Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA.
Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL).
Genes that encode highly conserved TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that control positional identity of cells (BODY PATTERNING) and MORPHOGENESIS throughout development. Their sequences contain a 180 nucleotide sequence designated the homeobox, so called because mutations of these genes often results in homeotic transformations, in which one body structure replaces another. The proteins encoded by homeobox genes are called HOMEODOMAIN PROTEINS.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
A type of IN SITU HYBRIDIZATION in which target sequences are stained with fluorescent dye so their location and size can be determined using fluorescence microscopy. This staining is sufficiently distinct that the hybridization signal can be seen both in metaphase spreads and in interphase nuclei.
A phylum of primitive invertebrate animals that exemplify a simple body organization. Trichoplax adhaerens is considered a key species for early metazoan evolution.
Animals that have no spinal column.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.
A 36-amino acid pancreatic hormone that is secreted mainly by endocrine cells found at the periphery of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS and adjacent to cells containing SOMATOSTATIN and GLUCAGON. Pancreatic polypeptide (PP), when administered peripherally, can suppress gastric secretion, gastric emptying, pancreatic enzyme secretion, and appetite. A lack of pancreatic polypeptide (PP) has been associated with OBESITY in rats and mice.
Endocrine cells found throughout the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and in islets of the PANCREAS. D cells secrete SOMATOSTATIN that acts in both an endocrine and paracrine manner. Somatostatin acts on a variety of tissues including the PITUITARY GLAND; gastrointestinal tract; pancreas; and KIDNEY by inhibiting the release of hormones, such as GROWTH HORMONE; GASTRIN; INSULIN; and RENIN.
The inner of the three germ layers of an embryo.
The major component (about 80%) of the PANCREAS composed of acinar functional units of tubular and spherical cells. The acinar cells synthesize and secrete several digestive enzymes such as TRYPSINOGEN; LIPASE; AMYLASE; and RIBONUCLEASE. Secretion from the exocrine pancreas drains into the pancreatic ductal system and empties into the DUODENUM.
Glands of external secretion that release its secretions to the body's cavities, organs, or surface, through a duct.
A 14-amino acid peptide named for its ability to inhibit pituitary GROWTH HORMONE release, also called somatotropin release-inhibiting factor. It is expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, the gut, and other organs. SRIF can also inhibit the release of THYROID-STIMULATING HORMONE; PROLACTIN; INSULIN; and GLUCAGON besides acting as a neurotransmitter and neuromodulator. In a number of species including humans, there is an additional form of somatostatin, SRIF-28 with a 14-amino acid extension at the N-terminal.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Conditions which produce injury or dysfunction of the second cranial or optic nerve, which is generally considered a component of the central nervous system. Damage to optic nerve fibers may occur at or near their origin in the retina, at the optic disk, or in the nerve, optic chiasm, optic tract, or lateral geniculate nuclei. Clinical manifestations may include decreased visual acuity and contrast sensitivity, impaired color vision, and an afferent pupillary defect.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Filarial infection of the eyes transmitted from person to person by bites of Onchocerca volvulus-infected black flies. The microfilariae of Onchocerca are thus deposited beneath the skin. They migrate through various tissues including the eye. Those persons infected have impaired vision and up to 20% are blind. The incidence of eye lesions has been reported to be as high as 30% in Central America and parts of Africa.
Inflammation of the optic nerve. Commonly associated conditions include autoimmune disorders such as MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, infections, and granulomatous diseases. Clinical features include retro-orbital pain that is aggravated by eye movement, loss of color vision, and contrast sensitivity that may progress to severe visual loss, an afferent pupillary defect (Marcus-Gunn pupil), and in some instances optic disc hyperemia and swelling. Inflammation may occur in the portion of the nerve within the globe (neuropapillitis or anterior optic neuritis) or the portion behind the globe (retrobulbar neuritis or posterior optic neuritis).
Injuries to the optic nerve induced by a trauma to the face or head. These may occur with closed or penetrating injuries. Relatively minor compression of the superior aspect of orbit may also result in trauma to the optic nerve. Clinical manifestations may include visual loss, PAPILLEDEMA, and an afferent pupillary defect.
Diseases of the first cranial (olfactory) nerve, which usually feature anosmia or other alterations in the sense of smell and taste. Anosmia may be associated with NEOPLASMS; CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM INFECTIONS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; inherited conditions; toxins; METABOLIC DISEASES; tobacco abuse; and other conditions. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp229-31)
Diseases of the tenth cranial nerve, including brain stem lesions involving its nuclei (solitary, ambiguus, and dorsal motor), nerve fascicles, and intracranial and extracranial course. Clinical manifestations may include dysphagia, vocal cord weakness, and alterations of parasympathetic tone in the thorax and abdomen.

Insect evolution: Redesigning the fruitfly. (1/172)

Homeotic mutations in Drosophila can result in dramatic phenotypes that suggest the possibility for rapid morphological evolution, but dissection of the genetic pathway downstream of Ultrabithorax is beginning to reveal how wing morphology may have evolved by more gradual transformations.  (+info)

Potential variance affecting homeotic Ultrabithorax and Antennapedia phenotypes in Drosophila melanogaster. (2/172)

Introgression of homeotic mutations into wild-type genetic backgrounds results in a wide variety of phenotypes and implies that major effect modifiers of extreme phenotypes are not uncommon in natural populations of Drosophila. A composite interval mapping procedure was used to demonstrate that one major effect locus accounts for three-quarters of the variance for haltere to wing margin transformation in Ultrabithorax flies, yet has no obvious effect on wild-type development. Several other genetic backgrounds result in enlargement of the haltere significantly beyond the normal range of haploinsufficient phenotypes, suggesting genetic variation in cofactors that mediate homeotic protein function. Introgression of Antennapedia produces lines with heritable phenotypes ranging from almost complete suppression to perfect antennal leg formation, as well as transformations that are restricted to either the distal or proximal portion of the appendage. It is argued that the existence of "potential" variance, which is genetic variation whose effects are not observable in wild-type individuals, is a prerequisite for the uncoupling of genetic from phenotypic divergence.  (+info)

Bak BH3 peptides antagonize Bcl-xL function and induce apoptosis through cytochrome c-independent activation of caspases. (3/172)

The Bcl-2 homology 3 (BH3) domain is crucial for the death-inducing and dimerization properties of pro-apoptotic members of the Bcl-2 protein family, including Bak, Bax, and Bad. Here we report that synthetic peptides corresponding to the BH3 domain of Bak bind to Bcl-xL, antagonize its anti-apoptotic function, and rapidly induce apoptosis when delivered into intact cells via fusion to the Antennapedia homeoprotein internalization domain. Treatment of HeLa cells with the Antennapedia-BH3 fusion peptide resulted in peptide internalization and induction of apoptosis within 2-3 h, as indicated by caspase activation and subsequent poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase cleavage, as well as morphological characteristics of apoptosis. A point mutation within the BH3 peptide that blocks its ability to bind to Bcl-xL abolished its apoptotic activity, suggesting that interaction of the BH3 peptide with Bcl-2-related death suppressors, such as Bcl-xL, may be critical for its activity in cells. While overexpression of Bcl-xL can block BH3-induced apoptosis, treatment with BH3 peptides resensitized Bcl-xL-expressing cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis. BH3-induced apoptosis was blocked by caspase inhibitors, demonstrating a dependence on caspase activation, but was not accompanied by a dramatic early loss of mitochondrial membrane potential or detectable translocation of cytochrome c from mitochondria to cytosol. These findings demonstrate that the BH3 domain itself is capable of inducing apoptosis in whole cells, possibly by antagonizing the function of Bcl-2-related death suppressors.  (+info)

Activity regulation of Hox proteins, a mechanism for altering functional specificity in development and evolution. (4/172)

The closely related Hox transcription factors Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and Antennapedia (Antp) respectively direct first abdominal (A1) and second thoracic (T2) segment identities in Drosophila. It has been proposed that their functional differences derive from their differential occupancy of DNA target sites. Here we show that a hybrid version of Ubx (Ubx-VP16), which possesses an enhanced transcriptional activation function, no longer directs A1 denticle pattern in embryonic epidermal cells. Instead, it mimics Antp in directing T2 denticle pattern, and it can rescue the cuticular loss-of-function phenotype of Antp mutants. In cells that do not produce denticles, Ubx-VP16 appears to have largely retained its normal repressive regulatory functions. These results suggest that the modulation of Hox activation and repression functions can account for segment-specific morphological differences that are controlled by different members of the Hox family. Our results also are consistent with the idea that activity regulation underlies the phenotypic suppression phenomenon in which a more posterior Hox protein suppresses the function of a more anterior member of the Hox cluster. The acquisition of novel activation and repression potentials in Hox proteins may be an important mechanism underlying the generation of subtle morphological differences during evolution.  (+info)

The control of trunk Hox specificity and activity by Extradenticle. (5/172)

We characterize a 37-bp element (fkh[250]) derived from the fork head (fkh) gene, a natural target of the Hox gene Sex combs reduced (Scr). In vitro, Scr cooperatively binds to this DNA with the Hox cofactor Extradenticle (Exd), and the activation of this enhancer in vivo requires Scr and exd. Other Hox/Exd heterodimers do not activate this element in vivo and do not bind this element with high affinity in vitro. The amino-terminal arm of the Scr homeodomain is crucial for the specific activation of this element in vivo. By mutating two base pairs within this element, we can convert the Scr/Exd-binding site to a Hox/Exd consensus site that binds several different Hox/Exd heterodimers. This element, fkh[250(con)], is activated by Scr, Antennapedia (Antp), and Ultrabithorax (Ubx) but repressed by abdominal-A (abd-A). We also show that Scr and Exd are only able to activate the fkh[250] element during the early stages of embryogenesis because, by stage 11, Scr negatively regulates the gene homothorax (hth), which is required for the nuclear localization of Exd. These results suggest that Exd is a specificity cofactor for the trunk Hox genes, and that the control of Exd subcellular localization is a mechanism to regulate Hox activity during development.  (+info)

Structural organization and sequence of the homeotic gene Antennapedia of Drosophila melanogaster. (6/172)

The structure of the Drosophila melanogaster Antennapedia (Antp) gene has been investigated by the isolation and sequencing of different cDNAs and genomic clones. Northern analysis, S1 mapping and primer extension experiments reveal a complex and unusual gene structure. The gene is composed of two promoters, eight exons spanning >100 kb, and two termination processing regions. Four major polyadenylated transcripts were found, two of them starting at a second internal promoter in front of exon 3. All four transcripts have extremely long untranslated leader and trailer sequences in the range of 1-2 kb. Despite the complex transcriptional organization, the open reading frame is the same in all transcripts, and starts in exon 5 giving rise to a protein of mol. wt. 42 800. The putative protein is rich in glutamine (18%) and proline (10%). The homeobox, a region which previously has been shown to be highly conserved among homeotic genes, is contained in the open reading frame and located in the last exon. Functional implications of the complex structure with respect to development and its relation to the mutant phenotypes are discussed.  (+info)

A p21(Waf1/Cip1)carboxyl-terminal peptide exhibited cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitory activity and cytotoxicity when introduced into human cells. (7/172)

In the present study, we report the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-inhibitory activity of a series of p21waf1/cip1 (p21) peptide fragments spanning the whole protein against the cyclin D1/Cdk4 and cyclin E/Cdk2 enzymes. The most potent p21 peptide tested in our initial peptide series, designated W10, spanned amino acids 139 to 164, a region of p21 that has been found independently to bind to proliferating cell nuclear antigen and also to inhibit Cdk activity. We go on to report the importance of putative beta-strand and 3(10)-helix motifs in the W10 peptide for cyclin-dependent kinase-inhibitory activity. We also describe the cellular activity of W10 and derivatives that were chemically linked to an antennapedia peptide, the latter segment acting as a cell membrane carrier. We found that the W10AP peptide exhibited growth inhibition that resulted from necrosis in human lymphoma CA46 cells. Furthermore, regions in the W10 peptide responsible for Cdk-inhibition were also important for the degree of this cellular activity. These studies provide insights that may eventually, through further design, yield agents for the therapy of cancer.  (+info)

Regulation of epidermal bullous pemphigoid antigen 1 (BPAG1) synthesis by homeoprotein transcription factors. (8/172)

In a recent gene-trap screen, we identified the gene coding for Epidermal Bullous Pemphigoid Antigen 1 (BPAG1) as a putative transcriptional target of Engrailed and of other homeoproteins with a glutamine in position 50 of their homeodomain. We now show that the nuclear addressing of the homeodomains of Engrailed (EnHD) and Antennapedia (AntpHD) upregulates BPAG1e transcription in immortalized human keratinocytes (GMA24FIA) expressing En1. This upregulation is not observed with AntpHD-Q50A, a variant of AntpHD in which a single mutation abolishes its high-affinity binding to target DNA, thus strongly suggesting that BPAG1e upregulation homeodomains reflects their specific recognition of homeoprotein-binding sites in the BPAG1e locus. This is further confirmed by DNase I footprinting and electrophoretic mobility shift assays that reveal, within the cloned BPAG1e promoter, several sites of direct interaction with EnHD and Engrailed. Co-transfection experiments in GMA24FIA human keratinocytes, COS-7 simian fibroblasts, and CHP-100 human neuroepithelial cells show that Engrailed, Hoxa-5, and Hoxc-8 regulate BPAG1e promoter activity and that this regulation is context-dependent. Finally, using a mouse line with LacZ inserted within the En1 locus, we identify the keratinocytes of the ventral paws, including the epithelial cells of the eccrine tubules, as a strong site of En1 expression throughout adulthood. We therefore propose that BPAG1e, a 230 kDa keratin-binding protein expressed in keratinocytes and participating in the maintenance of hemidesmosomes at the dermis-epidermis border, is directly regulated by homeoprotein transcription factors.  (+info)

Drosophila Antennapedia Homeo-Domain (43-58) - Calbiochem The membrane translocation signal sequence from Drosophila Antennapedia homeo-domain (43-58) that is reported to act as an inhibitor of protein kinase G Iα (Ki = 970 nM). - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
The Antennapedia (Antp) homeotic gene of Drosophila melanogaster controls cell fates and pattern formation in the epidermis, nervous system and mesoderm of thoracic segments. Its expression is controlled at the levels of transcription, alternative RNA splicing, polyadenylation and translation. Two nested Antp transcription units extend over 103 kb and produce sixteen different transcripts. We have compared the Antp genes of Drosophila virilis, Drosophila subobscura and D. melanogaster to determine which structural features are conserved and therefore may be important to the genes function. The overall gene structures are similar. There are many conserved sequence blocks throughout the large introns, at least 15 kb upstream of the first promoter, and at least 3 kb downstream of the last polyadenylation site. Intron and exon sequence conservation around alternative splice sites indicates that alternative protein coding forms may also be conserved. Protein coding potential is perfectly conserved ...
The trithorax (trx) gene is required for normal development of the body plan in Drosophila embryos and adults. Mutations in trx cause homeotic transformations throughout the body. Genetic studies suggest that trx encodes a positive regulatory factor required throughout development for normal expression of multiple homeotic genes of the bithorax and Antennapedia complexes (BX-C and ANT-C). To determine how trx influences homeotic gene expression, we examined the expression of the BX-C genes Ultrabithorax, abdominal-A, Abdominal-B and the ANT-C genes Antennapedia, Sex combs reduced and Deformed in trx embryos. We show that trx does indeed exert its effects by positively regulating homeotic gene expression and that its effects on expression of individual homeotic genes are complex: each of the BX-C and ANT-C genes examined exhibits different tissue-specific, parasegment-specific and promoter-specific reductions in their expression. This implies that each of these genes have different requirements ...
Mutations in Drosophila homeotic genes lead to the developmental replacement of one normal body part by another. We have examined the mechanism by which a dominant allele of the Antennapedia (Antp) gene causes the antennae to be replaced by legs. Normal Antp gene activity is required for thoracic bu …
Drosophila homeodomain proteins bind to specific DNA sequences in vitro and are hypothesized to regulate the transcription of other genes during development. Using a cotransfection assay, we have shown that homeodomain proteins encoded by the homeotic gene Antennapedia (Antp) and the segmentation ge …
1HOM: Determination of the three-dimensional structure of the Antennapedia homeodomain from Drosophila in solution by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Sequence-specific transcription factor which is part of a developmental regulatory system that regulates segmental identity in the mesothorax. Provides cells with specific positional identities on the anterior-posterior axis (By similarity).
The ANTP class is the largest of the homeobox gene classes in animal genomes. Thus far, these genes have only been found in animals. The ANTP class derives its name from (but is not an abbreviation for) the Antennapedia (Antp) gene of Drosophila. Although the best known ANTP class genes are the Hox genes, these comprise a minority of ANTP class genes. The human and mouse genomes each have 39 HOX genes, amongst a total of 100 ANTP genes (Holland et al. 2007; Zhong and Holland, 2011); there are also 19 ANTP pseudogenes described in the human genome and 2 in mouse. The amphioxus genome has 60 ANTP genes including 15 Hox genes (Takatori et al. 2008); Drosophila melanogaster has 47 ANTP class genes ...
The ANTP class is the largest of the homeobox gene classes in animal genomes. Thus far, these genes have only been found in animals. The ANTP class derives its name from (but is not an abbreviation for) the Antennapedia (Antp) gene of Drosophila. Although the best known ANTP class genes are the Hox genes, these comprise a minority of ANTP class genes. The human and mouse genomes each have 39 HOX genes, amongst a total of 100 ANTP genes (Holland et al. 2007; Zhong and Holland, 2011); there are also 19 ANTP pseudogenes described in the human genome and 2 in mouse. The amphioxus genome has 60 ANTP genes including 15 Hox genes (Takatori et al. 2008); Drosophila melanogaster has 47 ANTP class genes ...
1FTZ: Nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of the fushi tarazu homeodomain from Drosophila and comparison with the Antennapedia homeodomain.
Although Hox proteins have fundamental roles in development, researchers have long been puzzled by what creates their binding specificity. Now, Walter Gehring and co-workers add a piece to that puzzle (see p. 1669). The Hox DNA-binding homeodomain has low sequence specificity, and co-factors are thought to contribute to this specificity by binding to a conserved YPWM motif (found in most Hox proteins). Gehrings lab previously demonstrated that ectopic expression of the Drosophila Hox gene Antennapedia (Antp) causes cells of the eye to adopt the developmental fate of the wing. Now they show that YPWM is required for this eye-to-wing transformation and, using a yeast two-hybrid system, have identified a YPWM-binding protein called BIP2. Using gain-of-function experiments and a new bip2 mutant allele, the authors show that the ANTP-BIP2 interaction is required for the ectopic formation of wing structures. BIP2 is a TATA-binding protein associated factor (TAF), making this the first demonstration ...
Generally, all bilaterans examined have similar conservation of HOX protein structure, function, expression, and requirement. However, at the level of being the same, it is unknown whether the HOX protein, Antennapedia, is required for tarsus determination in Drosophila melanogaster as in Tribolium casteneum, or whether the requirement of HOX proteins in determination of body parts diverges in insects. I proposed to use a heat shock-inducible nanobody (UAS- NSlmb-vhhGFP4 driven by hsp-GAL4) activated during the third larval stage in all cells to degrade thoracically expressed HOX proteins (Sex combs reduced, Antennapedia, and Ultrabithorax) tagged with green fluorescence protein (GFP) derivatives; GFP, YFP, CFP, or 17 amino acid epitope of GFP. Due to difficulties in establishing CRISPR mediated homologous recombination, only the initial steps have been completed, but the system is now established to determine whether HOX requirement for tarsus determination is conserved in insects.
Homeobox protein Hox-A7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXA7 gene.[1][2][3] In vertebrates, the genes encoding the class of transcription factors called homeobox genes are found in clusters named A, B, C, and D on four separate chromosomes. Expression of these proteins is spatially and temporally regulated during embryonic development. This gene is part of the A cluster on chromosome 7 and encodes a DNA-binding transcription factor which may regulate gene expression, morphogenesis, and differentiation. For example, the encoded protein represses the transcription of differentiation-specific genes during keratinocyte proliferation, but this repression is then overcome by differentiation signals. This gene is highly similar to the antennapedia (Antp) gene of Drosophila.[3] ...
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
improved in situ hybridization method for the detection of cellular RNAs in Drosophila tissue sections and its application for localizing transcripts of the homeotic Antennapedia gene complex., An ...
Embryonic, larval, and pupal Antp RNA products of 3.5 and 5kb can be detected. Antennapedia is transcribed from two promoters (P1 and P2) but at least it was not clear in the past whether the protein is produced from P2 transcript (Laughon et al., (1986)). GI:156946 was not studied by IRESite curator in detail yet. The transcript from the P1 promoter has 1512nt long 5-UTR derived from non-coding exons A (55nt), B(88nt), D(252nt), E (621 out of 777nt are coding) and from coding exons F(39nt), G(226nt), H(819nt; note the difference to the H exon of P2 variant below). P1 transcripts are of 3.4 and 4.9kb and appear slightly later than the exon C transcripts (from promoter P2). The 4.9-kb RNA is more abundant than the 3.4-kb species in embryos. Antp transcripts are also found in third-instar larvae and in pupae at about 1/10 of the embryonic levels (Laughon et al., (1986) Fig. 2A). [Laughon et al., (1986)] P1 related GenBank records: complete P1 mRNA record GI:156948, 4694nt long, CDS[1526-2662] DNA ...
Discover the best homework help resource for ANTP at University of Akron. Find ANTP study guides, notes, and practice tests for The University Of Akron.
FF domains are found singly or in multiple copies but the number of FF domains in protein sequences ranges, in general, between two and six [1,2,3,4,5,6]. The FF domain is composed of three α-helices arranged in an orthogonal bundle with a 3(10) helix in the loop between the second and third α helices (see ,PDB:1H40,). The two highly conserved phenylalanine residues are in the middle of the first and third α helices, and form part of the hydrophobic core of the protein [3,4,5,6.]. The profile we developed covers the entire FF domain. Last update: June 2013 / First entry. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spatially regulated expression of homeotic genes in Drosophila. AU - Harding, Katherine. AU - Wedeen, Cathy. AU - McGinnis, William. AU - Levine, Michael. PY - 1985/1/1. Y1 - 1985/1/1. N2 - The sites of transcript accumulation for six different homeotic loci of the Antennapedia and bithorax gene complexes (ANT-C and BX-C) were identified within embryo tissue sections by in situ hybridization. These six loci belong to the Antennapedia class of the homeo box gene family. Transcripts encoded by each locus are detected primarily in discrete, nonoverlapping regions of the embryonic central nervous system (CNS). The regions of the CNS that contain transcripts encoded by each of these loci correspond to the embryonic segments that are disrupted in mutants for these genes. The maintenance of spatially restricted expression of each ANT-C and BX-C locus could involve hierarchical, cross-regulatory interactions that are mediated by the homeo box protein domains encoded by these ...
Protein transduction domains (PTDs), both naturally occurring and synthetic, have been extensively utilized for intracellular delivery of biologically active molecules both in vitro and in vivo. However, most comparisons of transduction efficiency have been performed using fluorescent markers. To compare efficiency of functional protein transduction, a peptide derived from IkB kinase ß (IKKß) that prevents formation of an active IKK complex was used as a biologically active cargo. This peptide, termed NEMO Binding Domain (NBD), is able to block activation of the transcriptional factor NF-κB by IKK, but not basal NF-κB activity. Our results demonstrate that Antp and Tat PTDs were most effective for delivery of NBD for inhibition of NF-kB activation compared to other PTD-NBD in both Hela and 293 cells, however, at higher concentrations (100 µM), the Antp-NBD as well as the FGF-NBD peptide caused significant cellular toxicity. In contrast to the cell culture results, delivery of NBD using 8K
Homeotic genes in Drosophila such as Ultrabithorax (Ubx) and Antennapedia (Antp) select and maintain the identity of specific body segments during development,...
There are things to be said about both ways of working. For one, if you leave the type selector off it will decrease the length of your selector which improves the readability of your css file, especially when many selectors are stringed together. Less scrolling sideways is a good thing. On the other hand, adding the type selector does give you extra information on the class and might make it easier to recognize elements as you got the html element to help you out. A more important argument popped up when I was revising our deliverables (our company only does front-end, so we deliver templates to be implemented by partners). Adding the type selector locks the css to the html code. By doing this, you create an extra checkpoint for people to implement the templates you deliver. If, for example, they used an ...
HOXD1 is a protein with a homeobox DNA-binding domain, and it belongs to the Antp homeobox family. This nuclear protein functions as a…
Container and custom selector tests to come later. Log: Unit tests for core selectors, along with some minor bug fixes for problems discovered when writing the tests ...
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Homeobox genes of the ANTP and PRD classes play important roles in body patterning of metazoans, and a large diversity of these genes have been described in bilaterian animals and cnidarians. Trichoplax adhaerens (Phylum Placozoa) is a small multicellular marine animal with one of the simplest body organizations of all metazoans, showing no symmetry and a small number of distinct cell types. Only two ANTP class genes have been described from Trichoplax: the Hox/ParaHox gene Trox-2 and a gene related to the Not family. Here we report an extensive screen for ANTP class genes in Trichoplax, leading to isolation of three additional ANTP class genes. These can be assigned to the Dlx, Mnx and Hmx gene families. Sequencing approximately 12-20 kb around each gene indicates that none are part of tight gene clusters, and in situ hybridization reveals that at least two have spatially restricted expression around the periphery of the animal. The low diversity of ANTP class genes isolated in Trichoplax can be
TY - JOUR. T1 - Structure-activity relationship of truncated and substituted analogues of the intracellular delivery vector Penetratin. AU - Fischer, Peter M.. AU - Zhelev, N. Z.. AU - Wang, S.. AU - Melville, J. E.. AU - Fåhraeus, R.. AU - Lane, D. P.. PY - 2000/2. Y1 - 2000/2. N2 - Peptides derived from the third α-helix of the homeodomain (residues 43-58; Penetratin) of Antennapedia, a Drosophila homeoprotein, were prepared by simultaneous multiple synthesis. Sets of N- and C-terminally truncated peptides, as well as a series of alanine substitution analogues, were studied. Cell penetration assays using human cell cultures with these peptides revealed that the C-terminal segment 52Arg-Arg-Met-Lys-Trp-Lys- Lys58 of the parent sequence was necessary and sufficient for efficient cell membrane translocation. Individual Ala substitutions of the peptides basic residues led to markedly decreased cell internalization ability, whereas replacement of hydrophobic residues was tolerated surprisingly ...
First, the model proposes EXD as a required co‐activator for most HOX target elements. All known elements activated in response to HOX proteins also require exd function (Chan et al., 1994, 1996; Rauskolb and Wieschaus, 1994; Popperl et al., 1995; Sun et al., 1995). Based on the phenotypes of exdmz− mutants and of clones of exd mutant cells in adult cuticular structures (Peifer and Wieschaus, 1990; Gonzalez‐Crespo and Morata, 1995; Rauskolb et al., 1995), it seems likely that a great many other HOX target elements also require exd for their activation. The only HOX protein that appears to have some exd‐independent activation function is ABD‐B (Peifer and Wieschaus, 1990). This correlates with the absence of a YPWM motif just upstream of the ABD‐B homeodomain sequence. The YPWM or hexapeptide motif is required for the formation of HOX-EXD or HOX-PBX cooperative binding complexes (Chang et al., 1995; Johnson et al., 1995; Knoepfler and Kamps, 1995; Neuteboom et al., 1995; Phelan et ...
The absence of Antp+ function during embryogenesis results in the larval mesothorax exhibiting characteristics of the prothorax and an ensuing lethality; the loss of Antp+ function in the development of the adult thorax causes specific portions of the leg, wing and humeral imaginal discs to develop abnormally. Every Antp mutation, however, does not cause all of these developmental defects. Certain mutant alleles disrupt humeral and wing disc development without affecting leg development, and they are not deficient for the wild-type function required during embryogenesis. Other Antp mutations result in abnormal legs, but do not alter dorsal thoracic development. Mutations of each type can complement to produce a normal adult fly, which suggests that there are at least two discrete functional units within the locus (Abbott, 1986). Ectopic expression of homeotic genes, Dfd, Scr and Antp, results in the disruption of the developing PNS in the abdomen. Thus homeotic genes have specific roles in ...
The data structures we currently use to represent CSS selectors use a lot of memory because: * we store them in lots of separate allocations, with pointers connecting them * the base nsCSSSelector class has a member variable for each thing it *might* have As I proposed in bug 691189 comment 6 and elsewhere in the past, we should consider, without reference to the current code, how one ought to implement a space-efficient representation of CSS selectors such that the things we need to do with them are still fast (and hopefully faster). My initial inclination would be to have a fused-allocation structure with parts of the fused allocation indicating whats coming next, and perhaps a few things that make it easy to skip around (in particular, the size of each compound selector (in selectors4 terminology) / sequence of simple selectors (in css3-selectors terminology) / simple selector (in CSS1/CSS2.1 terminology)). This would be somewhat like nsCSSCompressedDataBlock, particularly back when data ...
attribute of HTML elements in documents that are in quirks mode must be treated as ASCII case-insensitive for the purposes of selector matching.. Attribute and element names of HTML elements in HTML documents must be treated as ASCII case-insensitive for the purposes of selector matching.. Everything else (attribute values on HTML elements, IDs and classes in no-quirks mode and limited-quirks mode, and element names, attribute names, and attribute values in XML documents) must be treated as case-sensitive for the purposes of selector matching.. ...
SpecialChem Selector is the universal selection source for bio-based products and materials. You can contact SpecialChem to get your bio-based products and materials listed on the Selector.
SpecialChem Selector is the universal selection source for bio-based products and materials. You can contact SpecialChem to get your bio-based products and materials listed on the Selector.
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Now shooters can quickly transition from rapid fire to ultra-precise long range shot placement with the simple switch of the 3-mode selector.
Solved: How to change the populate text of web page selector as the input field get changed as page get reloaded. Help out with any handling method
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I am working through chapter 15 of The Big Nerd Ranch iOS Book 3rd edition, which deals with subclassing table view cells. After creating a custom...
Overloaded. Groups the elements of a sequence according to a specified key selector function and creates a result value from each group and its key. Key values are compared by using a specified comparer, and the elements of each group are projected by using a specified function.(Defined by Enumerable.) ...
當美國著名流行歌手克莉絲汀·阿奎萊拉把同性戀維多利亞女王的原畫,連同另外兩幅Banksy畫作以25,000鎊購入之後[25],Banksy的藝術作品拍賣紀錄於2006年10月19日創出新高,那是一套六張超級名模姬·摩絲的絲紡畫像,風格類近於安迪·華荷操刀的瑪麗蓮·夢露肖像;它在倫敦的蘇富比拍賣會上以50,400鎊的價碼銷出,成交價較拍賣的底價足足高出了五倍。然後在同一個拍賣會上,Banksy一幀綠中掛紅的《蒙羅麗莎》變調之作又以57,600鎊被有心人投得[26]。在12月,倫敦CNN國際新聞網絡的專欄作家马克斯·福斯特(英语:Max Foster)開始稱這股旋風為「Banksy效應」,來形容在他個人的成功背後,以往總是寂寂無聞的一眾街頭藝術家也終於漸漸引起社會上廣泛的注目[27]。 2007年2月21日,倫敦蘇富比拍賣行再次刷新Banksy作品的最高售出單價:價值102,000鎊的《Bombing Middle ...
We all now recognize that 2016 was a highly unusual year. Political events that we are witnessing today seemed simply impossible 12 months ago.
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"Lymphoid expression and TATAA binding of a human protein containing an Antennapedia homeodomain". Blood. 78 (4): 1047-1055. doi ... Homeobox protein Hox-B7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXB7 gene. This gene is a member of the Antp homeobox ... "CBP and histone deacetylase inhibition enhance the transactivation potential of the HOXB7 homeodomain-containing protein". ... "Pbx proteins display hexapeptide-dependent cooperative DNA binding with a subset of Hox proteins". Genes Dev. 9 (6): 663-674. ...
... +Homeodomain+Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Antennapedia ... Antennapedia (abbreviated Antp) is a Hox gene first discovered in Drosophila which controls the formation of legs during ... It is suggested that Antennapedia arose from Evx, a non-Hox family of genes. This duplication event of Evx into the Antp-class ... "Divergent role of the Hox gene Antennapedia in spiders is responsible for the convergent evolution of abdominal limb repression ...
... the resulting protein will recognize Antennapedia-binding enhancer sites. However, all homeodomain-containing transcription ... The ability of Hox proteins to bind DNA is conferred by a part of the protein referred to as the homeodomain. The homeodomain ... Both the regulatory protein and the morphogenic protein are involved in the development of the tail segment. Proteins with a ... The products of Hox genes are Hox proteins. Hox proteins are a subset of transcription factors, which are proteins that are ...
Homeodomain proteins are considered to be master control genes, meaning that a single protein can regulate expression of many ... Walter Gehring identified a gene called antennapedia that caused this homeotic phenotype. Analysis of antennapedia revealed ... Homeobox genes encode homeodomain protein products that are transcription factors sharing a characteristic protein fold ... The LIM domains function in protein-protein interactions and can bind zinc molecules. LIM domain proteins are found in both the ...
"Cell internalization of the third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain is receptor-independent". The Journal of Biological ... The size range of proteins with effective delivery is from 30kDa to 120-150kDa. In one study, TAT-fused proteins are rapidly ... Several groups have successfully delivered CPP fused proteins in vitro. TAT was able to deliver different proteins, such as ... and denaturation of proteins before delivery. In one study, a short amphipathic peptide carrier, Pep-1, and protein complexes ...
"Cell Internalization of the Third Helix of the Antennapedia Homeodomain is Receptor-independent". Journal of Biological ... CPP mediated delivery of proteins[edit]. The development of therapeutic proteins that has presented a valuable method to treat ... Several groups have successfully delivered CPP fused proteins in vitro. TAT was able to deliver different proteins, such as ... The size range of proteins with effective delivery is from 30kDa to 120-150kDa. In one study, TAT-fused proteins are rapidly ...
A homeobox gene is a transcription factor in which a region known as a homeodomain binds to a target gene promoter and controls ... Proboscipedia (pb) is a protein coding gene in Drosophila melanogaster, the fruit fly. This hox gene participates in the ... Proboscipedia belongs to the Antennapedia (Antp) homeobox family and the Proboscipedia subfamily. ...
Stamataki D, Kastrinaki M, Mankoo BS, Pachnis V, Karagogeos D (2001). "Homeodomain proteins Mox1 and Mox2 associate with Pax1 ... This gene encodes a member of a subfamily of non-clustered, diverged, antennapedia-like homeobox-containing genes. The encoded ... Homeobox protein MOX-2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the MEOX2 gene. ... "Homeodomain proteins Mox1 and Mox2 associate with Pax1 and Pax3 transcription factors". FEBS Lett. 499 (3): 274-8. doi:10.1016/ ...
All homeotic genes share a segment of protein with a similar sequence and structure called the homeodomain (the DNA sequence is ... The Antennapedia complex and the bithorax complex on the third chromosome contain the major homeotic genes required for ... These proteins are known to be ligands for the Notch protein. GLP-1, a Notch protein, is also required for specification of the ... mom-2 is a member of the Wnt family of proteins (i.e. the signal) and mom-5 is a member of the frizzled family of proteins (i.e ...
Thus, the 60 amino acid DNA binding protein domain was named the homeodomain, while the 180 bp nucleotide sequence encoding it ... Another well-known example is Antennapedia: a gain-of-function allele causes legs to develop in the place of antennae. In ... The homeotic-function of certain proteins was first postulated to be that of a "selector" as proposed by Antonio Garcia-Bellido ... By definition selectors were imagined to be (transcription factor) proteins that stably determined one of two possible cell ...
Drosophila subobscura Homeotic protein antennapedia) at the PDBe-KB. This article incorporates text from the United States ... "Phylogenetically conserved CK-II phosphorylation site of the murine homeodomain protein Hoxb-6". The Journal of Experimental ... Homeobox protein Hox-B6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXB6 gene. This gene is a member of the Antp homeobox ... "Pbx proteins display hexapeptide-dependent cooperative DNA binding with a subset of Hox proteins". Genes & Development. 9 (6): ...
... belongs to the family of proteins that contains homeodomain. Homeodomain is a stretch of 32 specific amino acids in ... Fraenkel E, Pabo CO (August 1998). "Comparison of X-ray and NMR structures for the Antennapedia homeodomain-DNA complex". ... Homeobox protein NOBOX, also known as newborn ovary homeobox protein, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the NOBOX gene ... Qin Y, Shi Y, Zhao Y, Carson SA, Simpson JL, Chen ZJ (April 2009). "Mutation analysis of NOBOX homeodomain in Chinese women ...
Homeodomain proteins are transcription factors that share a DNA-binding domain called the homeodomain. Changes in the ... For example, the lab gene is found in the 3' position in the Antennapedia complex, and is expressed in the most anterior head ... They encode homeodomain proteins which interact with Hox and other homeotic genes to initiate segment-specific gene regulation ... The proteins do not bind directly to the DNA, rather, they interact with other regulatory proteins which are already bound to ...
The Nanos protein is a translational repressor protein. Bicoid has a DNA-binding homeodomain that binds both DNA and the nanos ... The Antennapedia group of homeotic selector genes includes labial, antennapedia, sex combs reduced, deformed, and proboscipedia ... Nanos protein forms a gradient at the posterior end. The Bicoid protein blocks translation of caudal mRNA so Caudal protein is ... and Caudal proteins is in the transcriptional regulation of other zygotically expressed proteins. Many of these are the protein ...
Cell internalization of the third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain is receptor-independent. Archived 2008-04-25 at the ... His team then demonstrated the involvement of Engrailed-1/2 proteins in the development and survival of dopaminergic neurons by ... par Joliot A, Pernelle C, Deagostini-Bazin H, Prochiantz A. dans PNAS 1991 Mar 1;88(5):1864-8. Antennapedia homeobox peptide ... par Denis-Donini S, Glowinski J, Prochiantz A. dans Nature du 16 février 1984;307(5952):641-3. Antennapedia homeobox peptide ...
Derossi D, Joliot AH, Chassaing G, Prochiantz A (April 1994). "The third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain translocates ... These proteins bind to the extracellular domains of transmembrane receptor proteins, which use an elaborate process of signal ... The type I receptors activate Smad proteins that in turn act as transcription factors that regulate gene transcription. Sonic ... However, most morphogens are secreted proteins that signal between cells. A morphogen spreads from a localized source and forms ...
... consists of the region from T735 to E745 of the IKK-β subunit fused with a sequence derived from the Antennapedia homeodomain ... IKBKG+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) GeneReviews/NIH/NCBI/UW entry on ... Xiao G, Sun SC (October 2000). "Activation of IKKalpha and IKKbeta through their fusion with HTLV-I tax protein". Oncogene. 19 ... Prajapati S, Verma U, Yamamoto Y, Kwak YT, Gaynor RB (January 2004). "Protein phosphatase 2Cbeta association with the IkappaB ...
Drosophila melanogaster Homeotic protein antennapedia) at the PDBe-KB. This article incorporates text from the United States ... "Cooperative DNA binding of the highly conserved human Hox 2.1 homeodomain gene product". The New Biologist. 4 (5): 558-68. PMID ... Homeobox protein Hox-B5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXB5 gene. This gene is a member of the Antp homeobox ... HOXB5+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Overview of all the structural ...
3.1) Homeodomain. Antennapedia. ANTP class. protoHOX. Hox-like. *ParaHox *Gsx *1. *2 ... High-mobility group protein HMG-I/HMG-Y is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HMGA1 gene.[5][6] ... "Functional interaction between the POU domain protein Tst-1/Oct-6 and the high-mobility-group protein HMG-I/Y". Molecular and ... HMGA1 proteins are quite small (~10-12 kDa) and basic molecules, and consist of three AT-hooks with the RGRP (Arg-Gly-Arg-Pro) ...
Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and ... Description of Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein. Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein: Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a ... Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein: Related Topics. These medical condition or symptom topics may be relevant to medical ... information for Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein: *Homeodomain *Protein Interesting Medical Articles:. *Symptoms of the Silent ...
"Lymphoid expression and TATAA binding of a human protein containing an Antennapedia homeodomain". Blood. 78 (4): 1047-1055. doi ... Homeobox protein Hox-B7 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the HOXB7 gene. This gene is a member of the Antp homeobox ... "CBP and histone deacetylase inhibition enhance the transactivation potential of the HOXB7 homeodomain-containing protein". ... "Pbx proteins display hexapeptide-dependent cooperative DNA binding with a subset of Hox proteins". Genes Dev. 9 (6): 663-674. ...
... our structure reveals a well-defined set of contacts and also reveals the locations and roles of water molecules at the protein ... Comparison of X-ray and NMR structures for the Antennapedia homeodomain-DNA complex.. Fraenkel, E., Pabo, C.O.. (1998) Nat ... We have crystallized the Antennapedia homeodomain-DNA complex and solved this structure at 2.4 A resolution. NMR and molecular ... We have crystallized the Antennapedia homeodomain-DNA complex and solved this structure at 2.4 A re ... ...
Antennapedia+Homeodomain+Protein at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Drosophila Antennapedia ... Antennapedia (abbreviated Antp) is a Hox gene first discovered in Drosophila which controls the formation of legs during ... It is suggested that Antennapedia arose from Evx, a non-Hox family of genes. This duplication event of Evx into the Antp-class ... "Divergent role of the Hox gene Antennapedia in spiders is responsible for the convergent evolution of abdominal limb repression ...
cd00086. homeodomain. 1 hit. Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00032. ANTENNAPEDIA. 1 hit. PS00027. ... PROSITE; a protein domain and family database. More...PROSITEi. View protein in PROSITE. PS00032. ANTENNAPEDIA. 1 hit. PS00027. ... Protein. Similar proteins. Organisms. Length. Cluster ID. Cluster name. Size. Q24645. P02833. A4V2I6. I5AP85. B4GEM0. B4NAA8. ...
Determination of the three-dimensional structure of the Antennapedia homeodomain from Drosophila in solution by 1H nuclear ... Description: ANTENNAPEDIA PROTEIN protein , Length: 68 No structure alignment results are available for 1HOM.A explicitly.. It ... DETERMINATION OF THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL STRUCTURE OF THE ANTENNAPEDIA HOMEODOMAIN FROM DROSOPHILA IN SOLUTION BY 1H NUCLEAR ... Pre-calculated protein structure alignments at the RCSB PDB website. Bioinformatics 26: 2983-2985 ...
A 16 amino-acid peptide from the third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain protein has recently been shown to be able to act ...
Keywords: blood-brain barrier; transport; Drosophila melanogaster ; Antennapedia homeodomain; penetratin; protein transduction ... derived from a Drosophila Antennapedia homeodomain protein can cross Drosophila and deliver the apoE mimetic peptide exhibiting ... The Q parameter representing the ratio of protein-protein complex lifetime (τ lT ) to time required for a single hydroxylation ... The phenomenon of protein transduction represents internalization of short peptides known as protein transduction domains (PTD ...
... protein with certain Ultrabithorax and abdominal-A proteins but not with an Antennapedia protein or a more distant homeodomain ... Using a cotransfection assay, we have shown that homeodomain proteins encoded by the homeotic gene Antennapedia (Antp) and the ... AN ULTRABITHORAX PROTEIN BINDS SEQUENCES NEAR ITS OWN AND THE ANTENNAPEDIA P1 PROMOTERS CELL Beachy, P. A., Krasnow, M. A., ... The protein binds tightly to sequences near its own promoter and near the P1 promoter of Antenna-pedia (Antp), a homeotic gene ...
Clusters of genes encoding Antennapedia-class homeodomain proteins (Hox proteins) have been conserved between flies and ... The migratory behaviors of the Q descendants are influenced by the activities of Hox genes, which encode homeodomain proteins ... One protein involved in Hox gene regulation is pal-1, a homolog of the Drosophila caudal gene. These homologs are required for ... In some cells, the Antennapedia homolog mab-5 is also kept off by cell-cell interactions. If the neighbors of V5 are ablated, ...
1 Peptide Transfection reagent features a patented 16 amino acid peptide corresponding to the third helix of the homeodomain of ... features a patented 16 amino acid peptide corresponding to the third helix of the homeodomain of the Antennapedia protein ( ... Penetratin™ 1 is a patented 16-amino acid peptide corresponding to the third helix of the homeodomain of antennapedeia protein ... the Antennapedia protein (pAntp) from Drosophila melanogaster. ...
HIV-1 transcriptional activator TAT protein [10], the Antennapedia homeodomain of Drosophila [25], and poly-arginine (n = 4-16 ... Derossi D, Joliot AH, Chassaing G, Prochiantz A. The third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain translocates through ... A well studied protein p16, which had an antitumor potential, here were used to create an antitumor peptides with CPP2. ... Transmembrane delivery of protein and peptide drugs by TAT-mediated transduction in the treatment of cancer. Adv Drug Deliv Rev ...
... amino acid sequence identity with the homeodomain of Antennapedia class proteins (Antp) and the two also partially share a ... It encodes a protein of which the homeodomain shares approximately 50% ... Interactions between Cdx proteins and Hox genes may go on in areas of co-expression in the unsegmented paraxial mesoderm ... We examined expression of the Hoxb8βgal knock in fusion protein in Cdx mutants at stages when Hoxb8 expression is still in the ...
Several of these proteins are known to exist, including the TAT protein of HIV, the antennapedia homeodomain protein from ... Use of the VP22 protein showed an increase in expression of the protein and also in distribution of the protein, indicating ... Adenoviral vectors naturally express the capability of lysing cells through a protein labeled the adenovirus death protein ( ... 2005). Vaccinia virus protein A46R targets multiple Toll-like-interleukin-1 receptor adaptors and contributes to virulence.J ...
This peptide is linked to a sequence from the third helix of the Drosophila Antennapedia homeodomain protein to allow cell- ... This peptide is linked to a sequence from the third helix of the Drosophila Antennapedia homeodomain protein to allow cell- ... Binds mutant p53 and restores the growth suppressor functions of p53 protein in human tumor cells. Induces apoptosis in human ... Binds mutant p53 and restores the growth suppressor functions of p53 protein in human tumor cells. Induces apoptosis in several ...
... of sex combs reduced and Antennapedia are defined by a distinct portion of each protein that includes the homeodomain. Cell 62 ... 1989) A homeodomain substitution changes the regulatory specificity of the Deformed protein in Drosophila embryos. Cell 59, 563 ... 1986) Sequence conservation in the protein coding and intron regions of the engrailed transcription unit. EMBO J 5, 3583-3589. ... 1986) An inversion that disrupts the Antennapedia gene causes abnormal structure and localization of RNAs. Cell 47, 1017-1023. ...
... the Ultrabithorax and Antennapedia homeodomains display indistinguishable preferences outside the core while Deformed differs. ... We compare here the DNA sequence preferences of homeodomains encoded by four of the eight Drosophila HOM proteins. One of the ... The homeodomain has been implicated as a major determinant of biological specificity for the homeotic selector (HOM) genes. ... The degree of variation in DNA sequence recognition among four Drosophila homeotic proteins.. Ekker SC1, Jackson DG, von ...
Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein - Preferred Concept UI. M0178796. Scope note. Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox ... 2006; ANTENNAPEDIA HOMEODOMAIN PROTEIN was indexed under NUCLEAR PROTEINS & TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS 1990-2005, under HOMEODOMAIN ... Antennapedia homeodomain protein is a homeobox protein involved in limb patterning in ARTHROPODS. Mutations in the gene for the ... Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to ...
"Cell-Penetrating Bacterial Effector Proteins: Better Tools than Targets, Trends in Biotechnology" on DeepDyve, the largest ... Cell internalization of the third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain is receptor-independent ... Cell-Penetrating Bacterial Effector Proteins: Better Tools than Targets. Cell-Penetrating Bacterial Effector Proteins: Better ... Recently, effector proteins have been identified that autonomously translocate into host cells, representing a novel class of ...
MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain proteins that contain a glutamine residue at amino ... Mutations previously shown to inhibit protein binding to the homeodomain element (17, 18) were introduced in the GnRHe/p- ... The EMSA binding pattern with the GT1-7 nuclear proteins on the DNA probe corresponding to the GnRH enhancer homeodomain ... Developmental Regulation of Gonadotropin-releasing Hormone Gene Expression by the MSX and DLX Homeodomain Protein Families*. ...
It was previously reported that, due to its own Antennapedia-like protein transduction domain (PTD), exogenous PDX-1 protein ... It was previously reported that, due to its own Antennapedia-like protein transduction domain (PTD), exogenous PDX-1 protein ... It was previously reported that, due to its own Antennapedia-like protein transduction domain (PTD), exogenous PDX-1 protein ... It was previously reported that, due to its own Antennapedia-like protein transduction domain (PTD), exogenous PDX-1 protein ...
Functional specificity of the Antennapedia homeodomain.. Functional specificity of the homeodomain protein fushi tarazu: the ... antennapedia homeodomain: comparison of the NMR solution structure and the DNA-binding affinity with the intact Antennapedia ... Homeodomain proteins and the regulation of gene expression.. homeotic gene Sex Combs Reduced of Drosophila: gene structure and ... Localization of the Antennapedia protein in Drosophila embryos and imaginal discs.. Localized expression of sloppy paired ...
Animals, Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein, Homeodomain Proteins, Invertebrates, Transcription Factors. © 2021 Level 6, West ...
1997) Pbx raises the DNA binding specificity but not the selectivity of Antennapedia Hox proteins. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:4696- ... HOX proteins and some orphan homeodomain proteins form complexes with either PBX or MEIS subclasses of homeodomain proteins. ... PDX1 is one of a group of homeodomain proteins that interacts with members of the PBC family of homeodomain proteins (13, 47, ... 1997) AbdB-like Hox proteins stabilize DNA binding by the Meis1 homeodomain proteins. Mol. Cell. Biol. 17:6448-6458. ...
Adenovirus E1B Proteins. *Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein. *AraC Transcription Factor. *Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription ... Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ... "Repressor Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Repressor Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ...
Nuclear Proteins. *Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein. *Antigens, Nuclear. *BRCA1 Protein. *BRCA2 Protein. *CCAAT-Enhancer- ... Nuclear Matrix Protein 4 Is a Novel Regulator of Ribosome Biogenesis and Controls the Unfolded Protein Response via Repression ... "Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH ... A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX. ...
antennapedia homeodomain protein*armadillo domain proteins*casein kinase iepsilon*blastoderm*odorant receptors*olfactory ... Amrein H, Hedley M, Maniatis T. The role of specific protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions in positive and negative ... These results demonstrate that both protein-RNA and protein-protein interactions are involved in tra2-dependent activation and ... Mika S, Rost B. Protein-protein interactions more conserved within species than across species. PLoS Comput Biol. 2006;2:e79 ...
antennapedia homeodomain protein*hydra*peptide initiation factors*rna nucleotidyltransferases. Genomes and Genes. *w products* ... In contrast to mouse Mx1 protein, which accumulates in the nuclei of IFN-treated mouse cells, the two human Mx proteins both ... The MEP-1 zinc-finger protein acts with MOG DEAH box proteins to control gene expression via the fem-3 3 untranslated region ... Characterisation of macrophage inflammatory protein-5/human CC cytokine-2, a member of the macrophage-inflammatory-protein ...
... that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. Homeodomain proteins are ... Homeodomain Proteins: Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) ... Antennapedia Homeodomain Protein: 3. *cone rod homeobox protein: 3. *homeobox protein HOXA9: 3 ... Proteins, Homeobox; Homeo Domain Proteins; Homeotic Proteins; Proteins, Homeo Domain; Proteins, Homeodomain; Proteins, Homeotic ...
  • A 16 amino-acid peptide from the third helix of the Antennapedia homeodomain protein has recently been shown to be able to act as an internalization vector that can deliver other peptides into cells. (nih.gov)
  • The phenomenon of protein transduction represents internalization of short peptides known as protein transduction domains (PTD) by cells. (chemweb.com)
  • Peptides that consist of several cellular or viral proteins were recently determined able to readily penetrate cellular plasma membranes. (springer.com)
  • Recently, effector proteins have been identified that autonomously translocate into host cells, representing a novel class of cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) or effectors (CPEs). (deepdyve.com)
  • Protein transduction domain (PTD)-peptides greatly facilitate the delivery of high molecular weight macromolecules across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). (msk.ru)
  • Engineering delivery systems for proteins and peptides into mammalian cells is an ongoing challenge for cell biological studies as well as for therapeutic approaches. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • Our data show that the PTC constitutes a powerful system to inject recombinant proteins, peptides, and potentially, other molecules into mammalian cells. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • We have investigated the cellular import of the third helix of the antennapedia homeodomain protein as an alternative method for introducing peptides into primary lymphocytes and lymphocytic cell lines. (sussex.ac.uk)
  • This review briefly summarizes the ever increasing evidence to the use of proteins such as monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), bispecific antibodies (BsAbs), Affibody molecules, albumin, transferrin and peptides such as stable microbial toxins and cell penetrating peptides (CPPs) as innovative tumor targeting ligands in anticancer drug delivery systems. (ijpsr.com)
  • Among these carrier systems, proteins and peptides as targeting carriers in anticancer drug delivery holds great promise because of their selective binding affinity, tissue penetration capacity and internalizing capacity by cancer cells. (ijpsr.com)
  • In addition, recent advances in protein engineering, protein nanoparticle technology and the advances in combinatorial peptide library technology have made it possible to generate high-affinity proteins and peptides that may be used as ligands for the development of targeted anticancer strategies 8, 9 . (ijpsr.com)
  • Protein transduction exploits properties of specific protein sequences [termed protein transduction domains (PTDs)] that enhance the delivery of macromolecules - including peptides, proteins, and DNA fragments - into living cells [ 13 - 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When the peptides were presented to bone marrow-derived dendritic cells, they induce low immunoactivation relative to control cell penetrating peptides including the antennapedia homeodomain and TAT, as quantified by the expression of activation specific surface proteins like CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex class II. (mysciencework.com)
  • Three human peptides derived from surfactant protein B (a lung surfactant protein), orexin (a neuropeptide hormone, and lactoferricin (a globular glycoprotein) that exist in many physiological fluids facilitated the in vivo delivery of siRNA and induce significant knock down (90%) of a hepatocyte expressed protein, coagulation Factor VII. (mysciencework.com)
  • Peptides and proteins with photochemical sensors are valuable tools when analyzing biochemical processes and peptide properties. (flvc.org)
  • It is suggested that Antennapedia arose from Evx, a non-Hox family of genes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The migratory behaviors of the Q descendants are influenced by the activities of Hox genes, which encode homeodomain proteins that specify cell fates along the anteroposterior axis of the worm (see below). (searlescholars.net)
  • The homeodomain has been implicated as a major determinant of biological specificity for the homeotic selector (HOM) genes. (nih.gov)
  • Proteins which maintain the transcriptional quiescence of specific GENES or OPERONS. (harvard.edu)
  • Engelkamp D, Schafer B, Mattei M, Erne P, Heizmann C. Six S100 genes are clustered on human chromosome 1q21: identification of two genes coding for the two previously unreported calcium-binding proteins S100D and S100E. (labome.org)
  • Proteins encoded by homeobox genes (GENES, HOMEOBOX) that exhibit structural similarity to certain prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA-binding proteins. (curehunter.com)
  • A large fraction of protein-DNA interactions corresponds to transcriptional regulators binding DNA in the neighborhood of protein-coding and RNA genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The strong conservation of functional elements (binding sites, protein-coding genes, noncoding RNAs, and so on) across even distantly related species should make it possible to predict these functional elements and prioritize them for experimental validation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In recent years, our work has focused on the homeotic selector (HOX) genes which link these two types of information: their large cis regulatory regions interpret positional information and their protein products control cellular identities by regulating the transcription of downstream target genes. (searlescholars.net)
  • We are interested in the following aspects by which HOX proteins control cellular identities: (1) how the HOX proteins select the correct target genes in vivo , (2) post-translational mechanisms controlling HOX function, and (3) the identification of HOX target genes that contribute to segmental differences in the fly. (searlescholars.net)
  • These genes code for proteins that bind DNA and switch on or off other genes, and they are very similar between distantly related animal species. (prolekare.cz)
  • Further mutations greatly modified the DNA sequence of the new genes, although maintaining potential to encode stable protein folds. (prolekare.cz)
  • Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox-1 (PDX-1) is a homeodomain-containing transcription factor essential for pancreatic development, beta-cell differentiation and the maintenance of mature beta cell function through regulating the expression of key endocrine beta-cell-specific genes such as insulin, glucokinase, islet amyloid polypeptide and the glucose transporter type 2. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • We report that a 56-amino-acid repressor protein made by the resident psyllid endosymbiont Wolbachia can enter cells of Liberibacter crescens , a cultured proxy for the uncultured psyllid endosymbiont " Ca . Liberibacter asiaticus" and repress " Ca . Liberibacter asiaticus" phage lytic cycle genes. (asm.org)
  • Chromosomal location of genes for novel glutenin subunits and gliadins in wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum L. In this study, we quantified RGS4 mRNA and protein levels at several levels of resolution in the DLPFC from subjects with schizophrenia and matched healthy comparison subjects. (faintpower.ml)
  • Drosophila homeodomain proteins bind to specific DNA sequences in vitro and are hypothesized to regulate the transcription of other genes during development. (nih.gov)
  • The HOX proteins are homeodomain‐containing transcription factors, which regulate the expression of many downstream target genes ( Botas, 1993 ). (embopress.org)
  • These homeo domain proteins are thought to regulate different target genes specifically in each segment, resulting in different morphologies. (princeton.edu)
  • The ability of Pax proteins to use the PAI, RED, and HD, or combinations thereof, may be one mechanism that allows them to be used at different stages of development to regulate various developmental processes through the activation of specific target genes. (pnas.org)
  • About half of the known Pax genes ( 1 , 10 - 16 ) also encode a second DNA-binding domain, a Prd-class homeodomain (HD). (pnas.org)
  • Cellular DNA-binding proteins encoded by the c-fos genes (GENES, FOS). (childrensmercy.org)
  • c-fos combines with c-jun (PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS C-JUN) to form a c-fos/c-jun heterodimer (TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1) that binds to the TRE (TPA-responsive element) in promoters of certain genes. (childrensmercy.org)
  • PITX2a and the related PITX1 protein have been shown to interact with Pit-1, a transcription factor that regulates pituitary cell differentiation, including the expression of the thyroid-stimulating hormone, growth hormone, and prolactin genes ( 4 , 16 , 31 ). (asm.org)
  • The transcript levels of the ZPR genes increase in response to activation of a steroid-inducible REV protein. (plantcell.org)
  • 4. Spradling, A.C., M.E. Digan, A.P. Mahowald, M.P. Scott, and E.A. Craig (1980) Two clusters of genes for major chorion proteins of Drosophila melanogaster. (stanford.edu)
  • 12. Scott, M.P. and A.J. Weiner (1984) Structural relationships among genes that control development: Sequence homology between the Antennapedia, Ultrabithorax, and fushi tarazu loci of Drosophila. (stanford.edu)
  • 17. Laughon, A., S.B. Carroll, F.A. Storfer, P.D. Riley and M.P. Scott (1985) Common properties of proteins encoded by the Antennapedia Complex genes of Drosophila melanogaster. (stanford.edu)
  • This study describes a single promiscuous enhancer within the Drosophila Antennapedia Complex , EO053, that directs aspects of the expression of two adjacent genes, pb (a Hox2 ortholog) and zen2 (a divergent Hox3 paralog), with disparate spatial and temporal expression patterns. (sdbonline.org)
  • Homeodomain folds are found exclusively in eukaryotes but have high homology to lambda phage proteins that alter the expression of genes in prokaryotes. (blogspot.com)
  • Many homeodomains induce cellular differentiation by initiating the cascades of coregulated genes required to produce individual tissues and organs, while homeodomain proteins like Nanog are involved in maintaning pluripotency. (blogspot.com)
  • Homeobox genes code for homeodomain proteins in both vertebrates and invertebrates. (blogspot.com)
  • Vertebrates have six genes from the Dlx family of homeodomain transcription factors, arranged into three clusters: Dlx1/Dlx2, Dlx3/Dlx4 and Dlx5/Dlx6. (blogspot.com)
  • This peptide is linked to a sequence from the third helix of the Drosophila Antennapedia homeodomain protein to allow cell-permeability. (merckmillipore.com)
  • To address these challenges, we have studied whether the PTD-peptide penetratin, derived from a Drosophila Antennapedia homeodomain protein, is capable of crossing the BBB in Drosophila while carrying a cargo into the fly brain. (msk.ru)
  • The membrane translocation signal sequence from Drosophila Antennapedia homeo-domain (43-58) that is reported to act as an inhibitor of protein kinase G Iα (K i = 970 nM). (emdmillipore.com)
  • The membrane translocation signal sequence from Drosophila Antennapedia homeo-domain (43-58) that has been shown to inhibit protein kinase G Iα (PKG Iα) (K i = 970 nM). (emdmillipore.com)
  • It was previously reported that, due to its own Antennapedia-like protein transduction domain (PTD), exogenous PDX-1 protein can permeate cells and induces insulin gene expression in pancreatic ducts, thought to be islet progenitor cells. (elsevier.com)
  • These data suggest that PDX-1 protein transduction could be a safe and valuable strategy for facilitating differentiation of progenitor cells into insulin-producing cells without requiring gene transfer technology. (elsevier.com)
  • Because expression of dominant-negative dynamin-1 did not block PDX-1 PTD uptake, PDX-1 protein transduction is independent on phagocytosis and clathrin- or caveolar-mediated endocytosis. (elsevier.com)
  • Taken together, these observations provide the mechanism of PDX-1 protein transduction and suggest that the protein transduction system could work for experimental and therapeutic strategies. (elsevier.com)
  • This study was performed to investigate the transduction of a full-length superoxide dismutase (SOD) protein fused to transactivator of transcription (Tat) into human chondrocytes, and to determine the regulatory function of transduced Tat-SOD in the inflammatory cytokine induced catabolic pathway. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For the transduction of fusion proteins, cells/explants were treated with a variety of concentrations of fusion proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The intracellular transduction of Tat-SOD into cultured chondrocytes was detected after 1 hours, and the amount of transduced protein did not change significantly after further incubation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This study shows that protein delivery employing the Tat-protein transduction domain is feasible as a therapeutic modality to regulate catabolic processes in cartilage. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Previously, it has been reported that the basic domain of the HIV-1 transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein, which is composed of 11 amino acid residues, possesses the ability to traverse biological membranes efficiently in a process termed 'protein transduction' [ 9 , 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Within the homeodomain, there is an antennapedia-like protein transduction domain (PTD) which allows PDX-1 to permeate into cells and a nuclear localization signal (NLS) motif, RRMKWKK(197-203aa), which is sufficient for the nuclear import of PDX-1. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Shokolenko, I., M. Alexeyev, S. LeDoux, and G. Wilson, TAT-mediated protein transduction and targeted delivery of fusion proteins into mitochondria of breast cancer cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Transduction of Tat-tagged fusion proteins confirmed a hypothesis based on pharmacologic inhibitors (Fuortes, M., M. Melchior, H. Han, G.J. Lyon, and C. Nathan. (rupress.org)
  • The most active Cre proteins tested contained either an N-terminal 6xHis tag and a nuclear localization sequence from SV40 large T antigen (HNC) or the HIV Tat transduction sequence and a C-terminal 6xHis tag (TCH 6 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • moreover, transduction sequences from fibroblast growth factor 4, HIV Tat or consisting of the (KFF) 3 K sequence were not required for efficient protein transduction and adversely affected enzyme solubility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Transduction of the HNC protein required 10 to 15 min for half-maximum uptake, was greatly decreased at 4°C and was inhibited by serum. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cell-permeant Cre proteins provide an effective means to regulate gene structure and function in living cells, and Cre-mediated recombination provides a potentially useful reporter system with which to study the process of protein transduction itself. (biomedcentral.com)
  • [3] Since then, the number of known CPPs has expanded considerably and small molecule synthetic analogues with more effective protein transduction properties have been generated. (wikipedia.org)
  • Most notably, fusion of COG133 to a protein transduction domain creates COG112, a modified apoE-mimetic peptide with significantly enhanced anti-inflammatory bioactivities in vitro, and improved therapeutic effects on EAE in vivo, which renders a nearly full remission from the disability. (duke.edu)
  • This gene is a member of the Antp homeobox family and encodes a protein with a homeobox DNA-binding domain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antennapedia (abbreviated Antp) is a Hox gene first discovered in Drosophila which controls the formation of legs during development. (wikipedia.org)
  • It encodes a protein of which the homeodomain shares approximately 50% amino acid sequence identity with the homeodomain of Antennapedia class proteins (Antp) and the two also partially share a conserved 'hexapeptide' motif upstream of the homeodomain. (biologists.org)
  • For example, the HOX proteins Antennapedia (ANTP) and Ultrabithorax (UBX) have indistinguishable DNA binding specificities in vitro yet generate very different identities in vivo . (searlescholars.net)
  • Using a cotransfection assay, we have shown that homeodomain proteins encoded by the homeotic gene Antennapedia (Antp) and the segmentation gene fushi tarazu, as well as a hybrid homeodomain protein, are activators of transcription from specific promoters in cultured Drosophila cells. (nih.gov)
  • A TAA-rich DNA sequence to which the Antp protein binds in vitro is sufficient to confer regulation on a heterologous promoter. (nih.gov)
  • NMR and molecular dynamics studies had implied that this homeodomain achieves specificity through an ensemble of rapidly fluctuating DNA contacts. (rcsb.org)
  • 1989 ) A homeodomain substitution changes the regulatory specificity of the Deformed protein in Drosophila embryos. (biologists.org)
  • Thus, with three distinct binding classes defined by four HOM proteins, differences in individual site recognition may account for some but not all of HOM protein functional specificity. (nih.gov)
  • We further show that amino acid residues within the N-terminal arm are responsible for the sequence specificity differences between the Ultrabithorax and Abdominal-B homeodomains. (nih.gov)
  • We have found that HOX specificity is controlled, at least in part, by cofactors that cooperatively bind with HOX proteins to DNA. (searlescholars.net)
  • Because EXD is required for HOX specificity, these findings suggest a mechanism whereby the activity of the HOX proteins can be regulated. (searlescholars.net)
  • Dimer formation via the homeodomain is required for function and specificity of Sex combs reduced in Drosophila. (unibas.ch)
  • Although the selection of a specific target gene by a HOX protein versus another may be explained in some cases by the selective modulation of HOX binding specificity by EXD, we favor the idea that EXD interacts in a more general sense with most HOX proteins to switch them into a state where they are capable of transcriptional activation. (embopress.org)
  • One protein that is strongly implicated as a HOX cofactor involved in regulating target specificity is the protein product of the extradenticle (exd) gene. (embopress.org)
  • We characterized a gene, extradenticle, which seems to interact with a specific subset of Drosophila homeo domain proteins, possibly affecting their target specificity. (princeton.edu)
  • Thus, in the absence of sufficient extradenticle product, altered segmental morphology results from alteration of the functional consequences of specific homeo domain proteins, possibly through alterations in their target gene specificity. (princeton.edu)
  • The functional importance of binding specificity would further imply that mutations in the genomic DNA binding sites of the homeodomain might also lead to phenotypic modifications similar to those observed for the homeodomain mutants, the AV blockage phenotype studied in this paper, for instance. (jci.org)
  • The Active Penetratin™ 1 Peptide Transfection reagent features a patented 16 amino acid peptide corresponding to the third helix of the homeodomain of the Antennapedia protein (pAntp) from Drosophila melanogaster. (mpbio.com)
  • Penetratin™ 1 is a patented 16-amino acid peptide corresponding to the third helix of the homeodomain of antennapedeia protein. (mpbio.com)
  • The highly efficient cell-penetrating peptide penetratin derived from the third helix of the Antennapedia protein homeodomain also showed antimicrobial and antifungal activity. (bachem.com)
  • 13. The method of claim 1, wherein the inhibitor is the naturally occurring protein C1-Inhibitor, ecallantide (DX-88), or a bicyclic peptide. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Many oomycete candidate secreted effector proteins possess a peptide domain with the core conserved motif, RxLR, located near the N-terminal secretion signal peptide. (elsevier.com)
  • Further more, some protein and peptide-based carriers are nearly invisible to the immune system and are expected to cause minimal or no side effects 8 . (ijpsr.com)
  • In addition, peptide inhibitors that interfere with the proteolytic activity of MORT-1-binding proteins having proteolytic activity are provided, as well as a method of designing them. (justia.com)
  • These include limits on the size and lifetime of synthesized proteins and enzymes, attaching the tag at the target location on a peptide chain which will take advantage of the photochemical properties of the tag, and developing molecules that will readily exhibit environment-sensitive fluorescence. (flvc.org)
  • The identification of the Penetratin peptide, summarized in this review, is intimately linked to the study of its parental natural protein. (springer.com)
  • Homeodomains can bind both specifically and nonspecifically to B-DNA with the C-terminal recognition helix aligning in the DNA's major groove and the unstructured peptide "tail" at the N-terminus aligning in the minor groove. (blogspot.com)
  • two of the missense mutations are especially interesting, Asn188Lys and Tyr191Cys, both occurring in the third helix, the "recognition" helix, of the NKX2.5 homeodomain. (jci.org)
  • In contrast, the two other missense mutations, Thr178Met and Arg189Gly, should result in destabilization of the third helix of the homeodomain (1,2). (jci.org)
  • The structure contains a helix from residues 10 to 21, a helix-turn-helix motif from residues 28 to 52, which is similar to those reported for several prokaryotic repressor proteins, and a somewhat flexible fourth helix from residues 53 to 59, which essentially forms an extension of the presumed recognition helix, residues 42 to 52. (scripps.edu)
  • Furthermore, there is an isoform of the Pax-6 protein (Pax-6 5a) that contains, in the middle of the recognition helix of the PAI domain, an 11-residue insertion that inactivates DNA binding to sequences normally bound by the Pax-6 PD ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • The homeodomain fold is a protein structural domain that binds DNA or RNA and is thus commonly found in transcription factors.The fold consists of a 60-amino acid helix-turn-helix structure in which three alpha helices are connected by short loop regions. (blogspot.com)
  • Proteins containing a POU region consist of a homeodomain and a separate, structurally homologous POU domain that contains two helix-turn-helix motifs and also binds DNA. (blogspot.com)
  • The degree of variation in DNA sequence recognition among four Drosophila homeotic proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic tests demonstrate that in extradenticle mutants, the homeotic proteins are functional and act in their normal segmental domains, yet segmental identities are altered. (princeton.edu)
  • Even when homeotic proteins are ectopically expressed under the control of a heterologous promoter, extradenticle mutations affect their consequences. (princeton.edu)
  • Implications of these results for how homeotic proteins select particular metameric identities are discussed. (nih.gov)
  • 1990 ) Functional dissection of Ultrabithorax proteins in D. melanogaster. (biologists.org)
  • Of these latter three, the Ultrabithorax and Antennapedia homeodomains display indistinguishable preferences outside the core while Deformed differs. (nih.gov)
  • conserved cluster of homeodomain binding sites in the mouse Hoxa-4 intron functions in Drosophila embryos as an enhancer that is directly regulated by Ultrabithorax. (isni.org)
  • Expression of Ultrabithorax (UBX) proteins via a heat-inducible promoter generated homeotic transformations of segmental identities in the embryonic cuticle and peripheral nervous system (PNS) of Drosophila and transformed antennae into legs in the adult. (nih.gov)
  • Analysis of the transformations generated by UBX deletions and by a chimeric Ultrabithorax-Antennapedia protein demonstrated that the majority of the UBX identity information is contained within the C-terminal, homeodomain-containing portion of the protein. (nih.gov)
  • A major problem in developmental genetics is how HOX transcription factors, like Proboscipedia (PB) and Ultrabithorax (UBX) , regulate distinct programs of gene expression to result in a proboscis versus a haltere, respectively, when the DNA-binding homeodomain (HD) of HOX transcription factors recognizes similar DNA-binding sequences. (sdbonline.org)
  • HOX proteins and some orphan homeodomain proteins form complexes with either PBX or MEIS subclasses of homeodomain proteins. (asm.org)
  • Instead, like many other eukaryotic transcription factors that act through distant enhancers, HOX proteins apparently act with the help of cofactors in larger nucleoprotein complexes ( Mann, 1995 ). (embopress.org)
  • The protein-protein contacts within these complexes are believed to include crucial interactions that allow HOX proteins to discriminate among target regulatory elements. (embopress.org)
  • Segmental identity in Drosophila is mediated by the products of the Antennapedia and bithorax complexes. (princeton.edu)
  • In addition to binding to RNA, nuclear factor 90 proteins form heterodimeric complexes that regulate GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and may play a role in T-CELL activation. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Members of this family of proteins are often found associated with histone-modifying enzymes and protein complexes that regulate gene expression. (uchicago.edu)
  • Ribosomes (from ribonucleic acid and 'greek: soma (meaning body)') are complexes of RNA and protein that are found in all cells. (blogspot.com)
  • Mutations in the gene for the antennapedia homeodomain protein are associated with the conversion of antenna to leg or leg to antenna DROSOPHILA . (rightdiagnosis.com)
  • Mutations that change the affinity of a small autoactivation element for EXD protein result in corresponding changes in the element's embryonic activity. (embopress.org)
  • Mutations in the Drosophila gene extradenticle affect the way specific homeo domain proteins regulate segmental identity. (princeton.edu)
  • Axenfeld-Rieger syndrome is an autosomal-dominant disorder caused by mutations in the PITX2 homeodomain protein. (asm.org)
  • Both of the mutated residues are fully exposed to solvent, and there is no reason to believe that either of these mutations alters the structure of the homeodomain (1). (jci.org)
  • The possibility that the two mutations Asn188Lys and Tyr191Cys alter the DNA binding of the otherwise structurally intact NKX2.5 protein has important implications. (jci.org)
  • The encoded nuclear protein functions as a sequence-specific transcription factor that is involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • 1986 ) Sequence conservation in the protein coding and intron regions of the engrailed transcription unit. (biologists.org)
  • We compare here the DNA sequence preferences of homeodomains encoded by four of the eight Drosophila HOM proteins. (nih.gov)
  • This and other patterns of residue conservation suggest that differential DNA sequence recognition may play a role in HOM protein function in a wide range of organisms. (nih.gov)
  • Characterization of Drosophila DNA-binding protein DB-2: demonstration of its sequence-specific interaction with DNA. (isni.org)
  • Unlike Box5, the PDZ-interacting sequence in Pen-N3, originally identified via a random phage display screening, is not derived from Wnt or other known cellular proteins. (emdmillipore.com)
  • Although HOX proteins, which all contain a homeodomain, bind to DNA in a sequence-specific manner, their DNA binding specificities usually overlap. (searlescholars.net)
  • First, there is high conservation of encoded protein sequence, particularly within the 60-amino acid homeodomain motif (encoded by the homeobox) containing three alpha helices. (prolekare.cz)
  • wire-diagram from the protein-sequence with extra buildings highlighted in yellow and crimson, as well as the protease-binding site in purple. (ovarian-cancersymptoms.com)
  • The results demonstrate that homeodomain proteins are transcriptional regulators in vivo and that in cultured cells, different homeodomain-containing proteins can act upon a common sequence to modulate gene transcription. (nih.gov)
  • Victoria Del Gaizo, A novel TAT-Mitochondrial Sequence Fusion Protein is processed, Stays in the mitcohondria, and Crosses the Placenta, Molecular Therapy, vol. 7, pp. 720-730. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In our previous report, recombinant fusion proteins bearing the 12 amino acid membrane translocation sequence (MTS) from fibroblast growth factor 4 (FGF-4) were used to deliver enzymatically active Cre proteins directly into mammalian cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Of the four recombinant proteins tested, an enzyme containing an N-terminal 6xHis affinity tag, a nuclear localization sequence (NLS) from SV40 large T antigen, and the FGF-4 MTS (HNCM), displayed the best combination of yield, solubility, nuclear localization and enzymatic activity within cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence. (uniprot.org)
  • section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. (uniprot.org)
  • Proteins containing a region of conserved sequence, about 200 amino acids long, which encodes a particular sequence specific DNA binding domain (the T-box domain). (rush.edu)
  • 14. Laughon, A. and M.P. Scott (1984) The sequence of a Drosophila segmentation gene: Protein structure homology with DNA binding proteins. (stanford.edu)
  • The individual domains of POU proteins bind DNA only weakly, but have strong sequence-specific affinity when linked. (blogspot.com)
  • Tyr191, residue 54 of the homeodomain, is conserved in the NK-2 class of homeodomains, and its contact with a cytosine gives rise to the unique specific binding sequence observed for NK-2 class homeodomains, CAAGTG (2,3). (jci.org)
  • In a study of the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain where residue 54 is mutated from tyrosine to methionine, the residue found in the same position in Antennapedia, binding to the CAAGTG sequence was reduced by a factor of 10, and no alteration of the homeodomain structure was observed (7). (jci.org)
  • In the case of Drosophila one study has proved that the details of the specific binding sequence measured in vitro for a homeodomain are biologically important (8). (jci.org)
  • The in vitro -translated Wolbachia repressor protein was able to penetrate L . crescens cells, bind to " Ca . Liberibacter asiaticus" promoter DNA, and partially suppress holin promoter-driven β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity, indicating potential involvement of an additional interacting partner(s) or posttranslational modification(s) for complete suppression. (asm.org)
  • More specifically, the present invention concerns novel proteins which bind to the protein MORT-1 (or FADD), and more specifically, it relates to one such MORT-1 binding protein, herein designated MACH. (justia.com)
  • Accordingly, the present invention concerns, in general, new proteins which are capable of modulating or mediating the function of MORT-1 or of other proteins which bind to MORT-1 directly or indirectly. (justia.com)
  • Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. (uams.edu)
  • The K88R protein had greatly reduced binding to a TAATCC element and did not specifically bind any other TAATNN motif. (asm.org)
  • We show that the ZPR proteins interact with REV in vitro and that ZPR3 prevents DNA binding by REV in vitro. (plantcell.org)
  • Alterations of cell surface receptor, coreceptor, and adhesive protein expression are reported in various cancer types in vitro and in vivo [ 1 - 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A 22-amino acid PDZ domain-binding carboxamide toward Dvl (dishevelled) family proteins is fused at the N-terminal with a 16-mer antennapedia homeodomain-derived cell-permeable acetamide to facilitate its use in cellular studies. (emdmillipore.com)
  • However, the cellular mechanisms, for example, the various proteins and possibly other factors, which are involved in the intracellular signaling of the p55 an p75 TNF-Rs have yet to be elucidated. (justia.com)
  • A cellular transcriptional coactivator that was originally identified by its requirement for the stable assembly IMMEDIATE-EARLY PROTEINS of the HERPES SIMPLEX VIRUS. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Frankel, A. D., and Pabo, C. O. (1988) Cellular uptake of the Tat protein from human immunodeficiency virus, Cell 55 , 1189-1193. (springer.com)
  • A family of zinc finger transcription factors that share homology with Kruppel protein, Drosophila. (childrensmercy.org)
  • Based on homology with the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain/DNA complex structure, residues 188 and 191 of NKX2.5 should make DNA base contacts (2). (jci.org)
  • 15. Scott, M.P. (1985) Molecules and puzzles from the Antennapedia homoeotic gene complex of Drosophila. (stanford.edu)
  • Human PDX-1 is a protein of 283 amino acids with a calculated molecular weight of 30.64 kDa. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Recent work on fluorescent α-amino acids (FlAAs) proved extremely useful in studying protein folding, conformational changes and reactivity. (flvc.org)
  • A group of simple proteins that yield basic amino acids on hydrolysis and that occur combined with nucleic acid in the sperm of fish. (jefferson.edu)
  • Binds mutant p53 and restores the growth suppressor functions of p53 protein in human tumor cells. (merckmillipore.com)
  • The present invention provides proteins capable of modulating or mediating the FAS receptor ligand or TNF effect on cells carrying FAS receptor or p55 receptor by binding or interacting with MORT-1 protein, which in turn binds to the intracellular domain of the FAS receptor or to another protein TRADD which binds to the p55 receptor. (justia.com)
  • Repressor Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Nuclear Matrix-Associated Proteins" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (harvard.edu)
  • Chromosomal Proteins, Non-Histone" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (uams.edu)
  • In this study we analyze a set of HS-binding CPPs derived from natural proteins including CPP ecp . (hindawi.com)
  • Homeodomains are one of the key families of eukaryotic DNA-binding motifs and provide an important model system for studying protein-DNA interactions. (rcsb.org)
  • The synthesis of X-ray and NMR studies provides a unified, general model for homeodomain-DNA interactions. (rcsb.org)
  • One of the major challenges facing biology is to reconstruct the entire network of protein-DNA interactions within living cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The middle region contains a homeodomain, which is essential for DNA binding and protein-protein interactions. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Cross-regulatory protein-protein interactions between Hox and Pax transcription factors. (unibas.ch)
  • The first step in this proposed model is an interaction with the unfolded fusion protein (TAT) and the membrane through electrostatic interactions, which disrupt the membrane enough to allow the fusion protein to cross the membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we report the identification of a Drosophila Pax gene that encodes a protein with only a RED domain and no PAI domain. (pnas.org)
  • We have studied the mechanism underlying the dominant negative K88E mutation, which occurs at position 50 of the homeodomain. (asm.org)
  • The most famous such mutation is Antennapedia, in which legs grow from the head of a fly instead of the expected antennae. (blogspot.com)
  • For the vnd/NK-2 homeodomain, mutation of the adenine contacted by asparagine in position 51 of the homeodomain reduces binding by a factor of 50 to 200, and the mutation of the cytosine contacted by tyrosine in position 54 reduces binding by a factor of 4 to 25 (2). (jci.org)
  • 1989 ) Molecular and genetic organization of the Antennapedia gene complex of Drosophila melanogaster . (biologists.org)
  • Determination of the nuclear magnetic resonance solution structure of an Antennapedia homeodomain-DNA complex. (isni.org)
  • Here we show that specific members of both PBX and MEIS subclasses form a multimeric complex with the pancreatic homeodomain protein PDX1 and switch the nature of its transcriptional activity. (asm.org)
  • Photorhabdus luminescens toxin complex (PTC) is a heterotrimeric protein complex able to deliver diverse protein toxins into mammalian cells. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • see below), the Photorhabdus megadalton protein complex allows the delivery of its cargo in the absence of the bacteria. (life-science-alliance.org)
  • Asn188, residue 51 of the homeodomain, is invariant across all homeodomains, and its specific base contact with the second adenine of homeodomain DNA binding site sequences is observed in all known homeodomain/DNA complex structures (3). (jci.org)
  • Among these factors are fibroblast growth factor-1 and -2 (FGF-1 and FGF-2), schwannoma-derived growth factor (SDGF), Tat protein and homeodomain or homeodomain containing polypeptides. (iospress.com)
  • In this extensively revised second edition, the authors delve into the latest discoveries, incorporating new coverage of comparative genomics, molecular evolution of regulatory proteins and elements, and microevolution of animal development. (b-ok.org)
  • A family of endogenous regulatory proteins that associate with RETINOBLASTOMA PROTEIN via a specific high-affinity binding domain. (uchicago.edu)
  • 18. Carroll, S.B. and M.P. Scott (1985) Localization of the fushi tarazu protein during Drosophila embryogenesis. (stanford.edu)
  • A broad category of nuclear proteins that are components of or participate in the formation of the NUCLEAR MATRIX. (harvard.edu)
  • Nuclear Matrix Protein 4 Is a Novel Regulator of Ribosome Biogenesis and Controls the Unfolded Protein Response via Repression of Gadd34 Expression. (harvard.edu)
  • Dickson B, Dominguez M, van der Straten A, Hafen E. Control of Drosophila photoreceptor cell fates by phyllopod, a novel nuclear protein acting downstream of the Raf kinase. (labome.org)
  • The techniques used are 1H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for the data collection, and calculation of the protein structure with the program DISMAN followed by restrained energy minimization with a modified version of the program AMBER. (scripps.edu)
  • Mutant proteins are reported to block the transport of nuclear-encoded mitochondrial proteins to mitochondria, interact with mitochondrial proteins and disrupt the electron transport chain, induce free radicals, cause mitochondrial dysfunction, and, ultimately, damage neurons. (springer.com)
  • Insertion of exogenous ubiquitin into rat brain mitochondria in the presence of ATP and the ATPregenerating system (creatine phosphate/creatine phosphokinase) results in the increase in: sensitivity of mitochondrial monoamine oxidases (MAO) A and B to inhibition by mechanism based inhibitor and incorporation of [ 3 H]-pargyline, which was especially notable in the fraction obtained by immunoprecipitation of mitochondrial proteins with anti-ubiquitin antiserum and protein A Sepharose. (chemweb.com)
  • Schmidt, M. Alexander 2017-02-01 00:00:00 Bacterial pathogens have developed intriguing virulence mechanisms, including several sophisticated nanomachines, for injecting effector proteins to manipulate host immune signaling pathways for their own benefit. (deepdyve.com)
  • The oomycete potato late blight pathogen, Phytophthora infestans, and the apicomplexan malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum translocate effector proteins inside host cells, presumably to the benefit of the pathogen or parasite. (elsevier.com)
  • des(1-6)antennapedia homeodomain: comparison of the NMR solution structure and the DNA-binding affinity with the intact Antennapedia homeodomain. (isni.org)
  • The repressor was affinity captured from D. citri aqueous extracts using biotinylated holin promoter DNA immobilized on magnetic beads and subjected to liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Protein database interrogation was used to identify a small DNA-binding protein encoded by a gene carried by Wolbachia strain wDi, a resident endosymbiont of D. citri as the repressor. (asm.org)
  • Chan S, Popperl H, Krumlauf R, Mann R. An extradenticle-induced conformational change in a HOX protein overcomes an inhibitory function of the conserved hexapeptide motif. (labome.org)
  • MSX and DLX are members of the Antennapedia class of non-Hox homeodomain transcription factors that regulate gene expression and influence development of the craniofacial structures and anterior forebrain. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The MEP-1 zinc-finger protein acts with MOG DEAH box proteins to control gene expression via the fem-3 3' untranslated region in Caenorhabditis elegans. (labome.org)
  • Homeodomain proteins are involved in the control of gene expression during morphogenesis and development (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION, DEVELOPMENTAL). (curehunter.com)
  • Based on the types of homeotic transformations and changes in gene expression observed in exd mutant embryos, we propose a new model for EXD/PBX action in which these proteins are required for HOX protein transcriptional activation functions, but dispensable for HOX transcriptional repression functions. (embopress.org)
  • Classical repressor proteins are DNA-binding proteins that are normally bound to the OPERATOR REGION of an operon, or the ENHANCER SEQUENCES of a gene until a signal occurs that causes their release. (harvard.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Repressor Proteins" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Repressor Proteins" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (harvard.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Repressor Proteins" by people in Profiles. (harvard.edu)
  • Expression of the Wolbachia repressor protein appeared to be constitutive irrespective of " Ca . Liberibacter asiaticus" infection status of the insect host. (asm.org)
  • These results suggest common mechanisms for protein translocation in both malaria and oomycete pathosystems. (elsevier.com)
  • One of these cofactors is the homeodomain protein encoded by the gene extradenticle ( exd ). (searlescholars.net)
  • p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge. (uniprot.org)
  • A family of double-stranded RNA-binding proteins that are related to NFATC TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS. (ucdenver.edu)
  • Insertion of ubiquitin into mitochondria did not influence molecular masses of [ 3 H]-pargyline labeled proteins. (chemweb.com)
  • Biochemical and animal model studies of inherited neurodegenerative diseases have revealed that mutant proteins of these diseases are associated with mitochondria. (springer.com)
  • We have exploited this cytoplasmic recognition to report on replacement of the RxLR-EER of Avr3a with the equivalent sequences from the intracellular effectors ATR1NdWsB and ATR13 from the related oomycete pathogen, Hyaloperotiospora parasitica, and the host targeting signal from the Pl. falciparum virulence protein PfHRPII. (elsevier.com)
  • This novel arrangement raises important questions about cooperativity in protein-DNA recognition. (cshl.edu)
  • The Drosophila EXD protein and its mammalian counterparts, the PBX proteins, have been proposed to function in HOX target selectivity. (embopress.org)
  • The pTat-SOD expression vector was constructed to express the basic domain of HIV-1 Tat as a fusion protein with Cu, Zn-SOD. (biomedcentral.com)
  • After internalization, the fusion protein refolds due the chaperone system. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, endogenous PDX-1 is usually detected as a protein with molecular mass of 46 kDa, likely due to posttranslational modifications such as phosphorylation and sumoylation. (atlasgeneticsoncology.org)
  • Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process. (curehunter.com)
  • The GnRH regulatory region contains four conserved homeodomain binding sites (ATTA) that are essential for basal promoter activity and cell-specific expression of the GnRH gene. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Here, we report that expression patterns of the Msx and Dlx families of homeodomain transcription factors largely coincide with the migratory route of GnRH neurons and co-express with GnRH in neurons during embryonic development. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • or (cb) said test compound, upon binding in step (b) modulates the expression and/or activity of said protein or, if present, said subunit(s). (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • and(b) determining whether said test compound, upon contacting in step (a) modulates the expression and/or activity of said protein. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 12. The method of claim 1, wherein, prior to said contacting, (a') an ototoxic agent and/or an agent increasing the activity and/or the expression of said protein or subunit(s), is brought into contact with said protein or subunit(s) is/are administered to said cell or said animal. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • NO production and iNOS mRNA expression, in response to IL-1 stimulation, was significantly down-regulated by pretreatment with Tat-SOD fusion proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Complete removal of extradenticle, maternally and zygotically, leads to specific alterations in segmentation, many of which result from failure to maintain the expression of the homeo domain protein engrailed. (princeton.edu)
  • Neplioueva V, Dobrikova EY, Mukherjee N, Keene JD, Gromeier M. Tissue type-specific expression of the dsRNA-binding protein 76 and genome-wide elucidation of its target mRNAs. (ucdenver.edu)
  • 23. Carroll, S.B., R.A. Laymon, M.A. McCutcheon, P.D. Riley, and , M.P. Scott (1986) The localization and regulation of Antennapedia protein expression in Drosophila embryos. (stanford.edu)
  • 1990 ) Molecular genetic manipulation of the red flour beetle: Genome organization and cloning of a ribosomal protein gene. (biologists.org)
  • 10. Scott, M.P., A.J. Weiner,T.I. Hazelrigg, B.A. Polisky, V. Pirrotta, F. Scalenghe, and T.C. Kaufman (1983) The molecular organization of the Antennapedia Locus of Drosophila. (stanford.edu)
  • During my student years from 1957-1962, NMR spectroscopy was just being introduced as an analytical tool in chemistry, molecular biology was not yet established as an independent discipline, and the initial three-dimensional protein crystal structures were just emerging. (angelfire.com)
  • Since recombination provides a stable and unambiguous record of protein uptake, the enzyme may also be used for quantitative studies of cis - and trans -acting factors that influence the delivery of proteins into cells. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The attachment of a virion particle with the surface of an individual cell is based upon the interaction between cell surface receptors and the particles composing the capsid or proteins on the surface of the virion. (jyi.org)
  • 9. The method of claim 1, wherein said protein and, if present, said subunit(s) is/are comprised in a cell transfected with a nucleic acid encoding said protein. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Inhalational Anesthetics Induce Neuronal Protein Aggregation and Affect ER Trafficking. (sickkids.ca)
  • Green, M., and Loewenstein, P. M. (1988) Autonomous functional domains of chemically synthesized human immunodeficiency virus tat trans-activator protein, Cell 55 , 1179-1188. (springer.com)
  • PITX2a is a 33-kDa homeodomain protein that is a functional member of the bicoid homeodomain subfamily, as defined by a lysine at residue 50 of the homeodomain ( 4 ). (asm.org)
  • It has been demonstrated that this residue in the bicoid protein interacts with base pairs 5 and 6 of the hexanucleotide consensus 5′-TAATCC-3′ ( 12 , 32 ). (asm.org)