Antarctic Regions: The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)Moon: The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.Ice: The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.Saturn: The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Elementary Particles: Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Indian Ocean: A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Spheniscidae: The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.Weather: The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Islands: Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.Altitude: A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.Global Warming: Increase in the temperature of the atmosphere near the Earth's surface and in the troposphere, which can contribute to changes in global climate patterns.Sea Urchins: Somewhat flattened, globular echinoderms, having thin, brittle shells of calcareous plates. They are useful models for studying FERTILIZATION and EMBRYO DEVELOPMENT.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Greenhouse Effect: The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Climate Change: Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.Psychophysiology: The study of the physiological basis of human and animal behavior.Monitoring, Ambulatory: The use of electronic equipment to observe or record physiologic processes while the patient undergoes normal daily activities.Quality of Life: A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.Emotions: Those affective states which can be experienced and have arousing and motivational properties.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Africa, Northern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ALGERIA; EGYPT; LIBYA; MOROCCO; and TUNISIA. It includes also the vast deserts and oases of the Sahara. It is often referred to as North Africa, French-speaking Africa, or the Maghreb. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p856)Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Cyclonic Storms: Non-frontal low-pressure systems over tropical or sub-tropical waters with organized convection and definite pattern of surface wind circulation.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lakes: Inland bodies of still or slowly moving FRESH WATER or salt water, larger than a pond, and supplied by RIVERS and streams.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Molteno Implants: Devices implanted to control intraocular pressure by allowing aqueous fluid to drain from the anterior chamber. (Hoffman, Pocket Glossary of Ophthalmologic Terminology, 1989)New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Great Lakes Region: The geographic area of the Great Lakes in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. It usually includes Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Minnesota, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, and Wisconsin.Fellowships and Scholarships: Stipends or grants-in-aid granted by foundations or institutions to individuals for study.Universities: Educational institutions providing facilities for teaching and research and authorized to grant academic degrees.Wilderness: Environment un-modified by human activity. Areas in which natural processes operate without human interference.Wilderness Medicine: Skills and knowledge required for assessment and treatment of traumatic, environmental, and medical emergencies in remote geographic or wilderness environments.Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Congo: A republic in central Africa lying between GABON and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and south of Cameroon. Its capital is Brazzaville.Emergency Responders: Personnel trained to provide the initial services, care, and support in EMERGENCIES or DISASTERS.Fur Seals: A group comprised of several species of eared seals found in two genera, in the family Otariidae. In comparison to SEA LIONS, they have an especially dense wooly undercoat.Atlantic Islands: Widely scattered islands in the Atlantic Ocean as far north as the AZORES and as far south as the South Sandwich Islands, with the greatest concentration found in the CARIBBEAN REGION. They include Annobon Island, Ascension, Canary Islands, Falkland Islands, Fernando Po (also called Isla de Bioko and Bioko), Gough Island, Madeira, Sao Tome and Principe, Saint Helena, and Tristan da Cunha.Antelopes: Any of various ruminant mammals of the order Bovidae. They include numerous species in Africa and the American pronghorn.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Technology: The application of scientific knowledge to practical purposes in any field. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation.Physiology: The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.

Bulbus arteriosus of the antarctic teleosts. I. The white-blooded Chionodraco hamatus. (1/765)

The bulbus arteriosus of teleost fish is a thick-walled chamber that extends between the single ventricle and the ventral aorta. The functional importance of the bulbus resides in the fact that it maintains a steady blood flow into the gill system through heart contraction. Despite of this, a thorough study of the structure of the bulbus in teleost fish is still lacking. We have undertaken a morphologic study of the bulbus arteriosus in the stenothermal teleosts of the Antarctic sea. The structural organization of the bulbus arteriosus of the icefish Chionodraco hamatus has been studied here by conventional light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The inner surface of the bulbus shows a festooned appearance due to the presence of longitudinal, unbranched ridges that extend between the ventricle and the arterial trunk. The wall of the bulbus is divided into endocardial, subendocardial, middle, and external layers. Endocardial cells show a large number of moderately-dense bodies. The endocardium invaginates into the subendocardium forming solid epithelial cords that contain numerous secretory vacuoles. Cells in the subendocardium group into small domains, have some of the morphological characteristics of smooth muscle cells, and appear enmeshed in a three-dimensional network of matrix filaments. Cells in the middle layer are typical smooth muscle cells. They appear arranged into layers and are surrounded by a filamentous meshwork that excludes collagen fibers. Orientation of this meshwork occurs in the vicinity of the smooth muscle cells. Elastin fibers are never observed. The external layer is formed by wavy collagen bundles and fibroblast-like cells. This layer lacks blood vessels and nerve fibers. The endocardium and the endocardium-derived cords are secretory epithelia that may be involved in the formation ofmucins or glycosaminoglycans. These mucins may have a protecting effect on the endocardium. The subendocardium and the middle layer appear to be formed by the same cell type, smooth muscle, with a gradient of differentiation from the secretory (subendocardium) to the contractile (middle layer) phenotype. Despite the absence of elastin fibers, the filamentous matrix could maintain the elastic properties of the bulbus wall. Smooth muscle cells appear to be actively involved in bulbus wall dynamics. The restriction of collagen to the external layer suggests that it may control wall dilatation and bulbus compliance. When comparison was possible, structural differences between C. hamatus and temperate teleosts seemed to be not species-related, but of phenotypic adaptative significance. This is remarkable since Antarctic fishes have lived isolated in freezing waters for the last two million years.  (+info)

Prolonged eradication of urogenital mycoplasmas after administration of tetracycline to men in the Antarctic. (2/765)

Meatal swabs were obtained at intervals over 1 year from 23 men in the Antarctic. A 5-day course of tetracycline was given to twelve of them. In retrospect it was found that the antibiotic had been received by two men who were harbouring ureaplasmas, one of whom also had M. hominis. After treatment, these organisms were not found in any of the swabs taken over the next year, except in a swab from one of the men following sexual contact after this time. One of the twelve men developed N.S.U. just before arriving in the Antarctic. He responded clinically to a shorter course of tetracycline and ureplasmas were not recovered from a meatal swab immediately thereafter. However, without further sexual contact, ureaplasmas and disease recurred about a month later. This time, after a 5-day course of tetracycline, disease was not seen, and ureaplasmas were not isolated, over the next year. In contrast, ureaplasmas were isolated consistently over a year from two men who were not given the antibiotic. The evidence strongly suggests that, under natural conditions, the most likely cause of mycoplasmas, particularly ureaplasmas, recurring in the genital tract after apparently adequate tetracycline therapy, is re-infection as a result of sexual re-exposure.  (+info)

A RNA polymerase with transcriptional activity at 0 degrees C from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. (3/765)

A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was purified from the Antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. The RNA polymerase showed a typical eubacterial subunit composition with beta, beta', alpha2 and sigma subunits. The subunits cross-reacted with antibodies raised against holoenzyme and the individual subunits of the RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli. However, the enzyme was considered unique, since unlike the RNA polymerase of mesophilic E. coli it exhibited significant and consistent transcriptional activity (10-15%) even at 0 degrees C. But, similar to the enzyme from the mesophilic bacterium, the RNA polymerase from P. syringae exhibited optimum activity at 37 degrees C. The study also demonstrates that the RNA polymerase of P. syringae could preferentially transcribe the cold-inducible gene cspA of E. coli only at lower temperatures (0-22 degrees C). The polymerase was also observed to be relatively more rifampicin-resistant during transcription at lower temperature.  (+info)

Metallothioneins in antarctic fish: evidence for independent duplication and gene conversion. (4/765)

In the present paper, we examine eight species of Antarctic fish belonging to the suborder Notothenioidei, using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, to investigate the presence of mRNAs encoding metallothionein (MT) isoforms. A total of 168 bp from the coding region and the complete (133-165 bp) 3' untranslated region (UTR) was obtained for all species (for three of them, we also sequenced the full-length cDNA, including the 5' UTR). Phylogenetic analyses carried out on the MT-coding region suggest monophyly for Antarctic fish MTs with respect to other teleost MT genes. Analyses also revealed that notothenioid MTs can be divided into at least two groups of paralogy, MT-1 and MT-2. These results indicate that notothenioid MT isoforms arose from at least one gene duplication event occurring in the ancestral lineage of the Notothenioidei. This duplication occurred independent of the one which gave origin to two metallothionein isoforms in the rainbow trout. In addition, an instance of gene conversion was observed between MT-1 and MT-2 genes in Notothenia coriiceps. Analyses of the 5' UTR, combined with quantitative assay of differential expression of MT-1 and MT-2, indicate that only the 3' UTR underwent a gene conversion event in the mentioned species. These findings, together with the observation of a differential pattern of expression for the two MT isoforms, disclose an unexpected complexity in the evolution and function of notothenioid MTs; as in most teleost species examined (apart from the rainbow trout), a single MT form is present.  (+info)

Determination of the solution structure of the N-domain plus linker of Antarctic eel pout antifreeze protein RD3. (5/765)

RD3, a new antifreeze protein (AFP) extracted from antarctic eel pout is a single polypeptide divided into homologous N-terminal (residues Asn(1)-Glu(64)) and C-terminal (residues Ser(74)-Glu(134)) domains, each of which has a high sequence identity with Type III AFP. A 9-residue linker (-D(65)GTTSPGLK(73)-) connects these two domains in tandem and is thought to play a significant role in defining the nature of the intact molecule. The present paper shows for the first time the solution structure and preliminary (15)N-NMR backbone dynamics data of the N-domain plus the linker of recombinant RD3 protein (RD3-Nl: residues 1-73) by employing homo- and heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Forty converged structures of RD3-Nl were successfully calculated by using a total of 958 NMR-derived structural restraints. It was found that the N-domain of RD3-Nl has a globular form comprising six beta-strands, three type III turns, and several loops, which stabilize a flat, ice-binding site formed on one side of this domain. Further, the linker portion appears to have a definitive structure, which is independent of the globular N-domain. This definitive linker is roughly divided into two short strands, -D(65)GTTSP(70)- and -G(71)LK(73)-, which are bent around -T(67)TSPG(71)- at an angle of approximately 60 degrees. This bending motif of the linker may function to orient the two ice-binding sites of the N- and C-domains of RD3 in the same direction, leading to their simultaneous interactions with the ice crystal surface.  (+info)

Physicochemical parameters for growth of the sea ice bacteria Glaciecola punicea ACAM 611(T) and Gelidibacter sp. strain IC158. (6/765)

The water activity and pH ranges for growth of Glaciecola punicea (a psychrophile) were extended when this organism was grown at suboptimal rather than optimal temperatures. No such extension was observed for Gelidibacter sp. strain IC158 (a psychrotolerant bacterium) at analogous temperatures. Salinity and pH may be primary physicochemical parameters controlling bacterial community development in sea ice.  (+info)

Temperature-dependent expression of cytochrome-c oxidase in Antarctic and temperate fish. (7/765)

Seasonal acclimation versus permanent adaptation to low temperatures leads to a differential response in the expression of cytochrome-c oxidase (CCO) in temperate and Antarctic eelpouts. Although eurythermal eelpout from the North Sea (Zoarces viviparus) displayed a cold-induced rise of CCO activity in white muscle, enzyme activity in the cold stenothermal Antarctic eelpout Pachycara brachycephalum failed to reflect such a compensatory increase. In Antarctic eelpout, CCO activity correlates with transcript levels of mitochondrial encoded subunits of CCO (CCO I and CCO II), whereas cold-acclimated eelpout from the North Sea show lower enzyme activities than expected on the basis of mitochondrial mRNA levels. In these animals, CCO expression at low temperatures may be limited either by nuclear CCO transcripts or by posttranscriptional processes. These may comprise translation of the subunits or assembly of the CCO holoenzyme. mRNA levels of CCO IV, one of the nuclear encoded subunits, increased strongly during cold acclimation, indicating that the expression of CCO is likely not message limited in cold-acclimated Z. viviparus. Our data suggest that seasonal cold acclimation of Z. viviparus results in a modification of the relationship between transcription and translation or posttranslational processes. In permanently cold-adapted P. brachycephalum, on the other hand, CCO expression shows similar characteristics as in the warm-acclimated confamilial species, e.g., low levels of enzyme activity correlated with low levels of mitochondrial message.  (+info)

Cold-adapted alanine dehydrogenases from two antarctic bacterial strains: gene cloning, protein characterization, and comparison with mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. (8/765)

The genes encoding NAD(+)-dependent alanine dehydrogenases (AlaDHs) (EC from the Antarctic bacterial organisms Shewanella sp. strain Ac10 (SheAlaDH) and Carnobacterium sp. strain St2 (CarAlaDH) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Of all of the AlaDHs that have been sequenced, SheAlaDH exhibited the highest level of sequence similarity to the AlaDH from the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio proteolyticus (VprAlaDH). CarAlaDH was most similar to AlaDHs from mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus strains. SheAlaDH and CarAlaDH had features typical of cold-adapted enzymes; both the optimal temperature for catalytic activity and the temperature limit for retaining thermostability were lower than the values obtained for the mesophilic counterparts. The k(cat)/K(m) value for the SheAlaDH reaction was about three times higher than the k(cat)/K(m) value for VprAlaDH, but it was much lower than the k(cat)/K(m) value for the AlaDH from Bacillus subtilis. Homology-based structural models of various AlaDHs, including the two psychotropic AlaDHs, were constructed. The thermal instability of SheAlaDH and CarAlaDH may result from relatively low numbers of salt bridges in these proteins.  (+info)

  • The U.S. AMLR Program is internationally recognized for its ongoing contributions to ecosystem-based management of fisheries that impact krill, finfishes, krill-dependent predators, and other components of the Antarctic ecosystem. (
  • In this study, we examined the virus community structures of 14 soil samples from the Mackay Glacier region. (
  • The pattern of viral community structure with higher levels of diversity at lower altitude and pH, and co-occurring viral families, suggests that these cold desert soil viruses interact with each other, the host, and the environment in an intricate manner, playing a potentially crucial role in maintaining host diversity and functioning of the microbial ecosystem in the extreme environments of Antarctic soil. (
  • Hydrocarbon removal and bacterial community structure in on-site biostimulated biopile systems designed for bioremediation of diesel-contaminated Antarctic soil. (
  • The Antarctic Ecosystem Research Division ( AERD ) conducts research to fulfill NOAA's mandate of providing scientific advice that supports United States (U.S.) interests related to resource management by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources ( CCAMLR ), of which the U.S. is a Member. (
  • NOAA Fisheries' Antarctic research is mandated by the U.S. Antarctic Marine Living Resources (AMLR) Convention Act of 1984, thus the program of work undertaken and managed by the AERD is widely known as the U.S. AMLR Program. (
  • Heavy metals in sediments and soft tissues of the Antarctic clam Laternula elliptica: more evidence as possible biomonitor of coastal marine pollution at high latitute? (
  • Proposals requesting Antarctic fieldwork should be submitted no less than eighteen months prior to the desired deployment. (
  • Our fieldwork at the Antarctic base Carlini was supported by Instituto Antártico Argentino, the University of Buenos Aires, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina. (
  • In a science campaign of unprecedented challenge, researchers recently completed the first substantial climate measurements on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in 50 years. (
  • The mechanisms behind West Antarctic warming remain a mystery, but scientists hypothesize a linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm clouds and the surface energy balance over this ice sheet may play a role. (
  • The second ARM Mobile Facility collected data at McMurdo Station for the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). (
  • The campaign, called the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) , was motivated by a need to collect a sophisticated, complete atmospheric data set to elucidate West Antarctica's rapid warming. (
  • 2009. Reassessment of the potential sea-level rise from a collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet. (
  • These observations need to be taken into account when considering the potential for irreversible retreat of parts of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. (
  • The French Southern and Antarctic Lands have formed a territoire d'outre-mer (an overseas territory) of France since 1955. (
  • Novel psychrotolerant bacterial strains were isolated from the Antarctic Dry Valleys, an environmental analogue of the martian surface, and identified by 16S rRNA gene phylogeny as representatives of Brevundimonas, Rhodococcus, and Pseudomonas genera. (
  • A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed to characterize dissimilatory iron-reducing strains mostly isolated from Antarctic sea ice. (
  • The workshop, sponsored by the joint BNL-SBU Center for Impacts of Regional Climate Change (CIRCC), is designed to give high school science teachers the tools they need to teach about climate change in the Polar regions. (
  • 2014). Solution and crystal structure of BA42, a protein from the Antarctic bacterium Bizionia argentinensis comprised of a stand-alone TPM domain. (
  • Ascidian extracts and purified compound-fractions were further assessed in antibacterial tests against a marine Antarctic bacterium. (
  • They conclude that further study of local carbon production and transport would help to understand the limited effects of local black carbon production on the Dry Valleys ecosystem, compared to the effects of windblown sediments, commonly deposited in the ablation regions of the glaciers, that have been shown to influence melt. (
  • The Dry Valleys, by contrast, are ice-free, mountainous regions, interspersed with glaciers, where little snow accumulates because they are scoured by winds. (
  • Continuous year round records of atmospheric sea-salt concentrations have been recovered at three coastal Antarctic stations (Halley, Dumont D'Urville, and Neumayer) at temporal resolutions typically between 1 day and 2 weeks. (
  • Coastal communities, especially in low-lying regions, will be increasingly vulnerable to flooding as sea level rises , especially where tropical storm events are common. (
  • We just have to commit to increasing the number and types of coastal regions being studied. (
  • Leidos is seeking an IT and Communications Operations Manager within the Leidos Antarctic Support Contract (ASC) to manage the operations and maintenance of the Information Technology and Communications infrastructure for the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). (
  • To our knowledge, these are the first high time resolution aerosol composition measurements reported in the sea ice region of the Weddell Sea. (
  • Here we demonstrate that concurrent upper-ocean preconditioning and meteorological perturbations are responsible for the appearance of polynyas in the Weddell Sea region of the Southern Ocean. (
  • The flora of the Antarctic Kingdom dates back to the time of Gondwana, the southern supercontinent which once included most of the landmasses of the present-day Southern Hemisphere, though it has been influenced by the flora of the Holarctic Kingdom since the Tertiary period. (
  • This supports the hypothesis that long-term survival took place in glacial refugia, resulting in a specific Antarctic flora. (
  • Antarctic notothenioid fishes and several northern cods are phylogenetically distant (in different orders and superorders), yet produce near-identical antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) to survive in their respective freezing environments. (
  • First, although Antarctic notothenioid AFGP genes have been shown to originate from a pancreatic trypsinogen, Arctic cod AFGP genes share no sequence identity with the trypsinogen gene, indicating trypsinogen is not the progenitor. (
  • The most striking example of evolution of the same type of antifreeze protein in unrelated fishes is the near-identical antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) in the Antarctic notothenioid fishes and several northern cods of the family Gadidae ( 8 , 9 ). (
  • Notothenioid AFGP genes have recently been discovered to evolve from a trypsinogen gene through recruitment of segments of the trypsinogen sequence, plus de novo amplification of a 9-nt Thr-Ala-Ala coding element from the trypsinogen progenitor, to form a new coding region for the repetitive tripeptide backbone of AFGPs ( 12 ). (
  • An accurate projection of climate dynamics in the Southern Ocean, therefore, requires a sound assessment of aerosol precursor emissions from the sea ice region ecosystem. (
  • whether their focus is scrutinizing the surface energy balance from multiple locations, analyzing aerosol data, or providing meteorological insight at multiple scales via climate modeling and satellite remote sensing-each disparate effort exponentially strengthens the ultimate goal: interpreting new Antarctic data and creating more accurate, more complete earth system models and predications. (
  • The experts found very few substantial bodies of water, which is a surprising result: up to that point, the scientific community had assumed that overflowing lakes below the East Antarctic Ice Sheet were the reason that ice masses began sliding and forming ice streams to begin with. (
French Southern and Antarctic Lands - Wikipedia
French Southern and Antarctic Lands - Wikipedia (
May 11, 1901 - Scientific American
May 11, 1901 - Scientific American (
Earth Times: show/15903.html
Earth Times: show/15903.html (
Antarctic offshore polynyas linked to Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies | Nature
Antarctic offshore polynyas linked to Southern Hemisphere climate anomalies | Nature (
Antarctic base records hottest temperature ever - Reuters
Antarctic base records hottest temperature ever - Reuters (
Antarctic ice shelf melt accelerating, study finds -
Antarctic ice shelf melt accelerating, study finds - (
Early Balding May Be Linked with Lou Gehrig's Disease | Live Science
Early Balding May Be Linked with Lou Gehrig's Disease | Live Science (
Low IQ & Conservative Beliefs Linked to Prejudice | Live Science
Low IQ & Conservative Beliefs Linked to Prejudice | Live Science (
Key Found to Rare Genetic Disease Hamamy Syndrome | Live Science
Key Found to Rare Genetic Disease Hamamy Syndrome | Live Science (
George Michael's Death: What Causes 'Dilated Cardiomyopathy'? | Live Science
George Michael's Death: What Causes 'Dilated Cardiomyopathy'? | Live Science (
Antarctic Treaty System - The Full Wiki
Antarctic Treaty System - The Full Wiki (
Antarctica - Wikitravel
Antarctica - Wikitravel (
Global Women's Leadership Initiative - Research | Wilson Center
Global Women's Leadership Initiative - Research | Wilson Center (
Urban Sustainability Laboratory - Research | Wilson Center
Urban Sustainability Laboratory - Research | Wilson Center (
Search Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education
Search Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education (
Research topic  Community ecology - Publication - British Antarctic Survey
Research topic Community ecology - Publication - British Antarctic Survey (
Field research on the effects of UV-B filters on terrestrial Antarctic vegetation | SpringerLink
Field research on the effects of UV-B filters on terrestrial Antarctic vegetation | SpringerLink (
Earth vs. Mars: Polar Regions Compared
Earth vs. Mars: Polar Regions Compared (
Andrew Davies - ABC Radio National
Andrew Davies - ABC Radio National (
Climate Change 2007 - Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability - Cambridge University Press
Climate Change 2007 - Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability - Cambridge University Press (
Same Species, Polar Opposites: The Mystery of Identical Creatures Found in both Arctic and Antarctic Waters [Slide Show] -...
Same Species, Polar Opposites: The Mystery of Identical Creatures Found in both Arctic and Antarctic Waters [Slide Show] -... (
National Snow and Ice Data Center
National Snow and Ice Data Center (
Environment - - Sofia News Agency, Bulgarian news in English, EU, world
Environment - - Sofia News Agency, Bulgarian news in English, EU, world (
Blog | GREENPEACE New Zealand
Blog | GREENPEACE New Zealand (
The Arctic is melting much faster than Antarctic. That impacts all of us.
The Arctic is melting much faster than Antarctic. That impacts all of us. (
Marine Drugs | Free Full-Text | Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera Aplidium and Synoicum:...
Marine Drugs | Free Full-Text | Natural Products from Antarctic Colonial Ascidians of the Genera Aplidium and Synoicum:... (
References | Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean | The National Academies Press
References | Future Science Opportunities in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean | The National Academies Press (
The Science Of Why The North Pole Is Cold
The Science Of Why The North Pole Is Cold (
Antarctic sea ice region as a source of biogenic organic nitrogen in aerosols | Scientific Reports
Antarctic sea ice region as a source of biogenic organic nitrogen in aerosols | Scientific Reports (
Protecting Antarctica, the heart of the ocean - Greenpeace International
Protecting Antarctica, the heart of the ocean - Greenpeace International (