Artery formed by the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL). Branches of the anterior cerebral artery supply the CAUDATE NUCLEUS; INTERNAL CAPSULE; PUTAMEN; SEPTAL NUCLEI; GYRUS CINGULI; and surfaces of the FRONTAL LOBE and PARIETAL LOBE.
NECROSIS occurring in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY system, including branches such as Heubner's artery. These arteries supply blood to the medial and superior parts of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, Infarction in the anterior cerebral artery usually results in sensory and motor impairment in the lower body.
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
Radiography of the vascular system of the brain after injection of a contrast medium.
Abnormal outpouching in the wall of intracranial blood vessels. Most common are the saccular (berry) aneurysms located at branch points in CIRCLE OF WILLIS at the base of the brain. Vessel rupture results in SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Giant aneurysms (>2.5 cm in diameter) may compress adjacent structures, including the OCULOMOTOR NERVE. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p841)
The largest of the cerebral arteries. It trifurcates into temporal, frontal, and parietal branches supplying blood to most of the parenchyma of these lobes in the CEREBRAL CORTEX. These are the areas involved in motor, sensory, and speech activities.
A polygonal anastomosis at the base of the brain formed by the internal carotid (CAROTID ARTERY, INTERNAL), proximal parts of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries (ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries.
Pathological conditions of intracranial ARTERIES supplying the CEREBRUM. These diseases often are due to abnormalities or pathological processes in the ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY; MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY; and POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY.
The formation of an area of NECROSIS in the CEREBRUM caused by an insufficiency of arterial or venous blood flow. Infarcts of the cerebrum are generally classified by hemisphere (i.e., left vs. right), lobe (e.g., frontal lobe infarction), arterial distribution (e.g., INFARCTION, ANTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY), and etiology (e.g., embolic infarction).
NECROSIS occurring in the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which brings blood to the entire lateral aspects of each CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE. Clinical signs include impaired cognition; APHASIA; AGRAPHIA; weak and numbness in the face and arms, contralaterally or bilaterally depending on the infarction.
Bleeding into the intracranial or spinal SUBARACHNOID SPACE, most resulting from INTRACRANIAL ANEURYSM rupture. It can occur after traumatic injuries (SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC). Clinical features include HEADACHE; NAUSEA; VOMITING, nuchal rigidity, variable neurological deficits and reduced mental status.
The tearing or bursting of the weakened wall of the aneurysmal sac, usually heralded by sudden worsening pain. The great danger of a ruptured aneurysm is the large amount of blood spilling into the surrounding tissues and cavities, causing HEMORRHAGIC SHOCK.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
Branch of the common carotid artery which supplies the anterior part of the brain, the eye and its appendages, the forehead and nose.
A non-invasive technique using ultrasound for the measurement of cerebrovascular hemodynamics, particularly cerebral blood flow velocity and cerebral collateral flow. With a high-intensity, low-frequency pulse probe, the intracranial arteries may be studied transtemporally, transorbitally, or from below the foramen magnum.
The artery formed by the union of the right and left vertebral arteries; it runs from the lower to the upper border of the pons, where it bifurcates into the two posterior cerebral arteries.
Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Microsurgical revascularization to improve intracranial circulation. It usually involves joining the extracranial circulation to the intracranial circulation but may include extracranial revascularization (e.g., subclavian-vertebral artery bypass, subclavian-external carotid artery bypass). It is performed by joining two arteries (direct anastomosis or use of graft) or by free autologous transplantation of highly vascularized tissue to the surface of the brain.
Use of reflected ultrasound in the diagnosis of intracranial pathologic processes.
Embolism or thrombosis involving blood vessels which supply intracranial structures. Emboli may originate from extracranial or intracranial sources. Thrombosis may occur in arterial or venous structures.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
Constriction of arteries in the SKULL due to sudden, sharp, and often persistent smooth muscle contraction in blood vessels. Intracranial vasospasm results in reduced vessel lumen caliber, restricted blood flow to the brain, and BRAIN ISCHEMIA that may lead to hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HYPOXIA-ISCHEMIA, BRAIN).
Brief reversible episodes of focal, nonconvulsive ischemic dysfunction of the brain having a duration of less than 24 hours, and usually less than one hour, caused by transient thrombotic or embolic blood vessel occlusion or stenosis. Events may be classified by arterial distribution, temporal pattern, or etiology (e.g., embolic vs. thrombotic). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp814-6)
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Pathological processes which result in the partial or complete obstruction of ARTERIES. They are characterized by greatly reduced or absence of blood flow through these vessels. They are also known as arterial insufficiency.
Congenital vascular anomalies in the brain characterized by direct communication between an artery and a vein without passing through the CAPILLARIES. The locations and size of the shunts determine the symptoms including HEADACHES; SEIZURES; STROKE; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; mass effect; and vascular steal effect.
Bleeding within the brain as a result of penetrating and nonpenetrating CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA. Traumatically induced hemorrhages may occur in any area of the brain, including the CEREBRUM; BRAIN STEM (see BRAIN STEM HEMORRHAGE, TRAUMATIC); and CEREBELLUM.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
The first branch of the SUBCLAVIAN ARTERY with distribution to muscles of the NECK; VERTEBRAE; SPINAL CORD; CEREBELLUM; and interior of the CEREBRUM.
Artery formed by the bifurcation of the BASILAR ARTERY. Branches of the posterior cerebral artery supply portions of the OCCIPITAL LOBE; PARIETAL LOBE; inferior temporal gyrus, brainstem, and CHOROID PLEXUS.
Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A syndrome characterized by a silent and inert state without voluntary motor activity despite preserved sensorimotor pathways and vigilance. Bilateral FRONTAL LOBE dysfunction involving the anterior cingulate gyrus and related brain injuries are associated with this condition. This may result in impaired abilities to communicate and initiate motor activities. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p348; Fortschr Neurol Psychiatr 1995 Feb;63(2):59-67)
Vascular diseases characterized by thickening and hardening of the walls of ARTERIES inside the SKULL. There are three subtypes: (1) atherosclerosis with fatty deposits in the ARTERIAL INTIMA; (2) Monckeberg's sclerosis with calcium deposits in the media and (3) arteriolosclerosis involving the small caliber arteries. Clinical signs include HEADACHE; CONFUSION; transient blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX); speech impairment; and HEMIPARESIS.
A spectrum of pathological conditions of impaired blood flow in the brain. They can involve vessels (ARTERIES or VEINS) in the CEREBRUM, the CEREBELLUM, and the BRAIN STEM. Major categories include INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS; BRAIN ISCHEMIA; CEREBRAL HEMORRHAGE; and others.
A noninflammatory, progressive occlusion of the intracranial CAROTID ARTERIES and the formation of netlike collateral arteries arising from the CIRCLE OF WILLIS. Cerebral angiogram shows the puff-of-smoke (moyamoya) collaterals at the base of the brain. It is characterized by endothelial HYPERPLASIA and FIBROSIS with thickening of arterial walls. This disease primarily affects children but can also occur in adults.
Bleeding into one or both CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES including the BASAL GANGLIA and the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is often associated with HYPERTENSION and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Aneurysm caused by a tear in the TUNICA INTIMA of a blood vessel leading to interstitial HEMORRHAGE, and splitting (dissecting) of the vessel wall, often involving the AORTA. Dissection between the intima and media causes luminal occlusion. Dissection at the media, or between the media and the outer adventitia causes aneurismal dilation.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
A collection of blood outside the BLOOD VESSELS. Hematoma can be localized in an organ, space, or tissue.
Narrowing or stricture of any part of the CAROTID ARTERIES, most often due to atherosclerotic plaque formation. Ulcerations may form in atherosclerotic plaques and induce THROMBUS formation. Platelet or cholesterol emboli may arise from stenotic carotid lesions and induce a TRANSIENT ISCHEMIC ATTACK; CEREBROVASCULAR ACCIDENT; or temporary blindness (AMAUROSIS FUGAX). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp 822-3)
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.
A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)
Pathological conditions involving the CAROTID ARTERIES, including the common, internal, and external carotid arteries. ATHEROSCLEROSIS and TRAUMA are relatively frequent causes of carotid artery pathology.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Accumulation of blood in the SUBDURAL SPACE between the DURA MATER and the arachnoidal layer of the MENINGES. This condition primarily occurs over the surface of a CEREBRAL HEMISPHERE, but may develop in the spinal canal (HEMATOMA, SUBDURAL, SPINAL). Subdural hematoma can be classified as the acute or the chronic form, with immediate or delayed symptom onset, respectively. Symptoms may include loss of consciousness, severe HEADACHE, and deteriorating mental status.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Blocking of a blood vessel in the SKULL by an EMBOLUS which can be a blood clot (THROMBUS) or other undissolved material in the blood stream. Most emboli are of cardiac origin and are associated with HEART DISEASES. Other non-cardiac sources of emboli are usually associated with VASCULAR DISEASES.
Arteries arising from the external carotid or the maxillary artery and distributing to the temporal region.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Increased intracellular or extracellular fluid in brain tissue. Cytotoxic brain edema (swelling due to increased intracellular fluid) is indicative of a disturbance in cell metabolism, and is commonly associated with hypoxic or ischemic injuries (see HYPOXIA, BRAIN). An increase in extracellular fluid may be caused by increased brain capillary permeability (vasogenic edema), an osmotic gradient, local blockages in interstitial fluid pathways, or by obstruction of CSF flow (e.g., obstructive HYDROCEPHALUS). (From Childs Nerv Syst 1992 Sep; 8(6):301-6)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Veins draining the cerebrum.
NECROSIS induced by ISCHEMIA in the POSTERIOR CEREBRAL ARTERY distribution system which supplies portions of the BRAIN STEM; the THALAMUS; TEMPORAL LOBE, and OCCIPITAL LOBE. Depending on the size and location of infarction, clinical features include OLFACTION DISORDERS and visual problems (AGNOSIA; ALEXIA; HEMIANOPSIA).
An infant during the first month after birth.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.

Larger anastomoses in angiotensinogen-knockout mice attenuate early metabolic disturbances after middle cerebral artery occlusion. (1/108)

Abnormalities in the homeostasis of the renin-angiotensin system have been implicated in the pathogenesis of vascular disorders, including stroke. The authors investigated whether angiotensinogen (AGN) knockout mice exhibit differences in brain susceptibility to focal ischemia, and whether such differences can be related to special features of the collateral circulation. Wild-type and AGN-knockout mice were submitted to permanent suture occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). The collateral vascular system was visualized by systemic latex infusion, and the ischemic lesions were identified by cresyl-violet staining. The core and penumbra of the evolving infarct were differentiated by bioluminescence and autoradiographic imaging of ATP and protein biosynthesis, respectively. In wild-type mice, mean arterial blood pressure was 95.0 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, and the diameter of fully relaxed anastomotic vessels between the peripheral branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries 26.6 +/- 4.0 microm. In AGN knockouts, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly lower, 71.5 +/- 8.5 mm Hg (P < .01), and the anastomotic vessels were significantly larger, 29.4 +/- 4.6 microm (P < .01). One hour after MCA occlusion, AGN-knockout mice exhibited a smaller ischemic core (defined as the region of ATP depletion) but a larger penumbra (the area of disturbed protein synthesis with preserved ATP). At 24 hours after MCA occlusion, this difference disappeared, and histologically visible lesions were of similar size in both strains. The observations show that in AGN-knockout mice the more efficient collateral blood supply delays ischemic injury despite the lower blood pressure. Pharmacologic suppression of angiotensin formation may prolong the therapeutic window for treatment of infarcts.  (+info)

Flow dynamics in a lethal anterior communicating artery aneurysm. (2/108)

We describe and analyze the flow dynamics in replicas of a human anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The replicas were placed in a circuit of pulsating non-Newtonian fluid, and flows were adjusted to replicate human physiologic parameters. Individual slipstreams were opacified with isobaric dyes, and images were recorded on film and by CT/MR angiography. When flow in the afferent (internal carotid) and efferent (anterior and middle cerebral) arteries was bilaterally equal, slipstreams rarely entered the aneurysm. When flow in either the afferent or efferent vessels was not symmetrical, however, slipstreams entered the aneurysm neck, impinged upon the aneurysm dome, and swirled within the aneurysm. Unequal flow in carotid or cerebral systems may be necessary to direct pathologic, fluid slipstreams into an aneurysm.  (+info)

Hemodynamic changes around cerebral arteriovenous malformation before and after embolization measured with PET. (3/108)

To estimate the changes in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) around cerebral arteriovenous malformation (AVM) before and after embolization, 6 patients with AVM were sequentially examined with positron emission tomography (PET). PET depicted the remodeling of rCBF in the ipsilateral hemisphere of AVM after embolization. Decrease of rCBF in the ipsilateral hemisphere was also detected in patients with focal symptoms before embolization, and improvement of clinical symptoms after embolization corresponded to disappearance of rCBF decrease. PET can detect hemodynamic changes after embolization, and has a possibility to estimate the effect of embolization in patients with AVM.  (+info)

Neuropsychological changes after surgery for anterior communicating artery aneurysm. (4/108)

Neuropsychological disturbances following surgery for anterior communicating artery aneurysms were analyzed in 26 patients (11 males, 15 females) using the Hasegawa dementia scale-revised (HDS-R) over a 3-year period. The patients were aged from 34 to 76 years (mean 54.1 years). Lesions in the frontal lobe were evaluated using computed tomography (CT). Twenty-three patients had symptoms over the course. Four patients had basal forebrain lesion, five had ventral frontal lesion, and 12 had no lesion. Patients with basal forebrain lesion and no lesion tended to show disorientation. The mean HDS-R score was 10.2 points in the patients with ventral frontal lesion, and 13.5 points in the patients with no lesion. These scores are within the range for dementia. The mean HDS-R score in patients with basal forebrain and striate lesions was over 25 points and beyond the range for dementia. Significant differences were observed in the HDS-R score between patients with ventral frontal lesion and basal forebrain lesion, and between patients with no lesion and basal forebrain lesion (p < 0.05). Recovery from neuropsychological disturbances was poorer in patients with ventral frontal lesion and no lesion compared to those with basal forebrain and striate lesions, and their symptoms tended to persist.  (+info)

Prolapsing gyrus rectus as a cause of progressive optic neuropathy. (5/108)

The pathogenesis of optic neuropathy caused by neurovascular compression or by similar mechanisms is unclear. Thin-slice magnetic resonance (MR) imaging was performed in 69 patients with optic neuropathy without demonstrable ophthalmological lesions (57.0 +/- 17.1 years of age) and 102 normal subjects (57.7 +/- 13.9 years of age). The MR imaging features were classified into "no compression" by the internal carotid artery (ICA), "compression" by the ICA, "no contact" with the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) or the gyrus rectus, "contact" with either or both, "compression" by the ACA, and "compression" by the gyrus rectus. The Spearman correlation coefficients were calculated between patients or controls, the MR classification, and the age, and the number of patients in each MR classification were evaluated by the chi 2 test. Five of the 69 patients with rapidly progressive symptoms were operated on via the frontotemporal approach. The MR imaging feature of "compression" by the gyrus rectus was the best predictor of optic neuropathy (Spearman correlation coefficients rho = -0.23646, p < 0.0018). This MR imaging feature was observed in 38 of 69 patients and in 32 of 102 controls (p = 0.002). Compression of the nerve by the gyrus rectus or the ACA was confirmed in all five operated cases. Decompression of the nerve was fully achieved in four of the five patients, and their symptoms have not progressed since then. Optic neuropathies due to compression by the prolapsing gyrus rectus are not well understood. Such neuropathies may be detected by MR imaging.  (+info)

Ruptured aneurysm at the origin of the median artery of the corpus callosum associated with accessory middle cerebral artery--case report. (6/108)

A 62-year-old male presented with ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysm manifesting as severe headache associated with the rare combination of median artery of the corpus callosum (MACC) and accessory middle cerebral artery (MCA). Computed tomography demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Left carotid angiography demonstrated an anomalous vessel originating from the ACoA complex and passing forward in the interhemispheric fissure between the two companion A2 segments. This vessel was identified as the MACC. Another anomalous vessel originated from the left A1-A2 segment and passed into the sylvian fissure. This vessel was identified as the accessory MCA. Left frontotemporal craniotomy was performed to clip the neck of the aneurysm. After identifying both A1 and A2 segments, accessory MCA, and the MACC, the aneurysm neck was occluded successfully. The ACoA complex is one of the most frequent sites of vascular anomalies. Preoperative and intraoperative care is required to identify the presence of anomalies of the ACoA complex prior to clip placement, to avoid accidental damage or clipping, which may result in severe neurological deficits.  (+info)

Histomorphometrical study of the elastic fiber system in the anterior cerebral artery of man. (7/108)

The aim of the present study was to quantify the distribution of the elastic fiber system within the wall of the anterior cerebral artery. The study is based on the works of Glynn (1940) and Stehbens (1989) concerning the incidence and origin of brain aneurysms and recent studies of the elastic fibers. The anterior cerebral artery was divided into three segments, S1, S2 and S3: S1 corresponds to the origin of the anterior cerebral artery, S2 is located at the junction of the anterior cerebral artery with the anterior communicating artery, and S3 at the junction of the rostrum and genu of the corpus callosum,which were submitted to routine histological procedures. A histomorphometrical study was undertaken using an estimation of the linear density (Ld) of the components of the fibrous elastic system which evaluates their full length in each segment. Data were analyzed using first order linear regression methods. The results show a decreasing quantity of elastic fibers in the three segments (S1>S2>S3). Study of the elastic fiber system may originate new concepts regarding the genesis of cerebral artery aneurysm.  (+info)

A modified transorbital baboon model of reperfused stroke. (8/108)

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although pathophysiological studies of focal cerebral ischemia in nonhuman primates can provide important information not obtainable in rodent models, primate experimentation is limited by considerations of cost, availability, effort, and ethics. A reproducible and quantitative model that minimizes the number of animals necessary to detect differences between treatment groups is therefore crucial. METHODS: Eight male baboons (weight, 22+/-2 kg) underwent left transorbital craniectomy followed by 1 hour of temporary ipsilateral internal carotid artery occlusion at the level of the anterior choroidal artery together with bilateral temporary occlusion of both anterior cerebral arteries (A1) proximal to the anterior communicating artery. A tightly controlled nitrous oxide-narcotic anesthetic allowed for intraoperative motor evoked potential confirmation of middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory ischemia. Animals survived to 72 hours or 10 days if successfully self-caring. Outcomes were assessed with a 100-point neurological grading system, and infarct volume was quantified by planimetric analysis of both MRI and triphenyltetrazolium chloride-stained sections. RESULTS: Infarction volumes (on T2-weighted images) were 32+/-7% (mean+/-SEM) of the ipsilateral hemisphere, and neurological scores averaged 29+/-9. All animals demonstrated evidence of hemispheric infarction, with damage evident in both cortical and subcortical regions in the MCA vascular territory. Histologically determined infarction volumes differed by <3% and correlated with absolute neurological scores (r=0.9, P:=0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Transorbital temporary occlusion of the entire anterior cerebral circulation with strict control of physiological parameters can reliably produce reperfused MCA territory infarction. The magnitude of the resultant infarct with little interanimal variability diminishes the potential number of animals required to distinguish between 2 treatment regimens. The anatomic distribution of the infarct and associated functional deficits offer comparability to human hemispheric strokes.  (+info)

The Anterior Cerebral Artery (ACA) is a paired set of arteries that originate from the internal carotid artery or its branch, the posterior communicating artery. They supply oxygenated blood to the frontal lobes and parts of the parietal lobes of the brain.

The ACA runs along the medial side of each hemisphere, anterior to the corpus callosum, which is the largest bundle of nerve fibers connecting the two hemispheres of the brain. It gives off branches that supply the motor and sensory areas of the lower extremities, as well as the areas responsible for higher cognitive functions such as language, memory, and emotion.

The ACA is divided into several segments: A1, A2, A3, and A4. The A1 segment runs from its origin at the internal carotid artery to the anterior communicating artery, which connects the two ACAs. The A2 segment extends from the anterior communicating artery to the bifurcation of the ACA into its terminal branches. The A3 and A4 segments are the distal branches that supply the frontal and parietal lobes.

Interruptions or blockages in the flow of blood through the ACA can lead to various neurological deficits, including weakness or paralysis of the lower extremities, language impairment, and changes in cognitive function.

Anterior cerebral artery infarction refers to the death of brain tissue (also known as an infarct) in the territory supplied by the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) due to insufficient blood flow. The ACA supplies oxygenated blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, which are responsible for higher cognitive functions such as reasoning, problem-solving, and decision-making, as well as motor control of the lower extremities.

An infarction in this territory can result from various causes, including atherosclerosis, embolism, thrombosis, or vasospasm. Symptoms of an ACA infarction may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body (usually the lower extremities), difficulty with coordination and balance, urinary incontinence, changes in personality or behavior, and impaired cognitive function. The severity of symptoms depends on the extent and location of the infarct. Immediate medical attention is necessary to prevent further damage and improve the chances of recovery.

Cerebral arteries refer to the blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the brain. These arteries branch off from the internal carotid arteries and the vertebral arteries, which combine to form the basilar artery. The major cerebral arteries include:

1. Anterior cerebral artery (ACA): This artery supplies blood to the frontal lobes of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortices responsible for movement and sensation in the lower limbs.
2. Middle cerebral artery (MCA): The MCA is the largest of the cerebral arteries and supplies blood to the lateral surface of the brain, including the temporal, parietal, and frontal lobes. It is responsible for providing blood to areas involved in motor function, sensory perception, speech, memory, and vision.
3. Posterior cerebral artery (PCA): The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe, which is responsible for visual processing, as well as parts of the temporal and parietal lobes.
4. Anterior communicating artery (ACoA) and posterior communicating arteries (PComAs): These are small arteries that connect the major cerebral arteries, forming an important circulatory network called the Circle of Willis. The ACoA connects the two ACAs, while the PComAs connect the ICA with the PCA and the basilar artery.

These cerebral arteries play a crucial role in maintaining proper brain function by delivering oxygenated blood to various regions of the brain. Any damage or obstruction to these arteries can lead to serious neurological conditions, such as strokes or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs).

Cerebral angiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the blood vessels in the brain after injecting a contrast dye into them. This procedure helps doctors to diagnose and treat various conditions affecting the blood vessels in the brain, such as aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, and stenosis (narrowing of the blood vessels).

During the procedure, a catheter is inserted into an artery in the leg and threaded through the body to the blood vessels in the neck or brain. The contrast dye is then injected through the catheter, and X-ray images are taken to visualize the blood flow through the brain's blood vessels.

Cerebral angiography provides detailed images of the blood vessels in the brain, allowing doctors to identify any abnormalities or blockages that may be causing symptoms or increasing the risk of stroke. Based on the results of the cerebral angiography, doctors can develop a treatment plan to address these issues and prevent further complications.

An intracranial aneurysm is a localized, blood-filled dilation or bulging in the wall of a cerebral artery within the skull (intracranial). These aneurysms typically occur at weak points in the arterial walls, often at branching points where the vessel divides into smaller branches. Over time, the repeated pressure from blood flow can cause the vessel wall to weaken and balloon out, forming a sac-like structure. Intracranial aneurysms can vary in size, ranging from a few millimeters to several centimeters in diameter.

There are three main types of intracranial aneurysms:

1. Saccular (berry) aneurysm: This is the most common type, characterized by a round or oval shape with a narrow neck and a bulging sac. They usually develop at branching points in the arteries due to congenital weaknesses in the vessel wall.
2. Fusiform aneurysm: These aneurysms have a dilated segment along the length of the artery, forming a cigar-shaped or spindle-like structure. They are often caused by atherosclerosis and can affect any part of the cerebral arteries.
3. Dissecting aneurysm: This type occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining (intima) of the artery, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the vessel wall. It can lead to narrowing or complete blockage of the affected artery and may cause subarachnoid hemorrhage if it ruptures.

Intracranial aneurysms can be asymptomatic and discovered incidentally during imaging studies for other conditions. However, when they grow larger or rupture, they can lead to severe complications such as subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke, or even death. Treatment options include surgical clipping, endovascular coiling, or flow diversion techniques to prevent further growth and potential rupture of the aneurysm.

The Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) is one of the main blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It arises from the internal carotid artery and divides into several branches, which supply the lateral surface of the cerebral hemisphere, including the frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes.

The MCA is responsible for providing blood flow to critical areas of the brain, such as the primary motor and sensory cortices, Broca's area (associated with speech production), Wernicke's area (associated with language comprehension), and the visual association cortex.

Damage to the MCA or its branches can result in a variety of neurological deficits, depending on the specific location and extent of the injury. These may include weakness or paralysis on one side of the body, sensory loss, language impairment, and visual field cuts.

The Circle of Willis is a circulatory arrangement in the brain where the major arteries that supply blood to the brain converge to form an almost circular structure. It is named after Thomas Willis, an English physician who first described it in 1664.

This circle is formed by the joining of the two internal carotid arteries, which divide into the anterior cerebral and middle cerebral arteries, with the basilar artery, which arises from the vertebral arteries. These vessels anastomose, or connect, to form a polygon-like structure at the base of the brain.

The Circle of Willis plays a crucial role in maintaining adequate blood flow to the brain, as it allows for collateral circulation. If one of the arteries that make up the circle becomes blocked or narrowed, blood can still reach the affected area through the other vessels in the circle. This helps to minimize the risk of stroke and other neurological disorders.

Cerebral arterial diseases refer to conditions that affect the blood vessels supplying the brain. These diseases can result in reduced blood flow, blockages, or bleeding in the brain. The most common cerebral arterial diseases include:

1. Atherosclerosis: A buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances in the inner lining of an artery, which can lead to narrowing or blockage of the artery.
2. Embolism: A blood clot or other particle that forms elsewhere in the body and travels to the brain, where it blocks a cerebral artery.
3. Thrombosis: The formation of a blood clot within a cerebral artery.
4. Aneurysm: A weakened area in the wall of an artery that bulges out and can rupture, causing bleeding in the brain.
5. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM): An abnormal tangle of blood vessels in the brain that can cause bleeding or reduced blood flow to surrounding tissue.
6. Vasculitis: Inflammation of the blood vessels in the brain, which can lead to narrowing, blockage, or weakening of the vessel walls.

These conditions can lead to serious complications such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), or vascular dementia. Treatment options include medications, surgery, and lifestyle changes to manage risk factors.

Cerebral infarction, also known as a "stroke" or "brain attack," is the sudden death of brain cells caused by the interruption of their blood supply. It is most commonly caused by a blockage in one of the blood vessels supplying the brain (an ischemic stroke), but can also result from a hemorrhage in or around the brain (a hemorrhagic stroke).

Ischemic strokes occur when a blood clot or other particle blocks a cerebral artery, cutting off blood flow to a part of the brain. The lack of oxygen and nutrients causes nearby brain cells to die. Hemorrhagic strokes occur when a weakened blood vessel ruptures, causing bleeding within or around the brain. This bleeding can put pressure on surrounding brain tissues, leading to cell death.

Symptoms of cerebral infarction depend on the location and extent of the affected brain tissue but may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; and severe headache with no known cause. Immediate medical attention is crucial for proper diagnosis and treatment to minimize potential long-term damage or disability.

Middle Cerebral Artery (MCA) infarction is a type of ischemic stroke that occurs when there is an obstruction in the blood supply to the middle cerebral artery, which is one of the major blood vessels that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. The MCA supplies blood to a large portion of the brain, including the motor and sensory cortex, parts of the temporal and parietal lobes, and the basal ganglia.

An infarction is the death of tissue due to the lack of blood supply, which can lead to damage or loss of function in the affected areas of the brain. Symptoms of MCA infarction may include weakness or numbness on one side of the body, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, and altered levels of consciousness.

MCA infarctions can be caused by various factors, including embolism (a blood clot that travels to the brain from another part of the body), thrombosis (a blood clot that forms in the MCA itself), or stenosis (narrowing of the artery due to atherosclerosis or other conditions). Treatment for MCA infarction may include medications to dissolve blood clots, surgery to remove the obstruction, or rehabilitation to help regain lost function.

A subarachnoid hemorrhage is a type of stroke that results from bleeding into the space surrounding the brain, specifically within the subarachnoid space which contains cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This space is located between the arachnoid membrane and the pia mater, two of the three layers that make up the meninges, the protective covering of the brain and spinal cord.

The bleeding typically originates from a ruptured aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of a cerebral artery, or less commonly from arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) or head trauma. The sudden influx of blood into the CSF-filled space can cause increased intracranial pressure, irritation to the brain, and vasospasms, leading to further ischemia and potential additional neurological damage.

Symptoms of a subarachnoid hemorrhage may include sudden onset of severe headache (often described as "the worst headache of my life"), neck stiffness, altered mental status, nausea, vomiting, photophobia, and focal neurological deficits. Rapid diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent further complications and improve the chances of recovery.

A ruptured aneurysm is a serious medical condition that occurs when the wall of an artery or a blood vessel weakens and bulges out, forming an aneurysm, which then bursts, causing bleeding into the surrounding tissue. This can lead to internal hemorrhage, organ damage, and even death, depending on the location and severity of the rupture.

Ruptured aneurysms are often caused by factors such as high blood pressure, smoking, aging, and genetic predisposition. They can occur in any part of the body but are most common in the aorta (the largest artery in the body) and the cerebral arteries (in the brain).

Symptoms of a ruptured aneurysm may include sudden and severe pain, weakness or paralysis, difficulty breathing, confusion, loss of consciousness, and shock. Immediate medical attention is required to prevent further complications and increase the chances of survival. Treatment options for a ruptured aneurysm may include surgery, endovascular repair, or medication to manage symptoms and prevent further bleeding.

Cerebrovascular circulation refers to the network of blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood and nutrients to the brain tissue, and remove waste products. It includes the internal carotid arteries, vertebral arteries, circle of Willis, and the intracranial arteries that branch off from them.

The internal carotid arteries and vertebral arteries merge to form the circle of Willis, a polygonal network of vessels located at the base of the brain. The anterior cerebral artery, middle cerebral artery, posterior cerebral artery, and communicating arteries are the major vessels that branch off from the circle of Willis and supply blood to different regions of the brain.

Interruptions or abnormalities in the cerebrovascular circulation can lead to various neurological conditions such as stroke, transient ischemic attack (TIA), and vascular dementia.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

The internal carotid artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain. It originates from the common carotid artery and passes through the neck, entering the skull via the carotid canal in the temporal bone. Once inside the skull, it branches into several smaller vessels that supply different parts of the brain with blood.

The internal carotid artery is divided into several segments: cervical, petrous, cavernous, clinoid, and supraclinoid. Each segment has distinct clinical significance in terms of potential injury or disease. The most common conditions affecting the internal carotid artery include atherosclerosis, which can lead to stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA), and dissection, which can cause severe headache, neck pain, and neurological symptoms.

It's important to note that any blockage or damage to the internal carotid artery can have serious consequences, as it can significantly reduce blood flow to the brain and lead to permanent neurological damage or even death. Therefore, regular check-ups and screening tests are recommended for individuals at high risk of developing vascular diseases.

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is a non-invasive diagnostic technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to visualize and measure the velocity of blood flow in the cerebral arteries located in the skull. This imaging modality employs the Doppler effect, which describes the change in frequency of sound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells. By measuring the frequency shift of the reflected ultrasound waves, the velocity and direction of blood flow can be determined.

Transcranial Doppler ultrasonography is primarily used to assess cerebrovascular circulation and detect abnormalities such as stenosis (narrowing), occlusion (blockage), or embolism (obstruction) in the intracranial arteries. It can also help monitor patients with conditions like sickle cell disease, vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments such as thrombolysis or angioplasty. The procedure is typically performed by placing a transducer on the patient's skull after applying a coupling gel, and it does not involve radiation exposure or contrast agents.

The basilar artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. It is formed by the union of two vertebral arteries at the lower part of the brainstem, near the junction of the medulla oblongata and pons.

The basilar artery runs upward through the center of the brainstem and divides into two posterior cerebral arteries at the upper part of the brainstem, near the midbrain. The basilar artery gives off several branches that supply blood to various parts of the brainstem, including the pons, medulla oblongata, and midbrain, as well as to the cerebellum.

The basilar artery is an important part of the circle of Willis, a network of arteries at the base of the brain that ensures continuous blood flow to the brain even if one of the arteries becomes blocked or narrowed.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels or arteries within the body. It is a type of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that focuses specifically on the circulatory system.

MRA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions related to the blood vessels, such as aneurysms, stenosis (narrowing of the vessel), or the presence of plaques or tumors. It can also be used to plan for surgeries or other treatments related to the vascular system. The procedure does not use radiation and is generally considered safe, although people with certain implants like pacemakers may not be able to have an MRA due to safety concerns.

Brain ischemia is the medical term used to describe a reduction or interruption of blood flow to the brain, leading to a lack of oxygen and glucose delivery to brain tissue. This can result in brain damage or death of brain cells, known as infarction. Brain ischemia can be caused by various conditions such as thrombosis (blood clot formation), embolism (obstruction of a blood vessel by a foreign material), or hypoperfusion (reduced blood flow). The severity and duration of the ischemia determine the extent of brain damage. Symptoms can range from mild, such as transient ischemic attacks (TIAs or "mini-strokes"), to severe, including paralysis, speech difficulties, loss of consciousness, and even death. Immediate medical attention is required for proper diagnosis and treatment to prevent further damage and potential long-term complications.

Blood flow velocity is the speed at which blood travels through a specific part of the vascular system. It is typically measured in units of distance per time, such as centimeters per second (cm/s) or meters per second (m/s). Blood flow velocity can be affected by various factors, including cardiac output, vessel diameter, and viscosity of the blood. Measuring blood flow velocity is important in diagnosing and monitoring various medical conditions, such as heart disease, stroke, and peripheral vascular disease.

Cerebral revascularization is a surgical procedure aimed at restoring blood flow to the brain. This is often performed in cases where there is narrowing or blockage of the cerebral arteries, a condition known as cerebrovascular disease. The most common type of cerebral revascularization is called carotid endarterectomy, which involves removing plaque buildup from the carotid artery in the neck to improve blood flow to the brain. Another type is extracranial-intracranial bypass, where a new connection is created between an external carotid artery and an intracranial artery to bypass a blockage.

Echoencephalography (EEG) is a type of neurosonology technique that uses ultrasound to assess the structures of the brain and detect any abnormalities. It is also known as brain ultrasound or transcranial Doppler ultrasound. This non-invasive procedure involves placing a small ultrasound probe on the skull, which emits sound waves that travel through the skull and bounce back (echo) when they reach the brain tissue. The resulting echoes are then analyzed to create images of the brain's structures, including the ventricles, cerebral arteries, and other blood vessels.

EEG is often used in infants and young children, as their skulls are still thin enough to allow for clear ultrasound imaging. It can help diagnose conditions such as hydrocephalus (fluid buildup in the brain), intracranial hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain), stroke, and other neurological disorders. EEG is a safe and painless procedure that does not require any radiation or contrast agents, making it an attractive alternative to other imaging techniques such as CT or MRI scans. However, its use is limited in older children and adults due to the thickening of the skull bones, which can make it difficult to obtain clear images.

1. Intracranial Embolism: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other particle (embolus) formed elsewhere in the body, travels through the bloodstream and lodges itself in the intracranial blood vessels, blocking the flow of blood to a part of the brain. This can lead to various neurological symptoms such as weakness, numbness, speech difficulties, or even loss of consciousness, depending on the severity and location of the blockage.

2. Intracranial Thrombosis: This is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot (thrombus) forms within the intracranial blood vessels. The clot can partially or completely obstruct the flow of blood, leading to various symptoms such as headache, confusion, seizures, or neurological deficits, depending on the severity and location of the thrombosis. Intracranial thrombosis can occur due to various factors including atherosclerosis, hypertension, diabetes, and other medical conditions that increase the risk of blood clot formation.

Arteries are blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away from the heart to the rest of the body. They have thick, muscular walls that can withstand the high pressure of blood being pumped out of the heart. Arteries branch off into smaller vessels called arterioles, which further divide into a vast network of tiny capillaries where the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste occurs between the blood and the body's cells. After passing through the capillary network, deoxygenated blood collects in venules, then merges into veins, which return the blood back to the heart.

Intracranial vasospasm is a medical condition characterized by the narrowing or constriction of the intracranial arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. This narrowing is usually caused by the contraction or spasming of the smooth muscle in the walls of the arteries, leading to reduced blood flow and oxygen delivery to the brain tissue.

Intracranial vasospasm is often associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a type of stroke caused by bleeding in the space surrounding the brain. SAH can cause the release of blood components, such as hemoglobin and iron, which can irritate and damage the walls of the arteries. This irritation can trigger an inflammatory response that leads to the contraction of the smooth muscle in the artery walls, causing vasospasm.

Vasospasm can cause further ischemia (reduced blood flow) or infarction (tissue death) in the brain, leading to serious neurological deficits or even death. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment of intracranial vasospasm are crucial for improving patient outcomes. Treatment options may include medications to dilate the blood vessels, angioplasty (balloon dilation) or stenting procedures to mechanically open up the arteries, or surgical intervention to relieve pressure on the brain.

A Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary period of symptoms similar to those you'd get if you were having a stroke. A TIA doesn't cause permanent damage and is often caused by a temporary decrease in blood supply to part of your brain, which may last as little as five minutes.

Like an ischemic stroke, a TIA occurs when a clot or debris blocks blood flow to part of your nervous system. However, unlike a stroke, a TIA doesn't leave lasting damage because the blockage is temporary.

Symptoms of a TIA can include sudden onset of weakness, numbness or paralysis in your face, arm or leg, typically on one side of your body. You could also experience slurred or garbled speech, or difficulty understanding others. Other symptoms can include blindness in one or both eyes, dizziness, or a severe headache with no known cause.

Even though TIAs usually last only a few minutes, they are a serious condition and should not be ignored. If you suspect you or someone else is experiencing a TIA, seek immediate medical attention. TIAs can be a warning sign that a full-blown stroke is imminent.

The carotid arteries are a pair of vital blood vessels in the human body that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Each person has two common carotid arteries, one on each side of the neck, which branch off from the aorta, the largest artery in the body.

The right common carotid artery originates from the brachiocephalic trunk, while the left common carotid artery arises directly from the aortic arch. As they ascend through the neck, they split into two main branches: the internal and external carotid arteries.

The internal carotid artery supplies oxygenated blood to the brain, eyes, and other structures within the skull, while the external carotid artery provides blood to the face, scalp, and various regions of the neck.

Maintaining healthy carotid arteries is crucial for overall cardiovascular health and preventing serious conditions like stroke, which can occur when the arteries become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of plaque or fatty deposits (atherosclerosis). Regular check-ups with healthcare professionals may include monitoring carotid artery health through ultrasound or other imaging techniques.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels and blood flow within the body. It combines the use of X-ray technology with digital image processing to produce detailed images of the vascular system.

In DSA, a contrast agent is injected into the patient's bloodstream through a catheter, which is typically inserted into an artery in the leg and guided to the area of interest using fluoroscopy. As the contrast agent flows through the blood vessels, X-ray images are taken at multiple time points.

The digital subtraction process involves taking a baseline image without contrast and then subtracting it from subsequent images taken with contrast. This allows for the removal of background structures and noise, resulting in clearer images of the blood vessels. DSA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various vascular conditions, such as aneurysms, stenosis, and tumors, and can also guide interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

Intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are abnormal, tangled connections between the arteries and veins in the brain. These connections bypass the capillary system, which can lead to high-flow shunting and potential complications such as hemorrhage, stroke, or neurological deficits. AVMs are congenital conditions, meaning they are present at birth, although symptoms may not appear until later in life. They are relatively rare, affecting approximately 0.1% of the population. Treatment options for AVMs include surgery, radiation therapy, and endovascular embolization, depending on the size, location, and specific characteristics of the malformation.

A traumatic brain hemorrhage is a type of bleeding that occurs within the brain or in the spaces surrounding the brain as a result of trauma or injury. This condition can range from mild to severe, and it is often a medical emergency.

Trauma can cause blood vessels in the brain to rupture, leading to the leakage of blood into the brain tissue or the spaces surrounding the brain. The buildup of blood puts pressure on the delicate tissues of the brain, which can cause damage and result in various symptoms.

There are several types of traumatic brain hemorrhages, including:

1. Epidural hematoma: This occurs when blood accumulates between the skull and the dura mater, the tough outer covering of the brain. It is often caused by a skull fracture that damages an artery or vein.
2. Subdural hematoma: In this type, bleeding occurs between the dura mater and the next inner covering of the brain, called the arachnoid membrane. Subdural hematomas are usually caused by venous injuries but can also result from arterial damage.
3. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage: This refers to bleeding within the brain tissue itself, often due to the rupture of small blood vessels.
4. Subarachnoid hemorrhage: Bleeding occurs in the space between the arachnoid membrane and the innermost covering of the brain, called the pia mater. This type of hemorrhage is commonly caused by an aneurysm or a head injury.

Symptoms of a traumatic brain hemorrhage may include:

* Sudden severe headache
* Nausea and vomiting
* Confusion or disorientation
* Vision changes, such as double vision or blurred vision
* Balance problems or difficulty walking
* Slurred speech or difficulty communicating
* Seizures
* Loss of consciousness
* Weakness or numbness in the face, arms, or legs

Immediate medical attention is necessary if a traumatic brain hemorrhage is suspected. Treatment may involve surgery to relieve pressure on the brain and stop the bleeding, as well as medications to manage symptoms and prevent complications. The prognosis for a traumatic brain hemorrhage depends on various factors, including the location and severity of the bleed, the patient's age and overall health, and the promptness and effectiveness of treatment.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

The vertebral artery is a major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the brain and upper spinal cord. It arises from the subclavian artery, then ascends through the transverse processes of several cervical vertebrae before entering the skull through the foramen magnum. Inside the skull, it joins with the opposite vertebral artery to form the basilar artery, which supplies blood to the brainstem and cerebellum. The vertebral artery also gives off several important branches that supply blood to various regions of the brainstem and upper spinal cord.

The Posterior Cerebral Artery (PCA) is one of the major arteries that supplies blood to the brain. It is a branch of the basilar artery, which is formed by the union of the two vertebral arteries. The PCA supplies oxygenated blood to the occipital lobe (responsible for visual processing), the temporal lobe (involved in auditory and memory functions), and the thalamus and midbrain (relay station for sensory and motor signals).

The PCA has two segments: the precommunicating segment (P1) and the postcommunicating segment (P2). The P1 segment runs posteriorly along the cerebral peduncle, while the P2 segment courses around the midbrain to reach the occipital lobe.

Atherosclerosis, embolism, or other vascular conditions can affect the PCA and lead to a variety of neurological symptoms, including visual loss, memory impairment, and difficulty with language processing.

Cerebral dominance is a concept in neuropsychology that refers to the specialization of one hemisphere of the brain over the other for certain cognitive functions. In most people, the left hemisphere is dominant for language functions such as speaking and understanding spoken or written language, while the right hemisphere is dominant for non-verbal functions such as spatial ability, face recognition, and artistic ability.

Cerebral dominance does not mean that the non-dominant hemisphere is incapable of performing the functions of the dominant hemisphere, but rather that it is less efficient or specialized in those areas. The concept of cerebral dominance has been used to explain individual differences in cognitive abilities and learning styles, as well as the laterality of brain damage and its effects on cognition and behavior.

It's important to note that cerebral dominance is a complex phenomenon that can vary between individuals and can be influenced by various factors such as genetics, environment, and experience. Additionally, recent research has challenged the strict lateralization of functions and suggested that there is more functional overlap and interaction between the two hemispheres than previously thought.

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. This procedure is typically performed to treat various neurological conditions, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or traumatic brain injuries. After the underlying brain condition is addressed, the bone flap is usually replaced and secured back in place with plates and screws. The purpose of a craniotomy is to provide access to the brain for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions while minimizing potential damage to surrounding tissues.

Akinetic mutism is a neurological condition characterized by a severe decrease in initiating and sustaining voluntary movements and speech, along with a decreased level of responsiveness to the environment. It is often caused by damage to the frontal lobe of the brain, particularly to the anterior cingulate cortex and its connections to other parts of the brain.

People with akinetic mutism may appear awake and have their eyes open, but they are generally unresponsive to external stimuli and do not initiate voluntary movements or speech on their own. They may occasionally respond to direct questions or commands, but their responses are often limited and delayed. The condition can be caused by various factors, including brain injury, stroke, tumors, infections, or degenerative diseases such as Parkinson's disease.

Akinetic mutism is distinct from a vegetative state, which is characterized by the absence of both awareness and sleep-wake cycles. In contrast, people with akinetic mutism may retain some degree of awareness and have sleep-wake cycles, although their level of responsiveness is significantly reduced.

Intracranial arteriosclerosis is a medical condition characterized by the thickening and hardening of the walls of the intracranial arteries, which are the blood vessels that supply blood to the brain. This process is caused by the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, and other substances, within the walls of the arteries.

Intracranial arteriosclerosis can lead to a narrowing or blockage of the affected arteries, reducing blood flow to the brain. This can result in various neurological symptoms, such as headaches, dizziness, seizures, and transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or strokes.

The condition is more common in older adults, particularly those with a history of hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and high cholesterol levels. Intracranial arteriosclerosis can be diagnosed through imaging tests such as magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) or computed tomographic angiography (CTA). Treatment typically involves managing risk factors and may include medications to control blood pressure, cholesterol levels, and prevent blood clots. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty and stenting may be necessary to open up the affected arteries.

Cerebrovascular disorders are a group of medical conditions that affect the blood vessels of the brain. These disorders can be caused by narrowing, blockage, or rupture of the blood vessels, leading to decreased blood flow and oxygen supply to the brain. The most common types of cerebrovascular disorders include:

1. Stroke: A stroke occurs when a blood vessel in the brain becomes blocked or bursts, causing a lack of oxygen and nutrients to reach brain cells. This can lead to permanent damage or death of brain tissue.
2. Transient ischemic attack (TIA): Also known as a "mini-stroke," a TIA occurs when blood flow to the brain is temporarily blocked, often by a blood clot. Symptoms may last only a few minutes to a few hours and typically resolve on their own. However, a TIA is a serious warning sign that a full-blown stroke may occur in the future.
3. Aneurysm: An aneurysm is a weakened or bulging area in the wall of a blood vessel. If left untreated, an aneurysm can rupture and cause bleeding in the brain.
4. Arteriovenous malformation (AVM): An AVM is a tangled mass of abnormal blood vessels that connect arteries and veins. This can lead to bleeding in the brain or stroke.
5. Carotid stenosis: Carotid stenosis occurs when the carotid arteries, which supply blood to the brain, become narrowed or blocked due to plaque buildup. This can increase the risk of stroke.
6. Vertebrobasilar insufficiency: This condition occurs when the vertebral and basilar arteries, which supply blood to the back of the brain, become narrowed or blocked. This can lead to symptoms such as dizziness, vertigo, and difficulty swallowing.

Cerebrovascular disorders are a leading cause of disability and death worldwide. Risk factors for these conditions include age, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, and family history. Treatment may involve medications, surgery, or lifestyle changes to reduce the risk of further complications.

Moyamoya Disease is a rare, progressive cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the narrowing or occlusion (blockage) of the internal carotid artery and its main branches. The name "moyamoya" means "puff of smoke" in Japanese and describes the look of the tangle of tiny vessels formed to compensate for the blockage. Over time, these fragile vessels can become less effective or rupture, leading to transient ischemic attacks (mini-strokes), strokes, bleeding in the brain, or cognitive decline. The exact cause of moyamoya disease is unknown, but it may be associated with genetic factors and certain medical conditions such as Down syndrome, neurofibromatosis type 1, and sickle cell anemia. Treatment options include surgical procedures to improve blood flow to the brain.

A cerebral hemorrhage, also known as an intracranial hemorrhage or intracerebral hemorrhage, is a type of stroke that results from bleeding within the brain tissue. It occurs when a weakened blood vessel bursts and causes localized bleeding in the brain. This bleeding can increase pressure in the skull, damage nearby brain cells, and release toxic substances that further harm brain tissues.

Cerebral hemorrhages are often caused by chronic conditions like hypertension (high blood pressure) or cerebral amyloid angiopathy, which weakens the walls of blood vessels over time. Other potential causes include trauma, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, illicit drug use, and brain tumors. Symptoms may include sudden headache, weakness, numbness, difficulty speaking or understanding speech, vision problems, loss of balance, and altered level of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and manage cerebral hemorrhage through imaging techniques, supportive care, and possible surgical interventions.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

A dissecting aneurysm is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that occurs when there is a tear in the inner layer of the artery wall, allowing blood to flow between the layers of the artery wall. This can cause the artery to bulge or balloon out, leading to a dissection aneurysm.

Dissecting aneurysms can occur in any artery, but they are most commonly found in the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. When a dissecting aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it is often referred to as a "dissecting aortic aneurysm."

Dissecting aneurysms can be caused by various factors, including high blood pressure, atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries), genetic disorders that affect the connective tissue, trauma, or illegal drug use (such as cocaine).

Symptoms of a dissecting aneurysm may include sudden severe chest or back pain, which can feel like ripping or tearing, shortness of breath, sweating, lightheadedness, or loss of consciousness. If left untreated, a dissecting aneurysm can lead to serious complications, such as rupture of the artery, stroke, or even death.

Treatment for a dissecting aneurysm typically involves surgery or endovascular repair to prevent further damage and reduce the risk of rupture. The specific treatment approach will depend on various factors, including the location and size of the aneurysm, the patient's overall health, and their medical history.

Surgical instruments are specialized tools or devices that are used by medical professionals during surgical procedures to assist in various tasks such as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, clamping, and suturing body tissues. These instruments are designed to be safe, precise, and effective, with a variety of shapes, sizes, and materials used depending on the specific surgical application. Some common examples of surgical instruments include scalpels, forceps, scissors, hemostats, retractors, and needle holders. Proper sterilization and maintenance of these instruments are crucial to ensure patient safety and prevent infection.

Ultrasonography, Doppler refers to a non-invasive diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves to create real-time images of the movement of blood flow through vessels, tissues, or heart valves. The Doppler effect is used to measure the frequency shift of the ultrasound waves as they bounce off moving red blood cells, which allows for the calculation of the speed and direction of blood flow. This technique is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, heart valve abnormalities, and fetal heart development during pregnancy. It does not use radiation or contrast agents and is considered safe with minimal risks.

Collateral circulation refers to the alternate blood supply routes that bypass an obstructed or narrowed vessel and reconnect with the main vascular system. These collateral vessels can develop over time as a result of the body's natural adaptation to chronic ischemia (reduced blood flow) caused by various conditions such as atherosclerosis, thromboembolism, or vasculitis.

The development of collateral circulation helps maintain adequate blood flow and oxygenation to affected tissues, minimizing the risk of tissue damage and necrosis. In some cases, well-developed collateral circulations can help compensate for significant blockages in major vessels, reducing symptoms and potentially preventing the need for invasive interventions like revascularization procedures. However, the extent and effectiveness of collateral circulation vary from person to person and depend on factors such as age, overall health status, and the presence of comorbidities.

A stroke, also known as cerebrovascular accident (CVA), is a serious medical condition that occurs when the blood supply to part of the brain is interrupted or reduced, leading to deprivation of oxygen and nutrients to brain cells. This can result in the death of brain tissue and cause permanent damage or temporary impairment to cognitive functions, speech, memory, movement, and other body functions controlled by the affected area of the brain.

Strokes can be caused by either a blockage in an artery that supplies blood to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the rupture of a blood vessel in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). A transient ischemic attack (TIA), also known as a "mini-stroke," is a temporary disruption of blood flow to the brain that lasts only a few minutes and does not cause permanent damage.

Symptoms of a stroke may include sudden weakness or numbness in the face, arm, or leg; difficulty speaking or understanding speech; vision problems; loss of balance or coordination; severe headache with no known cause; and confusion or disorientation. Immediate medical attention is crucial for stroke patients to receive appropriate treatment and prevent long-term complications.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Regional blood flow (RBF) refers to the rate at which blood flows through a specific region or organ in the body, typically expressed in milliliters per minute per 100 grams of tissue (ml/min/100g). It is an essential physiological parameter that reflects the delivery of oxygen and nutrients to tissues while removing waste products. RBF can be affected by various factors such as metabolic demands, neural regulation, hormonal influences, and changes in blood pressure or vascular resistance. Measuring RBF is crucial for understanding organ function, diagnosing diseases, and evaluating the effectiveness of treatments.

A hematoma is defined as a localized accumulation of blood in a tissue, organ, or body space caused by a break in the wall of a blood vessel. This can result from various causes such as trauma, surgery, or certain medical conditions that affect coagulation. The severity and size of a hematoma may vary depending on the location and extent of the bleeding. Symptoms can include swelling, pain, bruising, and decreased mobility in the affected area. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the hematoma but may include observation, compression, ice, elevation, or in some cases, surgical intervention.

Carotid stenosis is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing or constriction of the lumen (inner space) of the carotid artery. The carotid arteries are major blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Carotid stenosis usually results from the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, on the inner walls of the artery. This process is called atherosclerosis.

As the plaque accumulates, it causes the artery to narrow, reducing blood flow to the brain. Severe carotid stenosis can increase the risk of stroke, as a clot or debris from the plaque can break off and travel to the brain, blocking a smaller blood vessel and causing tissue damage or death.

Carotid stenosis is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications (such as quitting smoking, controlling blood pressure, and managing cholesterol levels), medications to reduce the risk of clots, or surgical procedures like endarterectomy or stenting to remove or bypass the blockage.

The pulmonary artery is a large blood vessel that carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle of the heart to the lungs for oxygenation. It divides into two main branches, the right and left pulmonary arteries, which further divide into smaller vessels called arterioles, and then into a vast network of capillaries in the lungs where gas exchange occurs. The thin walls of these capillaries allow oxygen to diffuse into the blood and carbon dioxide to diffuse out, making the blood oxygen-rich before it is pumped back to the left side of the heart through the pulmonary veins. This process is crucial for maintaining proper oxygenation of the body's tissues and organs.

Ultrasonography, also known as sonography, is a diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to produce dynamic images of organs, tissues, or blood flow inside the body. These images are captured in real-time and can be used to assess the size, shape, and structure of various internal structures, as well as detect any abnormalities such as tumors, cysts, or inflammation.

During an ultrasonography procedure, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the patient's skin, which emits and receives sound waves. The transducer sends high-frequency sound waves into the body, and these waves bounce back off internal structures and are recorded by the transducer. The recorded data is then processed and transformed into visual images that can be interpreted by a medical professional.

Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, painless, and safe procedure that does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as CT scans or X-rays. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions in various parts of the body, including the abdomen, pelvis, heart, blood vessels, and musculoskeletal system.

The frontal lobe is the largest lobes of the human brain, located at the front part of each cerebral hemisphere and situated in front of the parietal and temporal lobes. It plays a crucial role in higher cognitive functions such as decision making, problem solving, planning, parts of social behavior, emotional expressions, physical reactions, and motor function. The frontal lobe is also responsible for what's known as "executive functions," which include the ability to focus attention, understand rules, switch focus, plan actions, and inhibit inappropriate behaviors. It is divided into five areas, each with its own specific functions: the primary motor cortex, premotor cortex, Broca's area, prefrontal cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. Damage to the frontal lobe can result in a wide range of impairments, depending on the location and extent of the injury.

Cerebral palsy (CP) is a group of disorders that affect a person's ability to move and maintain balance and posture. According to the Mayo Clinic, CP is caused by abnormal brain development or damage to the developing brain that affects a child's ability to control movement.

The symptoms of cerebral palsy can vary in severity and may include:

* Spasticity (stiff or tight muscles)
* Rigidity (resistance to passive movement)
* Poor coordination and balance
* Weakness or paralysis
* Tremors or involuntary movements
* Abnormal gait or difficulty walking
* Difficulty with fine motor skills, such as writing or using utensils
* Speech and language difficulties
* Vision, hearing, or swallowing problems

It's important to note that cerebral palsy is not a progressive condition, meaning that it does not worsen over time. However, the symptoms may change over time, and some individuals with CP may experience additional medical conditions as they age.

Cerebral palsy is usually caused by brain damage that occurs before or during birth, but it can also be caused by brain injuries that occur in the first few years of life. Some possible causes of cerebral palsy include:

* Infections during pregnancy
* Lack of oxygen to the brain during delivery
* Traumatic head injury during birth
* Brain bleeding or stroke in the newborn period
* Genetic disorders
* Maternal illness or infection during pregnancy

There is no cure for cerebral palsy, but early intervention and treatment can help improve outcomes and quality of life. Treatment may include physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech therapy, medications to manage symptoms, surgery, and assistive devices such as braces or wheelchairs.

Carotid artery diseases refer to conditions that affect the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the head and neck. The most common type of carotid artery disease is atherosclerosis, which occurs when fatty deposits called plaques build up in the inner lining of the arteries.

These plaques can cause the arteries to narrow or become blocked, reducing blood flow to the brain and increasing the risk of stroke. Other carotid artery diseases include carotid artery dissection, which occurs when there is a tear in the inner lining of the artery, and fibromuscular dysplasia, which is a condition that affects the muscle and tissue in the walls of the artery.

Symptoms of carotid artery disease may include neck pain or pulsations, transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) or "mini-strokes," and strokes. Treatment options for carotid artery disease depend on the severity and type of the condition but may include lifestyle changes, medications, endarterectomy (a surgical procedure to remove plaque from the artery), or angioplasty and stenting (procedures to open blocked arteries using a balloon and stent).

The mesenteric arteries are the arteries that supply oxygenated blood to the intestines. There are three main mesenteric arteries: the superior mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the small intestine (duodenum to two-thirds of the transverse colon) and large intestine (cecum, ascending colon, and the first part of the transverse colon); the inferior mesenteric artery, which supplies blood to the distal third of the transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, and rectum; and the middle colic artery, which is a branch of the superior mesenteric artery that supplies blood to the transverse colon. These arteries are important in maintaining adequate blood flow to the intestines to support digestion and absorption of nutrients.

The renal artery is a pair of blood vessels that originate from the abdominal aorta and supply oxygenated blood to each kidney. These arteries branch into several smaller vessels that provide blood to the various parts of the kidneys, including the renal cortex and medulla. The renal arteries also carry nutrients and other essential components needed for the normal functioning of the kidneys. Any damage or blockage to the renal artery can lead to serious consequences, such as reduced kidney function or even kidney failure.

The femoral artery is the major blood vessel that supplies oxygenated blood to the lower extremity of the human body. It is a continuation of the external iliac artery and becomes the popliteal artery as it passes through the adductor hiatus in the adductor magnus muscle of the thigh.

The femoral artery is located in the femoral triangle, which is bound by the sartorius muscle anteriorly, the adductor longus muscle medially, and the biceps femoris muscle posteriorly. It can be easily palpated in the groin region, making it a common site for taking blood samples, measuring blood pressure, and performing surgical procedures such as femoral artery catheterization and bypass grafting.

The femoral artery gives off several branches that supply blood to the lower limb, including the deep femoral artery, the superficial femoral artery, and the profunda femoris artery. These branches provide blood to the muscles, bones, skin, and other tissues of the leg, ankle, and foot.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

A subdural hematoma is a type of hematoma (a collection of blood) that occurs between the dura mater, which is the outermost protective covering of the brain, and the brain itself. It is usually caused by bleeding from the veins located in this potential space, often as a result of a head injury or trauma.

Subdural hematomas can be classified as acute, subacute, or chronic based on their rate of symptom progression and the time course of their appearance on imaging studies. Acute subdural hematomas typically develop and cause symptoms rapidly, often within hours of the head injury. Subacute subdural hematomas have a more gradual onset of symptoms, which can occur over several days to a week after the trauma. Chronic subdural hematomas may take weeks to months to develop and are often seen in older adults or individuals with chronic alcohol abuse, even after minor head injuries.

Symptoms of a subdural hematoma can vary widely depending on the size and location of the hematoma, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Common symptoms include headache, altered mental status, confusion, memory loss, weakness or numbness, seizures, and in severe cases, coma or even death. Treatment typically involves surgical evacuation of the hematoma, along with management of any underlying conditions that may have contributed to its development.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

An intracranial embolism is a medical condition that occurs when a blood clot or other foreign material (embolus) forms elsewhere in the body and travels to the blood vessels within the brain. This embolus then blocks the flow of blood in the cerebral arteries, leading to potential damage or death of brain tissue. Common sources of intracranial emboli include heart conditions such as atrial fibrillation, valvular heart disease, or following a heart attack; or from large-vessel atherosclerosis in the carotid arteries. Symptoms can vary depending on the location and size of the obstruction, but may include sudden weakness or numbness, confusion, difficulty speaking, vision loss, severe headache, or even loss of consciousness. Immediate medical attention is required to diagnose and treat intracranial embolism, often involving anticoagulation therapy, endovascular procedures, or surgery.

Temporal arteries are the paired set of arteries that run along the temples on either side of the head. They are branches of the external carotid artery and play a crucial role in supplying oxygenated blood to the scalp and surrounding muscles. One of the most common conditions associated with temporal arteries is Temporal Arteritis (also known as Giant Cell Arteritis), which is an inflammation of these arteries that can lead to serious complications like vision loss if not promptly diagnosed and treated.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

Brain edema is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal accumulation of fluid in the brain, leading to an increase in intracranial pressure. This can result from various causes, such as traumatic brain injury, stroke, infection, brain tumors, or inflammation. The swelling of the brain can compress vital structures, impair blood flow, and cause neurological symptoms, which may range from mild headaches to severe cognitive impairment, seizures, coma, or even death if not treated promptly and effectively.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Cerebral veins are the blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the brain to the dural venous sinuses, which are located between the layers of tissue covering the brain. The largest cerebral vein is the superior sagittal sinus, which runs along the top of the brain. Other major cerebral veins include the straight sinus, transverse sinus, sigmoid sinus, and cavernous sinus. These veins receive blood from smaller veins called venules that drain the surface and deep structures of the brain. The cerebral veins play an important role in maintaining normal circulation and pressure within the brain.

Posterior cerebral artery (PCA) infarction refers to the death of brain tissue in the region of the brain supplied by the posterior cerebral artery due to insufficient blood supply. The PCA supplies blood to the occipital lobe (responsible for vision), parts of the temporal lobe, and other structures in the brain.

PCA infarction can result from various conditions that cause a blockage or reduction of blood flow in the PCA, such as embolism (a clot or debris traveling from another part of the body), thrombosis (a blood clot forming within the artery), or dissection (tearing of the artery wall). Symptoms of PCA infarction may include visual loss or disturbances, memory problems, language impairment, and other neurological deficits, depending on the extent and location of the infarction.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Vasoconstriction is a medical term that refers to the narrowing of blood vessels due to the contraction of the smooth muscle in their walls. This process decreases the diameter of the lumen (the inner space of the blood vessel) and reduces blood flow through the affected vessels. Vasoconstriction can occur throughout the body, but it is most noticeable in the arterioles and precapillary sphincters, which control the amount of blood that flows into the capillary network.

The autonomic nervous system, specifically the sympathetic division, plays a significant role in regulating vasoconstriction through the release of neurotransmitters like norepinephrine (noradrenaline). Various hormones and chemical mediators, such as angiotensin II, endothelin-1, and serotonin, can also induce vasoconstriction.

Vasoconstriction is a vital physiological response that helps maintain blood pressure and regulate blood flow distribution in the body. However, excessive or prolonged vasoconstriction may contribute to several pathological conditions, including hypertension, stroke, and peripheral vascular diseases.

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"Anterior Cerebral Artery". UMass Chan Medical School. 2015-07-21. Retrieved 2023-02-21. "Middle Cerebral Artery". Physiopedia. ... The three main arteries are the: Anterior cerebral artery (ACA), which supplies blood to the medial portion of the brain, ... It is the largest of the cerebral arteries and is often affected in strokes Posterior cerebral artery (PCA), which supplies ... The three pairs of arteries are linked via the anterior communicating artery and the posterior communicating arteries. All ...
The recurrent artery of Heubner is a branch of the anterior cerebral artery. It has a mean diameter of 0.8 mm, and a mean ... The lenticulostriate arteries arise from the middle cerebral artery. The recurrent artery of Heubner usually arises from the A1 ... The recurrent artery of Heubner, Heubner's artery or distal medial striate artery is an artery in the head. It is named after ... It is a branch of the anterior cerebral artery. Its vascular territory is the anteromedial section of the caudate nucleus and ...
Oxygenated blood is supplied by the anterior cerebral artery to most medial portions of the frontal lobes and to the anterior ... The patient had a ruptured aneurysm near the anterior cerebral artery, which resulted in the right hand being mirrored by the ... Both individuals had had infarction of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). One individual, a 72-year-old male, had difficulty ... large cerebral infarction of the medial surface of the left frontal lobe in the territory of the left anterior cerebral artery ...
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"Microsurgical anatomy of the anterior cerebral-anterior communicating-recurrent artery complex". Journal of Neurosurgery. 45 (3 ...
The anterior cerebral artery arises just below the anterior perforated substance. The middle cerebral artery passes through its ... The anterior perforated substance is supplied by lenticulostriate arteries, which branch from the middle cerebral artery. It is ... also supplied by anterior choroidal artery. Small branches from these create holes, which give the anterior perforated ... The anterior perforated substance is a part of the brain. It is bilateral. It is irregular and quadrilateral. It lies in front ...
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The medial aspect (leg areas) is supplied by branches of the anterior cerebral artery. Lesions of the precentral gyrus result ... Branches of the middle cerebral artery provide most of the arterial blood supply for the primary motor cortex. ... side of each cerebral hemisphere - from which it is separated by the central sulcus. Its anterior border is represented by the ... As they travel down through the cerebral white matter, the motor axons move closer together and form part of the posterior limb ...
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When the anterior cerebral artery constricts, reining in the response to this increased blood volume, the pain disappears. The ... the cause of cold-stimulus headaches is explained by increased blood flow to the brain through the anterior cerebral artery, ... This increase in blood volume and resulting increase in size in this artery is thought to bring on the pain associated with a ...
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Bleton, H; Perera, S; Sejdic, E (2016). "Cognitive tasks and cerebral blood flow through anterior cerebral arteries: a study ... related cognitive styles determined using Fourier analysis of mean cerebral blood flow velocity in the middle cerebral arteries ... Each basal cerebral artery of the circle of Willis gives origin to two different systems of secondary vessels. The shorter of ... Moreover, most established neuroanatomical substrates for brain function are perfused by the major cerebral arteries that could ...
CT will usually show distortion of third and lateral ventricles with displacement of anterior and middle cerebral arteries. ... but with a preference for the cerebral hemispheres; they occur usually in adults, and have an intrinsic tendency to progress to ...
... artery is the medial striate artery known as the recurrent artery of Heubner that arises from the anterior cerebral artery. The ... The lenticulostriate arteries are also known as the lateral striate arteries that arise from the middle cerebral artery. The ... of the middle cerebral artery (MCA). They are small perforating arteries, which enter the underside of the brain at the ... antero-lateral ganglionic branches are a group of small arteries arising from the initial part M1 of the middle cerebral artery ...
... homonymous hemianopia with macular sparing is a feature of occlusion of posterior cerebral artery supplying the anterior part ... Middle cerebral artery and posterior cerebral artery infarcts (including cerebral palsies) may affect the optic radiations, and ... Lesions affecting the anterior or lateral choroidal arteries may affect the lateral geniculate nucleus. Incongruous homonymous ... Anterior chiasmal syndrome, the lesions that affect the ipsilateral optic nerve fibres and the contralateral inferonasal fibres ...
These arteries include the recurrent artery of Heubner arising from the anterior cerebral artery, and the lenticulostriate ... arteries arising from the middle cerebral artery. The ventral striatum, and the nucleus accumbens in particular, primarily ... The ventral striatum receives direct input from multiple regions in the cerebral cortex and limbic structures such as the ... Functional maps of the striatum reveal interactions with widely distributed regions of the cerebral cortex important to a ...
"The effect of patent ductus arteriosus on flow velocity in the anterior cerebral arteries: ductal steal in the premature ... Whereas prostaglandins themselves may have a role in regulating cerebral blood flow, etamsylate appears to have no effect on ... etamsylate may exert an effect by closing the patent ductus and thereby increasing cerebral blood flow. Further, etamsylate has ... cerebral blood flow. Etamsylate was also thought to stabilise capillaries, reinforcing capillary membranes by polymerising ...
Anterior cerebral artery (ACA) Anterior communicating artery: Connects both anterior cerebral arteries, within and along the ... the internal carotid artery branches into the anterior cerebral artery and continues to form the middle cerebral artery. ... The two main pairs of arteries are the Internal carotid arteries (supply the anterior brain) and vertebral arteries (supplying ... It is supplied by the following arteries: Vertebral arteries: These smaller arteries branch from the subclavian arteries which ...
Brain injury can result from a stroke caused by left anterior cerebral artery (ACA) occlusion, brain tumors, traumatic brain ... The anterior superior frontal lobe is known as the prefrontal cortex which is responsible for the initiation and ideation of ... The anterior frontal lobes of the language-dominant hemisphere are essential for initiating and maintaining speech. Because of ... Neurological imaging has shown that TMoA is typically caused by an infarct of the anterior superior frontal lobe in the ...
The vertebral arteries arise from the subclavian arteries. The anterior communicating artery connects the two anterior cerebral ... the anterior and middle cerebral arteries. The anterior cerebral artery forms the anterolateral portion of the circle of Willis ... Anterior cerebral artery (left and right) at their A1 segments Anterior communicating artery Internal carotid artery (left and ... such that a single internal carotid supplies both anterior cerebral arteries; this is known as an azygos anterior cerebral ...
... prior to the terminal bifurcation of the ICA into the anterior cerebral artery and middle cerebral artery); posteriorly, it ... unites with the posterior cerebral artery. With the anterior communicating artery, the posterior communicating arteries ... The brain is supplied with blood by the internal carotid arteries and also by the posterior cerebral arteries; the posterior ... pathology of the artery may thus compress the CN III: 407 ). The development of the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) in the ...
The cistern contains the anterior cerebral arteries, the anterior communicating artery, hypothalamic artery, the origin of the ... It is situated rostral/anterior to the lamina terminalis and anterior commissure between the two frontal lobes of the cerebrum ... It is situated rostral/anterior to the third ventricle. The cistern is an extension of interpeduncular cistern. The cistern of ... fronto-orbital arteries, and Heubner's artery. J. Randy Jinkins (2000). "The Subarachnoid Cisterns, Fissures, and Spaces". ...
The left and right anterior cerebral arteries are connected by the anterior communicating artery. Anterior cerebral artery ... paratonic rigidity Anterior cerebral artery Cerebral arteries seen from beneath. Anterior cerebral artery visible at centre. ... also forms the middle cerebral artery and the anterior choroidal artery. The anterior cerebral arteries grow toward each other ... The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is one of a pair of cerebral arteries that supplies oxygenated blood to most midline ...
Recognition and Importance of an Infraoptic Anterior Cerebral Artery: Case Report Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a ... Recognition and Importance of an Infraoptic Anterior Cerebral Artery: Case Report. Curtis A. Given and P. Pearse Morris ... Contrast Injection from an Intermediate Catheter Placed in an Intradural Artery is Associated with Contrast-Induced ...
... s artery territory infarction after surgical clipping of an unruptured saccular aneurysm of the left anterior cerebral artery: ... The recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH), also known as the medial striate artery or long central artery, is named after the ... Later the artery turns posteriorly, runs parallel and is anterior to A1, which is why it is at risk from A1-A2 ACA junction ... of an unruptured saccular aneurysm of the junction between the A1 and the A2 segments of the left anterior cerebral artery (ACA ...
Microsurgical Anatomy of the Anterior Cerebral Artery.2000 September;2(2). Microsurgical Anatomy of the Middle Cerebral Artery. ... medial anterior cerebral artery), 상뇌량동맥(superior callosal artery), 제삼전대뇌동맥(third A2 artery), 삼중기형전대뇌동맥(triplicated anterior ... Yasargil MG, Smith RD, Young PH, Teddy PJ. Anterior cerebral and anterior communicating artery aneurysms, in Yasargil MG: ... Baptista AG. Studies on the arteries of the brain. Ⅱ. The anterior cerebral artery: Some anatomic features and their clinical ...
Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Anterior; Acidente Vascular Cerebral; Masculino; Humanos; Idoso; Acidente Vascular Cerebral/ ... Thrombectomy versus Medical Management for Isolated Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke: An International Multicenter Registry ... Thrombectomy versus Medical Management for Isolated Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke: An In ... of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is, to the knowledge of the authors, unknown. Purpose To compare the clinical and safety ...
Endovascular treatment of distal anterior cerebral artery aneurysms: Long-term results. Journal de Neuroradiologie / Journal of ...
The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) consists of the A1 segment proximal to the anterior communicating artery, with the A2 ... The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) consists of the A1 segment proximal to the anterior communicating artery, with the A2 ... The anterior cerebral artery (ACA; blue) supplies the medial frontal and parietal lobes. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA; ... The anterior cerebral artery (ACA; blue) supplies the medial frontal and parietal lobes. The posterior cerebral artery (PCA; ...
Meningioma with Intra-tumoural Haemorrhage Secondary to Ruptured Distal Anterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm ... Case Report: Meningioma with Intra-tumoural Haemorrhage Secondary to Ruptured Distal Anterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm Ibrahim ... Unlike previous case reports, the aneurysm in this case was located with an anterior cerebral artery distribution. ... and an inter-hemispheric meningioma with intra-tumoural bleeding was found due to a ruptured embedded anterior cerebral artery ...
Azygos ACA aneurysms accounted for 0.5% of all treated lesions and 1.7% of all ACA and anterior communicating artery aneurysms ... The azygos or undivided anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a rare variant, and aneurysms associated with this variant are ... OBJECT: The azygos or undivided anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a rare variant, and aneurysms associated with this variant ... Auguste, Kurtis I.; Ware, Marcus L.; and Lawton, Michael T., "Nonsaccular aneurysms of the azygos anterior cerebral artery" ( ...
A detailed understanding of the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) branches anatomy from an endonasal perspective is ... specifically the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH), and the fronto-orbital (FOA) and frontopolar (FPA) arteries. METHODS: We ... Based on its relationship with the A1 segment, we observed three RAH courses: anterior (40%), superior (22%), and posterior (38 ... The endoscopic endonasal approach is a surgical alternative for midline anterior skull base tumors. ...
... excluding the anterior communicating artery (ACOM)] of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). The purpose of this study was to ... excluding the anterior communicating artery (ACOM)] of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). The purpose of this study was to ... excluding the anterior communicating artery (ACOM)] of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). The purpose of this study was to ... excluding the anterior communicating artery (ACOM)] of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). The purpose of this study was to ...
... anterior communicating arteryDSA, digital subtraction angiographyMCA, middle cerebral arterymRS, modified Rankin scalePED, ... Twenty aneurysms were located along the middle cerebral artery, 6 along the anterior cerebral artery, and 2 along the anterior ... anterior cerebral arteryAcomA, anterior communicating arteryDSA, digital subtraction angiographyMCA, middle cerebral arterymRS ... Treatment of Distal Anterior Circulation Aneurysms With the Pipeline Embolization Device: A US Multicenter Experience ...
How to manage the distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) circulation in the treatment of a giant anterior communicating artery ... How to manage the distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) circulation in the treatment of a giant anterior communicating artery ... How to manage the distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) circulation in the treatment of a giant anterior communicating artery ... How to manage the distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) circulation in the treatment of a giant anterior communicating artery ...
Eighteen aneurysms originated from the middle cerebral artery; 13, from the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) distal to anterior ... anterior cerebral artery. AcomA. anterior communicating artery. FPCT. flat panel CT. FRED Jr. Flow Re-Direction Endoluminal ... from the posterior cerebral artery; 1, from the superior cerebellar artery; and 1, from the vertebral artery at the V4 level. ... Patient 23 with an A2/A3 aneurysm of the anterior cerebral artery (A), and after deployment of a FRED Jr (B). At 6-month follow ...
Categories: Infarction, Anterior Cerebral Artery Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, ...
Three-dimensional reconstruction of cerebral angiogram showing anterior communicating artery aneurysm. View Media Gallery ... Angiogram shows severe narrowing of right anterior cerebral artery. View Media Gallery ... Cerebral angiography revealed an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. The aneurysm was treated successfully with surgical ... Subarachnoid haemorrhage: what happens to the cerebral arteries?. Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol. 1998 Nov. 25 (11):867-76. [QxMD ...
Personality changes due to sudden narrowing or spasm of one of the arteries in the brain (anterior cerebral artery) ...
Anterior cerebral artery 11 . Optic tract 12 . Infundibulum 13 . Internal carotid artery (cut across) ... Posterior cerebral artery (lying within transverse fissure) 23 . Ventral posterior lateral nucleus of thalamus (slight ... The continuity of the cerebral peduncle into the internal capsule is thus made clearly visible. Fibers of the ansa lenticularis ... Fibers of rostrum of corpus callosum passing into anterior part of superior frontal gyrus ...
1980) The aphasia syndrome of stroke in the left anterior cerebral artery territory. Arch Neurol 37:97-100. ... anterior cingulate, and anterior insula. The right supramarginal gyrus was clearly more active than the left. The MTG and ... usually involving the anterior IFG, middle frontal gyrus, insula, ventral pre- and postcentral gyri, or anterior parietal areas ... anterior insula, anterior putamen, thalamus, midbrain, and posterior cerebellum. Modest right hemisphere lateralization is ...
The MCA is by far the largest cerebral artery and is the vessel most commonly affected by cerebrovascular accident. ... Middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke describes the sudden onset of focal neurologic deficit resulting from brain infarction or ... involvement of additional anterior and/or posterior cerebral artery territory predicts early in-hospital death, while age, sex ... Where do most malignant middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke occur?. What are common impairments in middle cerebral artery (MCA ...
anterior cerebral artery; AD=. Alzheimer disease; BFV=. blood flow velocity; BFVIDX=. blood flow velocity during Identify X; ... middle cerebral artery; MD=. mean diffusivity; NVC=. neurovascular coupling; SBP=. systolic blood pressure; TCD=. transcranial ... Neurovascular coupling was measured from the beat-to-beat blood flow velocity responses in the middle cerebral arteries to the ... Neurovascular coupling, cerebral white matter integrity, and response to cocoa in older people. Farzaneh A. Sorond, Shelley ...
Absent anterior communicating artery and varied distribution of the anterior cerebral artery. NEUROSCIENCES, 2008, 13, ---. 100 ... 9. Kurtoğlu, Z.; Aktekin, M.; Ozturk, A.; Kara, A. A case of right ovarian artery diverging from a right accessory renal artery ... A case of a right ovarian artery diverging from a right accessory renal artery. 98. Versammlung in Dresden, Verhandlungen Der ... 2. Öztürk, A.; BAYRAMOGLU, A.; CELIK, H.; YENER, N. An Anomalous Ascending Cervical Artery. DEPARTMENT OF ANATOMY KEIO ...
... aneurysm was treated with an FD involving the orifice of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). The antiplatelet dose was reduced ... Emergency superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery anastomosis was performed, and she was discharged without ... Cerebral angiography revealed an MMAVF between the middle meningeal artery and the MMV on the left side. Seven days after ... with delayed stent occlusion after deployment of a flow diverter stent involving the orifice of the anterior cerebral artery: ...
Cerebrovascular accident due to left anterior cerebral artery embolism. *Cerebrovascular accident due to left middle cerebral ... Cerebrovascular accident due to right anterior cerebral artery embolism. *Cerebrovascular accident due to right middle cerebral ... 2015/16 ICD-10-CM I63.40 Cerebral infarction due to embolism of unspecified cerebral artery ... Cerebrovascular accident due to left posterior cerebral artery embolism. * ...
... anterior cerebral artery strokes "occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involves the superior and medial ... Eventually, he says, doctors determined he had a stroke related to the anterior cerebral artery. ...
Stroke is caused not only by arterial thrombosis but also by cerebral venous thrombosis. Arterial stroke is currently the main ... Stroke is caused not only by arterial occlusion but also by cerebral venous thrombosis. Therefore, stroke includes arterial ... For example, lesions in the anterior cerebral artery involve symptoms of urinary incontinence, apraxia of gait and motor mutism ... Arterial cerebral occlusion causes irreversible damage, and imaging typically reveals a small penumbra, whereas venous cerebral ...
Anterior and middle cerebral arteries.. VID 79, frame 25. braG4056. Anterior and middle cerebral arteries (labeled).. VID 79, ...
F, Anterior circulation angiogram reveals posterior displacement of the anterior cerebral artery by tumor. G, Postoperative MRI ... and anterior (arrow in C) recurrence involving the tentorium. Sagittal images show posterior (D) and anterior (E) recurrence ... Posterior circulation angiograms show tumoral blush (arrow in G) and the Bernasconi-Cassinari artery (arrow in H). ... American Academy for Cerebral Palsy and Developmental Medicine, American Academy of Neurology, American Academy of Pediatrics, ...
  • A 58-year-old male patient presented at the neurosurgery department for surgical clipping of an unruptured saccular aneurysm of the junction between the A1 and the A2 segments of the left anterior cerebral artery (ACA). (eurorad.org)
  • Later the artery turns posteriorly, runs parallel and is anterior to A1, which is why it is at risk from A1-A2 ACA junction aneurysm clipping. (eurorad.org)
  • The procedure of aneurysm clipping involves placing a surgical clip at the junction of the healthy artery and the neck of the aneurysm. (eurorad.org)
  • A2 Anomaly Associated with Anterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm. (the-jcen.org)
  • The recognition of the anatomic variations prior to clip placement for anterior cerebral artery aneurysm is emphasized. (the-jcen.org)
  • A 34-year-old male patient presented with sudden-onset headache, and an inter-hemispheric meningioma with intra-tumoural bleeding was found due to a ruptured embedded anterior cerebral artery aneurysm. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • The aneurysm was diagnosed incidentally on the third cerebral angiogram, while the initial 2 angiograms were negative. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • This paper is the first case report to describe the coexistence of a meningioma and an aneurysm, which presented with intra-tumoural haemorrhage that was negative on the initial cerebral angiogram. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • Unlike previous case reports, the aneurysm in this case was located with an anterior cerebral artery distribution. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • OBJECTIVE AND IMPORTANCE: How to manage the distal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) circulation in the treatment of a giant anterior communicating artery aneurysm or a giant azygous A2 aneurysm is still controversial. (elsevierpure.com)
  • CLINICAL PRESENTATION: We are reporting the case of a 70-year-old man who presented with an evolving giant thrombosed anterior communicating artery aneurysm. (elsevierpure.com)
  • INTERVENTION: He was successfully treated by trapping the aneurysm in conjunction with an A3-A3 side-to-side anastomosis and a superficial temporal artery bypass using an A3-radial artery graft. (elsevierpure.com)
  • Cerebral angiography revealed an anterior communicating artery aneurysm. (medscape.com)
  • Three-dimensional reconstruction of cerebral angiogram showing anterior communicating artery aneurysm. (medscape.com)
  • Aneurysms included six middle cerebral artery aneurysms, one anterior communicating artery aneurysm, one posterior communicating artery aneurysm, one basilar artery aneurysm, and one T-shaped carotid aneurysm. (nih.gov)
  • Moyamoya disease is an idiopathic, nonatherosclerotic, noninflammatory, chronic progressive cerebrovascular disease characterized by bilateral stenosis or occlusion of the arteries around the circle of Willis, typically the supraclinoid internal carotid arteries, followed by extensive collateralization, which are prone to thrombosis, aneurysm, and hemorrhage. (jpgmonline.com)
  • Head CT without contrast and CT angiogram revealed redemonstration of subarachnoid hemorrhage from the proximal largest aneurysm with intraventricular extension predominantly along the corpus callosum, with effaced basal cisterns and an interval increase in both hydrocephalus and cerebral edema [ Figure 2 ]. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Here we discuss a 22-year-old man who presented with a grade 1 subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to a dissecting right anterior cerebral artery aneurysm who was subsequently treated with a Pipeline Embolization Device construct. (bmj.com)
  • The International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-10-CM) code for "cerebral infarction" is I63. (medscape.com)
  • It includes occlusion and stenosis of cerebral and precerebral arteries, resulting in cerebral infarction. (medscape.com)
  • Thrombosis also form in cerebral venous, which is termed as cerebral venous thrombosis(CVT), a particular type of cerebrovascular disease, characterized by intracerebral hemorrhage and infarction, associated with increased intracranial pressure due to cerebrospinal fluid absorption and cerebral venous drainage, accounting for 0.5-1% of strokes ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The individual approach combines a vascular risk factor modification and various therapies addressing the specific subtypes of stroke (eg, antiplatelet drugs to prevent cerebral infarction in large and small artery diseases of the brain, carotid endarterectomy or stenting for tight carotid artery stenosis, and oral anticoagulants to prevent cardiac emboli). (medscape.com)
  • It is the largest vessel of the medial lenticulostriate arteries and the only one routinely seen on angiography. (eurorad.org)
  • Angiography demonstrated severe narrowing of the right anterior cerebral artery (ACA). (medscape.com)
  • Diagnostic Cerebral Angiography. (radiopaedia.org)
  • Management of vascular disease and dementia in a young patient with suspected uncommon causes of stroke (eg, cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy [CADASIL] or angiitis) involves ruling out these conditions with the appropriate testing procedures (ie, skin biopsy, cerebral angiography). (medscape.com)
  • However, magnetic resonance angiography showed multifocal segmental stenosis of the right middle cerebral artery and bilateral anterior cerebral arteries. (neurology-jp.org)
  • Acute ischemic stroke is caused by thrombotic or embolic occlusion of a cerebral artery and is more common than hemorrhagic stroke. (medscape.com)
  • In-stent thrombotic occlusion is a serious ischemic complication that can also result in ischemia in the distal perfusion territory and the territory of side branches for the artery in which the flow diverter (FD) stent is deployed. (thejns.org)
  • The ischemic stroke accounts for the 87% of all cases, which results from the cerebral arteries occlusion due to thrombosis, atherosclerosis and platelets plug ( 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery can lead to paralysis or weakness of the contralateral face and arm as well as sensory loss of the contralateral face and arm. (picmonic.com)
  • Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery can lead to paralysis or weakness of the contralateral face and arm due to involvement of the primary motor cortex. (picmonic.com)
  • Occlusion of the middle cerebral artery can lead to contralateral loss of sensation of the upper limb and face due to involvement of the primary sensory cortex. (picmonic.com)
  • The arterial circle and arteries of the brain (inferior view). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the presented case, a young female patient with fulminant refractory DCI and CV, despite induced hypertension and nimodipine application, was treated with three-vessel continuous intra-arterial infusion and additional repetitive angioplasty of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries using a stent retriever, leading to a good clinical outcome. (thejns.org)
  • We report a unique rescue strategy involving implantation of an additional intra-arterial catheter into the vertebral artery and repetitive stent retriever dilatations of the middle cerebral and basilar arteries as an extra therapy for continuous intra-arterial nimodipine vaspospasmolytic therapy in three vessel territories, resulting in a very good clinical outcome. (thejns.org)
  • Stroke is caused not only by arterial thrombosis but also by cerebral venous thrombosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • The molecular pathological hallmarks of arterial stroke and cerebral venous thrombosis. (frontiersin.org)
  • Cerebral autoregulation maintains constant blood flow (CBF) through the brain in spite of changing mean arterial pressure [ 8 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The three trunks which together supply each cerebral hemisphere arise from the arterial circle of Willis. (bartleby.com)
  • Los aneurismas saculares son la variante más común y tienden a formarse en los puntos de ramificación arterial en el POLÍGONO DE WILLIS en la base del encéfalo. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anterior cerebral artery syndrome refers to symptoms that follow a stroke occurring in the area normally supplied by one of the arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thrombectomy versus Medical Management for Isolated Anterior Cerebral Artery Stroke: An International Multicenter Registry Study. (bvsalud.org)
  • Middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke describes the sudden onset of a focal neurologic deficit resulting from hemorrhagic or ischemic disruption of the MCA's blood supply. (medscape.com)
  • Eventually, he says, doctors determined he had a stroke related to the anterior cerebral artery. (oakland.edu)
  • So far CVR-L-Arg has been used to study cerebral endothelial function in many pathological conditions such as stroke, migraine, etc. (hindawi.com)
  • The blockage of an artery in the brain by a clot (thrombosis) is the most common cause of a stroke. (medicinenet.com)
  • Another type of stroke may occur when a blood clot or a piece of atherosclerotic plaque (cholesterol and calcium deposits on the wall of the inside of the heart or artery) breaks loose, travels through the bloodstream, and lodges in an artery in the brain. (medicinenet.com)
  • Usually, these clots remain attached to the inner lining of the heart, but occasionally they can break off, travel through the bloodstream (embolize), block a brain artery, and cause a stroke. (medicinenet.com)
  • A cerebral hemorrhage (bleeding in the brain) causes stroke symptoms by depriving blood and oxygen to parts of the brain in a variety of ways. (medicinenet.com)
  • It is with heavy hearts that we confirm the passing today of Katie May - mother, daughter, sister, friend, businesswoman, model and social media star - after suffering a catastrophic stroke caused by a blocked carotid artery on Monday," the statement reads. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Strokes are caused by either blood flow blockage to the brain (ischemic stroke) or the sudden rupture of an artery in the brain (hemorrhagic stroke). (adam.com)
  • Introduction: Cerebral subarachnoid hemorrhage may result from rupture of saccular aneurysms at uncommon location [excluding the anterior communicating artery (ACOM)] of the anterior cerebral artery (ACA). (tmu.edu.tw)
  • Various imaging modalities are employed to diagnose cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). (medscape.com)
  • In a study that compared three-dimensional (3D) spin-echo-based black-blood MRA (BBMRA) with time-of-flight (TOF)-MRA for detection of cerebral vasospasm in the early posttreament period after subarachnoid hemorrhage, Takano et al found that BBMRA, owing to its contrast properties, may be superior to TOF-MRA for the evaluation of intracranial arteries. (medscape.com)
  • Initial cerebral angiogram from patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage. (medscape.com)
  • Definition of delayed cerebral ischemia after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage as an outcome event in clinical trials and observational studies: proposal of a multidisciplinary research group. (medscape.com)
  • Delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) and cerebral vasospasm (CV) are severe complications of spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) contributing to an inferior outcome. (thejns.org)
  • The ophthalmic artery is a branch of the supraclinoid (C6) segment of the internal carotid artery . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The ophthalmic artery arises medial to the anterior clinoid process as the internal carotid artery exits the cavernous sinus . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The ophthalmic artery passes into the orbit via the optic canal . (radiopaedia.org)
  • The two terminal branches of the ophthalmic artery are the supratrochlear artery and the dorsal nasal artery . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Embryologically, the orbit has dual supply: from the supraorbital branch (which later becomes the middle meningeal artery ) and from the ophthalmic artery. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The cavernous segment averages 39 mm in length and gives rise to far more branches, including the meningohypophyseal trunk, the anterior meningeal artery, the artery to the inferior portion of the cavernous sinus, and the ophthalmic artery. (medscape.com)
  • This anterior division, which appears at the twenty-eighth day of development, also forms the middle cerebral artery and the anterior choroidal artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The medial posterior choroidal artery is a small branch (often multiple - 40% of hemispheres) usually arising from the P2 segment of the PCA . (radiopaedia.org)
  • As it reaches the foramen of Monro it passes through it to anastamose with branches of the lateral posterior choroidal artery . (radiopaedia.org)
  • Lateral projection of a left common carotid artery injection that displays the order of branching in the intracranial carotid, including 1: ophthalmic, 2: posterior communicating, 3: anterior choroidal, and 4: anterior cerebral arteries. (medscape.com)
  • This gives rise to the superior hypophyseal perforators to the anterior pituitary and stalk, posterior communicating artery (PCoA), and anterior choroidal artery (AChA) before bifurcating into the ACA and MCA (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • The anterior cerebral arteries (top of figure) arise from the trifurcations of the internal carotid arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Carotid arteries. (vesalius.com)
  • Carotid arteries (labeled). (vesalius.com)
  • Microvascular anastomosis techniques are important for revascularization surgeries on brachiocephalic and carotid arteries and complex cerebral aneurysms and even during resection of brain tumors that obstruct major cerebral arteries. (hindawi.com)
  • Binasal hemianopia results from compression of the uncrossed fibres in the optic nerve or chiasma by the anterior cerebral or internal carotid arteries. (bmj.com)
  • The internal carotid arteries and the nerves that control eye movement lie on the sides of the pituitary. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • Large tumors can press on the optic nerves and invade the cavernous sinuses, which house the carotid arteries and the nerves involved in eye movement. (mayfieldclinic.com)
  • The carotid arteries come up through either side of the front of the neck. (adam.com)
  • At the Circle of Willis, the internal carotid arteries branch into smaller arteries that supply oxygenated blood to over 80% of the brain. (adam.com)
  • basilar artery + branches of internal carotid arteries = circle of Willis, which gives rise to middle, posterior and anterior cerebral artries. (rahulgladwin.com)
  • Angiogram shows severe narrowing of right anterior cerebral artery. (medscape.com)
  • The anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is one of a pair of cerebral arteries that supplies oxygenated blood to most midline portions of the frontal lobes and superior medial parietal lobes of the brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • A computed tomography examination (CT) of the brain 24 hours after the patient awoke, detected hypointense lesions in the head of the caudate nucleus, the anterior limb of the internal capsule and the anterior part of the putamen (Fig. 2). (eurorad.org)
  • 1] I. Mavridis and S. Anagnostopoulou (2010) Comment on the brain areas whose blood supply is provided by the recurrent artery of Heubner. (eurorad.org)
  • Brain tumours that are associated with cerebral aneurysms are rare occurrences, whereas the coexistence of brain tumours and intra-tumoural aneurysms is even rarer. (openneuroimagingjournal.com)
  • The MCA supplies most of the outer convex brain surface, nearly all the basal ganglia, and the posterior and anterior internal capsules. (medscape.com)
  • Brain arteries. (vesalius.com)
  • Brain stem with cerebellar arteries (labeled). (vesalius.com)
  • The dura is opened, and the meningioma can be seen extending en plaque over the surface of the brain. (medscape.com)
  • Bypass techniques are still valuable for the surgical treatment of complex cerebral aneurysms by reducing the risk of temporary and constant brain ischemia due to the alteration in blood flow. (hindawi.com)
  • Cerebral endothelium is probably one of the most specific types since it is the crucial element of the well-known blood-brain barrier. (hindawi.com)
  • An embolism, either plaque or clot, may also originate in a large artery (for example, the carotid artery, a major artery in the neck that supplies blood to the brain) and then travel downstream to clog a small artery within the brain. (medicinenet.com)
  • A cerebral hemorrhage occurs when a blood vessel in the brain ruptures and bleeds into the surrounding brain tissue. (medicinenet.com)
  • Additionally, blood is very irritating and can cause swelling of brain tissue (cerebral edema ). (medicinenet.com)
  • Edema and the accumulation of blood from a cerebral hemorrhage increases pressure within the skull and causes further damage by squeezing the brain against the bony skull. (medicinenet.com)
  • Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the brain [Figure 1] showed loss of normal flow void signal in the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) with multiple flow voids in the region of lenticulostriate branches. (jpgmonline.com)
  • The middle cerebral artery supplies blood to Wernicke's and Broca's regions in the brain. (picmonic.com)
  • Arteries to the brain on magnetic resonance angiogram (MRA). (medscape.com)
  • The vertebral and basilar arteries supply the brain stem, cerebellum, posterior cerebral cortex, and medial temporal lobe. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The Circle of Willis is the joining area of several arteries at the bottom (inferior) side of the brain. (adam.com)
  • As far back as the 70s, surgeons snaked recording devices up through the neck and into major arteries and veins in order to record brain activity without harming the neural tissue. (stanford.edu)
  • With a guidewire installed, Zhang and her collaborators, Lijun Xu and Emiri T. Mandeville, were able to guide the electrode cleanly into the arteries of a rat's brain. (stanford.edu)
  • Sagittal view of a rat brain showing a micro-endovascular probe in the middle cerebral artery. (stanford.edu)
  • Maximum intensity projection (MIP) image from a computed tomography angiogram (CTA) demonstrates a filling defect or high-grade stenosis at the branching point of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) trunk (red circle), suspicious for thrombus or embolus. (medscape.com)
  • Twenty aneurysms were located along the middle cerebral artery, 6 along the anterior cerebral artery, and 2 along the anterior communicating artery. (nih.gov)
  • Cognitive measures included Mini-Mental State Examination and Trail Making Test A and B. Neurovascular coupling was measured from the beat-to-beat blood flow velocity responses in the middle cerebral arteries to the N-Back Task. (neurology.org)
  • Middle cerebral artery branches. (vesalius.com)
  • Middle cerebral. (vesalius.com)
  • Anterior and middle cerebral arteries. (vesalius.com)
  • From its anterior part proceed the two anterior cerebrals, from its antero-lateral parts the middle cerebrals, and from its posterior part the posterior cerebrals. (bartleby.com)
  • The vessels forming this system are the terminal branches of the anterior, middle, and posterior cerebral arteries. (bartleby.com)
  • Objective: Ruptured anterior cerebral artery (ACA) trunk aneurysms and middle cerebral artery (MCA) trunk aneurysms are rare, and little is known about them. (koreamed.org)
  • The middle cerebral artery is one of the three major paired arteries that supplies blood to the cerebral cortex. (picmonic.com)
  • The middle cerebral arteries arise from the internal carotid and continue into the lateral sulcus where it then branches and projects to many parts of the lateral cerebral cortex. (picmonic.com)
  • This artery arises from the common carotid artery in the neck, entering the head at skull base via the carotid canal, and terminates at the bifurcation into the anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA). (medscape.com)
  • On occasion, the persistent stapedial branch of the petrous segment traverses a bony canal and continues as the middle meningeal artery. (medscape.com)
  • The middle cerebral artery supplies large portions of the lateral surfaces of frontal, parietal, and temporal lobes. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Branches of the anterior and middle cerebral arteries (lenticulostriate arteries) supply the basal ganglia and anterior limb of the internal capsule. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Sometimes, the electrode would enter the anterior cerebral artery (ACA), but other times, it would take a different branch and enter the middle cerebral artery (MCA). (stanford.edu)
  • Patients with anterior cerebral artery (ACA) and middle cerebral artery (MCA) involvement with the affected side being the dominant side. (who.int)
  • behind by the two posterior cerebral arteries, branches of the basilar, which are connected on either side with the internal carotid by the posterior communicating ( Figs. 516, 519 ). (bartleby.com)
  • The posterior cerebral arteries bifurcate from the basilar artery to supply the medial temporal (including the hippocampus) and occipital lobes, thalamus, and mammillary and geniculate bodies. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The recurrent artery of Heubner (distal medial striate artery), which irrigates the internal capsule, usually arises at the beginning of this segment near the AComm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH), also known as the medial striate artery or long central artery, is named after the German paediatrician Johann Otto Leonhard Heubner (1843-1926). (eurorad.org)
  • OBJECTIVE: To evaluate, from an endonasal perspective, the anatomic variations of the ACA and its proximal branches, specifically the recurrent artery of Heubner (RAH), and the fronto-orbital (FOA) and frontopolar (FPA) arteries. (lvhn.org)
  • Strokes that occur in a part of the artery prior to the anterior communicating usually do not produce many symptoms because of collateral circulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • To report the collective experience of using PED to treat distal anterior circulation aneurysms. (nih.gov)
  • We retrospectively reviewed clinical and radiographic records of all patients who underwent Pipeline embolization of distal anterior circulation aneurysms at 10 US neurosurgical centers between 2011 and 2013. (nih.gov)
  • PED can be utilized in the treatment of distal anterior circulation aneurysms with difficult anatomy for conventional surgical or endovascular techniques. (nih.gov)
  • Anterior circulation. (vesalius.com)
  • Anterior and posterior circulation. (vesalius.com)
  • 5. Hayreh S. Posterior Ciliary Artery Circulation in Health and Disease The Weisenfeld Lecture. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The basilar artery is the most important artery in the posterior cerebral circulation. (bvsalud.org)
  • Anterior circulation and posterior circulation communicate in the circle of Willis via the posterior communicating artery. (msdmanuals.com)
  • The two anterior cerebral arteries arise from the internal carotid artery and are part of the circle of Willis. (wikipedia.org)
  • A1 originates from the internal carotid artery and extends to the anterior communicating artery (AComm). (wikipedia.org)
  • The anteromedial central (medial lenticulostriate) arteries arise from this segment as well as the AComm, which irrigates the caudate nucleus and the anterior limb of the internal capsule A2 extends from the AComm to the bifurcation forming the pericallosal and callosomarginal arteries. (wikipedia.org)
  • A3, also termed the pericallosal artery, is one of the (or the only) main terminal branches of the ACA, which extends posteriorly in the pericallosal sulcus to form the internal parietal arteries (superior, inferior) and the precuneal artery. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anterior cerebral artery develops from a primitive anterior division of the internal carotid artery that initially supplies the optic and olfactory regions. (wikipedia.org)
  • It also supplies the front four-fifths of the corpus callosum, and provides blood to deep structures such as the anterior limb of the internal capsule, part of the caudate nucleus, and the anterior part of the globus pallidus. (wikipedia.org)
  • The RAH supplies blood to the anterior portion of the caudate nucleus, the anterior third of the putamen, the external segment of the globus pallidus and the anterior crus of the internal capsule. (eurorad.org)
  • The continuity of the cerebral peduncle into the internal capsule is thus made clearly visible. (stanford.edu)
  • It originates from the antero- or supero-medial surface of the internal carotid artery. (radiopaedia.org)
  • The internal carotid artery (ICA) embryologically develops from the third primitive aortic arch. (medscape.com)
  • [ 3 ] The vidian artery anastomoses with the internal maxillary artery. (medscape.com)
  • Examples: Common iliac artery, External iliac artery, Internal iliac artery. (mcw.edu)
  • Low-grade arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) associated with multiple flow-related distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms are rare occurrences. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • According to the National Institutes of Health, anterior cerebral artery strokes "occur in the territory of the anterior cerebral artery which involves the superior and medial part of the parietal lobe along with the midline of the frontal lobe. (oakland.edu)
  • What % of ischaemic strokes are due to carotid artery disease? (brainscape.com)
  • How can carotid artery disease cause ischaemic strokes? (brainscape.com)
  • Strokes are a heterogeneous group of disorders involving sudden, focal interruption of cerebral blood flow that causes neurologic deficit. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For this reason, routine surveillance imaging studies are carried out to supplement the neurologic examination with the aim of diagnosing vasospasm before the onset of delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI). (medscape.com)
  • It was shown that cerebral revascularization using extracranial to intracranial bypass may result in neurological symptoms improvement and an objective increase in regional cerebral blood flow in a selective cohort of patients with symptomatic chronic cerebrovascular ischemia [ 1 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The diagnosis of vascular dementia is usually made on the basis of clinical, neuroimaging, or neuropathologic evidence of cerebral ischemia in the presence of progressive cognitive decline. (medscape.com)
  • Abstract Enhanced external counterpulsation (EECP) is able to treat myocardial ischemia, which is usually caused by coronary artery stenosis. (techscience.com)
  • However, the underlying mechanisms regarding why this technique is effective in treating myocardial ischemia remains unclear and there is no patient-specific counterpulsation mode for different rates of coronary artery stenosis in clinic. (techscience.com)
  • Two branches arise from this segment: Orbitofrontal artery (medial frontal basal): Arises a small distance away from the AComm Frontopolar artery (polar frontal): Arises after the orbitofrontal, close to the curvature of A2 over the corpus callosum. (wikipedia.org)
  • 3) A2 기형 중 양측 대뇌반구로 관류되는 단일 전대뇌동맥을 기전대뇌동맥이라 하며 2개의 정상 전대뇌동맥에 추가로 전교통동맥에서 유래하는 A2를 부전대뇌동맥이라 하는데, 후자는 뇌량의 정중동맥(median artery of corpus callosum), 내측전대뇌동맥(medial anterior cerebral artery), 상뇌량동맥(superior callosal artery), 제삼전대뇌동맥(third A2 artery), 삼중기형전대뇌동맥(triplicated anterior cerebral artery)등 여러가지 이름으로 불리기도 한다. (the-jcen.org)
  • The anterior cerebral artery supplies the medial portions of the frontal and parietal lobes and corpus callosum. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A detailed understanding of the proximal anterior cerebral artery (ACA) branches' anatomy from an endonasal perspective is essential for avoiding vascular complications. (lvhn.org)
  • Cerebral vascular pathology comprises the major part of neurology and neurosurgery. (hindawi.com)
  • Cerebral endothelial dysfunction is mentioned in the pathophysiology of several neurological diseases. (hindawi.com)
  • The MCA is by far the largest cerebral artery and is the vessel most commonly affected by cerebrovascular accident (CVA). (medscape.com)
  • In this review, the role of cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine (CVR-L-Arg) for assessment of cerebral endothelial function is discussed. (hindawi.com)
  • In the past few years cerebrovascular reactivity to L-arginine by means of TCD has emerged as a parameter for evaluation of cerebral endothelial function [ 3 - 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • 2] M. Loukas, R. G. Louis Jr., and R. S. Childs (2006) Anatomical examination of the reccurent artery of Heubner. (eurorad.org)
  • 전두엽의 과도한 견축을 피하면서 뇌량변연동맥(callosomarginal artery)을 확인 한 후 동맥류를 결찰 하였다. (the-jcen.org)
  • 10 ] We present an unusual case of a low-grade arteriovenous malformation (AVM) with three associated DACA aneurysms arising from a single feeder to an AVM from the left callosomarginal artery. (surgicalneurologyint.com)
  • Any of the arteries that arise from a bifurcation of the aorta supplying the pelvic or abdomen. (mcw.edu)
  • The anatomical variations of RAH are related to its presence or absence, number and the diverse origin from ACA and are of considerable clinical impact mainly from the point of view of the surgical procedures involving the anterior portion of the circle of Willis. (eurorad.org)
  • Nonsaccular aneurysms of the azygos anterior cerebral artery" by Kurtis I. Auguste, Marcus L. Ware et al. (barrowneuro.org)
  • OBJECT: The azygos or undivided anterior cerebral artery (ACA) is a rare variant, and aneurysms associated with this variant are particularly rare. (barrowneuro.org)
  • Azygos ACA aneurysms accounted for 0.5% of all treated lesions and 1.7% of all ACA and anterior communicating artery aneurysms. (barrowneuro.org)
  • and Lawton, Michael T., "Nonsaccular aneurysms of the azygos anterior cerebral artery" (2005). (barrowneuro.org)
  • The cavernous portion of the intracranial ICA segment crosses the membranes of the cavernous sinus, winding anteriorly and superomedially, then ascends vertically in a groove along the sphenoid bone, and then passing along the medial aspect of the anterior clinoid process. (medscape.com)
  • and (V and VI) the right and left postero-lateral groups, from the posterior cerebrals, after they have wound around the cerebral peduncles. (bartleby.com)
  • The anterior and posterior attachments of the medial and lateral fibres of the nerves have been studied. (bmj.com)
  • The supraclinoid or cerebral ICA bends posteriorly and laterally between the oculomotor (III) and optic (II) nerves. (medscape.com)
  • TCD enables continuous monitoring of mean blood flow velocity through the cerebral arteries and therefore the evaluation of cerebral blood flow [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • This study sought to investigate the hemodynamic effect of varied coronary artery stenosis rates when using EECP and the necessity of adopting targeted counterpulsation mode to consider different rates of coronary artery stenosis. (techscience.com)
  • In the past few decades the immense development of neuroradiological methods enabled better imaging of cerebral blood vessels. (hindawi.com)
  • Cerebral endothelium is a one cell layer on the inner wall of the vessels and as such is a difficult subject to image. (hindawi.com)
  • If the clinician has reason to suspect an angiitis affecting cerebral vessels, then an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and specific panels may be ordered. (medscape.com)
  • Each of these principal arteries gives origin to two different systems of secondary vessels. (bartleby.com)