prefrontal cortex has been implicated in a variety of emotion processes. However, findings regarding the role of this region specifically in emotion recognition have been mixed. We used a sensitive facial emotion recognition task to compare the emotion recognition performance of 7 subjects with lesions confined to ventromedial prefrontal regions, 8 subjects with lesions elsewhere in prefrontal cortex, and 16 healthy control subjects. We found that emotion recognition was impaired following ventromedial, but not dorsal or lateral, prefrontal damage. This impairment appeared to be quite general, with lower overall ratings or more confusion between all six emotions examined. We also explored the relationship between emotion recognition performance and the ability of the same patients to experience transient happiness and sadness during a laboratory mood induction. We found some support for a relationship between sadness recognition and experience. Taken together, our results ...
The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a test introduced by S. Frederick (2005) Cognitive reflection and decision making, J Econ Perspect 19(4): 25-42. The task is designed to measure the tendency to override an intuitive response that is incorrect and to engage in further reflection that leads to the correct response. The consistent sex differences in CRT performance may suggest a role for gonadal hormones, particularly testosterone. A now widely studied putative marker for fetal testosterone is the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D). This paper tests to what extent 2D:4D, as a proxy for prenatal exposure to testosterone, can predict CRT scores in a sample of 623 students. After controlling for sex, we observe that a lower 2D:4D (reflecting a higher exposure to testosterone) is significantly associated with a higher number of correct answers. The result holds for both hands? 2D:4Ds. In addition, the effect appears to be sharper for females than for males. We also control for patience and math ...
The effects of Pro-Leu-GlyNH2 (PLG), administered i.c.v. in doses of 3.5, 35, 350 and 3500 pmol, were studied on the α-MPT-induced disappearance of catecholamines in microdissected rat brain nuclei. PLG, dose-dependently, increased dopamine disappearance in the nucleus caudatus and globus pallidus, whereas a decrease in dopamine disappearance was observed in ... read more the nucleus dorsomedialis. Noradrenaline disappearance was decreased in the medial septal nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area and lateral amygdala. A tendency towards an increase in noradrenaline disappearance was observed in the nucl. supraopticus. These data show that PLG has a central site of action. The effects of PLG on dopamine disappearance are comparable to those previously found with vasopressin, while the effects of PLG on noradrenaline utilization show a striking similarity with those previously obtained with oxytocin. show less ...
The present studies are the first to demonstrate that the presence of gp120 in the brain induced fever via interaction with the chemokine system. It was previously shown that in addition to its behavioral effects, gp120 infused intracerebroventricularly also induced fever in rats (Barak et al., 2002). This effect was particularly evident during the initial hours after gp120 administration (3-5 h after injection). However, the main brain area involved in the pathogenesis of fever induced by gp120 was unknown. Because it is crucial to localize the site of action to investigate the mechanism involved, we administered the gp120 directly into the POAH and used a biotelemetry system to monitor the changes in Tb. Our present data show that gp120 given directly into the POAH was able to induce a significant increase in Tb in a dose-related manner. The onset, latency, magnitude of elevation, and time course of the increase in Tb after the administration of gp120, as well as the marked sickness behavior ...
Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) was the most frequently detected analyte (58% > limit of detection [LOD]) followed by desethyl atrazine (6%), desethyl atrazine mercapturate (3%), atrazine mercapturate (1%), hydroxyl atrazine (1%), atrazine (1%) and desisopropyl atrazine (0.5%). Because of low detection of other analytes, only DACT was included in the exposure-outcome analyses. The adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.13 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]:0.82, 1.55) and exposure < median was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.42) compared to girls with exposure < LOD (reference). In the subset that excluded girls with missing data, the adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.38) and exposure < median was 1.26 (95% CI: 0.65, 2.24) compared to the reference ...
This hormone is produced in the brain and released during sexual intercourse and child birth. It causes the pair-bonding between a man and a woman.. In woman the hormone is essential to both childbirth and breast feeding.. It is possible that this hormone may well be the fountain of youth!. Research so far has found that people who release the drug more often, like in stable marriages, resulting in more physical affection, definitely has an impact on a longer life.. It has also been discovered that the hormone helps reduce body fat.. Read Steves blog on the effects he found that took place when using this hormone. It is pretty amazing!. ...
We studied the possible relationships between the functional status of the β-cell and activities or mRNA contents of enzymes involved in the catabolism of glucose. Three different in vitro models with attenuated insulin response were used: rat islets cultured at a low glucose concentration, rat islets incubated in vitro with streptozocin, and fetal rat islets. The fetal and streptozocin-administered islets were compared with adult islets cultured in RPMI-1640 containing 11 mM glucose, and the effects of the in vitro glucose concentrations (3.3, 11, and 28 mM) were assessed on adult islets only. Cellular mRNA levels for the mitochondrial DNA-encoded cytochrome b and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined by Northern-blot analysis. Enzymatic activities of high-Km (glucokinase) and low-Km (hexokinase) glucose-phosphorylating enzymes and succinate-cytochrome c reductase were also determined. Islets cultured at 3.3 mM glucose displayed a decreased activity of glucokinase ...
We have reported that neonatal handling leads to increased sweet food preference in adult life. Our aim was to verify if these differences in feeding behavior appear before puberty, and whether other types of intervention in periadolescence (such as exposure to toys) could interfere with sweet food consumption later in life. Nests of Wistar rats were (1) non-handled or (2) handled (10 min/day) on days 1-10 after birth. Males from these groups were subdivided in two subgroups: one was habituated to sweet food (Froot Loops-Kellogs) in a new environment for 4 days and tested for sweet food preference at age 27 days, before submitting to a new habituation and test for sweet food ingestion again in adult life ...
I have read some interesting topics on this forum about the link between low fetal testosterone levels and the increased chances of baby boys developing a female brain and becoming gay in adulthood. I have a brother who is gay, and I was told that our mother really wanted to have a girl when she was pregnant with him. I have heard of a similar case in another family. Do you think that the mothers strong desires and expectations can truly influence her babys hormones and brain development
Boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extreme male brain (EMB) theory of ASD suggests that fetal testosterone (FT) exposure may underlie sex diffe
Why does a high-sodium diet raise blood pressure in many people? Recent experiments on rats of Canadas McGill University has found a potential new explanation: Consuming large amounts of sodium interferes with key brain circuits that are part of a … Read More ». ...
Tramazoline is a chemical that is used in the form of tramazoline hydrochloride in nasal decongestant preparations. It is an α-adrenergic receptor agonist that inhibits secretion of nasal mucus. It causes hypertension. Australia Spray-Tish Rhinaspray Austria Rhinorix Belgium Rhinospray Czech Republic Muconasal Plus Germany Biciron Ellatun Rhinospray Italy Rinogutt Romania Muconasal Plus (older) Muconasal (newer) Russia Adrianol (tramazoline + phenylephrine) Lasolvan Rhino Spain Rhinospray Slovakia Muconasal Plus Ukraine Lasorin Boehringer Ingelheim. Spray-Tish Consumer Information. Consumer Medicines Information. MyDr.com.au. Retrieved 16 April 2011. Peng N, Meng QC, King K, Oparil S, Wyss JM (April 1995). Acute hypertension increases norepinephrine release in the anterior hypothalamic area. Hypertension. 25 (4 Pt 2): 828-33. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.25.4.828. PMID 7721439. Spray-Tish. Consumer Information. Retrieved 16 April 2011 ...
Results: Intralipid infusion reduced whole body glucose infusion rate 26% in women and 38% in men (p,0.05) and insulin stimulated leg glucose uptake was reduced significantly less in women (45%) than men (60%) after intralipid infusion. Hepatic glucose production was decreased during the clamp similarly in women and men irrespective of intralipid infusion. Intralipid did not impair insulin or AMPK signaling in muscle and subcutaneous fat, did not cause accumulation of muscle lipid intermediates, and did not impair insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity in muscle or increase plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro glucose transport in giant sarcolemmal vesicles was not decreased by acute exposure to fatty acids. Leg lactate release was increased and respiratory exchange ratio was decreased by intralipid. ...
Neonatal handling enduringly decreases anxiety and stress responses and reduces hippocampus and amygdala volume in agenetic model of differential anxiety: Behavioral-volumetric associations in the Roman rats trains by C. Río-Álamos, I. Oliveras, M. A. Piludu, C. Gerbolés, T. Cañete, G. Blázquez, S. Lope-Piedrafita, E. Martínez-Membrives, R. Torrubia, A. Tobeña, and A. Fernández-Teruel. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 2017, 27: 146-158. DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2016.12.003. The hippocampus and amygdala have been proposed as key neural structures related to anxiety. A more active hippocampus/amygdala system has been related to greater anxious responses in situations involving conflict/novelty. The Roman Low- (RLA) and High-avoidance (RHA) rat strains constitute a genetic model of differential anxiety. Relative to RHA rats, RLA rats exhibit enhanced anxiety/fearfulness, augmented hippocampal/amygdala c-Fos expression following exposure to novelty/conflict, increased hippocampal neuronal ...
Pik3r1 encodes p85α, a regulatory subunit of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks). To form a functional class I PI3K, a p110 catalytic subunit forms a heterodimer with a p85 regulatory subunit (3;4). There are three class IA p110 subunits (p110α, p110β, and p110δ [see the record for stinger]) encoded by Pik3ca, Pik3cb, and Pik3cd, respectively, and one class IB p110 subunit, p110γ (encoded by Pik3cg). Five class IA regulatory subunits are encoded by three distinct genes (Pik3r1 (p85α, p55α, p50α), Pik3r2 (p85β) and Pik3r3 (p55γ); p85α, p55α, and p50α are splice variants of Pik3r1 (Figure 10) (5-7). In activated cells, the p85 subunit recruits the p110 subunit to the plasma membrane and activates it (7-9). Conversely, the p85 subunit also inhibits the enzymatic activity of the p110 subunit in quiescent cells (10). The p85 subunits also mediate the interactions of the PI3Ks with the cytoplasmic domains of receptors as well as with adaptor proteins (11). p85α has several ...
2. I still wonder how to counter the cesspool of modern culture. Girls are the social sex and have more innate difficulty eschewing the herds pull. I am utterly certain that every message in our culture about sex is botulism-level toxic. Girls are told to devalue the most important job in any society, producing and properly raising the next generation, in favor of screwing around. Men are told to screw every hole that walks by. Both pieces of advice are utter lunacy, but here we are. It doesnt require Biblical references to see that breaking the link between sex and intimacy/pair-bonding is stupid. But in these times of perceived unlimited resources, it seems unnecessary to cultivate your Apocalypse Buddy, the partner on whom you will utterly depend no matter what life throws at you ...
2. I still wonder how to counter the cesspool of modern culture. Girls are the social sex and have more innate difficulty eschewing the herds pull. I am utterly certain that every message in our culture about sex is botulism-level toxic. Girls are told to devalue the most important job in any society, producing and properly raising the next generation, in favor of screwing around. Men are told to screw every hole that walks by. Both pieces of advice are utter lunacy, but here we are. It doesnt require Biblical references to see that breaking the link between sex and intimacy/pair-bonding is stupid. But in these times of perceived unlimited resources, it seems unnecessary to cultivate your Apocalypse Buddy, the partner on whom you will utterly depend no matter what life throws at you ...
Nuestro equipo de periodismo profesional pone a su disposición diversos artículos relacionados al cáncer desde todos los ángulos.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Insulin resistance induced by glucosamine in fructose-fed rats.. AU - Chien, C. S.. AU - Cheng, S. C.. AU - Wu, H. T.. AU - Tsao, C. W.. AU - Cheng, J. T.. PY - 2009/7/1. Y1 - 2009/7/1. N2 - Glucosamine has been widely used to treat osteoporosis in clinic and it shows an effect on hexosamine biosynthetic pathway in glucose-induced insulin resistance. However, glucosamine and chronic hyperglycemia is not correlative. Thus, we used C (2)C (12) cell line to carry out the uptake assay of 2-[14C]-deoxy-d-glucose and [3H]-glucosamine. Glucosamine inhibited the in vitro glucose uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. The glucose transporter GLUT4 prepared for [3H]-glucosamine uptake showed a concentration-dependent competition between glucose and glucosamine uptake. The effects of glucosamine on glucose tolerance and homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) were also determined in normal Wistar and fructose-fed rats. Both plasma glucose levels and/or HOMA index were not changed in normal ...
If you have ever eaten a high-sodium meal and felt bloated afterward, you can begin to understand the effects sodium can have on your body. Not only can...
субтитри Agatha Christies Poirot Wasps Nest - субтитри Български. Poirot S03E05 - Wasps Nest (1991), 1CD (bul). Качен 2011-01-15, изтеглени 111x.
As a continuous searching for anti-diabetic(type II) substances, seven mucilage polysaccharides from selected plants were studied as follow: aerial parts of Basella alba Linn., fruits of Hibiscus esculentus Linn., leaves of Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Robinson, seeds of Ocimum canum Sims., seeds of Plantago ovata Forssk., fruits of Scaphium scaphigerum G. Don. and seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. The bioactive properties for entrapping glucose, inhibiting enzyme alpha-glucosidase and free radical scavenger were in vitro studied compared to glucomannan. The physical characteristics for water holding capacity and viscosity were determined. The chemical characteristics were assayed for monosaccharide composition using methanolysis, TMSderivatization and gas chromatography. O. canum mucilage superiorly entrapped glucose compared to glucomannan. This activity was relevant to its highly viscous gelation. S. scaphigerum showed another property of alphaglucosidase inhibition. S. scaphigerum mucilage
Glucose-lowering effect of DLBS3233 is mediated through phosphorylation of tyrosine and upregulation of PPARγ and GLUT4 expression Olivia Mayasari Tandrasasmita1, Deasy Diah Wulan1, Florensia Nailufar1, James Sinambela2, Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata1,21Division of Molecular Pharmacology, 2Division of Phytochemistry, Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences, Dexa Medica Group, Jawa Barat, IndonesiaBackground: DLBS3233 is a standardized extract combination containing Lagerstroemia speciosa and Cinnamomum burmannii. The effect of DLBS3233 on glucose uptake, adiponectin secretion, and insulin signaling was examined in this study.Methods: 3T3 Swiss albino preadipocytes and adipocytes were used to investigate gene expression detected using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Immunoblotting assay and in vitro glucose uptake assay were also carried out in the experiment.Results: DLBS3233 was seen to increase phosphorylation at the tyrosine residue of the insulin receptor
The American Heart Association helps you understand your risk of high blood pressure, also called hypertension, by looking at family history, age, diet and poor nutrition like a high-sodium diet, obesity and lack of exercise, alcohol as well as stress, smoking and sleep apnea.
Making a few changes to your diet can help get rid of excess sodium in a pinch, but if your diet is chronically high in sodium, youll have more problems than buttoning up your pants. A high-sodium diet is linked to high blood pressure and an increased risk of stroke and heart attack. To cut back on sodium in your diet, limit your intake of processed foods, like fast food and chips, and instead eat fresh foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains and meats prepared without added sodium.. ...
We all can and do feel judgmental about people who have affairs. We realize that they are doing it out of powerful desires, but judge these people for not constraining their desires. The fact is that if people didnt actively constrain themselves, monogamy would be a joke. The only thing natural about monogamy is that it reflects the pair-bond, the deep mutual attachment that can form when two people fall in love. But the trouble is that, in many cases, love doesnt last, and it can be overridden by new attractions. Thats why the group had to come together and make a collective commitment, simultaneously creating the social institution of monogamy and the first moral system. My guess is that initially it was simply an agreement to control violence, and allow for pair-bonding and social stability, and the initiators had no idea of the positive consequences that would ensue. ...
... activates cells in the anterior pituitary gland and hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, including neuropeptide Y neurons that ... Hypothalamic ghrelin signalling is required for reward from alcohol and palatable/rewarding foods. Ghrelin has been linked to ... Hypothalamic-pituitary-somatic axis List of growth hormone secretagogues GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000157017 - Ensembl ... February 2010). "Novel insight in distribution of nesfatin-1 and phospho-mTOR in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus of ...
Peptides released near the median eminence from hypothalamic nuclei are transported to the anterior pituitary, where they apply ... Results of other studies showed that the neural hypophyseal stalk and ventromedial region of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus ... Its main function is to quickly transport and exchange hormones between the hypothalamus arcuate nucleus and anterior pituitary ... Many of these branches are continuous between the proximal arcuate nucleus and anterior pituitary, enabling rapid hormone ...
These signals are then carried through the optic nerve, which projects to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), anterior ... hypothalamic area, retrochiasmatic area, and lateral hypothalamus. However, a major portion of the RHT ends in the SCN. ... to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) via the optic nerve and the optic chiasm. The suprachiasmatic nuclei receive and interpret ... Further development of the brains of those in the NE group showed that the two suprachaismatic nuclei (SCN) have nearly equal ...
... in ventral and dorsal components within the preoptic periventricular nucleus and adjacent parts of the anterior hypothalamic ... Group A12 is a small group of cells in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in primates. In the rat a few cells belonging to ... The cells are located for the most part in the ventral tegmental area, the linear nucleus and, in primates, the part of central ... In the mouse, cells in the anterodorsal preoptic nucleus are assigned to this group. Group A15 exists in a few species, such as ...
It is a fiber bundle containing afferent fibers from the septal nuclei, lateral preoptico-hypothalamic region, and anterior ... It projects to the habenular nuclei, from anterior perforated substance and hypothalamus, to habenular trigone, to habenular ... thalamic nuclei to the habenula. It forms a horizontal ridge on the medial surface of the thalamus, and is found on the border ... commissure, to habenular nucleus. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~rswenson/NeuroSci/chapter_10.html v t e. ...
Hypothalamic effects reach the cortex via a relay in the anterior thalamic nuclei." However, there has not been additional ... This may occur due to damage in the mammillary bodies, ventral anterior nucleus, and ventral lateral nucleus which has resulted ... Damage to the mammillothalamic tract, ventral anterior nucleus, and ventral lateral nucleus can result in memory and language ... Although theta waves between the hippocampus and the anterior dorsal and anterior medial regions in the thalamus showed no ...
... the interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH3), part of the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus. The same method of ... Garcia-Falgueras A, Swaab DF (December 2008). "A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender ... However, the MtF subjects also experienced limited hypothalamic activation to EST. The researchers concluded that in terms of ... Gynephilic male control groups experienced hypothalamic activation in response to EST. ...
... and more specifically by the anterior hypothalamic nucleus and the adjacent preoptic area regions of the hypothalamus. As core ...
In the hypothalamus, this exposure causes an increase in Fos-labeled cells in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, the ... Hypothalamic nuclei Hypothalamic nuclei on one side of the hypothalamus, shown in a 3-D computer reconstruction The ... The hypothalamic nuclei include the following: See also ventrolateral preoptic nucleus periventricular nucleus Cross-section of ... Neurons in the OVLT and SFO project to the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus, and also to preoptic hypothalamic ...
... may refer to: Anterior hypothalamic nucleus Anterior nuclei of thalamus This disambiguation page lists ... articles associated with the title Anterior nucleus. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to change the link to point ...
The anterior hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. Its function is thermoregulation (cooling) of the body. ... The anterior hypothalamus plays a role in regulating sleep. The anterior hypothalamic region is sometimes grouped with the ... NIF Search - Anterior nucleus of hypothalamus via the Neuroscience Information Framework v t e. ... Damage or destruction of this nucleus causes hyperthermia. ... distinct from that mediating its febrile action in the anterior ...
... anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHdc) in macaques; specific area in medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in quails; etc. The volume of ... The part of the brain examined is the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHdc), a homologue of SDN-POA. Comparison of the AHdc ... the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH3) in humans; ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) in the ... Vasey P, Pfaus J (2005). "A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic nucleus in a macaque species with frequent female=female mounting ...
... the interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH3), part of the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus. The same method of ... "A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender identity". Brain. 131 (Pt 12): 3132-46. doi: ... However, the MtF subjects also experienced limited hypothalamic activation to EST. The researchers concluded that in terms of ... Gynephilic male control groups experienced hypothalamic activation in response to EST. ...
... suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area, arcuate nucleus, lateral habenula, ventral ... suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, superior colliculus, dorsal raphe, nucleus of the solitary ... Rats with reduced Avpr1a in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis have increased incidences of the isolation potentiated ... Avpr1a is present in the lateral septum, neocortical layer IV, hippocampal formation, amygdalostriatal area, bed nucleus of the ...
Hypothalamic nuclei Symbols: AC: anterior commissure PO: preoptic nucleus SC: suprachiasmatic nucleus OC: optic chiasma TC: ... anterior hypothalamic nucleus SO: supraoptic nucleus TH: thalamus PV: paraventricular nucleus (not to be confused with ... NucleiEdit. The hypothalamic nuclei include the following:[4][5][6]. List of nuclei, their functions, and the neurotransmitters ... ventromedial nucleus AR: arcuate nucleus (associated with periventricular nucleus, which is not shown) LT: lateral nucleus PN: ...
... neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and somatostatin-containing neurons in the anterior periventricular nucleus of the ... The periventricular nucleus is a thin sheet of small neurons located in the wall of the third ventricle, a composite structure ... This nucleus has been shown to affect the release of GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) in several ways. One way is its ... The periventricular nucleus has also been shown to have many neurons that express kisspeptin, which generates a surge in LH, ...
... anterior hypothalamic nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.400 - paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730. ... arcuate nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.352.270 - dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.352.435 - ... thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.080 - anterior thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.444 - ... vestibular nucleus, lateral MeSH A08.186.211.132.810.507 - raphe nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.132.931 - trigeminal nuclei MeSH ...
前核(副交感/散熱)(英语:Anterior hypothalamic nucleus) ... paired: AN(英语:Anterior nuclei of thalamus). *腹侧(英语:Ventral nuclear group) *VA(英语:Ventral anterior nucleus)/VL(英语:Ventral ... lateral nucleus). *VP(英语:Ventral posterior nucleus)/VPM(英语:Ventral posteromedial nucleus)/VPL(英语:Ventral posterolateral nucleus ... 层间核(英语:Intralaminar nuclei of thalamus) *中央内侧核
These signals are then carried through the optic nerve, which projects to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), anterior ... hypothalamic area, retrochiasmatic area, and lateral hypothalamus. However, a major portion of the RHT ends in the SCN. ... to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) via the optic nerve and the optic chiasm.[2][3] The suprachiasmatic nuclei receive and ... Irwin, R. (2007). Calcium response to retinohypothalamic tract synaptic transmission in suprachiasmatic nucleus neurons., ...
The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); the anterior pituitary ... Sensory information arriving at the lateral aspect of the amygdala is processed and conveyed to the amygdala's central nucleus ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis comprises hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the anterior pituitary ... The HPA axis, hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG), hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis (HPT), and the hypothalamic- ...
前核(副交感/散熱)(英語:Anterior hypothalamic nucleus) ... paired: AN(英語:Anterior nuclei of thalamus). *腹側(英語:Ventral nuclear group) *VA(英語:Ventral anterior nucleus)/VL(英語:Ventral ... lateral nucleus). *VP(英語:Ventral posterior nucleus)/VPM(英語:Ventral posteromedial nucleus)/VPL(英語:Ventral posterolateral nucleus ... 基底核的結構,在兩張腦的切面中展示。藍色:尾狀核(Caudate nucleus)、核殼(英語:putamen);綠色:蒼白
Anterior hypothalamic nucleus. *Lateral area *Parts of preoptic area *Lateral preoptic nucleus ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... Thalamic reticular nucleus. Hypothalamus (limbic system) (HPA axis)[edit]. *Anterior *Medial area *Parts of preoptic area * ... Pontine cranial nerve nuclei *chief or pontine nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V) ...
Hypothalamic control Hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by hormones secreted by the hypothalamus ... the suprachiasmatic nucleus). Diminishing light stimulates the release of melatonin from the pineal gland which can also affect ... Stress Operating through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), the anterior pituitary gland has a large role in the ... HPA axis Main article Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis The anterior pituitary plays a role in stress response. Corticotropin ...
The paraventricular nucleus transports CRH to the anterior pituitary, stimulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release ... via CRH type 1 receptors, thereby activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and, thus, glucocorticoid release. ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a releasing hormone found mainly in the paraventricular nucleus of the mammalian ...
The aim of the operation is to disconnect the orbitofrontal cortex and thalamic nuclei by inducing a lesion in the anterior ... certain thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei, prefrontal and orbitofrontal cortex, and cingulate gyrus - all connected by fibre ... Success rates for anterior capsulotomy, anterior cingulotomy, subcaudate tractotomy, and limbic leucotomy in treating ... the operation disconnects the thalamic and posterior frontal regions and damages the anterior cingulate region. Anterior ...
... and tuberomammillary nucleus produce serotonin, dopamine and histamine respectively. They then project onto the hypothalamic ... Some light was thrown on the mechanisms on sleep onset by the discovery that lesions in the preoptic area and anterior ... including the tubermammillary nucleus, raphe nuclei, and locus coeruleus. Thus, they are inhibited by histamine, serotonin, and ... The neurons in the locus coeruleus produce noradrenaline, as fore the neurons in the dorsal and median raphe nuclei, ventral ...
... is secreted from the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and stimulates the anterior pituitary to secrete the two gonadotropins ... AAS consumption disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis (HPG axis) in males. In the HPG axis, gonadotropin-releasing ... Water-soluble peptide hormones cannot penetrate the fatty cell membrane and only indirectly affect the nucleus of target cells ... However, as fat-soluble hormones, AAS are membrane-permeable and influence the nucleus of cells by direct action. The ...
INAH-3 is the short form for the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, and is the sexually dimorphic nucleus ... Garcia-Falgueras, A.; Swaab, D.F. (Dec 2008). "A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender ... There are four nuclei in the PO-AHA (INAH1-4). One of these nuclei, INAH-3, was found to be 2.8 times larger in the male brain ... The term INAH (interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus), first proposed in 1989 by a group of the University of ...
... and laterodorsal tegmental nucleus of pons and midbrain (LDT) nuclei [17, 18]. The hypothalamic projection involves ... Some light was thrown on the mechanisms on sleep onset by the discovery that lesions in the preoptic area and anterior ... Further research has shown that the hypothalamic region called ventrolateral preoptic nucleus produces the inhibitory ... magnocellular nuclei and reticular nuclei of pontine tegmentum). The reticular activating system begins in the dorsal part of ...
The anterior hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. Its function is thermoregulation (cooling) of the body. ... The anterior hypothalamus plays a role in regulating sleep. The anterior hypothalamic region is sometimes grouped with the ... NIF Search - Anterior nucleus of hypothalamus via the Neuroscience Information Framework v t e. ... Damage or destruction of this nucleus causes hyperthermia. ... distinct from that mediating its febrile action in the anterior ...
... anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHdc) in macaques; specific area in medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in quails; etc. The volume of ... The part of the brain examined is the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHdc), a homologue of SDN-POA. Comparison of the AHdc ... the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH3) in humans; ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) in the ... Vasey P, Pfaus J (2005). "A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic nucleus in a macaque species with frequent female=female mounting ...
AHN, anterior hypothalamic nucleus; DMH, dorsomedial hypothalamus; FX, columns of the fornix; LHA, lateral hypothalamic area; ... MTT, mammillothalamic tract; OPT, optic tract; PH, posterior hypothalamic nucleus; ZI, zona incerta. ... The sections performed along four locations marked A-D (A, most posterior; D, most anterior). Colors indicate voxels that ...
Abbreviations: Anterior hypothalamic nucleus, AHN; basolateral amygdalar nucleus, BLA; Basomedial amygdalar nucleus, BMA; ... periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, PVH; retroesplenial area, RSP; reticular nucleus thalamus, RT; supraoptic nucleus, SO; ... in specific hypothalamic nuclei of pubertal (36-d-old) female rats. * p , 0.05, by unpaired Student t-test within each nucleus. ... lateral mammilary nucleus, LM; lateral ventricle, LV; medial habenula, MH; posterior hypothalamic nucleus, PH; parietal region ...
... anterodorsal thalamic nucleus; ml, medial lemniscus;AH, anterior hypothalamic nucleus; AM, anteromedial thalamic nucleus; mlf, ... nucleus anterior ventralis thalami; MnR, median raphe nucleus;B, basal amygdaloid nucleus; MPO, medial preoptic nucleus; bic, ... 3, Principal oculomotor nucleus;Me, medial amygdaloid nucleus; ac, anterior commissure; MGD, medial geniculate nucleus, dorsal ... ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus;LSD, lateral septal nucleus, dorsal part;VPL, ventral posterolateral thalamic nucleus;LSI, ...
AN = Anterior (hypothalamic) nucleus; AP = Anterior pituitary; OC = optic chiasm; OVLT = Organum vasculosum of lamina ... AN = Anterior (hypothalamic) nucleus; AP = Anterior pituitary; OC = optic chiasm; OVLT = Organum vasculosum of lamina ... terminalis; PA = Preoptic (hypothalamic) area; PP = Posterior pituitary; PVN = Paraventricular (hypothalamic) nucleus; SON = ... terminalis; PA = Preoptic (hypothalamic) area; PP = Posterior pituitary; PVN = Paraventricular (hypothalamic) nucleus; SON = ...
anterior hypothalamic nuclei. Corticotropin-releasing hormone. paraventricular nucleus. Dopamine. arcuate nucleus. Melatonin. ... Anterior. Medial preoptic nucleus. Supraoptic nucleus. Paraventricular nucleus. Anterior nucleus. Suprachiasmatic nucleus ... Neurons in the OVLT and SFO project to the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus, and also to preoptic hypothalamic ... Several hypothalamic nuclei are sexually dimorphic. In other words, there are clear differences in both structure and function ...
Circuitry through three hypothalamic nuclei-the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, the dorsomedial division of the ventromedial ... AHN, anterior hypothalamic nucleus; BLA, basolateral amygdala complex; BNST, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; CeA, central ... Given that electrolytic lesions, but not excitotoxic lesions, of the VMHdm and anterior hypothalamic nucleus reduced TMT- ... which passes through the anterior hypothalamic nucleus and VMHdm (Figure 1F). Inactivation of the ventral BNST with muscimol or ...
Hypothalamic nuclei Symbols: AC: anterior commissure PO: preoptic nucleus SC: suprachiasmatic nucleus OC: optic chiasma TC: ... anterior hypothalamic nucleus SO: supraoptic nucleus TH: thalamus PV: paraventricular nucleus (not to be confused with ... NucleiEdit. The hypothalamic nuclei include the following:[4][5][6]. List of nuclei, their functions, and the neurotransmitters ... ventromedial nucleus AR: arcuate nucleus (associated with periventricular nucleus, which is not shown) LT: lateral nucleus PN: ...
The basal rate of release of endogenous histamine in the anterior hypothalam … ... we investigated the extracellular level of endogenous histamine in the anterior hypothalamic area of urethane-anaesthetized ... Anterior Hypothalamic Nucleus / metabolism* * Calcium / physiology * Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid * Dialysis / methods ... When the anterior hypothalamic area was depolarized by infusion of 100 mM K+ through the dialysis membrane or electrical ...
Pineal body • Habenula (Habenular nuclei). Hypothalamus. anterior: Anterior hypothalamic nucleus • Paraventricular nucleus • ... Ventromedial nucleus • Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus • Tuber cinereum, Pituitary gland (Anterior pituitary, Posterior ... Subthalamic nucleus • Zona incerta • Thalamic fasciculus • Lenticular fasciculus. Thalamus/nuclei. Ventral nuclear group (VA/VL ... Suprachiasmatic nucleus intermediate/middle/tuberal/pituitary: infundibulum • median eminence • arcuate nucleus • ...
... the dorsomedial nucleus (BSTdm), was analyzed with the Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin anterograde pathway tracing method in ... The overall projection pattern of a tiny bed nuclei of the stria terminalis anteromedial group differentiation, ... descending paraventricular nucleus; reproductive: lateral medial preoptic nucleus; defensive: anterior hypothalamic nucleus; ... ventrolateral preoptic nucleus, tuberomammillary nucleus, supramammillary nucleus, lateral habenula, and raphé nuclei). This ...
AN = Anterior (hypothalamic) nucleus; AP = Anterior pituitary; OC = optic chiasm; OVLT = Organum vasculosum of lamina ... terminalis; PA = Preoptic (hypothalamic) area; PP = Posterior pituitary; PVN = Paraventricular (hypothalamic) nucleus; SON = ... Hypothalamic adipic hypernatraemia syndrome with normal osmoregulation of vasopressin. Eur J Pediatr. 2004 Oct. 163(10):580-3. ... Silver BV, Stelly-Seitz C. Behavioral treatment of adipsia in a child with hypothalamic injury. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1992 Jun ...
... anterior hypothalamic nucleus. DMHN = dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus. LHA = lateral hypothalamic area. MMN = medial ... for the paraventricular nucleus, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic area, ... mammillary nucleus. PHN = posterior hypothalamic nucleus. PVN = paraventricular nucleus. VMHN = venteromedial hypothalamic ... venteromedial hypothalamic area, posterior hypothalamic nucleus and medial mammillary nucleus. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used ...
Several other hypothalamic nuclei, mostly located in the anterior area, respond to several different hormones circulating in ... Still other hypothalamic nuclei work together to balance food intake. Activity in the lateral hypothalamic area encourages ... Two of the most prominent hypothalamic nuclei (because their neurons are large) are the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic ... Also in the anterior hypothalamus, the tiny suprachiasmatic nuclei sit atop the optic chiasm. A few optic nerve fibers from the ...
Anterior Hypothalamus, Medial Hypothalamus, Posterior Hypothalamus, Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus. ... The supraoptic region contains the PARAVENTRICULAR HYPOTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, the SUPRAOPTIC NUCLEUS, the ANTERIOR HYPOTHALAMIC ... lateral mammillary nucleus, and posterior hypothalamic nucleus (posterior hypothalamic area). The posterior hypothalamic area ... Preoptico-Hypothalamic, Preoptico-Hypothalamic Areas, Preoptico Hypothalamic Area, Areas, Preoptico-Hypothalamic, Hypothalamic ...
... hippocampus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This is based on neuroanatomical data maps drawn into a standard brain ... hippocampus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This is based on neuroanatomical data maps drawn into a standard brain ... Risold, P. Y., Canteras, N. S., and Swanson, L. W. (1994). Organization of projections from the anterior hypothalamic nucleus: ... Dong, H. W., and Swanson, L. W. (2003). Projections from the rhomboid nucleus of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis: ...
... die perinatally and lack anterior periventricular, paraventricular (PVN), and supraoptic (SON) hypothalamic nuclei (Michaud et ... 2004) Evidence that paraventricular nucleus oxytocin neurons link hypothalamic leptin action to caudal brain stem nuclei ... 1981) Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus lesions produce overeating and obesity in the rat. Physiol Behav 27:1031-1040. ... To confirm expression of the Cre transgene in these hypothalamic nuclei, both lines were crossed to a Rosa26-eYFP line, which ...
What is nucleus preopticus periventricularis? Meaning of nucleus preopticus periventricularis medical term. What does nucleus ... Looking for online definition of nucleus preopticus periventricularis in the Medical Dictionary? nucleus preopticus ... anterior hypothalamic nucleus [TA] (nucleus anterior hypothalami [TA]), anterior periventricular nucleus [TA] (nucleus ... anterior hypothalamic area. (redirected from nucleus preopticus periventricularis) anterior hypothalamic area. the rostral ...
CORTICOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR LOBE OF PITUITARY, and the hypothalamic neurons in the ARCUATE NUCLEUS. ... The hypothalamic melanocortin system stimulates the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis in vitro and in vivo in male rats. ... Hypothalamic leptin action is mediated by histone deacetylase 5. Nat Commun. 2016 Feb 29; 7:10782. ... Cannabinoid CB1 receptor restrains accentuated activity of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor and brainstem tyrosine ...
NKB mRNA-expressing neurons are located predominantly in the infundibular nucleus and the anterior hypothalamic area. In humans ... Neurokinin B and the hypothalamic regulation of reproduction. Brain Res 2010;1364:116-28 ... in the human infundibular nucleus it increases after menopause, and in monkeys and rats ovariectomy induces similar increases ...
... and vasopressin in neurons of the anterior and medial parvocellular subdvisions of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. ... PVNp, parvocellular paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus; PVNm, magnocellular paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus; CEA, ... paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus; CEA, central amygdala; PVT, paraventricular thalamic nucleus; BNST, bed nucleus of the ... bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST; Bregma ≈ 0.02 and −0.10 mm), central nucleus of the amygdala (CEA; Bregma ≈ −1.34 ...
We describe the impact of LTH on the fetal HPA axis at the level of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), anterior ... Thus, the hypothalamic and anterior pituitary corticotrope response to LTH appears complex and may represent a shift from CRH ... However, the changes we have observed at the level of the hypothalamic PVN and anterior pituitary corticotrope may be viewed ... Figure 1: Effects of development under conditions of long-term hypoxia (LTH) on hypothalamic PVN and anterior pituitary ...
... in the paraventricular nucleus/anterior hypothalamic (PV/AH) region of conscious rats. In vivo microdialysis techniques were ... Histamine releases norepinephrine in the paraventricular nucleus/anterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat.. S L Bealer ... Histamine releases norepinephrine in the paraventricular nucleus/anterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat.. S L Bealer ... Histamine releases norepinephrine in the paraventricular nucleus/anterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat.. S L Bealer ...
In addition, numerous TH-IR, DA-IR and 5-HT-IR fibers, originating from the anterior and posterior hypothalamic nuclei, ... the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the nucleus of the periventricular organ and its accompanying cells, the nucleus of the posterior ... and the anterior commissure. In the anterior and medial diencephalon, TH-IR perikarya contacting the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-C ... Whereas in anurans the nucleus accumbens receives a major DA input, in urodeles the DA input to the striatum prevails. In ...
... the interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH3), part of the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus. The same method of ... Garcia-Falgueras A, Swaab DF (December 2008). "A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender ... However, the MtF subjects also experienced limited hypothalamic activation to EST. The researchers concluded that in terms of ... Gynephilic male control groups experienced hypothalamic activation in response to EST. ...
... brainstem and pontine nuclei; hypothalamic areas including the anterior preoptic area; as well as nuclei that do not contain ... the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and the nucleus ambiguus (FIG. 1). NTS ... whereas the DMV and the nucleus ambiguus are the nuclei of origin of vagal motor fibres. The efferent fibres from the nucleus ... Herman JP, Flak J, Jankord R. Chronic stress plasticity in the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. Prog Brain Res. 2008;170: ...
... are located predominantly in the caudal part of the hypothalamic VLPA; (3) GABAA,B-ergic mechanisms of control of thermal ... Changes in the Metabolic Activity of Neurons in the Anterior Hypothalamic Nuclei in Rats during Hyperthermia, Fever, and ... Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus contains sleep-active, galaninergic neurons in multiple mammalian species.. *Stephanie E. Gaus, ... Selective activation of the extended ventrolateral preoptic nucleus during rapid eye movement sleep.. *Jun Lu, Alvhild A ...
ac, anterior commissure; ARC, arcuate nucleus; DMN, dorsomedial nucleus; LAH, lower anterior hypothalamus; LHA, lateral ... Hypothalamic nuclei harbor a host of distinct neuronal cell types that are involved in the control of postprandial satiety and ... The brain plays a central role in the regulation of food intake and energy balance (1). Hypothalamic and brain stem nuclei ... Given the above, one cannot identify specific hypothalamic nuclei as the source of an fMRI signal. ...
Other studies are testing the mechanisms by which a decrease in norepinephrine release in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus ...
  • The anterior hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior hypothalamus plays a role in regulating sleep. (wikipedia.org)
  • At puberty, both genes were widely expressed throughout the brain, including the lateral hypothalamic area and the arcuate nucleus (ARC)/medial basal hypothalamus, where the expression of Tacr3 increased across pubertal transition. (nih.gov)
  • Any lesion, congenital or acquired, that affects the anterior hypothalamus may lead to the abolition of thirst. (medscape.com)
  • As needed, the hypothalamus synthesizes and secretes neurohormones , often called "releasing hormones," that control the secretion of hormones from the anterior pituitary gland . (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The hypothalamus is a very complex region, and even small nuclei within the hypothalamus are involved in many different functions. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The hypothalamus is a portion of the brain that contains a number of small nuclei with a variety of functions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The hypothalamus is a brain structure made up of distinct nuclei as well as less anatomically distinct areas. (wikipedia.org)
  • In mammals, magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus produce neurohypophysial hormones , oxytocin and vasopressin . (wikipedia.org)
  • A cross section of the monkey hypothalamus displays 2 of the major hypothalamic nuclei on either side of the fluid-filled 3rd ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The sexually dimorphic nucleus (SDN) is an ovoid, densely packed cluster of large cells located in the medial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus which is believed to be related to sexual behavior in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • About ten or eleven small, indistinct nuclei (nerve cell groups) are packed into the hypothalamus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • When the hypothalamus, using signals like those just described, establishes a need for response, hypothalamic cells influence other cells in two ways. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Over this time, the Swanson laboratory at USC has generated an account of the neural connectivity of the sub-structures of the hypothalamus, amygdala, septum, hippocampus, and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Using stereological cell counting, we showed that the phenotype of both germ line heterozygotes and conditional Sim1 homozygotes was not attributable to global hypocellularity of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. (jneurosci.org)
  • Histamine releases norepinephrine in the paraventricular nucleus/anterior hypothalamus of the conscious rat. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Dr. Lechan has devoted much of his career to the study of the anatomy and neuroendocrine regulation of the hypothalamus with particular emphasis on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
  • N. S. Canteras, R. B. Simerly, and L. W. Swanson, "Organization of projections from the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus: a Phaseolus vulgaris -leucoagglutinin study in the rat," The Journal of Comparative Neurology , vol. 348, no. 1, pp. 41-79, 1994. (hindawi.com)
  • Unilateral microinjection of IL-1ra (50 microgram in 0.5 microliter at 0 + 1 h) into the anterior hypothalamus (AH), paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVH), peri-subfornical organ, subfornical organ (SFO) or hippocampus (dentate gyrus and CA3 region) also significantly reduced the fever induced by LPS. (mendeley.com)
  • Recent studies have demonstrated that these centrally mediated responses may result from CGRP dependent changes in the activity of thermoregulatory neurons in the preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus (POAH). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The preoptic and anterior regions of the hypothalamus (POAH) have been shown to be thermoregulatory control centers of the brain for integrating and responding to changes in peripheral, core, and hypothalamic temperature. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In 2008, Fuller et al reported that food-entrainable circadian rhythms are absent in mice bearing a null mutation of the circadian clock gene Bmal1 and that these rhythms can be rescued by virallymediated restoration of Bmal1 expression in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (DMH) but not in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (site of the master light-entrainable circadian pacemaker). (jcircadianrhythms.com)
  • ANG II is believed to regulate fluid and electrolyte balance through activation of ANG II receptors in the subfornical organ (SFO) ( 25 , 28 ), a function that may also involve an angiotensinergic projection to the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVH) ( 27 ). (physiology.org)
  • He observed that a particular hypothalamic nucleus (the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus [INAH 3]) in roughly the same location in humans as the sexual dimorphic nucleus (SDN) of rats was much smaller in homosexual than heterosexual men and, in fact, similar in size to that of women. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • it follows the medial side of the caudate nucleus forward in the floor of the ventricle's central part (or body) until it reaches the interventricular foramen, in the posterior wall of which it curves steeply down to enter the hypothalamus, with fibres passing both rostral and caudal to the anterior commissure. (lexic.us)
  • Coursing caudalward in the medial part of the hypothalamus, the bundle terminates in the anterior and ventromedial hypothalamic nuclei. (lexic.us)
  • The medial basal hypothalamus (21.0%), amygdala (13.5%), septum (13.5%), hippocampus (8.5%) and olfactory tubercle and further rostral cortical region (17.0%) are the other main sites of origin of supraoptic nucleus afferents. (springer.com)
  • Experiments were performed to determine whether the pathway by which median raphe stimulation increases blood pressore involves serotonergic terminals in the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area and cholinergic terminals in the posterior hypothalamus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Injection of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine into the median raphe nucleus decreases serotonin and turnover of acetylcholine in the hypothalamus of the rat. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The hypertensive action of injection of serotonin into the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area is blocked by injection of atropine or hemicholinium-3 into the posterior hypothalamus and by i.c.v. injection of hemicholinium-3 when measured in urethane-anesthetized rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Stimulation of the median raphe nucleus does not affect acetylcholine turnover in the hypothalamus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • These results suggest that serotonergic mechanisms in the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area exert their pressor effect through a pathway with a cholinergic link in the posterior hypothalamus. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Serotonergic neurons arising in the median raphe nucleus probably are not involved in this pathway through the hypothalamus, although a cholinergic pathway may be involved elsewhere in their pressor actions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • The effect of median raphe nucleus lesion on turnover of acetylcholine in the hypothalamus is most likely unrelated to regulation of blood pressure. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In mammals, the axons of magnocellular neurosecretory cells in the paraventricular nucleus and the supraoptic nucleus (both located in the hypothalamus) contain oxytocin and vasopressin (antidiuretic hormone), and project into the posterior pituitary . (hawaiilibrary.net)
  • box marks the magnified view shown in B. (B) Hypothalamus is divided into preoptic area, anterior, tuberal, and posterior hypothalamus from left to right. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Left‐hand panel shows arrangement of nuclei around the third ventricle of the adult tuberal/anterodorsal hypothalamus, and shows tanycytes (yellow cells) bordering the third ventricle. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • C) Schematic summarizes late gene expression patterns that will further define regions within the hypothalamus as separate nuclei form (shown in D). (D) Schematic shows general position of nascent hypothalamic nuclei and areas. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Systemic and regional hemodynamics were determined with the radioactive microsphere technique either in conscious "sham-lesioned" Wistar rats or after bilateral electrolytic lesions of the nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus. (ahajournals.org)
  • The hormones secreted by the hypothalamus and anterior pituitary that interact with the adrenal cortex are discussed, with implications on sleep disturbances and insomnia. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • In mammals, the central oscillator resides in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the anterior hypothalamus ( Moore and Eichler, 1972 ), and daily light-dark cycles strongly entrain the self-oscillating circadian signal generated within the SCN. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the hypothalamus, TH-immunoreactive neurons were found in theparaventricular hypothalamic nucleus, periventricular gray, retrochiasmatic area,anterior hypothalamic nucleus of anterior hypothalamic area and retrochiasmatic region of the hypothalamus. (koreamed.org)
  • In the rostral tuberal region of the hypothalamus, TH-immunoreactive neurons were found in the paraventricular nucleus, periventricular gray and arcuate nucleus. (koreamed.org)
  • In the midtuberal region of the hypothalamus, TH-immunoreactive neurons were found in the paraventricular nucleus, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, zona incerta and arcuate nucleus. (koreamed.org)
  • In the caudal tuberal region of the hypothalamus, dorsal hypothalamic nucleus, posterior hypothalamic complex and arcuate nucleus. (koreamed.org)
  • TO cite a few examples, Flerk6 and Szentkgothai ('57) grafted ovarian tissue in rats into the hypothalamus near the paraventricular nucleus and found a significant decrease in uterine weight as compared to control animals. (docme.ru)
  • The overall projection pattern of a tiny bed nuclei of the stria terminalis anteromedial group differentiation, the dorsomedial nucleus (BSTdm), was analyzed with the Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin anterograde pathway tracing method in rats. (nih.gov)
  • Compared with diestrus, lactating rats had significant decreases in ANG II receptor binding in several forebrain regions, most notably in the arcuate nucleus/median eminence, dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH), and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA). (physiology.org)
  • however, the increase in food intake is probably driven by changes in orexigenic and satiety factors, such as neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide, and proopiomelanocortin, in the ARH and dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus (DMH) ( 2 , 24 , 26 , 31 ). (physiology.org)
  • What is the function of the dorsomedial nucleus? (brainscape.com)
  • Two of the most prominent hypothalamic nuclei (because their neurons are large) are the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Quantitative studies on the supraoptic nucleus in the rat. (springer.com)
  • A quantitative electron microscopic study of synaptic terminal degeneration was performed in the supraoptic nucleus (NSO) after a variety of major transections or ablations, destroying or interrupting in different combinations the afferent pathways known from earlier and own light microscopic degeneration studies. (springer.com)
  • Female sex-stereotypical behavior-lordosis (arching of the back)-is controlled by the ventromedial nucleus. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • In the anterior and medial diencephalon, TH-IR perikarya contacting the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF-C perikarya) were located in the preoptic recess organ (PRO), the organum vasculosum laminae terminalis and the suprachiasmatic nucleus. (google.com)
  • These lesions resulted in extensive destruction of the ventromedial preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area (POAAHA) and included the suprachiasmatic nucleus as well as, with the exception of one animal, the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis. (elsevier.com)
  • The continuous administration of IFN-α significantly decreased CLOCK and BMAL1 protein levels in the suprachiasmatic nucleus and liver of mice, thereby preventing oscillations in the expression of clock and clock-controlled output genes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the preoptic area, TH-immunoreactive neurons were found in the anterior preoptic nucleus of Loo[APN], periventricular preoptic nucleus, medial preoptic nucleus, lateral preoptic nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. (koreamed.org)
  • It is only produced by the pineal gland anterior pituitary at night, and acts on the melatonin receptor that focuses on the presence of hypothalamic suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). (chemicalbook.com)
  • MT1 and MT2 receptors densely distribute in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus. (chemicalbook.com)
  • We investigated here the regulation of Tac2 and Tacr3 mRNAs (encoding NKB and NK3R, respectively) in female rats and demonstrated that their hypothalamic expression is increased along postnatal maturation. (nih.gov)
  • In rats, areas within the caudate nucleus appear to regulate water intake through norepinephrine-sensitive alpha receptors. (medscape.com)
  • In rats, central division of the medial preoptic nucleus (MPNc) is an important component of SDN-POA and evidence showed that the number of apoptotic cells within MPNc is greater in females than in males between postnatal day (PD) 7 and PD10. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using an in vivo intracerebral microdialysis method coupled with an HPLC-fluorometric method, we investigated the extracellular level of endogenous histamine in the anterior hypothalamic area of urethane-anaesthetized rats. (nih.gov)
  • Pal GK, Pal P, Raj SS, Mohan M. Modulation of feeding and drinking behaviour by catecholamines injected into nucleus caudatus in rats. (medscape.com)
  • Furthermore, menopause and/or oophorectomy are associated with changes in NKB gene expression: in the human infundibular nucleus it increases after menopause, and in monkeys and rats ovariectomy induces similar increases in NKB gene expression that are reversed by estradiol therapy [3]. (imsociety.org)
  • These experiments evaluated norepinephrine (NE) release evoked by histamine (HA) in the paraventricular nucleus/anterior hypothalamic (PV/AH) region of conscious rats. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because this nucleus is prenatally influenced by androgens, he speculated that the object of sexual interest of rats and humans might be controlled by similar hormone-brain interactions. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • In male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) a high NaCl diet increases arterial pressure via a reduction in anterior hypothalamic nucleus norepinephrine release. (uab.edu)
  • Systemic and regional hemodynamic changes associated with anterior hypothalamic lesions in conscious rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we produced experimental ARDS in male Wistar rats using the anterior hypothalamic nuclei lesion model. (saladgaffe.ml)
  • Lisk ('60) found that estradiol implanted in the arcuate nucleus and mammillary body resulted in prolonged diestrus in female rats. (docme.ru)
  • Iemolo A, Seiglie M, Blasio A, Cottone P, Sabino V. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the central nucleus of the amygdala induces anxiety via melanocortin receptors. (harvard.edu)
  • C-Fos was elevated in both sexes following MA in HPA axis-associated regions, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala, cingulate, and CA3 hippocampal region. (wiley.com)
  • IR fibers were more scattered in the amygdala, the medial and lateral forebrain bundles, and the anterior commissure. (google.com)
  • In the body's brain , the Limbic System is a set structures including the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior thalamic nuclei, and limbic cortex, which support a variety of functions including emotion, behavior, short term memory, and olfaction. (wellnessadvantage.com)
  • Noradrenaline disappearance was decreased in the medial septal nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area and lateral amygdala. (uu.nl)
  • This control is likely mediated through activation of ANG II receptors in the preoptic-anterior hypothalamic area and the ventral portion of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BSTV) ( 16 , 38 ). (physiology.org)
  • Gurdjian, E.S.: Olfactory connections in the albino rat, with special reference to the stria medullaris and the anterior commissure. (springer.com)
  • Heimer, L., Nauta, W.J.H.: The hypothalamic distribution of the stria terminalis in the rat. (springer.com)
  • The effects of these peptides are mediated via NPFF1 and NPFF2 receptors that are abundantly expressed in the rat brain, including the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN), an autonomic nucleus critical for the secretion of neurohormones and the regulation of sympathetic outflow. (physiology.org)
  • When the anterior hypothalamic area was depolarized by infusion of 100 mM K+ through the dialysis membrane or electrical stimulation at 200 mu A was applied through an electrode implanted into the ipsilateral tuberomammillary nucleus, histamine release increased to 175% and 188%, respectively, of the basal level. (nih.gov)
  • In this study, immunohistochemistry revealed that A 1 R was expressed in histaminergic neurons of the rat tuberomammillary nucleus (TMN). (pnas.org)
  • The basal rate of release of endogenous histamine in the anterior hypothalamic area measured by this method was 0.09 +/- 0.01 pmol/20 min. (nih.gov)
  • The role of the thalamus in the more anterior pallidal and nigral territories in the basal ganglia system disturbances is recognized but still poorly known. (bionity.com)
  • basal nuclei ( nu´clei basa´les ) specific interconnected subcortical masses of gray matter embedded in each cerebral hemisphere and in the upper brainstem , comprising the corpus striatum (caudate and lentiform nuclei), amygdaloid body , claustrum , and external, extreme, and internal capsules . (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Shh is induced in the adjacent basal plate and the hypothalamic floor plate upregulates Fgf and BMP. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • As in other species, the majority of OT-ir and VP-ir neurons was found in the paraventricular (Pa) and supraoptic (SO) nuclei, and scattered labeling throughout the preoptic and anterior hypothalamic areas. (docme.ru)
  • Interposed between the thalamus and cortex, the inhibitory thalamic reticular nucleus intercepts and regulates communication between the two structures. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Recent findings demonstrate that a unique circuitry links the prefrontal cortex with the reticular nucleus and may underlie the process of selective attention to enhance salient stimuli and suppress irrelevant stimuli in behavior. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Unlike other cortices, some prefrontal areas issue widespread projections to the reticular nucleus, extending beyond the frontal sector to the sensory sectors of the nucleus and may influence the flow of sensory information from the thalamus to the cortex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Unlike other thalamic nuclei, the mediodorsal nucleus, which is the principal thalamic nucleus for the prefrontal cortex, has similarly widespread connections with the reticular nucleus. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Unlike sensory association cortices, some terminations from prefrontal areas to the reticular nucleus are large, suggesting efficient transfer of information. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We propose a model showing that the specialized features of prefrontal pathways in the reticular nucleus may allow selection of relevant information and override distractors, in processes that are deranged in schizophrenia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Interposed between the dorsal thalamus and the cortex, lies the thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN), a thin sheet of inhibitory neurons that intercept communication between the dorsal thalamus and the cortex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Please see also List of thalamic nuclei . (bionity.com)
  • [4] Thalamic nuclei have strong reciprocal connections with the cerebral cortex, forming thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuits that are believed to be involved with consciousness. (bionity.com)
  • Reciprocal circuits between the dorsal thalamus and the cortex involve first-order thalamic nuclei, which relay information from ascending pathways to the cortex, and high-order thalamic nuclei that receive input from one cortical area and transmit it to other cortical areas. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Pathways from the sensory periphery that terminate in first-order thalamic nuclei, which then project to the middle layers of the cortex, are driver pathways. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In turn, a pathway from the cortex emanates from a different layer (VI) and innervates sensory thalamic nuclei . (dict.md)
  • [ 1 ] The cause is usually a hypothalamic lesion, which can be congenital or acquired. (medscape.com)
  • A history of brain tumors or congenital malformations suggests the possibility of a hypothalamic lesion. (medscape.com)
  • Hypothalamic adipsia without demonstrable structural lesion. (medscape.com)
  • Cowan, W.M., Guillery, R.W., Powell, T.P.S.: The origin of the mamillary peduncle and other hypothalamic connexions from the midbrain. (springer.com)
  • caudate nucleus ( nucleus cauda´tus ) an elongated, arched gray mass closely related to the lateral ventricle throughout its entire extent, which, together with the putamen, forms the neostriatum. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Next to the 3rd ventricle and projects forward to the anterior limb of the internal capsule, between the thalamus and the caudate nucleus. (brainscape.com)
  • Right‐hand panel shows how known transcription factors direct anterodorsal hypothalamic and tuberal progenitors into immature and then mature PVN, APV, SON, DMN, VMN, and Arc neurons. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • Rax ( rx3 in zebrafish) is expressed in the anterior/tuberal region and emx2 in posterior mammillary region. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • The diencephalon includes also the dorsally located epithalamus (essentially the habenula and annexes) and the perithalamus ( prethalamus formerly described as ventral thalamus) containing the zona incerta and the "reticulate nucleus" (not the reticular, term of confusion). (bionity.com)
  • Numerous TH-IR perikarya, not contacting the CSF, were present in the posterior preoptic nucleus and the ventral thalamus. (google.com)
  • There are sensory nuclei (VPM and VPL for example) receiving information, integrating it within the thalamus. (brainscape.com)
  • What are the functions of the ventral anterior and lateral nuclei of the thalamus? (brainscape.com)
  • Fibres from here leave the thalamus and travel in the anterior limb of the internal capsule to their destination in the frontal lobe. (brainscape.com)
  • Glucose ingestion inhibits hypothalamic neuronal activity in healthy humans. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that hypothalamic neuronal activity in response to an oral glucose load would be altered in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Indeed, an oral glucose load acutely mitigates hypothalamic neuronal activity in healthy humans ( 2 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • We hypothesized that hypothalamic neuronal activity in response to glucose ingestion would be altered in patients with type 2 diabetes, reflecting aberrant perception of current metabolic status. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • At the same time, the cytoskeletal network, which frames the neuronal cytosol and supports the nucleus, is negatively affected. (nih.gov)
  • Arrangement of nuclei and neuronal differentiation. (comprehensivephysiology.com)
  • [3] Much smaller parvocellular neurosecretory cells , neurons of the paraventricular nucleus, release corticotropin-releasing hormone and other hormones into the hypophyseal portal system , where these hormones diffuse to the anterior pituitary . (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is secreted by a hypothalamic region called the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) and acts on CRH receptors in the anterior pituitary to cause the release of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) into the blood. (naturalmedicinejournal.com)
  • Osmoreceptors in the anterior wall of the third ventricle, near the organum vasculosum mediate the osmotic regulation of thirst, near to or even common to the osmoreceptors that regulate secretion of aqueous vasopressin (AVP). (medscape.com)
  • The paraventricular nucleus, for instance, contains oxytocin and vasopressin neurons which project to the posterior pituitary , but also contains neurons that regulate adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) secretion (which project to the anterior pituitary), gastric reflexes, maternal behavior, blood pressure, food and liquid uptake, immune responses , and temperature. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Hypothalamic adipic hypernatraemia syndrome with normal osmoregulation of vasopressin. (medscape.com)
  • It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones , called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, numerous TH-IR, DA-IR and 5-HT-IR fibers, originating from the anterior and posterior hypothalamic nuclei, extended ventrally and reached the median eminence and the pars intermedia of the pituitary gland. (google.com)
  • Halász, B., Pupp, L.: Hormone secretion of the anterior pituitary gland after physical interruption of all nervous pathways to the hypophysiotropic are. (springer.com)
  • It controls the release of glandotropic hormones from the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland . (doccheck.com)
  • Vagovagal neurocircuits comprise specific nuclei, all of which are located within the caudal brainstem: the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS), the dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus (DMV) and the nucleus ambiguus ( FIG. 1 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • caudal olivary nucleus a folded band of gray substance enclosing a white core, which produces the elevation on the medulla oblongata known as the olive. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Apoptosis also occurs in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV), which is also a sexually dimorphic area and is located in the periventricular gray area at the rostral extreme of the third ventricle. (wikipedia.org)
  • The preoptic region is made up of the periventricular GRAY MATTER of the rostral portion of the THIRD VENTRICLE and contains the preoptic ventricular nucleus and the medial preoptic nucleus. (fpnotebook.com)
  • Some hypothalamic cells are specialized to detect the presence and the concentration of large molecules such as hormones circulating in the blood and tissue fluids. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Upon appropriate stimulation, cells in these nuclei secrete (release) two hormones into the bloodstream. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Several other hypothalamic nuclei, mostly located in the anterior area, respond to several different hormones circulating in the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These hypothalamic nuclei are organized by sex steroid hormones. (psychiatrictimes.com)
  • Releasing hormones are produced in certain hypothalamic nuclei . (doccheck.com)
  • They are transferred via a special vascular system, the hypothalamic-pituitary portal vessel system to the anterior pituitary lobe, where they stimulate the secretion of glandotropic hormones that control the function of their target organs in the context of specialized feedback control systems. (doccheck.com)
  • The results indicate that the absence of the various hormones does affect the activity of hypothalamic neurons as determined by nucleolar size changes. (docme.ru)
  • Changes in nuclear size as an indication of activity of hypothalamic neurons following endocrine gland extirpations and following administration of the target hormones have been used by a group at Pkcs University Medical School in Hungary to study the relations between the endocrine gland and. (docme.ru)
  • The anterior hypothalamic region is sometimes grouped with the preoptic area. (wikipedia.org)
  • NKB mRNA-expressing neurons are located predominantly in the infundibular nucleus and the anterior hypothalamic area. (imsociety.org)
  • Here using optogenetic approaches in mice, we show that neurons that produce hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin in the lateral hypothalamic area (LHA) regulate corticosterone release and a variety of behaviours and physiological hallmarks of the stress response. (stanford.edu)
  • Moreover, injection of metergoline into the anterior hypothalamic/preoptic area blocks the pressur response to hypothalamic serotonin but does not block the pressor response to median raphe stimulation. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Anatomic relationships between pituitary and hypothalamic areas of interest with respect to regulation of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion and thirst sensation. (medscape.com)
  • Bluet-Pajot MT ''et al'' (1998) Hypothalamic and hypophyseal regulation of growth hormone secretion. (citizendium.org)
  • They considered their results to be "consistent with the concept that hypothalamic 'centers' controlling sex behavior and gonadotropic secretion may represent important neuroendocrine receptors of hormonal influence on brain function. (docme.ru)
  • Whereas the nucleus accumbens in Rana contains the densest DAi plexus, in Pleurodeles the dopaminergic innervation of the striatum prevails. (google.com)
  • Hypothalamic neurons also receive information from other body and brain areas by way of electrical impulses conducted from many sensory sources (signaling pain, vision, and blood pressure, for example) scattered through the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • NTS neurons receive visceral sensory information, whereas the DMV and the nucleus ambiguus are the nuclei of origin of vagal motor fibres. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Dr. Lechan also has had a long interest in elucidating the unique, biological role that hypothalamic tanycytes have in neuroendocrine regulation, demonstrating that they produce one of the highest concentrations of type 2 deiodinase (D2) in the brain, an enzyme necessary to convert thyroxine (T4) into its more biologically active thyroid hormone, tri-iodothyronine (T3). (tuftsmedicalcenter.org)
  • This brief review is to summarize the neural mechanisms of hypertension with a focus on neuroendocrine and neurotransmitter involvement, highlighting recent findings that suggest that hypothalamic inflammation disrupts key signalling pathways to affect the central control of blood pressure, and therefore suggesting future development of interventional strategies that exploit recent findings pertaining to the hypothalamic control of blood pressure as well as the inflammatory-sympathetic mechanisms involved in hypertension. (portlandpress.com)
  • Neuroendocrine neurons, mainly in the ventrolateral part of the nucleus, that make [[growth hormone-releasing hormone]] (GHRH). (citizendium.org)
  • Other studies are testing the mechanisms by which a decrease in norepinephrine release in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus leads to of salt-sensitive hypertension. (uab.edu)
  • This study tests the hypothesis that estrogen also protects late middle-aged female SHR from NaCl-sensitive hypertension and that this effect is mediated by an estrogen-related effect on hypothalamic norepinephrine release. (uab.edu)
  • Selective activation of the extended ventrolateral preoptic nucleus during rapid eye movement sleep. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus contains sleep-active, galaninergic neurons in multiple mammalian species. (semanticscholar.org)
  • fastigial nucleus ( nucleus fasti´gii ) the most medial of the deep cerebellar nuclei, near the midline in the roof of the fourth ventricle. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Finally, ANG II stimulates dopamine (DA) release into the portal blood system through activation of receptors on dopaminergic neurons and nerve terminals within the arcuate nucleus (ARH) and median eminence (ME), respectively, resulting in inhibition of prolactin (Prl) release ( 20 , 29 ). (physiology.org)
  • Third, the hypothalamic PVN is enriched in NPFF binding sites and receptors ( 6 , 11 ). (physiology.org)