A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the posteromedial portion of the lateral condyle of the femur, passes anteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the depression in front of the intercondylar eminence of the tibia.
Rebuilding of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT to restore functional stability of the knee. AUTOGRAFTING or ALLOGRAFTING of tissues is often used.
Injuries to the knee or the knee joint.
A strong ligament of the knee that originates from the anterolateral surface of the medial condyle of the femur, passes posteriorly and inferiorly between the condyles, and attaches to the posterior intercondylar area of the tibia.
Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.
Shiny, flexible bands of fibrous tissue connecting together articular extremities of bones. They are pliant, tough, and inextensile.
Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Fixation of the ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT, during surgical reconstruction, by the use of a bone-patellar tendon graft.
Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.
A band of fibrous tissue that attaches the apex of the PATELLA to the lower part of the tubercle of the TIBIA. The ligament is actually the caudal continuation of the common tendon of the QUADRICEPS FEMORIS. The patella is embedded in that tendon. As such, the patellar ligament can be thought of as connecting the quadriceps femoris tendon to the tibia, and therefore it is sometimes called the patellar tendon.
The interarticular fibrocartilages of the superior surface of the tibia.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.
The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
Nodular tumor-like lesions or mucoid flesh, arising from tendon sheaths, LIGAMENTS, or JOINT CAPSULE, especially of the hands, wrists, or feet. They are not true cysts as they lack epithelial wall. They are distinguished from SYNOVIAL CYSTS by the lack of communication with a joint cavity or the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE.
In horses, cattle, and other quadrupeds, the joint between the femur and the tibia, corresponding to the human knee.
Surgical procedure by which a tendon is incised at its insertion and placed at an anatomical site distant from the original insertion. The tendon remains attached at the point of origin and takes over the function of a muscle inactivated by trauma or disease.
The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.
The ligament that travels from the medial epicondyle of the FEMUR to the medial margin and medial surface of the TIBIA. The medial meniscus is attached to its deep surface.
A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.
The flat, triangular bone situated at the anterior part of the KNEE.
A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.
A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.
The fibrous CONNECTIVE TISSUE surrounding the TOOTH ROOT, separating it from and attaching it to the alveolar bone (ALVEOLAR PROCESS).
A dead body, usually a human body.
The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.
Two extensive fibrous bands running the length of the vertebral column. The anterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale anterius; lacertus medius) interconnects the anterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies; the posterior longitudinal ligament (ligamentum longitudinale posterius) interconnects the posterior surfaces. The commonest clinical consideration is OSSIFICATION OF POSTERIOR LONGITUDINAL LIGAMENT. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A protective layer of firm, flexible cartilage over the articulating ends of bones. It provides a smooth surface for joint movement, protecting the ends of long bones from wear at points of contact.
The quadriceps femoris. A collective name of the four-headed skeletal muscle of the thigh, comprised of the rectus femoris, vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis, and vastus medialis.
A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.
Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)
Measurements of joint flexibility (RANGE OF MOTION, ARTICULAR), usually by employing an angle-measuring device (arthrometer). Arthrometry is used to measure ligamentous laxity and stability. It is often used to evaluate the outcome of ANTERIOR CRUCIATE LIGAMENT replacement surgery.
The portion of the leg in humans and other animals found between the HIP and KNEE.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.
Bleeding into the joints. It may arise from trauma or spontaneously in patients with hemophilia.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.
'Joint diseases' is a broad term that refers to medical conditions causing inflammation, degeneration, or functional impairment in any part of a joint, including the cartilage, bone, ligament, tendon, or bursa, thereby affecting movement and potentially causing pain, stiffness, deformity, or reduced range of motion.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Transplantation of an individual's own tissue from one site to another site.
The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.
Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Implants constructed of materials designed to be absorbed by the body without producing an immune response. They are usually composed of plastics and are frequently used in orthopedics and orthodontics.
Pain in the joint.
Slippage of the FEMUR off the TIBIA.
Artificial substitutes for body parts, and materials inserted into tissue for functional, cosmetic, or therapeutic purposes. Prostheses can be functional, as in the case of artificial arms and legs, or cosmetic, as in the case of an artificial eye. Implants, all surgically inserted or grafted into the body, tend to be used therapeutically. IMPLANTS, EXPERIMENTAL is available for those used experimentally.
The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)
The grafting of bone from a donor site to a recipient site.
A calcification of the posterior longitudinal ligament of the spinal column, usually at the level of the cervical spine. It is often associated with anterior ankylosing hyperostosis.
Manner or style of walking.
A broad fold of peritoneum that extends from the side of the uterus to the wall of the pelvis.
An anatomic severity scale based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) and developed specifically to score multiple traumatic injuries. It has been used as a predictor of mortality.
Pathological processes involving the chondral tissue (CARTILAGE).
Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.
Methods of delivering drugs into a joint space.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
A preparation consisting of PLATELETS concentrated in a limited volume of PLASMA. This is used in various surgical tissue regeneration procedures where the GROWTH FACTORS in the platelets enhance wound healing and regeneration.
Carrying out of specific physical routines or procedures by one who is trained or skilled in physical activity. Performance is influenced by a combination of physiological, psychological, and socio-cultural factors.
Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Tissues, cells, or organs transplanted between genetically different individuals of the same species.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE. It contains mucin, albumin, fat, and mineral salts and serves to lubricate joints.
Organs, tissues, or cells taken from the body for grafting into another area of the same body or into another individual.
A nerve originating in the lumbar spinal cord (usually L2 to L4) and traveling through the lumbar plexus to provide motor innervation to extensors of the thigh and sensory innervation to parts of the thigh, lower leg, and foot, and to the hip and knee joints.
Fibrous, bony, cartilaginous and osteocartilaginous fragments in a synovial joint. Major causes are osteochondritis dissecans, synovial chondromatosis, osteophytes, fractured articular surfaces and damaged menisci.
The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.
Division of tissues by a high-frequency current applied locally with a metal instrument or needle. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.
Production of an image when x-rays strike a fluorescent screen.
The period following a surgical operation.
A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.
Replacement for a knee joint.
Surgical reconstruction of a joint to relieve pain or restore motion.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A fibromuscular band that attaches to the UTERUS and then passes along the BROAD LIGAMENT, out through the INGUINAL RING, and into the labium majus.
Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.
Injuries to the fibrous cords of connective tissue which attach muscles to bones or other structures.
Injuries resulting in hemorrhage, usually manifested in the skin.
Endoscopes for visualizing the interior of a joint.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Polyester polymers formed from terephthalic acid or its esters and ethylene glycol. They can be formed into tapes, films or pulled into fibers that are pressed into meshes or woven into fabrics.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.
Replacement of the knee joint.
Fixation of the end of a tendon to a bone, often by suturing.
A team sport in which two teams hit an inflated ball back and forth over a high net using their hands.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
LATERAL LIGAMENTS of the ANKLE JOINT. It includes inferior tibiofibular ligaments.
Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The removal of foreign material and devitalized or contaminated tissue from or adjacent to a traumatic or infected lesion until surrounding healthy tissue is exposed. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.
A followup operation to examine the outcome of the previous surgery and other treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.
A competitive team sport played on a rectangular field. This is the American or Canadian version of the game and also includes the form known as rugby. It does not include non-North American football (= SOCCER).
The head of a long bone that is separated from the shaft by the epiphyseal plate until bone growth stops. At that time, the plate disappears and the head and shaft are united.
A polypeptide substance comprising about one third of the total protein in mammalian organisms. It is the main constituent of SKIN; CONNECTIVE TISSUE; and the organic substance of bones (BONE AND BONES) and teeth (TOOTH).
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Diet modification and physical exercise to improve the ability to carry out daily tasks and perform physical activities.
Bony outgrowth usually found around joints and often seen in conditions such as ARTHRITIS.
Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)
A spiral thickening of the fibrous lining of the cochlear wall. Spiral ligament secures the membranous COCHLEAR DUCT to the bony spiral canal of the COCHLEA. Its spiral ligament fibrocytes function in conjunction with the STRIA VASCULARIS to mediate cochlear ion homeostasis.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
Inflammation of a synovial membrane. It is usually painful, particularly on motion, and is characterized by a fluctuating swelling due to effusion within a synovial sac. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
An absorbable suture material used also as ligating clips, as pins for internal fixation of broken bones, and as ligament reinforcement for surgically managed ligament injuries. Its promising characteristics are elasticity, complete biodegradability, and lack of side effects such as infections.
Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.

Reconstruction of the anterior cruciate ligament: comparison of outside-in and all-inside techniques. (1/1002)

The aim of this prospective study was to compare two arthroscopic techniques for reconstructing the anterior cruciate ligament, the "outside-in" (two incisions) and the "all-inside" (one incision) techniques. The results obtained for 30 patients operated on using the "outside-in" technique (group I) were compared with those for 29 patients operated on using the "all-inside" technique (group II). Before surgery, there were no significant differences between the groups in terms of Lysholm score, Tegner activity level, patellofemoral pain score, or knee laxity. Both groups displayed significant improvements in Lysholm score after 24 months, from 69 (16) to 91 (9) in group I and from 70 (17) to 90 (15) in group II (means (SD)). There were also significant improvements in patellofemoral pain scores in both groups, from 13 (6) to 18 (5) in group I and from 14 (6) to 18 (4) in group II after 24 months. No difference was found between the groups in knee stability at the 24 month follow up. The IKDC score was identical in both groups at follow up. The operation took significantly longer for patients in group I (mean 94 (15)) than for those in group II (mean 86 (20)) (p = 0.03). The mean sick leave was 7.7 (6.2) weeks in group I and 12.3 (9.7) weeks in group II (p = 0.026), indicating that there may be a higher morbidity associated with the "all-inside" technique. It can be concluded that there were no significant differences between the two different techniques in terms of functional results, knee laxity, or postoperative complications. The results were satisfactory and the outcome was similar in both treatment groups.  (+info)

Neurogenic origin of articular hyperemia in early degenerative joint disease. (2/1002)

It has been speculated that joint instability resulting from anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) rupture could be exacerbated by changes in vasomotor activity in the remaining supporting structures. In this study, the effect of ACL transection on medial collateral ligament (MCL) basal perfusion and its responsiveness to calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and sympathetic adrenergic influences was examined. Using urethan-anesthetized rabbits, we tested the effects of CGRP and its antagonist CGRP-(8-37) by topical application of these agents to the exposed knee while sympathetic influences were tested by electrically stimulating the saphenous nerve. It was found that MCL basal perfusion was elevated in ACL-sectioned joints; however, this effect was abrogated by prior resection of the articular nerve supply. At the doses tested, the normal vasodilator response to CGRP was abolished in ACL-sectioned joints, whereas the response to CGRP-(8-37) was attenuated. Even under the influence of increased constrictor tone, MCL and capsule blood vessels still showed substantially reduced responses to exogenous CGRP administration. By contrast, nerve-mediated constrictor responses were mostly unaffected by joint instability. This study suggests that posttraumatic knee joint hyperemia is neurogenically mediated, possibly by increased secretion of CGRP.  (+info)

Diacerhein treatment reduces the severity of osteoarthritis in the canine cruciate-deficiency model of osteoarthritis. (3/1002)

OBJECTIVE: To determine if diacerhein protects against the early stages of joint damage in a canine model of osteoarthritis (OA). METHODS: OA was induced in 20 adult mongrel dogs by transection of the anterior cruciate ligament of the left knee. Beginning the day after surgery, dogs in the active treatment group were dosed twice a day with capsules of diacerhein, providing a total daily dose of 40 mg/kg, for 32 weeks. Dogs in the control group received placebo capsules on the same schedule. Pathology in the unstable knee was assessed arthroscopically 16 weeks after surgery and by direct observation when the dogs were killed 32 weeks after surgery. The severity of gross joint pathology was recorded, and samples of the medial femoral condyle cartilage and the synovial tissue adjacent to the central portion of the medial meniscus were collected for histologic evaluation. Water content and uronic acid concentration of the articular cartilage from the femoral condyle were determined, and collagenolytic activity in extracts of cartilage pooled from the medial and lateral tibial plateaus was assayed against 14C-labeled collagen fibers. RESULTS: Diacerhein treatment slowed the progression of OA, as measured by grading of gross changes in the unstable knee at arthroscopy 16 weeks after cruciate ligament transection (P = 0.04) and at the time the animals were killed, 32 weeks after surgery (P = 0.05). However, 32 weeks after ACL transection, the mean proteoglycan concentration and water content of the OA cartilage and the level of collagenolytic activity in extracts of the cartilage were not significantly different in the diacerhein treatment group than in the placebo treatment group. CONCLUSION: Diacerhein treatment significantly reduced the severity of morphologic changes of OA compared with placebo. These findings support the view that diacerhein may be a disease-modifying drug for OA.  (+info)

Effects of aggressive early rehabilitation on the outcome of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with multi-strand semitendinosus tendon. (4/1002)

To evaluate the effects of aggressive early rehabilitation on the clinical outcome of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction using semitendinosus (and gracilis) tendon, 103 of 110 consecutive patients who underwent ACL reconstruction using multistrand semitendinosus tendon (ST) or the central one-third of patellar tendon with bony attachments (BTB) were analyzed prospectively. Subjectively, the Lysholm score was not different among the groups. The Lachman test indicated a trend of less negative grade in the ST men's group than that in the BTB men's group. On the patellofemoral grinding test, only women patients of both groups showed pain, with less positive crepitation in the ST group than in the BTB group. KT measurements at manual maximum showed more patients with more than 5 mm differences in the ST group than in the BTB group. The results of this study suggest that aggressive early rehabilitation after the ACL reconstruction using the semitendinosus (and gracilis) tendon has more risk of residual laxity than with the BTB.  (+info)

Ganglion cysts of the cruciate ligaments detected by MRI. (5/1002)

Eight patients with ganglion cysts arising from the cruciate ligaments of the knee joint underwent arthroscopic excision after the MR examination. The MR findings, clinical features and arthroscopic findings were evaluated comparatively.  (+info)

Mucoid cystic degeneration of the cruciate ligament. (6/1002)

A 35-year-old man was seen with pain in the back of the knee. MRI showed a mass in the anterior cruciate ligament. Biopsy indicated mucoid degeneration. Arthroscopic resection of the ligament was carried out, with relief of symptoms.  (+info)

The effects of hyaluronan on matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), interleukin-1beta(IL-1beta), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) gene expression during the development of osteoarthritis. (7/1002)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the influence of intra-articular injection of hyaluronan (HA) on expression of matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3), interleukin-1beta(IL-1beta), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) in cartilage and synovium during the process of osteoarthritis (OA). DESIGN: Eighteen mature New Zealand white rabbits underwent unilateral anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and were divided into two groups. The first group (HA injection group) received 0.3 ml of intra-articular HA injections into the ACLT knees 4 weeks after transection, once a week for 5 weeks as per clinical treatment presently utilized. The animals in the second group (no injection group) were not injected after ACLT. At death, 9 weeks following surgery, synovium and cartilage were harvested and total RNA was extracted. Gene expressions of MMP-3, IL-1beta and TIMP-1 were analyzed using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for each subgroup created according to morphological grade of OA. RESULTS: The extent and grade of cartilage damage in the HA injection group was less severe than in the no injection group. In synovium, expression of MMP-3 and IL-1beta mRNA was suppressed in the mild grades of OA in the HA injection group. HA treatment had either no effect on MMP-3 expression in cartilage at all grades of OA or on enhanced MMP-3 and IL-1beta expression in synovium at a progressed grade. No effect of HA treatment on TIMP-1 expression was observed in either cartilage or synovium. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that one of the mechanism of therapeutic effect of HA is down-regulation of MMP-3 and IL-1beta in synovium during early development of OA.  (+info)

Treatment with calcitonin suppresses the responses of bone, cartilage, and synovium in the early stages of canine experimental osteoarthritis and significantly reduces the severity of the cartilage lesions. (8/1002)

OBJECTIVE: To relate the rate of bone resorption to serum levels of both hyaluronan (HA) and antigenic keratan sulfate (KS) in canine experimental osteoarthritis (OA) and to evaluate the effects of calcitonin on these parameters and the OA lesions of the unstable knee. METHODS: Twenty-two dogs underwent anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) and 6 dogs underwent sham operation. Urinary pyridinium crosslinks were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Immunoassays quantified hyaluronan (HA) and antigenic KS. Macroscopic and histologic OA lesions were scored. Calcitonin treatment was started on day 14 postsurgery and stopped on either day 49 or day 104 postsurgery. Control dogs and all treated dogs were killed on day 105. RESULTS: All ACLT joints developed OA. In contrast to sham-operated animals, all operated dogs exhibited an early and sustained rise in the levels of their urinary and serum markers. Calcitonin markedly reduced the levels of these markers and the severity of OA lesions. Furthermore, the longer the period of calcitonin therapy, the lower the score of the OA lesions. CONCLUSION: Bone, synovium, and articular cartilage all appear to be involved in the state of hypermetabolism that develops in unstable joints. Furthermore, the rate of bone resorption increases markedly in the early stages of this OA model and is likely to contribute to cartilage breakdown. Since calcitonin reduced the severity of OA changes, this form of therapy may have benefits for humans who have recently experienced a traumatic knee injury.  (+info)

The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is a major stabilizing ligament in the knee. It is one of the four strong bands of tissue that connect the bones of the knee joint together. The ACL runs diagonally through the middle of the knee and helps to control the back and forth motion of the knee, as well as provide stability to the knee joint. Injuries to the ACL often occur during sports or physical activities that involve sudden stops, changes in direction, or awkward landings.

Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a surgical procedure in which the damaged or torn ACL, a major stabilizing ligament in the knee, is replaced with a graft. The ACL is responsible for preventing excessive motion of the knee joint, and when it is injured, the knee may become unstable and prone to further damage.

During the procedure, the surgeon makes an incision in the knee to access the damaged ligament. The torn ends of the ACL are then removed, and a graft is taken from another part of the body (such as the patellar tendon or hamstring tendons) or from a donor. This graft is then positioned in the same location as the original ACL and fixed in place with screws or other devices.

The goal of ACL reconstruction is to restore stability and function to the knee joint, allowing the patient to return to their normal activities, including sports and exercise. Physical therapy is typically required after surgery to help strengthen the knee and improve range of motion.

Knee injuries refer to damages or harm caused to the structures surrounding or within the knee joint, which may include the bones (femur, tibia, and patella), cartilage (meniscus and articular cartilage), ligaments (ACL, PCL, MCL, and LCL), tendons (patellar and quadriceps), muscles, bursae, and other soft tissues. These injuries can result from various causes, such as trauma, overuse, degeneration, or sports-related activities. Symptoms may include pain, swelling, stiffness, instability, reduced range of motion, and difficulty walking or bearing weight on the affected knee. Common knee injuries include fractures, dislocations, meniscal tears, ligament sprains or ruptures, and tendonitis. Proper diagnosis and treatment are crucial to ensure optimal recovery and prevent long-term complications.

The Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) is one of the major ligaments in the knee, providing stability to the joint. It is a strong band of tissue located in the back of the knee, connecting the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The PCL limits the backward motion of the tibia relative to the femur and provides resistance to forces that tend to push the tibia backwards. It also assists in maintaining the overall alignment and function of the knee joint during various movements and activities. Injuries to the PCL are less common compared to injuries to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) but can still occur due to high-energy trauma, such as motor vehicle accidents or sports incidents involving direct impact to the front of the knee.

Articular ligaments, also known as fibrous ligaments, are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that connect and stabilize bones to each other at joints. They help to limit the range of motion of a joint and provide support, preventing excessive movement that could cause injury. Articular ligaments are composed mainly of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern, making them strong and flexible. They have limited blood supply and few nerve endings, which makes them less prone to injury but also slower to heal if damaged. Examples of articular ligaments include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee joint, and the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow joint.

Ligaments are bands of dense, fibrous connective tissue that surround joints and provide support, stability, and limits the range of motion. They are made up primarily of collagen fibers arranged in a parallel pattern to withstand tension and stress. Ligaments attach bone to bone, and their function is to prevent excessive movement that could cause injury or dislocation.

There are two main types of ligaments: extracapsular and intracapsular. Extracapsular ligaments are located outside the joint capsule and provide stability to the joint by limiting its range of motion. Intracapsular ligaments, on the other hand, are found inside the joint capsule and help maintain the alignment of the joint surfaces.

Examples of common ligaments in the body include the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the knee, the medial collateral ligament (MCL) and lateral collateral ligament (LCL) in the elbow, and the coracoacromial ligament in the shoulder.

Injuries to ligaments can occur due to sudden trauma or overuse, leading to sprains, strains, or tears. These injuries can cause pain, swelling, bruising, and limited mobility, and may require medical treatment such as immobilization, physical therapy, or surgery.

A rupture, in medical terms, refers to the breaking or tearing of an organ, tissue, or structure in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as trauma, injury, increased pressure, or degeneration. A ruptured organ or structure can lead to serious complications, including internal bleeding, infection, and even death, if not treated promptly and appropriately. Examples of ruptures include a ruptured appendix, ruptured eardrum, or a ruptured disc in the spine.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

Joint instability is a condition characterized by the loss of normal joint function and increased risk of joint injury due to impaired integrity of the supporting structures, such as ligaments, muscles, or cartilage. This can result in excessive movement or laxity within the joint, leading to decreased stability and increased susceptibility to dislocations or subluxations. Joint instability may cause pain, swelling, and limited range of motion, and it can significantly impact a person's mobility and quality of life. It is often caused by trauma, degenerative conditions, or congenital abnormalities and may require medical intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, to restore joint stability.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where an orthopedic surgeon uses an arthroscope (a thin tube with a light and camera on the end) to diagnose and treat problems inside a joint. The surgeon makes a small incision, inserts the arthroscope into the joint, and then uses the attached camera to view the inside of the joint on a monitor. They can then insert other small instruments through additional incisions to repair or remove damaged tissue.

Arthroscopy is most commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist. It offers several advantages over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and reduced risk of infection. The procedure can be used to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions, including torn ligaments or cartilage, inflamed synovial tissue, loose bone or cartilage fragments, and joint damage caused by arthritis.

Bone-patellar tendon-bone (BPTB) grafting is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a portion of the patellar tendon along with its attached bone blocks from the patient's own knee. The graft is then used to reconstruct or repair damaged or injured ligaments, most commonly the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee.

The BPTB graft consists of two bone plugs, one from the patella (kneecap) and the other from the tibial tuberosity (the bony prominence on the front of the shinbone), connected by a central portion of the patellar tendon. The bone plugs provide excellent fixation in the bone tunnels drilled during ACL reconstruction, resulting in strong initial stability and promoting rapid healing.

However, BPTB grafting may be associated with certain complications such as donor site pain, patella fracture, and reduced knee extension strength. Therefore, alternative graft choices like hamstring tendon or quadriceps tendon grafts are also commonly used for ACL reconstruction, depending on the patient's individual needs and preferences.

A tendon is the strong, flexible band of tissue that connects muscle to bone. It helps transfer the force produced by the muscle to allow various movements of our body parts. Tendons are made up of collagen fibers arranged in parallel bundles and have a poor blood supply, making them prone to injuries and slow to heal. Examples include the Achilles tendon, which connects the calf muscle to the heel bone, and the patellar tendon, which connects the kneecap to the shinbone.

The patellar ligament, also known as the patellar tendon, is a strong band of tissue that connects the bottom part of the kneecap (patella) to the top part of the shinbone (tibia). This ligament plays a crucial role in enabling the extension and straightening of the leg during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. Injuries to the patellar ligament, such as tendonitis or tears, can cause pain and difficulty with mobility.

The menisci are crescent-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located in the knee joint. There are two menisci in each knee: the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus. The tibial menisci, also known as the medial and lateral menisci, are named according to their location in the knee joint. They lie on the top surface of the tibia (shin bone) and provide shock absorption, stability, and lubrication to the knee joint.

The tibial menisci have a complex shape, with a wider outer portion called the peripheral rim and a narrower inner portion called the central portion or root attachment. The menisci are attached to the bones of the knee joint by ligaments and have a rich blood supply in their outer portions, which helps in healing after injury. However, the inner two-thirds of the menisci have a poor blood supply, making them more prone to degeneration and less likely to heal after injury.

Damage to the tibial menisci can occur due to trauma or degenerative changes, leading to symptoms such as pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility of the knee joint. Treatment for meniscal injuries may include physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, depending on the severity and location of the injury.

Biomechanics is the application of mechanical laws to living structures and systems, particularly in the field of medicine and healthcare. A biomechanical phenomenon refers to a observable event or occurrence that involves the interaction of biological tissues or systems with mechanical forces. These phenomena can be studied at various levels, from the molecular and cellular level to the tissue, organ, and whole-body level.

Examples of biomechanical phenomena include:

1. The way that bones and muscles work together to produce movement (known as joint kinematics).
2. The mechanical behavior of biological tissues such as bone, cartilage, tendons, and ligaments under various loads and stresses.
3. The response of cells and tissues to mechanical stimuli, such as the way that bone tissue adapts to changes in loading conditions (known as Wolff's law).
4. The biomechanics of injury and disease processes, such as the mechanisms of joint injury or the development of osteoarthritis.
5. The use of mechanical devices and interventions to treat medical conditions, such as orthopedic implants or assistive devices for mobility impairments.

Understanding biomechanical phenomena is essential for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies for a wide range of medical conditions, from musculoskeletal injuries to neurological disorders.

Athletic injuries are damages or injuries to the body that occur while participating in sports, physical activities, or exercise. These injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

1. Trauma: Direct blows, falls, collisions, or crushing injuries can cause fractures, dislocations, contusions, lacerations, or concussions.
2. Overuse: Repetitive motions or stress on a particular body part can lead to injuries such as tendonitis, stress fractures, or muscle strains.
3. Poor technique: Using incorrect form or technique during exercise or sports can put additional stress on muscles, joints, and ligaments, leading to injury.
4. Inadequate warm-up or cool-down: Failing to properly prepare the body for physical activity or neglecting to cool down afterwards can increase the risk of injury.
5. Lack of fitness or flexibility: Insufficient strength, endurance, or flexibility can make individuals more susceptible to injuries during sports and exercise.
6. Environmental factors: Extreme weather conditions, poor field or court surfaces, or inadequate equipment can contribute to the risk of athletic injuries.

Common athletic injuries include ankle sprains, knee injuries, shoulder dislocations, tennis elbow, shin splints, and concussions. Proper training, warm-up and cool-down routines, use of appropriate protective gear, and attention to technique can help prevent many athletic injuries.

The tibia, also known as the shin bone, is the larger of the two bones in the lower leg and part of the knee joint. It supports most of the body's weight and is a major insertion point for muscles that flex the foot and bend the leg. The tibia articulates with the femur at the knee joint and with the fibula and talus bone at the ankle joint. Injuries to the tibia, such as fractures, are common in sports and other activities that put stress on the lower leg.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

A ganglion cyst is a type of fluid-filled sac that commonly develops on the back of the wrist, hands, or fingers. These cysts usually contain a clear, jelly-like material and are connected to a joint or tendon sheath. The exact cause of ganglion cysts is unknown, but they may form as a result of repetitive trauma or degeneration of the joint tissue.

Ganglion cysts can vary in size from small (pea-sized) to large (golf ball-sized). They are usually painless, but if they press on a nerve, they can cause tingling, numbness, or discomfort. In some cases, ganglion cysts may resolve on their own without treatment, while others may require medical intervention such as aspiration (draining the fluid) or surgical removal.

The term "stifle" is commonly used in veterinary medicine to refer to the joint in the leg of animals, specifically the knee joint in quadrupeds such as dogs and horses. In human anatomy, this joint is called the patellofemoral joint or knee joint. The stifle is a complex joint made up of several bones, including the femur, tibia, and patella (kneecap), as well as various ligaments, tendons, and cartilage that provide stability and support. Injuries or diseases affecting the stifle can cause lameness, pain, and decreased mobility in animals.

A tendon transfer is a surgical procedure where a healthy tendon is moved to rebalance or reinforce a muscle that has become weak or paralyzed due to injury, disease, or nerve damage. The transferred tendon attaches to the bone in a new position, allowing it to power a different movement or stabilize a joint. This procedure helps restore function and improve mobility in the affected area.

The femur is the medical term for the thigh bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body. It connects the hip bone to the knee joint and plays a crucial role in supporting the weight of the body and allowing movement during activities such as walking, running, and jumping. The femur is composed of a rounded head, a long shaft, and two condyles at the lower end that articulate with the tibia and patella to form the knee joint.

The medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee is a band-like structure located on the inner side of the knee joint. It connects the end of the femur (thighbone) to the top of the tibia (shinbone) and helps stabilize the knee by controlling side-to-side movement and preventing excessive separation of the bones. The MCL provides resistance to valgus force, which is a pushing or pulling force that attempts to push the bones apart in a direction away from the midline of the body. MCL injuries often occur due to direct impact to the outer knee or sudden changes in direction that strain the ligament.

In medical terms, the knee is referred to as the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a hinge joint that connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bones (tibia and fibula), enabling movements like flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation. The knee also contains several other components such as menisci, ligaments, tendons, and bursae, which provide stability, cushioning, and protection during movement.

The patella, also known as the kneecap, is a sesamoid bone located at the front of the knee joint. It is embedded in the tendon of the quadriceps muscle and serves to protect the knee joint and increase the leverage of the extensor mechanism, allowing for greater extension force of the lower leg. The patella moves within a groove on the femur called the trochlea during flexion and extension of the knee.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Basketball" is a sports game and not a medical term. It involves two teams of five players each trying to score points by throwing a ball through a hoop 18 inches (46 cm) in diameter and 10 feet (3.05 meters) high mounted on a backboard at each end of the court.

If you have any medical questions or terms, I would be happy to help define those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soccer" is not a medical term. It is the common name for the sport also known as football in many parts of the world. The official name of the sport in the United States and Canada is "soccer," which helps distinguish it from other forms of football that involve carrying the ball, such as American football or Canadian football.

If you have any medical questions or terms you'd like defined, I'd be happy to help!

The periodontal ligament, also known as the "PDL," is the soft tissue that connects the tooth root to the alveolar bone within the dental alveolus (socket). It consists of collagen fibers organized into groups called principal fibers and accessory fibers. These fibers are embedded into both the cementum of the tooth root and the alveolar bone, providing shock absorption during biting and chewing forces, allowing for slight tooth movement, and maintaining the tooth in its position within the socket.

The periodontal ligament plays a crucial role in the health and maintenance of the periodontium, which includes the gingiva (gums), cementum, alveolar bone, and the periodontal ligament itself. Inflammation or infection of the periodontal ligament can lead to periodontal disease, potentially causing tooth loss if not treated promptly and appropriately.

A cadaver is a deceased body that is used for medical research or education. In the field of medicine, cadavers are often used in anatomy lessons, surgical training, and other forms of medical research. The use of cadavers allows medical professionals to gain a deeper understanding of the human body and its various systems without causing harm to living subjects. Cadavers may be donated to medical schools or obtained through other means, such as through consent of the deceased or their next of kin. It is important to handle and treat cadavers with respect and dignity, as they were once living individuals who deserve to be treated with care even in death.

"Weight-bearing" is a term used in the medical field to describe the ability of a body part or limb to support the weight or pressure exerted upon it, typically while standing, walking, or performing other physical activities. In a clinical setting, healthcare professionals often use the term "weight-bearing exercise" to refer to physical activities that involve supporting one's own body weight, such as walking, jogging, or climbing stairs. These exercises can help improve bone density, muscle strength, and overall physical function, particularly in individuals with conditions affecting the bones, joints, or muscles.

In addition, "weight-bearing" is also used to describe the positioning of a body part during medical imaging studies, such as X-rays or MRIs. For example, a weight-bearing X-ray of the foot or ankle involves taking an image while the patient stands on the affected limb, allowing healthcare providers to assess any alignment or stability issues that may not be apparent in a non-weight-bearing position.

Longitudinal ligaments, in the context of anatomy, refer to the fibrous bands that run lengthwise along the spine. They are named as such because they extend in the same direction as the long axis of the body. The main function of these ligaments is to provide stability and limit excessive movement in the spinal column.

There are three layers of longitudinal ligaments in the spine:

1. Anterior Longitudinal Ligament (ALL): This ligament runs down the front of the vertebral bodies, attached to their anterior aspects. It helps to prevent hyperextension of the spine.
2. Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (PLL): The PLL is located on the posterior side of the vertebral bodies and extends from the axis (C2) to the sacrum. Its primary function is to limit hyperflexion of the spine.
3. Ligamentum Flavum: Although not strictly a 'longitudinal' ligament, it is often grouped with them due to its longitudinal orientation. The ligamentum flavum is a pair of elastic bands that connect adjacent laminae (posterior bony parts) of the vertebral arch in the spine. Its main function is to maintain tension and stability while allowing slight movement between the vertebrae.

These longitudinal ligaments play an essential role in maintaining spinal alignment, protecting the spinal cord, and facilitating controlled movements within the spine.

Articular cartilage is the smooth, white tissue that covers the ends of bones where they come together to form joints. It provides a cushion between bones and allows for smooth movement by reducing friction. Articular cartilage also absorbs shock and distributes loads evenly across the joint, protecting the bones from damage. It is avascular, meaning it does not have its own blood supply, and relies on the surrounding synovial fluid for nutrients. Over time, articular cartilage can wear down or become damaged due to injury or disease, leading to conditions such as osteoarthritis.

The Quadriceps muscle, also known as the Quadriceps Femoris, is a large muscle group located in the front of the thigh. It consists of four individual muscles - the Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Intermedius, and Vastus Medialis. These muscles work together to extend the leg at the knee joint and flex the thigh at the hip joint. The Quadriceps muscle is crucial for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and kicking.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a type of joint disease that is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of cartilage - the tissue that cushions the ends of bones where they meet in the joints. This breakdown can cause the bones to rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility. OA can occur in any joint, but it most commonly affects the hands, knees, hips, and spine. It is often associated with aging and can be caused or worsened by obesity, injury, or overuse.

The medical definition of osteoarthritis is: "a degenerative, non-inflammatory joint disease characterized by the loss of articular cartilage, bone remodeling, and the formation of osteophytes (bone spurs). It is often associated with pain, stiffness, and decreased range of motion in the affected joint."

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the knee joint. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of the smooth, cushioning cartilage that covers the ends of bones and allows for easy movement within joints. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also lead to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cysts in the joint. This condition is most commonly found in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or overuse. Risk factors include obesity, family history, previous joint injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joint. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

Arthrometry is a measurement technique used in the field of orthopedics and rheumatology to assess the integrity and mobility of joints. When qualified with the term "articular," it specifically refers to the measurement of articular motion or range of motion (ROM) within a synovial joint.

Articular arthrometry involves using specialized instruments, such as goniometers, inclinometers, or digital devices like smartphone applications and wearable sensors, to quantify the degree of flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, or other movements in a joint. This information can help medical professionals evaluate joint function, diagnose injuries or conditions affecting joint mobility, monitor disease progression, and assess treatment outcomes.

In summary, articular arthrometry is the measurement of articular motion within synovial joints to evaluate joint health and function.

In the context of human anatomy, the thigh is the part of the lower limb that extends from the hip to the knee. It is the upper and largest portion of the leg and is primarily composed of the femur bone, which is the longest and strongest bone in the human body, as well as several muscles including the quadriceps femoris (front thigh), hamstrings (back thigh), and adductors (inner thigh). The major blood vessels and nerves that supply the lower limb also pass through the thigh.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

An "athlete" is defined in the medical field as an individual who actively participates in sports, physical training, or other forms of exercise that require a significant amount of physical exertion and stamina. Athletes are often divided into different categories based on the specific type of sport or activity they engage in, such as:

1. Professional athletes: These are individuals who compete in organized sports at the highest level and earn a living from their athletic pursuits. Examples include professional football players, basketball players, golfers, tennis players, and soccer players.
2. Collegiate athletes: These are students who participate in intercollegiate sports at the university or college level. They may receive scholarships or other forms of financial aid to support their athletic and academic pursuits.
3. Amateur athletes: These are individuals who engage in sports or physical activity for recreation, fitness, or personal enjoyment rather than as a profession. Examples include weekend warriors, joggers, swimmers, and hikers.
4. Elite athletes: These are individuals who have achieved a high level of skill and performance in their chosen sport or activity. They may compete at the national or international level and represent their country in competitions.
5. Para-athletes: These are athletes with disabilities who compete in sports specifically adapted for their abilities. Examples include wheelchair basketball, blind soccer, and deaf swimming.

Regardless of the category, athletes are prone to various medical conditions related to their physical exertion, including musculoskeletal injuries, cardiovascular issues, respiratory problems, and nutritional deficiencies. Therefore, it is essential for athletes to receive regular medical check-ups, maintain a healthy lifestyle, and follow proper training and nutrition guidelines to prevent injuries and optimize their performance.

Hemarthrosis is a medical term that refers to the presence of blood in a joint space. This condition usually occurs as a result of trauma or injury that causes bleeding into the joint, such as a fracture or dislocation. Certain medical conditions like hemophilia and other bleeding disorders can also make a person more prone to hemarthrosis.

The accumulation of blood in the joint space can cause pain, swelling, warmth, and stiffness, making it difficult for the individual to move the affected joint. In some cases, hemarthrosis may require medical intervention, such as draining the excess blood from the joint or administering clotting factors to help stop the bleeding. If left untreated, hemarthrosis can lead to complications like joint damage and chronic pain.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

In the context of medicine, particularly in anatomy and physiology, "rotation" refers to the movement of a body part around its own axis or the long axis of another structure. This type of motion is three-dimensional and can occur in various planes. A common example of rotation is the movement of the forearm bones (radius and ulna) around each other during pronation and supination, which allows the hand to be turned palm up or down. Another example is the rotation of the head during mastication (chewing), where the mandible moves in a circular motion around the temporomandibular joint.

Muscle strength, in a medical context, refers to the amount of force a muscle or group of muscles can produce during contraction. It is the maximum amount of force that a muscle can generate through its full range of motion and is often measured in units of force such as pounds or newtons. Muscle strength is an important component of physical function and mobility, and it can be assessed through various tests, including manual muscle testing, dynamometry, and isokinetic testing. Factors that can affect muscle strength include age, sex, body composition, injury, disease, and physical activity level.

Joint diseases is a broad term that refers to various conditions affecting the joints, including but not limited to:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): A degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage and underlying bone, leading to pain, stiffness, and potential loss of function.
2. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA): An autoimmune disorder causing inflammation in the synovial membrane lining the joints, resulting in swelling, pain, and joint damage if left untreated.
3. Infectious Arthritis: Joint inflammation caused by bacterial, viral, or fungal infections that spread through the bloodstream or directly enter the joint space.
4. Gout: A type of arthritis resulting from the buildup of uric acid crystals in the joints, typically affecting the big toe and characterized by sudden attacks of severe pain, redness, and swelling.
5. Psoriatic Arthritis (PsA): An inflammatory joint disease associated with psoriasis, causing symptoms such as pain, stiffness, and swelling in the joints and surrounding tissues.
6. Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA): A group of chronic arthritis conditions affecting children, characterized by joint inflammation, pain, and stiffness.
7. Ankylosing Spondylitis: A form of arthritis primarily affecting the spine, causing inflammation, pain, and potential fusion of spinal vertebrae.
8. Bursitis: Inflammation of the fluid-filled sacs (bursae) that cushion joints, leading to pain and swelling.
9. Tendinitis: Inflammation or degeneration of tendons, which connect muscles to bones, often resulting in pain and stiffness near joints.

These conditions can impact the function and mobility of affected joints, causing discomfort and limiting daily activities. Proper diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing joint diseases and preserving joint health.

Mechanical stress, in the context of physiology and medicine, refers to any type of force that is applied to body tissues or organs, which can cause deformation or displacement of those structures. Mechanical stress can be either external, such as forces exerted on the body during physical activity or trauma, or internal, such as the pressure changes that occur within blood vessels or other hollow organs.

Mechanical stress can have a variety of effects on the body, depending on the type, duration, and magnitude of the force applied. For example, prolonged exposure to mechanical stress can lead to tissue damage, inflammation, and chronic pain. Additionally, abnormal or excessive mechanical stress can contribute to the development of various musculoskeletal disorders, such as tendinitis, osteoarthritis, and herniated discs.

In order to mitigate the negative effects of mechanical stress, the body has a number of adaptive responses that help to distribute forces more evenly across tissues and maintain structural integrity. These responses include changes in muscle tone, joint positioning, and connective tissue stiffness, as well as the remodeling of bone and other tissues over time. However, when these adaptive mechanisms are overwhelmed or impaired, mechanical stress can become a significant factor in the development of various pathological conditions.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Autologous transplantation is a medical procedure where cells, tissues, or organs are removed from a person, stored and then returned back to the same individual at a later time. This is different from allogeneic transplantation where the tissue or organ is obtained from another donor. The term "autologous" is derived from the Greek words "auto" meaning self and "logos" meaning study.

In autologous transplantation, the patient's own cells or tissues are used to replace or repair damaged or diseased ones. This reduces the risk of rejection and eliminates the need for immunosuppressive drugs, which are required in allogeneic transplants to prevent the body from attacking the foreign tissue.

Examples of autologous transplantation include:

* Autologous bone marrow or stem cell transplantation, where stem cells are removed from the patient's blood or bone marrow, stored and then reinfused back into the same individual after high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to treat cancer.
* Autologous skin grafting, where a piece of skin is taken from one part of the body and transplanted to another area on the same person.
* Autologous chondrocyte implantation, where cartilage cells are harvested from the patient's own knee, cultured in a laboratory and then implanted back into the knee to repair damaged cartilage.

"Torque" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a physical concept used in the fields of physics and engineering, referring to a twisting force that causes rotation around an axis. However, in certain medical contexts, such as in discussions of spinal or joint biomechanics, the term "torque" may be used to describe a rotational force applied to a body part. But generally speaking, "torque" is not a term commonly used in medical terminology.

In the field of dentistry, braces are devices used to align and straighten teeth and improve jaw position. They are typically made of metal or ceramic brackets that are bonded to the teeth, along with wires and rubber bands that apply pressure and move the teeth into proper alignment over time. The length of treatment with braces can vary but typically lasts from 1-3 years. Regular adjustments are necessary to ensure effective movement of the teeth.

The purpose of wearing braces is to correct malocclusions, such as overbites, underbites, crossbites, and open bites, as well as crowded or crooked teeth. This can lead to improved dental health, better oral function, and a more aesthetically pleasing smile. It's important to maintain good oral hygiene while wearing braces to prevent issues like tooth decay and gum disease. After the braces are removed, retainers may be used to maintain the new alignment of the teeth.

Absorbable implants are medical devices that are designed to be placed inside the body during a surgical procedure, where they provide support, stabilization, or other functions, and then gradually break down and are absorbed by the body over time. These implants are typically made from materials such as polymers, proteins, or ceramics that have been engineered to degrade at a controlled rate, allowing them to be resorbed and eliminated from the body without the need for a second surgical procedure to remove them.

Absorbable implants are often used in orthopedic, dental, and plastic surgery applications, where they can help promote healing and support tissue regeneration. For example, absorbable screws or pins may be used to stabilize fractured bones during the healing process, after which they will gradually dissolve and be absorbed by the body. Similarly, absorbable membranes may be used in dental surgery to help guide the growth of new bone and gum tissue around an implant, and then be resorbed over time.

It's important to note that while absorbable implants offer several advantages over non-absorbable materials, such as reduced risk of infection and improved patient comfort, they may also have some limitations. For example, the mechanical properties of absorbable materials may not be as strong as those of non-absorbable materials, which could affect their performance in certain applications. Additionally, the degradation products of absorbable implants may cause local inflammation or other adverse reactions in some patients. As with any medical device, the use of absorbable implants should be carefully considered and discussed with a qualified healthcare professional.

Arthralgia is a medical term that refers to pain in the joints. It does not involve inflammation, which would be referred to as arthritis. The pain can range from mild to severe and may occur in one or multiple joints. Arthralgia can have various causes, including injuries, infections, degenerative conditions, or systemic diseases. In some cases, the underlying cause of arthralgia remains unknown. Treatment typically focuses on managing the pain and addressing the underlying condition if it can be identified.

Knee dislocation is a serious and uncommon orthopedic injury that occurs when the bones that form the knee joint (femur, tibia, and patella) are forced out of their normal position due to extreme trauma or force. This injury often requires immediate medical attention and reduction (repositioning) by a healthcare professional. If left untreated, it can lead to serious complications such as compartment syndrome, nerve damage, and long-term joint instability. It's important to note that knee dislocation is different from a kneecap (patellar) dislocation, which involves the patella sliding out of its groove in the femur.

Prostheses: Artificial substitutes or replacements for missing body parts, such as limbs, eyes, or teeth. They are designed to restore the function, appearance, or mobility of the lost part. Prosthetic devices can be categorized into several types, including:

1. External prostheses: Devices that are attached to the outside of the body, like artificial arms, legs, hands, and feet. These may be further classified into:
a. Cosmetic or aesthetic prostheses: Primarily designed to improve the appearance of the affected area.
b. Functional prostheses: Designed to help restore the functionality and mobility of the lost limb.
2. Internal prostheses: Implanted artificial parts that replace missing internal organs, bones, or tissues, such as heart valves, hip joints, or intraocular lenses.

Implants: Medical devices or substances that are intentionally placed inside the body to replace or support a missing or damaged biological structure, deliver medication, monitor physiological functions, or enhance bodily functions. Examples of implants include:

1. Orthopedic implants: Devices used to replace or reinforce damaged bones, joints, or cartilage, such as knee or hip replacements.
2. Cardiovascular implants: Devices that help support or regulate heart function, like pacemakers, defibrillators, and artificial heart valves.
3. Dental implants: Artificial tooth roots that are placed into the jawbone to support dental prostheses, such as crowns, bridges, or dentures.
4. Neurological implants: Devices used to stimulate nerves, brain structures, or spinal cord tissues to treat various neurological conditions, like deep brain stimulators for Parkinson's disease or cochlear implants for hearing loss.
5. Ophthalmic implants: Artificial lenses that are placed inside the eye to replace a damaged or removed natural lens, such as intraocular lenses used in cataract surgery.

Tensile strength is a material property that measures the maximum amount of tensile (pulling) stress that a material can withstand before failure, such as breaking or fracturing. It is usually measured in units of force per unit area, such as pounds per square inch (psi) or pascals (Pa). In the context of medical devices or biomaterials, tensile strength may be used to describe the mechanical properties of materials used in implants, surgical tools, or other medical equipment. High tensile strength is often desirable in these applications to ensure that the material can withstand the stresses and forces it will encounter during use.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

Ossification of the Posterior Longitudinal Ligament (OPLL) is a medical condition where there is abnormal growth and hardening (ossification) of the posterior longitudinal ligament in the spine. The posterior longitudinal ligament runs down the length of the spine, along the back of the vertebral bodies, and helps to maintain the stability and alignment of the spinal column.

In OPLL, the ossification of this ligament can cause narrowing of the spinal canal (spinal stenosis) and compression of the spinal cord or nerve roots. This condition is more commonly found in the cervical spine (neck), but it can also occur in the thoracic (chest) and lumbar (lower back) regions of the spine.

The symptoms of OPLL may include neck pain, stiffness, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the arms and/or legs, depending on the location and severity of the compression. In severe cases, it can lead to serious neurological deficits such as paralysis. The exact cause of OPLL is not fully understood, but it is believed to be related to genetic factors, aging, and mechanical stress on the spine.

Gait is a medical term used to describe the pattern of movement of the limbs during walking or running. It includes the manner or style of walking, including factors such as rhythm, speed, and step length. A person's gait can provide important clues about their physical health and neurological function, and abnormalities in gait may indicate the presence of underlying medical conditions, such as neuromuscular disorders, orthopedic problems, or injuries.

A typical human gait cycle involves two main phases: the stance phase, during which the foot is in contact with the ground, and the swing phase, during which the foot is lifted and moved forward in preparation for the next step. The gait cycle can be further broken down into several sub-phases, including heel strike, foot flat, midstance, heel off, and toe off.

Gait analysis is a specialized field of study that involves observing and measuring a person's gait pattern using various techniques, such as video recordings, force plates, and motion capture systems. This information can be used to diagnose and treat gait abnormalities, improve mobility and function, and prevent injuries.

The broad ligament is a wide, flat fold of peritoneum (the serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity) that supports and suspends the uterus within the pelvic cavity. It consists of two layers - the anterior leaf and the posterior leaf - which enclose and protect various reproductive structures such as the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and blood vessels.

The broad ligament plays a crucial role in maintaining the position and stability of the uterus, allowing for proper functioning of the female reproductive system. It also serves as a conduit for nerves, blood vessels, and lymphatics that supply and drain the uterus and other pelvic organs.

Anomalies or pathologies of the broad ligament, such as cysts, tumors, or inflammation, can potentially lead to various gynecological conditions and symptoms, requiring medical evaluation and intervention if necessary.

The Injury Severity Score (ISS) is a medical scoring system used to assess the severity of trauma in patients with multiple injuries. It's based on the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS), which classifies each injury by body region on a scale from 1 (minor) to 6 (maximum severity).

The ISS is calculated by summing the squares of the highest AIS score in each of the three most severely injured body regions. The possible ISS ranges from 0 to 75, with higher scores indicating more severe injuries. An ISS over 15 is generally considered a significant injury, and an ISS over 25 is associated with a high risk of mortality. It's important to note that the ISS has limitations, as it doesn't consider the number or type of injuries within each body region, only the most severe one.

Cartilage diseases refer to conditions that affect the cartilaginous tissues in the body. Cartilage is a firm, flexible connective tissue found in many areas of the body, including the joints, ribcage, ears, and nose. It provides structure and support, allows for smooth movement between bones, and protects the ends of bones from friction.

There are several types of cartilage diseases, including:

1. Osteoarthritis (OA): This is a degenerative joint disease that occurs when the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of your bones wears down over time. It can cause pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility in the affected joints.
2. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): This is an autoimmune disorder that causes inflammation in the lining of the joints, leading to cartilage damage and bone erosion.
3. Traumatic arthritis: This occurs when a joint is injured, causing damage to the cartilage and resulting in pain, stiffness, and loss of mobility.
4. Infectious arthritis: This occurs when a joint becomes infected, leading to inflammation and potential damage to the cartilage.
5. Chondromalacia patellae: This is a condition that affects the cartilage on the back of the kneecap, causing pain and stiffness in the knee.
6. Costochondritis: This is an inflammation of the cartilage in the ribcage, causing chest pain and discomfort.
7. Nasal septal deviation: This is a condition where the cartilage that separates the nostrils is crooked or off-center, causing difficulty breathing through the nose.
8. Osteochondritis dissecans (OCD): This is a joint condition that occurs when a piece of cartilage and bone in a joint becomes detached, causing pain and stiffness.
9. Synovial chondromatosis: This is a rare condition where nodules made up of cartilage form in the lining of a joint, causing pain, swelling, and limited mobility.

Treatment for cartilage diseases varies depending on the specific condition and severity, but may include medication, physical therapy, surgery, or a combination of these.

Proprioception is the unconscious perception of movement and spatial orientation arising from stimuli within the body itself. It is sometimes described as the "sixth sense" and it's all about knowing where your body parts are, how they are moving, and the effort being used to move them. This information is crucial for motor control, balance, and coordination.

The proprioceptive system includes sensory receptors called proprioreceptors located in muscles, tendons, and joints that send messages to the brain through nerves regarding body position and movement. These messages are then integrated with information from other senses, such as vision and vestibular sense (related to balance), to create a complete understanding of the body's position and motion in space.

Deficits in proprioception can lead to problems with coordination, balance, and fine motor skills.

Intra-articular injections refer to the administration of medication directly into a joint space. This route of administration is used for treating various joint conditions such as inflammation, pain, and arthritis. Commonly injected medications include corticosteroids, local anesthetics, and viscosupplementation agents. The procedure is usually performed using imaging guidance, like ultrasound or fluoroscopy, to ensure accurate placement of the medication within the joint.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) is a portion of the plasma fraction of autologous blood that has a platelet concentration above baseline. It is often used in the medical field for its growth factor content, which can help to stimulate healing and tissue regeneration in various types of injuries and degenerative conditions. The preparation process involves drawing a patient's own blood, centrifuging it to separate the platelets and plasma from the red and white blood cells, and then extracting the platelet-rich portion of the plasma. This concentrated solution is then injected back into the site of injury or damage to promote healing.

Athletic performance refers to the physical and mental capabilities and skills displayed by an athlete during training or competition. It is a measure of an individual's ability to perform in a particular sport or activity, and can encompass various factors such as strength, power, endurance, speed, agility, coordination, flexibility, mental toughness, and technique.

Athletic performance can be influenced by a variety of factors, including genetics, training, nutrition, recovery, lifestyle habits, and environmental conditions. Athletes often engage in rigorous training programs to improve their physical and mental abilities, with the goal of enhancing their overall athletic performance. Additionally, sports scientists and coaches use various methods and technologies to assess and analyze athletic performance, such as timing systems, motion analysis, and physiological testing, to help optimize training and competition strategies.

Wound healing is a complex and dynamic process that occurs after tissue injury, aiming to restore the integrity and functionality of the damaged tissue. It involves a series of overlapping phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling.

1. Hemostasis: This initial phase begins immediately after injury and involves the activation of the coagulation cascade to form a clot, which stabilizes the wound and prevents excessive blood loss.
2. Inflammation: Activated inflammatory cells, such as neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, infiltrate the wound site to eliminate pathogens, remove debris, and release growth factors that promote healing. This phase typically lasts for 2-5 days post-injury.
3. Proliferation: In this phase, various cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and keratinocytes, proliferate and migrate to the wound site to synthesize extracellular matrix (ECM) components, form new blood vessels (angiogenesis), and re-epithelialize the wounded area. This phase can last up to several weeks depending on the size and severity of the wound.
4. Remodeling: The final phase of wound healing involves the maturation and realignment of collagen fibers, leading to the restoration of tensile strength in the healed tissue. This process can continue for months to years after injury, although the tissue may never fully regain its original structure and function.

It is important to note that wound healing can be compromised by several factors, including age, nutrition, comorbidities (e.g., diabetes, vascular disease), and infection, which can result in delayed healing or non-healing chronic wounds.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

An allograft is a type of transplant in which tissue or an organ is transferred from one individual to another, within the same species. The donor and recipient are genetically different, so the recipient's immune system may recognize the donated tissue or organ as foreign and mount an immune response against it. To minimize the risk of rejection, recipients typically receive immunosuppressive drugs to dampen their immune response.

Allografts can be used in a variety of medical contexts, including reconstructive surgery, orthopedic surgery, and organ transplantation. Examples of allografts include heart valves, tendons, ligaments, corneas, skin, and whole organs such as kidneys, livers, and hearts.

It's worth noting that allografts are distinguished from autografts, which involve transplanting tissue or an organ from one part of the body to another in the same individual, and xenografts, which involve transplanting tissue or organs between different species.

Synovial fluid is a viscous, clear, and straw-colored fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints, bursae, and tendon sheaths. It is produced by the synovial membrane, which lines the inner surface of the capsule surrounding these structures.

The primary function of synovial fluid is to reduce friction between articulating surfaces, providing lubrication for smooth and painless movement. It also acts as a shock absorber, protecting the joints from external forces during physical activities. Synovial fluid contains nutrients that nourish the articular cartilage, hyaluronic acid, which provides its viscoelastic properties, and lubricin, a protein responsible for boundary lubrication.

Abnormalities in synovial fluid composition or volume can indicate joint-related disorders, such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, infection, or trauma. Analysis of synovial fluid is often used diagnostically to determine the underlying cause of joint pain, inflammation, or dysfunction.

A transplant is a medical procedure where an organ or tissue is removed from one person (the donor) and placed into another person (the recipient) for the purpose of replacing the recipient's damaged or failing organ or tissue with a healthy functioning one. The transplanted organ or tissue can come from a deceased donor, a living donor who is genetically related to the recipient, or a living donor who is not genetically related to the recipient.

Transplantation is an important medical intervention for many patients with end-stage organ failure or severe tissue damage, and it can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity. However, transplantation is a complex and risky procedure that requires careful matching of donor and recipient, rigorous evaluation and preparation of the recipient, and close monitoring and management of the transplanted organ or tissue to prevent rejection and other complications.

The femoral nerve is a major nerve in the thigh region of the human body. It originates from the lumbar plexus, specifically from the ventral rami (anterior divisions) of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves (L2-L4). The femoral nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to various muscles and areas in the lower limb.

Motor Innervation:
The femoral nerve is responsible for providing motor innervation to several muscles in the anterior compartment of the thigh, including:

1. Iliacus muscle
2. Psoas major muscle
3. Quadriceps femoris muscle (consisting of four heads: rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and vastus intermedius)

These muscles are involved in hip flexion, knee extension, and stabilization of the hip joint.

Sensory Innervation:
The sensory distribution of the femoral nerve includes:

1. Anterior and medial aspects of the thigh
2. Skin over the anterior aspect of the knee and lower leg (via the saphenous nerve, a branch of the femoral nerve)

The saphenous nerve provides sensation to the skin on the inner side of the leg and foot, as well as the medial malleolus (the bony bump on the inside of the ankle).

In summary, the femoral nerve is a crucial component of the lumbar plexus that controls motor functions in the anterior thigh muscles and provides sensory innervation to the anterior and medial aspects of the thigh and lower leg.

'Joint loose bodies' refer to free-floating fragments or particles within the joint space. These can be composed of cartilage, bone, or other synovial tissue debris. They can vary in size and number and may cause symptoms such as pain, locking, catching, or decreased range of motion due to mechanical interference with joint movement. Joint loose bodies are often associated with degenerative joint diseases like osteoarthritis but can also result from trauma or previous surgeries.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, "movement" refers to the act or process of changing physical location or position. It involves the contraction and relaxation of muscles, which allows for the joints to move and the body to be in motion. Movement can also refer to the ability of a patient to move a specific body part or limb, which is assessed during physical examinations. Additionally, "movement" can describe the progression or spread of a disease within the body.

Electrosurgery is a surgical procedure that uses high-frequency electrical currents to cut, coagulate, or fulgurate tissue. It is often used in surgical procedures as an alternative to traditional scalpels and electrocautery. The electrical currents are delivered through a specialized instrument called an electrosurgical unit (ESU) that can be set to produce different forms of energy, including cutting, coagulation, or blended currents.

During the procedure, the ESU is used to apply electrical energy to the target tissue, which responds by heating up and vaporizing, allowing for precise cuts to be made. The heat generated during the procedure also helps to seal off blood vessels and nerve endings, reducing bleeding and minimizing post-operative pain.

Electrosurgery is commonly used in a variety of surgical procedures, including dermatology, gynecology, urology, orthopedics, and general surgery. It offers several advantages over traditional surgical techniques, such as reduced blood loss, shorter operating times, and faster recovery times for patients. However, it also requires specialized training and equipment to ensure safe and effective use.

Bone screws are medical devices used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to affix bone fracture fragments or to attach bones to other bones or to metal implants such as plates, rods, or artificial joints. They are typically made of stainless steel or titanium alloys and have a threaded shaft that allows for purchase in the bone when tightened. The head of the screw may have a hexagonal or star-shaped design to allow for precise tightening with a screwdriver. Bone screws come in various shapes, sizes, and designs, including fully threaded, partially threaded, cannulated (hollow), and headless types, depending on their intended use and location in the body.

Surgical casts are medical devices used to immobilize and protect injured body parts, typically fractured or broken bones, during the healing process. They are usually made of plaster or fiberglass materials that harden when wet and conform to the shape of the affected area once applied. The purpose of a surgical cast is to restrict movement and provide stability to the injured site, allowing for proper alignment and healing of the bones.

The casting process involves first aligning the broken bone fragments into their correct positions, often through manual manipulation or surgical intervention. Once aligned, the cast material is applied in layers, with each layer being allowed to dry before adding the next. This creates a rigid structure that encases and supports the injured area. The cast must be kept dry during the healing process to prevent it from becoming weakened or damaged.

Surgical casts come in various shapes and sizes depending on the location and severity of the injury. They may also include additional components such as padding, Velcro straps, or window openings to allow for regular monitoring of the skin and underlying tissue. In some cases, removable splints or functional braces may be used instead of traditional casts, providing similar support while allowing for limited movement and easier adjustments.

It is essential to follow proper care instructions when wearing a surgical cast, including elevating the injured limb, avoiding excessive weight-bearing, and monitoring for signs of complications such as swelling, numbness, or infection. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are necessary to ensure proper healing and adjust the cast if needed.

Fluoroscopy is a type of medical imaging that uses X-rays to obtain real-time moving images of the internal structures of the body. A continuous X-ray beam is passed through the body part being examined, and the resulting fluoroscopic images are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the medical professional to view the structure and movement of the internal organs and bones in real time.

Fluoroscopy is often used to guide minimally invasive procedures such as catheterization, stent placement, or joint injections. It can also be used to diagnose and monitor a variety of medical conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, musculoskeletal injuries, and cardiovascular diseases.

It is important to note that fluoroscopy involves exposure to ionizing radiation, and the risks associated with this exposure should be carefully weighed against the benefits of the procedure. Medical professionals are trained to use the lowest possible dose of radiation necessary to obtain the desired diagnostic information.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

A sprain is a type of injury that occurs to the ligaments, which are the bands of tissue that connect two bones together in a joint. It's usually caused by a sudden twisting or wrenching movement that stretches or tears the ligament. The severity of a sprain can vary, from a minor stretch to a complete tear of the ligament.

A strain, on the other hand, is an injury to a muscle or tendon, which is the tissue that connects muscle to bone. Strains typically occur when a muscle or tendon is stretched beyond its limit or is forced to contract too quickly. This can result in a partial or complete tear of the muscle fibers or tendon.

Both sprains and strains can cause pain, swelling, bruising, and difficulty moving the affected joint or muscle. The severity of these symptoms will depend on the extent of the injury. In general, sprains and strains are treated with rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to reduce pain and inflammation, followed by rehabilitation exercises to restore strength and mobility.

A knee prosthesis, also known as a knee replacement or artificial knee joint, is a medical device used to replace the damaged or diseased weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint. It typically consists of three components: the femoral component (made of metal) that fits over the end of the thighbone (femur), the tibial component (often made of metal and plastic) that fits into the top of the shinbone (tibia), and a patellar component (usually made of plastic) that replaces the damaged surface of the kneecap.

The primary goal of knee prosthesis is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve quality of life for individuals with advanced knee joint damage due to conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries. The procedure to implant a knee prosthesis is called knee replacement surgery or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Arthroplasty is a surgical procedure to restore the integrity and function of a joint. The term is derived from two Greek words: "arthro" meaning joint, and "plasty" meaning to mold or form. There are several types of arthroplasty, but most involve resurfacing the damaged joint cartilage with artificial materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic.

The goal of arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve mobility, and restore function in a joint that has been damaged by arthritis, injury, or other conditions. The most common types of arthroplasty are total joint replacement (TJR) and partial joint replacement (PJR).

In TJR, the surgeon removes the damaged ends of the bones in the joint and replaces them with artificial components called prostheses. These prostheses can be made of metal, plastic, or ceramic materials, and are designed to mimic the natural movement and function of the joint.

In PJR, only one side of the joint is resurfaced, typically because the damage is less extensive. This procedure is less invasive than TJR and may be recommended for younger patients who are still active or have a higher risk of complications from a full joint replacement.

Other types of arthroplasty include osteotomy, in which the surgeon cuts and reshapes the bone to realign the joint; arthrodesis, in which the surgeon fuses two bones together to create a stable joint; and resurfacing, in which the damaged cartilage is removed and replaced with a smooth, artificial surface.

Arthroplasty is typically recommended for patients who have tried other treatments, such as physical therapy, medication, or injections, but have not found relief from their symptoms. While arthroplasty can be highly effective in relieving pain and improving mobility, it is not without risks, including infection, blood clots, and implant failure. Patients should discuss the benefits and risks of arthroplasty with their healthcare provider to determine if it is the right treatment option for them.

I believe there might be a misunderstanding in your question. "Dogs" is not a medical term or condition. It is the common name for a domesticated carnivore of the family Canidae, specifically the genus Canis, which includes wolves, foxes, and other extant and extinct species of mammals. Dogs are often kept as pets and companions, and they have been bred in a wide variety of forms and sizes for different purposes, such as hunting, herding, guarding, assisting police and military forces, and providing companionship and emotional support.

If you meant to ask about a specific medical condition or term related to dogs, please provide more context so I can give you an accurate answer.

The round ligament is a cord-like structure in the female pelvis that extends from the uterus to the labia majora. It is one of the major ligaments that support the uterus and helps to maintain its position within the pelvis. The round ligament is composed of fibrous tissue and smooth muscle, and it plays a role in maintaining the tone and shape of the uterus.

During pregnancy, the round ligament can become stretched and thickened as the uterus grows and expands. This can sometimes cause discomfort or pain, particularly on one side of the pelvis. In some cases, the round ligament may also contribute to the development of certain gynecological conditions, such as uterine prolapse or urinary incontinence.

It is important for healthcare providers to consider the round ligament when evaluating and treating female reproductive health issues, as it can have a significant impact on the function and positioning of the uterus and other pelvic organs.

A physical examination is a methodical and systematic process of evaluating a patient's overall health status. It involves inspecting, palpating, percussing, and auscultating different parts of the body to detect any abnormalities or medical conditions. The primary purpose of a physical examination is to gather information about the patient's health, identify potential health risks, diagnose medical conditions, and develop an appropriate plan for prevention, treatment, or further evaluation.

During a physical examination, a healthcare provider may assess various aspects of a patient's health, including their vital signs (such as blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, and respiratory rate), height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and overall appearance. They may also examine different organ systems, such as the cardiovascular, respiratory, gastrointestinal, neurological, musculoskeletal, and genitourinary systems, to identify any signs of disease or abnormalities.

Physical examinations are an essential part of preventive healthcare and are typically performed during routine check-ups, annual physicals, and when patients present with symptoms or concerns about their health. The specific components of a physical examination may vary depending on the patient's age, sex, medical history, and presenting symptoms.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Robotics, in the medical context, refers to the branch of technology that deals with the design, construction, operation, and application of robots in medical fields. These machines are capable of performing a variety of tasks that can aid or replicate human actions, often with high precision and accuracy. They can be used for various medical applications such as surgery, rehabilitation, prosthetics, patient care, and diagnostics. Surgical robotics, for example, allows surgeons to perform complex procedures with increased dexterity, control, and reduced fatigue, while minimizing invasiveness and improving patient outcomes.

Tendon injuries, also known as tendinopathies, refer to the damage or injury of tendons, which are strong bands of tissue that connect muscles to bones. Tendon injuries typically occur due to overuse or repetitive motion, causing micro-tears in the tendon fibers. The most common types of tendon injuries include tendinitis, which is inflammation of the tendon, and tendinosis, which is degeneration of the tendon's collagen.

Tendon injuries can cause pain, swelling, stiffness, and limited mobility in the affected area. The severity of the injury can vary from mild discomfort to severe pain that makes it difficult to move the affected joint. Treatment for tendon injuries may include rest, ice, compression, elevation (RICE) therapy, physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery. Preventing tendon injuries involves warming up properly before exercise, using proper form and technique during physical activity, gradually increasing the intensity and duration of workouts, and taking regular breaks to rest and recover.

A contusion is a medical term for a bruise. It's a type of injury that occurs when blood vessels become damaged or broken as a result of trauma to the body. This trauma can be caused by a variety of things, such as a fall, a blow, or a hit. When the blood vessels are damaged, blood leaks into the surrounding tissues, causing the area to become discolored and swollen.

Contusions can occur anywhere on the body, but they are most common in areas that are more likely to be injured, such as the knees, elbows, and hands. In some cases, a contusion may be accompanied by other injuries, such as fractures or sprains.

Most contusions will heal on their own within a few days or weeks, depending on the severity of the injury. Treatment typically involves rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to help reduce swelling and pain. In some cases, over-the-counter pain medications may also be recommended to help manage discomfort.

If you suspect that you have a contusion, it's important to seek medical attention if the injury is severe or if you experience symptoms such as difficulty breathing, chest pain, or loss of consciousness. These could be signs of a more serious injury and require immediate medical attention.

An arthroscope is a medical device that is used during minimally invasive surgical procedures. It is a thin, flexible tube with a light and camera on the end, which allows surgeons to visualize the inside of a joint without making a large incision. This enables them to diagnose and treat various joint conditions, such as torn cartilage or ligaments, inflamed synovial tissue, and bone spurs. The images captured by the arthroscope are displayed on a monitor in the operating room, helping the surgeon guide their instruments and perform the procedure with great precision. Arthroscopy is commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Polyethylene Terephthalates" is not a medical term. It is a type of polymer used in the manufacturing of various products, such as plastic bottles and textile fibers. Medically, you might encounter the abbreviation "PET" or "PET scan," which stands for "Positron Emission Tomography." A PET scan is a type of medical imaging that provides detailed pictures of the body's interior. If you have any medical terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

Hyperesthesia is a medical term that refers to an increased sensitivity to sensory stimuli, including touch, pain, or temperature. It can affect various parts of the body and can be caused by different conditions, such as nerve damage, multiple sclerosis, or complex regional pain syndrome. Hyperesthesia can manifest as a heightened awareness of sensations, which can be painful or uncomfortable, and may interfere with daily activities. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional for an accurate diagnosis and appropriate treatment if experiencing symptoms of hyperesthesia.

Arthroplasty, replacement, knee is a surgical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surface of the knee is removed and replaced with an artificial joint or prosthesis. The procedure involves resurfacing the worn-out ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) with metal components, and the back of the kneecap with a plastic button. This surgery is usually performed to relieve pain and restore function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries that have damaged the joint beyond repair. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance the quality of life for the patient.

Tenodesis is a surgical procedure where a damaged or torn tendon is attached to a nearby bone using sutures, anchors, or screws. The term specifically refers to the surgical fixation of a tendon to a bone. This procedure is often performed to treat injuries of the shoulder or wrist, such as rotator cuff tears or distal biceps tendon ruptures.

The goal of tenodesis is to provide stability and restore function to the affected joint by creating a new, stable attachment point for the tendon. This procedure can help reduce pain, improve strength, and enhance overall joint mobility. It is typically recommended when non-surgical treatments have failed or are not appropriate for the patient's injury.

It is important to note that tenodesis should not be confused with tenotomy, which is a surgical procedure where a tendon is cut to release tension and improve mobility in a joint.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "volleyball" is not a medical term. It is a sport in which two teams of six players each face off on opposite sides of a net. The objective is to send a ball over the net so that it lands in the opposing team's court (or they are unable to prevent it from doing so), and to prevent the same thing from happening on their own side.

If you have any medical questions or terms, I would be happy to help clarify those for you!

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

The lateral ligaments of the ankle are a group of three major ligaments located on the outside (lateral) aspect of the ankle joint. They play a crucial role in maintaining the stability and integrity of the ankle joint by preventing excessive side-to-side movement or eversion of the foot. The three lateral ligaments are:

1. Anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL): This is the most commonly injured ligament among the three, as it is the weakest and thinnest. It connects the anterior aspect of the fibula (the lateral malleolus) to the talus bone in the ankle joint. The primary function of the ATFL is to prevent excessive anterior displacement or tilting of the talus bone.

2. Calcaneofibular ligament (CFL): This ligament connects the lateral aspect of the calcaneus (heel bone) to the fibula, preventing excessive inversion and rotation of the ankle joint. The CFL plays a significant role in maintaining the stability of the subtalar joint, which is located just below the ankle joint.

3. Posterior talofibular ligament (PTFL): This is the strongest and thickest of the lateral ligaments. It connects the posterior aspect of the fibula to the talus bone, preventing excessive posterior displacement or tilting of the talus. The PTFL also helps to stabilize the ankle joint during plantarflexion (pointing the foot downward) movements.

Injuries to these lateral ligaments can occur due to sudden twisting motions, falls, or direct blows to the ankle, leading to conditions such as sprains or tears. Proper diagnosis and appropriate treatment are essential for ensuring optimal recovery and preventing long-term complications like chronic ankle instability.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports" is not a medical term. It refers to physical activities that are governed by a set of rules and often engaged in competitively. However, there are fields such as Sports Medicine and Exercise Science that deal with various aspects of physical activity, fitness, and sports-related injuries or conditions. If you have any questions related to these areas, I'd be happy to try to help!

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Debridement is a medical procedure that involves the removal of dead, damaged, or infected tissue to improve the healing process or prevent further infection. This can be done through various methods such as surgical debridement (removal of tissue using scalpel or scissors), mechanical debridement (use of wound irrigation or high-pressure water jet), autolytic debridement (using the body's own enzymes to break down and reabsorb dead tissue), and enzymatic debridement (application of topical enzymes to dissolve necrotic tissue). The goal of debridement is to promote healthy tissue growth, reduce the risk of infection, and improve overall wound healing.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Skeletal muscle, also known as striated or voluntary muscle, is a type of muscle that is attached to bones by tendons or aponeuroses and functions to produce movements and support the posture of the body. It is composed of long, multinucleated fibers that are arranged in parallel bundles and are characterized by alternating light and dark bands, giving them a striped appearance under a microscope. Skeletal muscle is under voluntary control, meaning that it is consciously activated through signals from the nervous system. It is responsible for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and lifting objects.

"Second-look surgery" is a medical term that refers to a second surgical procedure performed after an initial operation, usually to evaluate the effectiveness of treatment or to check for any potential complications. This type of surgery is often used in cancer treatment, where it can help determine if the tumor has responded to chemotherapy or radiation therapy. During the second-look surgery, surgeons may remove additional tissue or tumor cells, or they may perform other procedures to manage any complications that have arisen since the first surgery.

It's worth noting that the use of second-look surgery is not always necessary or appropriate, and the decision to perform this type of procedure will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's overall health, the type and stage of cancer, and the specific goals of treatment. As with any surgical procedure, there are risks associated with second-look surgery, and patients should discuss these risks thoroughly with their healthcare provider before making a decision about treatment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "football" is a popular sport and not a medical term. The term "football" refers to a group of sports that involve kicking a ball with the foot to score goals. The most popular types of football are soccer, American football, Canadian football, Australian rules football, and rugby football.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, I would be happy to help!

The epiphyses are the rounded ends of long bones in the body, which articulate with other bones to form joints. They are separated from the main shaft of the bone (diaphysis) by a growth plate called the physis or epiphyseal plate. The epiphyses are made up of spongy bone and covered with articular cartilage, which allows for smooth movement between bones. During growth, the epiphyseal plates produce new bone cells that cause the bone to lengthen until they eventually fuse during adulthood, at which point growth stops.

Collagen is the most abundant protein in the human body, and it is a major component of connective tissues such as tendons, ligaments, skin, and bones. Collagen provides structure and strength to these tissues and helps them to withstand stretching and tension. It is made up of long chains of amino acids, primarily glycine, proline, and hydroxyproline, which are arranged in a triple helix structure. There are at least 16 different types of collagen found in the body, each with slightly different structures and functions. Collagen is important for maintaining the integrity and health of tissues throughout the body, and it has been studied for its potential therapeutic uses in various medical conditions.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Physical conditioning in the context of human health refers to the process of improving physical fitness and overall health through regular exercise and physical activity. This involves engaging in various forms of exercise such as cardio, strength training, flexibility exercises, and balance exercises to enhance various components of physical fitness including:

1. Cardiovascular endurance: The ability of the heart and lungs to supply oxygen to the muscles during sustained physical activity.
2. Muscular strength: The amount of force a muscle can exert in a single effort.
3. Muscular endurance: The ability of a muscle or muscle group to sustain repeated contractions over time.
4. Flexibility: The range of motion around a joint.
5. Body composition: The proportion of lean body mass (muscle, bone, and organs) to fat mass in the body.

Physical conditioning aims to improve these components of fitness, leading to overall improvements in health, functional capacity, and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and cancer. It is an essential component of a healthy lifestyle and is recommended for people of all ages and abilities.

An osteophyte, also known as a bone spur, is a bony projection that forms along the margins of joints, often as a result of degenerative changes in the cartilage and underlying bone. These changes are most commonly seen in conditions such as osteoarthritis, where the protective cartilage that cushions the ends of bones breaks down, leading to inflammation, pain, and reduced mobility.

Osteophytes can develop in any joint in the body, but they are most commonly found in the spine, hips, knees, and hands. They may vary in size from small bumps to large, irregular growths that can restrict joint movement and cause discomfort or pain. In some cases, osteophytes may also compress nearby nerves, leading to symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb.

While osteophytes are often considered a sign of aging or joint degeneration, they can also be caused by other conditions that put excessive stress on the joints, such as injury, infection, or inflammatory arthritis. Treatment for osteophytes typically involves addressing the underlying cause of joint damage, along with pain management strategies such as physical therapy, medication, or in some cases, surgery.

A hindlimb, also known as a posterior limb, is one of the pair of extremities that are located distally to the trunk in tetrapods (four-legged vertebrates) and include mammals, birds, reptiles, and amphibians. In humans and other primates, hindlimbs are equivalent to the lower limbs, which consist of the thigh, leg, foot, and toes.

The primary function of hindlimbs is locomotion, allowing animals to move from one place to another. However, they also play a role in other activities such as balance, support, and communication. In humans, the hindlimbs are responsible for weight-bearing, standing, walking, running, and jumping.

In medical terminology, the term "hindlimb" is not commonly used to describe human anatomy. Instead, healthcare professionals use terms like lower limbs or lower extremities to refer to the same region of the body. However, in comparative anatomy and veterinary medicine, the term hindlimb is still widely used to describe the corresponding structures in non-human animals.

The spiral ligament of the cochlea is a fibrous structure located in the inner ear, more specifically in the cochlea. It is part of the membranous labyrinth and helps to maintain the shape and tension of the cochlear duct, which is essential for hearing.

The spiral ligament is attached to the bony wall of the cochlea and runs along the entire length of the cochlear duct, spiraling around it in a snail-like fashion. It consists of an outer, highly vascularized fibrous layer (the fibrous cap) and an inner, more cellular layer (the avascular zone).

The spiral ligament plays a crucial role in sound transmission and perception by helping to maintain the mechanical properties of the cochlear duct. The tension on the basilar membrane, where the sensory hair cells are located, is regulated by the spiral ligament's stiffness and elasticity. This tension affects the vibration amplitude and frequency selectivity of the basilar membrane, which in turn influences how we perceive different sounds and pitches.

Damage to the spiral ligament can result in hearing loss or impairment due to disrupted sound transmission and perception.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

Synovitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the synovial membrane, which is the soft tissue that lines the inner surface of joint capsules and tendon sheaths. The synovial membrane produces synovial fluid, which lubricates the joint and allows for smooth movement.

Inflammation of the synovial membrane can cause it to thicken, redden, and become painful and swollen. This can lead to stiffness, limited mobility, and discomfort in the affected joint or tendon sheath. Synovitis may occur as a result of injury, overuse, infection, or autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis.

If left untreated, synovitis can cause irreversible damage to the joint and surrounding tissues, including cartilage loss and bone erosion. Treatment typically involves a combination of medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle modifications to reduce inflammation and manage pain.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena refer to the various functions, processes, and responses that occur in the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the muscles, bones, joints, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues that work together to support the body's structure, enable movement, and protect vital organs.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena can be categorized into several areas:

1. Muscle contraction and relaxation: This involves the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy through the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in muscle fibers, leading to muscle shortening or lengthening.
2. Bone homeostasis: This includes the maintenance of bone mass, density, and strength through a balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts.
3. Joint movement and stability: The movement of joints is enabled by the interaction between muscles, tendons, ligaments, and articular cartilage, while stability is maintained through the passive tension provided by ligaments and the active contraction of muscles.
4. Connective tissue repair and regeneration: This involves the response of tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and muscles to injury or damage, including inflammation, cell proliferation, and matrix remodeling.
5. Neuromuscular control: The coordination of muscle activity through the integration of sensory information from proprioceptors (e.g., muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs) and motor commands from the central nervous system.
6. Skeletal development and growth: This includes the processes of bone formation, mineralization, and modeling during fetal development and childhood, as well as the maintenance of bone mass and strength throughout adulthood.
7. Aging and degeneration: The progressive decline in musculoskeletal function and structure with age, including sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass), osteoporosis (brittle bones), and joint degeneration (osteoarthritis).

Understanding these physiological phenomena is essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries.

Polydioxanone (PDO) is a synthetic, absorbable monofilament suture material that is commonly used in surgical procedures. It is made from a polymer of polydioxanone and has a variety of medical uses, including soft tissue approximation and ligation. PDO sutures are known for their high tensile strength and slow absorption rate, which can make them ideal for use in surgeries where long-term support is needed before the suture is fully absorbed by the body. The absorbable nature of PDO sutures also eliminates the need for a second surgical procedure to remove them.

In summary, Polydioxanone (PDO) is a synthetic, absorbable monofilament suture material that is commonly used in surgical procedures due to its high tensile strength and slow absorption rate.

Physical therapy modalities refer to the various forms of treatment that physical therapists use to help reduce pain, promote healing, and restore function to the body. These modalities can include:

1. Heat therapy: This includes the use of hot packs, paraffin baths, and infrared heat to increase blood flow, relax muscles, and relieve pain.
2. Cold therapy: Also known as cryotherapy, this involves the use of ice packs, cold compresses, or cooling gels to reduce inflammation, numb the area, and relieve pain.
3. Electrical stimulation: This uses electrical currents to stimulate nerves and muscles, which can help to reduce pain, promote healing, and improve muscle strength and function.
4. Ultrasound: This uses high-frequency sound waves to penetrate deep into tissues, increasing blood flow, reducing inflammation, and promoting healing.
5. Manual therapy: This includes techniques such as massage, joint mobilization, and stretching, which are used to improve range of motion, reduce pain, and promote relaxation.
6. Traction: This is a technique that uses gentle pulling on the spine or other joints to help relieve pressure and improve alignment.
7. Light therapy: Also known as phototherapy, this involves the use of low-level lasers or light-emitting diodes (LEDs) to promote healing and reduce pain and inflammation.
8. Therapeutic exercise: This includes a range of exercises that are designed to improve strength, flexibility, balance, and coordination, and help patients recover from injury or illness.

Physical therapy modalities are often used in combination with other treatments, such as manual therapy and therapeutic exercise, to provide a comprehensive approach to rehabilitation and pain management.

The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments (the other being the posterior cruciate ligament) ... view Posterior cruciate ligament Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction Anterior drawer test Anterolateral ligament Lateral ... The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four main ligaments of the knee, providing 85% of the restraining force to ... Anterior cruciate ligament surgery is a complex operation that requires expertise in the field of orthopedic and sports ...
The Anterior Cruciate Ligament is the ligament that keeps the knee stable. Anterior Cruciate Ligament damage is a very common ... Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACL reconstruction) is a surgical tissue graft replacement of the anterior cruciate ... Ligament Advanced Reinforcement System (LARS) The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) of the knee is commonly injured. There is ... "Anterior cruciate ligament repair with LARS (ligament advanced reinforcement system): a systematic review". Sports Medicine, ...
An anterior cruciate ligament injury occurs when the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is either stretched, partially torn, or ... MRI for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury at eMedicine Rohman EM, Macalena JA (June 2016). "Anterior cruciate ligament ... Griffin L (2008). "Risk and Gender Factors for Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury". The anterior cruciate ligament : ... The cruciate ligaments form an "X" inside the knee joint with the anterior cruciate ligament running from the front of the ...
Ruptured ligament, Anterior cruciate ligament injury, Dislocation of the patella and Arthritis. Arthritis in pets (and humans) ... "Animal Orthopaedic Vet Surgeons , Animal Anterior Cruciate Ligament Repair". southeasternvet.com.au. Retrieved 2020-04-23. " ... This includes parts such as the muscles, nerves, ligaments, tendons, nerves, etc. These disorders or diseases include Carpal ... tunnel syndrome, Tendonitis, tedndon/muscle/ligament strains and sprains, Spinal disc herniation, and more. The results from ...
The cruciate ligaments of the knee are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). These ... Cruciate ligament of atlas Cruciform ligaments of fingers. Look up cruciate or ligament in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. In ... These ligaments can be seen using computed tomography. Rupture of the anterior cruciate ligament is one of the "most frequent ... Cruciate ligaments (also cruciform ligaments) are pairs of ligaments arranged like a letter X. They occur in several joints of ...
"Alexia has anterior cruciate ligament injury". FC Barcelona. 5 July 2022. Retrieved 5 September 2022. "Alexia to undergo ... On 5 July, Barcelona announced that captain Alexia Putellas had suffered an anterior cruciate ligament injury in her left knee ... "Jana, con una rotura del ligamento cruzado" [Jana, with a torn cruciate ligament]. FC Barcelona (in Spanish). 14 February 2022 ... out until the end of the season due to a torn cruciate ligament]. Sport (in Spanish). 22 February 2022. Retrieved 3 November ...
He later injured his anterior cruciate ligament. In 2013, he signed with Finnish second-tier club PK-35 Vantaa. In 2015, he ...
... he suffered a torn anterior cruciate ligament. He underwent surgery to fix the torn ligament at the Hospital for Special ...
The primary usage of modern artificial ligaments is in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Many artificial ligaments ... "LARS Artificial Ligament Versus ABC Purely Polyester Ligament for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction". Orthopaedic ... Rading J, Peterson L (1995-05-01). "Clinical experience with the Leeds-Keio artificial ligament in anterior cruciate ligament ... Today, the most common use of artificial ligaments is in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. Although ...
An MRI revealed an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Her meniscus was damaged and her femur, patella and fibula were bone on ...
He missed the run in after he ruptured his anterior cruciate ligament which kept him out until December 2014. He marked his ... "Sam Vokes: Burnley striker ruptures anterior cruciate ligament". BBC Sport. Retrieved 26 August 2019. "Burnley 1-1 Tottenham". ...
The injury was a ruptured anterior cruciate ligament. Vassell left the club on 30 June after not being offered a new contract. ...
In 1985, Hayden tore his anterior cruciate ligament. However, he elected to continue training while wearing a knee brace rather ...
Miles had severely torn the anterior cruciate ligament. He had also torn the cartilage in his left knee. Miles was given the ... The initial diagnosis of the injury was that it was only a sprained ligament. Four days later an orthopedic surgeon, Dr. Dean, ...
O'Donnell ruptured his anterior cruciate ligament in 2019. He played for his county at minor and under-20 level. O'Donnell made ... McNulty, Chris (29 July 2019). "Cruciate blow for young Donegal football star Conor O'Donnell". Retrieved 29 July 2019. Maguire ...
Emerson missed much of the first half of the 2017-18 season due to an anterior cruciate ligament injury that he suffered in May ... "Roma defender Emerson suffers anterior cruciate ligament injury". FourFourTwo. 28 May 2017. Retrieved 30 January 2018. "Roma 3- ...
Ligaments are sturdy bands of tissues that connect bones. Similar to the anterior cruciate ligament, the PCL connects the femur ... is a ligament in each knee of humans and various other animals. It works as a counterpart to the anterior cruciate ligament ( ... Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation demonstrating normal signal of both anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments (arrows). ... "Anatomy of the posterior cruciate ligament and the meniscofemoral ligaments". Knee Surg Sports Traumatol Arthrosc. 14 (3): 257- ...
In mid-2013, she tore her anterior cruciate ligament. Involved in aggressive inline skating in her early teen years, Turski had ...
Williams, Rebecca (5 June 2016). "Richmond confirms Steven Morris has ruptured anterior cruciate ligament". Herald Sun. News ... later confirmed to be a rupture of his anterior cruciate ligament. It was to be a season-ending injury, with Morris finishing ...
In December 2018, he injured his anterior cruciate ligament. On 7 June 2021, he extended his contract with FC Lokomotiv Moscow ...
NAK) ACL (i) Access Control List Anterior cruciate ligament; the initialism can also refer to an injury to this ligament ...
In early 2015, Vlaeminck ruptured her anterior cruciate ligament. Just two matches after completing a full recovery and ...
The Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) knee injury is one of the three major and common injuries which occur in the sport.[ ... Cochrane, J. L., Lloyd, D. G., Buttfield, A., Seward, H., & McGivern, J. (2007). Characteristics of anterior cruciate ligament ... If an ACL rupture occurs, it immediately forces an increase not only to the anterior tibial translation but also the internal ... Importantly, the ACL restrains the anterior tibial translation, providing 85-87% total restraining force. While Australian ...
McFadden suffered anterior cruciate ligament damage in September 2010. He returned to training in March 2011, but suffered a ...
In early 1994, Klopas returned from surgery on his anterior cruciate ligament and began working towards a place on the hosting ... However, he tore his anterior cruciate ligament in 1991. That injury and a subsequent infection hindered his playing for nearly ...
In September 2019 he ruptured his anterior cruciate ligament. Scores and results list DR Congo's goal tally first. "Merveille ...
She suffered an anterior cruciate ligament injury in April 2017, ruling her out of participation in the following season. In ... "Jade Bailey: Chelsea Ladies midfielder tears anterior cruciate ligament". BBC Sport. 18 April 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2018. " ...
After that, he suffered an anterior cruciate ligament injury. Qureshi has been regarded as a Malaysia and Iraq prospect. ...
The cartilages and the anterior cruciate ligament are removed; the posterior cruciate ligament also may be removed but the ... the BCR knee retains the Anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments to try to mimic the normal tension of the knee's ligaments. ... Whether the posterior cruciate ligament is removed or preserved depends on the type of implant used, although there appears to ... The posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) is important to the stability of the knee by preventing posterior subluxation of the ...
The cartilages and the anterior cruciate ligament are removed; the posterior cruciate ligament may also be removed but the ... "Retention versus sacrifice of the posterior cruciate ligament in total knee arthroplasty for treating osteoarthritis". The ... tibial and fibular collateral ligaments are preserved. Metal components are then impacted onto the bone or fixed using ...
The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments (the other being the posterior cruciate ligament) ... view Posterior cruciate ligament Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction Anterior drawer test Anterolateral ligament Lateral ... The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four main ligaments of the knee, providing 85% of the restraining force to ... Anterior cruciate ligament surgery is a complex operation that requires expertise in the field of orthopedic and sports ...
An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. A ... An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. A ... An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. A ... Cruciate ligament injury - anterior; ACL tear; Knee injury - anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ...
... is one of the most commonly injured ligaments of the knee. Injuries occur predominantly in a young and sports-active population ... encoded search term (Anterior Cruciate Ligament Pathology) and Anterior Cruciate Ligament Pathology What to Read Next on ... The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most commonly injured ligaments of the knee. Injuries occur predominantly in ... The anterior draw test commonly is performed to diagnose anterior cruciate ligament injury. ...
... Journal Article Overview abstract * BACKGROUND: Performance ... outcomes and return-to-play data have been reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in professional football ...
The anterior cruciate ligament, or ACL, is the most often injured part of the knee. The ACL supports many actions commonly ... Its a fact that girls have a higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than guys. Some studies show that women ... An Injury to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament, or ACL, was once a career ending injury. Thankfully, we now see instances where ... The rupture of an athletes Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is painful and distressing. It requires surgery to repair and then ...
... The anterior cruciate ligament is the main internal stabiliser of the knee. It ...
Krishnakumar Rajendrans ACL recovery path
Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL). Medial collateral ligament (MCL). Lateral collateral ligament (LCL). Posterior cruciate ... What is the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)? Your knees are made up of bones, ligaments, tendons and cartilage. The anterior ... Anterior Cruciate Ligament) Tears. What is an ACL tear? What does it feel like? An ACL tear is damage to the anterior cruciate ... The word "anterior" means "towards the front of the body." Cruciate means "cross-shaped," and in medical terms it refers to the ...
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction What is anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction? Anterior cruciate ligament ...
... is one of two cruciate ligaments that stabilise the knee joint, while connecting the femur and tibia. ... the cruciate ligaments (crossing ligaments) control the knees forward-backward stability. The anterior cruciate ligament is ... The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of two cruciate ligaments that stabilise the knee joint. The knee is a mobile joint ... There are four major ligaments which are the main stabilisers of the joint: the two cruciate ligaments (ACL and PCL) and two ...
Follow Andrew Boyd as he rehabilitates from his Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) knee injury. See how he injured himself and ... My Story: Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Reconstruction. This entry was posted in Conditions My Story Treatments and tagged ... My Story: Andrew Boyd completely ruptured his Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) playing rugby in July. He had a surgical repair ...
Functional recovery has for long been the focus of rehabilitation after an Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) injury. It is now ... High Risk of Further Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury in a 10-Year Follow-up Study of Anterior Cruciate Ligament-Reconstructed ... Anterior Cruciate Ligament. ACLR:. Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction. ACL-RSI:. Anterior Cruciate Ligament - Return to ... Faleide AGH, Inderhaug E, Vervaat W, Breivik K, Bogen BE, Mo IF et al (2020) Anterior cruciate ligament-return to sport after ...
The lecture presents his longterm follow-up analysis on knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction ... Lecture on osteoarthritis and anterior cruciate ligament surgery by RPA Janssen, MD. ... Cruciate ligaments. *Cruciate injury interview RPA Janssen MD. *Anterior cruciate ligament. *Anterior cruciate ligament injury ... Posterior Cruciate Ligament non-operative. *Anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction. *Combined ACL and Collateral ligament ...
Increasing rates of anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in young Australians, 2000-2015. ...
The loss of the neurophysiological protective reflex involving the anterior cruciate ligament and hamstrings in patients with ... Decreased dynamic stability of the knee joint associated with functional disability is a feature of anterior cruciate ligament ... Reflex hamstring contraction latency in anterior cruciate ligament deficiency. Beard DJ., Kyberd PJ., OConnor JJ., Fergusson ... Adult, Anterior Cruciate Ligament, Female, Humans, Male, Middle Aged, Muscle Contraction, Reaction Time, Reflex ...
knee-anterior cruciate ligament, tear;. other-pins/rods/screws; surgeries/treatment-arthroscopy; surgeries/treatment-knee ... Quintana was ultimately diagnosed with a medial meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament tears of the left knee. She underwent ...
Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure in our country and abroad as well. Patients ... Comparative analysis of standard anterior cruciate ligament arthroscopic reconstruction and anterior cruciate ligament ... Comparative analysis of standard anterior cruciate ligament arthroscopic reconstruction and anterior cruciate ligament ... Macro and microscopic asse-ssment of the state of the graft after arthroscopic reco-nstruction of the ante-rior cruciate liga-ment ...
Changes in motor-flexibility following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction as measured by means of a leg-amplitude ... Background: In the current study changes in lower-limb motor flexibility of patients undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament ... Interpretation: While gait kinematics may not show motor-flexibility changes following anterior cruciate ligament ...
Georgoulis AD, Moraiti C, Ristanis S, Stergiou N. A novel approach to measure variability in the anterior cruciate ligament ... A novel approach to measure variability in the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee during walking: The use of the ... Dive into the research topics of A novel approach to measure variability in the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee ... A novel approach to measure variability in the anterior cruciate ligament deficient knee during walking: The use of the ...
ACL, anterior cruciate ligament; BAL, broncho-alveolar lavage sample; NA, not available.. †Controls from the Centers for ...
... anatomical single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and anatomical double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament ... Anterior cruciate ligament; Displacement; Double bundle; Finite-element model; Intra-knee; Single bundle; Stress ... The debate on the superiority of single- or double-bundle for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has not ceased. The ... Compared with the single-bundle technique, the graft of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has better ...
Osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury The goal of my research is: to better understand mechanisms ... underlying the rapid development of knee osteoarthritis that occurs within 10-15 years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) ...
In mid-2013, she tore her anterior cruciate ligament. Involved in aggressive inline skating in her early teen years, Turski had ...
Neuromuscular electrical stimulation after anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1999 Nov. 166-75. [QxMD ... TENS should not be placed over the anterior neck, because laryngospasm due to laryngeal muscle contraction may occur. ...
The global cruciate ligament repair procedures market size was valued at US$ 13.0 Billion in 2023 & projected to reach US$ 30.1 ... This includes anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) repair and posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) repair. According to the report, ... Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Repair, Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL) Repair. Applications Covered. Osteoarthritis, ... Cruciate Ligament Repair Procedures Market Report by Procedure Type (Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) Repair, Posterior ...
Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injury * Arm Injury * Arm Pain * Athletic Pubalgia * Back Muscle Injury ...
Kerr has been sidelined since January for Chelsea after suffering an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury. ...
Female athletes are at greater risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, compared to males participating in similar ... Female Athletes Most at Risk for Ligament Injuries. The risk of potentially devastating tears to an important knee ligament may ...
Efficient Detection of Knee Anterior Cruciate Ligament from Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using Deep Learning Approach. ...
  • The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of a pair of cruciate ligaments (the other being the posterior cruciate ligament) in the human knee. (wikipedia.org)
  • This name is fitting because the ACL crosses the posterior cruciate ligament to form an "X". It is composed of strong, fibrous material and assists in controlling excessive motion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) works with the ACL. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The broad tibial footprint lies at a point one third to one half the distance between the medial and lateral tibial spines, 5-7 mm anterior to the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). (medscape.com)
  • On the femoral side, the attachment lies on the medial aspect of the lateral femoral condyle, just anterior to the posterior aspect of the intercondylar notch. (medscape.com)
  • The femoral attachment is in the form of a segment of a circle, with its anterior border straight and its posterior border convex. (ramtan.co)
  • Cruciate means "cross-shaped," and in medical terms it refers to the two ligaments in your knee that form the shape of a cross: the ACL in the front and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) in the back. (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • Posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • The stress was shown to be at a lower level at femoral side and posterior cruciate ligament of intra- knee in two reconstruction finite- element models than that in normal finite- element models, while presented higher level at the tibial side than normal knee (p = 0.3528). (bvsalud.org)
  • The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) crosses in front of the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) to form an X. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Three genes associated with anterior and posterior cruciate ligament injury : a genome-wide association analysis. (cdc.gov)
  • The patellar ligament is often used, since bone plugs on each end of the graft are extracted, which helps integrate the graft into the bone tunnels during reconstruction. (wikipedia.org)
  • The lecture presents his longterm follow-up analysis on knee osteoarthritis after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction with hamstring autografts. (rpajanssen.nl)
  • Anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a pivotal procedure for restoring knee stability and function in patients with ACL injuries. (sjhresearchafrica.org)
  • Lisitsyn MP, Zaremuk AM. Comparative analysis of standard anterior cruciate ligament arthroscopic reconstruction and anterior cruciate ligament arthroscopic reconstruction with the use of computer navigation. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Arthroscopic anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction is a common procedure in our country and abroad as well. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Background: In the current study changes in lower-limb motor flexibility of patients undergoing Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction were evaluated in relation to fear of harm. (ru.nl)
  • Interpretation: While gait kinematics may not show motor-flexibility changes following anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction, a leg-amplitude differentiation task does show such changes. (ru.nl)
  • Intra-Articular Biomechanical Changes of the Meniscus and Ligaments During Stance Phase of Gait Circle after Different Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Surgical Procedures: A Finite Element Analysis. (bvsalud.org)
  • The debate on the superiority of single- or double-bundle for anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has not ceased. (bvsalud.org)
  • This study is to evaluate the biomechanical stress distribution intra- knee after single- and double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by three-dimensional finite element analysis , and to observe the change of stress concentration under the condition of vertical gradient loads. (bvsalud.org)
  • The strength and distribution of induced stresses were analyzed in two frequently used procedures , anatomical single-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction and anatomical double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction , using femoral- graft -tibial system under different loads, to mimic a post-operation mechanical motion . (bvsalud.org)
  • The stress of ligament / graft at femoral side of three finite- element models was significantly higher than at tibial side, while the highest level was observed in single-bundle reconstruction finite- element model. (bvsalud.org)
  • With the increase of force, the maximum stress in the medial (7.1-7.1 MPa) and lateral (4.9-7.4 MPa) meniscus of single-bundle reconstruction finite- element model shifted from the anterior horn to the central area (p = 0.0161, 0.0479, respectively). (bvsalud.org)
  • Compared with the single-bundle technique , the graft of double-bundle anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction has better stress dissipation effect and can prevent postoperative meniscus tear more effectively. (bvsalud.org)
  • This article endeavors to explain the complex nature of the ligament and its injuries and aid the reader in making informed management decisions. (medscape.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Performance outcomes and return-to-play data have been reported after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries in professional football and basketball, but they have rarely been reported in professional hockey. (healthpartners.com)
  • It's a fact that girls have a higher risk of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than guys. (stack.com)
  • Scholars@Duke publication: Comparison Between Sexes of Bone Contusions and Meniscal Tear Patterns in Noncontact Anterior Cruciate Ligament Injuries. (duke.edu)
  • BACKGROUND: Valgus load has been linked to female predominance and mechanism for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. (duke.edu)
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies reporting frequent medial contusions in noncontact ACL injuries suggest anterior translation rather than a valgus mechanism. (duke.edu)
  • ACL tears are often accompanied by injuries to the collateral ligaments, joint capsule, articular cartilage or the menisci (cartilage pads). (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • The second major contributor to the growth of the cruciate ligament repair procedures market is the rising incidence of sports-related injuries. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Professional and amateur sports participation has seen a marked increase in recent years, and with it, the occurrence of injuries, including those that impact the cruciate ligament. (imarcgroup.com)
  • The trend towards more active lifestyle is also contributing to this increase, as regular individuals partake in physical activities that can potentially result in ligament injuries. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Female athletes are at greater risk for anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries, compared to males participating in similar activities. (cdc.gov)
  • Overview of Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries Sprains are tears in ligaments (tissues that connect one bone to another). (msdmanuals.com)
  • It is estimated that a round 50% of all cruciate ligament injuries in sports could have been avoided with regular injury prevention training. (lu.se)
  • These principles are the same for young athletes with anterior cruciate ligament injuries and for elderly people with osteoarthritis of the knee. (lu.se)
  • Most ACL tears occur in the middle of the ligament, or the ligament is pulled off the thigh bone. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Impaction fractures of the posterolateral tibial plateau commonly occur in the setting of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tears, with considerable variability found in fracture size and morphologic features. (drrobertlaprademd.com)
  • Quintana was ultimately diagnosed with a medial meniscus and anterior cruciate ligament tears of the left knee. (law.com)
  • Cruciate ligament repair procedures are surgical interventions performed to address damage or tears in the cruciate ligaments of the knee joint. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Macro and microscopic asse-ssment of the state of the graft after arthroscopic reco-nstruction of the ante-rior cruciate liga-ment of the knee joint with a quadriceps tendon auto-graft. (mediasphera.ru)
  • Amis A., Jakob R. Anterior cruciate ligament graft positioning, tension and twisting. (mediasphera.ru)
  • This function prevents anterior tibial subluxation of the lateral and medial tibiofemoral joints, which is important for the pivot-shift phenomenon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Lateral collateral ligament (LCL) runs along the outside of the knee. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The ACL is attached to a fossa in front of and lateral to the anterior tibial spine. (ramtan.co)
  • At this attachment the ACL passes beneath the transverse meniscal ligament, and a few fascicles of the ACL may blend with the anterior attachment of the lateral meniscus. (ramtan.co)
  • Lateral collateral ligament (LCL). (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • The medial collateral ligament is located on the inside of the leg, and the lateral collateral ligament is located on the outside of the leg. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Young athletes who have suffered an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) tear or a meniscus injury may proceed to develop knee osteoarthritis already 15-20 years after their injury. (lu.se)
  • The rupture of an athlete's Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is painful and distressing. (stack.com)
  • Osteoarthritis was induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection of the right knee in crossbred dogs. (nih.gov)
  • This study demonstrates that treatment with avocado/soybean unsaponifiables can reduce the development of early osteoarthritic cartilage and subchondral bone lesions in the anterior cruciate ligament dog model of osteoarthritis. (nih.gov)
  • The ACL attaches in front of the intercondyloid eminence of the tibia, where it blends with the anterior horn of the medial meniscus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The ligament courses obliquely, running from the tibia anteriorly and medially to the femur posteriorly, superiorly, and laterally. (medscape.com)
  • The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), which is located in the front center of your knee, connects the thigh bone (femur) to the shin bone (tibia). (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • Knee sprains occur when the ligaments that attach the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia) are torn. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The severity of the injury and damage to the surrounding tissues and ligaments affects how much pain and swelling a person will experience. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • A vertical force simulating daily walking was performed on the models to assess the interfacial stresses and displacements of intra-articular tissues and ligaments . (bvsalud.org)
  • Your knees are made up of bones, ligaments, tendons and cartilage. (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • A torn anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is the most common complication, but other tendons and structural supports can be damaged. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The ligament is intra-articular but extrasynovial. (medscape.com)
  • There may be damage to other parts of the knee such as the other ligaments and/or the cartilage (a gel-like connective tissue). (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • Several structures in the knee are often damaged at the same time, such as the menisci, other ligaments, and cartilage. (lu.se)
  • The two most common sources for tissue are the patellar ligament and the hamstrings tendon. (wikipedia.org)
  • The loss of the neurophysiological protective reflex involving the anterior cruciate ligament and hamstrings in patients with ACLD is likely to be a contributory factor in the decreased joint stability experienced by these patients. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In more extreme cases, a person with hyperextended knee may also have damage to the ligaments and other connective tissue in the knee, including the blood vessels and nerves. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Reflex hamstring contraction latency in anterior cruciate ligament deficiency. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Decreased dynamic stability of the knee joint associated with functional disability is a feature of anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Most athletes require reconstructive surgery on the ACL, in which the torn or ruptured ACL is completely removed and replaced with a piece of tendon or ligament tissue from the patient (autograft) or from a donor (allograft). (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect of Running on Anterior Knee Laxity in Collegiate-Level Female Athletes After Anterior. (uncg.edu)
  • The subjective pain experience of athletes following anterior cruciate ligament surgery. (bvsalud.org)
  • An anterior cruciate ligament injury is the over-stretching or tearing of the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) in the knee. (medlineplus.gov)
  • An Injury to the Anterior Cruciate Ligament, or ACL, was once a career ending injury. (stack.com)
  • When you hurt a ligament, your healthcare provider may grade the injury on a one to three scale, with three being the most severe: Grade One: Your ligament has been stretched, but it still does its job of stabilizing the knee joint. (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • BACKGROUND: Increased knee abduction angle during activity is suggested to be a risk factor for sustaining an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury or developing patellofemoral pain syndrome (PFPS). (lu.se)
  • Knee abduction in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament injury. (lu.se)
  • Occupational disability after hospitalization for the treatment of an injury of the anterior cruciate ligament. (cdc.gov)
  • What if you could predict which of these kids are more likely to sustain an anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury? (medscape.com)
  • The tear may be partial (the ligament is torn a little) or total (the ligament is torn into two pieces). (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • Grade Three: Your ligament is torn - divided into two pieces. (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • One or both of these ligaments can be torn if the knee is hit from the side while weight on one foot that is firmly planted on the ground, as occurs during a football tackle. (msdmanuals.com)
  • This pop usually indicates that a ligament (particularly the anterior cruciate ligament) is torn. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Instrumented arthrometry for diagnosing partial versus complete anterior cruciate ligament t. (uncg.edu)
  • Ligament" is what the medicine world calls the tough bands of tissue that connect bones or hold organs in place. (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • Arthroscopic surgery, for instance, is a MI procedure that has seen widespread adoption for ligament repair. (imarcgroup.com)
  • Others think that it's because of a difference in pelvis and lower leg alignment, looser ligaments, or how estrogen affects a woman's ligaments. (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • In more extreme cases, a hyperextended knee will require surgery to fix the ligaments or alignment of the knee. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • In the quadruped stifle joint (analogous to the knee), based on its anatomical position, it is also referred to as the cranial cruciate ligament. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is performed under anesthesia, and the surgeon uses minimally invasive (MI) techniques, such as arthroscopy, to access the knee joint for reconstructing or repairing the damaged ligament and restoring the stability and function to the knee. (imarcgroup.com)
  • The ACL is one of two cruciate ligaments in the knee that gives the knee stability. (lu.se)
  • The improving economic conditions and rising healthcare investments are facilitating better access to specialized orthopedic care, including cruciate ligament repair procedures. (imarcgroup.com)
  • As healthcare systems globally continue to evolve, access to specialized medical procedures, including cruciate ligament repair, is expanding. (imarcgroup.com)
  • The anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) is one of the most commonly injured ligaments of the knee. (medscape.com)
  • The three-dimensional finite- element models for normal ligament and two surgical methods were applied. (bvsalud.org)
  • Apart from this, advancements in surgical techniques and technology are constantly improving the efficacy of cruciate ligament repair procedures. (imarcgroup.com)
  • A primary factor driving the cruciate ligament repair procedures market growth is the rapid innovation in surgical techniques. (imarcgroup.com)
  • The anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four main ligaments of the knee, providing 85% of the restraining force to anterior tibial displacement at 30 and 90° of knee flexion. (wikipedia.org)
  • Effect of trunk position on anterior tibial displacement measured by the KT-1000 in uninjure. (uncg.edu)
  • The camera sends video to a large monitor so the surgeon can see any damage to the ligaments. (wikipedia.org)
  • An ACL tear is damage to the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), located at the center of your knee. (konyabaskenthospital.com)
  • These ligaments, located on either side of the knee prevent the knee from moving from side to side too much. (msdmanuals.com)