A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
Fixation of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT, during surgical reconstruction, by the use of a bone-patellar tendon graft.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
A dead body, usually a human body.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.
Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.
A followup operation to examine the outcome of the previous surgery and other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Nodular tumor-like lesions or mucoid flesh, arising from tendon sheaths, LIGAMENTS, or JOINT CAPSULE, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. They are not true cysts as they lack epithelial wall. They are distinguished from SYNOVIAL CYSTS by the lack of communication with a joint cavity or the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
The period following a surgical operation.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.
A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
Pain during the period after surgery.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Slippage of the FEMUR off the TIBIA.
Fixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.
Interruption of NEURAL CONDUCTION in peripheral nerves or nerve trunks by the injection of a local anesthetic agent (e.g., LIDOCAINE; PHENOL; BOTULINUM TOXINS) to manage or treat pain.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
Displacement of the PATELLA from the femoral groove.
A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.
The gliding joint formed by the outer extremity of the CLAVICLE and the inner margin of the acromion process of the SCAPULA.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.
Fibrous, bony, cartilaginous and osteocartilaginous fragments in a synovial joint. Major causes are osteochondritis dissecans, synovial chondromatosis, osteophytes, fractured articular surfaces and damaged menisci.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
The articulation between the articular surface of the PATELLA and the patellar surface of the FEMUR.
Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
LATERAL LIGAMENTS of the ANKLE JOINT. It includes inferior tibiofibular ligaments.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The articulations between the CARPAL BONES and the METACARPAL BONES.
A carpal bone adjacent to the TRAPEZOID BONE.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
'Joint diseases' is a broad term that refers to medical conditions causing inflammation, degeneration, or functional impairment in any part of a joint, including the cartilage, bone, ligament, tendon, or bursa, thereby affecting movement and potentially causing pain, stiffness, deformity, or reduced range of motion.

The effect of isolated popliteus tendon complex injury on graft force in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructed knees. (1/181)


Remodelling of human hamstring autografts after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (2/181)


Factors that influence the intra-articular rupture pattern of the ACL graft following single-bundle reconstruction. (3/181)


Advances in the three-portal technique for anatomical single- or double-bundle ACL reconstruction. (4/181)


VEGF receptor mRNA expression by ACL fibroblasts is associated with functional healing of the ACL. (5/181)


Systematic review on cadaveric studies of anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (6/181)


In vitro and intraoperative laxities after single-bundle and double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions. (7/181)


Intra-articular findings in primary and revision anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery: a comparison of the MOON and MARS study groups. (8/181)


The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is a major stabilizing ligament in the knee. It is one of the four strong bands of tissue that connect the bones of the knee joint together. The ACL runs diagonally through the middle of the knee and helps to control the back and forth motion of the knee, as well as provide stability to the knee joint. Injuries to the ACL often occur during sports or physical activities that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, or awkward landings.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a surgical procedure in which the damaged or torn ACL, a major stabilizing ligament in the knee, is replaced with a graft. The ACL is responsible for preventing excessive motion of the knee joint, and when it is injured, the knee may become unstable and prone to further damage.

During the procedure, the surgeon makes an incision in the knee to access the damaged ligament. The torn ends of the ACL are then removed, and a graft is taken from another part of the body (such as the patellar tendon or hamstring tendons) or from a donor. This graft is then positioned in the same location as the original ACL and fixed in place with screws or other devices.

The goal of ACL reconstruction is to restore stability and function to the knee joint, allowing the patient to return to their normal activities, including sports and exercise. Physical therapy is typically required after surgery to help strengthen the knee and improve range of motion.

Knee injuries refer to damages or harm caused to the structures surrounding or within the knee joint, which may include the bones (femur, tibia, and patella), cartilage (meniscus and articular cartilage), ligaments (ACL, PCL, MCL, and LCL), tendons (patellar and quadriceps), muscles, bursae, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes, such as trauma, overuse, degeneration, or sports-related activities. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, stiffness, instability, reduced range of motion, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected knee. Common knee injuries include fractures, dislocations, meniscal tears, ligament sprains or ruptures, and tendonitis. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

Bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) grafting is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a portion of the patellar tendon along with its attached bone blocks from the patient's own knee. The graft is then used to reconstruct or repair damaged or injured ligaments, most commonly the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee.

The BPTB graft consists of two bone plugs, one from the patella (kneecap) and the other from the tibial tuberosity (the bony prominence on the front of the shinbone), connected by a central portion of the patellar tendon. The bone plugs provide excellent fixation in the bone tunnels drilled during ACL reconstruction, resulting in strong initial stability and promoting rapid healing.

However, BPTB grafting may be associated with certain complications such as donor site pain, patella fracture, and reduced knee extension strength. Therefore, alternative graft choices like hamstring tendon or quadriceps tendon grafts are also commonly used for ACL reconstruction, depending on the patient's individual needs and preferences.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

The patellar ligament, also known as the patellar tendon, is a strong band of tissue that connects the bottom part of the kneecap (patella) to the top part of the shinbone (tibia). This ligament plays a crucial role in enabling the extension and straightening of the leg during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. Injuries to the patellar ligament, such as tendonitis or tears, can cause pain and difficulty with mobility.

A tendon is the strong, flexible band of tissue that connects muscle to bone. It helps transfer the force produced by the muscle to allow various movements of our body parts. Tendons are made up of collagen fibers arranged in parallel bundles and have a poor blood supply, making them prone to injuries and slow to heal. Examples include the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, and the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap to the shinbone.

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where an orthopedic surgeon uses an arthroscope (a thin tube with a light and camera on the end) to diagnose and treat problems inside a joint. The surgeon makes a small incision, inserts the arthroscope into the joint, and then uses the attached camera to view the inside of the joint on a monitor. They can then insert other small instruments through additional incisions to repair or remove damaged tissue.

Arthroscopy is most commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist. It offers several advantages over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and reduced risk of infection. The procedure can be used to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions, including torn ligaments or cartilage, inflamed synovial tissue, loose bone or cartilage fragments, and joint damage caused by arthritis.

Joint instability is a condition characterized by the loss of normal joint function and increased risk of joint injury due to impaired integrity of the supporting structures, such as ligaments, muscles, or cartilage. This can result in excessive movement or laxity within the joint, leading to decreased stability and increased susceptibility to dislocations or subluxations. Joint instability may cause pain, swelling, and limited range of motion, and it can significantly impact a person's mobility and quality of life. It is often caused by trauma, degenerative conditions, or congenital abnormalities and may require medical intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, to restore joint stability.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is one of the major ligaments in the knee, providing stability to the joint. It is a strong band of tissue located in the back of the knee, connecting the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the tibia relative to the femur and provides resistance to forces that tend to push the tibia backwards. It also assists in maintaining the overall alignment and function of the knee joint during various movements and activities. Injuries to the PCL are less common compared to injuries to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) but can still occur due to high-energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents or sports incidents involving direct impact to the front of the knee.

A rupture, in medical terms, refers to the breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, injury, increased pressure, or degeneration. A ruptured organ or structure can lead to serious complications, including internal bleeding, infection, and even death, if not treated promptly and appropriately. Examples of ruptures include a ruptured appendix, ruptured eardrum, or a ruptured disc in the spine.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

Articular ligaments, also known as fibrous ligaments, are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that connect and stabilize bones to each other at joints. They help to limit the range of motion of a joint and provide support, preventing excessive movement that could cause injury. Articular ligaments are composed mainly of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern, making them strong and flexible. They have limited blood supply and few nerve endings, which makes them less prone to injury but also slower to heal if damaged. Examples of articular ligaments include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee joint, and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow joint.

A tendon transfer is a surgical procedure where a healthy tendon is moved to rebalance or reinforce a muscle that has become weak or paralyzed due to injury, disease, or nerve damage. The transferred tendon attaches to the bone in a new position, allowing it to power a different movement or stabilize a joint. This procedure helps restore function and improve mobility in the affected area.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Ligaments are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that surround joints and provide support, stability, and limits the range of motion. They are made up primarily of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern to withstand tension and stress. Ligaments attach bone to bone, and their function is to prevent excessive movement that could cause injury or dislocation.

There are two main types of ligaments: extracapsular and intracapsular. Extracapsular ligaments are located outside the joint capsule and provide stability to the joint by limiting its range of motion. Intracapsular ligaments, on the other hand, are found inside the joint capsule and help maintain the alignment of the joint surfaces.

Examples of common ligaments in the body include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee, the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow, and the coracoacromial ligament in the shoulder.

Injuries to ligaments can occur due to sudden trauma or overuse, leading to sprains, strains, or tears. These injuries can cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility, and may require medical treatment such as immobilization, physical therapy, or surgery.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

The menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located in the knee joint. There are two menisci in each knee: the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus. The tibial menisci, also known as the medial and lateral menisci, are named according to their location in the knee joint. They lie on the top surface of the tibia (shin bone) and provide shock absorption, stability, and lubrication to the knee joint.

The tibial menisci have a complex shape, with a wider outer portion called the peripheral rim and a narrower inner portion called the central portion or root attachment. The menisci are attached to the bones of the knee joint by ligaments and have a rich blood supply in their outer portions, which helps in healing after injury. However, the inner two-thirds of the menisci have a poor blood supply, making them more prone to degeneration and less likely to heal after injury.

Damage to the tibial menisci can occur due to trauma or degenerative changes, leading to symptoms such as pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility of the knee joint. Treatment for meniscal injuries may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Athletic injuries are damages or injuries to the body that occur while participating in sports, physical activities, or exercise. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma: Direct blows, falls, collisions, or crushing injuries can cause fractures, dislocations, contusions, lacerations, or concussions.
2. Overuse: Repetitive motions or stress on a particular body part can lead to injuries such as tendonitis, stress fractures, or muscle strains.
3. Poor technique: Using incorrect form or technique during exercise or sports can put additional stress on muscles, joints, and ligaments, leading to injury.
4. Inadequate warm-up or cool-down: Failing to properly prepare the body for physical activity or neglecting to cool down afterwards can increase the risk of injury.
5. Lack of fitness or flexibility: Insufficient strength, endurance, or flexibility can make individuals more susceptible to injuries during sports and exercise.
6. Environmental factors: Extreme weather conditions, poor field or court surfaces, or inadequate equipment can contribute to the risk of athletic injuries.

Common athletic injuries include ankle sprains, knee injuries, shoulder dislocations, tennis elbow, shin splints, and concussions. Proper training, warm-up and cool-down routines, use of appropriate protective gear, and attention to technique can help prevent many athletic injuries.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

In medical terms, the knee is referred to as the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a hinge joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bones (tibia and fibula), enabling movements like flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation. The knee also contains several other components such as menisci, ligaments, tendons, and bursae, which provide stability, cushioning, and protection during movement.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a sesamoid bone located at the front of the knee joint. It is embedded in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle and serves to protect the knee joint and increase the leverage of the extensor mechanism, allowing for greater extension force of the lower leg. The patella moves within a groove on the femur called the trochlea during flexion and extension of the knee.

The Quadriceps muscle, also known as the Quadriceps Femoris, is a large muscle group located in the front of the thigh. It consists of four individual muscles - the Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, and Vastus Medialis. These muscles work together to extend the leg at the knee joint and flex the thigh at the hip joint. The Quadriceps muscle is crucial for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and kicking.

Arthrometry is a measurement technique used in the field of orthopedics and rheumatology to assess the integrity and mobility of joints. When qualified with the term "articular," it specifically refers to the measurement of articular motion or range of motion (ROM) within a synovial joint.

Articular arthrometry involves using specialized instruments, such as goniometers, inclinometers, or digital devices like smartphone applications and wearable sensors, to quantify the degree of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, or other movements in a joint. This information can help medical professionals evaluate joint function, diagnose injuries or conditions affecting joint mobility, monitor disease progression, and assess treatment outcomes.

In summary, articular arthrometry is the measurement of articular motion within synovial joints to evaluate joint health and function.

An allograft is a type of transplant in which tissue or an organ is transferred from one individual to another, within the same species. The donor and recipient are genetically different, so the recipient's immune system may recognize the donated tissue or organ as foreign and mount an immune response against it. To minimize the risk of rejection, recipients typically receive immunosuppressive drugs to dampen their immune response.

Allografts can be used in a variety of medical contexts, including reconstructive surgery, orthopedic surgery, and organ transplantation. Examples of allografts include heart valves, tendons, ligaments, corneas, skin, and whole organs such as kidneys, livers, and hearts.

It's worth noting that allografts are distinguished from autografts, which involve transplanting tissue or an organ from one part of the body to another in the same individual, and xenografts, which involve transplanting tissue or organs between different species.

Autologous transplantation is a medical procedure where cells, tissues, or organs are removed from a person, stored and then returned back to the same individual at a later time. This is different from allogeneic transplantation where the tissue or organ is obtained from another donor. The term "autologous" is derived from the Greek words "auto" meaning self and "logos" meaning study.

In autologous transplantation, the patient's own cells or tissues are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased ones. This reduces the risk of rejection and eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are required in allogeneic transplants to prevent the body from attacking the foreign tissue.

Examples of autologous transplantation include:

* Autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, where stem cells are removed from the patient's blood or bone marrow, stored and then reinfused back into the same individual after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat cancer.
* Autologous skin grafting, where a piece of skin is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another area on the same person.
* Autologous chondrocyte implantation, where cartilage cells are harvested from the patient's own knee, cultured in a laboratory and then implanted back into the knee to repair damaged cartilage.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Athletic performance refers to the physical and mental capabilities and skills displayed by an athlete during training or competition. It is a measure of an individual's ability to perform in a particular sport or activity, and can encompass various factors such as strength, power, endurance, speed, agility, coordination, flexibility, mental toughness, and technique.

Athletic performance can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, training, nutrition, recovery, lifestyle habits, and environmental conditions. Athletes often engage in rigorous training programs to improve their physical and mental abilities, with the goal of enhancing their overall athletic performance. Additionally, sports scientists and coaches use various methods and technologies to assess and analyze athletic performance, such as timing systems, motion analysis, and physiological testing, to help optimize training and competition strategies.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

The femoral nerve is a major nerve in the thigh region of the human body. It originates from the lumbar plexus, specifically from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves (L2-L4). The femoral nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and areas in the lower limb.

Motor Innervation:
The femoral nerve is responsible for providing motor innervation to several muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, including:

1. Iliacus muscle
2. Psoas major muscle
3. Quadriceps femoris muscle (consisting of four heads: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius)

These muscles are involved in hip flexion, knee extension, and stabilization of the hip joint.

Sensory Innervation:
The sensory distribution of the femoral nerve includes:

1. Anterior and medial aspects of the thigh
2. Skin over the anterior aspect of the knee and lower leg (via the saphenous nerve, a branch of the femoral nerve)

The saphenous nerve provides sensation to the skin on the inner side of the leg and foot, as well as the medial malleolus (the bony bump on the inside of the ankle).

In summary, the femoral nerve is a crucial component of the lumbar plexus that controls motor functions in the anterior thigh muscles and provides sensory innervation to the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh and lower leg.

In the context of human anatomy, the thigh is the part of the lower limb that extends from the hip to the knee. It is the upper and largest portion of the leg and is primarily composed of the femur bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body, as well as several muscles including the quadriceps femoris (front thigh), hamstrings (back thigh), and adductors (inner thigh). The major blood vessels and nerves that supply the lower limb also pass through the thigh.

In the context of medicine, particularly in anatomy and physiology, "rotation" refers to the movement of a body part around its own axis or the long axis of another structure. This type of motion is three-dimensional and can occur in various planes. A common example of rotation is the movement of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) around each other during pronation and supination, which allows the hand to be turned palm up or down. Another example is the rotation of the head during mastication (chewing), where the mandible moves in a circular motion around the temporomandibular joint.

A transplant is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a healthy functioning one. The transplanted organ or tissue can come from a deceased donor, a living donor who is genetically related to the recipient, or a living donor who is not genetically related to the recipient.

Transplantation is an important medical intervention for many patients with end-stage organ failure or severe tissue damage, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity. However, transplantation is a complex and risky procedure that requires careful matching of donor and recipient, rigorous evaluation and preparation of the recipient, and close monitoring and management of the transplanted organ or tissue to prevent rejection and other complications.

An "athlete" is defined in the medical field as an individual who actively participates in sports, physical training, or other forms of exercise that require a significant amount of physical exertion and stamina. Athletes are often divided into different categories based on the specific type of sport or activity they engage in, such as:

1. Professional athletes: These are individuals who compete in organized sports at the highest level and earn a living from their athletic pursuits. Examples include professional football players, basketball players, golfers, tennis players, and soccer players.
2. Collegiate athletes: These are students who participate in intercollegiate sports at the university or college level. They may receive scholarships or other forms of financial aid to support their athletic and academic pursuits.
3. Amateur athletes: These are individuals who engage in sports or physical activity for recreation, fitness, or personal enjoyment rather than as a profession. Examples include weekend warriors, joggers, swimmers, and hikers.
4. Elite athletes: These are individuals who have achieved a high level of skill and performance in their chosen sport or activity. They may compete at the national or international level and represent their country in competitions.
5. Para-athletes: These are athletes with disabilities who compete in sports specifically adapted for their abilities. Examples include wheelchair basketball, blind soccer, and deaf swimming.

Regardless of the category, athletes are prone to various medical conditions related to their physical exertion, including musculoskeletal injuries, cardiovascular issues, respiratory problems, and nutritional deficiencies. Therefore, it is essential for athletes to receive regular medical check-ups, maintain a healthy lifestyle, and follow proper training and nutrition guidelines to prevent injuries and optimize their performance.

"Second-look surgery" is a medical term that refers to a second surgical procedure performed after an initial operation, usually to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment or to check for any potential complications. This type of surgery is often used in cancer treatment, where it can help determine if the tumor has responded to chemotherapy or radiation therapy. During the second-look surgery, surgeons may remove additional tissue or tumor cells, or they may perform other procedures to manage any complications that have arisen since the first surgery.

It's worth noting that the use of second-look surgery is not always necessary or appropriate, and the decision to perform this type of procedure will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's overall health, the type and stage of cancer, and the specific goals of treatment. As with any surgical procedure, there are risks associated with second-look surgery, and patients should discuss these risks thoroughly with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

Absorbable implants are medical devices that are designed to be placed inside the body during a surgical procedure, where they provide support, stabilization, or other functions, and then gradually break down and are absorbed by the body over time. These implants are typically made from materials such as polymers, proteins, or ceramics that have been engineered to degrade at a controlled rate, allowing them to be resorbed and eliminated from the body without the need for a second surgical procedure to remove them.

Absorbable implants are often used in orthopedic, dental, and plastic surgery applications, where they can help promote healing and support tissue regeneration. For example, absorbable screws or pins may be used to stabilize fractured bones during the healing process, after which they will gradually dissolve and be absorbed by the body. Similarly, absorbable membranes may be used in dental surgery to help guide the growth of new bone and gum tissue around an implant, and then be resorbed over time.

It's important to note that while absorbable implants offer several advantages over non-absorbable materials, such as reduced risk of infection and improved patient comfort, they may also have some limitations. For example, the mechanical properties of absorbable materials may not be as strong as those of non-absorbable materials, which could affect their performance in certain applications. Additionally, the degradation products of absorbable implants may cause local inflammation or other adverse reactions in some patients. As with any medical device, the use of absorbable implants should be carefully considered and discussed with a qualified healthcare professional.

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee is a band-like structure located on the inner side of the knee joint. It connects the end of the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps stabilize the knee by controlling side-to-side movement and preventing excessive separation of the bones. The MCL provides resistance to valgus force, which is a pushing or pulling force that attempts to push the bones apart in a direction away from the midline of the body. MCL injuries often occur due to direct impact to the outer knee or sudden changes in direction that strain the ligament.

Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the integrity and function of a joint. The term is derived from two Greek words: "arthro" meaning joint, and "plasty" meaning to mold or form. There are several types of arthroplasty, but most involve resurfacing the damaged joint cartilage with artificial materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic.

The goal of arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function in a joint that has been damaged by arthritis, injury, or other conditions. The most common types of arthroplasty are total joint replacement (TJR) and partial joint replacement (PJR).

In TJR, the surgeon removes the damaged ends of the bones in the joint and replaces them with artificial components called prostheses. These prostheses can be made of metal, plastic, or ceramic materials, and are designed to mimic the natural movement and function of the joint.

In PJR, only one side of the joint is resurfaced, typically because the damage is less extensive. This procedure is less invasive than TJR and may be recommended for younger patients who are still active or have a higher risk of complications from a full joint replacement.

Other types of arthroplasty include osteotomy, in which the surgeon cuts and reshapes the bone to realign the joint; arthrodesis, in which the surgeon fuses two bones together to create a stable joint; and resurfacing, in which the damaged cartilage is removed and replaced with a smooth, artificial surface.

Arthroplasty is typically recommended for patients who have tried other treatments, such as physical therapy, medication, or injections, but have not found relief from their symptoms. While arthroplasty can be highly effective in relieving pain and improving mobility, it is not without risks, including infection, blood clots, and implant failure. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of arthroplasty with their healthcare provider to determine if it is the right treatment option for them.

Muscle strength, in a medical context, refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can produce during contraction. It is the maximum amount of force that a muscle can generate through its full range of motion and is often measured in units of force such as pounds or newtons. Muscle strength is an important component of physical function and mobility, and it can be assessed through various tests, including manual muscle testing, dynamometry, and isokinetic testing. Factors that can affect muscle strength include age, sex, body composition, injury, disease, and physical activity level.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is a medical scoring system used to assess the severity of trauma in patients with multiple injuries. It's based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), which classifies each injury by body region on a scale from 1 (minor) to 6 (maximum severity).

The ISS is calculated by summing the squares of the highest AIS score in each of the three most severely injured body regions. The possible ISS ranges from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries. An ISS over 15 is generally considered a significant injury, and an ISS over 25 is associated with a high risk of mortality. It's important to note that the ISS has limitations, as it doesn't consider the number or type of injuries within each body region, only the most severe one.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

In the field of dentistry, braces are devices used to align and straighten teeth and improve jaw position. They are typically made of metal or ceramic brackets that are bonded to the teeth, along with wires and rubber bands that apply pressure and move the teeth into proper alignment over time. The length of treatment with braces can vary but typically lasts from 1-3 years. Regular adjustments are necessary to ensure effective movement of the teeth.

The purpose of wearing braces is to correct malocclusions, such as overbites, underbites, crossbites, and open bites, as well as crowded or crooked teeth. This can lead to improved dental health, better oral function, and a more aesthetically pleasing smile. It's important to maintain good oral hygiene while wearing braces to prevent issues like tooth decay and gum disease. After the braces are removed, retainers may be used to maintain the new alignment of the teeth.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the knee joint. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of the smooth, cushioning cartilage that covers the ends of bones and allows for easy movement within joints. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also lead to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cysts in the joint. This condition is most commonly found in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or overuse. Risk factors include obesity, family history, previous joint injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joint. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

Robotics, in the medical context, refers to the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots in medical fields. These machines are capable of performing a variety of tasks that can aid or replicate human actions, often with high precision and accuracy. They can be used for various medical applications such as surgery, rehabilitation, prosthetics, patient care, and diagnostics. Surgical robotics, for example, allows surgeons to perform complex procedures with increased dexterity, control, and reduced fatigue, while minimizing invasiveness and improving patient outcomes.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

Bone screws are medical devices used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to affix bone fracture fragments or to attach bones to other bones or to metal implants such as plates, rods, or artificial joints. They are typically made of stainless steel or titanium alloys and have a threaded shaft that allows for purchase in the bone when tightened. The head of the screw may have a hexagonal or star-shaped design to allow for precise tightening with a screwdriver. Bone screws come in various shapes, sizes, and designs, including fully threaded, partially threaded, cannulated (hollow), and headless types, depending on their intended use and location in the body.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

A ganglion cyst is a type of fluid-filled sac that commonly develops on the back of the wrist, hands, or fingers. These cysts usually contain a clear, jelly-like material and are connected to a joint or tendon sheath. The exact cause of ganglion cysts is unknown, but they may form as a result of repetitive trauma or degeneration of the joint tissue.

Ganglion cysts can vary in size from small (pea-sized) to large (golf ball-sized). They are usually painless, but if they press on a nerve, they can cause tingling, numbness, or discomfort. In some cases, ganglion cysts may resolve on their own without treatment, while others may require medical intervention such as aspiration (draining the fluid) or surgical removal.

The term "stifle" is commonly used in veterinary medicine to refer to the joint in the leg of animals, specifically the knee joint in quadrupeds such as dogs and horses. In human anatomy, this joint is called the patellofemoral joint or knee joint. The stifle is a complex joint made up of several bones, including the femur, tibia, and patella (kneecap), as well as various ligaments, tendons, and cartilage that provide stability and support. Injuries or diseases affecting the stifle can cause lameness, pain, and decreased mobility in animals.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Debridement is a medical procedure that involves the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing process or prevent further infection. This can be done through various methods such as surgical debridement (removal of tissue using scalpel or scissors), mechanical debridement (use of wound irrigation or high-pressure water jet), autolytic debridement (using the body's own enzymes to break down and reabsorb dead tissue), and enzymatic debridement (application of topical enzymes to dissolve necrotic tissue). The goal of debridement is to promote healthy tissue growth, reduce the risk of infection, and improve overall wound healing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soccer" is not a medical term. It is the common name for the sport also known as football in many parts of the world. The official name of the sport in the United States and Canada is "soccer," which helps distinguish it from other forms of football that involve carrying the ball, such as American football or Canadian football.

If you have any medical questions or terms you'd like defined, I'd be happy to help!

I apologize for any confusion, but "Basketball" is a sports game and not a medical term. It involves two teams of five players each trying to score points by throwing a ball through a hoop 18 inches (46 cm) in diameter and 10 feet (3.05 meters) high mounted on a backboard at each end of the court.

If you have any medical questions or terms, I would be happy to help define those for you.

The periodontal ligament, also known as the "PDL," is the soft tissue that connects the tooth root to the alveolar bone within the dental alveolus (socket). It consists of collagen fibers organized into groups called principal fibers and accessory fibers. These fibers are embedded into both the cementum of the tooth root and the alveolar bone, providing shock absorption during biting and chewing forces, allowing for slight tooth movement, and maintaining the tooth in its position within the socket.

The periodontal ligament plays a crucial role in the health and maintenance of the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), cementum, alveolar bone, and the periodontal ligament itself. Inflammation or infection of the periodontal ligament can lead to periodontal disease, potentially causing tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Knee dislocation is a serious and uncommon orthopedic injury that occurs when the bones that form the knee joint (femur, tibia, and patella) are forced out of their normal position due to extreme trauma or force. This injury often requires immediate medical attention and reduction (repositioning) by a healthcare professional. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as compartment syndrome, nerve damage, and long-term joint instability. It's important to note that knee dislocation is different from a kneecap (patellar) dislocation, which involves the patella sliding out of its groove in the femur.

Tenodesis is a surgical procedure where a damaged or torn tendon is attached to a nearby bone using sutures, anchors, or screws. The term specifically refers to the surgical fixation of a tendon to a bone. This procedure is often performed to treat injuries of the shoulder or wrist, such as rotator cuff tears or distal biceps tendon ruptures.

The goal of tenodesis is to provide stability and restore function to the affected joint by creating a new, stable attachment point for the tendon. This procedure can help reduce pain, improve strength, and enhance overall joint mobility. It is typically recommended when non-surgical treatments have failed or are not appropriate for the patient's injury.

It is important to note that tenodesis should not be confused with tenotomy, which is a surgical procedure where a tendon is cut to release tension and improve mobility in a joint.

A nerve block is a medical procedure in which an anesthetic or neurolytic agent is injected near a specific nerve or bundle of nerves to block the transmission of pain signals from that area to the brain. This technique can be used for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes, such as identifying the source of pain, providing temporary or prolonged relief, or facilitating surgical procedures in the affected region.

The injection typically contains a local anesthetic like lidocaine or bupivacaine, which numbs the nerve, preventing it from transmitting pain signals. In some cases, steroids may also be added to reduce inflammation and provide longer-lasting relief. Depending on the type of nerve block and its intended use, the injection might be administered close to the spine (neuraxial blocks), at peripheral nerves (peripheral nerve blocks), or around the sympathetic nervous system (sympathetic nerve blocks).

While nerve blocks are generally safe, they can have side effects such as infection, bleeding, nerve damage, or in rare cases, systemic toxicity from the anesthetic agent. It is essential to consult with a qualified medical professional before undergoing this procedure to ensure proper evaluation, technique, and post-procedure care.

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) refers to the use of computer systems and technologies to assist and enhance surgical procedures. These systems can include a variety of tools such as imaging software, robotic systems, and navigation devices that help surgeons plan, guide, and perform surgeries with greater precision and accuracy.

In CAS, preoperative images such as CT scans or MRI images are used to create a three-dimensional model of the surgical site. This model can be used to plan the surgery, identify potential challenges, and determine the optimal approach. During the surgery, the surgeon can use the computer system to navigate and guide instruments with real-time feedback, allowing for more precise movements and reduced risk of complications.

Robotic systems can also be used in CAS to perform minimally invasive procedures with smaller incisions and faster recovery times. The surgeon controls the robotic arms from a console, allowing for greater range of motion and accuracy than traditional hand-held instruments.

Overall, computer-assisted surgery provides a number of benefits over traditional surgical techniques, including improved precision, reduced risk of complications, and faster recovery times for patients.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It provides a cushion between bones and allows for smooth movement by reducing friction. Articular cartilage also absorbs shock and distributes loads evenly across the joint, protecting the bones from damage. It is avascular, meaning it does not have its own blood supply, and relies on the surrounding synovial fluid for nutrients. Over time, articular cartilage can wear down or become damaged due to injury or disease, leading to conditions such as osteoarthritis.

Patellar dislocation is a medical condition characterized by the displacement of the patella (kneecap) from its normal position in the femoral groove, which is a part of the femur (thighbone). This displacement usually occurs laterally, meaning that the patella moves toward the outer side of the knee.

Patellar dislocation can happen as a result of direct trauma or due to various factors that increase the laxity of the medial patellofemoral ligament and tightness of the lateral structures, leading to abnormal tracking of the patella. These factors include anatomical variations, muscle imbalances, genetic predisposition, or degenerative changes in the knee joint.

Dislocation of the patella can cause pain, swelling, and difficulty in moving the knee. In some cases, it might be associated with other injuries such as fractures or damage to the articular cartilage and surrounding soft tissues. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment, which may involve reduction, immobilization, physical therapy, bracing, or even surgery in severe cases.

Collateral ligaments are a pair of strong bands of tissue located on the lateral (outer) and medial (inner) sides of joints, particularly in the knee and ankle. They help to stabilize and limit the side-to-side movement of the joint by preventing excessive abnormal displacement or dislocation.

In the knee, there are two collateral ligaments:

1. Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL): It runs along the inner side of the knee and connects the femur (thigh bone) to the tibia (shin bone). The MCL helps to prevent excessive inward movement or valgus stress of the knee joint.
2. Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL): It is located on the outer side of the knee and connects the femur to the fibula (the smaller bone in the lower leg). The LCL helps to prevent excessive outward movement or varus stress of the knee joint.

In the ankle, there are also two collateral ligaments:

1. Deltoid Ligament: It is a group of ligaments located on the inner side of the ankle and connects the tibia to the talus (ankle bone) and calcaneus (heel bone). The deltoid ligament helps to prevent excessive inward movement or eversion of the ankle joint.
2. Anterior Talofibular Ligament: It is a ligament located on the outer side of the ankle, connecting the talus to the fibula. The anterior talofibular ligament helps to prevent excessive outward movement or inversion of the ankle joint.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Longitudinal ligaments, in the context of anatomy, refer to the fibrous bands that run lengthwise along the spine. They are named as such because they extend in the same direction as the long axis of the body. The main function of these ligaments is to provide stability and limit excessive movement in the spinal column.

There are three layers of longitudinal ligaments in the spine:

1. Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL): This ligament runs down the front of the vertebral bodies, attached to their anterior aspects. It helps to prevent hyperextension of the spine.
2. Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (PLL): The PLL is located on the posterior side of the vertebral bodies and extends from the axis (C2) to the sacrum. Its primary function is to limit hyperflexion of the spine.
3. Ligamentum Flavum: Although not strictly a 'longitudinal' ligament, it is often grouped with them due to its longitudinal orientation. The ligamentum flavum is a pair of elastic bands that connect adjacent laminae (posterior bony parts) of the vertebral arch in the spine. Its main function is to maintain tension and stability while allowing slight movement between the vertebrae.

These longitudinal ligaments play an essential role in maintaining spinal alignment, protecting the spinal cord, and facilitating controlled movements within the spine.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

Physical therapy modalities refer to the various forms of treatment that physical therapists use to help reduce pain, promote healing, and restore function to the body. These modalities can include:

1. Heat therapy: This includes the use of hot packs, paraffin baths, and infrared heat to increase blood flow, relax muscles, and relieve pain.
2. Cold therapy: Also known as cryotherapy, this involves the use of ice packs, cold compresses, or cooling gels to reduce inflammation, numb the area, and relieve pain.
3. Electrical stimulation: This uses electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles, which can help to reduce pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and function.
4. Ultrasound: This uses high-frequency sound waves to penetrate deep into tissues, increasing blood flow, reducing inflammation, and promoting healing.
5. Manual therapy: This includes techniques such as massage, joint mobilization, and stretching, which are used to improve range of motion, reduce pain, and promote relaxation.
6. Traction: This is a technique that uses gentle pulling on the spine or other joints to help relieve pressure and improve alignment.
7. Light therapy: Also known as phototherapy, this involves the use of low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation.
8. Therapeutic exercise: This includes a range of exercises that are designed to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, and help patients recover from injury or illness.

Physical therapy modalities are often used in combination with other treatments, such as manual therapy and therapeutic exercise, to provide a comprehensive approach to rehabilitation and pain management.

The acromioclavicular (AC) joint is the joint located between the acromion process of the scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (collarbone). It allows for a small amount of movement between these two bones and participates in shoulder motion. Injuries to this joint, such as AC joint separations or sprains, are common and can occur due to falls, direct blows, or repetitive motions that cause the ligaments that support the AC joint to become stretched or torn.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

Exercise therapy is a type of medical treatment that uses physical movement and exercise to improve a patient's physical functioning, mobility, and overall health. It is often used as a component of rehabilitation programs for individuals who have experienced injuries, illnesses, or surgeries that have impaired their ability to move and function normally.

Exercise therapy may involve a range of activities, including stretching, strengthening, balance training, aerobic exercise, and functional training. The specific exercises used will depend on the individual's needs, goals, and medical condition.

The benefits of exercise therapy include:

* Improved strength and flexibility
* Increased endurance and stamina
* Enhanced balance and coordination
* Reduced pain and inflammation
* Improved cardiovascular health
* Increased range of motion and joint mobility
* Better overall physical functioning and quality of life.

Exercise therapy is typically prescribed and supervised by a healthcare professional, such as a physical therapist or exercise physiologist, who has experience working with individuals with similar medical conditions. The healthcare professional will create an individualized exercise program based on the patient's needs and goals, and will provide guidance and support to ensure that the exercises are performed safely and effectively.

'Joint loose bodies' refer to free-floating fragments or particles within the joint space. These can be composed of cartilage, bone, or other synovial tissue debris. They can vary in size and number and may cause symptoms such as pain, locking, catching, or decreased range of motion due to mechanical interference with joint movement. Joint loose bodies are often associated with degenerative joint diseases like osteoarthritis but can also result from trauma or previous surgeries.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

The patellofemoral joint is the articulation between the patella (kneecap) and the femur (thigh bone). It is a synovial joint, which means it is surrounded by a joint capsule containing synovial fluid to lubricate the joint. This joint is responsible for providing stability to the knee extensor mechanism and allows for smooth movement of the patella during activities like walking, running, and jumping. Pain or dysfunction in this joint can result in various conditions such as patellofemoral pain syndrome, chondromalacia patella, or patellar dislocation.

Hemarthrosis is a medical term that refers to the presence of blood in a joint space. This condition usually occurs as a result of trauma or injury that causes bleeding into the joint, such as a fracture or dislocation. Certain medical conditions like hemophilia and other bleeding disorders can also make a person more prone to hemarthrosis.

The accumulation of blood in the joint space can cause pain, swelling, warmth, and stiffness, making it difficult for the individual to move the affected joint. In some cases, hemarthrosis may require medical intervention, such as draining the excess blood from the joint or administering clotting factors to help stop the bleeding. If left untreated, hemarthrosis can lead to complications like joint damage and chronic pain.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

The lateral ligaments of the ankle are a group of three major ligaments located on the outside (lateral) aspect of the ankle joint. They play a crucial role in maintaining the stability and integrity of the ankle joint by preventing excessive side-to-side movement or eversion of the foot. The three lateral ligaments are:

1. Anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL): This is the most commonly injured ligament among the three, as it is the weakest and thinnest. It connects the anterior aspect of the fibula (the lateral malleolus) to the talus bone in the ankle joint. The primary function of the ATFL is to prevent excessive anterior displacement or tilting of the talus bone.

2. Calcaneofibular ligament (CFL): This ligament connects the lateral aspect of the calcaneus (heel bone) to the fibula, preventing excessive inversion and rotation of the ankle joint. The CFL plays a significant role in maintaining the stability of the subtalar joint, which is located just below the ankle joint.

3. Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL): This is the strongest and thickest of the lateral ligaments. It connects the posterior aspect of the fibula to the talus bone, preventing excessive posterior displacement or tilting of the talus. The PTFL also helps to stabilize the ankle joint during plantarflexion (pointing the foot downward) movements.

Injuries to these lateral ligaments can occur due to sudden twisting motions, falls, or direct blows to the ankle, leading to conditions such as sprains or tears. Proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for ensuring optimal recovery and preventing long-term complications like chronic ankle instability.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

The carpometacarpal (CMC) joints are the articulations between the carpal bones of the wrist and the metacarpal bones of the hand. There are five CMC joints in total, with one located at the base of each finger and thumb. The CMC joint of the thumb, also known as the first CMC joint or trapeziometacarpal joint, is the most commonly affected by osteoarthritis. These joints play a crucial role in hand function and movement, allowing for various grips and grasping motions.

The trapezium bone is a carpal bone located in the wrist, more specifically in the proximal row of carpals. It is situated at the radial side (thumb side) of the wrist and articulates with the Scaphoid bone proximally, the First Metacarpal bone distally, and the Trapezoid and Capitate bones laterally. Its unique shape resembles that of a trapezoid, hence its name. The trapezium plays a crucial role in wrist movements, particularly in thumb abduction and opposition.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Homologous transplantation is a type of transplant surgery where organs or tissues are transferred between two genetically non-identical individuals of the same species. The term "homologous" refers to the similarity in structure and function of the donated organ or tissue to the recipient's own organ or tissue.

For example, a heart transplant from one human to another is an example of homologous transplantation because both organs are hearts and perform the same function. Similarly, a liver transplant, kidney transplant, lung transplant, and other types of organ transplants between individuals of the same species are also considered homologous transplantations.

Homologous transplantation is in contrast to heterologous or xenogeneic transplantation, where organs or tissues are transferred from one species to another, such as a pig heart transplanted into a human. Homologous transplantation is more commonly performed than heterologous transplantation due to the increased risk of rejection and other complications associated with xenogeneic transplants.

Joint diseases is a broad term that refers to various conditions affecting the joints, including but not limited to:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage and underlying bone, leading to pain, stiffness, and potential loss of function.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): An autoimmune disorder causing inflammation in the synovial membrane lining the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and joint damage if left untreated.
3. Infectious Arthritis: Joint inflammation caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream or directly enter the joint space.
4. Gout: A type of arthritis resulting from the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, typically affecting the big toe and characterized by sudden attacks of severe pain, redness, and swelling.
5. Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA): An inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis, causing symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints and surrounding tissues.
6. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): A group of chronic arthritis conditions affecting children, characterized by joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness.
7. Ankylosing Spondylitis: A form of arthritis primarily affecting the spine, causing inflammation, pain, and potential fusion of spinal vertebrae.
8. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain and swelling.
9. Tendinitis: Inflammation or degeneration of tendons, which connect muscles to bones, often resulting in pain and stiffness near joints.

These conditions can impact the function and mobility of affected joints, causing discomfort and limiting daily activities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing joint diseases and preserving joint health.

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"Risk and Gender Factors for Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury". The anterior cruciate ligament : reconstruction and ... An anterior cruciate ligament injury occurs when the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is either stretched, partially torn, or ... MRI for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury at eMedicine Rohman EM, Macalena JA (June 2016). "Anterior cruciate ligament ... to Sport After Pediatric Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction and Its Effect on Subsequent Anterior Cruciate Ligament ...
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The primary usage of modern artificial ligaments is in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Many artificial ligaments ... "LARS Artificial Ligament Versus ABC Purely Polyester Ligament for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction". Orthopaedic ... Today, the most common use of artificial ligaments is in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Although ... "A new generation of artificial ligaments in reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament. Two-year follow-up of a ...
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... such as anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. More subtle origins of fibrotic contracture in the anterior interval ... "Arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic extension block complicating anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction". Am J Sports Med ... Anterior interval release (AIR) is a type of arthroscopic knee surgery performed to alleviate pain and associated symptoms ... Diagnosis of arthrofibrosis or scar tissue in the anterior interval can consist of clinical signs such as a positive Hoffa test ...
"Arthroscopic treatment of symptomatic extension block complicating anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction". The American ... Steadman JR, Dragoo JL, Hines SL, Briggs KK (September 2008). "Arthroscopic release for symptomatic scarring of the anterior ...
... or Closed-Kinetic Chain Exercises After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction?" (PDF). Exercise and Sport Sciences Reviews ...
Lepley, L.K. (2013). "Effect of Eccentric Strengthening After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction on Quadriceps Strength ... "After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Effects of Early Progressive Eccentric Exercise on Muscle Structure". The ... "After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Effects of Early Progressive Eccentric Exercise on Muscle Structure". The ... Tearing an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee causes serious damage that can last several years and often requires ...
... tendon autografts has been used commonly and successfully for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Sufficient graft size ... "Quadruple-Bundle Semitendinosus-Gracilis Graft Technique for All-Inside Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction". Arthroscopy ... Anterior views. Semimembranosus Biceps femoris This article incorporates text in the public domain from page 479 of the 20th ... Along with patellar ligament and quadriceps femoris, semitendinosus/gracilis (STG) ...
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Mar 2014). ""Variables associated with return to sport following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction " a systematic ... and persisten knee symptoms are common factors for lack of return to sport after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction". ...
"Roofplasty requirements in vitro for different tibial hole placements in anterior cruciate ligament reconstructions". Am. J. ... Berns, GS; Hull, ML; Patterson, HA (1992). "Strain in the anteromedial bundle of the anterior cruciate ligament under ... Howell, SM; Berns, GS; Farley, TE (1991). "Unimpinged and impinged anterior cruciate ligament grafts: MR signal intensity ... Hull, ML; Berns, GS; Varma, H; Patterson, HA (1996). "1996 Strain in the medial collateral ligament of the human knee under ...
While changing direction, Ennis snapped his anterior cruciate ligament and required a full knee reconstruction. Ennis missed ...
... by assessing limb symmetry after an anterior cruciate ligament injury or following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. ... landing and postural stability predict second anterior cruciate ligament injury after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction ... "Single-legged hop tests as predictors of self-reported knee function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The ... "Single-legged hop tests as predictors of self-reported knee function after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: The ...
"The effect of cryotherapy on intraarticular temperature and postoperative care after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction ... The therapy is especially useful for sprains, strains, pulled muscles and pulled ligaments. Cold compression is a combination ...
In her second season, Leslie injured her knee, and required Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. As the surgery ...
Lee BI, Min KD, Choi HS, Kim JB, Kim ST (2006). "Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with the tibial-remnant ...
Anterior cruciate ligament injury Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction Shelbourne K, Nitz P (1991). "The O'Donoghue triad ... The medial collateral ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, anterior cruciate ligament, and lateral collateral ligament are ... "tibial collateral ligament") The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four crucial ligaments in the knee. It originates ... Injury An anterior cruciate ligament injury results from excess tension on the ligament. This can come from a sudden stop or ...
"Assessment of the quality and content of information on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction on the internet". Arthroscopy ...
However he suffered a severe knee injury and required a knee anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. This was later ... 9 March 2002 List of players who have previously undergone ACL reconstruction Archived 29 September 2011 at the Wayback Machine ...
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The procedures are more commonly performed to treat meniscus injury and to perform anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. ... Surgeons view the joint area on a video monitor, and can diagnose and repair torn joint tissue, such as ligaments. It is ... Torn knee cartilage or ligaments previously would require an arthrotomy procedure and might mean a year or more of rehab or the ... Many invasive spine procedures involve the removal of bone, muscle, and ligaments to access and treat problematic areas. In ...
Most notably, he is renowned for pioneering the technique and concepts of anatomic anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. ... a Chinese educator and organiser who turned to the villages of China to organise Rural Reconstruction, most famously at Ding ...
In June 2005, Lassila suffered a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and underwent knee reconstruction using an allograft ...
In his four years in the minors, he has had anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, and Tommy John surgery. McCrory began ...
Later scans revealed Ball had ruptured his anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), requiring a knee reconstruction & ending his ... Ball returned from a knee reconstruction in round eight against Geelong. In his second game back in round nine Ball managed to ... His return season from a knee reconstruction saw Ball play 13 games and averaged 23.4 disposals. At the end of the season, ...
... by muscle and tendon after topical or oral administration in patients undergoing anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction". ...
Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL reconstruction) is a surgical tissue graft replacement of the anterior cruciate ... Anterior Cruciate Ligament damage is a very common injury, especially among athletes. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction ... "Ligament tissue engineering and its potential role in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction". Stem Cells International. ... Bonsell S (October 2000). "Financial analysis of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction at Baylor University Medical Center ...
... The anterior cruciate ligament is the main internal stabiliser of the knee. It ... Techniques in ACL reconstruction have rapidly advanced in recent years. I can offer the very latest "AM portal" technique which ... To get the best result following ACL reconstruction - you must ensure that the quadriceps and hamstrings are at their strongest ... If you want to return to sport which involves changing direction quickly - then you probably require and ACL reconstruction. ...
Follow Andrew Boyd as he rehabilitates from his Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) knee injury. See how he injured himself and ... My Story: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction. This entry was posted in Conditions My Story Treatments and tagged ... My Story: Andrew Boyd completely ruptured his Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) playing rugby in July. He had a surgical repair ...
Manifestations of this form of arthritis range from no symptoms to vague anterior knee pain to severe difficulties with stair ... Association with anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Some orthopedists believe that reconstruction of the anterior ... The incidence of patellofemoral osteoarthritis and associated findings 7 years after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction ... Chronic posterior cruciate ligament injury can lead to instability and pressure on the patellofemoral joint, causing arthritis ...
... Comparing Transtibial and Anteromedial Drilling Techniques for Single-bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Erhan ... Among the many factors that determine the outcome following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the position of ... Keywords: Anterior cruciate ligament, Anteromedial portal, Drilling, Femoral tunnel, Graft, Transtibial technique.. ...
Increasing rates of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in young Australians, 2000-2015. ...
Comparative analysis of the results of ACL surgical reconstruction in 390 patients using standard arthroscopic techniques and ... reconstruction is a common procedure in our country and abroad as well. Patients undergoing such surgery are as a rule young ... ACL1.2 program version for ACL autoplasty in comparison with the standard arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. ... Comparative analysis of standard anterior cruciate ligament arthroscopic reconstruction and anterior cruciate ligament ...
Changes in motor-flexibility following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as measured by means of a leg-amplitude ... In the current study changes in lower-limb motor flexibility of patients undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction ... While gait kinematics may not show motor-flexibility changes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, a leg- ...
ClinicalTrials.gov: Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (National Institutes of Health) * ClinicalTrials.gov: Articular ... Anterior crucate ligament (ACL) injury (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury -- ... Injuries to ligaments and tendons also cause knee problems. A common injury is to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). You ... Article: Functional outcomes of accelerated rehabilitation protocol for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction... ...
To review the studies about the tibial-graft fixation methods on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, in order to ... Research progress of tibial-graft fixation methods on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction]. ... Research progress of tibial-graft fixation methods on anterior cruciate ligament reconstr ... Lesões do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior; Reconstrução do Ligamento Cruzado Anterior; Humanos; Tíbia/cirurgia; Articulação do ...
On November 1, 2013, the patient underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. On November 28, 2013, he underwent ... Arthroscopy indicated that the anterior cruciate ligament graft was intact. However, the synovial fluid was turbid, and ...
Biceps femoris architecture and strength in Athletes with a previous anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Med Sci Sports ... there a potential relationship between prior hamstring strain injury and increased risk for future anterior cruciate ligament ...
Effect of Graft Inclination Angle on Knee Kinematics in Single-Bundle Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction 2015 Congress ... Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Affects Tibiofemoral Subchondral Bone Congruency during Dynamic Functional Movement ... Reconstruction Posterolateral Corner Instability Dislocation PCL MC Ligament LC Ligament ... Knee Ligaments Repair / Reconstruction ACL Instability Dislocation Autograft MRI PCL Posterolateral Corner ...
Return-to-Sport Outcomes at 2 to 7 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery. Am. J. Sports Med 2011;20(10 ... Home » anterior cruciate ligament » Less Than 50% Return To Sport At Pre-Injury Level After ACL Surgery ... ACL Reconstruction Using Cadaver Replacement Ligaments Not Best Choice For Young Athletes, Study Says ... This means 12 months is too early to judge the success of ACL reconstruction surgery for an individual patient. ...
The Effect of Obesity on Operative Times and 30-Day Readmissions After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Arthroscopy. ... Conversion rates and timing to total knee arthroplasty following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction: a US population- ... Evaluating the Femoral-Side Critical Corner in Posterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction: The Effect of Outside-In Versus ... Effect of Ulnar Collateral Ligament Reconstruction on Pitch Accuracy, Velocity, and Movement in Major League Baseball Pitchers ...
Electrical Stimulation of the Thing Muscles after Reconstruction of the Anterior Cruciate Ligament. Effects of Electrically ... but are thought to be due to muscle strain or injury to ligaments [8] [9] . Other causes such as fibromyalgia and somatoform ...
... anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, knee arthroplasty, and cholecystectomy), limiting generalizability to other surgical ...
ACL Reconstruction. Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a surgical procedure designed to repair a torn or ... injured ACL, a crucial ligament in the knee. It involves using a graft of new tissue, typically a tendon, taken from another ...
Walking Speed As a Potential Indicator of Cartilage Breakdown Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. Arthritis ...
... anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; meniscal surgery; cartilage resection; synovectomy and diagnostic arthroscopy ... anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; meniscal surgery; cartilage resection; synovectomy and diagnostic arthroscopy ... anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction; meniscal surgery; cartilage resection; synovectomy and diagnostic arthroscopy ... This trend was more pronounced for ACL reconstruction, which recorded an increase from 86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 75-99 ...
... and Traditional Heavy Load Resistance Training in the Post-Surgery Rehabilitation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction ... Optimising the Early-Stage Rehabilitation Process Post-ACL Reconstruction. Buckthorpe M, Gokeler A, Herrington L, Hughes M, ...
... include anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, treatment of meniscal pathology, removal of loose bodies, and limited or ... such as a torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. A torn meniscus in the knee is usually treated by arthroscopic ... A sprain is a stretch or tear of a ligament. A ligament is a band of connective tissue that joins the end of one bone to ... Similar to the ligaments of the shoulder, ligaments in the elbow provide stability to the joint. The most common elbow problems ...
The 21-year old will go in on Saturday for an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction and is facing a six-month lay off ... "The underlying ligament damage is a pre-existing condition which hasnt prevented him from functioning at the highest level ... which has developed as a direct result of the ligament laxity.. In light of the fact that he is playing and training at the top ... level of professional rugby, the medical experts have recommended the reconstruction in order to stabilise the laxity and ...
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction What is anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? Anterior cruciate ligament ...
... anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction surgery was performed on pediatric patients by avoiding new knee injuries, according ... Societal and Economic Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears. J Bone Joint Surg Am 2013;95:1751-9. ... A 2013 study in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery [1] found that ACL reconstruction was less costly (a cost reduction of $ ... Early ACL Reconstruction Strongly Recommended For Young Athletes, Study Says. *ACL Injury Epidemic, Early Specialization, Year- ...
... anterior cruciate ligament [ACL] reconstructions). However, such a block is a poor choice in knee arthroscopy because the ... Femoral block can provide excellent analgesia for anterior cruciate ligament repairs with patella tendon grafts. [61] For more ... superior analgesia compared with continuous intra-articular and wound infusion after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction ... bupivacaine improves postoperative analgesia following outpatient arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament repair. Reg Anesth ...
... rotational stability of the knee joint after single-bundle and double-bundle reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament ...
O0808 Oct.3: 3:15pm - Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction in the Pediatric Population: Outcomes of Quadriceps Versus ... has suggested reduced donor site pain and equivalent/improved functional outcomes in adults undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR ... ACLR from 1/2018-8/2019 at a single tertiary care childrens hospital without concomitant multiligamentous reconstruction was ...
Dykes sees patients for any spine, bone or joint condition, and specializes in reconstruction of the shoulder, hip, and knee, ... ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Reconstruction ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) Repair ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) repair ... Dykes sees patients for any spine, bone or joint condition, and specializes in reconstruction of the shoulder, hip, and knee, ...
Kelsey sustained an injury to her anterior cruciate ligament (ACL); one of the key ligaments that help stabilize the knee joint ... Should MPFL reconstruction be paired with an osteotomy?. February 20, 2024. *The Medial Patellofemoral Ligament (MPFL): The ...
  • Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL reconstruction) is a surgical tissue graft replacement of the anterior cruciate ligament, located in the knee, to restore its function after an injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • The torn ligament can either be removed from the knee (most common), or preserved (where the graft is passed inside the preserved ruptured native ligament) before reconstruction through an arthroscopic procedure. (wikipedia.org)
  • Graft options for ACL reconstruction include: Autografts (employing bone or tissue harvested from the patient's body). (wikipedia.org)
  • Evidence suggests that the hamstring tendon graft does as well, or nearly as well, as the patellar ligament graft in the long term. (wikipedia.org)
  • The wound is typically smaller than that of a patellar ligament graft, and so causes less post-operative pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Another option first described in 2004, a minimally invasive technique for harvesting from the back of the knee, is faster, produces a significantly smaller wound, avoids the complications of graft harvesting from the anterior incision, and decreases the risk of nerve injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • Macro and microscopic asse-ssment of the state of the graft after arthroscopic reco-nstruction of the ante-rior cruciate liga-ment of the knee joint with a quadriceps tendon auto-graft. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Amis A., Jakob R. Anterior cruciate ligament graft positioning, tension and twisting. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Research progress of tibial-graft fixation methods on anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction]. (bvsalud.org)
  • To review the studies about the tibial- graft fixation methods on anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, in order to provide clinical reference. (bvsalud.org)
  • The literature about the tibial- graft fixation methods on ACL reconstruction at home and abroad was extensively reviewed, and the factors that affect the selection of fixation methods were summarized. (bvsalud.org)
  • The knee flexion angle, graft tension, and graft fixation device are mainly considered when the tibial- graft was fixed on ACL reconstruction. (bvsalud.org)
  • In terms of the graft device , the interference screw is still the most commonly used method of tibial- graft fixation, with the development of all-inside ACL reconstruction in recent years, the cortical button fixation may become the mainstream. (bvsalud.org)
  • Arthroscopy indicated that the anterior cruciate ligament graft was intact. (cdc.gov)
  • Background/Purpose: Emerging evidence has suggested reduced donor site pain and equivalent/improved functional outcomes in adults undergoing ACL reconstruction (ACLR) with quadriceps (QT) autograft versus hamstrings (HT) and bone-tendon-bone grafts has prompted changing graft choices at our institution (Figure 1). (eventscribe.net)
  • The four major ligaments of the knee are anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, medial collateral ligament and lateral collateral ligament. (coralcoastorthopaedics.com.au)
  • The structures of the posterior lateral corner were torn, including the fibular collateral ligament and popliteus tendon (Figure 1). (medscape.com)
  • The patient was taken to the operating room for anterior and posterior cruciate ligament as well as posterolateral corner reconstruction, including biceps tendon repair by one surgeon (RGM). (medscape.com)
  • Knee Sprains and Meniscal Injuries Sprains of the external (medial and lateral collateral) or internal (anterior and posterior cruciate) ligaments or injuries of the menisci may result from knee trauma. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The lateral aspect of the trochlea, the vastus medialis, and the medial patella-femoral ligament prevent excessive lateral translation. (medscape.com)
  • The anatomy of the distal femur and the vastus lateralis and lateral patella-femoral ligaments provides restraints against medial subluxation. (medscape.com)
  • For females, delaying ACL reconstruction beyond 12 weeks results in an estimated 1,560 additional medial meniscal tears and 2,100 cartilage tears each year. (momsteam.com)
  • MRI indicated large areas of bone contusion on the anterior medial femoral condyle and tibial plateau. (medscape.com)
  • ACL injuries can be categorized into groups- contact and non-contact based on the nature of the injury Contact injuries occur when a person or object come into contact with the knee causing the ligament to tear. (wikipedia.org)
  • Injuries to ligaments and tendons also cause knee problems. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Nearly $30 million a year would be saved in hospital charges if early rather than delayed ACL (anterior cruciate ligament) reconstruction surgery was performed on pediatric patients by avoiding new knee injuries, according to a research paper presented at the American Orthopaedic Society for Sports Medicine's (AOSSM) 2010 Annual Meeting in Providence, Rhode Island. (momsteam.com)
  • A 14-year review of ACL reconstructions presented by the authors at the 2009 AOSSM Annual Meeting revealed a 4 to 11-fold increase in meniscal and cartilage injuries with a greater than 12 week delay in ACL treatment. (momsteam.com)
  • Depending on the patients target activity level, concomitant injuries, and degree of knee laxity - treatment will often involve surgical reconstruction of the torn ACL. (springeropen.com)
  • Overall, 209 (9.5%) of 2192 initial anterior cruciate ligament injuries resulted in a permanent disability discharge. (cdc.gov)
  • An instrument used to assess the results of rehabilitation from knee injuries, especially those requiring ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT RECONSTRUCTION. (bvsalud.org)
  • Multi-ligament knee injury is a complex and difficult injury to manage, particularly when there are associated nerve or vascular injuries. (medscape.com)
  • Identical groups of 100,000 patients, representative of the U.S. population were simulated to undergo either early or delayed ACL reconstruction, with the secondary meniscal and cartilage damage and hospital charges compared between the two groups. (momsteam.com)
  • Optimising the Early-Stage Rehabilitation Process Post-ACL Reconstruction. (nih.gov)
  • Comparing the Effectiveness of Blood Flow Restriction and Traditional Heavy Load Resistance Training in the Post-Surgery Rehabilitation of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Patients: A UK National Health Service Randomised Controlled Trial. (nih.gov)
  • A 2013 study in the Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery [1] found that ACL reconstruction was less costly (a cost reduction of $4,503) and more effective in terms of quality of life compared with rehabilitation because of the higher probability of an unstable knee associated with rehabilitation. (momsteam.com)
  • In the long term, the mean lifetime cost to society for a typical patient undergoing ACL reconstruction was less than half that for rehabilitation ($38,121 versus $88,538), 'demonstrat[ing] that access to ACL reconstruction is critical to optimal societal health-care delivery,' the study concluded. (momsteam.com)
  • Functional recovery has for long been the focus of rehabilitation after an Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury. (springeropen.com)
  • The study analysed data from the KANON randomised controlled trial, the first to randomise people with ACL rupture to management with early ACL reconstruction, or rehabilitation and optional delayed surgery. (lu.se)
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (ACL) surgery is a common intervention. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Unlike the patellar ligament, the hamstring tendon's fixation to the bone can be affected by motion after surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Less than half of athletes return to their pre-injury level or to competitive sports in the period 2 to 7 years after ACL reconstruction surgery, although younger athletes return at a higher rate, reports a new Australian study. (momsteam.com)
  • This means 12 months is too early to judge the success of ACL reconstruction surgery for an individual patient. (momsteam.com)
  • 1. Arden CL, Taylor N, Feller J, Webster K. Return-to-Sport Outcomes at 2 to 7 Years After Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgery. (momsteam.com)
  • A prospective longitudinal study to assess psychological changes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction surgery. (bvsalud.org)
  • The AMP technique is superior to the TT technique in creating anatomical femoral tunnel placement during single-bundle ACL reconstruction and provides faster recovery in terms of return to normal life and jogging at short-term follow-up. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • All patients accepted arthroscopic single-bundle ACL reconstruction and ALS reconstruction using hamstring autograft through a modified single femoral tunnel. (who.int)
  • Single-bundle Achilles tendon allografts were used for both ACL and PCL reconstructions, with an arthroscopic, trans-tibial PCL technique. (medscape.com)
  • We aimed to retrospectively compare the outcomes of arthroscopic ACL reconstruction using transtibial (TT) or anteromedial (AMP) drilling techniques for femoral tunnel placement. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • The study shows significant clinical improvement in patients operated on with the use of computer navigation OrthoPilot, B. Braun - Aesculap, FRG, ACL1.2 program version for ACL autoplasty in comparison with the standard arthroscopic ACL reconstruction. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Your knee joint is made up of bone, cartilage, ligaments and fluid. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Walking Speed As a Potential Indicator of Cartilage Breakdown Following Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. (umassmed.edu)
  • Coronal MRI demonstrating bi-cruciate and lateral side disruptions. (medscape.com)
  • [ 1 ] Lateral side reconstruction was performed using the anatomic technique described by Schechinger et al. (medscape.com)
  • Lateral side reconstruction using a single Achilles tendon allograft. (medscape.com)
  • ACL reconstruction was performed using the TT technique in 49 patients and the AMP technique in 56 patients. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • Comparative analysis of the results of ACL surgical reconstruction in 390 patients using standard arthroscopic techniques and computer navigation was carried out. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Background: In the current study changes in lower-limb motor flexibility of patients undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction were evaluated in relation to fear of harm. (ru.nl)
  • This trend was more pronounced for ACL reconstruction, which recorded an increase from 86 (95% confidence interval (CI): 75-99) in 2006 to 278 (95% CI: 255-301) in 2018, corresponding to 9% and 28% of ACL patients, respectively. (lu.se)
  • A retrospective cohort analysis of pediatric patients (≤18 years) undergoing primary transphyseal ACLR from 1/2018-8/2019 at a single tertiary care children's hospital without concomitant multiligamentous reconstruction was conducted. (eventscribe.net)
  • Dr. Dykes sees patients for any spine, bone or joint condition, and specializes in reconstruction of the shoulder, hip, and knee, including total joint replacement. (alabamaboneandjoint.com)
  • Societal and Economic Impact of Anterior Cruciate Ligament Tears. (momsteam.com)
  • The rate of return to competitive sport increases over time: at 12 months, 33% had returned, at 39 months, the rate was 46%, a finding the authors said supported the notion that 12 months' follow-up was too early to accurately evaluate the return-to-sport outcomes after ACL reconstruction. (momsteam.com)
  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a surgical procedure designed to repair a torn or injured ACL, a crucial ligament in the knee. (ramsayhealth.co.uk)
  • ACL reconstruction involves the removal of the torn ACL and replacing it with tissue (typically from the patient's hamstring or patella tendon), in an attempt to replicate the native ACL. (lu.se)
  • Anterior Cruciate Ligament damage is a very common injury, especially among athletes. (wikipedia.org)
  • A common injury is to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Occupational disability after hospitalization for the treatment of an injury of the anterior cruciate ligament. (cdc.gov)
  • To date, no large population-based studies have focused on permanent occupational disability after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament as far as we know. (cdc.gov)
  • The purpose of our study was to determine the risk factors for occupational disability after an injury of the anterior cruciate ligament. (cdc.gov)
  • We identified a cohort of 2192 active-duty personnel in the Army who had been hospitalized between 1989 and 1997 because of an injury of the anterior cruciate ligament and had completed a health risk-assessment survey. (cdc.gov)
  • These data were then evaluated with bivariate and proportional-hazards regression analyses to identify risk factors for receiving a disability discharge related to an injury of the anterior cruciate ligament. (cdc.gov)
  • In keeping with risk profiles of several other musculoskeletal disorders, such as low-back pain and carpal tunnel syndrome, the results revealed a multifactorial risk profile in which psychosocial factors were strongly associated with disability discharge from active military duty after injury of the anterior cruciate ligament. (cdc.gov)
  • Joint instability due to extensive ligament injury is a common long-term complication of knee injury. (msdmanuals.com)
  • To get the best result following ACL reconstruction - you must ensure that the quadriceps and hamstrings are at their strongest and that you have a full range of movement of the knee. (yarmouthkneeandhipsurgeon.co.uk)
  • citation needed] An accessory hamstring or part of the patellar ligament are the most common donor tissues used in autografts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interpretation: While gait kinematics may not show motor-flexibility changes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, a leg-amplitude differentiation task does show such changes. (ru.nl)
  • [ 2 ] The bone plug of the Achilles was inserted in the popliteus origin at the anterior aspect of the popliteus sulcus. (medscape.com)
  • Arthroscopic reconstruction is the main treatment of ACL rupture at present. (bvsalud.org)
  • Among the many factors that determine the outcome following anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction, the position of the femoral tunnel is known to be critically important and is still the subject of extensive research. (openorthopaedicsjournal.com)
  • My Story: Andrew Boyd completely ruptured his Anterior Cruciate Ligament ( ACL ) playing rugby in July. (biaphysio.com)
  • In light of the fact that he is playing and training at the top level of professional rugby, the medical experts have recommended the reconstruction in order to stabilise the laxity and offset further degenerative damage in thefuture. (ospreysrugby.com)
  • Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure in our country and abroad as well. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Venel award 2017 (Swiss orthopedics clinical research award) for 'Long-Term Restoration of Anterior Shoulder Stability: A Retrospective Analysis of Arthroscopic Bankart Repair Versus Open Latarjet Procedure. (balgrist.ch)
  • however, with the numbers available, other variables that were hypothesized to contribute to the development of disability, such as gender (p = 0.85), reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament (p = 0.52), and other secondary comorbidities of the knee, demonstrated no significant association. (cdc.gov)
  • one of the key ligaments that help stabilize the knee joint, and a crucial part of Kelsey being able to race. (bsmfoundation.ca)
  • The most common treatment is ACL reconstruction, which is based on the assumption that a ruptured ACL will not heal naturally. (lu.se)
  • This involves repairing the ACL by re-attaching it, instead of performing a reconstruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • If you want to return to sport which involves changing direction quickly - then you probably require and ACL reconstruction. (yarmouthkneeandhipsurgeon.co.uk)
  • As part of our routine checks, we have picked up the start of somecartilage damage, which has developed as a direct result of the ligament laxity. (ospreysrugby.com)
  • On November 1, 2013, the patient underwent anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. (cdc.gov)
  • The anterior cruciate ligament is the main internal stabiliser of the knee. (yarmouthkneeandhipsurgeon.co.uk)
  • The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), is the main stabilising ligament in the knee. (lu.se)
  • Synthetic tissue for ACL reconstruction has also been developed, but little data exists on its strength and reliability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The underlying ligament damage is a pre-existing condition which hasn't prevented him from functioning at the highest level despite being ACL deficient. (ospreysrugby.com)
  • Techniques in ACL reconstruction have rapidly advanced in recent years. (yarmouthkneeandhipsurgeon.co.uk)
  • Eichhorn J. Three years of experience with computer navigation assisted positioning of drilling tunnels in anterior cruciate ligament replacement. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Is good muscle function a protective factor for early signs of knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? (lu.se)
  • Previous studies by the same Australian researchers showed that the rate of return to competitive sport at 12 months after ACL reconstruction at between 49% and 92%, depending on how return to competitive sport was defined. (momsteam.com)
  • [ 1 ] Manifestations of this form of arthritis range from no symptoms to vague anterior knee pain to severe difficulties with stair climbing and ambulation. (medscape.com)