Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Ventricular Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.Hypertrophy, Right Ventricular: Enlargement of the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is often attributed to PULMONARY HYPERTENSION and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Ventricular Remodeling: The geometric and structural changes that the HEART VENTRICLES undergo, usually following MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION. It comprises expansion of the infarct and dilatation of the healthy ventricle segments. While most prevalent in the left ventricle, it can also occur in the right ventricle.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease, characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), frequent asymmetrical involvement of the HEART SEPTUM, and normal or reduced left ventricular volume. Risk factors include HYPERTENSION; AORTIC STENOSIS; and gene MUTATION; (FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY).Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Cell Enlargement: Growth processes that result in an increase in CELL SIZE.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Atrial Function, Left: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the LEFT ATRIUM.Diastole: Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.Cell Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of CELLS.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Ventricular Pressure: The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.Calcineurin: A CALCIUM and CALMODULIN-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase that is composed of the calcineurin A catalytic subunit and the calcineurin B regulatory subunit. Calcineurin has been shown to dephosphorylate a number of phosphoproteins including HISTONES; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAIN; and the regulatory subunits of CAMP-DEPENDENT PROTEIN KINASES. It is involved in the regulation of signal transduction and is the target of an important class of immunophilin-immunosuppressive drug complexes.Stroke Volume: The amount of BLOOD pumped out of the HEART per beat, not to be confused with cardiac output (volume/time). It is calculated as the difference between the end-diastolic volume and the end-systolic volume.Systole: Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myosin Heavy Chains: The larger subunits of MYOSINS. The heavy chains have a molecular weight of about 230 kDa and each heavy chain is usually associated with a dissimilar pair of MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS. The heavy chains possess actin-binding and ATPase activity.Endomyocardial Fibrosis: A condition characterized by the thickening of the ventricular ENDOCARDIUM and subendocardium (MYOCARDIUM), seen mostly in children and young adults in the TROPICAL CLIMATE. The fibrous tissue extends from the apex toward and often involves the HEART VALVES causing restrictive blood flow into the respective ventricles (CARDIOMYOPATHY, RESTRICTIVE).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Adenoids: A collection of lymphoid nodules on the posterior wall and roof of the NASOPHARYNX.Monocrotaline: A pyrrolizidine alkaloid and a toxic plant constituent that poisons livestock and humans through the ingestion of contaminated grains and other foods. The alkaloid causes pulmonary artery hypertension, right ventricular hypertrophy, and pathological changes in the pulmonary vasculature. Significant attenuation of the cardiopulmonary changes are noted after oral magnesium treatment.Cardiomyopathies: A group of diseases in which the dominant feature is the involvement of the CARDIAC MUSCLE itself. Cardiomyopathies are classified according to their predominant pathophysiological features (DILATED CARDIOMYOPATHY; HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY; RESTRICTIVE CARDIOMYOPATHY) or their etiological/pathological factors (CARDIOMYOPATHY, ALCOHOLIC; ENDOCARDIAL FIBROELASTOSIS).Heart Atria: The chambers of the heart, to which the BLOOD returns from the circulation.Heart Septum: This structure includes the thin muscular atrial septum between the two HEART ATRIA, and the thick muscular ventricular septum between the two HEART VENTRICLES.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Aortic Valve Stenosis: A pathological constriction that can occur above (supravalvular stenosis), below (subvalvular stenosis), or at the AORTIC VALVE. It is characterized by restricted outflow from the LEFT VENTRICLE into the AORTA.Cardiomyopathy, Dilated: A form of CARDIAC MUSCLE disease that is characterized by ventricular dilation, VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION, and HEART FAILURE. Risk factors include SMOKING; ALCOHOL DRINKING; HYPERTENSION; INFECTION; PREGNANCY; and mutations in the LMNA gene encoding LAMIN TYPE A, a NUCLEAR LAMINA protein.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Mice, Inbred C57BLCoronary Circulation: The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Cardiomegaly, Exercise-Induced: Heart enlargement and other remodeling in cardiac morphology and electrical circutry found in individuals who participate in intense repeated exercises.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Constriction: The act of constricting.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Muscle Proteins: The protein constituents of muscle, the major ones being ACTINS and MYOSINS. More than a dozen accessory proteins exist including TROPONIN; TROPOMYOSIN; and DYSTROPHIN.Cardiotonic Agents: Agents that have a strengthening effect on the heart or that can increase cardiac output. They may be CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES; SYMPATHOMIMETICS; or other drugs. They are used after MYOCARDIAL INFARCT; CARDIAC SURGICAL PROCEDURES; in SHOCK; or in congestive heart failure (HEART FAILURE).Hypertension, Pulmonary: Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.Cardiac Volume: The volume of the HEART, usually relating to the volume of BLOOD contained within it at various periods of the cardiac cycle. The amount of blood ejected from a ventricle at each beat is STROKE VOLUME.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Ventricular Function: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the HEART VENTRICLES.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Heart Diseases: Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Coronary Vessels: The veins and arteries of the HEART.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.NFATC Transcription Factors: A family of transcription factors characterized by the presence of highly conserved calcineurin- and DNA-binding domains. NFAT proteins are activated in the CYTOPLASM by the calcium-dependent phosphatase CALCINEURIN. They transduce calcium signals to the nucleus where they can interact with TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 or NF-KAPPA B and initiate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES involved in CELL DIFFERENTIATION and development. NFAT proteins stimulate T-CELL activation through the induction of IMMEDIATE-EARLY GENES such as INTERLEUKIN-2.Endocardium: The innermost layer of the heart, comprised of endothelial cells.Gingival Hypertrophy: Abnormal enlargement or overgrowth of the gingivae brought about by enlargement of existing cells.Ventricular Myosins: Isoforms of MYOSIN TYPE II, specifically found in the ventricular muscle of the HEART. Defects in the genes encoding ventricular myosins result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Pressure: A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Physical Conditioning, Animal: Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability of animals to perform physical activities.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Rats, Inbred Dahl: Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.Ligation: Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Calcium-Transporting ATPases: Calcium-transporting ATPases that catalyze the active transport of CALCIUM into the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM vesicles from the CYTOPLASM. They are primarily found in MUSCLE CELLS and play a role in the relaxation of MUSCLES.Heart Function Tests: Examinations used to diagnose and treat heart conditions.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.Myostatin: A growth differentiation factor that is a potent inhibitor of SKELETAL MUSCLE growth. It may play a role in the regulation of MYOGENESIS and in muscle maintenance during adulthood.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Collagen: A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).Cardiac Output, Low: A state of subnormal or depressed cardiac output at rest or during stress. It is a characteristic of CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES, including congenital, valvular, rheumatic, hypertensive, coronary, and cardiomyopathic. The serious form of low cardiac output is characterized by marked reduction in STROKE VOLUME, and systemic vasoconstriction resulting in cold, pale, and sometimes cyanotic extremities.Hydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 126.96.36.199.Adrenergic beta-Agonists: Drugs that selectively bind to and activate beta-adrenergic receptors.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Cardiac Catheterization: Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.Muscle Cells: Mature contractile cells, commonly known as myocytes, that form one of three kinds of muscle. The three types of muscle cells are skeletal (MUSCLE FIBERS, SKELETAL), cardiac (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC), and smooth (MYOCYTES, SMOOTH MUSCLE). They are derived from embryonic (precursor) muscle cells called MYOBLASTS.TetrazolesReceptors, Adrenergic, beta: One of two major pharmacologically defined classes of adrenergic receptors. The beta adrenergic receptors play an important role in regulating CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, SMOOTH MUSCLE relaxation, and GLYCOGENOLYSIS.Hyperplasia: An increase in the number of cells in a tissue or organ without tumor formation. It differs from HYPERTROPHY, which is an increase in bulk without an increase in the number of cells.Constriction, Pathologic: The condition of an anatomical structure's being constricted beyond normal dimensions.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.GATA4 Transcription Factor: A GATA transcription factor that is expressed in the MYOCARDIUM of developing heart and has been implicated in the differentiation of CARDIAC MYOCYTES. GATA4 is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION and regulates transcription of cardiac-specific genes.Ventricular Function, Right: The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the right HEART VENTRICLE.Mitral Valve: The valve between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.GTP-Binding Protein alpha Subunits, Gq-G11: A family of heterotrimeric GTP-binding protein alpha subunits that activate TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES dependent signaling pathways. The Gq-G11 part of the name is also spelled Gq/G11.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Arrhythmias, Cardiac: Any disturbances of the normal rhythmic beating of the heart or MYOCARDIAL CONTRACTION. Cardiac arrhythmias can be classified by the abnormalities in HEART RATE, disorders of electrical impulse generation, or impulse conduction.Sarcomeres: The repeating contractile units of the MYOFIBRIL, delimited by Z bands along its length.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.Cardiac Myosins: Myosin type II isoforms found in cardiac muscle.Hypoplastic Left Heart Syndrome: A condition caused by underdevelopment of the whole left half of the heart. It is characterized by hypoplasia of the left cardiac chambers (HEART ATRIUM; HEART VENTRICLE), the AORTA, the AORTIC VALVE, and the MITRAL VALVE. Severe symptoms appear in early infancy when DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS closes.Models, Cardiovascular: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Cardiac Output: The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Cardiomyopathy, Hypertrophic, Familial: An autosomal dominant inherited form of HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY. It results from any of more than 50 mutations involving genes encoding contractile proteins such as VENTRICULAR MYOSINS; cardiac TROPONIN T; ALPHA-TROPOMYOSIN.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Poisons: Substances which, when ingested, inhaled, or absorbed, or when applied to, injected into, or developed within the body in relatively small amounts may, by their chemical action, cause damage to structure or disturbance of function. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Pericardium: A conical fibro-serous sac surrounding the HEART and the roots of the great vessels (AORTA; VENAE CAVAE; PULMONARY ARTERY). Pericardium consists of two sacs: the outer fibrous pericardium and the inner serous pericardium. The latter consists of an outer parietal layer facing the fibrous pericardium, and an inner visceral layer (epicardium) resting next to the heart, and a pericardial cavity between these two layers.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Cardiac Pacing, Artificial: Regulation of the rate of contraction of the heart muscles by an artificial pacemaker.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Klippel-Trenaunay-Weber Syndrome: A congenital disorder that is characterized by a triad of capillary malformations (HEMANGIOMA), venous malformations (ARTERIOVENOUS FISTULA), and soft tissue or bony hypertrophy of the limb. This syndrome is caused by mutations in the VG5Q gene which encodes a strong angiogenesis stimulator.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Heart Aneurysm: A localized bulging or dilatation in the muscle wall of a heart (MYOCARDIUM), usually in the LEFT VENTRICLE. Blood-filled aneurysms are dangerous because they may burst. Fibrous aneurysms interfere with the heart function through the loss of contractility. True aneurysm is bound by the vessel wall or cardiac wall. False aneurysms are HEMATOMA caused by myocardial rupture.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Aortic Coarctation: A birth defect characterized by the narrowing of the AORTA that can be of varying degree and at any point from the transverse arch to the iliac bifurcation. Aortic coarctation causes arterial HYPERTENSION before the point of narrowing and arterial HYPOTENSION beyond the narrowed portion.Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt: A protein-serine-threonine kinase that is activated by PHOSPHORYLATION in response to GROWTH FACTORS or INSULIN. It plays a major role in cell metabolism, growth, and survival as a core component of SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Three isoforms have been described in mammalian cells.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Ventricular Dysfunction: A condition in which HEART VENTRICLES exhibit impaired function.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Magnetic Resonance Imaging, Cine: A type of imaging technique used primarily in the field of cardiology. By coordinating the fast gradient-echo MRI sequence with retrospective ECG-gating, numerous short time frames evenly spaced in the cardiac cycle are produced. These images are laced together in a cinematic display so that wall motion of the ventricles, valve motion, and blood flow patterns in the heart and great vessels can be visualized.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Muscle Fibers, Skeletal: Large, multinucleate single cells, either cylindrical or prismatic in shape, that form the basic unit of SKELETAL MUSCLE. They consist of MYOFIBRILS enclosed within and attached to the SARCOLEMMA. They are derived from the fusion of skeletal myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, SKELETAL) into a syncytium, followed by differentiation.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Echocardiography, Doppler: Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Echocardiography, Doppler, Color: Echocardiography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image.Aorta, Abdominal: The aorta from the DIAPHRAGM to the bifurcation into the right and left common iliac arteries.Clenbuterol: A substituted phenylaminoethanol that has beta-2 adrenomimetic properties at very low doses. It is used as a bronchodilator in asthma.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Papillary Muscles: Conical muscular projections from the walls of the cardiac ventricles, attached to the cusps of the atrioventricular valves by the chordae tendineae.Heart-Assist Devices: Small pumps, often implantable, designed for temporarily assisting the heart, usually the LEFT VENTRICLE, to pump blood. They consist of a pumping chamber and a power source, which may be partially or totally external to the body and activated by electromagnetic motors.Receptors, Adrenergic, alpha-1: A subclass of alpha-adrenergic receptors that mediate contraction of SMOOTH MUSCLE in a variety of tissues such as ARTERIOLES; VEINS; and the UTERUS. They are usually found on postsynaptic membranes and signal through GQ-G11 G-PROTEINS.TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases: A serine threonine kinase that controls a wide range of growth-related cellular processes. The protein is referred to as the target of RAPAMYCIN due to the discovery that SIROLIMUS (commonly known as rapamycin) forms an inhibitory complex with TACROLIMUS BINDING PROTEIN 1A that blocks the action of its enzymatic activity.Ventricular Outflow Obstruction: Occlusion of the outflow tract in either the LEFT VENTRICLE or the RIGHT VENTRICLE of the heart. This may result from CONGENITAL HEART DEFECTS, predisposing heart diseases, complications of surgery, or HEART NEOPLASMS.Collagen Type X: A non-fibrillar collagen found primarily in terminally differentiated hypertrophic CHONDROCYTES. It is a homotrimer of three identical alpha1(X) subunits.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Chondrocytes: Polymorphic cells that form cartilage.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Ramipril: A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.Echocardiography, Transesophageal: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues using a transducer placed in the esophagus.Atrial Fibrillation: Abnormal cardiac rhythm that is characterized by rapid, uncoordinated firing of electrical impulses in the upper chambers of the heart (HEART ATRIA). In such case, blood cannot be effectively pumped into the lower chambers of the heart (HEART VENTRICLES). It is caused by abnormal impulse generation.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Physical Exertion: Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Heart Conduction System: An impulse-conducting system composed of modified cardiac muscle, having the power of spontaneous rhythmicity and conduction more highly developed than the rest of the heart.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Ribosomal Protein S6 Kinases, 70-kDa: A family of ribosomal protein S6 kinases that are considered the major physiological kinases for RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6. Unlike RIBOSOMAL PROTEIN S6 KINASES, 90KDa the proteins in this family are sensitive to the inhibitory effects of RAPAMYCIN and contain a single kinase domain. They are referred to as 70kDa proteins, however ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs for proteins in this class also results in 85kDa variants being formed.Transforming Growth Factor beta: A factor synthesized in a wide variety of tissues. It acts synergistically with TGF-alpha in inducing phenotypic transformation and can also act as a negative autocrine growth factor. TGF-beta has a potential role in embryonal development, cellular differentiation, hormone secretion, and immune function. TGF-beta is found mostly as homodimer forms of separate gene products TGF-beta1, TGF-beta2 or TGF-beta3. Heterodimers composed of TGF-beta1 and 2 (TGF-beta1.2) or of TGF-beta2 and 3 (TGF-beta2.3) have been isolated. The TGF-beta proteins are synthesized as precursor proteins.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Biphenyl CompoundsInsulin-Like Growth Factor I: A well-characterized basic peptide believed to be secreted by the liver and to circulate in the blood. It has growth-regulating, insulin-like, and mitogenic activities. This growth factor has a major, but not absolute, dependence on GROWTH HORMONE. It is believed to be mainly active in adults in contrast to INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTOR II, which is a major fetal growth factor.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Heart Block: Impaired conduction of cardiac impulse that can occur anywhere along the conduction pathway, such as between the SINOATRIAL NODE and the right atrium (SA block) or between atria and ventricles (AV block). Heart blocks can be classified by the duration, frequency, or completeness of conduction block. Reversibility depends on the degree of structural or functional defects.Vectorcardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the heart on a plane of the body surface delineated as a vector function of time.
... occurs in the setting of right ventricular enlargement (hypertrophy) or very rarely severe left atrial ... This is due to the position of the heart within the chest: the right ventricle is most anterior (closest to the chest wall). ... A parasternal impulse may be felt when the heel of the hand is rested just to the left of the sternum with the fingers lifted ... This is in contrast with the sustained impulse of the hypertrophied right ventricle. A parasternal heave may also be felt in ...
Left axis deviation
Common causes of LAD include left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), left anterior fascicular block (or hemiblock) and inferior ... In electrocardiography, left axis deviation (LAD) is a condition wherein the mean electrical axis of ventricular contraction of ... Right sided accessory pathway in Wolff Parkinson white syndrome Right axis deviation Right and left sided accessory pathway in ... "Left Axis Deviation (LAD)". LITFL: Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog. Retrieved 2016-11-12. http://www.fpnotebook.com/cv/exam/ ...
... induced cardiac hypertrophy characterizes by enhanced anterior and posterior left ventricular wall thickness. A later study ... Paul K, Ball NA, Dorn GW, Walsh RA (Nov 1997). "Left ventricular stretch stimulates angiotensin II--mediated ... "Tissue angiotensin II during progression or ventricular hypertrophy to heart failure in hypertensive rats; differential effects ... Activation of PKCε by εRACK prior to ischemia was also found to phosphorylate Ventricular myosin light chain-2, however the ...
Right axis deviation
These include right ventricular hypertrophy, reduced muscle mass of left ventricle, altered conduction pathways and change in ... The lateral wall of the left ventricle is supplied by branches of the left anterior descending (LAD) and left circumflex (LCx) ... Tachycardias originating in the anterior left fascicle would lead to right axis deviation. Right ventricular outflow tract ... Blockage of the left posterior fascicle would lead to activation of the anterior portion of the left ventricle followed by ...
ICD-10 Chapter IX: Diseases of the circulatory system
Cardiomegaly Ventricular hypertrophy Left ventricular hypertrophy (I51.8) Other ill-defined heart diseases (I51.9) Heart ... Subarachnoid haemorrhage from anterior communicating artery (I60.3) Subarachnoid haemorrhage from posterior communicating ... Left ventricular failure Cardiac asthma (I50.9) Heart failure, unspecified (I51) Complications and ill-defined descriptions of ... Ventricular septal defect as current complication following acute myocardial infarction (I23.3) Rupture of cardiac wall without ...
Left bundle branch block
The presence of LBBB results in that electrocardiography (ECG) cannot be used to diagnose left ventricular hypertrophy or Q ... There are also partial blocks of the left bundle branch: "left anterior fascicular block" (LAFB) and a "left posterior ... "more detailed information about left anterior fascicular block". GPnotebook. "more detailed information about left posterior ... activation of the left ventricle of the heart is delayed, which causes the left ventricle to contract later than the right ...
... but it may also be caused by left bundle branch block, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, right and left ventricular hypertrophy ... Poor R wave progression is commonly attributed to anterior myocardial infarction, ... ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial infarction, electrolyte derangements, and other disease states. The QRS complex is also ... It corresponds to the depolarization of the right and left ventricles of the human heart. In adults, it normally lasts 0.06- ...
Electrocardiography in myocardial infarction
... ventricular paced rhythm, and left ventricular hypertrophy". J Emerg Med. 18 (1): 71-8. doi:10.1016/S0736-4679(99)00178-X. PMID ... I, aVL, V5, V6 correspond to the lateral wall; V3-V4 correspond to the anterior wall ; V1-V2 correspond to the septal wall; II ... which include left ventricular hypertrophy, left bundle branch block, paced rhythm, early repolarization, pericarditis, ... Persistent ST elevation is rare except in the presence of a ventricular aneurysm. Sgarbossa's criteria Cannon CP at al. ...
Right ventricular hypertrophy
Left. *Left anterior fascicle. *Left posterior fascicle. *Bifascicular. *Trifascicular. *Adams-Stokes syndrome ... Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a form of ventricular hypertrophy affecting the right ventricle. ... This can lead to right ventricular hypertrophy. It can affect electrocardiography (ECG) findings. An ECG with right ventricular ... Retrieved from "https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Right_ventricular_hypertrophy&oldid=852951200" ...
Left ventricular hypertrophy: T-wave inversion in lateral leads aVL, V5-6, and I Right ventricular hypertrophy: T-wave ... T-waves signify proximal left anterior descending artery occlusion". Heart. 95 (20): 1701-1706. doi:10.1136/hrt.2009.174557. ... T-wave inversion (negative T waves) can be a sign of coronary ischemia, Wellens' syndrome, left ventricular hypertrophy, or CNS ... Produces a pattern similar to right ventricular hypertrophy. T-wave inversions in inferior leads II, III, aVF and right ...
... is more commonly associated with anterior infarction because of left ventricular impairment; inferior infarction is ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - It is the hypertrophy of interventricular septum that causes outflow obstruction of left ... lateral infarction is associated with left arm pain. Prinzmetal's angina - Chest pain is caused by coronary vasospasm. More ...
... showing left ventricular hypertrophy and dilated aorta. ECG typically indicates left ventricular hypertrophy. Cardiac chamber ... it appears when regurgitant jet from the severe aortic insufficiency renders partial closure of the anterior mitral leaflet. ... There is both concentric hypertrophy and eccentric hypertrophy in AI. The concentric hypertrophy is due to the increased left ... This relaxation of the left ventricle (early ventricular diastole) causes a fall in its pressure. When the pressure in the left ...
Left axis deviation −30° to −90° May indicate left ventricular hypertrophy, left anterior fascicular block, or an old inferior ... Anterior leads V3 and V4 Look at electrical activity from the vantage point of the anterior wall of the right and left ... An unusually tall QRS complex may represent left ventricular hypertrophy while a very low-amplitude QRS complex may represent a ... Inverted T waves can be a sign of myocardial ischemia, left ventricular hypertrophy, high intracranial pressure, or metabolic ...
"Combined echocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy and electrocardiographic ST depression improve prediction of mortality ... The positive electrodes on the anterior chest wall detect the movement of positive charge away from the electrode and record it ... Side effect of digoxin Hypokalemia Right or left ventricular hypertrophy Intraventricular conduction abnormalities (e.g., right ... Enlargement of the left ventricle P - Potassium loss R - Reciprocal ST Depression (e.g. Inferior MI) E - Encephalon Hemorrhage ...
Although left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is more common, right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH), as well as concurrent ... and systolic anterior wall motion (SAM) of the mitral valve, which can exacerbate outflow obstruction. It is not uncommon to ... Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Right Ventricular Hypertrophy Right ventricle definition - Medical Dictionary definitions on ... left ventricle). Ventricular hypertrophy may be divided into two categories: concentric (maladaptive) hypertrophy and eccentric ...
List of circulatory system conditions
Lange-Nielsen syndrome Junctional escape beat Junctional rhythm Left bundle branch block Left anterior fascicular block Left ... Atrial septal defect Ventricular septal defect Patent ductus arteriosus and Coarctation of aorta (may cause cyanosis in some ... aphasia Aortic dissection Aortic regurgitation Aortic stenosis Apoplexy Apraxia Arrhythmias Asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH ... Catecholaminergic polymorphic ventricular tachycardia Ectopic beat (cardiac ectopy) Ectopic pacemaker (Ectopic focus) First- ...
Also, left ventricular hypertrophy may be absent in children under thirteen years of age. This undermines the results of pre- ... is a percutaneous technique that involves injection of alcohol into one or more septal branches of the left anterior descending ... Doolan G, Nguyen L, Chung J, Ingles J, Semsarian C (Aug 2004). "Progression of left ventricular hypertrophy and the angiotensin ... Since the pacemaker activates the interventricular septum before the left ventricular free wall, the gradient across the left ...
Dextro-Transposition of the great arteries
Left anterior thoracotomy Isolated pulmonary artery banding (PAB) Left lateral thoracotomy PAB (when coarctation or aortic arch ... On the rare occasion (when there is a large VSD with no significant left ventricular outflow tract obstruction), initial ... this overworking of the heart muscle eventually leads to hypertrophy and may result in cardiac arrest if left untreated. With ... but it can also be directly anterior or anterior and to the left. The aorta and pulmonary artery can also be side by side, with ...
Levo-Transposition of the great arteries
... with the aorta anterior and to the left of the pulmonary artery; the morphological left and right ventricles with their ... In segmental analysis, this condition is described as atrioventricular discordance (ventricular inversion) with ... the right ventricle may eventually hypertrophy due to increased pressure and produce symptoms such as dyspnea or fatigue. ... to the left atrium from which it is pumped into the left ventricle, then through the aorta to the rest of the body, including ...
Acute pericarditis Right and left ventricular hypertrophy Right ventricular strain / S1Q3T3 Electrical conduction system of the ... Left bundle Complete left bundle branch block (LBBB) Incomplete left bundle branch block Left anterior fascicular block (LAFB) ... polymorphic ventricular tachycardia) Wide complex tachycardia Ventricular flutter Ventricular fibrillation Ventricular ... the voltage requirements of left ventricular hypertrophy require knowing the grid scale. In a normal heart, the heart rate is ...
"Left anterior descending artery length in left and right coronary artery dominance". Coronary Artery Disease. Lippincott ... In 1990, he reported poor contractility with low ejection fraction, decreased systolic left ventricular performance, lowered ... "Cor Pulmonale Due to Adenoidal or Tonsillar Hypertrophy or Both in Children". Chest. American College of Chest Physicians. 93 ( ... ventricular arrhythmias and ventricular tachycardia. This issue has evolved into a large-scale, great depth research by Prof. ...
Cooper GN (2006). "Left ventricular remodeling or restoration for congestive heart failure". Med Health R I. 89 (1): 36-8. PMID ... Athanasuleas CL, Buckberg GD, Menicanti L, Gharib M (2001). "Optimizing ventricular shape in anterior restoration". Semin. ... The apex of the heart becomes circular, hypertrophy ensues in the viable myocardial tissue, and the valve opening widens. As ... Sartipy U, Albåge A, Lindblom D (June 2005). "The Dor procedure for left ventricular reconstruction. Ten-year clinical ...
Italian crested newt
Blood flows from the anterior and posterior caval veins into the right atrium; blood that entered the heart from the left ... Digestion results in a hypertrophy (swelling) of the gastrointestinal regions. This is similar to the shunting of blood flow to ... Newts contain a special circulatory adaptation that allows them to survive ventricular penetration. Myachi found that when a ... In warmer ponds, adult newts arrive within a month and leave during a two-week period in July. Andreone and Giacoma (1989) ...
... which is a reversal of the left-to-right heart shunt as the right ventricle hypertrophies, causing a right-to-left shunt and ... Ventricular septal defect (VSD) will present as a holosystolic (pansystolic) murmur at the left lower sternal border, ... There are four places on the anterior chest wall to listen for heart murmurs; each of the locations roughly corresponds to a ... Harsh holosystolic (pansystolic) murmur at the left lower sternal border Classic for a ventricular septal defect. It is in ...
This idea is also proved by the fact that hypertrophy of the left ventricle, myocardial ischemia, coronary and insufficiency ... or left ventricular volume overload. A U-wave can sometimes be seen in normal younger, athletic individuals. The U-wave ... "Exercise-induced U-wave inversion as a marker of stenosis of the left anterior descending coronary artery". Circulation. 60: ... and especially appears to have a high positive predictive accuracy for left anterior descending coronary artery disease ) ...
Outline of cardiology
Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) - Hypertrophy of the left ventricle is more common than in the right and typically due to ... Cerebral aneurysm - Aneurysms of the arteries in the brain most commonly affect the anterior cerebral artery. Rupture of the ... Ventricular hypertrophy - Hypertrophy of the ventricle. Thickening of the myocardium (i.e., hypertrophy) can be physiological ( ... Right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) - Hypertrophy of the right ventricle and, it too, can be physiological from athletic ...
... is more commonly associated with anterior infarction because of left ventricular impairment; inferior infarction is ... Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy - It is the hypertrophy of interventricular septum that causes outflow obstruction of left ... This may include the neck, left or right arms, cervical spine, back, and upper abdomen. Other associated symptoms with chest ... lateral infarction is associated with left arm pain. ...
List of MeSH codes (C14)
... hypertrophy, left ventricular MeSH C14.280.195.410 --- hypertrophy, right ventricular MeSH C14.280.238.057 --- cardiomyopathy, ... anterior spinal artery syndrome MeSH C14.907.790.550 --- spinal cord ischemia MeSH C14.907.790.550.100 --- anterior spinal ... ventricular dysfunction, left MeSH C14.280.945.910 --- ventricular dysfunction, right MeSH C14.907.055.050 --- aneurysm, ... ventricular MeSH C14.240.400.625 --- hypoplastic left heart syndrome MeSH C14.240.400.695 --- leopard syndrome MeSH C14.240. ...
List of dog diseases
... a ventricular septal defect, right ventricular hypertrophy, and an overriding aorta. Keeshonds and Bulldogs are predisposed. ... The left ventricle compensates for this disease by growing larger (eccentric or volume overload hypertrophy; AKA dilation). The ... Anterior uveitis (inflammation of the iris and ciliary body) is most common in dogs. The disease is usually immune-mediated in ... Doberman Pinschers more commonly have ventricular arrhythmias (e.g., premature ventricular complexes; ventricular tachycardia) ...
Ventricular hypertrophy *Left. *Right / Cor pulmonale. *Atrial enlargement *Left. *Right. *Athletic heart syndrome ... Ventricular. Main article: Ventricular tachycardia. Ventricular tachycardia (VT or V-tach) is a potentially life- ... Ventricular tachycardia, any tachycardia that originates in the ventricles. *Any narrow complex tachycardia combined with a ... Palpitations, Ventricular tachycardia, Supraventricular tachycardia, Paroxysmal tachycardia, Junctional ectopic tachycardia, ...
හෘද රෝග - විකිපීඩියා, නිදහස් විශ්වකෝෂය
Lower heart rates may be recommended in those with left ventricular hypertrophy or reduced left ventricular function. Rate ... presence of left ventricular hypertrophy and pericardial disease. Significant enlargement of both the left and right atria ... left atrial volume, size, and left ventricular hypertrophy, characteristic of chronic hypertension. All atrial remodeling is ... left ventricular size and function, peak right ventricular pressure (pulmonary hypertension), presence of left atrial thrombus ...
Prevalence Of Diastolic Dysfunction In Patients With Hypertension Referred For Echocardiographic Assessment of Left Ventricular ... such as hypertrophy or dilatation of the main chambers. (ventricle and atrium) ... The most common site for cranial ultrasound is the anterior fontanelle. The smaller the fontanelle, the poorer the quality of ... Wright and Meyerdirk left the University to form Physionic Engineering Inc., which launched the first commercial hand-held ...
Premature junctional contraction
Ventricular hypertrophy *Left. *Right / Cor pulmonale. *Atrial enlargement *Left. *Right. Other. *Cardiac fibrosis ... Premature ventricular contraction. References. *^ Tipton MJ, Kelleher PC, Golden FS Institute of Naval Medicine, Gosport ... On the surface ECG, premature junctional contractions will appear as a normally shaped ventricular complex or QRS complex, not ...
Ventricular hypertrophy, the thickening of the ventricular walls, is generally beneficial and healthy if it occurs in response ... and left superior temporal lobe) and white matter (anterior third of corpus callosum) . In addition, Colcombe and ... Moritani, T; deVries, HA (June 1979). "Neural factors versus hypertrophy in the time course of muscle strength gain". American ... Resistance training and subsequent consumption of a protein-rich meal promotes muscle hypertrophy and gains in muscle strength ...
Ventricular hypertrophy *Left. *Right / Cor pulmonale. *Atrial enlargement *Left. *Right. *Athletic heart syndrome ... The ectopic beat is typically a premature ventricular contraction (PVC). For example, in ventricular bigeminy, a sinus beat is ... If it does become symptomatic, beta-blockers can be used to try and suppress ventricular ectopy. Class I and III agents are ... The term "rule of bigeminy" is used to refer to the dependence of bigeminy on the ventricular cycle length in irregular rhythms ...
Ataki keng pusu
Heart failure - Cardiomegaly - Ventricular hypertrophy (Left, Right). Arteries, arterioles and capillaries. Atherosclerosis - ... Diagram of a myocardial infarction (2) of the tip of the anterior wall of the heart (an apical infarct) after occlusion (1) of ... Ventricular remodeling. Dalerayan[mag-edit , alilan ya ing pikuwanan]. *↑ (2004) The World Health Report 2004 - Changing ... Ventricular tachycardia) - Atrial fibrillation - Atrial flutter - Premature contraction (Atrial, Ventricular) - Sick sinus ...
Left posterior fascicular block
Left anterior fascicular block. References. *^ Kevin J. Koop; et al., eds. (2010). "23". Atlas of emergency medicine (3rd ... Rokey, R.; Chahine, R. A. (June 1984). "Isolated left posterior fascicular block associated with acquired ventricular septal ... A left posterior fascicular block (LPFB) is a condition where the left posterior fascicle, which travels to the inferior and ... The wave-front instead moves more quickly through the left anterior fascicle and right bundle branch, leading to a right axis ...
If left untreated, more serious complications could result, including birth defects in pregnancy, increased risk of a ... Hypertrophy of the extraocular muscles, adipogenesis, and deposition of nonsulfated glycoaminoglycans and hyaluronate, causes ... and premature ventricular contractions, and hypertension. People with hyperthyroidism may experience behavioral and ... anterior *Kallmann syndrome. *Growth hormone deficiency. *Hypoprolactinemia. *ACTH deficiency/Secondary adrenal insufficiency ...
Ventricular hypertrophy *Left. *Right / Cor pulmonale. *Atrial enlargement *Left. *Right. Other. *Cardiac fibrosis ... SA node blockage so that impulses never leave the atria.. *AV node blockage (3rd degree block) prevents normal conduction ... On an ECG, the QRS complex will be abnormally shaped when looking at ventricular ectopic activity, often it occurs earlier with ... Cardiac Ischemia (particularly ventricular ischemia) - The membranes of apoptotic (dying) cells become "leaky" and cause ...
Premature atrial contraction
Ventricular hypertrophy *Left. *Right / Cor pulmonale. *Atrial enlargement *Left. *Right. Other. *Cardiac fibrosis ... SVES should be viewed in contrast to a premature ventricular contraction which has a ventricular origin and the associated QRS ... Premature ventricular contraction. References. *^ , Nickolls, Peter; Richard M. T. Lu & Kenneth A. Collins, "Apparatus ...
利-薩二氏心內膜炎 - 维基百科，自由的百
Ventricular hypertrophy（英语：Ventricular hypertrophy） *Left（英语：Left ventricular hypertrophy） ... Left anterior fascicle（英语：Left anterior fascicular block）. *Left posterior fascicle（英语：Left posterior fascicular block） ... Right（英语：Right ventricular hypertrophy） / Cor pulmonale（英语：Pulmonary heart disease） ... Aneurysm of heart（英语：Aneurysm of heart） / Ventricular aneurysm（英语：Ventricular aneurysm） ...
Coronary artery disease
Ventricular hypertrophy *Left. *Right / Cor pulmonale. *Atrial enlargement *Left. *Right. Other. *Cardiac fibrosis ... which may terminate into a dangerous heart rhythm known as ventricular fibrillation, which often leads to death. ... high-grade narrowing of the coronary arteries can induce transient ischemia which leads to the induction of a ventricular ...
Multifocal atrial tachycardia
हृदयवाहिका रोग - विकिपीडिया
Ventricular hypertrophy (Left, Right/Cor pulmonale) · Atrial enlargement (Left, Right). Other. Cardiac fibrosis · Heart failure ... Heart block: Sinoatrial · AV (1°, 2°, 3°) · Intraventricular (Bundle branch/Right/Left, Left anterior fascicular/Left posterior ... hexaxial reference system (Right axis deviation, Left axis deviation) · QT (Short QT syndrome) · T (T wave alternans) · ST ( ... hours (Myocardial stunning, Hibernating myocardium) · days (Myocardial rupture) · weeks (Aneurysm of heart/Ventricular aneurysm ...
... left ventricular hypertrophy, cardiomyopathy, myocardial hypertrophy, polycythemia/erythrocytosis, arrhythmias, thrombosis (e.g ... "Interactions between the dopaminergic and GABAergic neural systems in the lateral anterior hypothalamus of aggressive AAS- ... Salke RC, Rowland TW, Burke EJ (1985). "Left ventricular size and function in body builders using anabolic steroids". Medicine ... Dickerman RD, Schaller F, McConathy WJ (1998). "Left ventricular wall thickening does occur in elite power athletes with or ...
... right and left ventricular hypertrophy, and presence of conduction delay or abnormalities (e.g. left bundle branch block). ... early-to-atrial left ventricular filling ratio), the E (early left ventricular filling) deceleration time, and the isovolumic ... In people with left ventricular ejection (LVEF) below 35%, the incidence of ventricular tachycardia (VT) or sudden cardiac ... Backward failure can be subdivided into the failure of the left atrium, the left ventricle or both within the left circuit. The ...
Tricuspid valve stenosis
Other rarer congenital causes of monomorphic VT include right ventricular dysplasia, and right and left ventricular outflow ... Ventricular tachycardia can be classified based on its morphology: *Monomorphic ventricular tachycardia means that the ... Polymorphic ventricular tachycardia, on the other hand, is most commonly caused by abnormalities of ventricular muscle ... RVOT tachycardia is a type of monomorphic ventricular tachycardia originating in the right ventricular outflow tract. RVOT ...
Recognition of Anterior Wall Infarction in Patients with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy | Circulation
... analyzed in 36 patients with left ventricular hypertrophy and in 24 with left ventricular hypertrophy and associated anterior ... differentiation between left ventricular hypertrophy on the one hand and left ventricular hypertrophy with anterior infarction ... The influence of associated right ventricular hypertrophy or posterobasal infarction on left ventricular hypertrophy has been ... Recognition of Anterior Wall Infarction in Patients with Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. A Study by the Frank Vectorcardiogram. ...
Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation Report F2001-25 | NIOSH | CDC
Severe concentric left ventricular hypertrophy. The Captain had the following risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD): ... A thrombus was identified in the left anterior descending coronary artery on autopsy. ... Left ventricular dysfunction (no wall motion in postero-lateral and inferolateral walls) ... 60% narrowing of the first diagonal of the left anterior descending artery ...
Fire Fighter Fatality Investigation Report F2006-08 | NIOSH | CDC
... left and right ventricular) hypertrophy and cardiomegaly on autopsy. Hypertrophy of the hearts left ventricle (LVH) is a ... Cardiac catheterization revealed a totally occluded left anterior descending artery. The FF/EMT was in cardiogenic shock and an ... Biventricular hypertrophy *Left Ventricular Hypertrophy (LVH) (wall thickness was 2.0 centimeters [cm] [normal is 0.6 cm - 1.1 ... A normal left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) is generally considered ,50%.1 Neurological examination indicated the FF/EMT ...
WPW or Brugada variant - Heart Disease - MedHelp
Left ventricular hypertrophy Anterior myocardial infarction, age undetermined Possibly acute inferior myocardial infarction The ... Left ventricular hypertrophy Anterior myocardial infarction, age undetermined Possibly acute inferior myocardial infarction The ... Do you know how to answer? Tap here to leave your answer... ...
what is left ventricular hypertrophy with inferior myocardial infarction in a 15 yo boy? | Answers from Doctors | HealthTap
Abnormal ekg possible anterior infarct age undetermined left axis deviation. Left ventricular hypertrophy. Lateral t wave ... Can you help me understand this? POSSIBLE RIGHT VENTRICULAR CONDUCTION DELAY LEFT ANTERIOR FASCICULAR BLOCK POSSIBLE ANTERIOR ... What is a abnormal left ventricular diastolic filling pattern. What is the average life expectancy of having a left ventricular ... what is left ventricular hypertrophy with inferior myocardial infarction in a 15 yo boy?. 3 doctor answers ...
Physical Diagnosis Final Exam Study Guide
Septal region of left ventricle is thickened ------, Left Ventricular Hypertrophy.. *During systole, anterior leaflet of mitral ... Right Ventricular Hypertrophy can shift the PMI posteriorly, as the right-ventricular mass masks the left-ventricular PMI, ... Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy: Left-ventricular hypertrophy and resultant cardiomyopathy, due to hypertension. With ... Hypertrophic Obstructive Cardiomyopathy: Murmur should decrease, as left ventricular volume increases and the left ventricle ...
Cardiology Lectures 1 and 2 -- EKG Flashcards by Jodeci Malixi | Brainscape
Left anterior fascicular block. * Left ventricular hypertrophy (sometimes). 74 3 causes of right axis deviation ... Direction of electrical current from left side of mid portion of interventricular septum during ventricular depolarization ... Increased LV mass may shift the mean axis to the left = Left axis deviation ... Define left atrial enlargement representation on an ECG and which lead perceives it best ...
The 50-Year History, Controversy, and Clinical Implications of Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction in Hypertrophic...
... left ventricular hypertrophy; SAM = systolic anterior motion. ... 2000) Systolic anterior motion begins at low left ventricular ... 1973) Left ventricular hypertrophy diagnosed by echocardiography. N Engl J Med 389:118-121. ... 1975) Mechanism of left ventricular outflow obstruction in patients with obstructive asymmetric septal hypertrophy (idiopathic ... Evidence for progressive symptomatic and hemodynamic improvement and reduction of left ventricular hypertrophy. Circulation 90: ...
Mitral Valve Abnormalities Identified by Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance Represent a Primary Phenotypic Expression of...
Relation between anterior mitral leaflet (AML) and posterior mitral leaflet (PML) lengths and maximal left ventricular (LV) ... Development of left ventricular hypertrophy in adults in hypertrophic cardiomyopathy caused by cardiac myosin-binding protein C ... Left ventricular ejection fraction was 71±9% (range, 58% to 89%). Left ventricular outflow gradients ≥30 mm Hg at rest (range, ... maximal left ventricular wall thickness, or left ventricular mass. In addition, elongated mitral valve leaflets were often the ...
Downloads for SimPad PLUS
Hemiblock - definition of hemiblock by The Free Dictionary
n. Arrest of the cardiac electrical impulse in either the anterior or the posterior division of the left branch of the bundle ... Left anterior hemiblock and electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy.. Irregular rhythm in a 25-year-old ... Exclusion criteria were left ventricular hypertrophy, right ventricular hypertrophy, right and left bundle branch block, atrial ... While at NYHQ the patient was markedly abnormal and showed left ventricular hypertrophy and left anterior hemiblock, which Dr. ...
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. *Large voltage R Waves in the anterior and lateral leads (I, aVL, V4-6) ... Primary Left Ventricular Hypertrophy without ventricular dilation. *Contrast with secondary Left Ventricular Hypertrophy ... Asymmetric thickening of ventricular septum (variable pattern). *Outflow obstruction (25%). *Mitral leaflet paradoxical ... Pulmonary Hypertension due to a non-compliant left ventricle, and secondary decreased end-diastolic volume ...
IKK-β inhibition prevents adaptive left ventricular hypertrophy
A midline neck incision was used to approach the anterior mediastinum. The transverse arch was identified and a constrictive ... Assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy as measured by heart weight/body weight ratios, left ventricular posterior wall ... IKK-β inhibition prevents adaptive left ventricular hypertrophy. Nancy M Andersen, MD,1 Ruhang Tang, PhD,1 Ling Li, MS,2 Hadi ... Pressure-overload, left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), and heart failure represent a spectrum of disease that has both adaptive ...
Marked Regression of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy after Outflow Desobliteration in HOCM
... short-axis view in diastole with double arrow pointing to anterior septal hypertrophy, (D) apical long axis with the turbulent ... Marked Regression of Left Ventricular Hypertrophy after Outflow Desobliteration in HOCM. Zisis Dimitriadis, Frank van Buuren, ... We present an HOCM patient in whom marked regression of left ventricular hypertrophy occurred within two years following ... regression of left ventricular hypertrophy can be observed both in the septum (double arrows in (G)), and the lateral wall ( ...
Left Ventricular Hypertrophy. *Large voltage R Waves in the anterior and lateral leads (I, aVL, V4-6) ... Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Left Ventricular Hypertrophy Related EKG Changes Left Ventricular Noncompaction Restrictive ... characterized by left and/or right ventricular hypertrophy (HYPERTROPHY, LEFT VENTRICULAR; HYPERTROPHY, RIGHT VENTRICULAR), ... Primary Left Ventricular Hypertrophy without ventricular dilation. *Contrast with secondary Left Ventricular Hypertrophy ...
Velocity profiles in a 2D model of the left ventricular outflow tract, pathological case study using PIV and CFD modeling
... anterior mitral leaflet (AML) billowing, and 2) asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH). Each of these conditions has the potential ... Velocity profiles in a 2D model of the left ventricular outflow tract, pathological case study using PIV and CFD modeling. ... In the current study, we present an experimental (in vitro) 2D flow model for studying blood flow in the human left ventricular ... However, when the two conditions combine, we see a significant flow separation and re-circulation zone forming at the left ...
Online USA Pharmacy: Buspar pregnancy category the real and well-maintained store!
Foamy podocyte corneal opacities left ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmias, and valvular regurgitation. Then the patient should ... This goal-oriented approach centers around the anterior branch of right upper-pole renal pelvis and posterior urethra during ... Trabeculations are interwoven bundles of hypertrophied detrusor muscle hypertrophy and hyperplasia of the distal convoluted ... They are heavily diluted in water, leaving only tiny but powerfully therapeutic amounts of dairy products appear to have my ...
JoVE | Peer Reviewed Scientific Video Journal - Methods and Protocols
... cardiac hypertrophy, and ventricular remodelling. Besides the model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending ... A model of permanent ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery in mice is used to investigate ventricular ... Ventricular remodelling refers to changes in structure, size, and shape of the left ventricle. This architectural remodelling ... The vast majority of such patients are generally well served by left ventricular assist devices (LVADs). However, a subset of ...
PPT - Cardiomyopathies PowerPoint Presentation - ID:4231242
Anterior mitral leaflet may contact the ventricular septum resulting in "systolic anterior motion" ... Hypertrophy of myocardium (20-40 mm), usually in basal to mid-ventricular septum ... The patient has a left ventricular outflow tract obstruction of 64 mm Hg. ... Echocardiogram shows asymmetric septal hypertrophy, with maximum septal thickness of 22 mm. Significant systolic anterior ...
Subcoronary versus supracoronary aortic stenosis. An experimental evaluation.
As the stenosis develop the left ventricular hypertrophy may lead to congestive heart failure, increased risk of perioperativ ... Valvular aortic stenosis is the most common cause of left ventricular hypertrophy due to gradually increasing pressure work. ... Then the left coronary artery main stem was carefully mobilized as was the most proximal parts of the left anterior descending ... The increased pressure work causes left ventricular hypertrophy and increased left ventricular mass. Although this hypertrophy ...
JCI - Axial tubule junctions control rapid calcium signaling in atria
... left ventricular anterior wall thickness in diastole [LV AWTh]) and increased heart weight (HW/BW) were observed (Supplemental ... Hypertrophied AM from the left atrium showed an extensive proliferative adaptation of their TAT network compared with sham AMs ... Moreover, left atrial hypertrophy led to AT proliferation, with a marked increase in the highly phosphorylated RyR2-pS2808 ... Atrial hypertrophy causes AT proliferation, leading to accelerated cytosolic Ca2+ release. Atrial hypertrophy has been linked ...
Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in patient with pericardial...
... the transesophageal echocardiography showing septal hypertrophy and left ventricular outflow obstruction with systolic anterior ... Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction with systolic anterior motion (SAM) of mitral valve is not only limited to ... Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in patient with pericardial ... Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction with systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve in patient with pericardial ...
Infarct expansion: pathologic analysis of 204 patients with a single myocardial infarct. - PubMed - NCBI
Larger heart weight and degree of left ventricular hypertrophy had a significant negative correlation with infarct expansion (p ... Expansion occurs predominantly in infarcts in the left anterior descending coronary artery distribution, that is, regions of ... caused by lesions in the distribution of the left anterior descending coronary artery as compared with the 57 infarcts (28%) ... The results show that expansion is associated with large infarcts but is less marked in hearts with ventricular hypertrophy. ...
Left axis deviation - Wikipedia
Common causes of LAD include left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), left anterior fascicular block (or hemiblock) and inferior ... In electrocardiography, left axis deviation (LAD) is a condition wherein the mean electrical axis of ventricular contraction of ... Right sided accessory pathway in Wolff Parkinson white syndrome Right axis deviation Right and left sided accessory pathway in ... "Left Axis Deviation (LAD)". LITFL: Life in the Fast Lane Medical Blog. Retrieved 2016-11-12. http://www.fpnotebook.com/cv/exam/ ...
What ECG findings characteristic of myocardial infarction (MI, heart attack) may be seen in other conditions?
For example, patients with previous MI and left ventricular aneurysm may have persistent ST elevations resulting from dysk... ... Substantial T-wave inversion may be seen in left ventricular hypertrophy with secondary repolarization changes. ... Healed myocardial infarction, anterior left ventricle. There is diffuse scarring (white) with marked thinning of the ventricle ... Long-term arrhythmia-free survival in patients with severe left ventricular dysfunction and no inducible ventricular ...
Rare disease: Amyloid disease and the danger of late diagnosis
... hypertrophy (mean wall thickness 15 mm; normal range 6-12 mm), moderate bi-ventricular impairment (left ventricular ejection ... in the limb leads and Q-waves in both the inferior and anterior leads (a pseudo-infarction pattern). T-waves are also flattened ... the right ventricular free wall and dilatation of the left atrium. The ventricular cavities are not dilated. The double headed ... A limited thoracic postmortem examination revealed concentric bi-ventricular wall thickening, bi-atrial dilatation and ...
NIOSHTIC-2 Search Results - Full View
The autopsy revealed severe stenosis in the left anterior descending coronary artery, cardiomegaly, and left ventricular ... hypertrophy. NIOSH investigators concluded that the physical stress of participating in a parade on a warm summer day may have ... indicate that you are leaving the CDC website. *The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the ...
PPT - ELECTROCARDIOGRAMs (ECGs) PowerPoint Presentation - ID:175761
AXIS - LEFT AXIS DEVIATION* Left anterior hemiblock. * Left ventricular hypertrophy * Q waves of inferior myocardial infarction ... LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY (LVH)* Sokolow + Lyon (Am Heart J, 1949;37:161) ... VENTRICULAR BIGEMINY* Premature Ventricular contraction (PVC) in a bigeminal pattern * Can be trigeminy (every third is a PVC ... VENTRICULAR DEPOLARIZATION. His Bundle Left Bundle Branch & Right Bundle Branch Purkinje Fibers ...
Myocardial reverse remodeling after pressure unloading is associated with maintained cardiac mechanoenergetics in a rat model...
Effect of pressure unloading on left ventricular hypertrophy. In the 6th wk aortic-banded (AB) group, a massive left ... From these images, the following parameters were measured: LV anterior wall thickness (AWT), LV posterior wall thickness (PWT) ... Left ventricular pressure-volume analysis. Representative left ventricular pressure-volume (P-V) loops indicating in vivo ... presenting the temporal development of left ventricular hypertrophy and its regression by pressure unloading. B: left ...
VentricleSeptumPosteriorSeptalSeptumEjectionHypertrophic CardiomyopathyAsymmetricFibrillationMyocardial hypertrophyNormal left ventricularOutflow obstructionLVOTDiastolic dysfunctionDysfunctionDegree of left ventricularSudden CardiLateralCardiomegalyPulmonaryPrematureRegression of leftFascicular blockBiventricularFibrosisMitral regurgitationSevereAcuteAxisEchocardiogramBundle brancDiagnosisTricuspid regurgitation
- In another published clinical series of 18 patients with double orifice mitral valve and intact AV septum, Das et al found that double orifice mitral valve was most commonly associated with left sided obstructed lesions in 39% of the cases and with ventricular septal defects (VSDs) in 17% of the cases. (blogspot.com)
- We present an HOCM patient in whom marked regression of left ventricular hypertrophy occurred within two years following outflow desobliteration by percutaneous septal ablation. (hindawi.com)
- An outflow gradient of 70 mm Hg was measured at rest by continuous-wave Doppler echocardiography, accompanied by a septal anterior movement of the mitral valve (SAM) phenomenon with complete septal apposition and grade 1 mitral regurgitation. (hindawi.com)
- 1) anterior mitral leaflet (AML) billowing, and 2) asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH). (bibsys.no)
- B) Without color Doppler, the transesophageal echocardiography showing septal hypertrophy and left ventricular outflow obstruction with systolic anterior motion of mitral valve (arrow). (nih.gov)
- Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of alcohol septal ablation (ASA) on ventricular arrhythmias among patients with obstructive hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), as measured by appropriate implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) discharges. (onlinejacc.org)
- This procedure results in an iatrogenic myocardial infarction, which in turn decreases septal thickness and systolic anterior motion (SAM) of the mitral valve, reducing resting and provocable left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) gradients ( 13-18 ). (onlinejacc.org)
- On one hand, the septal myocardial infarction could be a substrate for ventricular tachyarrhythmias and increase the incidence of sudden death ( 19 ). (onlinejacc.org)
- To evaluate symptomatic and haemodynamic results of transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy in elderly patients. (bmj.com)
- Median follow up was seven months after transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy. (bmj.com)
- Short term results with transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy suggest that independent of a patient's age similar treatment strategies are justified in hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy. (bmj.com)
- In recent years, transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy by selective transcatheter septal branch injection of ethanol has been shown to reduce substantially outflow obstruction in 80-90% and symptoms in 84-90% of patients. (bmj.com)
- 9- 17 Therefore, transcoronary ablation of septal hypertrophy may be an effective alternative to surgery. (bmj.com)
- In the past, this disease entity has been called idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis (IHSS), asymmetric septal hypertrophy (ASH), dynamic muscular subaortic stenosis, diffuse muscular subaortic stenosis, hypertrophic subaortic stenosis, Teare disease, Brock disease, and hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). (medscape.com)
- Subsequent coronary angiography showed left main coronary artery arising from the right coronary cusp having an intra-septal course before bifurcating into anterior descending and left circumflex artery. (ispub.com)
- The pre-operative transesophageal echocardiography confirmed the intra-septal course of the ectopic left main coronary artery. (ispub.com)
- There were also fixed anterior and inferior wall defects, with hypo kinesis of the anterior, inferior, posterior and septal regions. (ispub.com)
- Patient underwent a coronary angiography that showed an anomalous origin of the left main coronary artery from the right coronary cusp with, an initial short intra septal course. (ispub.com)
- An intra operative transesophageal echo (TEE) was able to delineate the anomalous origin and the intra septal course of the left main coronary artery (fig 1). (ispub.com)
- 1 Typical findings in HCM include asymmetrical septal hypertrophy and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve, which may cause left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). (ahajournals.org)
- A young woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) associated with interventricular septal hypertrophy exhibited a high pressure gradient between the ascending aorta and left ventricular outflow tract as well as significant systolic anterior motion (SAM) and mitral regurgitation (MR) during high-dose prednisone treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
- The prognosis of patients is related to the presence of symptoms and especially to the degree of septal hypertrophy and the pressure gradient in the left ventricular outflow tract [70- (scielo.br)
- Over the years, septal myectomy surgery has been proven to be a safe and effective procedure in reducing the left ventricular outflow obstruction with relief of the symptoms and improved quality of life in otherwise symptomatic patients and not responding to optimal medical treatment [3,4,10- (scielo.br)
- It also helps to evaluate cardiac defects such as, atrial septal defects, AV valve stenoses, coronary artery defects, occult DCM, coronary artery disease, feline heartworm disease, persistent left cranial vena cava, canine hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and feline diastolic dysfunction may be identified. (omicsonline.org)
- While structural information is still valid in a sedated horse, some cardiac dimensions (e.g. endsystolic left ventricular diameter, interventricular septal thickness, and free wall thickness) and indices of cardiac function (e.g. fractional shortening and fractional area change) will be altered [ 4 , 5 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Yoshitaka, Hidenori 2018-03-16 00:00:00 Objective Despite excellent long-term results reported for a trans-aortic septal myectomy for hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM), surgery for patients with diffuse hypertrophy is very challenging. (deepdyve.com)
- Using a right mini-thoracotomy, the anterior mitral leaflet was detached, through which an extended septal myectomy could easily be performed. (deepdyve.com)
- This is related to the aorto-mitral angle, LVOT dimensions, presence of septal hypertrophy, and length of the anterior mitral leaflet (AML). (invasivecardiology.com)
- Transesophageal echo (TEE) can also assess AML length, aorto-mitral-annular (AMA) angle, septal hypertrophy, and dimensions of the mitral annulus or the existing prosthesis. (invasivecardiology.com)
- Int J Angiol DOI: 10.1055/s-0040-1709463Alcohol septal ablation (ASA) is an effective interventional therapeutic strategy to reduce or eliminate left ventricular outflow tract obstruction in patients with hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy (HOCM). (medworm.com)
- The target septal arteries usually arise from the left anterior descending artery (LAD). (medworm.com)
- However, when septal perforators do not originate from the LAD, non-LAD septal perforators should be included as candidate-target septal branches that feed the hypertrophic septal myocardium, causing left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction. (medworm.com)
- Echocardiography plays a central role in identifying clinically significant LVOT obstruction that requires intervention, i.e., septal ablation or myectomy-myotomy of the hypertrophied muscle. (barnardhealth.us)
- The septal perforating branch of the left anterior descending coronary artery that supplies the hyper-trophied septum (where it contacts the anterior mitral leaflet) is cannulated via a percutaneous transluminal approach and myocardial contrast agent then injected. (barnardhealth.us)
- An echocardiogram revealed left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy with asymmetric septal hypertrophy (20 mm), systolic anterior motion of the anterior mitral leaflet, LV ejection fraction of 70%, along with evidence to suggest a subaortic membrane. (onlinejacc.org)
- Asymmetric septal hypertrophy can also be seen. (onlinejacc.org)
- ECG: Left ventricular hypertrophy with abnormal q waves in V5 & V6 due to septal hypertrophy. (pediatriconcall.com)
- The transthoracic echocardiogram findings were significant for color flow across the atrial septum, with a positive microbubble study (consistent with a septal defect at the atrial level), tricuspid regurgitation and an elevated right ventricular systolic pressure of 70 mmHg. (invasivecardiology.com)
- Surgical repair of the fenestrated atrial septal defect (Figure 1) was performed, and even the surgical team could not locate the left anterior descending artery. (invasivecardiology.com)
- It is typically characterized by ventricular septal hypertrophy and can uncommonly manifest as sudden death, primarily as a result of ventricular arrhythmias 1 . (shmabstracts.com)
- Echocardiography demonstrates a vigorous LV with marked asymmetric septal hypertrophy, systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve, and a 50-mm Hg outflow tract gradient. (semanticscholar.org)
- Subcostal four-chamber echocardiographic view showing thickening of the interventricular septum and papillary muscles, the right ventricular free wall and dilatation of the left atrium. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Echocardiogram (a) shows an evident pedunculated mass, attached to the base of the anterior leaflet of the tricuspid valve and right ventricular septum extending into the right ventricular outflow tract. (hindawi.com)
- The location, pattern, and extent of left ventricular hypertrophy are heterogeneous, although the most common location for increased wall thickness is the basal anterior septum in continuity with the anterior free wall. (uptodate.com)
- The pressure gradient appears to be related to several factors, including hypertrophy of the interventricular septum into the outflow tract, possible abnormalities in location of the mitral valve apparatus, and systolic anterior motion of the mitral valve against the hypertrophied septum. (medscape.com)
- abnormal enlargement, congenital or acquired, of the left ventricular side of the septum under the aortic valve causing outflow obstruction and abnormal movement of the mitral valve. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Abnormal bridging chordae between the septum and papillary muscle (PM) were divided, then anterior mitral leaflet continuity was restored with direct closure or augmentation using a glutaraldehyde-treated autologous pericardium. (deepdyve.com)
- In a now seminal case series in the British Heart Journal, Teare reported asymmetric hypertrophy of the interventricular septum in 8 patients between the ages of 14 and 44. (revespcardiol.org)
- Two French pathologists, Hallopeau and Liouville, described the classic appearance of asymmetrical hypertrophy of the interventricular septum in 1869. (revespcardiol.org)
- Intra-operative transeophageal echocardiography is routinely employed during surgical myectomy-myotomy of the hypertrophied septum. (barnardhealth.us)
- In this 5-chamber view, a subaortic membrane is seen (thick arrow) within the left ventricular outflow tract at the proximal ridge of the ventricular septum ( Online Videos 1 and 2 ). (onlinejacc.org)
- A transthoracic echocardiogram showed a mildly dilated LV, moderate to severe segmental systolic dysfunction, with inferior wall akinesis and hypokinesis of the septum, apex and distal anterior wall. (thefreedictionary.com)
- TEE demonstrated a thickened ventricular septum measuring 3.4 centimeters in diastole, left atrial enlargement, and a mobile vegetation on the anterior mitral valve leaflet. (shmabstracts.com)
- Some theorize that obstructive HCM carries an increased risk of IE because high velocity and turbulent blood flow during systole, as well as contact between the anterior mitral valve leaflet and septum, damage the valve endocardium. (shmabstracts.com)
- normal range 6-12 mm), moderate bi-ventricular impairment (left ventricular ejection fraction of 45%) and a restrictive filling pattern on the mitral valve inflow Doppler (E:A ratio of 4). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- A 14-month-old male presented with paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnea and grade III/VI systolic ejection murmur at the upper left sternal border with an S4 gallop and was subsequently found to have a right ventricular cardiac myxoma. (hindawi.com)
- Vital signs were appropriate, and exam was normal other than a grade III/VI systolic ejection murmur best appreciated at the upper left sternal border with an S4 gallop. (hindawi.com)
- At baseline both groups were similar concerning the proportion of familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, concomitant moderate hypertension, prior syncope, left ventricular outflow obstruction, left ventricular end diastolic pressure, and left ventricular ejection fraction. (bmj.com)
- Significant differences, compared with the younger group, were a higher proportion of persistent total atrioventricular block (5% v 17%, p = 0.015) and a slight decrease in left ventricular ejection fraction (3 (12) v −6 (11)%, p = 0.001) in the elderly, despite a trend to a lower induced peak creatine kinase activity (596 (339) v 491 (331) U/l, p = 0.051). (bmj.com)
- Normal left ventricular ejection fraction. (scmr.org)
- The ejection fraction was 55% (borderline low), left ventricular end diastolic volume was 85.4 ml/m 2 (normal), and the left ventricular end systolic volume was 38.1 ml/m 2 (high). (scmr.org)
- Dynamic obstruction to left ventricular (LV) outflow was recognized from the earliest (50 years ago) clinical descriptions of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and has proved to be a complex phenomenon unique in many respects, as well as arguably the most visible and well-known pathophysiologic component of this heterogeneous disease. (onlinejacc.org)
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a common genetic heart disease in which the predominant phenotypic expression is left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. (ahajournals.org)
- Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction with systolic anterior motion (SAM) of mitral valve is not only limited to patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (nih.gov)
- Background: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is an inherited disease of the sarcomere characterised clinically by myocardial hypertrophy and its consequences. (bmj.com)
- Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a genetically determined myocardial disease, which is characterised by ventricular hypertrophy, arrhythmias, impaired exercise tolerance, and sudden death. (bmj.com)
- 3, 26- 31 "Benign" processes associated with aging may contribute to the development of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the elderly, as opposed to more "malignant" processes that may be responsible for the development of idiopathic hypertrophy in younger patients. (bmj.com)
- The definition and classification of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) have varied over the decades, primarily because the phenotypic expression of ventricular hypertrophy can result from a myriad of diseases, especially among children. (medscape.com)
- At present, most authorities agree to call this disease entity "hypertrophic cardiomyopathy," which is then subdivided into obstructive and nonobstructive types, depending upon the presence of left ventricular outflow tract obstruction. (medscape.com)
- 1 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) may be distinguished from the other two types of cardiomyopathy by the presence of myocardial hypertrophy and, in approximately 25% of patients, left ventricular outflow tract obstruction (LVOTO). (bmj.com)
- These changes in turn can lead to the development of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), coronary artery disease (CAD), various conduction system diseases, and systolic and diastolic dysfunction of the myocardium, complications that manifest clinically as angina or myocardial infarction, cardiac arrhythmias (especially atrial fibrillation), and congestive heart failure (CHF). (medscape.com)
- Downregulation of α-myosin heavy chain (α-MHC) with a concomitant upregulation of β-MHC has been observed in murine species during myocardial hypertrophy and failure. (ahajournals.org)
- To the best of our knowledge, this is the only adult case of myocardial hypertrophy that is assumed to be related to prednisone use. (biomedsearch.com)
- 7 Symmetrical distribution of myocardial hypertrophy is seen in 10% of patients. (bmj.com)
Normal left ventricular2
- In addition, a left ventricular outflow obstruction is often aggravated by an abnormal mitral valve and subvalvular apparatus. (deepdyve.com)
- Contemporaneously, Sir Russell Brock, a surgeon at Guy's Hospital, reported 3 patients with subaortic outflow obstruction in the setting of concentric left ventricular hypertrophy, effectively inoperable before the advent of cardiopulmonary bypass. (revespcardiol.org)
- In the current study, we present an experimental (in vitro) 2D flow model for studying blood flow in the human left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) and the first part of the aorta using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). (bibsys.no)
- The mean peak preoperative left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction gradient was 84.9±29.0 mmHg, and decreased to 27.8±12.9 mmHg in the early postoperative, and it was 19.2±11.2 mmHg in the late postoperative period (49.0±33.0 months). (scielo.br)
- Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction in patients undergoing transcatheter mitral valve replacement (TMVR) typically occurs in a specific group of patients and can result in catastrophic complications. (invasivecardiology.com)
- Deliberate laceration of the anterior mitral leaflet using electrified wires (LAMPOON) to prevent LVOT obstruction has previously been described. (invasivecardiology.com)
- 001. PG-LVOT: pressure gradient in the left ventricular outflow tract. (revespcardiol.org)
- A linear relationship exists between the time of onset and duration of SAM, and the severity of the dynamic left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) obstruction (Pollick C. Circ 1984:69, 47). (barnardhealth.us)
- Patients typically have preserved systolic function with impaired left ventricular compliance that results in diastolic dysfunction, whether or not outflow tract obstruction is present. (medscape.com)
- The impaired ventricular compliance and diastolic dysfunction lead to elevated end-diastolic pressures. (medscape.com)
- No clear relationship exists between the severity of hypertrophy and the severity of diastolic dysfunction. (barnardhealth.us)
- In addition, the RV is remarkably sensitive to cardiac pathologies, including left ventricular (LV) dysfunction, valvular disease or RV infarction 4 . (jove.com)
- Right ventricular dysfunction is the major manifestation of pulmonary hypertension. (jove.com)
- The assessment of regional myocardial metabolism was first appreciated as a tool to guide therapeutic decisions for revascularization in patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction. (onlinejacc.org)
- Similar imaging techniques are now explored to identify prospectively patients with reversible left ventricular dysfunction in order to improve both quality of life and outcome ( 6,7 ). (onlinejacc.org)
- Esmolol is useful in patients at risk for complications from beta blockade, particularly those with reactive airway disease, mild-to-moderate left ventricular dysfunction, or peripheral vascular disease. (medscape.com)
- Acute myocardial infarction can cause left ventricular dysfunction, which can cause backup pressure to the left atrium. (ecgguru.com)
Degree of left ventricular3
- RESULTS: Sub- and supracoronary banding induce an equal degree of left ventricular hypertrophy compared with the control group. (biomedsearch.com)
- Sub- and supracoronary aortic banding induce an equal degree of left ventricular hypertrophy. (biomedsearch.com)
- Larger heart weight and degree of left ventricular hypertrophy had a significant negative correlation with infarct expansion (p less than 0.05). (nih.gov)
Regression of left1
- Pressure unloading represents the only effective therapy in increased afterload-induced left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) as it leads to myocardial reverse remodeling (reduction of increased left ventricular mass, attenuated myocardial fibrosis) and preserved cardiac function. (physiology.org)
- These defects result in myofibril disarray and fibrosis that progress over time and contribute to ventricular hypertrophy. (medscape.com)
- Furthermore, in CCC mice, a 3-week intravenous administration of PDNF protocol induced CPC expansion and reversed left ventricular T-cell accumulation and cardiac remodeling including fibrosis. (aspetjournals.org)
- Abnormal ekg possible anterior infarct age undetermined left axis deviation. (healthtap.com)
- Right sided accessory pathway in Wolff Parkinson white syndrome Right axis deviation Right and left sided accessory pathway in Wolff-Parkinson White syndrome. (wikipedia.org)
- These changes may result in ECG findings of left axis deviation, depressed ST segments and inversion or flattening of the T-wave in lead III. (anaesthesiauk.com)
- The axis is clearly to the left and inferior (V4-V6 and inferior leads), but it does not have a superior component that would lead to LAD on the limb leads. (blogspot.com)
- Left axis deviation is noted when lead I is positive and lead AvF is negative indicating vector predominance towards the left axis. (oncologynurseadvisor.com)
- The rightward axis and tall R wave in V1 indicate right ventricular hypertrophy. (mhmedical.com)
- Left ventricular hypertrophy with left (superior) axis deviation. (mhmedical.com)
- The electrocardiogram showed normal sinus rhythm, right axis deviation and right ventricular hypertrophy. (invasivecardiology.com)
- The common criteria for left bundle branch block include: wide QRS complex, frontal plane axis normal or leftward, negative QRS in V1, and positive QRS in leads I and V6. (ecgguru.com)
- Limitations of the electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy: the influence of left anterior hemiblock and right bundle branch block," International Journal of Cardiology, vol. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Also, electromechanical changes after ASA with the development of bundle branch block (right bundle branch block alone in 60% and with left anterior hemiblock in 20%) lead to further inhomogeneity in LV contraction (78). (thefreedictionary.com)
- Since left bundle branch block only occurs in SUPRAVENTRICULAR rhythms, it is important to determine the rhythm, and P waves are a definite sign of SV rhythm. (ecgguru.com)
- T wave inversions can be secondary to conditions like left ventricular hypertrophy, left bundle branch block, and ventricular rhythms. (ecgguru.com)
- New criteria for the vector-cardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy have been outlined. (ahajournals.org)
- The Frank vectorcardiogram is a sensitive and reliable method to recognize left ventricular hypertrophy and may prove to be a useful adjunct to the ordinary electrocardiogram in cases where the electrocardiographic diagnosis is questionable. (ahajournals.org)
- Left anterior hemiblock and electrocardiographic diagnosis of left ventricular hypertrophy. (thefreedictionary.com)