Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein: Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).Genes, Homeobox: Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Metabolome: The dynamic collection of metabolites which represent a cell's or organism's net metabolic response to current conditions.Deuterium: Deuterium. The stable isotope of hydrogen. It has one neutron and one proton in the nucleus.Thorax: The upper part of the trunk between the NECK and the ABDOMEN. It contains the chief organs of the circulatory and respiratory systems. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Education, Graduate: Studies beyond the bachelor's degree at an institution having graduate programs for the purpose of preparing for entrance into a specific field, and obtaining a higher degree.Faculty: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in an educational institution.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Education, Pharmacy, Graduate: Educational programs for pharmacists who have a bachelor's degree or a Doctor of Pharmacy degree entering a specific field of pharmacy. They may lead to an advanced degree.Faculty, Medical: The teaching staff and members of the administrative staff having academic rank in a medical school.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.BooksTribolium: A genus of small beetles of the family Tenebrionidae; T. confusum is the "confused flour beetle".Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.ArchivesBiological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Hypothalamus: Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.Directories as Topic: Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence: A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.New YorkLarva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Pancreatic Polypeptide: A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.Somatostatin-Secreting Cells: Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.Endoderm: The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.Pancreas, Exocrine: The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.Exocrine Glands: Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.Somatostatin: A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Optic Nerve Diseases: Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Onchocerciasis, Ocular: Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.Optic Neuritis: Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).Optic Nerve Injuries: Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.Olfactory Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)Vagus Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (1/172)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Potential variance affecting homeotic Ultrabithorax and Antennapedia phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. (2/172)

Introgression of homeotic mutations into wild-type genetic backgrounds results in a wide variety of phenotypes and implies that major effect modifiers of extreme phenotypes are not uncommon in natural populations of Drosophila. A composite interval mapping procedure was used to demonstrate that one major effect locus accounts for three-quarters of the variance for haltere to wing margin transformation in Ultrabithorax flies, yet has no obvious effect on wild-type development. Several other genetic backgrounds result in enlargement of the haltere significantly beyond the normal range of haploinsufficient phenotypes, suggesting genetic variation in cofactors that mediate homeotic protein function. Introgression of Antennapedia produces lines with heritable phenotypes ranging from almost complete suppression to perfect antennal leg formation, as well as transformations that are restricted to either the distal or proximal portion of the appendage. It is argued that the existence of "potential" variance, which is genetic variation whose effects are not observable in wild-type individuals, is a prerequisite for the uncoupling of genetic from phenotypic divergence.  (+info)

Bak BH3 peptides antagonize Bcl-xL function and induce apoptosis through cytochrome c-independent activation of caspases. (3/172)

The Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain is crucial for the death-inducing and dimerization properties of pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family, including Bak, Bax, and Bad. Here we report that synthetic peptides corresponding to the BH3 domain of Bak bind to Bcl-xL, antagonize its anti-apoptotic function, and rapidly induce apoptosis when delivered into intact cells via fusion to the Antennapedia homeoprotein internalization domain. Treatment of HeLa cells with the Antennapedia-BH3 fusion peptide resulted in peptide internalization and induction of apoptosis within 2-3 h, as indicated by caspase activation and subsequent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, as well as morphological characteristics of apoptosis. A point mutation within the BH3 peptide that blocks its ability to bind to Bcl-xL abolished its apoptotic activity, suggesting that interaction of the BH3 peptide with Bcl-2-related death suppressors, such as Bcl-xL, may be critical for its activity in cells. While overexpression of Bcl-xL can block BH3-induced apoptosis, treatment with BH3 peptides resensitized Bcl-xL-expressing cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis. BH3-induced apoptosis was blocked by caspase inhibitors, demonstrating a dependence on caspase activation, but was not accompanied by a dramatic early loss of mitochondrial membrane potential or detectable translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol. These findings demonstrate that the BH3 domain itself is capable of inducing apoptosis in whole cells, possibly by antagonizing the function of Bcl-2-related death suppressors.  (+info)

Activity regulation of Hox proteins, a mechanism for altering functional specificity in development and evolution. (4/172)

The closely related Hox transcription factors Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and Antennapedia (Antp) respectively direct first abdominal (A1) and second thoracic (T2) segment identities in Drosophila. It has been proposed that their functional differences derive from their differential occupancy of DNA target sites. Here we show that a hybrid version of Ubx (Ubx-VP16), which possesses an enhanced transcriptional activation function, no longer directs A1 denticle pattern in embryonic epidermal cells. Instead, it mimics Antp in directing T2 denticle pattern, and it can rescue the cuticular loss-of-function phenotype of Antp mutants. In cells that do not produce denticles, Ubx-VP16 appears to have largely retained its normal repressive regulatory functions. These results suggest that the modulation of Hox activation and repression functions can account for segment-specific morphological differences that are controlled by different members of the Hox family. Our results also are consistent with the idea that activity regulation underlies the phenotypic suppression phenomenon in which a more posterior Hox protein suppresses the function of a more anterior member of the Hox cluster. The acquisition of novel activation and repression potentials in Hox proteins may be an important mechanism underlying the generation of subtle morphological differences during evolution.  (+info)

The control of trunk Hox specificity and activity by Extradenticle. (5/172)

We characterize a 37-bp element (fkh[250]) derived from the fork head (fkh) gene, a natural target of the Hox gene Sex combs reduced (Scr). In vitro, Scr cooperatively binds to this DNA with the Hox cofactor Extradenticle (Exd), and the activation of this enhancer in vivo requires Scr and exd. Other Hox/Exd heterodimers do not activate this element in vivo and do not bind this element with high affinity in vitro. The amino-terminal arm of the Scr homeodomain is crucial for the specific activation of this element in vivo. By mutating two base pairs within this element, we can convert the Scr/Exd-binding site to a Hox/Exd consensus site that binds several different Hox/Exd heterodimers. This element, fkh[250(con)], is activated by Scr, Antennapedia (Antp), and Ultrabithorax (Ubx) but repressed by abdominal-A (abd-A). We also show that Scr and Exd are only able to activate the fkh[250] element during the early stages of embryogenesis because, by stage 11, Scr negatively regulates the gene homothorax (hth), which is required for the nuclear localization of Exd. These results suggest that Exd is a specificity cofactor for the trunk Hox genes, and that the control of Exd subcellular localization is a mechanism to regulate Hox activity during development.  (+info)

Structural organization and sequence of the homeotic gene Antennapedia of Drosophila melanogaster. (6/172)

The structure of the Drosophila melanogaster Antennapedia (Antp) gene has been investigated by the isolation and sequencing of different cDNAs and genomic clones. Northern analysis, S1 mapping and primer extension experiments reveal a complex and unusual gene structure. The gene is composed of two promoters, eight exons spanning >100 kb, and two termination processing regions. Four major polyadenylated transcripts were found, two of them starting at a second internal promoter in front of exon 3. All four transcripts have extremely long untranslated leader and trailer sequences in the range of 1-2 kb. Despite the complex transcriptional organization, the open reading frame is the same in all transcripts, and starts in exon 5 giving rise to a protein of mol. wt. 42 800. The putative protein is rich in glutamine (18%) and proline (10%). The homeobox, a region which previously has been shown to be highly conserved among homeotic genes, is contained in the open reading frame and located in the last exon. Functional implications of the complex structure with respect to development and its relation to the mutant phenotypes are discussed.  (+info)

A p21(Waf1/Cip1)carboxyl-terminal peptide exhibited cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity when introduced into human cells. (7/172)

In the present study, we report the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-inhibitory activity of a series of p21waf1/cip1 (p21) peptide fragments spanning the whole protein against the cyclin D1/Cdk4 and cyclin E/Cdk2 enzymes. The most potent p21 peptide tested in our initial peptide series, designated W10, spanned amino acids 139 to 164, a region of p21 that has been found independently to bind to proliferating cell nuclear antigen and also to inhibit Cdk activity. We go on to report the importance of putative beta-strand and 3(10)-helix motifs in the W10 peptide for cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitory activity. We also describe the cellular activity of W10 and derivatives that were chemically linked to an antennapedia peptide, the latter segment acting as a cell membrane carrier. We found that the W10AP peptide exhibited growth inhibition that resulted from necrosis in human lymphoma CA46 cells. Furthermore, regions in the W10 peptide responsible for Cdk-inhibition were also important for the degree of this cellular activity. These studies provide insights that may eventually, through further design, yield agents for the therapy of cancer.  (+info)

Regulation of epidermal bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAG1) synthesis by homeoprotein transcription factors. (8/172)

In a recent gene-trap screen, we identified the gene coding for Epidermal Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen 1 (BPAG1) as a putative transcriptional target of Engrailed and of other homeoproteins with a glutamine in position 50 of their homeodomain. We now show that the nuclear addressing of the homeodomains of Engrailed (EnHD) and Antennapedia (AntpHD) upregulates BPAG1e transcription in immortalized human keratinocytes (GMA24FIA) expressing En1. This upregulation is not observed with AntpHD-Q50A, a variant of AntpHD in which a single mutation abolishes its high-affinity binding to target DNA, thus strongly suggesting that BPAG1e upregulation homeodomains reflects their specific recognition of homeoprotein-binding sites in the BPAG1e locus. This is further confirmed by DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that reveal, within the cloned BPAG1e promoter, several sites of direct interaction with EnHD and Engrailed. Co-transfection experiments in GMA24FIA human keratinocytes, COS-7 simian fibroblasts, and CHP-100 human neuroepithelial cells show that Engrailed, Hoxa-5, and Hoxc-8 regulate BPAG1e promoter activity and that this regulation is context-dependent. Finally, using a mouse line with LacZ inserted within the En1 locus, we identify the keratinocytes of the ventral paws, including the epithelial cells of the eccrine tubules, as a strong site of En1 expression throughout adulthood. We therefore propose that BPAG1e, a 230 kDa keratin-binding protein expressed in keratinocytes and participating in the maintenance of hemidesmosomes at the dermis-epidermis border, is directly regulated by homeoprotein transcription factors.  (+info)

  • For example, the encoded protein represses the transcription of differentiation-specific genes during keratinocyte proliferation, but this repression is then overcome by differentiation signals. (
  • A 16 amino-acid peptide from the third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain protein has recently been shown to be able to act as an internalization vector that can deliver other peptides into cells. (
  • The phenomenon of protein transduction represents internalization of short peptides known as protein transduction domains (PTD) by cells. (
  • Peptides that consist of several cellular or viral proteins were recently determined able to readily penetrate cellular plasma membranes. (
  • Recently, effector proteins have been identified that autonomously translocate into host cells, representing a novel class of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) or effectors (CPEs). (
  • Protein transduction domain (PTD)-peptides greatly facilitate the delivery of high molecular weight macromolecules across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (
  • Engineering delivery systems for proteins and peptides into mammalian cells is an ongoing challenge for cell biological studies as well as for therapeutic approaches. (
  • Our data show that the PTC constitutes a powerful system to inject recombinant proteins, peptides, and potentially, other molecules into mammalian cells. (
  • We have investigated the cellular import of the third helix of the antennapedia homeodomain protein as an alternative method for introducing peptides into primary lymphocytes and lymphocytic cell lines. (
  • This review briefly summarizes the ever increasing evidence to the use of proteins such as monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), bispecific antibodies (BsAbs), Affibody molecules, albumin, transferrin and peptides such as stable microbial toxins and cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as innovative tumor targeting ligands in anticancer drug delivery systems. (
  • Among these carrier systems, proteins and peptides as targeting carriers in anticancer drug delivery holds great promise because of their selective binding affinity, tissue penetration capacity and internalizing capacity by cancer cells. (
  • In addition, recent advances in protein engineering, protein nanoparticle technology and the advances in combinatorial peptide library technology have made it possible to generate high-affinity proteins and peptides that may be used as ligands for the development of targeted anticancer strategies 8, 9 . (
  • Protein transduction exploits properties of specific protein sequences [termed protein transduction domains (PTDs)] that enhance the delivery of macromolecules - including peptides, proteins, and DNA fragments - into living cells [ 13 - 15 ]. (
  • When the peptides were presented to bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, they induce low immunoactivation relative to control cell penetrating peptides including the antennapedia homeodomain and TAT, as quantified by the expression of activation specific surface proteins like CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex class II. (
  • Three human peptides derived from surfactant protein B (a lung surfactant protein), orexin (a neuropeptide hormone, and lactoferricin (a globular glycoprotein) that exist in many physiological fluids facilitated the in vivo delivery of siRNA and induce significant knock down (90%) of a hepatocyte expressed protein, coagulation Factor VII. (
  • Peptides and proteins with photochemical sensors are valuable tools when analyzing biochemical processes and peptide properties. (
  • In this review, we provide an overview of up-to-date knowledge of intracellular delivery mechanisms of CPPs and introduce potential topical applications of CPPs such as transdermal, nasal and ocular delivery for non-invasive delivering the therapeutic proteins or peptides. (
  • It has been found that HIV-1 TAT and its core peptide segment TAT47-57 play an important role in promoting the cellular uptake of coupled bioactive macromolecules, such as peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides, and drug molecules. (
  • Recently, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs), a group of small amino acids sequences capable of penetrating into the plasma membrane, have been emerged as important tools for delivering molecular cargos such as nucleic acids, synthetic drugs, and therapeutic proteins to living cells. (
  • two of the missense mutations are especially interesting, Asn188Lys and Tyr191Cys, both occurring in the third helix, the "recognition" helix, of the NKX2.5 homeodomain. (
  • In contrast, the two other missense mutations, Thr178Met and Arg189Gly, should result in destabilization of the third helix of the homeodomain (1,2). (
  • The crystal structure is in agreement with the underlying NMR data, but our structure reveals a well-defined set of contacts and also reveals the locations and roles of water molecules at the protein-DNA interface. (
  • 15. Scott, M.P. (1985) Molecules and puzzles from the Antennapedia homoeotic gene complex of Drosophila. (
  • Using buried water molecules to explore the energy landscape of proteins. (
  • Unfortunately, the lack of an evident druggability of this protein, since it has no defined binding or active sites, makes the quest for VDAC interacting molecules a difficult tale. (
  • VDACs are the most abundant pore-forming proteins of the MOM and, differently from other structurally similar proteins such as Tom40 or Sam50, they serve as unspecific channels allowing the exchanges of molecules up to a molecular weight of 1,500 Da. (
  • Beyond the metabolic functions, the peculiar position of VDACs, at the interface between cytosol and mitochondria, makes porins the mitochondrial docking site for several cytosolic proteins, including molecules involved in the regulation of cell life and death. (
  • Human PDX-1 is a protein of 283 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 30.64 kDa. (
  • Recent work on fluorescent α-amino acids (FlAAs) proved extremely useful in studying protein folding, conformational changes and reactivity. (
  • A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. (
  • The in vitro -translated Wolbachia repressor protein was able to penetrate L . crescens cells, bind to " Ca . Liberibacter asiaticus" promoter DNA, and partially suppress holin promoter-driven β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity, indicating potential involvement of an additional interacting partner(s) or posttranslational modification(s) for complete suppression. (
  • We show that the ZPR proteins interact with REV in vitro and that ZPR3 prevents DNA binding by REV in vitro. (
  • Repressor Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • We have exploited this cytoplasmic recognition to report on replacement of the RxLR-EER of Avr3a with the equivalent sequences from the intracellular effectors ATR1NdWsB and ATR13 from the related oomycete pathogen, Hyaloperotiospora parasitica, and the host targeting signal from the Pl. falciparum virulence protein PfHRPII. (
  • Furthermore, there is an isoform of the Pax-6 protein (Pax-6 5a) that contains, in the middle of the recognition helix of the PAI domain, an 11-residue insertion that inactivates DNA binding to sequences normally bound by the Pax-6 PD ( 6 ). (
  • This novel arrangement raises important questions about cooperativity in protein-DNA recognition. (
  • Hydration and DNA recognition by homeodomains. (
  • Binds mutant p53 and restores the growth suppressor functions of p53 protein in human tumor cells. (
  • The present invention provides proteins capable of modulating or mediating the FAS receptor ligand or TNF effect on cells carrying FAS receptor or p55 receptor by binding or interacting with MORT-1 protein, which in turn binds to the intracellular domain of the FAS receptor or to another protein TRADD which binds to the p55 receptor. (
  • The homeodomain fold is a protein structural domain that binds DNA or RNA and is thus commonly found in transcription factors.The fold consists of a 60-amino acid helix-turn-helix structure in which three alpha helices are connected by short loop regions. (
  • Proteins containing a POU region consist of a homeodomain and a separate, structurally homologous POU domain that contains two helix-turn-helix motifs and also binds DNA. (
  • Insertion of exogenous ubiquitin into rat brain mitochondria in the presence of ATP and the ATPregenerating system (creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase) results in the increase in: sensitivity of mitochondrial monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B to inhibition by mechanism based inhibitor and incorporation of [ 3 H]-pargyline, which was especially notable in the fraction obtained by immunoprecipitation of mitochondrial proteins with anti-ubiquitin antiserum and protein A Sepharose. (
  • Insertion of ubiquitin into mitochondria did not influence molecular masses of [ 3 H]-pargyline labeled proteins. (
  • Shokolenko, I., M. Alexeyev, S. LeDoux, and G. Wilson, TAT-mediated protein transduction and targeted delivery of fusion proteins into mitochondria of breast cancer cells. (
  • Biochemical and animal model studies of inherited neurodegenerative diseases have revealed that mutant proteins of these diseases are associated with mitochondria. (
  • Mutant proteins are reported to block the transport of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins to mitochondria, interact with mitochondrial proteins and disrupt the electron transport chain, induce free radicals, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and, ultimately, damage neurons. (
  • The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. (
  • This study was performed to investigate the transduction of a full-length superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein fused to transactivator of transcription (Tat) into human chondrocytes, and to determine the regulatory function of transduced Tat-SOD in the inflammatory cytokine induced catabolic pathway. (
  • Cross-regulatory protein-protein interactions between Hox and Pax transcription factors. (
  • In this extensively revised second edition, the authors delve into the latest discoveries, incorporating new coverage of comparative genomics, molecular evolution of regulatory proteins and elements, and microevolution of animal development. (
  • Pax proteins, characterized by the presence of a paired domain, play key regulatory roles during development. (
  • The HD-ZIPIII/ZPR regulatory module would serve not only to dampen the effect of fluctuations in HD-ZIPIII protein levels but more importantly would provide a potential point of regulation (control over the ratio of inactive heterodimers to active homodimers) that could be influenced by other components of the pathway governing leaf polarity. (
  • Schmidt, M. Alexander 2017-02-01 00:00:00 Bacterial pathogens have developed intriguing virulence mechanisms, including several sophisticated nanomachines, for injecting effector proteins to manipulate host immune signaling pathways for their own benefit. (
  • The oomycete potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and the apicomplexan malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum translocate effector proteins inside host cells, presumably to the benefit of the pathogen or parasite. (
  • 1990 ) Molecular genetic manipulation of the red flour beetle: Genome organization and cloning of a ribosomal protein gene. (
  • However, endogenous PDX-1 is usually detected as a protein with molecular mass of 46 kDa, likely due to posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation and sumoylation. (
  • During my student years from 1957-1962, NMR spectroscopy was just being introduced as an analytical tool in chemistry, molecular biology was not yet established as an independent discipline, and the initial three-dimensional protein crystal structures were just emerging. (
  • 10. Scott, M.P., A.J. Weiner,T.I. Hazelrigg, B.A. Polisky, V. Pirrotta, F. Scalenghe, and T.C. Kaufman (1983) The molecular organization of the Antennapedia Locus of Drosophila. (
  • Three-dimensional structure of proteins determined by molecular dynamics with interproton distance restraints. (
  • des(1-6)antennapedia homeodomain: comparison of the NMR solution structure and the DNA-binding affinity with the intact Antennapedia homeodomain. (
  • The repressor was affinity captured from D. citri aqueous extracts using biotinylated holin promoter DNA immobilized on magnetic beads and subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein database interrogation was used to identify a small DNA-binding protein encoded by a gene carried by Wolbachia strain wDi, a resident endosymbiont of D. citri as the repressor. (
  • Mutations that change the affinity of a small autoactivation element for EXD protein result in corresponding changes in the element's embryonic activity. (
  • More specifically, the present invention concerns novel proteins which bind to the protein MORT-1 (or FADD), and more specifically, it relates to one such MORT-1 binding protein, herein designated MACH. (
  • Accordingly, the present invention concerns, in general, new proteins which are capable of modulating or mediating the function of MORT-1 or of other proteins which bind to MORT-1 directly or indirectly. (
  • Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. (
  • The K88R protein had greatly reduced binding to a TAATCC element and did not specifically bind any other TAATNN motif. (
  • Goswami, P. Alcohol oxidase protein mediated in situ synthesized and stabilized gold nanoparticles for developing amperometric alcohol biosensor. (
  • Furthermore, at least one portion of the protein has been extremely highly conserved - e.g ., only two of the 60 positions in the homeodomain differ between Nematostella (a sea anemone) and Branchiostoma (a chordate), two taxa that diverged over 600 million years ago. (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "T-Box Domain Proteins" by people in this website by year, and whether "T-Box Domain Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "T-Box Domain Proteins" by people in Profiles. (
  • The possibility that the two mutations Asn188Lys and Tyr191Cys alter the DNA binding of the otherwise structurally intact NKX2.5 protein has important implications. (
  • Therapeutic protein drugs are extensively successful in the treatment of several diseases including cancers, autoimmune, and infectious diseases. (
Viral Vector Mediation for Gene Therapy: An Immunological Overview - Journal of Young Investigators
Viral Vector Mediation for Gene Therapy: An Immunological Overview - Journal of Young Investigators (
CPP2-p16MIS treatment-induced colon carcinoma cell death in vitro and prolonged lifespan of tumor-bearing mice | Springer for...
CPP2-p16MIS treatment-induced colon carcinoma cell death in vitro and prolonged lifespan of tumor-bearing mice | Springer for... (
Mark Krasnow | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Mark Krasnow | Stanford Medicine Profiles (
P53 Activator, Cell-Permeable | 506131
P53 Activator, Cell-Permeable | 506131 (
Plus it
Plus it (
The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex | Development
The Tribolium homeotic gene Abdominal is homologous to abdominal-A of the Drosophila bithorax complex | Development (
Repressor Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Repressor Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst (
Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst
Inhibitor of Differentiation Proteins | Harvard Catalyst Profiles | Harvard Catalyst (
Winged-Helix Transcription Factors | Profiles RNS
Winged-Helix Transcription Factors | Profiles RNS (
Engineering Photorhabdus luminescens toxin complex (PTC) into a recombinant injection nanomachine | Life Science Alliance
Engineering Photorhabdus luminescens toxin complex (PTC) into a recombinant injection nanomachine | Life Science Alliance (
Penetratin H-7514 | Bachem
Penetratin H-7514 | Bachem (
Philippines Best And Free Online Dating Sites No Payment Required - Long Bảo Châu Hotel
Philippines Best And Free Online Dating Sites No Payment Required - Long Bảo Châu Hotel (
Cdx1 and Cdx2 have overlapping functions in anteroposterior patterning and posterior axis elongation | Development
Cdx1 and Cdx2 have overlapping functions in anteroposterior patterning and posterior axis elongation | Development (
PDX1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1)
PDX1 (pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1) (
A Small Wolbachia Protein Directly Represses Phage Lytic Cycle Genes in Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus within Psyllids |...
A Small Wolbachia Protein Directly Represses Phage Lytic Cycle Genes in "Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus" within Psyllids |... (
Homeodomain proteins: an update | SpringerLink
Homeodomain proteins: an update | SpringerLink (
DiVA - Search result
DiVA - Search result (
SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 1ahd.1
SWISS-MODEL Template Library | 1ahd.1 (