Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov'tResearch Support, U.S. GovernmentResearch Support, American Recovery and Reinvestment ActResearch Support, N.I.H., ExtramuralResearch Support, N.I.H., IntramuralResearch Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Passiflora: A plant genus of the family Passifloraceae, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. They are vines with ornamental flowers and edible fruit.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Czech Republic: Created 1 January 1993 as a result of the division of Czechoslovakia into the Czech Republic and Slovakia.Cancer Care Facilities: Institutions specializing in the care of cancer patients.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Allergy and Immunology: A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.DextranaseHIV-1: The type species of LENTIVIRUS and the etiologic agent of AIDS. It is characterized by its cytopathic effect and affinity for the T4-lymphocyte.Anterior Hypothalamic Nucleus: Loose heterogeneous collection of cells in the anterior hypothalamus, continuous rostrally with the medial and lateral PREOPTIC AREAS and caudally with the TUBER CINEREUM.Hypernatremia: Excessive amount of sodium in the blood. (Dorland, 27th ed)Diabetes Insipidus: A disease that is characterized by frequent urination, excretion of large amounts of dilute URINE, and excessive THIRST. Etiologies of diabetes insipidus include deficiency of antidiuretic hormone (also known as ADH or VASOPRESSIN) secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS, impaired KIDNEY response to ADH, and impaired hypothalamic regulation of thirst.Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.Diabetes Insipidus, Neurogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder caused by a deficiency of VASOPRESSINS secreted by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS. Clinical signs include the excretion of large volumes of dilute URINE; HYPERNATREMIA; THIRST; and polydipsia. Etiologies include HEAD TRAUMA; surgeries and diseases involving the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This disorder may also be caused by mutations of genes such as ARVP encoding vasopressin and its corresponding neurophysin (NEUROPHYSINS).Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic: A genetic or acquired polyuric disorder characterized by persistent hypotonic urine and HYPOKALEMIA. This condition is due to renal tubular insensitivity to VASOPRESSIN and failure to reduce urine volume. It may be the result of mutations of genes encoding VASOPRESSIN RECEPTORS or AQUAPORIN-2; KIDNEY DISEASES; adverse drug effects; or complications from PREGNANCY.Distal Myopathies: A heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by progressive MUSCULAR ATROPHY and MUSCLE WEAKNESS beginning in the hands, the legs, or the feet. Most are adult-onset autosomal dominant forms. Others are autosomal recessive.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Vasospasm, Intracranial: Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).Dorsomedial Hypothalamic Nucleus: An aggregation of cells in the middle hypothalamus dorsal to the ventromedial nucleus and bordering the THIRD VENTRICLE.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Urogenital Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UROGENITAL SYSTEM in either the male or the female.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Neuregulins: A family of peptides originally found as factors that stimulate the phosphorylation of the erbB-2 receptor (RECEPTORS, ERBB-2). Multiple variant forms of NEUREGULINS occur due to alternative splicing of their mRNAs. The NEUREGULINS include products from the three known genes (NGR1; NGR2 and NGR3).Haversian System: A circular structural unit of bone tissue. It consists of a central hole, the Haversian canal through which blood vessels run, surrounded by concentric rings, called lamellae.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Integrative Medicine: The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.Natural Science Disciplines: The sciences dealing with processes observable in nature.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Fibronectins: Glycoproteins found on the surfaces of cells, particularly in fibrillar structures. The proteins are lost or reduced when these cells undergo viral or chemical transformation. They are highly susceptible to proteolysis and are substrates for activated blood coagulation factor VIII. The forms present in plasma are called cold-insoluble globulins.Interdisciplinary Studies: Programs of study which span the traditional boundaries of academic scholarship.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Astrocytes: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system - the largest and most numerous neuroglial cells in the brain and spinal cord. Astrocytes (from "star" cells) are irregularly shaped with many long processes, including those with "end feet" which form the glial (limiting) membrane and directly and indirectly contribute to the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER. They regulate the extracellular ionic and chemical environment, and "reactive astrocytes" (along with MICROGLIA) respond to injury.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.CLOCK Proteins: Basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) domain-containing proteins that contain intrinsic HISTONE ACETYLTRANSFERASE activity and play important roles in CIRCADIAN RHYTHM regulation. Clock proteins combine with Arntl proteins to form heterodimeric transcription factors that are specific for E-BOX ELEMENTS and stimulate the transcription of several E-box genes that are involved in cyclical regulation. This transcriptional activation also sets into motion a time-dependent feedback loop which in turn down-regulates the expression of clock proteins.Circadian Clocks: Biological mechanism that controls CIRCADIAN RHYTHM. Circadian clocks exist in the simplest form in cyanobacteria and as more complex systems in fungi, plants, and animals. In humans the system includes photoresponsive RETINAL GANGLION CELLS and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS that acts as the central oscillator.Biological Clocks: The physiological mechanisms that govern the rhythmic occurrence of certain biochemical, physiological, and behavioral phenomena.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Period Circadian Proteins: Circadian rhythm signaling proteins that influence circadian clock by interacting with other circadian regulatory proteins and transporting them into the CELL NUCLEUS.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein: An intermediate filament protein found only in glial cells or cells of glial origin. MW 51,000.Genetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)Atlases as Topic: Collections of illustrative plates, charts, etc., usually with explanatory captions.Neurosciences: The scientific disciplines concerned with the embryology, anatomy, physiology, biochemistry, pharmacology, etc., of the nervous system.Anatomy, Artistic: The study of the structures of organisms for applications in art: drawing, painting, sculpture, illustration, etc.Twin Studies as Topic: Methods of detecting genetic etiology in human traits. The basic premise of twin studies is that monozygotic twins, being formed by the division of a single fertilized ovum, carry identical genes, while dizygotic twins, being formed by the fertilization of two ova by two different spermatozoa, are genetically no more similar than two siblings born after separate pregnancies. (Last, J.M., A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Neonatal handling and the expression of immunoreactivity to tyrosine hydroxylase in the hypothalamus of adult male rats. (1/22)

Neonatal handling has long-lasting effects on behavior and stress reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of neonatal handling on the number of dopaminergic neurons in the hypothalamic nuclei of adult male rats as part of a series of studies that could explain the long-lasting effects of neonatal stimulation. Two groups of Wistar rats were studied: nonhandled (pups were left undisturbed, control) and handled (pups were handled for 1 min once a day during the first 10 days of life). At 75-80 days, the males were anesthetized and the brains were processed for immunohistochemistry. An anti-tyrosine hydroxylase antibody and the avidin-biotin-peroxidase method were used. Tyrosine hydroxylase-immunoreactive (TH-IR) neurons were counted bilaterally in the arcuate, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus in 30-microm sections at 120-microm intervals. Neonatal handling did not change the number of TH-IR neurons in the arcuate (1021 +/- 206, N = 6; 1020 +/- 150, N = 6; nonhandled and handled, respectively), paraventricular (584 +/- 85, N = 8; 682 +/- 62, N = 9) or periventricular (743 +/- 118, N = 7; 990 +/- 158, N = 7) nuclei of the hypothalamus. The absence of an effect on the number of dopaminergic cells in the hypothalamus indicates that the reduction in the amount of neurons induced by neonatal handling, as shown by other studies, is not a general phenomenon in the brain.  (+info)

Effects of microinjection of melatonin and its receptor antagonists into anterior hypothalamic area on blood pressure and heart rate in rats. (2/22)

AIM: To examine the effects of microinjection of melatonin and its receptor antagonists into the anterior hypothalamic area (AHA) on blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in normotensive and stress-induced hypertensive rats. METHODS: Melatonin and its receptor antagonists were microinjected into the AHA, then BP, mean arterial pressure (MAP), and HR were synchronously recorded. RESULTS: Microinjection of melatonin produced a fall in MAP. Prazosin, an antagonist of melatonin ML2 receptor, could not antagonize the depressive response induced by melatonin. While luzindole, a competitive antagonist of melatonin ML1 receptor, was able to almost completely prevented the depressive response induced by injection of melatonin. CONCLUSION: Melatonin acts as a hypotensive factor and the effects are mainly due to activation of ML1 receptors in rat brain, and the AHA may be one of the important central areas where melatonin can exert modulatory effects on BP and HR.  (+info)

Alpha2A-adrenergic receptors mediate sympathoinhibitory responses to atrial natriuretic peptide in the mouse anterior hypothalamic nucleus. (3/22)

In the rat, activation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus inhibits sympathetic nervous system activity. Furthermore, local release of atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits norepinephrine release in this nucleus, blocking local activation of alpha2-adrenergic receptors, and thereby contributes to NaCl-sensitive hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. To further test the specificity of this mechanism, either alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists or atrial natriuretic peptide was microinjected into anterior hypothalamic nucleus of conscious C57BL/6 mice in which the alpha2-adrenergic receptor was functionally deleted by a single point mutation (n=10 per group). In control mice, microinjection of either clonidine or guanabenz (10-3 to 10-7 mol/L) caused a rapid fall in mean arterial pressure that lasted for several minutes. In the knockout mice there was no response to the injection of either dose of either agonist. Microinjection of atrial natriuretic peptide (10-6 to 10-7 mol/L) caused a rapid increase in mean arterial pressure (8.2+/-1.3 and 6.55+/-1.2 mm Hg, respectively) in the control mice that was similar to the responses previously observed in Wistar-Kyoto rats. In contrast, the microinjections did not significantly alter mean arterial pressure in the knockout mice. These experiments demonstrate that in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus of the mouse (and probably in the rat) alpha2A-adrenergic receptors mediate both sympathoinhibitory responses to alpha2-adrenergic receptor agonists and the action of atrial natriuretic peptide.  (+info)

Blocking hypothalamic AT1 receptors lowers blood pressure in salt-sensitive rats. (4/22)

Previous studies from our laboratory have shown that microinjection of DuP 753 (2-n-butyl-4-chloro-5-(hydroxymethyl)-1-[[2'-(1H-tetrazol-5-yl) biphenyl-4-yl]methyl]imidazole, potassium salt), a highly selective nonpeptide antagonist of type 1 angiotensin II receptors, into the anterior hypothalamic area produces a dose-related depressor response in salt-sensitive spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a basal (1%) salt diet. The current study tested the hypothesis that the depressor response to anterior hypothalamic type 1 angiotensin II receptor blockade with DuP 753 or its metabolite EXP 3174 is enhanced by high (8%) salt feeding in this model. DuP 753 or EXP 3174 (40 micrograms in 100 nl artificial cerebrospinal fluid vehicle) or vehicle alone was microinjected into the anterior hypothalamic area of conscious salt-sensitive spontaneously hypertensive and Wistar-Kyoto rats that had been fed 1% or 8% salt diets for 3 weeks. Both DuP 753 and EXP 3174 caused significant decreases in mean arterial pressure in spontaneously hypertensive but not in Wistar-Kyoto rats fed either diet. The magnitude and duration of the depressor responses to DuP 753 and EXP 3174 were significantly greater in the 8% salt-fed spontaneously hypertensive rats than in 1% salt-fed rats. Vehicle injections had no effect on blood pressure in either strain-diet group. Microinjection of angiotensin II (2 micrograms in 100 nl artificial cerebrospinal fluid vehicle) into the anterior hypothalamic area caused significant pressor and bradycardiac responses in all strain-diet groups; dietary salt supplementation enhanced these effects in salt-sensitive spontaneously hypertensive rats but not in Wistar-Kyoto rats. These responses were blocked by pretreatment with EXP 3174.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  (+info)

Prostaglandin E2-increased thermosensitivity of anterior hypothalamic neurons is associated with depressed inhibition. (5/22)

Temperature responses of anterior hypothalamic neurons are considered key elements in the regulation of the temperature setpoint of homeotherms. We have investigated the sensitivity to warming of cultured neurons of the AH from mice with electrophysiological and immunocytochemical techniques. In control experiments, only approximately 9% of the 3- to 5-week-old cells exhibited changes of their basic firing rate when the temperature was raised from 37 degrees C to 40 degrees C. This ratio was increased to 27% after the cultures were "primed" by adding prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an endogenous pyrogen, in the extracellular medium. In these neurons the firing rate was significantly increased, and the frequency of the gamma gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibitory postsynaptic potentials was markedly decreased. In contrast, the resting potential and membrane resistance of the recorded cells remained unchanged. PGE2 was found to decrease the level of phosphorylation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 in a subset of GABAergic neurons that express the E-prostanoid receptor type 3. Inhibition of ERK1/2 by U0126 mimicked the effects of PGE2. These data indicate that PGE2 acts primarily on the excitability of GABAergic presynaptic cells, most likely via alterations of voltage-gated K+ channels. Our results also suggest that far from being an inherent property of a specialized class of neurons, the degree of thermosensitivity can be strongly modulated by synaptic activity and is a more adaptive property of hypothalamic neurons than previously thought.  (+info)

Evidence that atrazine and diaminochlorotriazine inhibit the estrogen/progesterone induced surge of luteinizing hormone in female Sprague-Dawley rats without changing estrogen receptor action. (6/22)

High oral doses of atrazine (ATRA) disrupt normal neuroendocrine function, resulting in suppression of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in adult, ovariectomized (OVX) estrogen-primed female rats. While the mechanism by which ATRA inhibits LH secretion is not known, current data indicate that ATRA does have anti-estrogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. In the body, ATRA is rapidly converted to diaminochlorotriazine (DACT). The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of ATRA and DACT on the estradiol benzoate (EB)/progesterone (P) induced LH surge and to determine if such changes correlate with impaired estrogen receptor (ER) function. ATRA, administered by gavage for five consecutive days to adult OVX, female Sprague-Dawley rats, caused a dose-dependent suppression of the EB/P induced LH surge. Although to a lesser degree than ATRA, DACT significantly suppressed total plasma LH and peak LH surge levels in EB/P primed animals by 60 and 58%, respectively. DACT treatment also decreased release of LH from the pituitary in response to exogenous gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) by 47% compared to control. Total plasma LH secretion was reduced by 37% compared to control, suggesting that in addition to potential hypothalamic dysfunction, pituitary function is altered. To further investigate the mechanism by which hypothalamic function might be altered, potential anti-estrogenicity of ATRA and DACT were assessed by evaluating ER function treated rats. Using an in vitro receptor binding assay, ATRA, but not DACT, inhibited binding of [(3)H]-estradiol to ER. In contrast, ATRA, administered to female rats under dosing conditions which suppressed the LH surge, neither changed the levels of unoccupied ER nor altered the estrogen induced up-regulation of progesterone receptor mRNA. Collectively, these results indicate that although ATRA is capable of binding ER in vitro, the suppression of LH after treatment with high doses of ATRA is not due to alterations of hypothalamic ER function.  (+info)

Inhibition of the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus by tetrodotoxin alters thermoregulatory functions in exercising rats. (7/22)

We have previously demonstrated a functional role of the preoptic area and anterior hypothalamus (PO/AH) in thermoregulation in freely moving rats at various temperature conditions by using microdialysis and biotelemetry methods. In the present study, we perfused tetrodotoxin (TTX) solution into the PO/AH to investigate whether this manipulation can modify thermoregulation in exercising rats. Male Wistar rats were trained for 3 wk by treadmill running. Body core temperature (Tb), heart rate (HR), and tail skin temperature (Ttail) were measured. Rats ran for 120 min at speed of 10 m/min, with TTX (5 microM) perfused into the left PO/AH during the last 60 min of exercise through a microdialysis probe (control, n=12; TTX, n=12). Tb, HR, and Ttail increased during the first 20 min of exercise. Thereafter, Tb, HR, and Ttail were stable in both groups. Perfusion of TTX into the PO/AH evoked an additional rise in Tb (control: 38.2 +/- 0.1 degrees C, TTX: 39.3 +/- 0.2 degrees C; P <0.001) with a significant decrease in Ttail (control: 31.2 +/- 0.5 degrees C, TTX: 28.3 +/- 0.7 degrees C; P <0.01) and a significant increase in HR (control: 425.2 +/- 12 beats/min, TTX: 502.1 +/- 13 beats/min; P <0.01). These results suggest that the TTX-induced hyperthermia was the result of both an impairment of heat loss and an elevation of heat production during exercise. We therefore propose the PO/AH as an important thermoregulatory site in the brain during exercise.  (+info)

Analysis of in vitro glucose utilization in a circadian pacemaker model. (8/22)

An in vitro glucose utilization method, based upon 14C-2-deoxyglucose kinetics in brain slices, has been used to study circadian rhythms in hypothalamic slices containing the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). Spontaneous SCN metabolic activity in vitro is similar to that observed in vivo with higher metabolic rates in subjective daytime and lower rates during subjective night. However, in vitro SCN metabolic activity during late subjective day is above that seen when glucose utilization is measured in vivo, suggesting that an inhibitory influence normally active in vivo is lost during slice isolation. Incubation of slices containing SCN in the presence of TTX exposes a TTX-insensitive component of metabolic activity in early subjective day, supporting prior suggestions that glucose utilization by the circadian oscillator continues in the absence of Na(+)-dependent action potentials. Studies with high Mg2+ concentrations are consistent with the hypothesis that most metabolic activity above the basal level observed with the glucose utilization method is related to synaptic activity. Pharmacological studies of the SCN brain slice model with radiotracers offer potential for analysis of both circadian rhythmicity and neural regulation.  (+info)

*Anterior hypothalamic nucleus

The anterior hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. Its function is thermoregulation (cooling) of the body. ... The anterior hypothalamus plays a role in regulating sleep. The anterior hypothalamic region is sometimes grouped with the ... NIF Search - Anterior nucleus of hypothalamus via the Neuroscience Information Framework. ... Damage or destruction of this nucleus causes hyperthermia. ... distinct from that mediating its febrile action in the anterior ...

*Sexually dimorphic nucleus

... anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHdc) in macaques; specific area in medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in quails; etc. The volume of ... The part of the brain examined is the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHdc), a homologue of SDN-POA. Comparison of the AHdc ... the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH3) in humans; ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) in the ... Vasey P, Pfaus J (2005). "A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic nucleus in a macaque species with frequent female=female mounting ...

*Thermoregulation in humans

... and more specifically by the anterior hypothalamic nucleus and the adjacent preoptic area regions of the hypothalamus. As core ...

*List of MeSH codes (A08)

... anterior hypothalamic nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.342.400 --- paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus MeSH A08.186. ... thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.080 --- anterior thalamic nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.826.701.444 --- ... arcuate nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.352.270 --- dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus MeSH A08.186.211.730.385.357.352.435 ... vestibular nucleus, lateral MeSH A08.186.211.132.810.507 --- raphe nuclei MeSH A08.186.211.132.931 --- trigeminal nuclei MeSH ...

*Hypophyseal portal system

Peptides released near the median eminence from hypothalamic nuclei are transported to the anterior pituitary, where they apply ... Its main function is to quickly transport and exchange hormones between the hypothalamus arcuate nucleus and anterior pituitary ... Many of these branches are continuous between the proximal arcuate nucleus and anterior pituitary, enabling rapid hormone ... mediate their function by acting as a means of transportation from various nuclei of the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary ...

*Retinohypothalamic tract

These signals are then carried through the optic nerve, which projects to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), anterior ... hypothalamic area, retrochiasmatic area, and lateral hypothalamus. However, a major portion of the RHT ends in the SCN. ... to the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) via the optic nerve and the optic chiasm. The suprachiasmatic nuclei receive and interpret ... Further development of the brains of those in the NE group showed that the two suprachaismatic nuclei (SCN) have nearly equal ...

*Stria medullaris of thalamus

It is a fiber bundle containing afferent fibers from the septal nuclei, lateral preoptico-hypothalamic region, and anterior ... It projects to the habenular nuclei, from anterior perforated substance and hypothalamus, to habenular trigone, to habenular ... thalamic nuclei to the habenula. It forms a horizontal ridge on the medial surface of the thalamus, and is found on the border ... commissure, to habenular nucleus. http://www.dartmouth.edu/~rswenson/NeuroSci/chapter_10.html. ...

*Dopaminergic cell groups

... in ventral and dorsal components within the preoptic periventricular nucleus and adjacent parts of the anterior hypothalamic ... Group A12 is a small group of cells in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in primates. In the rat a few cells belonging to ... The cells are located for the most part in the ventral tegmental area, the linear nucleus and, in primates, the part of central ... In the mouse, cells in the anterodorsal preoptic nucleus are assigned to this group. Group A15 exists in a few species, such as ...

*Papez circuit

Hypothalamic effects reach the cortex via a relay in the anterior thalamic nuclei." However, there has not been additional ... This may occur due to damage in the mammillary bodies, ventral anterior nucleus, and ventral lateral nucleus which has resulted ... Damage to the mammillothalamic tract, ventral anterior nucleus, and ventral lateral nucleus can result in memory and language ... Although theta waves between the hippocampus and the anterior dorsal and anterior medial regions in the thalamus showed no ...

*Vasopressin receptor 1A

... suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area, arcuate nucleus, lateral habenula, ventral ... suprachiasmatic nucleus, ventral tegmental area, substantia nigra, superior colliculus, dorsal raphe, nucleus of the solitary ... Rats with reduced Avpr1a in the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis have increased incidences of the isolation potentiated ... Avpr1a is present in the lateral septum, neocortical layer IV, hippocampal formation, amygdalostriatal area, bed nucleus of the ...

*Periventricular nucleus

... neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and somatostatin-containing neurons in the anterior periventricular nucleus of the ... The periventricular nucleus is a thin sheet of small neurons located in the wall of the third ventricle, a composite structure ... This nucleus has been shown to affect the release of GnRH(Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone) in several ways. One way is its ... The periventricular nucleus has also been shown to have many neurons that express kisspeptin, which generates a surge in LH, ...

*List of regions in the human brain

Anterior hypothalamic nucleus Lateral area Parts of preoptic area Lateral preoptic nucleus Anterior part of Lateral nucleus ... Anterior nuclear group Anteroventral nucleus (a.k.a. ventral anterior nucleus) Anterodorsal nucleus Anteromedial nucleus Medial ... hypothalamic nucleus Ventromedial nucleus Arcuate nucleus Lateral area Tuberal part of Lateral nucleus Lateral tuberal nuclei ... nucleus Prepositus nucleus Sublingual nucleus Area postrema Medullary cranial nerve nuclei Inferior salivatory nucleus Nucleus ...

*Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis

The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); the anterior pituitary ... Sensory information arriving at the lateral aspect of the amygdala is processed and conveyed to the central nucleus, which ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis comprises hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the anterior pituitary ... Other major neuroendocrine systems Hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system Hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis Hypothalamic- ...

*Vasoactive intestinal peptide

They transmit info through relay nuclei such as SPZ, DMH (dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus), MPOA (medial preoptic area) and ... PVN (paraventricular nucleus of hypothalamus). VIP neurons located in the hypothalamus, specifically the dorsal anterior ... It is also found in the brain and some autonomic nerves: One region includes a specific area of the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN ... VIP is produced in many tissues of vertebrates including the gut, pancreas, and suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus in ...

*Anterior pituitary

Hypothalamic control Hormone secretion from the anterior pituitary gland is regulated by hormones secreted by the hypothalamus ... the suprachiasmatic nucleus). Diminishing light stimulates the release of melatonin from the pineal gland which can also affect ... Stress Operating through the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA), the anterior pituitary gland has a large role in the ... HPA axis Main article Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis The anterior pituitary plays a role in stress response. Corticotropin ...

*Neuroscience of sleep

Further research has shown that the hypothalamic region called ventrolateral preoptic nucleus produces the inhibitory ... Some light was thrown on the mechanisms on sleep onset by the discovery that lesions in the preoptic area and anterior ... The thalamic reticular nucleus is considered to be the pacemaker of the sleep spindles. This has been further substantiated by ... During NREM sleep this system is blocked by the preoptic nucleus neurons. The need and function of sleep are among the least ...

*Corticotropin-releasing factor family

The paraventricular nucleus transports CRH to the anterior pituitary, stimulating adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release ... via CRH type 1 receptors, thereby activating the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) and, thus, glucocorticoid release. ... Corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) is a releasing hormone found mainly in the paraventricular nucleus of the mammalian ...

*Posterior pituitary

The hypothalamic-neurohypophyseal system is composed of the hypothalamus (the paraventricular nucleus and supraoptic nucleus), ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis consists of hypothalamic thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH); the anterior pituitary ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis comprises hypothalamic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), the anterior pituitary ... The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. It comprises corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), released by the hypothalamus ...

*INAH 3

INAH-3 is the short form for the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus, and is the sexually dimorphic nucleus ... Garcia-Falgueras, A.; Swaab, D.F. (Dec 2008). "A sex difference in the hypothalamic uncinate nucleus: relationship to gender ... There are four nuclei in the PO-AHA (INAH1-4). One of these nuclei, INAH-3, was found to be 2.8 times larger in the male brain ... The term INAH (interstitial nuclei of the anterior hypothalamus), first proposed in 1989 by a group of the University of ...

*Emotion perception

The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis plays a role in emotion perception through its mediation of the physiological ... The amygdala is a small, almond-shaped region within the anterior part of the temporal lobe. Several studies of non-human ... the amygdala's role in attention modulation toward emotion-specific stimuli may occur via projections from the central nucleus ... This occurs through the release of hypothalamic corticotropin-releasing factor, also known as corticotropin-releasing hormone ( ...

*Dopaminergic pathways

... caudate nucleus and putamen) Tuberoinfundibular Tuberal hypothalamus (Infundibular nucleus) → Median eminence (dopamine ... The anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, receives rich blood flow from the capillaries of the portal hypophyseal system. ... This system delivers factors released by hypothalamic neurons into portal capillaries at the median eminence. The figure shows ... Cragg SJ, Baufreton J, Xue Y, Bolam JP, Bevan MD (2004). "Synaptic release of dopamine in the subthalamic nucleus". Eur. J. ...

*Tuberoinfundibular pathway

The anterior pituitary, or adenohypophysis, receives rich blood flow from the capillaries of the portal hypophyseal system. ... The tuberoinfundibular pathway refers to a population of dopamine neurons that project from the arcuate nucleus (a.k.a. the " ... This system delivers factors released by hypothalamic neurons into portal capillaries at the median eminence. The figure shows ... Dopamine released at this site regulates the secretion of prolactin from the anterior pituitary gland. Some antipsychotic drugs ...

*Clinical neurochemistry

Non-REM sleep is initiated by neurons in the preoptic and anterior hypothalamic area, whereas REM sleep is eventually elicited ... Via an unknown mechanism, this accumulation leads to neurodegeneration in the caudate nucleus and putamen, selectively ... Circadian rhythms are produced in the suprachiasmatic nucleus by pacemaker cells which contain transcriptional regulation " ... Because cholinergic neurons of the nucleus basalis are significantly altered during Alzheimer's progression, cholinergic agents ...

*Nociception

Periaqueductal grey (with hypothalamic hormone aid) hormonally signals reticular formation's raphe nuclei to produce serotonin ... Fibers cross over (left becomes right) via the spinal anterior white commissure. Lateral lemniscus is the first point of ... Marginal nucleus of the spinal cord are the only unsuppressible pain signals. The parabrachial area integrates taste and pain ... "Topographic Organization of the Dorsal Nucleus of the Lateral Lemniscus in the Cat." Wiley Online Library. 10 May 1999. Web. 27 ...

*Hippocampus anatomy

... including the anterior nuclear complex, the laterodorsal nucleus, the paraventricular and parataenial nuclei, the nucleus ... reuniens, and the nucleus centralis medialis), the lateral preoptic and lateral hypothalamic areas, the supramammillary and ... the nucleus centralis superior and the dorsal raphe nucleus), the nucleus reticularis tegementi pontis, the periaqueductal gray ... In Macaca fascicularis, these inputs include the amygdala (specifically the anterior amygdaloid area, the basolateral nucleus, ...

*Cushing's syndrome

The paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus releases corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), which stimulates the ... Voyadzis JM, Guttman-Bauman I, Santi M, Cogen P (2004). "Hypothalamic hamartoma secreting corticotropin-releasing hormone. Case ... which decreases the amount of ACTH released from the anterior pituitary gland. Strictly, Cushing's syndrome refers to excess ...
Objective: Diabetes insipidus centralis with hypernatremia is a common phenomenon after aneurismal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) known for adverse effects on outcome. Possible underlying pathomechanism is a hypothalamic dysregulation through direct injury to the anterior hypothalamic nuclei. In this[for full text, please go to the a.m. URL ...
Definitions of behaviors. The behavioral criteria by which we scored behavioral transitions were designed to both accurately reflect the nature of the transitions and make it easier for a human observer to score them objectively and reliably. Accordingly, behavior was analyzed in terms of three main behavioral states: forward, reversal, and omega turn; these three states accounted for 98% of total observation time in our experiments. A fourth state, called "other," was used for the rare instances in which behavior fell into none of the three main categories. The forward state was defined as anterior translation of the body associated with a head-to-tail body wave. The reversal state was defined as caudal translation of the body associated with a tail-to-head body wave. The omega-turn state was defined as head-to-body contact with the head moving forward. Note that our classification scheme omits deep bends, which resemble omega turns, except that there is no contact between head and tail. This ...
Definitions of behaviors. The behavioral criteria by which we scored behavioral transitions were designed to both accurately reflect the nature of the transitions and make it easier for a human observer to score them objectively and reliably. Accordingly, behavior was analyzed in terms of three main behavioral states: forward, reversal, and omega turn; these three states accounted for 98% of total observation time in our experiments. A fourth state, called "other," was used for the rare instances in which behavior fell into none of the three main categories. The forward state was defined as anterior translation of the body associated with a head-to-tail body wave. The reversal state was defined as caudal translation of the body associated with a tail-to-head body wave. The omega-turn state was defined as head-to-body contact with the head moving forward. Note that our classification scheme omits deep bends, which resemble omega turns, except that there is no contact between head and tail. This ...
Division of labor represents a major advantage of social insect communities that accounts for their enormous ecological success. In colonies of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, division of labor comprises different tasks of fertile queens and drones (males) and, in general, sterile female workers. Division of labor also occurs among workers in form of an age-related polyethism. This helps them to deal with the great variety of tasks within the colony. After adult eclosion, workers spend around three weeks with various duties inside the hive such as tending the brood or cleaning and building cells. After this period workers switch to outdoor tasks and become foragers collecting nectar, pollen and water. With this behavioral transition, workers face tremendous changes in their sensory environment. In particular, visual sensory stimuli become important, but also the olfactory world changes. Foragers have to perform a completely new behavioral repertoire ranging from long distance navigation based on ...
All MMG seminars are at 4:10 P.M., TUESDAY, 1415 Biomedical Physical Sciences, unless noted otherwise. Seminar Coordinators: Yann Dufour & John ...
Looking for online definition of anterior hypothalamic area in the Medical Dictionary? anterior hypothalamic area explanation free. What is anterior hypothalamic area? Meaning of anterior hypothalamic area medical term. What does anterior hypothalamic area mean?
High oral doses of atrazine (ATRA) disrupt normal neuroendocrine function, resulting in suppression of the luteinizing hormone (LH) surge in adult, ovariectomized (OVX) estrogen-primed female rats. While the mechanism by which ATRA inhibits LH secretion is not known, current data indicate that ATRA does have anti-estrogenic properties in vitro and in vivo. In the body, ATRA is rapidly converted to
This is the fourth part on the evolution of human mating behavior, comparing evidence for promiscuity and pair-bonding in our species. Please see the introduction here. ____________________________________________________________________ … We left off with a list of eight traits in humans suggesting promiscuity in humans. Admittedly, the previous post was a little thick, as it dealt…
So why are pair-bonding mammals more susceptible to substance abuse? Because the same neural circuitry that governs pair-bonding also governs susceptibility to substance abuse, and pair-bonders seem to have a more sensitive version of it than most mammals. When pair-bonding mammals are longing for a mate (whether or not they correctly analyze the roots of that longing), they are vulnerable to any neurochemical buzz that signals "relief.". Scientists saw this recently when they compared the effects of amphetamine on two types of voles: pair-bonding prairie voles, and promiscuous montane voles. Dopamine rose significantly more in response to the drug use in the pair-bonding voles than in the voles who were not wired to seek long-term mates. The monogamous voles were inclined to find certain dopamine-based rewards more rewarding than their promiscuous vole cousins. In short, a lonely pair-bonder would have a greater risk of becoming an addict than would a mammal with no built-in urge to form a ...
Author Summary Animal behavior is profoundly affected by contextual information about the internal state of the organism as well as sensory information about the external environment. A class of signaling molecules known as neuropeptides have been implicated in driving transitions between behavioral states (e.g., from food seeking to satiety and back) but we have only a limited understanding of how neuropeptide signaling modulates neural circuit activity and elicits context-dependent behaviors. Here we identify a novel mechanism by which C. elegans modulate their behavior in response to sensory information about food. We show that dopaminergic regulation of NLP-12, a C. elegans homolog of the mammalian neuropeptide cholecystokinin (CCK), shapes behavioral transitions that are central to food searching. Given the conserved nature of these signaling pathways, our work raises the interesting possibility that dopamine modulation of CCK signaling represents a general mechanism by which nervous systems shape
High-sodium diets are linked to increased blood pressure and a higher risk for heart disease and stroke. Take this quiz to test your sodium smarts. Review Date: Saturday, January 23, 2016 American Heart Association ...
The Cognitive Reflection Test (CRT) is a test introduced by S. Frederick (2005) Cognitive reflection and decision making, J Econ Perspect 19(4): 25-42. The task is designed to measure the tendency to override an intuitive response that is incorrect and to engage in further reflection that leads to the correct response. The consistent sex differences in CRT performance may suggest a role for gonadal hormones, particularly testosterone. A now widely studied putative marker for fetal testosterone is the second-to-fourth digit ratio (2D:4D). This paper tests to what extent 2D:4D, as a proxy for prenatal exposure to testosterone, can predict CRT scores in a sample of 623 students. After controlling for sex, we observe that a lower 2D:4D (reflecting a higher exposure to testosterone) is significantly associated with a higher number of correct answers. The result holds for both hands? 2D:4Ds. In addition, the effect appears to be sharper for females than for males. We also control for patience and math ...
The effects of Pro-Leu-GlyNH2 (PLG), administered i.c.v. in doses of 3.5, 35, 350 and 3500 pmol, were studied on the α-MPT-induced disappearance of catecholamines in microdissected rat brain nuclei. PLG, dose-dependently, increased dopamine disappearance in the nucleus caudatus and globus pallidus, whereas a decrease in dopamine disappearance was observed in ... read more the nucleus dorsomedialis. Noradrenaline disappearance was decreased in the medial septal nucleus, anterior hypothalamic area and lateral amygdala. A tendency towards an increase in noradrenaline disappearance was observed in the nucl. supraopticus. These data show that PLG has a central site of action. The effects of PLG on dopamine disappearance are comparable to those previously found with vasopressin, while the effects of PLG on noradrenaline utilization show a striking similarity with those previously obtained with oxytocin. show less ...
The findings from the present series of experiments confirm the hypothesis that neonatal handling affects sympathoadrenal function in adult animals when examined ,4 wk after weaning. SNS activity, as measured by [3H]NE turnover, was lower in heart and spleen of handled animals compared with tissues from nonhandled controls, but did not differ in IBAT, kidney, or stomach in the same animals. Because the [3H]NE turnover procedure was conducted in a laboratory outside the animal facility where the animals had been housed since birth, this measurement unavoidably compared sympathetic activity in both groups during simultaneous exposure to a novel environment. Whether the differences observed during measurement of [3H]NE turnover are also obtained in a truly basal state cannot be determined at present. In contrast to tissue-specific reductions in SNS activity, adrenal medullary secretion, reflected in urinary Epi excretion, was increased in handled rats during a 3-day fast. The adrenal medullary ...
The present studies are the first to demonstrate that the presence of gp120 in the brain induced fever via interaction with the chemokine system. It was previously shown that in addition to its behavioral effects, gp120 infused intracerebroventricularly also induced fever in rats (Barak et al., 2002). This effect was particularly evident during the initial hours after gp120 administration (3-5 h after injection). However, the main brain area involved in the pathogenesis of fever induced by gp120 was unknown. Because it is crucial to localize the site of action to investigate the mechanism involved, we administered the gp120 directly into the POAH and used a biotelemetry system to monitor the changes in Tb. Our present data show that gp120 given directly into the POAH was able to induce a significant increase in Tb in a dose-related manner. The onset, latency, magnitude of elevation, and time course of the increase in Tb after the administration of gp120, as well as the marked sickness behavior ...
By Shereen JegtvigNEW YORK (Reuters Health) - Teenagers who eat a high-sodium diet tend to be heavier and have more body fat than those who eat less
Diaminochlorotriazine (DACT) was the most frequently detected analyte (58% > limit of detection [LOD]) followed by desethyl atrazine (6%), desethyl atrazine mercapturate (3%), atrazine mercapturate (1%), hydroxyl atrazine (1%), atrazine (1%) and desisopropyl atrazine (0.5%). Because of low detection of other analytes, only DACT was included in the exposure-outcome analyses. The adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.13 (95% Confidence Interval [95% CI]:0.82, 1.55) and exposure < median was 1.01 (95% CI: 0.73, 1.42) compared to girls with exposure < LOD (reference). In the subset that excluded girls with missing data, the adjusted odds of early menarche for girls with DACT exposures≥median was 1.86 (95% CI: 1.03, 3.38) and exposure < median was 1.26 (95% CI: 0.65, 2.24) compared to the reference ...
Rat Anterior hypothalamus Frozen Floating Section, Region 7 are made of freshly harvested tissues, snapped frozen in OCT blocks, sectioned at a thickness of 7-10microns and mounted on positively charged slides (2 sections per slide). Quality Control: Tissue sections are H&E stained and examined by histologists with 25 years of experience to
This hormone is produced in the brain and released during sexual intercourse and child birth. It causes the pair-bonding between a man and a woman.. In woman the hormone is essential to both childbirth and breast feeding.. It is possible that this hormone may well be the "fountain of youth!". Research so far has found that people who release the drug more often, like in stable marriages, resulting in more physical affection, definitely has an impact on a longer life.. It has also been discovered that the hormone helps reduce body fat.. Read Steves blog on the effects he found that took place when using this hormone. It is pretty amazing!. ...
A)s our forebears adopted life on the dangerous ground, pair-bonding became imperative for females and practical for males. And monogamy - the human habit of forming a pair-bond with one individual at a time - evolved." (Helen Fisher 2004: 131). …. "Several types of evidence suggest our pre-agricultural (prehistoric) ancestors lived in groups where most mature individuals would have had several ongoing sexual relationships at any given time. Though often casual, these relationships were not random or meaningless. Quite the opposite: they reinforced crucial social ties holding these highly interdependent communities together." (Chris Ryan & Cacilda Jethá 2010: 9-10). …. "We are not a classic pair-bonded species. We are not a polygamous, tournament species either…. What we are, officially, … is a tragically confused species." (Robert Sapolsky). ….. .. The above three quotations were selected to illustrate the range of views that exist on the evolution of human sexual and mating ...
We studied the possible relationships between the functional status of the β-cell and activities or mRNA contents of enzymes involved in the catabolism of glucose. Three different in vitro models with attenuated insulin response were used: rat islets cultured at a low glucose concentration, rat islets incubated in vitro with streptozocin, and fetal rat islets. The fetal and streptozocin-administered islets were compared with adult islets cultured in RPMI-1640 containing 11 mM glucose, and the effects of the in vitro glucose concentrations (3.3, 11, and 28 mM) were assessed on adult islets only. Cellular mRNA levels for the mitochondrial DNA-encoded cytochrome b and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) were determined by Northern-blot analysis. Enzymatic activities of high-Km (glucokinase) and low-Km (hexokinase) glucose-phosphorylating enzymes and succinate-cytochrome c reductase were also determined. Islets cultured at 3.3 mM glucose displayed a decreased activity of glucokinase ...
We have reported that neonatal handling leads to increased sweet food preference in adult life. Our aim was to verify if these differences in feeding behavior appear before puberty, and whether other types of intervention in periadolescence (such as exposure to toys) could interfere with sweet food consumption later in life. Nests of Wistar rats were (1) non-handled or (2) handled (10 min/day) on days 1-10 after birth. Males from these groups were subdivided in two subgroups: one was habituated to sweet food (Froot Loops-Kellogs) in a new environment for 4 days and tested for sweet food preference at age 27 days, before submitting to a new habituation and test for sweet food ingestion again in adult life ...
Boys are more likely than girls to be diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The extreme male brain (EMB) theory of ASD suggests that fetal testosterone (FT) exposure may underlie sex diffe
Why does a high-sodium diet raise blood pressure in many people? Recent experiments on rats of Canadas McGill University has found a potential new explanation: Consuming large amounts of sodium interferes with key brain circuits that are part of a … Read More ». ...
Tramazoline is a chemical that is used in the form of tramazoline hydrochloride in nasal decongestant preparations. It is an α-adrenergic receptor agonist that inhibits secretion of nasal mucus. It causes hypertension. Australia Spray-Tish Rhinaspray Austria Rhinorix Belgium Rhinospray Czech Republic Muconasal Plus Germany Biciron Ellatun Rhinospray Italy Rinogutt Romania Muconasal Plus (older) Muconasal (newer) Russia Adrianol (tramazoline + phenylephrine) Lasolvan Rhino Spain Rhinospray Slovakia Muconasal Plus Ukraine Lasorin Boehringer Ingelheim. "Spray-Tish Consumer Information". Consumer Medicines Information. MyDr.com.au. Retrieved 16 April 2011. Peng N, Meng QC, King K, Oparil S, Wyss JM (April 1995). "Acute hypertension increases norepinephrine release in the anterior hypothalamic area". Hypertension. 25 (4 Pt 2): 828-33. doi:10.1161/01.hyp.25.4.828. PMID 7721439. "Spray-Tish". Consumer Information. Retrieved 16 April 2011 ...
Results: Intralipid infusion reduced whole body glucose infusion rate 26% in women and 38% in men (p,0.05) and insulin stimulated leg glucose uptake was reduced significantly less in women (45%) than men (60%) after intralipid infusion. Hepatic glucose production was decreased during the clamp similarly in women and men irrespective of intralipid infusion. Intralipid did not impair insulin or AMPK signaling in muscle and subcutaneous fat, did not cause accumulation of muscle lipid intermediates, and did not impair insulin stimulated glycogen synthase activity in muscle or increase plasma concentrations of inflammatory cytokines. In vitro glucose transport in giant sarcolemmal vesicles was not decreased by acute exposure to fatty acids. Leg lactate release was increased and respiratory exchange ratio was decreased by intralipid. ...
Neonatal handling enduringly decreases anxiety and stress responses and reduces hippocampus and amygdala volume in agenetic model of differential anxiety: Behavioral-volumetric associations in the Roman rats trains" by C. Río-Álamos, I. Oliveras, M. A. Piludu, C. Gerbolés, T. Cañete, G. Blázquez, S. Lope-Piedrafita, E. Martínez-Membrives, R. Torrubia, A. Tobeña, and A. Fernández-Teruel. European Neuropsychopharmacology, 2017, 27: 146-158. DOI: 10.1016/j.euroneuro.2016.12.003. The hippocampus and amygdala have been proposed as key neural structures related to anxiety. A more active hippocampus/amygdala system has been related to greater anxious responses in situations involving conflict/novelty. The Roman Low- (RLA) and High-avoidance (RHA) rat strains constitute a genetic model of differential anxiety. Relative to RHA rats, RLA rats exhibit enhanced anxiety/fearfulness, augmented hippocampal/amygdala c-Fos expression following exposure to novelty/conflict, increased hippocampal neuronal ...
Pik3r1 encodes p85α, a regulatory subunit of class IA phosphatidylinositol 3-kinases (PI3Ks). To form a functional class I PI3K, a p110 catalytic subunit forms a heterodimer with a p85 regulatory subunit (3;4). There are three class IA p110 subunits (p110α, p110β, and p110δ [see the record for stinger]) encoded by Pik3ca, Pik3cb, and Pik3cd, respectively, and one class IB p110 subunit, p110γ (encoded by Pik3cg). Five class IA regulatory subunits are encoded by three distinct genes (Pik3r1 (p85α, p55α, p50α), Pik3r2 (p85β) and Pik3r3 (p55γ); p85α, p55α, and p50α are splice variants of Pik3r1 (Figure 10) (5-7). In activated cells, the p85 subunit recruits the p110 subunit to the plasma membrane and activates it (7-9). Conversely, the p85 subunit also inhibits the enzymatic activity of the p110 subunit in quiescent cells (10). The p85 subunits also mediate the interactions of the PI3Ks with the cytoplasmic domains of receptors as well as with adaptor proteins (11). p85α has several ...
2. I still wonder how to counter the cesspool of modern culture. Girls are the social sex and have more innate difficulty eschewing the herds pull. I am utterly certain that every message in our culture about sex is botulism-level toxic. Girls are told to devalue the most important job in any society, producing and properly raising the next generation, in favor of screwing around. Men are told to screw every hole that walks by. Both pieces of advice are utter lunacy, but here we are. It doesnt require Biblical references to see that breaking the link between sex and intimacy/pair-bonding is stupid. But in these times of perceived unlimited resources, it seems unnecessary to cultivate your Apocalypse Buddy, the partner on whom you will utterly depend no matter what life throws at you ...
2. I still wonder how to counter the cesspool of modern culture. Girls are the social sex and have more innate difficulty eschewing the herds pull. I am utterly certain that every message in our culture about sex is botulism-level toxic. Girls are told to devalue the most important job in any society, producing and properly raising the next generation, in favor of screwing around. Men are told to screw every hole that walks by. Both pieces of advice are utter lunacy, but here we are. It doesnt require Biblical references to see that breaking the link between sex and intimacy/pair-bonding is stupid. But in these times of perceived unlimited resources, it seems unnecessary to cultivate your Apocalypse Buddy, the partner on whom you will utterly depend no matter what life throws at you ...
NA FA SIANGINN HE I CHONHBIAK KHAWHNAK LAM. Na fa sianginn he pehtlaih in, biahal ding le chim ding na ngeih mi a um ah cun, na chim duh mi vial te kha, chun ah siseh, zan ah siseh, zeitin can poah ah chim in chiah ta khawh an si. Na auh tik ah, hi telh ding mi hna hi philh hna hlah:. ...
Nuestro equipo de periodismo profesional pone a su disposición diversos artículos relacionados al cáncer desde todos los ángulos.
If you have ever eaten a high-sodium meal and felt bloated afterward, you can begin to understand the effects sodium can have on your body. Not only can...
субтитри Agatha Christies Poirot Wasps Nest - субтитри Български. Poirot S03E05 - Wasps Nest (1991), 1CD (bul). Качен 2011-01-15, изтеглени 111x.
As a continuous searching for anti-diabetic(type II) substances, seven mucilage polysaccharides from selected plants were studied as follow: aerial parts of Basella alba Linn., fruits of Hibiscus esculentus Linn., leaves of Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Robinson, seeds of Ocimum canum Sims., seeds of Plantago ovata Forssk., fruits of Scaphium scaphigerum G. Don. and seeds of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. The bioactive properties for entrapping glucose, inhibiting enzyme alpha-glucosidase and free radical scavenger were in vitro studied compared to glucomannan. The physical characteristics for water holding capacity and viscosity were determined. The chemical characteristics were assayed for monosaccharide composition using methanolysis, TMSderivatization and gas chromatography. O. canum mucilage superiorly entrapped glucose compared to glucomannan. This activity was relevant to its highly viscous gelation. S. scaphigerum showed another property of alphaglucosidase inhibition. S. scaphigerum mucilage
Glucose-lowering effect of DLBS3233 is mediated through phosphorylation of tyrosine and upregulation of PPARγ and GLUT4 expression Olivia Mayasari Tandrasasmita1, Deasy Diah Wulan1, Florensia Nailufar1, James Sinambela2, Raymond Rubianto Tjandrawinata1,21Division of Molecular Pharmacology, 2Division of Phytochemistry, Dexa Laboratories of Biomolecular Sciences, Dexa Medica Group, Jawa Barat, IndonesiaBackground: DLBS3233 is a standardized extract combination containing Lagerstroemia speciosa and Cinnamomum burmannii. The effect of DLBS3233 on glucose uptake, adiponectin secretion, and insulin signaling was examined in this study.Methods: 3T3 Swiss albino preadipocytes and adipocytes were used to investigate gene expression detected using the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction method. Immunoblotting assay and in vitro glucose uptake assay were also carried out in the experiment.Results: DLBS3233 was seen to increase phosphorylation at the tyrosine residue of the insulin receptor
The American Heart Association helps you understand your risk of high blood pressure, also called hypertension, by looking at family history, age, diet and poor nutrition like a high-sodium diet, obesity and lack of exercise, alcohol as well as stress, smoking and sleep apnea.
We all can and do feel judgmental about people who have affairs. We realize that they are doing it out of powerful desires, but judge these people for not constraining their desires. The fact is that if people didnt actively constrain themselves, monogamy would be a joke. The only thing natural about monogamy is that it reflects the pair-bond, the deep mutual attachment that can form when two people fall in love. But the trouble is that, in many cases, love doesnt last, and it can be overridden by new attractions. Thats why the group had to come together and make a collective commitment, simultaneously creating the social institution of monogamy and the first moral system. My guess is that initially it was simply an agreement to control violence, and allow for pair-bonding and social stability, and the initiators had no idea of the positive consequences that would ensue. ...

Anterior hypothalamic nucleus - WikipediaAnterior hypothalamic nucleus - Wikipedia

The anterior hypothalamic nucleus is a nucleus of the hypothalamus. Its function is thermoregulation (cooling) of the body. ... The anterior hypothalamus plays a role in regulating sleep. The anterior hypothalamic region is sometimes grouped with the ... NIF Search - Anterior nucleus of hypothalamus via the Neuroscience Information Framework. ... Damage or destruction of this nucleus causes hyperthermia. ... distinct from that mediating its febrile action in the anterior ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anterior_hypothalamic_nucleus

Dosage-dependent phenotypes in models of 16p11.2 lesions found in autism | PNASDosage-dependent phenotypes in models of 16p11.2 lesions found in autism | PNAS

AHN, anterior hypothalamic nucleus; DMH, dorsomedial hypothalamus; FX, columns of the fornix; LHA, lateral hypothalamic area; ... MTT, mammillothalamic tract; OPT, optic tract; PH, posterior hypothalamic nucleus; ZI, zona incerta. ... The sections performed along four locations marked A-D (A, most posterior; D, most anterior). Colors indicate voxels that ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/108/41/17076/tab-figures-data

Role of neurokinin B in the control of female puberty and its modulation by metabolic status.  - PubMed - NCBIRole of neurokinin B in the control of female puberty and its modulation by metabolic status. - PubMed - NCBI

Abbreviations: Anterior hypothalamic nucleus, AHN; basolateral amygdalar nucleus, BLA; Basomedial amygdalar nucleus, BMA; ... periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, PVH; retroesplenial area, RSP; reticular nucleus thalamus, RT; supraoptic nucleus, SO; ... in specific hypothalamic nuclei of pubertal (36-d-old) female rats. * p , 0.05, by unpaired Student t-test within each nucleus. ... lateral mammilary nucleus, LM; lateral ventricle, LV; medial habenula, MH; posterior hypothalamic nucleus, PH; parietal region ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22396413

Frontiers | The smell of fear: innate threat of 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a single molecule component of a...Frontiers | The smell of fear: innate threat of 2,5-dihydro-2,4,5-trimethylthiazoline, a single molecule component of a...

Circuitry through three hypothalamic nuclei-the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, the dorsomedial division of the ventromedial ... AHN, anterior hypothalamic nucleus; BLA, basolateral amygdala complex; BNST, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis; CeA, central ... Given that electrolytic lesions, but not excitotoxic lesions, of the VMHdm and anterior hypothalamic nucleus reduced TMT- ... which passes through the anterior hypothalamic nucleus and VMHdm (Figure 1F). Inactivation of the ventral BNST with muscimol or ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnins.2015.00292/full

Hypothalamus - WikipediaHypothalamus - Wikipedia

Hypothalamic nuclei Symbols: AC: anterior commissure PO: preoptic nucleus SC: suprachiasmatic nucleus OC: optic chiasma TC: ... anterior hypothalamic nucleus SO: supraoptic nucleus TH: thalamus PV: paraventricular nucleus (not to be confused with ... NucleiEdit. The hypothalamic nuclei include the following:[4][5][6]. List of nuclei, their functions, and the neurotransmitters ... ventromedial nucleus AR: arcuate nucleus (associated with periventricular nucleus, which is not shown) LT: lateral nucleus PN: ...
more infohttps://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hypothalamic

Hypothalamus - New World EncyclopediaHypothalamus - New World Encyclopedia

anterior hypothalamic nuclei. Corticotropin-releasing hormone. paraventricular nucleus. Dopamine. arcuate nucleus. Melatonin. ... Anterior. Medial preoptic nucleus. Supraoptic nucleus. Paraventricular nucleus. Anterior nucleus. Suprachiasmatic nucleus ... Neurons in the OVLT and SFO project to the supraoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus, and also to preoptic hypothalamic ... Several hypothalamic nuclei are sexually dimorphic. In other words, there are clear differences in both structure and function ...
more infohttp://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Hypothalamus

ThalamusThalamus

Pineal body • Habenula (Habenular nuclei). Hypothalamus. anterior: Anterior hypothalamic nucleus • Paraventricular nucleus • ... Ventromedial nucleus • Dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus • Tuber cinereum, Pituitary gland (Anterior pituitary, Posterior ... Subthalamic nucleus • Zona incerta • Thalamic fasciculus • Lenticular fasciculus. Thalamus/nuclei. Ventral nuclear group (VA/VL ... Suprachiasmatic nucleus intermediate/middle/tuberal/pituitary: infundibulum • median eminence • arcuate nucleus • ...
more infohttps://www.bionity.com/en/encyclopedia/Thalamus.html

MYT1L mutations cause intellectual disability and variable obesity by dysregulating gene expression and development of the...MYT1L mutations cause intellectual disability and variable obesity by dysregulating gene expression and development of the...

... anterior hypothalamic nucleus. DMHN = dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus. LHA = lateral hypothalamic area. MMN = medial ... for the paraventricular nucleus, anterior hypothalamic nucleus, lateral hypothalamic area, dorsomedial hypothalamic area, ... mammillary nucleus. PHN = posterior hypothalamic nucleus. PVN = paraventricular nucleus. VMHN = venteromedial hypothalamic ... venteromedial hypothalamic area, posterior hypothalamic nucleus and medial mammillary nucleus. Mann-Whitney U-tests were used ...
more infohttps://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1006957

Frontiers | Knowledge Synthesis with Maps of Neural Connectivity | Frontiers in NeuroinformaticsFrontiers | Knowledge Synthesis with Maps of Neural Connectivity | Frontiers in Neuroinformatics

... hippocampus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This is based on neuroanatomical data maps drawn into a standard brain ... hippocampus and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. This is based on neuroanatomical data maps drawn into a standard brain ... Risold, P. Y., Canteras, N. S., and Swanson, L. W. (1994). Organization of projections from the anterior hypothalamic nucleus: ... Dong, H. W., and Swanson, L. W. (2003). Projections from the rhomboid nucleus of the bed nuclei of the stria terminalis: ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fninf.2011.00024/full

Participation of GABAergic Mechanisms of Hypothalamus Ventrolateral Preoptic Area in Regulation of Sleep and Wakefulness and...Participation of GABAergic Mechanisms of Hypothalamus Ventrolateral Preoptic Area in Regulation of Sleep and Wakefulness and...

... are located predominantly in the caudal part of the hypothalamic VLPA; (3) GABAA,B-ergic mechanisms of control of thermal ... Changes in the Metabolic Activity of Neurons in the Anterior Hypothalamic Nuclei in Rats during Hyperthermia, Fever, and ... Ventrolateral preoptic nucleus contains sleep-active, galaninergic neurons in multiple mammalian species.. *Stephanie E. Gaus, ... Selective activation of the extended ventrolateral preoptic nucleus during rapid eye movement sleep.. *Jun Lu, Alvhild A ...
more infohttps://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/Participation-of-GABAergic-Mechanisms-of-Preoptic-Ekimova-Pastukhov/ac8d852793a3446070e81ddaf3b46bc4be1388d6

Adipsia Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, CausesAdipsia Clinical Presentation: History, Physical, Causes

AN = Anterior (hypothalamic) nucleus; AP = Anterior pituitary; OC = optic chiasm; OVLT = Organum vasculosum of lamina ... terminalis; PA = Preoptic (hypothalamic) area; PP = Posterior pituitary; PVN = Paraventricular (hypothalamic) nucleus; SON = ... Hypothalamic adipic hypernatraemia syndrome with normal osmoregulation of vasopressin. Eur J Pediatr. 2004 Oct. 163(10):580-3. ... Silver BV, Stelly-Seitz C. Behavioral treatment of adipsia in a child with hypothalamic injury. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1992 Jun ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/981022-clinical

Adipsia Workup: Laboratory Studies, Imaging Studies, Other TestsAdipsia Workup: Laboratory Studies, Imaging Studies, Other Tests

AN = Anterior (hypothalamic) nucleus; AP = Anterior pituitary; OC = optic chiasm; OVLT = Organum vasculosum of lamina ... terminalis; PA = Preoptic (hypothalamic) area; PP = Posterior pituitary; PVN = Paraventricular (hypothalamic) nucleus; SON = ... Hypothalamic adipic hypernatraemia syndrome with normal osmoregulation of vasopressin. Eur J Pediatr. 2004 Oct. 163(10):580-3. ... Silver BV, Stelly-Seitz C. Behavioral treatment of adipsia in a child with hypothalamic injury. Dev Med Child Neurol. 1992 Jun ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/981022-workup

Sexually dimorphic nucleus - WikipediaSexually dimorphic nucleus - Wikipedia

... anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHdc) in macaques; specific area in medial preoptic nucleus (POM) in quails; etc. The volume of ... The part of the brain examined is the anterior hypothalamic nucleus (AHdc), a homologue of SDN-POA. Comparison of the AHdc ... the third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH3) in humans; ovine sexually dimorphic nucleus (oSDN) in the ... Vasey P, Pfaus J (2005). "A sexually dimorphic hypothalamic nucleus in a macaque species with frequent female=female mounting ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sexually_dimorphic_nucleus

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Structure of anterior hypothalamic nucleus Current Synonym true false 71691014 Anterior hypothalamic nucleus Current Synonym ... Structure of anterior hypothalamic nucleus (body structure). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Structure of anterior ... Structure of anterior hypothalamic nucleus (body structure) {42967006 , SNOMED-CT } Parent/Child (Relationship Type) Entire ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=42967006

Code System ConceptCode System Concept

Entire anterior hypothalamic nucleus Current Synonym true false 512662015 Anterior hypothalamic nucleus Current Synonym true ... Entire anterior hypothalamic nucleus (body structure). Code System Preferred Concept Name. Entire anterior hypothalamic nucleus ...
more infohttps://phinvads.cdc.gov/vads/ViewCodeSystemConcept.action?oid=2.16.840.1.113883.6.96&code=369133009

Novel neuronal phenotypes from neural progenitor cells.  - PubMed - NCBINovel neuronal phenotypes from neural progenitor cells. - PubMed - NCBI

AHA, Anterior hypothalamic area; AHNa, anterior hypothalamic nucleus anterior part; BSTif,v, bed nucleus stria terminalis ... Anterior hypothalamic area; AHNa,p,c anterior hypothalamic nucleus anterior, central, posterior parts; BSTif,v, bed nucleus ... AHNa,c, Anterior hypothalamic nucleus anterior, central parts; DMHa, p, v, dorsomedial nucleus hypothalamus anterior, posterior ... and hypothalamic (HY) origins. AHNa,c,p, Anterior hypothalamic nucleus anterior, central, posterior parts; fx, columns of the ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=15044527

Find Research Outputs
             - Kyushu UniversityFind Research Outputs - Kyushu University

Anterior Hypothalamic Nucleus ICRF wave catalyst in beam-heated plasma. Itoh, S., Fukuyama, A. & Itoh, K., Dec 1 1986, In : ... Hypothalamic regulation of sodium-potassium pump activity in skeletal muscle. Yoshimatsu, H., Oomura, Y., Katafuchi, T. & ...
more infohttps://kyushu-u.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/?showAdvanced=false&allConcepts=true&inferConcepts=true&originalSearch=&improvedLayoutOrganisationUuid=&format=&page=2319

UAB - Faculty - Executive CommitteeUAB - Faculty - Executive Committee

Other studies are testing the mechanisms by which a decrease in norepinephrine release in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus ...
more infohttp://www.uab.edu/faculty/senate/executive-committee

Afferent Connections to the Rostrolateral Part of the Periaqueductal Gray: A Critical Region Influencing the Motivation Drive...Afferent Connections to the Rostrolateral Part of the Periaqueductal Gray: A Critical Region Influencing the Motivation Drive...

P. Y. Risold, N. S. Canteras, and L. W. Swanson, "Organization of projections from the anterior hypothalamic nucleus: a ... "Distinct patterns of neuropeptide gene expression in the lateral hypothalamic area and arcuate nucleus are associated with ... "Hypothalamic sites responding to predator threats-the role of the dorsal premammillary nucleus in unconditioned and conditioned ... "Connectivity pattern suggests that incerto-hypothalamic area belongs to the medial hypothalamic system," Neuroscience, vol. 148 ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/np/2009/612698/ref/

Complementary Roles of Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone in Feeding BehaviorComplementary Roles of Orexin and Melanin-Concentrating Hormone in Feeding Behavior

... and OX2R is sparse in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus while dense in the LH, arcuate, and paraventricular nuclei [18]. ... For example, in the hypothalamus, OX1R is most dense in the anterior hypothalamic nucleus while sparse in the LH and absent ... spanning the dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus through the perifornical area and into the lateral hypothalamic area [5, 6]. This ... This has been shown for central injection of OX-A into the lateral ventricles [50], hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus [49, ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2013/983964/

Nucleus preopticus periventricularis | definition of nucleus preopticus periventricularis by Medical dictionaryNucleus preopticus periventricularis | definition of nucleus preopticus periventricularis by Medical dictionary

What is nucleus preopticus periventricularis? Meaning of nucleus preopticus periventricularis medical term. What does nucleus ... Looking for online definition of nucleus preopticus periventricularis in the Medical Dictionary? nucleus preopticus ... anterior hypothalamic nucleus [TA] (nucleus anterior hypothalami [TA]), anterior periventricular nucleus [TA] (nucleus ... anterior hypothalamic area. (redirected from nucleus preopticus periventricularis) anterior hypothalamic area. the rostral ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/nucleus+preopticus+periventricularis

Genes showing altered expression in the medial preoptic area in the highly social maternal phenotype are related to autism and...Genes showing altered expression in the medial preoptic area in the highly social maternal phenotype are related to autism and...

MPOA cells activated during maternal care project to the anterior hypothalamic nucleus, ventral tegmental area, periaqueductal ... and receives afferent input from the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis, paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and medial prefrontal ... Gammie SC, Hasen NS, Awad TA, Auger AP, Jessen HM, Panksepp JB, Bronikowski AM: Gene array profiling of large hypothalamic CNS ... Numan M, Numan MJ: Projection sites of medial preoptic area and ventral bed nucleus of the stria terminalis neurons that ...
more infohttps://bmcneurosci.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2202-15-11

DataCite SearchDataCite Search

Possible underlying pathomechanism is a hypothalamic dysregulation through direct injury to the anterior hypothalamic nuclei. ...
more infohttps://search.datacite.org/works/10.3205/12DGNC447

Estrogen depletion increases blood pressure and hypothalamic norepinephrine in middle-aged spontaneously hypertensive ratsEstrogen depletion increases blood pressure and hypothalamic norepinephrine in middle-aged spontaneously hypertensive rats

In all groups, the high NaCl diet increased arterial pressure by over 35 mm Hg and reduced anterior hypothalamic nucleus MOPEG ... and decreased anterior hypothalamic nucleus MOPEG (20%). Both effects were reversed by estrogen treatment. ... a high NaCl diet increases arterial pressure via a reduction in anterior hypothalamic nucleus norepinephrine release. Young ... there was a significant inverse correlation between arterial pressure and anterior hypothalamic nucleus MOPEG. These data ...
more infohttp://scholars.uab.edu/display/pub807128

List of regions in the human brain - WikipediaList of regions in the human brain - Wikipedia

Anterior hypothalamic nucleus. *Lateral area *Parts of preoptic area *Lateral preoptic nucleus ... Pontine nuclei → Pontocerebellar fibers → MCP → Deep cerebellar nuclei → Granule cell. *Inferior olivary nucleus → ... Thalamic reticular nucleus. Hypothalamus (limbic system) (HPA axis)[edit]. *Anterior *Medial area *Parts of preoptic area * ... Pontine cranial nerve nuclei *chief or pontine nucleus of the trigeminal nerve sensory nucleus (V) ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_regions_in_the_human_brain
  • We investigated here the regulation of Tac2 and Tacr3 mRNAs (encoding NKB and NK3R, respectively) in female rats and demonstrated that their hypothalamic expression is increased along postnatal maturation. (nih.gov)
  • Pal GK, Pal P, Raj SS, Mohan M. Modulation of feeding and drinking behaviour by catecholamines injected into nucleus caudatus in rats. (medscape.com)
  • Interestingly, rats will work to receive electrical stimulation of the LH ("self-stimulation"), indicating that this nucleus also plays a function in reward, but excessive food intake leads them to decrease their rate of self-stimulation by half [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) a high NaCl diet increases arterial pressure via a reduction in anterior hypothalamic nucleus norepinephrine release. (uab.edu)
  • Furthermore, menopause and/or oophorectomy are associated with changes in NKB gene expression: in the human infundibular nucleus it increases after menopause, and in monkeys and rats ovariectomy induces similar increases in NKB gene expression that are reversed by estradiol therapy . (imsociety.org)
  • The diencephalon includes also the dorsally located epithalamus (essentially the habenula and annexes) and the perithalamus ( prethalamus formerly described as ventral thalamus) containing the zona incerta and the "reticulate nucleus" (not the reticular, term of confusion). (bionity.com)
  • The role of the thalamus in the more anterior pallidal and nigral territories in the basal ganglia system disturbances is recognized but still poorly known. (bionity.com)
  • Across all groups, there was a significant inverse correlation between arterial pressure and anterior hypothalamic nucleus MOPEG. (uab.edu)
  • As indicated in these two cases, apoptotic cell death plays a critical role in the formation of sexually dimorphic nucleus, and the apoptotic cell number within SDN negatively correlates with the volume of SDN between different sexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • It synthesizes and secretes certain neurohormones , called releasing hormones or hypothalamic hormones, and these in turn stimulate or inhibit the secretion of hormones from the pituitary gland. (wikipedia.org)
  • The abnormalities detected in PCOS have been attributed to primary defects in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the ovarian microenvironment, the adrenal gland, and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor metabolic regulatory system [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the second row are two sets of three confocal photomicrographs of immunocytochemistry for the neuropeptide (red) and TUJ-1 (green) double-labeled (merged) cells detected in differentiated adult progenitor cultures of hippocampal (HI) and hypothalamic (HY) origins. (nih.gov)
  • Gene Ontology analysis in knockout cells demonstrated altered expression of genes that regulate gene expression and that are localized to the nucleus. (plos.org)
  • Increased EGR-1 mRNA expression was found in the TMT group when compared to the control group in many of the nuclei of the hypothalamic circuit. (udel.edu)
  • Thalamic nuclei have strong reciprocal connections with the cerebral cortex, forming thalamo-cortico-thalamic circuits that are believed to be involved with consciousness. (bionity.com)
  • The results suggest that the hypothalamic circuit is the primary substrate for innate fear to predator odor. (udel.edu)