Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Olfactory Receptor Neurons: Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Pheromones: Chemical substances, excreted by an organism into the environment, that elicit behavioral or physiological responses from other organisms of the same species. Perception of these chemical signals may be olfactory or by contact.Receptors, Pheromone: Cell surface receptors that respond to PHEROMONES.Chemoreceptor Cells: Cells specialized to detect chemical substances and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Chemoreceptor cells may monitor external stimuli, as in TASTE and OLFACTION, or internal stimuli, such as the concentrations of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE in the blood.Light-Harvesting Protein Complexes: Complexes containing CHLOROPHYLL and other photosensitive molecules. They serve to capture energy in the form of PHOTONS and are generally found as components of the PHOTOSYSTEM I PROTEIN COMPLEX or the PHOTOSYSTEM II PROTEIN COMPLEX.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Moths: Insects of the suborder Heterocera of the order LEPIDOPTERA.Sex Attractants: Pheromones that elicit sexual attraction or mating behavior usually in members of the opposite sex in the same species.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Olfactory Pathways: Set of nerve fibers conducting impulses from olfactory receptors to the cerebral cortex. It includes the OLFACTORY NERVE; OLFACTORY BULB; OLFACTORY TRACT; OLFACTORY TUBERCLE; ANTERIOR PERFORATED SUBSTANCE; and OLFACTORY CORTEX.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Chlorophyll Binding Proteins: A large family of proteins that have been traditionally classified as the light-harvesting proteins of the photosynthetic reaction complex. Chlorophyll binding proteins are also found in non-photosynthetic settings where they may play a photoprotective role in response to light stress.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Grasshoppers: Plant-eating orthopterans having hindlegs adapted for jumping. There are two main families: Acrididae and Romaleidae. Some of the more common genera are: Melanoplus, the most common grasshopper; Conocephalus, the eastern meadow grasshopper; and Pterophylla, the true katydid.Palinuridae: A family of marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, comprising the clawless lobsters. They are found in tropical and subtropical waters and characterized by short spines along the length of the tail and body.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Alkadienes: Acyclic branched or unbranched hydrocarbons having two carbon-carbon double bonds.Photosynthetic Reaction Center Complex Proteins: Protein complexes that take part in the process of PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They are located within the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of plant CHLOROPLASTS and a variety of structures in more primitive organisms. There are two major complexes involved in the photosynthetic process called PHOTOSYSTEM I and PHOTOSYSTEM II.Photosystem II Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to catalyze the splitting of WATER into DIOXYGEN and of reducing equivalents of HYDROGEN.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Photosystem I Protein Complex: A large multisubunit protein complex that is found in the THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. It uses light energy derived from LIGHT-HARVESTING PROTEIN COMPLEXES to drive electron transfer reactions that result in either the reduction of NADP to NADPH or the transport of PROTONS across the membrane.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Receptors, Ionotropic Glutamate: A class of ligand-gated ion channel receptors that have specificity for GLUTAMATE. They are distinct from METABOTROPIC GLUTAMATE RECEPTORS which act through a G-protein-coupled mechanism.Opuntia: A plant genus of the family CACTACEAE. Species with cylindrical joints are called Cholla; flat jointed ones are Prickly-pear.Locusta migratoria: A species of migratory Old World locusts, in the family ACRIDIDAE, that are important pests in Africa and Asia.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Beetles: INSECTS of the order Coleoptera, containing over 350,000 species in 150 families. They possess hard bodies and their mouthparts are adapted for chewing.Heteroptera: A suborder of HEMIPTERA, called true bugs, characterized by the possession of two pairs of wings. It includes the medically important families CIMICIDAE and REDUVIIDAE. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Lepidoptera: A large order of insects comprising the butterflies and moths.Bacteriochlorophylls: Pyrrole containing pigments found in photosynthetic bacteria.Bombyx: A genus of silkworm MOTHS in the family Bombycidae of the order LEPIDOPTERA. The family contains a single species, Bombyx mori from the Greek for silkworm + mulberry tree (on which it feeds). A native of Asia, it is sometimes reared in this country. It has long been raised for its SILK and after centuries of domestication it probably does not exist in nature. It is used extensively in experimental GENETICS. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p519)Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Rhodospirillales: An order of photosynthetic bacteria representing a physiological community of predominantly aquatic bacteria.Grooming: An animal's cleaning and caring for the body surface. This includes preening, the cleaning and oiling of feathers with the bill or of hair with the tongue.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Thylakoids: Membranous cisternae of the CHLOROPLAST containing photosynthetic pigments, reaction centers, and the electron-transport chain. Each thylakoid consists of a flattened sac of membrane enclosing a narrow intra-thylakoid space (Lackie and Dow, Dictionary of Cell Biology, 2nd ed). Individual thylakoids are interconnected and tend to stack to form aggregates called grana. They are found in cyanobacteria and all plants.Cockroaches: Insects of the order Dictyoptera comprising several families including Blaberidae, BLATTELLIDAE, Blattidae (containing the American cockroach PERIPLANETA americana), Cryptocercidae, and Polyphagidae.Xanthophylls: Oxygenated forms of carotenoids. They are usually derived from alpha and beta carotene.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Olfactory Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of olfactory stimuli, such as odors, are recognized and interpreted by the brain.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Fatty Alcohols: Usually high-molecular-weight, straight-chain primary alcohols, but can also range from as few as 4 carbons, derived from natural fats and oils, including lauryl, stearyl, oleyl, and linoleyl alcohols. They are used in pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, detergents, plastics, and lube oils and in textile manufacture. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Wasps: Any of numerous winged hymenopterous insects of social as well as solitary habits and having formidable stings.Microwaves: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum from the UHF (ultrahigh frequency) radio waves and extending into the INFRARED RAYS frequencies.Panstrongylus: A genus of cone-nosed bugs of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Its species are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Rhodopsins, Microbial: Rhodopsin molecules found in microorganisms such as ARCHAEA and PROTEOBACTERIA.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.WingOctopamine: An alpha-adrenergic sympathomimetic amine, biosynthesized from tyramine in the CNS and platelets and also in invertebrate nervous systems. It is used to treat hypotension and as a cardiotonic. The natural D(-) form is more potent than the L(+) form in producing cardiovascular adrenergic responses. It is also a neurotransmitter in some invertebrates.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Chlorobi: A phylum of anoxygenic, phototrophic bacteria including the family Chlorobiaceae. They occur in aquatic sediments, sulfur springs, and hot springs and utilize reduced sulfur compounds instead of oxygen.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Tephritidae: A large family of fruit flies in the order DIPTERA, comprising over 4,500 species in about 100 genera. They have patterned wings and brightly colored bodies and are found predominantly in the tropical latitudes.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Diptera: An order of the class Insecta. Wings, when present, number two and distinguish Diptera from other so-called flies, while the halteres, or reduced hindwings, separate Diptera from other insects with one pair of wings. The order includes the families Calliphoridae, Oestridae, Phoridae, SARCOPHAGIDAE, Scatophagidae, Sciaridae, SIMULIIDAE, Tabanidae, Therevidae, Trypetidae, CERATOPOGONIDAE; CHIRONOMIDAE; CULICIDAE; DROSOPHILIDAE; GLOSSINIDAE; MUSCIDAE; TEPHRITIDAE; and PSYCHODIDAE. The larval form of Diptera species are called maggots (see LARVA).Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Taste Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of gustatory stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain. The four basic classes of taste perception are salty, sweet, bitter, and sour.Phycobilisomes: Light energy harvesting structures attached to the THYLAKOID MEMBRANES of CYANOBACTERIA and RED ALGAE. These multiprotein complexes contain pigments (PHYCOBILIPROTEINS) that transfer light energy to chlorophyll a.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Astacoidea: A superfamily of various freshwater CRUSTACEA, in the infraorder Astacidea, comprising the crayfish. Common genera include Astacus and Procambarus. Crayfish resemble lobsters, but are usually much smaller.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Insects: The class Insecta, in the phylum ARTHROPODA, whose members are characterized by division into three parts: head, thorax, and abdomen. They are the dominant group of animals on earth; several hundred thousand different kinds having been described. Three orders, HEMIPTERA; DIPTERA; and SIPHONAPTERA; are of medical interest in that they cause disease in humans and animals. (From Borror et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p1)Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Nephropidae: Family of large marine CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA. These are called clawed lobsters because they bear pincers on the first three pairs of legs. The American lobster and Cape lobster in the genus Homarus are commonly used for food.Carotenoids: The general name for a group of fat-soluble pigments found in green, yellow, and leafy vegetables, and yellow fruits. They are aliphatic hydrocarbons consisting of a polyisoprene backbone.Triatominae: A subfamily of assassin bugs (REDUVIIDAE) that are obligate blood-suckers of vertebrates. Included are the genera TRIATOMA; RHODNIUS; and PANSTRONGYLUS, which are vectors of TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI, the agent of CHAGAS DISEASE in humans.
The antennae both have two or three sensilla. The labrum is smaller with two hairs on the anterior surface that are 0.013 mm ( ... The length of the antennae only grows slowly; the antennae may only grow 60% longer by the time the body doubles its length, ... The antenna scapes measure 0.96 to 1.02 mm (0.038 to 0.040 in) and the thoracic length is 1.70 to 1.73 mm (0.067 to 0.068 in). ... Also, certain ants try to drag queens out of their nests by pulling on the antennae or legs. Small, monomorphic ants rely on ...
Each long hair from the main antenna also has smaller sensilla that are used for volatile olfaction. Since moths are mainly ... For example, in insects, olfactory sensilla are present on their antennae. Examples of direct chemoreceptors include: Taste ... In insects, antennae act as distance chemoreceptors. For example, antennae on moths are made up of long feathery hairs that ... They are mostly found in the mouthparts, but can also occur on the antennae or legs of some insects. There is a collection of ...
A diagnostic feature of species is the sensillum placodeum on the antennae. With respect to the sensillum, if there is a ... 425-430). Richerson, J.V., Borden, J.H., Hollingdale, J. (1972). Morphology of a unique sensillum placodeum on the antennae of ...
The antennae are small with three sensilla, and the labrum is short. The mandibles are sclerotized, and the apex forms a long ...
Each antenna on both sexes also has six types of sensilla. These include chemical receptors, mechanical receptors, temperature ... "Types of Antennal Sensilla of the Asian Corn Borer, Ostrinia furnacalis (Guenéee)". Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology. 2: 51- ... The Asian corn borer has important receptors on their antennae that enable the moth to detect olfactory cues for mate ... Males show strong activity of their antennae to the chemicals released by females. ...
Both antennae have a subcone and three apical sensilla that resemble a spinule. The mandibles are sub-triangular with a curved ... and the antennae have three apical sensilla, each containing a somewhat bulky spinule. Young larvae are much smaller than sub- ... The antennae are ferruginous and the eyes are ovate (shape resembling an egg). The head is emarginate (having a notched tip or ... When a male makes contact with a queen, the male touches her with his antennae and grasps the female's thorax with his ...
... it tests the surface of plant with its antennae and probes the plant with its mouth parts. The antennae contain many sensilla, ...
Olfactory sensilla enable insects to smell and are usually found in the antennae. Chemoreceptor sensitivity related to smell in ... Hair beds and groups of small hair like sensilla, determine proprioreception or information about the position of a limb, and ... Hearing structures or tympanal organs are located on different body parts such as, wings, abdomen, legs and antennae. These can ... Pressure on the body wall or strain gauges are detected by the campiniform sensilla and internal stretch receptors sense muscle ...
The antennae are covered in many setae, but the sensilla are not discernible. The fore-wings are about 720 μm (0.028 in) long, ... The antennae are composed of ten segments, with the pedicel being the similar in length to surrounding segments which are ...
For example, microscopic sensilla in the form of flattened sense organs on the antennae of aphids are referred to as rhinaria. ... Structure and Function of Olfactory Sensilla on the Antennae of Soybean Aphids, Aphis glycines. ACTA ENTOMOLOGICA SINICA 1995, ... and also variations in its innervation and sensilla, so it is appropriate to treat generalisations with caution in this matter ...
The antennae are very short (0.15 times the head width) and three segmented, joined to the head via a large membrane (allowing ... The flagellum is dome-shaped with apical seta and several sensilla. The small, black, three stemmata (simple eyes) sit just ... Antenna is very short, extending to about one fourth of the distance between eye and the widest lateral margin of the pronotum ... The antennae can be seen dorsally from the head capsule, but not dorsally from the entire body. ...
The antenna have similar ultrastructures that are found on the labium except studies showed that there was up to 58 sensilla on ... The cassava mealybug also uses antennal sensilla as a way to identify host-plants. The antenna are thought to be useful in ... The labium has thirty sensilla that include trichoid hairs and sensilla chaetica. The trichoid hairs function as ... the antenna, which is more than what is found on the labium. The sensilla can work as mechanoreceptors, thermo-hygro receptors ...
"Neurophysiological and morphological investigations of pheromone-sensitive sensilla on the antenna of male Trichoplusia ni". ... Male loopers have two types of neurons, and depending on which sensilla that are present, the neurons will detect female ... In fact, the base region of the antennae, where receptor neurons for this pheromone are located, has more sensory structures ... Upon interest, a potential mate examines the other's abdomen with antennae, and mating occurs if both agree. Mating on average ...
... and another to the tip of the antenna. A large bore glass electrode can also be placed directly over the tip of the antenna, ... Further detailed examination of the odor response at the olfactory sensory level can be done by sensilla recording. National ... Usually, the wire inserted into the antenna is a thin silver wire that is chlorided in bleach. This is an older practice. ... Electroantennography or EAG is a technique for measuring the average output of an insect antenna to its brain for a given odor ...
4C). The antenna also differs: the pedicel of the female antenna is 1.4 times longer than wide. Its total body length reaches ... Placodeal sensilla are visible only on flagellar segments F7 through F10; pedicel 1.4 times longer than wide. The apical ... The antenna is 0.6 times the length of the body, with 12 antennomeres, its flagellum widened towards its apex. ... The male of this species is similar to the female except for the following characteristics: its antenna counts with 15 ...
The antennae consist of 12 segments and the eyes are large and convex. Based on a study on the antennal sensory of M. ... pyriformis, the antennal sensilla are known to have eight types. Large ocelli are always present. Queens are usually larger ... Their antennae consist of 13 segments, and are almost the same length as the ants' bodies. Ergatandromorph (an ant that ...
This begins with diffusion of 9ODA through the antennae's pores, into the lymph of the olfactory sensillum. The hydrophilic ... Drone detection of 9ODA begins in the antennae, triggering a pathway that leads to behavioral responses. ...
... the odorant wafts towards an insects antenna or maxillary palp which is covered with hair like projections called sensilla. The ... During a SSR an electrode is inserted into just one sensillum and the recording is made from only the ORNs which are contained ... The two organs insects primarily use for detecting odors are the antennae and specialized mouth parts called the maxillary ... Sensory neurons in the antenna generate odor-specific electrical signals called spikes (action potentials) in response to ...
In contrast, the flagella of female antennae lack these trichoid sensilla projections that make the male antennae appear to be ... The sexually dimorphic sensilla are called male specific type-1 trichoid sensilla, a type of hair-like olfactory sensilla. ... The three main sex differences are as follows: 1) Male antennae are enlarged and contain elongated sensilla (sensory organules ... Each trichoid sensilla is innervated by two male specific olfactory receptor cells, with each cell being tuned (most sensitive ...
The olfactory sensilla on the antenna and the double-walled sensilla on both palps probably serve as long-range odour sensors. ... These dendrites proceed in a wavy form through the shaft of the sensillum. The sensillum contains antennal glomeruli, ... Females have more sensilla chaetica on both appendages than males whereas, males have more chemosensilla on the maxillary palps ... Prakash and colleagues suggest that since the location of this sensilla is in the maxillary palp that this is a short-range ...
Since the antennae are mainly responsible for direction, the presence of olfaction in the antennae can allow for recognition of ... The proboscis is mainly associated with taste therefore the OBP expression in the proboscis and maxillary palp sensilla may be ... The transcriptomics approach indicated that there are 21 LylinOBP transcripts in the antennae, 12 in the legs and 15 in the ...
After separating the head, thorax, abdomen and antennae of a dozen stingless bees, magnetic fields were applied to each body ... as a complex sensory organ used for orientation and navigation through the combined use of thousands of hair-shaped sensilla. ... Lucano, M.J.; Cernicchiaro, G.; Wajnberg, E.; Esquivel, D.M.S. (2005). "Stingless Bee Antennae: A Magnetic Sensory Organ?" (PDF ... while the antennae displayed a paramagnetic one (inducing a magnetic field in the same direction as the applied field). The ...
Sensilla on the tarsi at the ends of legs I and II (which are used more frequently to sense the surroundings) differ from those ... almost like antennae. If the pedipalps are 'short range' sensory organs, the second pair of legs are the corresponding 'long ... "Ultrastructure of tarsal sensilla and other integument structures of two Pseudocellus species (Ricinulei, Arachnida)". Journal ...
The number of olfactory sensilla is reduced in C. thalictri males that took a blood meal compared with those that did not in a ... Tiny feathery tips along the antenna pick up the slightest hint of pheromone released by females to guide males to their mates ... Males and females rely on pheromones using antennae adaptations that allow them to find a mate. Males have such strong receptor ... Males have a special gene in their antenna that mutates in response to changes in female pheromones. This adaptation to species ...
In insects, smells are sensed by sensilla located on the antenna and maxillary palp and first processed by the antennal lobe ( ... In insects, smells are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons in the chemosensory sensilla, which are present in insect antenna, ... Odorants penetrate into the cuticle pores of chemosensory sensilla and get in contact with insect odorant-binding proteins ( ...
They follow the nostril that first detected the smell.[54] Insects have olfactory receptors on their antennae. Although it is ...
Perfusion with cGMP adapts the action potential response in pheromone-dependent trichoid sensilla in the moth Manduca sexta. J ... Deterrence of feeding in Rhodnius prolixus (Hemiptera: Reduviidae) after treatment of antennae with a nitric oxide donor. ... In another experiment, insects that had their antennae treated with SNAC were less attracted than the control group to a CO2 ... In this work, nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC), a nitric oxide donor, was topically applied to the antennae of fifth instar ...
Expression of a GABAB - Receptor in Olfactory Sensory Neurons of Sensilla trichodea on the Male Antenna of the Moth Heliothis ... Receptor in Olfactory Sensory Neurons of Sensilla trichodea on the Male Antenna of the Moth Heliothis virescens. Int J Biol Sci ... To assess whether HvirGABAB-R1 is expressed in OSNs of male antenna we performed whole-mount in situ hybridization (WM-ISH) ... In addition, the HvirGABAB-R1 specific probe also labelled several cells under shorter olfactory sensilla, but never stained ...
All the subtypes of male-specific sensilla in the two species were found in the male hybrids and backcrosses. Moreover, two new ... show that the population ratio of the two olfactory sensory neurons responding to two sex pheromone components in male antennae ... All the subtypes of male-specific sensilla in the two species were found in ... ... Single-sensillum recordings were carried out to explore characteristics of male-specific sensilla in antennae, and in vivo ...
... scent sensilla) on the males antennae. Males with very large, feathery antennae, such as those of the giant silkworm moths, ... Other articles where Scent sensilla is discussed: lepidopteran: Courtship and mating: …are detected by structures ( ... are detected by structures (scent sensilla) on the males antennae. Males with very large, feathery antennae, such as those of ... with many microscopic receptors (sensilla) for detecting odours. In most moths the antennae are slender and tapering, although ...
Antennae short, filiform, three or usually five segmented. *Sensilla present on the second and third flagellomere. ...
Zacharuk RY (1985) Antennae and sensilla. In: Kerkut GA, Gilbert GI (eds) Comprehensive insect physiology, biochemistry and ... Pilocarpine effectively induced prolonged rhythmic movements of both antennae. The antennae tended to describe a spatially ... Krause AF, Dürr V (2004) Tactile efficiency of insect antennae with two hinge joints. Biol Cybern 91:168-181PubMedCrossRef ... Okada J, Nishiyama K, Toh Y (2005) A kinematic study of the cockroach antenna. Zool Sci 22:1475 (abstr)Google Scholar ...
The antennae both have two or three sensilla. The labrum is smaller with two hairs on the anterior surface that are 0.013 mm ( ... The length of the antennae only grows slowly; the antennae may only grow 60% longer by the time the body doubles its length, ... The antenna scapes measure 0.96 to 1.02 mm (0.038 to 0.040 in) and the thoracic length is 1.70 to 1.73 mm (0.067 to 0.068 in). ... Also, certain ants try to drag queens out of their nests by pulling on the antennae or legs. Small, monomorphic ants rely on ...
Zacharuk, R.Y. (1985). Antennae and sensilla. In G.A. Kerkut & L.I. Gilbert (eds.), Comprehensive insect physiology. ...
Immunocytochemical analyses localized LAP to the sensilla of the antenna. Immunogold labeling of thin sections revealed that ... LAP was associated with specific subtypes of sensilla, specifically the multiporous olfactory sensilla. Using primers designed ... LAP antiserum was developed and used in Western blotting to show that LAP was found in antennae of Lygus spp. but was not ... Our previous electrophysiological and morphological studies showed sensilla which house receptor cells for plant or insect ...
... which allows them to keep their antennae small enough to maximize flying, new research suggests. ... Male moths have evolved intricate scale arrangements on their antennae to enhance detection of female sex pheromones, ... "Moth sex pheromones are detected by receptors on structures called sensilla on the antennae. ... which ranged from those aligned parallel to antennae to those arranged in complete rings around the antennae, changed how well ...
Each long hair from the main antenna also has smaller sensilla that are used for volatile olfaction. Since moths are mainly ... For example, in insects, olfactory sensilla are present on their antennae. Examples of direct chemoreceptors include: Taste ... In insects, antennae act as distance chemoreceptors. For example, antennae on moths are made up of long feathery hairs that ... They are mostly found in the mouthparts, but can also occur on the antennae or legs of some insects. There is a collection of ...
1997) Odorant response of individual sensilla on the Drosophila antenna. Invert Neurosci 3:127-135. ... ChAT mRNA levels are reduced in antennae fromacj6 6 mutant males. Total RNA was extracted from dissected antennae of 5- to 10-d ... In addition, lz3 mutants fail to develop neurons of basiconic sensilla, have a reduced number of trichoid sensilla (Stocker and ... the basiconic sensilla, one of the three different types of olfactory sensilla, are missing from the third antennal segment and ...
Olfactory Sensilla neurons a: antenna, p:maxillary B:basiconic (L and S, ~200), T:trichoid, C:coeloconic ... 18 classes of ORNs within eight functional types of basiconica sensilla (ab1, ab2, ab3 are large basiconica sensilla) ... into the sensillum lymph. Odorants can enter the sensillum lymph via pores in the cuticle and cross the lymph in a hitherto ... Each sensillum contains between 1 and 4 ORNs (red and dark blue, respectively). These are bipolar neurons which, on one end, ...
quinquefasciatus antennae. Here, we present a comprehensive map of all antennal ORNs coding natural ligands and their dose- ... Nonanal is detected by a large array of sensilla and is by far the most potent stimulus; thus, supporting the assumption that ... We determined the specificity and sensitivity of all ORN types housed in different sensilla types on Cx. ... on the antennae of Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Cx. quinquefasciatus). One of these semiochemicals, nonanal, dominates the ...
The antennae bore several types of sensilla. Two plate areas in the proximal and distal ends of each antennal segment were ... Sensilla basiconica contained one or two cells of different spike amplitude. The 32 male and 38 female ORNs tested responded ... In analyses by GC coupled to electroantennographic (EAG) recording from the antennae of a male midge, at least three of these ... recording from the antenna of a male midge. A single EAG response was observed, which was assumed to be to the major component ...
... of sensilla trichodea in antennae were identified by single sensillum recording, responding to Z11-16:Ald, Z9-14:Ald, and both ... of sensilla trichodea in antennae were identified by single sensillum recording, responding to Z11-16:Ald, Z9-14:Ald, and both ... of sensilla trichodea in antennae were identified by single sensillum recording, responding to Z11-16:Ald, Z9-14:Ald, and both ... type B sensilla and 89% type C sensilla) and 12% (2% type B and 10% type C sensilla) in H. armigera. This characteristic seems ...
The cold sensilla are mechanically protected by large bristles covering the segments of the antenna. At constant temperatures ... There are about 20 cold receptors per antenna. Each cold receptor consists of a delicate hairlike structure (sensillum) ... In most insects thermoreceptors appear to be located in the antennae. This is supported by evidence of impaired thermoreceptive ... For example, the cockroach Periplaneta americana has two whiplike antennae consisting of about 150-180 ring-shaped segments ...
The antenna also serves as a major olfactory organ. a3 is covered with olfactory sensilla. (B) Dll expression, visualized via ... Expression and phenotypes of Dll in the Drosophila antenna and leg. (A) Wild-type adult Drosophila antenna. The arista (ar) ... However, in the antenna, Dll has a second function, that of specifying antennal identity (Fig. 1) (Cohen et al., 1989; Dong et ... The Drosophila antenna is a second appendage in which Dll is required for development of the proximodistal (PD) axis. ...
Olsson, S., Hansson, B. S. (2013). Electroantennogram and single-sensillum recording in insect antennae. In K. Touhara (Ed.), ... Variant ionotropic receptors are expressed in olfactory sensory neurons of coeloconic sensilla on the antenna of the desert ... Hill, S. R., Zaspel, J., Weller, S., Hansson, B. S., Ignell, R. (2010). To be or not to be.. a vampire: a matter of sensillum ... Hill, S. R., Hansson, B. S., Ignell, R. (2009). Characterization of antennal trichoid sensilla from female southern house ...
Olsson, S., Hansson, B. S. (2013). Electroantennogram and single-sensillum recording in insect antennae. In K. Touhara (Ed.), ... Variant ionotropic receptors are expressed in olfactory sensory neurons of coeloconic sensilla on the antenna of the desert ... Hill, S. R., Zaspel, J., Weller, S., Hansson, B. S., Ignell, R. (2010). To be or not to be.. a vampire: a matter of sensillum ... Liu, Z., Liang, X.-F., Xu, L., Keesey, I., Lei, Z.-R., Smagghe, G., Wang, J.-J. (2020). An antennae specific odorant-binding ...
Electroantennogram and Single Sensillum Recording in Insect Antennae Shannon B. Olsson, Bill S. Hansson ...
The antennae harbour sensory sensilla, many of which are dedicated to pheromone reception. These sensilla transform the ... likely due to longer antennae supporting a higher number of sensilla. Moreover, U. lugens males adjust their investment in ... Sexual selection on receptor organ traits: younger females attract males with longer antennae. . Sci. Nat., 104. , 44. . DOI:. ... Sexual selection on receptor organ traits: younger females attract males with longer antennae. . Sci. Nat., 104. , 44. . DOI:. ...
Morphology of Larval Antennae and Mouthparts of Four Indian Sand... The Antennal Sensilla of Species of the Palpalis Group ( ... Antennal Sensilla of Cryptorhynchus lapathi L. (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) Ultrastructure of Sensilla on Larvae and Adults of ... Morphological Characterization and Distribution of Sensilla on Maxillary Palpi of... Effects of the Antennal Sensilla ... The cephalic capsule bears two types of sensillae-a multibranched sensillum and a multiporous peg sensillum. The multibranched ...
Antennae 7-segmented. Head wider than long, with 2 pairs of ocellar setae; pair III small and arising on anterior margins or ... campaniform sensilla absent. Forewing first vein usually with 4 (2-6) setae on distal half, second vein with about 15 setae. ...
grouped into olfactory sensilla located mainly on the antennae. The functional significance. of this co-localization principle ... grouped into olfactory sensilla located mainly on the antennae. The functional significance. of this co-localization principle ... grouped into olfactory sensilla located mainly on the antennae. The functional significance,br/,,br, of this co-localization ... verbenone is detected by OSNs in other sensilla, not co-localized with pheromone OSNs.. 3. Consistent with the hypothesis, trap ...
  • In another experiment, insects that had their antennae treated with SNAC were less attracted than the control group to a CO 2 source. (eje.cz)
  • BOEKHOFF I., SEIFERT E., GOGGERLE S., LINDEMANN M., KRUGER B.-W. & BREER H. 1993: Pheromone-induced second messenger signalling in insect antennae. (eje.cz)
  • FLORES G.B. & LAZZARI C.R. 1996: The role of the antennae in Triatoma infestans: orientation towards thermal sources. (eje.cz)
  • We also describe the ultrastructure of the antennal sensilla types in S. guani and compare them to 19 species of parasitic Hymenoptera. (ijbs.com)
  • Given that the numbers of OBPs and CSPs in many insect species greatly outnumber their antennal sensilla types, it is germane to suggest such phenomenon could be the rule rather than the exception. (ijbs.com)
  • Scanning electron microscopy was used to further elucidate the function of the antennal sensilla and their type, number, and distribution in M. separata . (bioone.org)
  • This study provides new data on the typology and sensillary distribution of antennal sensilla of this fly . (bvsalud.org)
  • Single-sensillum recordings were carried out to explore characteristics of male-specific sensilla on the antennae, and in vivo calcium imaging combined with digital 3D-reconstruction was used to describe what happens in the macroglomerular complex (MGC) of the AL. (frontiersin.org)
  • Single-sensillum recordings showed that the BmorOR1-expressing neurons in the transgenic flies responded to the B. mori pheromone bombykol, albeit with low sensitivity. (jove.com)
  • 2009). Field attractants for Pachnoda interrupta selected by means of GC-EAD and single sensillum screening. (slu.se)
  • use of gas chromatography-linked single sensillum recordings," The Journal of Experimental Biology , vol. 211, no. 18, pp. 3020-3027, 2008. (hindawi.com)
  • Anti-OBP2 is specifically labeled in DWPS-II, whereas the anti-OBP1 shows a broad spectrum of immunoactivity toward four different sensilla (LSB, SP, ST-I and ST-II). (ijbs.com)
  • Generalist ORNs, tuned to a broad range of odors, moderate specialist ORNs and 2 ORNs tuned to only one odor were identified in different sensilla types. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In both sexes, the maxillary palpi are short, the antennae are non-plumose and longer than the proboscis, and the scutum is covered with narrow brown scales and numerous long setae. (ufl.edu)
  • Legs and antennae much paler, greyish, with yellowish setae. (plazi.org)
  • Males with very large, feathery antennae, such as those of the giant silkworm moths, can locate females from 5 to 6 km (3 to 4 miles) away and may form courting swarms about them. (britannica.com)
  • In most moths the antennae are slender and tapering, although in some the surface area of the antennae is greatly enlarged by many side branches that make them comblike or featherlike. (britannica.com)
  • Male moths have evolved intricate scale arrangements on their antennae to enhance detection of female sex pheromones, which allows them to keep their antennae small enough to maximise flying, new research suggests. (eurekalert.org)
  • Darwin predicted that sexual selection, arising from competition among males, would favour more elaborate antennae in male moths, as they ensure more rapid detection of female sex pheromones. (eurekalert.org)
  • Conventional wisdom is that the feathery, bipectinate antennae in moths, arranged like two combs with numerous branches, provide a larger surface area to house the pheromone-detecting sensilla. (eurekalert.org)
  • But what we see in nature is that the majority of moth species have simple, filamentous-shaped antennae, which led us to ask why, if they are better at detecting sex pheromones, bipectinate antennae are less common in moths. (eurekalert.org)
  • To understand this evolutionary dilemma, the team used scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to build finely detailed three-dimensional models of the structure of the filamentous antennae in Heliozelidae moths. (eurekalert.org)
  • Then they used computational fluid dynamics techniques to simulate the airflow field around the model antennae of moths of different sizes and scale arrangements. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is particularly important for species, like moths, that cannot groom the full length of their antennae. (eurekalert.org)
  • For smaller moths with filamentous antennae, antennal scales improve signal detection by 25-48 per cent. (eurekalert.org)
  • More complex, bipectinate antennae may be favoured in large moths because they offer an additional surface area that can support more sensilla and thus a greater capacity to perceive chemical signals. (eurekalert.org)
  • Antennae of the tobacco hornworm moths Manduca sexta contain an aldehyde oxidase (AOX) that oxidizes aldehydes to carboxylic acids. (jneurosci.org)
  • Compared to wild moths, domesticated silkmoths seem to have less ability to smell environmental odors with their antennae and to locate host plants due to several millennia in captivity. (innovations-report.com)
  • Our previous electrophysiological and morphological studies showed sensilla which house receptor cells for plant or insect odors appear during the final molt from fifth instar nymph to adult in the TPB. (usda.gov)
  • By creating an area with slow airflow around the antennae, the scales ensure pheromones linger within the detection zone, thereby increasing the efficiency with which they interact with receptor. (eurekalert.org)
  • The team also found different types of scale arrangements, which ranged from those aligned parallel to antennae to those arranged in complete rings around the antennae, changed how well the scales functioned to concentrate sex pheromones to the receptor regions in the sensilla. (eurekalert.org)
  • Somewhere inside that sensillum, the odor molecule gets in, is picked up by a binding protein, goes to a receptor protein, and that triggers the behavioral response,' said Field. (wired.com)
  • Pubmed ID: 17060610 We have expressed a male-specific, pheromone-sensitive odorant receptor (OR), BmorOR1, from the silkworm moth Bombyx mori in an "empty neuron" housed in the ab3 sensilla of a Drosophila Deltahalo mutant. (jove.com)
  • When the semiochemicals were delivered by the conventional puffing of stimulus on the antennae, the receptor responded to bombykol but not to bombykal. (jove.com)
  • OBPs are believed to transport hydrophobic odorants through the aqueous fluid within olfactory sensilla to the underlying receptor proteins. (genetics.org)
  • Ectopic expression of BmOR1 in female antennae conferred electrophysiological responses to bombykol, providing evidence that BmOR1 is a bombykol receptor ( 9 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • with many microscopic receptors (sensilla) for detecting odours. (britannica.com)
  • We first generate transcriptomes from the antennae of adult males and females and identify, via homology searches, putative olfactory proteins of three different families: odorant binding proteins, odorant receptors, and chemosensory proteins (CSPs). (frontiersin.org)
  • in particular, the OBP(s) present in a particular olfactory sensillum might determine the spectrum of odorants to which the underlying receptors have access. (genetics.org)
  • This difference in Gr gene expression diversity between the sexes is accompanied by a striking sexual dimorphism in the abundance of gustatory sensilla on the forelegs of H. melpomene , suggesting that female oviposition behaviour drives the evolution of new gustatory receptors in butterfly genomes. (plos.org)
  • What kind of chemical receptors does the Lasius niger have in its antennae and what kind of chemical substances can they smell? (antweb.org)
  • I am not able to find the answer to the following question: What kind of chemical receptors does the Lasius niger have in his antennae? (antweb.org)
  • Ants have many receptors for different odorants (scents) in their antennae, but they also have receptors for sugar and other substances that you would call tastants in humans (substances that elicit a taste feeling, like sweet, sour, bitter or salty). (antweb.org)
  • The majority of receptors on an ant antenna are odor receptors, ant ants have very high numbers of different odor receptors, so they can discriminate many different odors, perhaps more than any other insect that has been studied in this respect. (antweb.org)
  • J. Meijerink, M. A. H. Braks, and J. J. A. van Loon, "Olfactory receptors on the antennae of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae are sensitive to ammonia and other sweat-borne components," Journal of Insect Physiology , vol. 47, no. 4-5, pp. 455-464, 2001. (hindawi.com)
  • All subtypes of male-specific sensilla identified in the two species were found in the male hybrids and backcrosses. (frontiersin.org)
  • The multibranched sensillum was a structure not previously reported for the granary weevil or any other insect species, and is distinguished by its torpedo-shaped appearance. (bioone.org)
  • The present study provides new data on the morphology and distribution of the labial tip sensilla of 41 species of 20 gerromorphan (sub)families (Heteroptera: Gerromorpha) obtained using a scanning electron microscope. (eje.cz)
  • In the domesticated species the number of sensilla is considerably reduced (left) in comparison to its closely related wild ancestor (right). (innovations-report.com)
  • In some moth species, male adults possess pectinate antennae which detect the tiny amounts of sexual pheromones emitted by females. (utwente.nl)
  • Each sensillum contains between 1 and 4 ORNs (red and dark blue, respectively). (slideserve.com)
  • ORNs are embedded in a layer of support cells (light green) that secrete proteins such as OBPs (orange and light blue) into the sensillum lymph. (slideserve.com)
  • نظم الشمية الحشرات توفر فرصا فريدة لردود الرائحة الناجمة عن التسجيل في أشكال electroantennograms (EAG) وتسجيلات sensillum واحد (SSR) ، والتي تتلخص ردود من جميع الخلايا العصبية مستقبلات الرائحة (ORNs) الموجود على هوائي وعن تلك الموجودة في الفردي sensilla ، على التوالي. (jove.com)
  • Odorants can enter the sensillum lymph via pores in the cuticle and cross the lymph in a hitherto still debated way that may involve OBPs as transport vehicles. (slideserve.com)
  • The antenna consists of eight segments arranged on the scape, pedicel, and flagellum. (bioone.org)
  • They are found in the second segment (pedicel) of the antennae, and each detects minute motion of the end segment (flagellum). (beeculture.com)
  • On each three-segmented antenna, from the basal scape, there is a pedicel and a flagellum composed of 70-80 subsegments. (bioone.org)
  • In addition, the HvirGABA B -R1 specific probe also labelled several cells under shorter olfactory sensilla, but never stained cells under mechanosensory/gustatory sensilla chaetica. (ijbs.com)
  • To assess whether HvirGABA B -R1 is expressed in OSNs of male antenna we performed whole-mount in situ hybridization (WM-ISH) experiments. (ijbs.com)
  • 1,8-Cineole is detected by an OSN co-localized with an OSN for one of the pheromone components, while verbenone is detected by OSNs in other sensilla, not co-localized with pheromone OSNs. (lu.se)
  • 4. Our data from the beetle provide, for the first time, direct experimental support for the hypothesis that co-localization of OSNs in sensilla improves the discrimination of closely separated odour sources. (lu.se)
  • verbenone is detected by OSNs in other sensilla, not co-localized with pheromone OSNs. (lu.se)
  • B , Extracellular SSRs of action potentials in an ab3 sensillum, which contains OR22a-expressing OSNs. (nih.gov)
  • When called for, we will do more of such neuroanatomy, but now we have become increasingly interested in the adsorption and transport of odorant molecules into the sensillum lumen, followed by transduction into neuronal action potentials (see next section). (psu.edu)
  • A critical step in the olfaction process is the capture of pheromone molecules which depends heavily on the shape of the antennae. (utwente.nl)
  • In this work, we investigated whether and how the shape of the pectinate antenna influences its efficiency at capturing pheromone molecules. (utwente.nl)
  • We found that the efficiency of the antenna is limited by both the leakiness of the antenna, which increases with air velocity, and the local capture, which is the proportion of molecules captured in the part of the airflow passing through the antenna and which decreases with air velocity. (utwente.nl)
  • The researchers then attached electrodes to their mosquitoes' antennae, allowing them to monitor responses to DEET and other compounds. (wired.com)
  • In DEET-resistant mosquitoes, those sensillum are shaped unusually. (wired.com)
  • They look similar to mosquitoes of the genus Culex , but have much longer antennae. (ufl.edu)
  • The fourth stage larva of Deinocerites cancer can be distinguished from those of other Florida mosquitoes by its round head, which is widest near the bases of the antennae, an anal segment with dorsal and ventral sclerotized plates, and a single pair of short bulbous anal gills. (ufl.edu)
  • N.M. Abd El-Ghany and S.E. Abd El-Aziz "External Morphology of Antennae and Mouthpart Sensillae of the Granary Weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae)," Journal of Entomological Science 52(1), 29-38, (1 January 2017). (bioone.org)
  • Altner H. 1977: Insect sensillum specificity and structure: an approach to a new typology. (eje.cz)
  • Altner H., Sass H. & Altner I. 1977: Relationship between structure and function of antennal chemo-, hygro-, and thermoreceptive sensilla in Periplaneta americana. (eje.cz)
  • Seven enhancer trap lines showing reporter gene expression in both the larval AMC and in certain subsets of the adult antenna are described. (nih.gov)
  • In this work, nitroso-acetyl-cysteine (SNAC), a nitric oxide donor, was topically applied to the antennae of fifth instar nymphs of R. prolixus . (eje.cz)
  • Whereas aldehyde oxidase enzymatic activities have been demonstrated in insect antennae by previous biochemical studies, the corresponding enzymes have never been characterized at the molecular level. (nih.gov)
  • The immunoblot analyses with antisera raised against recombinant SguaOBP1, OBP2, and CSP1, respectively, indicate that two SguaOBPs are specific to antennae, whereas SguaCSP1, which are more abundant than OBPs and detected in both male and female wasps, expresses ubiquitously across different tissues. (ijbs.com)
  • Recordings are representative of those obtained from four flies and 10 sensilla per concentration. (nih.gov)