The continent lying around the South Pole and the southern waters of the Atlantic, Pacific, and Indian Oceans. It includes the Falkland Islands Dependencies. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p55)
The natural satellite of the planet Earth. It includes the lunar cycles or phases, the lunar month, lunar landscapes, geography, and soil.
The solid substance formed by the FREEZING of water.
The sixth planet in order from the sun. It is one of the five outer planets of the solar system. Its twelve natural satellites include Phoebe and Titan.
The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.
Individual components of atoms, usually subatomic; subnuclear particles are usually detected only when the atomic nucleus decays and then only transiently, as most of them are unstable, often yielding pure energy without substance, i.e., radiation.
Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The sole family in the order Sphenisciformes, comprised of 17 species of penguins in six genera. They are flightless seabirds of the Southern Hemisphere, highly adapted for marine life.
The state of the ATMOSPHERE over minutes to months.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
Tracts of land completely surrounded by water.

Bulbus arteriosus of the antarctic teleosts. I. The white-blooded Chionodraco hamatus. (1/765)

The bulbus arteriosus of teleost fish is a thick-walled chamber that extends between the single ventricle and the ventral aorta. The functional importance of the bulbus resides in the fact that it maintains a steady blood flow into the gill system through heart contraction. Despite of this, a thorough study of the structure of the bulbus in teleost fish is still lacking. We have undertaken a morphologic study of the bulbus arteriosus in the stenothermal teleosts of the Antarctic sea. The structural organization of the bulbus arteriosus of the icefish Chionodraco hamatus has been studied here by conventional light, scanning, and transmission electron microscopy. The inner surface of the bulbus shows a festooned appearance due to the presence of longitudinal, unbranched ridges that extend between the ventricle and the arterial trunk. The wall of the bulbus is divided into endocardial, subendocardial, middle, and external layers. Endocardial cells show a large number of moderately-dense bodies. The endocardium invaginates into the subendocardium forming solid epithelial cords that contain numerous secretory vacuoles. Cells in the subendocardium group into small domains, have some of the morphological characteristics of smooth muscle cells, and appear enmeshed in a three-dimensional network of matrix filaments. Cells in the middle layer are typical smooth muscle cells. They appear arranged into layers and are surrounded by a filamentous meshwork that excludes collagen fibers. Orientation of this meshwork occurs in the vicinity of the smooth muscle cells. Elastin fibers are never observed. The external layer is formed by wavy collagen bundles and fibroblast-like cells. This layer lacks blood vessels and nerve fibers. The endocardium and the endocardium-derived cords are secretory epithelia that may be involved in the formation ofmucins or glycosaminoglycans. These mucins may have a protecting effect on the endocardium. The subendocardium and the middle layer appear to be formed by the same cell type, smooth muscle, with a gradient of differentiation from the secretory (subendocardium) to the contractile (middle layer) phenotype. Despite the absence of elastin fibers, the filamentous matrix could maintain the elastic properties of the bulbus wall. Smooth muscle cells appear to be actively involved in bulbus wall dynamics. The restriction of collagen to the external layer suggests that it may control wall dilatation and bulbus compliance. When comparison was possible, structural differences between C. hamatus and temperate teleosts seemed to be not species-related, but of phenotypic adaptative significance. This is remarkable since Antarctic fishes have lived isolated in freezing waters for the last two million years.  (+info)

Prolonged eradication of urogenital mycoplasmas after administration of tetracycline to men in the Antarctic. (2/765)

Meatal swabs were obtained at intervals over 1 year from 23 men in the Antarctic. A 5-day course of tetracycline was given to twelve of them. In retrospect it was found that the antibiotic had been received by two men who were harbouring ureaplasmas, one of whom also had M. hominis. After treatment, these organisms were not found in any of the swabs taken over the next year, except in a swab from one of the men following sexual contact after this time. One of the twelve men developed N.S.U. just before arriving in the Antarctic. He responded clinically to a shorter course of tetracycline and ureplasmas were not recovered from a meatal swab immediately thereafter. However, without further sexual contact, ureaplasmas and disease recurred about a month later. This time, after a 5-day course of tetracycline, disease was not seen, and ureaplasmas were not isolated, over the next year. In contrast, ureaplasmas were isolated consistently over a year from two men who were not given the antibiotic. The evidence strongly suggests that, under natural conditions, the most likely cause of mycoplasmas, particularly ureaplasmas, recurring in the genital tract after apparently adequate tetracycline therapy, is re-infection as a result of sexual re-exposure.  (+info)

A RNA polymerase with transcriptional activity at 0 degrees C from the Antarctic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. (3/765)

A DNA-dependent RNA polymerase was purified from the Antarctic psychrotrophic bacterium Pseudomonas syringae. The RNA polymerase showed a typical eubacterial subunit composition with beta, beta', alpha2 and sigma subunits. The subunits cross-reacted with antibodies raised against holoenzyme and the individual subunits of the RNA polymerase of Escherichia coli. However, the enzyme was considered unique, since unlike the RNA polymerase of mesophilic E. coli it exhibited significant and consistent transcriptional activity (10-15%) even at 0 degrees C. But, similar to the enzyme from the mesophilic bacterium, the RNA polymerase from P. syringae exhibited optimum activity at 37 degrees C. The study also demonstrates that the RNA polymerase of P. syringae could preferentially transcribe the cold-inducible gene cspA of E. coli only at lower temperatures (0-22 degrees C). The polymerase was also observed to be relatively more rifampicin-resistant during transcription at lower temperature.  (+info)

Metallothioneins in antarctic fish: evidence for independent duplication and gene conversion. (4/765)

In the present paper, we examine eight species of Antarctic fish belonging to the suborder Notothenioidei, using reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, to investigate the presence of mRNAs encoding metallothionein (MT) isoforms. A total of 168 bp from the coding region and the complete (133-165 bp) 3' untranslated region (UTR) was obtained for all species (for three of them, we also sequenced the full-length cDNA, including the 5' UTR). Phylogenetic analyses carried out on the MT-coding region suggest monophyly for Antarctic fish MTs with respect to other teleost MT genes. Analyses also revealed that notothenioid MTs can be divided into at least two groups of paralogy, MT-1 and MT-2. These results indicate that notothenioid MT isoforms arose from at least one gene duplication event occurring in the ancestral lineage of the Notothenioidei. This duplication occurred independent of the one which gave origin to two metallothionein isoforms in the rainbow trout. In addition, an instance of gene conversion was observed between MT-1 and MT-2 genes in Notothenia coriiceps. Analyses of the 5' UTR, combined with quantitative assay of differential expression of MT-1 and MT-2, indicate that only the 3' UTR underwent a gene conversion event in the mentioned species. These findings, together with the observation of a differential pattern of expression for the two MT isoforms, disclose an unexpected complexity in the evolution and function of notothenioid MTs; as in most teleost species examined (apart from the rainbow trout), a single MT form is present.  (+info)

Determination of the solution structure of the N-domain plus linker of Antarctic eel pout antifreeze protein RD3. (5/765)

RD3, a new antifreeze protein (AFP) extracted from antarctic eel pout is a single polypeptide divided into homologous N-terminal (residues Asn(1)-Glu(64)) and C-terminal (residues Ser(74)-Glu(134)) domains, each of which has a high sequence identity with Type III AFP. A 9-residue linker (-D(65)GTTSPGLK(73)-) connects these two domains in tandem and is thought to play a significant role in defining the nature of the intact molecule. The present paper shows for the first time the solution structure and preliminary (15)N-NMR backbone dynamics data of the N-domain plus the linker of recombinant RD3 protein (RD3-Nl: residues 1-73) by employing homo- and heteronuclear multidimensional NMR spectroscopy. Forty converged structures of RD3-Nl were successfully calculated by using a total of 958 NMR-derived structural restraints. It was found that the N-domain of RD3-Nl has a globular form comprising six beta-strands, three type III turns, and several loops, which stabilize a flat, ice-binding site formed on one side of this domain. Further, the linker portion appears to have a definitive structure, which is independent of the globular N-domain. This definitive linker is roughly divided into two short strands, -D(65)GTTSP(70)- and -G(71)LK(73)-, which are bent around -T(67)TSPG(71)- at an angle of approximately 60 degrees. This bending motif of the linker may function to orient the two ice-binding sites of the N- and C-domains of RD3 in the same direction, leading to their simultaneous interactions with the ice crystal surface.  (+info)

Physicochemical parameters for growth of the sea ice bacteria Glaciecola punicea ACAM 611(T) and Gelidibacter sp. strain IC158. (6/765)

The water activity and pH ranges for growth of Glaciecola punicea (a psychrophile) were extended when this organism was grown at suboptimal rather than optimal temperatures. No such extension was observed for Gelidibacter sp. strain IC158 (a psychrotolerant bacterium) at analogous temperatures. Salinity and pH may be primary physicochemical parameters controlling bacterial community development in sea ice.  (+info)

Temperature-dependent expression of cytochrome-c oxidase in Antarctic and temperate fish. (7/765)

Seasonal acclimation versus permanent adaptation to low temperatures leads to a differential response in the expression of cytochrome-c oxidase (CCO) in temperate and Antarctic eelpouts. Although eurythermal eelpout from the North Sea (Zoarces viviparus) displayed a cold-induced rise of CCO activity in white muscle, enzyme activity in the cold stenothermal Antarctic eelpout Pachycara brachycephalum failed to reflect such a compensatory increase. In Antarctic eelpout, CCO activity correlates with transcript levels of mitochondrial encoded subunits of CCO (CCO I and CCO II), whereas cold-acclimated eelpout from the North Sea show lower enzyme activities than expected on the basis of mitochondrial mRNA levels. In these animals, CCO expression at low temperatures may be limited either by nuclear CCO transcripts or by posttranscriptional processes. These may comprise translation of the subunits or assembly of the CCO holoenzyme. mRNA levels of CCO IV, one of the nuclear encoded subunits, increased strongly during cold acclimation, indicating that the expression of CCO is likely not message limited in cold-acclimated Z. viviparus. Our data suggest that seasonal cold acclimation of Z. viviparus results in a modification of the relationship between transcription and translation or posttranslational processes. In permanently cold-adapted P. brachycephalum, on the other hand, CCO expression shows similar characteristics as in the warm-acclimated confamilial species, e.g., low levels of enzyme activity correlated with low levels of mitochondrial message.  (+info)

Cold-adapted alanine dehydrogenases from two antarctic bacterial strains: gene cloning, protein characterization, and comparison with mesophilic and thermophilic counterparts. (8/765)

The genes encoding NAD(+)-dependent alanine dehydrogenases (AlaDHs) (EC 1.4.1.1) from the Antarctic bacterial organisms Shewanella sp. strain Ac10 (SheAlaDH) and Carnobacterium sp. strain St2 (CarAlaDH) were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. Of all of the AlaDHs that have been sequenced, SheAlaDH exhibited the highest level of sequence similarity to the AlaDH from the gram-negative bacterium Vibrio proteolyticus (VprAlaDH). CarAlaDH was most similar to AlaDHs from mesophilic and thermophilic Bacillus strains. SheAlaDH and CarAlaDH had features typical of cold-adapted enzymes; both the optimal temperature for catalytic activity and the temperature limit for retaining thermostability were lower than the values obtained for the mesophilic counterparts. The k(cat)/K(m) value for the SheAlaDH reaction was about three times higher than the k(cat)/K(m) value for VprAlaDH, but it was much lower than the k(cat)/K(m) value for the AlaDH from Bacillus subtilis. Homology-based structural models of various AlaDHs, including the two psychotropic AlaDHs, were constructed. The thermal instability of SheAlaDH and CarAlaDH may result from relatively low numbers of salt bridges in these proteins.  (+info)

Palaeogene volcanics with plant-bearing sediment intercalations crop out extensively on King George Island in the South Shetland Islands, West Antarctica. The plant fossil assemblages are the most complete Palaeogene terrestrial foliar record in Antarctica. Compositional variations in the flora have previously been used to construct climate change models for the Tertiary. King George Island is part of the late Triassic to Recent, Andean - West Antarctic subducting margin. Eastwards subduction oceanic crust beneath the Antarctic Peninsula resulted in mountain building and crustal melting at depth that in turn led to large stratovolcanoes and active pyroclastic volcanism (Leat et al., 1995). Consequently the flora is preserved in a range of primary and reworked volcaniclastic sediments, that were deposited in lacustrine and ephemeral lacustrine basins developed on the volcanic surface. The King George Island flora consists of impressions and carbonised compressions of leaves of angiosperms, ...
The Notothenioidei dominates the fish fauna of the Antarctic in both biomass and diversity. This clade exhibits adaptations related to metabolic function and freezing avoidance in the subzero Antarctic waters, and is characterized by a high degree of morphological and ecological diversity. Investigating the macroevolutionary processes that may have contributed to the radiation of notothenioid fishes requires a well-resolved phylogenetic hypothesis. To date published molecular and morphological hypotheses of notothenioids are largely congruent, however, there are some areas of significant disagreement regarding higher-level relationships. Also, there are critical areas of the notothenioid phylogeny that are unresolved in both molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses. Previous molecular phylogenetic analyses of notothenioids using partial mtDNA 12S and 16S rRNA sequence data have resulted in limited phylogenetic resolution and relatively low node support. One particularly controversial result
Mitochondrial membranes in cardiac muscle from Antarctic notothenioid fishes vary in phospholipid composition and membrane fluidity ...
This study was conducted to describe the cardiovascular responses to intra-arterial injections of serotonin in the Antarctic fish Pagothenia borchgrevinki and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. Immunohistochemistry was used to localise serotonin-containing cells within the gills. Simultaneous and continuous recordings of ventral and dorsal aortic blood pressure, heart rate and ventral aortic blood flow (cardiac output) were made using standard cannulation procedures in combination with Doppler flow measurement. An extracorporeal loop with an in-line oxygen electrode allowed continuous measurements of arterial oxygen pressure PaO2. Pre-branchial injection of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) or the 5-HT2 receptor agonist alpha-methylserotonin increased the branchial vascular resistance and ventral aortic pressure, while the 5-HT1 receptor agonist piperazine was without effect. The branchial vasoconstriction produced by serotonin injection was completely blocked by the 5-HT1/5-HT2 ...
The ocellated icefish (Chionodraco rastrospinosus) is a fish of the family Channichthyidae. It lives in the cold waters off Antarctica and is known for having transparent haemoglobin-free blood. C. rastrospinosus live in the Southern Ocean up to a depth of 1 km. They grow up to 52 centimetres (20 in) and average 30 centimetres (12 in). The adults feed on krill and other fish. Larvae are 17 mm long when they hatch, and grow by about 2 mm a week. The larval stage lasts for up to 18 months during which they feed mainly on krill. They become sexually mature at four years, and normally live up to about eight years, but sometimes as long as twelve. In the Antarctic autumn, adult C. rastrospinosus migrate to shallow waters to spawn at a depth of 200-300 m. The eggs are scattered and hatch six months later around April. Haemoglobin gives oxygenated blood its red colour. Unlike other vertebrates, fish of the Antarctic icefish family (Channichthyidae) do not use haemoglobin to transport oxygen around ...
The Antarctic icefishes (family Channichthyidae, suborder Notothenioidei) constitute the only vertebrate taxon that fails to produce red blood cells. These fishes can be paired with closely related, but erythrocyte-producing, notothenioids to discover erythropoietic genes via representational difference analysis. Using a B30.2-domain-encoding DNA probe so derived from the hematopoietic kidney (pronephros) of a red-blooded Antarctic rockcod, Notothenia coriiceps, we discovered a related, novel gene, bloodthirsty (bty), that encoded a 547-residue protein that contains sequential RING finger, B Box, coiled-coil, and B30.2 domains. bty mRNA was expressed by the pronephric kidney of N. coriiceps at a steady-state level 10-fold greater than that found in the kidney of the icefish Chaenocephalus aceratus. To test the function of bty, we cloned the orthologous zebrafish gene from a kidney cDNA library. Whole-mount in situ hybridization of zebrafish embryos showed that bty mRNA was present throughout ...
The purpose of this study was to extend our investigation into the regulation of the HSR in the Antarctic notothenioid fish Trematomus bernacchii, a species that appears to lack heat-inducible Hsp expression (Hofmann et al., 2000). The fishes endemic to the Southern Ocean display a range of biochemical and molecular processes that allow them to tolerate their extreme environment and, in some cases, have lost attributes common to other fish (Somero et al., 1998). These changes include the production of anti-freeze proteins (DeVries, 1988), the loss of hemoglobin and/or myoglobin in some species (Cocca et al., 1997; Sidell et al., 1997; Somero et al., 1998) and the storage of extra lipid reserves for energy (Sidell et al., 1995), buoyancy (Eastman, 1988) and for aiding in oxygen delivery to tissues (Londraville and Sidell, 1990). To address the possibility that such a cold-adapted species could lose an otherwise highly conserved cellular response to heat stress, we examined the expression of hsp ...
Hoffman, J., Peck, L., Linse, K., & Clarke, A. C. (2011). Strong population genetic structure in a broadcast-spawning Antarctic marine invertebrate. Journal of Heredity, 102(1), 55-66. doi:10.1093/jhered/ ...
The Antarctic marine fauna has been isolated in the cold (-2°C), stable, and oxygen-rich Southern Ocean for 25 million years, and consequently these animals are extremely cold-adapted. One family within the Antarctic notothenioid fishes, the icefish, has lost the capacity to produce erythrocytes and the oxygen transport protein hemoglobin. Their profound anemia makes them an evolutionary mutant model of human anemias. Using a comparative-genomic approach, we have isolated 10 novel genes that are differentially expressed by the red-blooded species Notothenia coriiceps and the white-blooded icefish, Chaenocephalus aceratus, and may be novel genes involved in erythropoiesis. We have identified one of these genes (hemogen - hemgn) as a putative ortholog of mammalian EDAG and RP59. In mammals, these genes are involved in the proliferation of blood and bone cells, however, whether the putative ortholog hemgn functions similarly in fishes has not be reported. In the current study, we use a ...
Kociolek, J.P.; Blanco, S.; Coste, M.; Ector, L.; Liu, Y.; Karthick, B.; Kulikovskiy, M.; Lundholm, N.; Ludwig, T.; Potapova, M.; Rimet, F.; Sabbe, K.; Sala, S.; Sar, E.; Taylor, J.; Van de Vijver, B.; Wetzel, C.E.; Williams, D.M.; Witkowski, A.; Witkowski, J. (2020). DiatomBase. Pinnularia C.G. Ehrenberg, 1843. Accessed through: RAS (Eds.) (2020) Register of Antarctic Species at: http://ras.biodiversity.aq/aphia.php?p=taxdetails&id=149208 on 2020-10-28 ...
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The major ions, sodium (Na+), calcium (Ca2+), and chloride (Cl−), deposited in central Antarctica and preserved in ice cores originate from both marine and continental sources. They provide important proxy records, helping to reconstruct past climatic processes. However, it is difficult to clearly separate the individual contributions from the two sources, particularly the continental one during glacial periods. On the basis of Na+ and Ca2+ records at an unprecedented resolution from the European Project for Ice Coring in Antarctica (EPICA) Dome C ice core back to the penultimate glacial period, mean ion mass ratios were deduced for the continental and the sea-salt aerosol body over East Antarctica. The sea-salt ion mass ratios are in the range predicted for both wind-induced bubble bursting of breaking waves on the open ocean and sea ice brine-derived aerosols, respectively, thus allowing no clear decision on the contribution of sea ice to the central Antarctic sea-salt aerosol. The ...
The Census of Antarctic Marine Life (CAML) and its polar counterpart, Arctic Ocean Diversity, have pioneered new understandings of the evolution and diversity of life.. Led by the Australian Antarctic Division, CAML coordinated 18 major research voyages to Antarctica and the Southern Ocean during the IPY. Australian scientists participated in three CAML voyages focusing on waters adjacent to East Antarctica - known as the Collaborative East Antarctic Marine Census (CEAMARC). These voyages, aboard Japans Umitaka Maru, Frances LAstrolabe and Australias Aurora Australis, studied sea-bed communities and the deep pelagic (open ocean) zone of the region adjacent to Terre Adélie and George V Land.. Altogether, CAML revealed that Antarctica is a single bioregion united by the Circumpolar Current - the largest current in the world. Previously thought to be low in species diversity, the Antarctic is now known to have an unexpected richness of life. In addition, molecular techniques show Antarctica to ...
The Antarctic Ecosystem Research Division ( AERD) conducts research to fulfill NOAAs mandate of providing scientific advice that supports United States (U.S.) interests related to resource management by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources ( CCAMLR), of which the U.S. is a Member. NOAA Fisheries Antarctic research is mandated by the U.S. Antarctic Marine Living Resources (AMLR) Convention Act of 1984, thus the program of work undertaken and managed by the AERD is widely known as the U.S. AMLR Program. The U.S. AMLR Program is internationally recognized for its ongoing contributions to ecosystem-based management of fisheries that impact krill, finfishes, krill-dependent predators, and other components of the Antarctic ecosystem. The AERD manages the US AMLR Program under the direction of George Watters. ...
The Antarctic Ecosystem Research Division ( AERD) conducts research to fulfill NOAAs mandate of providing scientific advice that supports United States (U.S.) interests related to resource management by the Commission for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources ( CCAMLR), of which the U.S. is a Member. NOAA Fisheries Antarctic research is mandated by the U.S. Antarctic Marine Living Resources (AMLR) Convention Act of 1984, thus the program of work undertaken and managed by the AERD is widely known as the U.S. AMLR Program. The U.S. AMLR Program is internationally recognized for its ongoing contributions to ecosystem-based management of fisheries that impact krill, finfishes, krill-dependent predators, and other components of the Antarctic ecosystem. The AERD manages the US AMLR Program under the direction of George Watters. ...
We review the scientific literature, especially from the past decade, on the impacts of human activities on the Antarctic environment. A range of impacts has been identified at a variety of spatial and temporal scales. Chemical contamination and sewage disposal on the continent have been found to be long-lived. Contemporary sewage management practices at many coastal stations are insufficient to prevent local contamination but no introduction of non-indigenous organisms through this route has yet been demonstrated. Human activities, particularly construction and transport, have led to disturbances of flora and fauna. A small number of non-indigenous plant and animal species has become established, mostly on the northern Antarctic Peninsula and southern archipelagos of the Scotia Arc. There is little indication of recovery of overexploited fish stocks, and ramifications of fishing activity on bycatch species and the ecosystem could also be far-reaching. The Antarctic Treaty System and its ...
Relative sea level rise at Kerguelen Island over the last 55 years has been investigated using a combination of historical and recent tide gauge data.
As part of the Long Term Ecological Research (LTER) project in the McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica, a systematic aqueous geochemical sampling program has been undertaken. A series of terrestrial water samples have been collected and analyzed for dissolved total nitrogen levels. This dataset shows concentrations of total nitrogen (in filtered samples) found in various streams of the McMurdo Dry Valleys.. ...
The Grunehogna Craton (GC, East Antarctica) is interpreted as part of the Archaean Kaapvaal Craton of southern Africa prior to Gondwana breakup. The basement of the GC is exposed only within a small area comprising the dominantly leucocratic Annandagstoppane (ADT) S-type granite. The granite (and hence the craton) has been dated previously only by Rb-Sr and Pb-Pb mica and whole-rock methods. Here, the crystallization age of the granite is determined to be 3067 ± 8 Ma by U-Pb dating of zircon. This age is coeval with that of granitoids and volcanic rocks in the Swaziland and Witwatersrand blocks of the Kaapvaal Craton. Inherited grains in the ADT granite have ages of up to 3433 ± 7 Ma, and are the first evidence of Palaeoarchaean basement in Dronning Maud Land. The age spectrum of the inherited grains reflects well-known tectono-magmatic events in the Kaapvaal Craton and forms important evidence for the connection of the GC to the Kaapvaal Craton for at least 2·5 billion years and probably ...
Antarctic sea ice is constantly on the move as powerful winds blow it away from the coast and out toward the open ocean. A new study shows how that ice migration may be more important for the global ocean circulation than anyone realized.
Lemke, P. (1980): Linear stochastic dynamic model of Arctic and Antarctic sea ice variability , Workshop on Stochastic Dynamic Forecasting, October 1979, ECMWF, Reading, England ...
Plankton sampling by the training vessel Umitaka-maru in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean in the austral summer of 2010/2011Plankton sampling by the training vessel Umitaka-maru in the Indian sector of the Southern Ocean in the austral summer of 2010/2011AA12026903 ...
The vertebrate mitochondrial genomes generally present a typical gene order. Exceptions are uncommon and important to study the genetic mechanisms of gene order rearrangements and their consequences on phylogenetic output and mitochondrial function. Antarctic notothenioid fish carry some peculiar rearrangements of the mitochondrial gene order. In this first systematic study of 28 species, we analyzed known and undescribed mitochondrial genome rearrangements for a total of eight different gene orders within the notothenioid fish. Our reconstructions suggest that transpositions, duplications, and inversion of multiple genes are the most likely mechanisms of rearrangement in notothenioid mitochondrial genomes. In Trematominae, we documented an extremely rare inversion of a large genomic segment of 5,300 bp that partially affected the gene compositional bias but not the phylogenetic output. The genomic region delimited by nad5 and trnF, close to the area of the Control Region, was identified as the hot spot
April Flowers for redOrbit.com - Your Universe Online One of the fastest warming regions on the planet - and the fastest warming part of the Southern Hemisphere - is the western Antarctic Peninsula. This warming has been the subject of scientific debate, especially in light of recent instrumental records of both atmospheric and oceanic warming from the region. Holding an equivalent of 5 meters of global sea level rise locked in ice, the Antarctic ice sheet is becoming increasingly vulnerable to collapse as the atmosphere and oceans continue to warm.. A new study from Cardiff University, published in a recent issue of Nature Geoscience, has traced glacial ice entering the ocean along the western Antarctic Peninsula using a unique 12,000-year record of microscopic marine algae fossils. The findings reveal that in the late Holocene - approximately 3500 - 250 years ago - the atmosphere had a more significant impact on warming along the western Antarctic Peninsula than oceanic circulation did.. Prior ...
Roberts, Donna (1997) Reconstruction of lake-water salinity from fossil diatom assemblages in saline lakes of the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica. PhD thesis, University of Tasmania. ...
Half of all vertebrate species share a series of chromosome fusions that preceded the teleost genome duplication (TGD), but we do not understand the causative evolutionary mechanisms. The Robertsonian-translocation hypothesis suggests a regular fusion of each ancestral acro- or telocentric chromosome to just one other by centromere fusions, thus halving the karyotype. An alternative genome-stirring hypothesis posits haphazard and repeated fusions, inversions, and reciprocal and nonreciprocal translocations. To study large-scale karyotype reduction, we investigated the decrease of chromosome numbers in Antarctic notothenioid fish. Most notothenioids have 24 haploid chromosomes, but bullhead notothen (Notothenia coriiceps) has 1. To understand mechanisms, we made a RAD-tag meiotic map with approximate to 10,000 polymorphic markers. Comparative genomics aligned about a thousand orthologs of platyfish and stickleback genes along bullhead chromosomes. Results revealed that 9 of 11 bullhead chromosomes arose
Early ecological research in McMurdo Sound revealed local spatial gradients in community structure associated with variations in anchor ice disturbance, fast ice and snow cover, and the effects of predators. Research contrasting the east and west sides of McMurdo Sound has shown major differences in benthic communities, which have been attributed to oceanographic influences on the advection of water-column productivity and the frequency of fast ice break-out. Despite these regional and local differences, coastal benthic communities in McMurdo Sound show a high level of stability, and contain a variety of large and potentially very long-lived species. In Terra Nova Bay, about half way along the Victoria Land Coast of the western Ross Sea, the coastal benthic communities provide some insightful contrasts with those in McMurdo Sound. For example, the abundance and depth distribution of dominant species such as Sterechinus neumayeri and Adamussium colbecki are markedly different from McMurdo Sound. ...
This data package contains chemical characteristics of snow in the ablation zone of Canada Glacier, located in Taylor Valley, McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica during the 2016-17 austral summer. Specifically, snow samples were collected from the ablation zones of Canada and Commonwealth Glaciers to characterize the chemistry of recent snowfall in the ablation zones of these glaciers. ...
The waters around South Georgia are among the most productive in the Southern Ocean, with zooplankton populations close to the island, in particular Antarctic krill, supporting vast colonies of higher predators. However, our understanding of the processes governing variability in the supply of these food resources is limited by the poor spatial and temporal resolution of available data. Here, we use a numerical modeling approach to examine the underlying physical processes driving the recruitment and retention of zooplankton to the South Georgia shelf. Variability in the magnitude and spatial distribution of recruitment was dominated by the proximity and orientation of the southern Antarctic Circumpolar Current front to the shelf edge. Shelf retention was highest for source sites on the southwest shelf, with the main transport routes off the shelf to the north and northwest. Retention was lowest in the austral summer and winter; in summer increased glacial melt drives stronger off-shelf ...
The microbial communities that inhabit lithic niches inside sandstone in the Antarctic McMurdo Dry Valleys of life’s limits on Earth. The cryptoendolithic communities survive in these ice-free areas that have the lowest temperatures on Earth coupled with strong thermal fluctuations, extreme aridity, oligotrophy and high levels of solar and UV radiation. In this study, based on DNA metabarcoding, targeting the fungal Internal Transcribed Spacer region 1 (ITS1) and multivariate statistical analyses, we supply the first comprehensive overview onto the fungal diversity and composition of these communities sampled over a broad geographic area of the Antarctic hyper-arid cold desert. Six locations with surfaces that experience variable sun exposure were sampled to compare communities from a common area across a gradient of environmental pressure. The Operational Taxonomic Units (OTUs) identified were primarily members of the Ascomycota phylum, comprised mostly of the Lecanoromycetes and Dothideomycetes
Thehemolysateofthe AntarcticteleostGobionotothen gibberifrons(family Nototheniidae) contains two hemoglo-bins (Hb 1 andHb 2). The concentration of Hb 2 (15-20% of the total hemoglobin content) is higher than that found in most cold-adapted Notothenioidei. Unlike the other Antarctic species so far examined having two hemoglobins, Hb 1 and Hb 2 do not have globin chains in common. Therefore this hemoglobin system is made of four globins (two a-and twob-chains). The complete amino-acid sequence of the two hemoglobins (Hb 1,a 1 2b 1 2 ;Hb 2,a 2 b 2 2 ) has been established. ... ...
As expected, the population and allele patterns found within the Kerguelen Archipelago allow some general conclusions on the fate of populations after initial colonization. First of all, we note that these mice have retained a certain amount of genetic diversity. The heterozygosity values, as well as the average number of alleles, are comparable to the sample that we caught within a single deme in Europe (Paris). Since the mice that came with the first ship would likely represent the deme from the harbor where the ship started, we can assume that the mice entering these ships had a similarly reduced diversity (when compared to the diversity across demes in the French and German populations). Hence, there may have been only little additional loss of genetic diversity during the ship passage and after colonization. In population genetic terms this means that the mouse population would have quickly expanded after arrival on the Kerguelen Archipelago, which would have prevented further loss of ...
In a study spanning two decades, a team of researchers led by Colorado State University found declining numbers of soil fauna, nematodes and other animal species in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, one of the worlds driest and coldest ...
The Lake Vida meteorological station was added to the McMurdo Dry Valley network in the 1995-1996 field season. It was established on the shore of Lake Vida in Victoria Valley, one of the largest lakes in the dry valleys, recently discovered to have a 19 m ice cover over a hypersaline brine of undetermined depth. The station was set up to sample sensors every 30 seconds and send summary statistics (for example, averages and maximums) to solid-state storage modules every 15 minutes. This has resulted in approximately 20 values being recorded for final storage in every output interval.. Sampling and Averaging Intervals For Sampling frequency and Data Logger output and averaging intervals please visit:http://mcmlter.lternet.edu/data/meteorology/methods/Interval_Dates.pdf. Seasonal Task Summary To view the data post-processing steps for each season please visit: http://mcmlter.org/meteorological-task-lists. ...
THE KERGUELEN ISLANDS are the exposed part of the Kerguelen oceanic plateau, a Large Igneous Province in the Antarctic plate domain. Its birth is related to both the spreading of the South East Indian Ridge (SEIR) overprinted by the long-lived Kerguelen plume. It provides a unique opportunity to study plume-ridge interactions and their implications for the composition of the oceanic mantle. Mantle xenoliths from the Kerguelen Islands are common in dykes or pipes of young alkaline lavas. The major and lithophile trace elements have been well-characterised over the last decade. The platinum group elements (PGE; Os, Ir, Ru, Rh, Pd, Pt) and chalcophile elements (S, Se, Cu) provide different information on the geological processes that operate in the lithosphere. This is because they are almost exclusively partitioned into a sulfide-rich melt, whereas major and lithophile trace elements have a greater affinity for silicate melts.. The PGE, S, Se and Cu were analysed in representative mantle xenoliths ...
ePIC (electronic Publication Information Center) is the official repository for publications and presentations of Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI)
Chen, Z.Z., Cheng ,C.H.C., Zhang, J.F., Cao, L.X., Chen, L., Zhou, L.H., Jin, Y.D., Ye, H., Deng, C., Dai, Z.H., Xu, Q.H., Hu, P., Sun, S.H., Shen, Y. and Chen, L.B.(2008) Transcrintomic and genomic evolution under constant cold in Antarctic notothenioid fish. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105:12944-12949. The sub-zero temperatures of the Southern Oceans require special adaptation to these extreme conditions, and the unique fish fauna of this region has provided textbook examples of molecular adaptation and molecular evolution in the context of thermal physiology. Previous studies have typically investigated single loci, but, in an exciting new survey, Chen et al. (2008) take a novel approach to characterize the genome-wide changes in gene transcription and relate these to adaptation to the cold Antarctic waters. A particular strength of this research is its tripartite strategy ...
Lichens are predominant and important flora in the terrestrial ecosystem of Antarctica. However, relatively few phylogenetic researches on Antarctic lichens have been accomplished. Phylogenetic researches using molecular techniques and advanced analysis algorithms are needed for a comprehensive guide to the identification and classification of Antarctic lichen-forming fungi, and to understand evolutionary relationships among lichen species with various geographical distributions. The floristic surveys were made in King George Island, Antarctica and fresh lichens were collected from January to February in 2006. A total of 225 lichen collections were obtained and identified to the species through the observation of macroscopic and microscopic characteristics. To provide information for phylogenetic relationships, nuclear large subunit (nLSU) rDNAs of 89 specimens were sequenced and compared with 201 sequences of lichen-forming fungi retrieved from the GenBank. Most of the Antarctic species were ...
Chapter 2 appears to be the equivalent of a post-print version of an article published as: Lake S., Burton H., van den Hoff J., 2003. Regional, temporal and fine-scale spatial variation in Weddell seal diet at four coastal locations in east Antarctica, Marine ecology progress series 254, 293- 305, Copyright © 2003 Inter-Research. Chapter 3 appears to be the equivalent of the peer-reviewed version of the following article: Lake, S., Wotherspoon, S., Burton, H. R., 2005. Spatial utilisation of fast-ice by Weddell seals Leptonychotes weddelli during winter. Ecography, 28(3), 295-306 which has been published in final form at http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.0906-7590.2005.03949.x This article may be used for non-commercial purposes in accordance with Wiley Terms and Conditions for Self-Archiving.. Chapter 4 appears to beadult femal the equivalent of a post-print version of an article published as: Lake, S., Burton, H., Wotherspoon, S., 2006. Movements of Weddell seals during the winter months. Polar ...
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Instantly recognisable by the large, inflatable proboscis, the male southern elephant seal is the biggest seal in its family. Males can weigh eight to ten times as much as females, making them the most sexually dimorphic of all mammals (2). Females do not have a proboscis, but rather a short nose and a muzzle (4). Both sexes have robust bodies, thick necks and broad heads, and each digit of the fore flippers bears a large, black nail (4). The coat is light to dark silvery-grey or brown in adults and juveniles, whilst newborns have black coats, which turns into a short silvery-grey coat at around three weeks of age (5). Males develop a chest shield of thickened, creased and heavily scarred skin as they age, and also become paler across the face, proboscis and head (4). During the breeding season, southern elephant seals become stained rusty orange and brown from lying in their own excrement ...
This investigation has provided limited evidence for the occurrence of spawning by King George whiting in Victorian waters. Of the approximately 1600 specimens examined we found complete gonad maturation in only one female and did not find any fully mature males. Although we found several females in a highly developed reproduction state there was no evidence that these fish had spawned prior to capture or were about to spawn. These results suggest that King George whiting are not spawning where recreational anglers target them along the Victorian coast, and importantly, they imply that spawning King George whiting are not exploited by Victorian anglers. Our observation supports the anecdotal information supplied by recreational anglers during the project that suggests King George whiting in roe are rarely captured.. Although spawning adults were largely absent from recreational catches, we cannot rule out the possibility that spawning may occur in areas not fished by recreational anglers. ...
Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) might have specific peptides that chelate iron ions and are iron carriers. In this study, iron-binding peptides were isolated from Antarctic krill using enzymatic (trypsin) hydrolysis and immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC); the binding mode and surface morphology of Antarctic krill peptides (AKP)-iron complexes as well as their iron delivery behavior in the gastrointestinal tract were investigated. Results showed that the AKP bound 79.3% of available iron from the enzymatic hydrolysis for 180 min. The contents of negatively-charged amino acids (Asp and Glu) on the AKP showed a positive correlation (r = 0.80) with iron-binding activities (the data includes Asn and Gln), while positively-charged amino acids showed a negative correlation (r = −0.83). Moreover, His, Ser and Thr on the AKP were also involved in the iron-binding activities. Iron-binding peptides from Antarctic krill hydrolysates, isolated using IMAC-Fe3+ and identified using ...
Heat stress proteins are implicated in stabilizing and refolding denatured proteins in vertebrates and invertebrates. Members of the Hsp70 gene family comprise the cognate heat shock protein (Hsc70) and inducible heat shock protein (Hsp70). However, the cDNA sequence and the expression of Hsp70 in the Antarctic sea urchin are unknown. We amplified and cloned a transcript sequence of 1991 bp from the Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri, experimentally exposed to heat stress (5 and 10 °C for 1, 24 and 48 h). RACE-PCR and qPCR were employed to determine Hsp70 gene expression, while western blot and ELISA methods were used to determine protein expression. The sequence obtained from S. neumayeri showed high identity with Hsp70 members. Several Hsp70 family features were identified in the deduced amino acid sequence and they indicate that the isolated Hsp70 is related to the cognate heat shock protein type. The corresponding 70 kDa protein, called Sn-Hsp70, was immune detected in the coelomocytes and
Many remote and local climate variabilities influence Antarctic sea ice at different time scales. The strongest sea ice teleconnection at the interannual time scale was found between El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and a high latitude climate mode named the Antarctic Dipole. The Antarctic Dipole is characterized by an out-of-phase relationship between sea ice and surface temperature anomalies in the South Pacific and South Atlantic, manifesting itself and persisting 3-4 seasons after being triggered by the ENSO forcing. This study examines the life cycles of ENSO warm and cold events in the tropics and associated evolution of the ADP in high latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere. In evaluating the mechanisms that form the ADP, the study suggests a synthesized scheme that links these high latitude processes with ENSO teleconnection in both the Pacific and Atlantic basins. The synthesized scheme suggests that the two main mechanisms responsible for the formation/maintenance of the ...
A temperate phage, Psymv2, was isolated from an Antarctic soil bacterium, Psychrobacter sp. MV2. The morphology of Psymv2 was typical of the Siphoviridae, with an isometric head and non-contractile tail. The Psymv2 genome was found to be 35,725 bp in length, had a G + C content of 44.5 %, with 49 protein-coding genes and one tRNA gene predicted. Integration of Psymv2 occurred at an ssrA gene, with the last 27 bases of this gene directly repeated at the prophage ends. The genome was organised in a modular fashion: integration, regulation, packaging, head assembly, tail assembly, host specificity and lysis. While the genome sequence had little similarity on a nucleotide level to previously reported phage sequences, the genome architecture resembled that of Siphoviridae of low G + C Gram-positive bacteria. The closest relatives to Psymv2 were uncharacterized putative prophages within the P. arcticus 273-4 and Acinetobacter baumannii 6013113 genomes. Global alignment of the Psymv2 genome and these ...
Brominated diphenyl ethers (BDE47, 99, 100, and 209) were measured in air, snow and sea ice throughout western Antarctica between 2001 and 2007. BDEs in Antarctic air were predominantly associated with aerosols and were low compared to those in remote regions of the northern hemisphere, except in Marguerite Bay following the fire at Rothera research station in Sept 2001, indicating that this event was a local source of BDE209 to the Antarctic environment. Aerosol BDE47/100 reflects a mixture of commercial pentaBDE products; however, BDE99/100 is suggestive of photodegradation of BDE99 during long-range atmospheric transport (LRAT) in the austral summer. BDEs in snow were lower than predicted based on snow scavenging of aerosols indicating that atmospheric deposition events may be episodic. BDE47, -99, and -100 significantly declined in Antarctic sea ice between 2001 and 2007; however, BDE209 did not decline in Antarctic sea ice over the same time period. Significant losses of BDE99 and -100 from ...
The fluoride content of whole animals and different tissues of the euphausiid species Euphausia superba and Meganyctiphanes norvegica was analyzed by two different and improved methods of isolation an
If you have a question about this talk, please contact Claire Waluda.. If external to BAS, please email the organiser in advance to gain access to the building. The production of Antarctic krill oil is a large industry and is predicted to grow in the coming decades. Understanding how Antarctic krill lipids (oils) change in time and space is therefore of critical importance to maintaining a sustainable krill fishery. This study examined how the lipid and fatty acid content of Antarctic krill varies seasonally and spatially. We used samples of krill harvested by krill fishing vessels collected daily over a 3-year time period. Krill were staged, sexed, weighed and measured before undergoing lipid analysis. Our results show an annual fine-scale seasonal cycle for lipid content and composition in Antarctic krill. Levels of the ecologically and commercially important and health-benefitting omega 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids varied between seasons, giving us an enhanced insight into variations in the ...
Fitness clubs offer group exercise classes, small group training, personal training and more. Read on to learn more information on fitness clubs in King George that give access to fitness classes for kids and fitness equipment, as well as advice and content on swimming classes and yoga classes.
Lake Fryxell should be allected more strongly by the DIC input from streams than Lake Hoare because it receives much higher loads of DIC (tables 1 and 2). Using the modified formula, normalizing the DIC input with the lake area and assuming a mixing of the incoming stream water with the uppermost meter of the lakes water column, Lake Fryxell annually received 3.8%, 0.7% and 2.1% (average = 2.2%) of the DIC pool in the uppermost meter. The values for Lake Hoare are 9.3%, 5.5% and 5.5% (average = 6.8%). The absolute influx into Lake Hoare is much smaller, but because the lake has sucha low concentration of DIC it plays a more important role than in Lake Fryxell.. Primary productivity rates (PPRs) from Priseu (1995) were used to compare the average annual uptake of carbon at various lake depths with the available DIC At 5-8m depth, the annual uptake accounts for 0.43% of the DIC in Lake Hoare, and for 0.76% of the DIC in Lake Fryxell. These ratios are very similar, given that the PPR in Lake ...
Antarctica is an attractive target for human exploration and scientific investigation, however the negative effects of human activity on this continent are long lasting and can have serious consequences on the native ecosystem. Various areas of Antarctica have been contaminated with diesel fuel, which contains harmful compounds such as heavy metals and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). Bioremediation of PAHs by the activity of microorganisms is an ecological, economical and safe decontamination approach. Since the introduction of foreign organisms into the Antarctica is prohibited, it is key to discover native bacteria that can be used for diesel bioremediation. By following the degradation of the PAH phenanthrene, we isolated 53 PAH metabolizing bacteria from diesel contaminated Antarctic soil samples, with three of these isolates exhibiting a high phenanthrene degrading capacity. In particular, the Sphingobium xenophagum D43FB isolate showed the highest phenanthrene degradation ability,
Mycosporine-like amino acids (MAAs) that absorb UV radiation (310-360 nm) were investigated in 34 species of benthic marine invertebrates (fourteen sponges, two cnidarians, one nemertean, four molluscs, one bryozoan, two arthropods, eight echinoderms and two tunicates), two species of benthic fish and two species of red algae collected during the spring of 1992 from McMurdo Sound. In addition, MAAs were measured in the ripe ovaries, testes and brooded juveniles of four species of echinoderms. While 90% of the: species had MAAs in their tissues, both quantitative and qualitative measurements reflected a general lack of UV protectants among these fauna. Eight MAAs were detected among the species examined, but only four of these (mycosporine-glycine, shinorine, porphyra-334 and palythine) occurred in any appreciable number: of the species. Palythinol only occurred in the sponge Isodictya erinacea and asterina-330 and palythene only occurred in the red alga Iridaea cordata. MAAs were detected in the ...
Mitochondrial biogenesis is induced by low temperature in many fish species. For example, cold acclimation of Gasterosteus aculeatus (threespine stickleback) increases mitochondrial densities in oxidative skeletal muscle. Oxidative muscles of Antarctic icefishes (suborder Notothenioidei) also have high mitochondrial densities characterized by higher densities of phospholipids compared to red-blooded notothenioids. Mitochondrial biogenesis has been well studied in mammals yet it is unknown how mitochondrial phospholipid synthesis is regulated. I hypothesized that both activity and mRNA levels of glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT), the rate-limiting enzyme in glycerolipid biosynthesis, would increase in oxidative muscle of stickleback, where mitochondrial biogenesis occurs, but not in liver, in response to cold acclimation, and that GPAT1 and /or GPAT2 mRNA levels would be higher in hearts of icefishes compared to red-blooded species. To test these hypotheses, maximal activity of GPAT and ...
Osumex 100% Pure Antarctic Krill Oil capsules are produced entirely from Antarctic Krill harvested from deep in the Antarctic Ocean. The oils are sent to Japan for encapsulation in vegetable soft gel capsules.. Krill oil is rich in Omega-3 Fatty Acids and Astaxanthin, a powerful antioxidant attached to the Omega-3. Astaxanthin is recognized for its health promoting free radical suppression. No additives or preservatives are used in the production of the krill oil capsules.. The long-chain Omega-3 fatty acids in krill oil are a phospholipid which is soluble in blood compared to the Omega-3 in fish oil which is a triglyceride which is not soluble in blood. This enables the Omega-3 to be able to cross the blood-brain barrier and are more bio-available to the body. Omega-3 bound phospholipid are far less prone to oxidations than Omega-3 in traditional triglycerides form giving it a longer shelf-life.. ...
Healthy Origins® Krill Oil is extracted from the Euphausia superba species of Krill found in the Antarctic waters of the southern ocean. Euphausia superba, with a biomass of over 500,000,000 tons, is one of the most abundant life forms on the planet. Since the 19th century, krill has been harvested as a food source for
Healthy Origins® Krill Oil is extracted from the Euphausia superba species of Krill found in the Antarctic waters of the southern ocean. Euphausia superba, with a biomass of over 500,000,000 tons, is one of the most abundant life forms on the planet. Since the 19th century, krill has been harvested as a food source for
Krill oil has gained attention not only for its Omega-3 fatty acids but for its bioavailability and Astaxanthin content. Research suggests that the bioavailability of Krill oil may be high because much of the EPA and DHA are bound to phospholipids which aid in the efficient transfer of essential nutrients to the bodys cells.* The Omega-3 Phospholipids and Astaxanthin in Krill oil help to support healthy heart, brain, eyes and liver functions.*. California Gold Nutrition Antarctic Krill Oil features RIMFROST Krill Oil with naturally occurring (not fortified) Astaxanthin that is sourced responsibly from the pristine waters of the Southern Ocean. The Fish Gelatin Softgels are manufactured in California, USA and a natural Strawberry and Lemon flavor is added to help mask any unpleasant fishiness.. ♦️Natural Flavor Coating Added to Help Mask Natural Krill Oil Aroma.. RIMFROST Antarctic Krill / Sustainable + Traceable + Transparent + Gently Processed = Premium Quality Krill Oil You Can ...
Polar regions are particularly sensitive to climate change, with the potential for significant feedbacks between ocean circulation, sea ice, and the ocean carbon cycle. However, the difficulty in obtaining in situ data means that our ability to detect and interpret change is very limited, especially in the Southern Ocean, where the ocean beneath the sea ice remains almost entirely unobserved and the rate of sea-ice formation is poorly known. Here, we show that southern elephant seals (Mirounga leonina) equipped with oceanographic sensors can measure ocean structure and water mass changes in regions and seasons rarely observed with traditional oceanographic platforms. In particular, seals provided a 30-fold increase in hydrographic profiles from the sea-ice zone, allowing the major fronts to be mapped south of 60°S and sea-ice formation rates to be inferred from changes in upper ocean salinity. Sea-ice production rates peaked in early winter (April-May) during the rapid northward expansion of ...
Modern tracking technology and international collaboration have given IMAS researchers and their colleagues from eight countries unprecedented new insights into the life, behaviour and distribution of southern elephant seals.
Highlights of the program of the Japanese Antarctic Research Expedition (JARE) in the field of geosciences   ...
Krill oil is an extract prepared from a species of Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba. Two of the most important components in krill oil are omega-3 fatty acids similar to those in fish oil, and phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFA), mainly phosphatidylcholine (alternatively referred to as marine lecithin). Studies have shown toxic residues in Antarctic krill and fish; however, the United States Food and Drug Administration has accepted notices from krill oil manufacturers declaring that krill oil and products derived from it meet the standards for Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) status, although the FDA itself has not tested the products. While not an endangered species, Antarctic krill are a mainstay of the diets of many ocean-based species including whales and there is some environmental and scientific concern that their population has decreased dramatically both due to climate change and human harvesting. Krill oil and oceanic fish oil are rich in omega-3 fatty acids, mainly ...
ABSTRACT The diploid chromosome number 2n = 24 has been established in the harpacticoid copepod Tigriopus sp. coming from Kerguelen Island, while the population of Tigriopus inhabiting Crozet Island possesses the diploid number 2n = 22. The two populations differ also in homogeneity of the karyotype, thereby further supporting the hypothesis that these two populations belong to different species.
Sustainably Harvested Antarctic Krill: Antarctic krill oil is considered the purest krill oil in the world and an eco-friendly alternative to fish omega fatty acids. NordVida consistently utilizes sustainably harvested krill in the pristine waters of Antarctica yielding highly concentrated omega-3s EPA and DHA your body cant produce on its own. Every 1000 mg serving is rich in naturally occurring phospholipids and esterified astaxanthin for added antioxidant and overall benefits.*Phospholipid-Bound Omega-3S for Joint Heart & Brain*: Not all Omega-3s are created equal. NordVida Krill Oil taking the form of phospholipids can be more easily transported to and absorbed into our cells to boost our omega-3 index.* Increased omega levels in the body have been scientifically linked to optimal heart, brain, joint, eye and skin health, and they contribute to reducing inflammation in the body.*No Fish Burps & Fishy Aftertaste: Yes, you can reap all the benefits from your inflammation-fighting omega-3s without
The distribution of dimethylsulfide (DMS), dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) was examined in lead water in pack ice of the Weddell Sea. Samples were taken by pulling water into a syringe from a series of depths from 0,002 m to 4 m and deeper. Concentrations ofDMS, DMSP and DMSO remained low throughout the water column relative to surface water, which was highly enriched. Concentrations of the major sulfur compounds increased by over an order of magnitude during periods with smooth surface water conditions. This increase coincided with a profound stratification of the water column, caused by a decrease in salinity of near surface water. We estimate that the DMS emission from leads and open water in Antarctic sea ice could contribute significantly to the yearly DMS flux from the Southern Ocean.. ...
Phospholipids are one of the major bioactive ingredients of Antarctic krill Euphausea superba. A feasible and effective extraction method of Antarctic krill oil was investigated and modified by orthogonal test which the ratio of solid to liquid was 1:2.5, extraction time was 5 min, ratio of ethyl acetate (EA) and n-butanol (BuOH) was 1:1. With this method, the extract of krill oil has a higher phospholipids content of 27.7% - 42.3%, together with total oil yields of 4.15% - 6.18%.
Weddell seals in McMurdo Sound pup on the sea ice from the middle of October to early November. They weigh about 65 Ib. at birth (Bertram, 1940), double their weight in 10 days, and are page 135 weaned in six to eight weeks. From this point until they return to breed as three year olds, little is known of their habits. It has been postulated they go into the pack ice or along the northern inaccessible coast (Smith, 1966a) although it is not indicated whether this means the Victoria Land Coast, the periphery of the continent, or both. However, this postulation is based on the negative evidence that young seals have never been seen in large numbers anywhere.. Females first become pregnant at three years of age and have one pup a year thereafter. One female was found pupping in her third year, thus having bred in its second year, but this is exceptional (Smith, 1966a). Twinning is virtually non-existent. Weddell seals may live to 15 or 16 years of age but the average age in McMurdo Sound is about ...
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Emperor penguins have shown to be not as attached to their nesting locations as previously thought, meaning that they could adapt much easier to their chan
Very little is known about the mechanism of antifreeze action of antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) present in Antarctic teleost fish. Recent NMR and CD studies assisted with total synthesis of synthetic AFGP variants have provided insight into the structure of short AFGP glycopeptides, though the observations did not yield information on the antifreeze mechanism of action. In this study, we use Hamiltonian replica exchange (HREX) molecular dynamics simulations to probe the structure and surrounding aqueous environments of both the natural (AFGP8) and synthetic (s-AFGP4) AFGPs. AFGPs can adopt both amphiphilic and pseudoamphiphilic conformations, the preference of which is related to the proline content of the peptide. The arrangement of carbohydrates allows the hydroxyl groups on terminal galactose units to form stable water bridges which in turn influence the hydrogen-bond network, structure, and dynamics of the surrounding solvent. Interestingly, these local effects lead to the perturbation of ...
New U-Pb SHRIMP ages from East Antarctica point to the existence of a laterally continuous orogenic belt that bisects the East Antarctic craton. This orogenic belt juxtaposes Archean crust to the south and east against Neoproterozoic metamorphic rocks to the north and west. It defines the margin of a separate lithospheric block that consists of a large section of East Antarctica and India that did not form part of east Gondwana or Rodinia as they are currently reconstructed. Instead, this Indo-Antarctic continent accreted with west Gondwana along the Mozambique suture shortly before collision and suturing along a second Pan-African suture now cropping out in the southern Prince Charles Mountains and Prydz Bay regions of Antarctica. This scenario is consistent with (1) the abrupt termination of ca. 990-900 Ma tectonism recognized in the northern Prince Charles Mountains-Rayner Complex-Eastern Ghats against Paleozoic orogenic belts, (2) the lack of terranes of equivalent age found elsewhere in ...
The chilly waters of the Southern Ocean are home to many different animals including eight types of whales, six types of seals, many types of fish, and Antarctic krill, a small shrimp-like animal. There are 17 types of penguins in Antarctica. Penguins are considered to be marine animals even though they live on land because they depend on the ocean for food. The Southern Ocean food chain begins like most marine food chains, with primary producers called phytoplankton. Through photosynthesis, phytoplankton convert the Sun s energy into food. Animals like Antarctic krill eat the phytoplankton and then larger animals such as penguins eat the krill ...
The Antarctic Ice Sheet stores water equivalent to 58 m in global sea-level rise. We show in simulations with the Parallel Ice Sheet Model that burning the currently attainable fossil fuel resources is sufficient to eliminate the ice sheet. With cumulative fossil fuel emissions of 10,000 giga-metric tonnes of carbon (GtC), Antarctica is projected to become almost ice-free with an average contribution to sea-level rise exceeding 3 m per century during the first millennium. Consistent with recent observations and simulations, the West Antarctic Ice Sheet becomes unstable with 600 to 800 GtC of additional carbon emissions. Beyond this additional carbon release, the destabilization of ice basins in both West and East Antarctica results in a threshold increase in global sea level. Unabated carbon emissions thus threaten the Antarctic Ice Sheet in its entirety with associated sea-level rise that far exceeds that of all other possible sources.. ...
Seabird mortality in fisheries is a global problem and a major driver of the continued decline of many seabird populations. Unless appropriate mitigation is in place, longline fishing can cause high levels of seabird mortality. Here we describe the development and implementation of seabird mitigation measures in the Patagonian toothfish Dissostichus eleginoides fishery around the sub-Antarctic islands of South Georgia (CCAMLR Subarea 48.3), since the fishery began in the late 1980s. The initial high bycatch mortality (,5000 birds / 0.59 birds per 1000 hooks in 1996) has been reduced to negligible levels (,0.01 per 1000 hooks) through implementation of a suite of mitigation measures and a high level of compliance. The principal species killed in the fishery were black-browed albatross and white-chinned petrels, with most of the mortality occurring in April and early May. Whilst the synchronous introduction of much of the mitigation makes it is difficult to confirm which measures have been most ...
AFGPs have evolved convergently in unrelated fishes from both Antarctic and Arctic seas to prevent freezing in these cold ice-laden environments. Previous studies have shown that AFGPs of Antarctic notothenioids are encoded by a family of polyprotein genes, with each gene encoding a large precursor containing multiple AFGP molecules linked in tandem by cleavable small spacers (Chen et al., 1997a). High concentrations of AFGPs circulate in the serum of several northern cods either through the whole year or during winter. The size and compositional heterogeneity has been reported for several species of northern cods, but only three AFGP genes from a partial genomic library of polar cod have been characterized. Four more polar cod B. saida AFGP gene sequences, their structures, and organization in the genome are reported here. Genomic Southern analysis indicates that a large AFGP gene family exists in its genome. A high percentage of the AFGP member genes appear to be arranged in tandem and ...
Abstract: In Antarctic waters, the superfamily Lysianassoidea is one of the most important amphipod groups both in terms of species number and abundance. Dominant members of this superfamily are species of the orchomenid complex, found throughout the Southern Ocean. This study presents the first molecular phylogenetic analysis based on a representative subset of the Antarctic species belonging to different ... orchomenid genera and hence provides a framework for a systematic revision of these taxa. The current classification of the orchomenid genera is mainly based on mouthpart morphology. The validity of these morphological characters was assessed by resolving phylogenetic relationships using nuclear 28S rRNA and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I sequences. The molecular data rejected most of the previously proposed taxonomic subdivisions within this complex. The genera Abyssorchomene and Orchomenella as well as the subgenus Orchomenopsis appeared to be non-monophyletic ...
Glaciers are present on every continent and approximately fifty countries, excluding those (Australia, South Africa) that have glaciers only on distant subantarctic island territories. Extensive glaciers are found in Antarctica, Chile, Canada, Alaska, Greenland and Iceland. Mountain glaciers are widespread, especially in the Andes, the Himalayas, the Rocky Mountains, the Caucasus, Scandinavian mountains and the Alps. Mainland Australia currently contains no glaciers, although a small glacier on Mount Kosciuszko was present in the last glacial period.[33] In New Guinea, small, rapidly diminishing, glaciers are located on its highest summit massif of Puncak Jaya.[34] Africa has glaciers on Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania, on Mount Kenya and in the Rwenzori Mountains. Oceanic islands with glaciers include Iceland, several of the islands off the coast of Norway including Svalbard and Jan Mayen to the far North, New Zealand and the subantarctic islands of Marion, Heard, Grande Terre (Kerguelen) and ...
The Arctic trend is in fact more than three times faster than the Antarctic one. The net result is a statistically significant global decrease of more than a million km2.
The Arctic trend is in fact more than three times faster than the Antarctic one. The net result is a statistically significant global decrease of more than a million km2.
Eucarida is a superorder of the Malacostraca, a class of the crustacean subphylum, comprising the decapods, krill, Amphionides and Angustidontida. They are characterised by having the carapace fused to all thoracic segments, and by the possession of stalked eyes.. Eucarida is a diverse and abundant group, comprising the following four orders:. The members of the Euphausiacea are commonly called krill and are all marine shrimp-like species whose pleopods (abdominal appendages) function as swimmerets. They swarm and mostly feed on plankton. This group is composed of only 90 species, some of which are the most abundant species on the planet; in fact, it is estimated that the biomass of the Antarctic krill Euphausia superba is 500 million tons.. Decapoda is a group with 15,000 species which have 5 pairs of thoracopods and a well-developed carapace that covers the gills (which are exposed in krill). They include lobsters, crabs, shrimp and prawns. The decapods are further subdivided on the basis of ...
Abstract Aim, The aim here was to assess whether the present-day assemblage of subantarctic flowering plants is the result of a rapid post-Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) colonization or whether subantarctic flowering plants survived on the islands in glacial refugia throughout the LGM. Location, The circumpolar subantarctic region, comprising six remote islands and island groups between latitudes 46 and 55 S, including South Georgia in the South Atlantic Ocean, the Prince Edward Islands, les Crozet, les Kerguelen, the Heard Island group in the South Indian Ocean and Macquarie Island in the South Pacific Ocean. Methods, Floristic affinities between the subantarctic islands were assessed by cluster analysis applied to an up-to-date dataset of the phanerogamic flora in order to test for the existence of provincialism within the subantarctic. A review of the primary literature on the palaeobotany, geology and glacial history of the subantarctic islands was carried out and supplemented with additional ...
The ice-covered mountains of South Georgia Island stand out starkly against the black of the surrounding South Atlantic Ocean. The tiny white flecks of icebergs salt the ocean around the island, and the massive A-38B iceberg floats offshore. Light wispy clouds frame the scene, leaving a window through which MODIS could peer to see the island below.. The A-38B iceberg started life almost six years ago as part of the A-38 iceberg. The A-38 iceberg was ninety mile long by almost 30 mile wide when it broke off of the Ronne Ice Shelf in Antarctica in early October 1998. By mid-October, the iceberg, named A-38, had broken into two pieces: A-38A and A-38B. While still in one immensely-heavy 90-mile long piece, the iceberg had essentially grounded itself just off the Ronne Ice Shelf. But breaking in two and enduring the wear of freezing and melting seasons gradually shrunk the icebergs to the point where they could begin drifting out to sea.. Six years later, pieces of the iceberg are still floating in ...
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Antarctic Regions. Retrieved January 12, 2012. "National Geographic - Special Report: The Sinking of the Explorer". ... In 2008 Jon completed his ten-year OCEANS 8 project with a trip to the Larsen Ice Shelf and the Antarctic Peninsula, which is ... In February 2008, Jon and his team completed the final expedition in the 10-year-long project, along the Antarctic Peninsula. ... "The Huffington Post - Antarctic Evolution". Huffington Post. April 3, 2008. Retrieved January 12, 2012. Bowermaster, Jon. " ...
1922). "Antarctic Regions" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 30 (12th ed.). London & New York: The Encyclopædia Britannica Company. p ... Being an Account of Experiences with Captain Scott's South Pole Expedition and of the Nature Life of the Antarctic. Duckworth ...
"Marine Regions · Cape Murray (Cape)". www.marineregions.org. Retrieved 2017-09-18. SCAR Composite Gazetteer of Antarctica. v t ... British Antarctic Territory. Scale 1:200000 topographic map. DOS 610 Series, Sheet W 64 60. Directorate of Overseas Surveys, ... First charted by the 1897-99 Belgian Antarctic Expedition under Lt. Adrien de Gerlache, and considered at the time as joined to ... an ardent advocate of Antarctic research. Cape Murray is located at 64°21′22″S 61°36′55″W / 64.35611°S 61.61528°W / - ...
Chilean Antarctic Region. 1999 Speleoanthropology, prospection of the caverns Ana Te Pora and Ana Te Pahu in the Polynesia, ... focused on help vulnerable communities in remote regions in case of disaster. His last work in charge of a rescue section was ...
ISBN 3-931278-10-7 Fricker, Karl (1900). The Antarctic Regions. S. Sonnenschein & Company, limited. p. 16. Johannes Schöner ... as our Globe shows toward the Antarctic Pole. Further, the distance is only moderate from this Region of Brazil to Malacca, ... From one side the land on the other is visible; and the cape of this region about 60 miles away, much as if one were sailing ... On this slender foundation he constructed his circum-Antarctic continent to which, for reasons that he does not explain he gave ...
"Antarctic Region (map)". Intergovernmental Committee on Surveying and Mapping (Australia). May 1995. Archived from the original ... All these towns are in either the Košice Okolie district of the Košice region of Slovakia or the Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén county of ... "US NSF - OPP - ANT - The Antarctic Treaty". National Science Foundation. Retrieved 14 May 2012. "1:10,000 plot - OSNI Map Shop ... Four regions of Mauritania, namely Adrar, Brakna, Tagant, and Trarza, meet at a quadripoint formed by an intersection of non- ...
doi:10.1034/j.1600-0889.1992.00018.x. Peel, D.A. (2004). "Ice core evidence from the Antarctic Peninsula region". In Bradley, ... Through drilling a shelf glacier in the region of Novolazarev Station]. Soviet Antarctic Expedition Bulletin. 98: 49-52. ... Bentley, Charles R.; Koci, Bruce R. (2007). "Drilling to the beds of the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets: a review" (PDF). ... 1992). "The ratio of MSA to non-sea-salt sulphate in Antarctic Peninsula ice cores". Tellus. 44B (4): 295-303. Bibcode: ...
"The Antarctic Polar Region". In Alan Christopherson, M.S. (ed.). The Polar Regions. LIFEPAC. 804 N. 2nd Ave. E., Rock Rapids, ... These were not restricted to Antarctic regions; on the contrary, subantarctic regions harboured high diversity, and at least ... Also, though the climate of the Arctic and Antarctic regions is similar, there are no penguins found in the Arctic. Several ... the oceans between the Australia-New Zealand region and the Antarctic. Presumably diverging from other penguins around 40 mya, ...
"Name Details - Orca Seamount". Catalogue of Antarctic Names. Australian Antarctic Data Centre. Retrieved 2010-03-29. "GEBCO ... Hatzky, Jörn (2005): The Orca Seamount Region, Antarctica (Sect. 5.5.2). In: Peter C. Wille (ed.), Sound Images of the Ocean in ... It was mapped and studied by the ship RV Polarstern during an Antarctic cruise (number ANT-XI/3) in 2005. The variant name of ...
Compared with the Antarctic region, the Arctic has long history of interaction with man. The polar food web structure can be ... In addition to relatively thin sea ice, thick and extensive ice shelves (floating glaciers) are present in the Antarctic region ... The study of Antarctic ice, its distribution, changes in ice volume, and other indicators of the continental climate in ... A large amount of the land in the north polar region is part of Earth's tundra biome. South of the Arctic tundra, where ...
Lomakina, N., (1968). Cumacea of the Antarctic region. Studies of Marine Fauna 6 (14): 97-140. López-González, P.J., Bandera, M ... obtained by the second Japanese Antarctic research expedition. Biological Results of the Japanese Antarctic research Expedition ... Antarctic Science 10 (1): 3-11. Brandt, A., W. Brökeland, B. Hilbig, U. Mühlenhardt-Siegel, M. Raupach, G. Strieso, & G. ... National Antarctic Expedition. Natural History 2: 1-6. Calman, W. T., (1907b). Sur quelques Cumacés de côtes de France. ...
Schwerdtfeger, W. (1970). "The climate of the Antarctic". In S. Orvig (ed.). Climates of the Polar Regions. World Survey of ... In the polar regions of Earth, diamond dust may persist for several days without interruption. Play media Diamond dust is ... Antarctic Research Series. Vol. 25. American Geophysical Union. pp. 17-26. ISBN 0-87590-125-5. ,volume= has extra text (help) ...
ISBN 978-0-00-616116-5. Ross, James Clark (1847). A Voyage of Discovery and Research in the Southern and Antarctic Regions . ... Crozet Islands Gough Island List of Antarctic islands north of 60° S List of sub-Antarctic islands Prince Edward Fracture Zone ... Antarctic Legacy of South Africa. ISBN 978-0-620-74912-1.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link) "Cat hunter and sealer book ... The islands also host fourteen species of petrel, four species of prion, the Antarctic tern, and the brown skua, among others ...
"British Antarctic Territory" (PDF). jncc.defra.gov.uk/. Polar Regions Unit, Foreign and Commonwealth Office and British ... During her time as the Head of Polar Regions, she has been involved in shaping policy relevant to Arctic and Antarctic ... Jane Rumble OBE is the Head of the Polar Regions Department for the UK's Foreign and Commonwealth Office. Rumble attended ... "Arctic Frontiers - Jane Rumble, Head of Polar Regions Department, Foreign and Commonwealth Office, UK". www.arcticfrontiers.com ...
in High-Altitude Lakes of the Mount Everest Region". Arctic, Antarctic, and Alpine Research. 38 (3): 394-398. doi:10.1657/1523- ...
This region was declared a National Park of Colombia in 1977 because of its importance as a biodiversity hotspot and main ... Antarctic, and Alpine Research. 33 (2): 158-164. doi:10.2307/1552216. JSTOR 1552216. (in Spanish) Decisión de la Corte frena ... Scattered throughout the regions between 11°N and 8°S latitudes, these ecosystems are located mainly in the northwest corner of ... The Andes also play a key role in the climate of these regions as they cause an orographic uplift in which moist air rises. ...
2019 First to row to the Antarctic continent, 2019 First to row in both Polar Regions, 2019 First to row on 5 oceans (first to ... The Antarctic Row was conceived in April 2017. Upon completion of Polar Row II in August 2017, in an interview with The New ... "First Row to Antarctic continent". Guinness World Records. Retrieved 3 May 2020. "First person to row in open waters of both ... "Antarctic Row, rowing across Drake Passage - Fiann Paul, Ocean Rower". Row Laugh Explore. Retrieved 28 March 2020. Specia, ...
Anisimov, O.A. (2007). "Polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic). In: Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. ... In other words, regions which are dry at present will generally become even drier, while regions that are currently wet will ... Though extending the Antarctic sea-ice record back in time is more difficult due to the lack of direct observations in this ... Some world regions, such as the French Alps, already show signs of an increase in landslide frequency. Of particular importance ...
The first churches south of the Antarctic Convergence and north of 60° S latitude (and thus not part of the Antarctic Treaty ... Extended stays in the region can be an extremely stressful experience for the researchers who often have been separated from ... Some churches north of the Antarctic Convergence serve Antarctic territories, such as the Christ Church Cathedral in Stanley, ... The Worldwide Antarctic Program proposes building a Catholic chapel at Mario Zucchelli Station, Terra Nova Bay, Antarctica; ...
23" (PDF). The Antarctic Sun. McMurdo Station, Antarctica. pp. 1, 12. Keating, Vicki & Melendy, Renee. "Projects: South Pole ... United States Army Corps of Engineers Cold Regions Research and Engineering Laboratory. Archived from the original on 15 ... The McMurdo Ice Shelf and the Antarctic Plateau are relatively stable. Most crevasses occur in the short steep shear zone ... Geography portal U.S. Roads portal Rejcek, Peter (29 February 2008). "Ready to roll". The Antarctic Sun. McMurdo Station, ...
Unlike most Antarctic glaciers, the Taylor glacier is not frozen to the bedrock, probably because of the presence of salts ... Horita, Juske (February 2009). "Isotopic evolution of saline lakes in the low-latitude and polar regions". Aquatic Geochemistry ... The more soluble ferrous ions initially are dissolved in old seawater trapped in an ancient pocket remaining from the Antarctic ... Rejcek, Peter (March 4, 2015). "Lifeblood of a Glacier". The Antarctic Sun. Retrieved March 4, 2015. Carter, J.; et al. ( ...
Bull, H.J. (1896). The cruise of the Antarctic to the Polar regions. London & New York: Edward Arnold. Frost, Sydney (1978). ... Renamed Antarctic, the vessel left Norway on 20 September 1893 and after sealing at Kerguelen Island en route arrived at ... Antarctic left Melbourne in April 1894 and briefly cruised off Tasmania before heading for the Auckland Islands and Campbell ... Australia is now a global anti-whaling advocate and has taken a strong stance against Japan's whaling program in the Antarctic ...
It is widespread in Antarctic regions. The lichen is used as a model system to study the potential to resist extreme ...
On 17 January 1773 the Antarctic Circle was crossed for the first time in history and the two ships reached 67° 15′ S by 39° 35 ... He became an expert on biogeography, creating the basis for the zoogeographic regions still in use today. While he was ... U.S. Antarctic Program External Panel. "Antarctica -past and present" (PDF). NSF. Retrieved 2007-11-14. CS1 maint: discouraged ... The basic geography of the Antarctic coastline was not understood until the mid-to-late 19th century. It may safely be said ...
"Arctic & Antarctic Regions - Database Coverage List". EBSCOhost. Archived from the original on 2012-10-04. Retrieved Feb 22, ... Polar Record is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal covering all aspects of Arctic and Antarctic exploration and ... "so much exploration and exploitation in the polar regions, the news of which appear in so many forms and languages", and that " ...
"Regions and territories: Falkland Islands". BBC News. 12 June 2012. Retrieved 26 June 2014. See: Calvert 2004, p. 134, Royle ... The Falkland Islands are biogeographically part of the Antarctic zone, with strong connections to the flora and fauna of ... Tourism, part of the service economy, has been spurred by increased interest in Antarctic exploration and the creation of ... ISBN 978-950-07-3390-8. Bell, Brian (2007). "Introduced Species". In Beau Riffenburgh (ed.). Encyclopedia of the Antarctic. 1. ...
Arctic and Antarctic regions 905-910.................Tropics (General) 912-922.................Northern and Southern ... By region 1000-1023........Marine resources. Applied oceanography 1080-1581........Marine pollution. Sea water pollution 1-350 ... By region or country 3-5030................Physical geography 400-649..............Geomorphology. Landforms. Terrain 447 ... General) 99.6-390......By region or country 420-950.......By subject 420-426......Costume, jewelry 430-488......Folklore ...
2001). "Polar Regions (Arctic and Antarctic). In: Climate Change 2001: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of ... Polar regions: Anisimov et al. (2001:804) reviewed the literature on climate change impacts in polar regions. With very high ... Aggregating impacts adds up the total impact of climate change across sectors and/or regions (IPCC, 2007a:76). In producing ... Aggregate estimates of costs mask significant differences in impacts across sectors, regions, countries, and populations. ...
"Diatoms from the Antarctic Region, Maritime Antarctica". Iconographia Diatomologica Vol. 24, Koeltz Botanical Books, 504p. " ... Navicula dobrinatemniskovae is an algal species in the genus Navicula, known from inland waters of the Antarctic region. The ... Maritime Antarctic Region)." Plant Ecology and Evolution 148.3 (2015): 431-455. Kopalová, Kateřina, and Bart van de Vijver. " ... in inland waters of the Sub-Antarctic and Antarctic with the description of five new species". Phycologia. 50 (3): 281-297. doi ...
Principal Investigator of POLENET, a major Antarctic programme devoted to observing the polar regions and investigating ice ... "Terry Wilson tracks changes in Antarctic ice sheet , EarthSky.org". earthsky.org. Retrieved 2016-06-04. "The Antarctic Sun: ... Antarctic cryosphere and Southern Ocean climate evolution (Cenozoic-Holocene)1) EGU Meeting, 2) XXIX SCAR Meeting. 260 (1-2): 8 ... Six priorities for Antarctic science. Nature,512(7512), pp. 23-25. "POLENET: The Polar Earth Observing Network - Investigating ...
... positions vary according to the different regions of the world, as culture influences the way people eat their meals. ... "Food and feeding ecology of the sympatric thin-billed Pachyptila belcheri and Antarctic P. desolata prions at Iles Kerguelen, ...
... the southern part of Nazca Plate and the Chile Rise became consumed by subduction the more northerly regions of the Antarctic ... associated with increased production of cold Antarctic deep waters and a major growth of the East Antarctic ice sheet. A Middle ... At first the Antarctic Plate subducted only in the southernmost tip of Patagonia, meaning that the Chile Triple Junction lay ... The Tethys Seaway continued to shrink and then disappeared as Africa collided with Eurasia in the Turkish-Arabian region ...
Archaeological evidence from the Dordogne region of France demonstrates that members of the European early Upper Paleolithic ... and the cold Arctic and Antarctic waters lowered temperatures in the now-isolated Atlantic Ocean. ... For the duration of the Paleolithic, human populations remained low, especially outside the equatorial region. The entire ... Bradshaw rock paintings found in the north-west Kimberley region of Western Australia. ...
Handbook of Australian, New Zealand & Antarctic Birds. Volume 2: Raptors to lapwings. Melbourne, Victoria: Oxford University ... Lists by region. *Recently extinct birds. *Late Quaternary prehistoric birds. *Notable birds *Individuals ...
Using chemical proxies from Antarctic ice cores, researchers have estimated the fluctuations of carbon dioxide (CO2) and ... such as significant portions of the Amazon region, are being converted to agriculture for meat production.[25][176][177][178][ ... the introduction in various regions of non-native species, and the widespread transmission of infectious diseases spread ... The warming of the arctic region caused the rapid decline of grasslands, which had a negative effect on the grazing megafauna ...
1 Also known as overseas regions. *2 Claimed by Comoros. *3 Claimed by Madagascar ... Wikivoyage has a travel guide for French Southern and Antarctic Lands.. *. Wikimedia Atlas of the French Southern and Antarctic ... French Southern and Antarctic Lands - Official French website (in English). *. "French Southern and Antarctic Lands". The World ... "Peri-Antarctic" (meaning "close to the Antarctic") does not include territorial claims in Antarctica itself. ...
A vineyard in the Barossa Valley, one of Australia's major wine-producing regions. The Australian wine industry is the world's ...
Antarctic Ocean and Resources Variability. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. pp. 292-296. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-73724-4_25. ISBN 978- ... Some whales, such as the humpback, reside in the polar regions where they feed on a reliable source of schooling fish and krill ... Most will travel from the Arctic or Antarctic into the tropics to mate, calve, and raise during the winter and spring; they ... "Reorganization of Southern Ocean Plankton Ecosystem at the Onset of Antarctic Glaciation". Science. 340 (6130): 341-344. ...
Commissioner for the British Antarctic Territory. *Commissioner for the British Indian Ocean Territory ...
Population by region. Six of the Earth's seven continents are permanently inhabited on a large scale. Asia is the most populous ... The Antarctic Treaty System limits the nature of national claims in Antarctica. Of the territorial claims in Antarctica, the ... The shaded regions correspond to the range of projections by the United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs. ... Europe's 742 million people make up 10% of the world's population as of 2018, while the Latin American and Caribbean regions ...
West Antarctic Ice Sheet extent oscillated at the 40Kyr period of Earth's obliquity, ice sheet collapse occurred when global ... Propagation of El Niño effect through planetary waves may have warmed the polar region and delayed the onset of the northern ... 2009). "Obliquity-paced Pliocene West Antarctic ice sheet oscillations". Nature. 458 (7236): 322-328. Bibcode:2009Natur.458.. ... Pollard, D.; DeConto, R. M. (2009). "Modelling West Antarctic ice sheet growth and collapse through the past five million years ...
For example, in the Great Lakes Region the sea lamprey is an invasive species that acts as a predator. In its original habitat ... "Rat begone: Record eradication effort rids sub-Antarctic island of invasive rodents". Science. Retrieved 2018-05-09 ... However, in the Great Lakes Region, this co-evolutionary link is non existent, so the sea lamprey acts as a predator, and can ... In the Waterberg region of South Africa, cattle grazing over the past six centuries has allowed invasive scrub and small trees ...
"Diversity of free-living prokaryotes from a deep-sea site at the Antarctic Polar Front". FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 36 (2-3): 193- ... and in the region of soil that surrounds plant roots (the rhizosphere).[200][201] ...
There was great uncertainty of the fate of the West Antarctic Ice Sheet; disintegration could lead to sea-level rise of 5 to 6m ... Warming at equilibrium would be 2-3 times as great over the polar regions as over the tropics; and probably greater over the ...
The "Permian" was named after Perm, Russia, because it was defined using strata in that region by Scottish geologist Roderick ... Moderate Icehouse climate, punctuated by ice ages and re-establishment of East Antarctic Ice Sheet; Gradual separation of human ... Start of widespread Antarctic glaciation.[33] Rapid evolution and diversification of fauna, especially mammals. Major evolution ... Fischer, Alfred G.; Garrison, Robert E. (2009). "The role of the Mediterranean region in the development of sedimentary geology ...
C. t. germanus, Bogotá region (Colombia).. References[edit]. *^ a b Wozencraft, W.C. (2005). "Order Carnivora". In Wilson, D.E. ... Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella). *Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii). *Brown fur seal (A. pusillus) ... In some regions of their range, they are threatened with extirpation. Taxonomy and evolution[edit]. Cerdocyon thous, C. avius ...
Tate, G.H.H. (1936). "Some muridae of the Indo-Australian region". Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History. 72: 501- ... Antarctic Science. 22 (3): 255-263. Bibcode:2010AntSc..22..255C. doi:10.1017/S0954102010000064. ISSN 0954-1020.. ... Before an eradication effort was launched in 2001, the sub-Antarctic Campbell Island had the highest population density of ... which can only survive in the prairie region of the province, and even then must overwinter in buildings. Although it is a ...
The most valuable grazing land includes the Hawd region in the high plateau to the west of the Mudug and Sool regions of ... Australian Antarctic Territory. *French Southern and Antarctic Lands. *Heard Island and McDonald Islands ... On 8 April 2013, the Puntland government announced the creation of a new region named Gardafuul. Carved out of the Bari region ... all carved out of the existing regions: Karkaar was carved out of Bari, Haylaan out of Sanaag, and Ayn out of Togdheer region.[ ...
"Galloway Township native has Antarctic peak named for her", The Press of Atlantic City, December 23, 2017. Accessed November 24 ... One theory is that it was named after an area known as Galloway now part of the modern region of Dumfries and Galloway in ... "Anne Grunow, who recently had an Antarctic peak named after her, wasn't terribly interested in science while a student at ...
The Greenland dog has been a draught animal in the Arctic regions for centuries and consequently they have developed a powerful ... Roald Amundsen used the Greenland Dogs as well on his expedition to the Antarctic. Amundsen carefully chose 97 Greenland dogs ... It also indicates the ancestry of present-day dog breeds descends from more than one region.[6] ... explorers and fur traders in Canada and North America trained dog-sledding skills from the natives of the Arctic region, and ...
Farming is a large-scale practice in the temperate regions (except for boreal/subarctic regions) due to the plentiful rainfall ... to the Antarctic Circle (approximately 66.5° south).[4][5] ... In these regions, winters are quite dry and summers have very ... Temperate regions have the majority of the world's population, which leads to large cities. There are a couple of factors why ... As a result of their location, these regions tend to be on the cool end of oceanic climates. Snowfall tends to be more common ...
Antarctic family values', The Observer, September 18, 2005, News Pages, Pg. 3. ... in the Afar Triangle region of Hadar, Ethiopia.[169][170] ...
... and in fact the record for the Western Hemisphere has been set in the region and has remained somewhere in the region for many ... "Antarctic Air Visits Paranal". ESO Picture of the Week. Retrieved 4 February 2014.. ... The most humid cities on earth are generally located closer to the equator, near coastal regions. Cities in South and Southeast ... Unlike most other greenhouse gases, however, water is not merely below its boiling point in all regions of the Earth, but below ...
Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region. ... Antarctic minke whale (B. bonaerensis). *Sei whale (B. borealis). *Bryde's whale (B. brydei) ... the Memorandum of Understanding for the Conservation of Cetaceans and Their Habitats in the Pacific Islands Region (Pacific ...
They can be found in great numbers in suburban/residential regions. For the most part, this coexistence is agreeable for both ... Antarctic fur seal (A. gazella). *Juan Fernández fur seal (A. philippii). *Brown fur seal (A. pusillus) ...
He further predicted, the average temperature in temperate regions would increase by as much as 8 °C and by up to 5 °C in the ... Similarly the warming of the oceans is extending the oceanic thermocline layer of tropical oceans into the Arctic and Antarctic ... went on to measure the concentration of CFC-11 from the northern hemisphere to the Antarctic aboard the research vessel RRS ... about making plans for the migration of millions of people from low-lying regions like Bangladesh into Europe; about admitting ...
2010 Peel Region municipal elections. *2011 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Championship Game ... Antarctic Snow Cruiser. *Antigua, Fuerteventura. *Ferdinando Giuseppe Antonelli. *Aotea Utanganui - Museum of South Taranaki ...
Like the other overseas departments, Martinique is one of the eighteen regions of France (being an overseas region) and is ... French Southern and Antarctic Lands *Adélie Land. *Crozet Islands. *Île Amsterdam. *Île Saint-Paul ... listen); Martinican Creole: Matnik or Matinik)[4] is an insular region of France located in the Lesser Antilles of the West ... Like Guadeloupe, it is an overseas region (région d'outre-mer) of France, consisting of a single overseas department. One of ...
It then uses the records to determine the past states of the Earth's various climate regions and its atmospheric system. ... 10 August 2007). "Orbital and Millennial Antarctic Climate Variability over the Past 800,000 Years". Science. 317 (5839): 793- ... has drilled an ice core in Dome C on the East Antarctic ice sheet and retrieved ice from roughly 800,000 years ago.[8] The ... "Orbital and Millennial Antarctic Climate Variability over the Past 800,000 Years". Science. 317 (5839): 793-796. Bibcode: ...
Earth's polar regions. Antarctic. *Antarctic Peninsula. *East Antarctica. *West Antarctica. *Eklund Islands ...
Antarctic sea ice region as a source of biogenic organic nitrogen in aerosols. *Manuel DallOsto. ORCID: orcid.org/0000-0003- ... DallOsto, M., Ovadnevaite, J., Paglione, M. et al. Antarctic sea ice region as a source of biogenic organic nitrogen in ... cruise was conducted on board de RV Hesperides in the regions of Antarctic Peninsula, South Orkney and South Georgia Islands ... of total particles in the S-SBACC region contained ON, versus 15% in the N-SBACC region. ...
Antarctic explorer reveals hes suffering chilling condition known as Polar Penis with nether regions in agony. Alex Brazier ... Antarctic trekker Alex Brazier has revealed he is suffering from a chilling condition known as Polar Penis. ... "Fortunately, I now have a large thick woollen hat stuffed down in that region. It turned out to make all the difference. ... Yet so far only unlucky Alex, 26, has been hit by the medical condition, also known as Antarctic Willy. ...
The Antarctic Region What Will You Find There?. If you travel to the South Pole, you will find the continent of Antarctica ... Sea Ice in the Arctic and Antarctic. Sea ice is frozen seawater. It floats on the oceans that are in Earths polar regions. The ... South Pole Live Camera (US Antarctic Program) Earths Polar Regions Newly Unveiled Satellite Map of Antarctica Is a Unique Tool ... All sorts of living things call Earth s polar regions home from tiny lichens of the Arctic tundra to huge blue whales swimming ...
In general, the biodiversity of Prydz Bay was higher than those of the Antarctic Peninsula region and the Ross Sea, and there ... In general, the biodiversity of Prydz Bay was higher than those of the Antarctic Peninsula region and the Ross Sea, and there ... the Antarctic Peninsula region, and the Ross Sea. In our results, we characterized 1,079,7,09 clean tag sequences representing ... the Antarctic Peninsula region, and the Ross Sea. In our results, we characterized 1,079,709 clean tag sequences representing ...
Sea-salt aerosol in coastal Antarctic regions. Sea-salt aerosol in coastal Antarctic regions. Continuous year round records of ... British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is a component of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). NERC is part of UK Research ... They are thus considerably lower than the mean levels previously observed at the north tip of the Antarctic Peninsula but are, ... British Antarctic Survey. High Cross, Madingley Road. CAMBRIDGE. CB3 0ET. United Kingdom ...
Our results suggest that in the South Orkneys/Bransfield Strait and Lazarev Sea region, Antarctic krill entered a state of ... Seasonal gene expression profiling of Antarctic krill in three different latitudinal regions , Marine Genomics . ... Seasonal gene expression profiling of Antarctic krill in three different latitudinal regions Höring, Flavia ORCID: https:// ... The Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, has evolved seasonal rhythms of physiology and behaviour to survive under the extreme ...
"Arctic and Antarctic Exploration Including the Contributions of Physicians and Effects of Disease in the Polar Regions, ... Arctic and Antarctic Exploration Including the Contributions of Physicians and Effects of Disease in the Polar Regions. Fodstad ... Arctic and Antarctic Exploration Including the Contributions of Physicians and Effects of Disease in the Polar Regions. U L T I ... Arctic and Antarctic Exploration Including the Contributions of Physicians and Effects of Disease in the Polar Regions. Arctic ...
Antarctic sea ice region as a source of biogenic organic nitrogen in aerosols. Overview of attention for article published in ... Antarctic sea ice region as a source of biogenic organic nitrogen in aerosols ...
... species from Antarctic and Subantarctic regions , Conference of the German Botanical Society, 5-10 Sept., Braunschweig, Germany ...
Phylogeny of Ameronothroidea in the south polar region and the phylogeography of selected species on sub-antarctic Marion ... collected from sub-Antarctic and Maritime Antarctic localities. Phylogenetic analyses based on a combined mitochondrial ( ... ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Sub-Antarctic islands represent the only mid to high latitude terrestrial biomes in the Southern Hemisphere. ... Sub-Antarctic Marion Island, the larger of the two islands comprising the Prince Edward Island archipelago (PEI), has ...
The Antarctic Peninsula region is a hot spot for krill research for two reasons: Firstly, the area is in addition to the Scotia ... WAP means different study regions west of the Antarctic Peninsula. The data from Fig. 5 in Quetin et al. (2003) were extracted ... 2009). The Antarctic Peninsula is the region where the krill fishery and the highest abundance of krill predators around ... Quetin LB, Ross RM (2003) Episodic recruitment in Antarctic krill Euphausia superba in the Palmer LTER study region. Mar Ecol ...
Pearce, David (2008) Climate change and the microbiology of the Antarctic Peninsula region. Science Progress, 91 (2). pp. 203- ... Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are cold, dry, low nutrient environments, with large temperature fluctuations and ... Although the direct effect of a change in, for example, temperature, is known for very few Antarctic microorganisms, molecular ...
... and other trace gases in the upper troposphere and stratosphere over the Antarctic. In this study, the AIUS retrieval ... Li X, Xu J, Cheng T, Shi H, Zhang X, Ge S, Wang H, Zhu S, Miao J, Luo Q. Monitoring Trace Gases over the Antarctic Using ... Monitoring Trace Gases over the Antarctic Using Atmospheric Infrared Ultraspectral Sounder Onboard GaoFen-5: Algorithm ... "Monitoring Trace Gases over the Antarctic Using Atmospheric Infrared Ultraspectral Sounder Onboard GaoFen-5: Algorithm ...
Table-Glaciers of the Antarctic Regions. The Great Salt Lake. Living Millstones. ...
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High-nutrient, low-chlorophyll regions. by Tyron Drake , Jul 15, 2020 , Antarctic Krill ... High-nutrient, low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions are regions of the ocean where the abundance of phytoplankton is low and fairly ... On average, HNLC regions tend to be growth-limited by iron and variably, zinc. This trace metal limitation leads to communities ... Analysis of Antarctic ice core data over the last million years shows correlation between high levels of dust and low ...
The Antarctic Region. What Will You Find There? South of the Antarctic Circle (at 66.5 S latitude) you will find the continent ... Antarctic Gateway. Hello,. We were able to get to McMurdo Station in Antarctica pretty quickly: we left the States on December ... Antarctica is almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle...more. En Route to Antarctica - First Stop New Zealand. Hello ...
Mountains of men in the Dinaric Alps-a study worthy of work in several more regions.. Posted Wed, 12 Apr 2017 09:15:00 GMT by ... Antarctic penguin loss reported to be severe.. Posted Mon, 15 Feb 2016 09:20:26 GMT by Dave Armstrong ... Whether you imagine shivering in the Antarctic or sweltering in a swamp, this is the ideas factory for you. Untamed Travel ... often from pest influences as global warming really takes hold in certain regions. How to help prevent a treeless future - as ...
1 Also known as overseas regions. *2 Claimed by Comoros. *3 Claimed by Madagascar ... Wikivoyage has a travel guide for French Southern and Antarctic Lands.. *. Wikimedia Atlas of the French Southern and Antarctic ... French Southern and Antarctic Lands - Official French website (in English). *. "French Southern and Antarctic Lands". The World ... "Peri-Antarctic" (meaning "close to the Antarctic") does not include territorial claims in Antarctica itself. ...
Australian PM says North Korean aggression threatens security of whole region. Posted ...
Antarctic region Remove constraint Subject: Antarctic region Start Over ... Antarctic region; Antarctica. Abstract:. ... Pseudomonas sp. strain Ant30-3, isolated from fuel-contaminated Antarctic soil, ... Antarctic region; Antarctica. Abstract:. ... Exposure to extremes of temperatures cause stresses which are sometimes lethal to ... 2. Adaptation to low temperature and regulation of gene expression in antarctic psychrotrophic bacteria ...
Assessment of air temperatures from different meteorological reanalyses for the East Antarctic region between Zhongshan and ... Despite deficiencies and limitations, the reanalyses are still powerful tools for climate studies in the Antarctic region. ... Assessment of air temperatures from different meteorological reanalyses for the East Antarctic region between Zhongshan and ... Assessment of air temperatures from different meteorological reanalyses for the East Antarctic region between Zhongshan and ...
... and the modern notothenioid fauna is endemic to the Antarctic regions with no northern representatives (33, 34). The ... in the Antarctic notothenioid fishes and several northern cods of the family Gadidae (8, 9). Antarctic notothenioids are modern ... deposits on Seymour Island in the Antarctic Peninsula (30), they diverged at least 40 mya, at a time when the Antarctic Ocean ... 1990) in Antarctic Ecosystems: Ecological Change and Conservation, eds Kerry K R, Hempel G(Springer, Berlin), pp 9-22. ...
Poles Apart: Comparing the Arctic and the Antarctic Polar regions The worlds two polar regions of the Arctic and Antarctica ... This experienced team will provide invaluable insights on the diversity of both the Arctic and Antarctic regions. Jason Flesher ... Which region should I visit then for my first Expedition Voyage? While traditionally many passengers have visited Antarctica ... The main Antarctica region is completely devoid of land mammals, with its largest land creature less than 1.3 cm long insect - ...
... work together to deliver research that uses the Polar Regions to advance our understanding of Earth as a sustainable planet. ... delivers and enables world-leading interdisciplinary research in the Polar Regions. Its skilled science and support staff based ... British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is a component of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). NERC is part of UK Research ... An age scale for the first shallow (sub-)Antarctic ice core from Young Island, Northwest Ross Sea. Read more on An age scale ...
... ocean preconditioning and meteorological perturbations are responsible for the appearance of polynyas in the Weddell Sea region ... Offshore Antarctic polynyas-large openings in the winter sea ice cover-are thought to be maintained by a rapid ventilation of ... Martinson, D. G. & Iannuzzi, R. A. in Antarctic Sea Ice: Physical Processes, Interactions and Variability (Antarctic Research ... a, b, Time series are shown for 2016 (a) and 2017 (b). Average daily SIC within the Maud Rise region (63°-67° S, 0°-10° E) from ...
Antarctic Regions * Cold Temperature * Deinococcus / radiation effects* * Desiccation * Environmental Exposure * ... Low-temperature ionizing radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans and Antarctic Dry Valley bacteria Astrobiology. 2010 ... Novel psychrotolerant bacterial strains were isolated from the Antarctic Dry Valleys, an environmental analogue of the martian ...
A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed to characterize dissimilatory iron-reducing strains mostly isolated from Antarctic ... Antarctic Regions * Base Composition * DNA, Bacterial / analysis* * Eicosapentaenoic Acid / biosynthesis * Fatty Acids / ... nov., novel Antarctic species with the ability to produce eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5 omega 3) and grow anaerobically by ... On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic data, the Antarctic iron-reducing strains are placed in two new species, Shewanella ...
The Floristic Regions in the Antarctic Floristic Kingdom are the: Fernandezian Region Argentina-Chile-Patagonian Region South ... The Antarctic Floristic Kingdom is subdivided into four floristic regions, and subdivided even further into sixteen floristic ... The Antarctic Floristic Kingdom is a classification in phytogeography, different from the Antarctic realm classification in ... Subantarctic Islands Region Neozeylandic Region The Fernandezian Region is often also included within the Neotropical Kingdom. ...
... in gravel clasts derived from regions south of Mount Morning reflect an increase in ice flux through major East Antarctic ice ... Early to mid-Miocene Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics. Richard Levy, David Harwood, Fabio Florindo, Francesca Sangiorgi, Robert ... Early to mid-Miocene Antarctic Ice Sheet dynamics. Richard Levy, David Harwood, Fabio Florindo, Francesca Sangiorgi, Robert ... Antarctic ice sheet sensitivity to atmospheric CO2 variations in the early to mid-Miocene. Richard Levy, David Harwood, Fabio ...
  • It surrounds Antarctica in the South Polar Region. (windows2universe.org)
  • The world's two polar regions of the Arctic and Antarctica are equally captivating - both are home to large pristine landscapes, icebergs, glaciers and abundant wildlife. (scenicnz.com)
  • The main Antarctica region is completely devoid of land mammals, with its largest land creature less than 1.3 cm long insect - the wingless midge. (scenicnz.com)
  • Instead, the thrill of Antarctica is in its abundant marine animals living in the water, including seals, krill, orca whales and the rare Antarctic blue whale. (scenicnz.com)
  • To determine how northern cod AFGPs are encoded and how two unrelated fish taxa arrive at essentially the same AFGP molecules, we have characterized the AFGPs and AFGP genes from the Arctic cod Boreogadus saida (Svalbard, Norway) and compared them to those of the Antarctic notothenioid Dissostichus mawsoni (McMurdo Sound, Antarctica). (pnas.org)
  • The amount of ice lost annually from the Antarctic ice sheet increased at least six-fold between 1979 and 2017," Nullis added, citing images showing cracks in glaciers in Antarctica. (reuters.com)
  • Extended Antarctica cruise that includes the Antarctic Peninsula, South Georgia, South Orkneys, and the Falkland Islands. (wildernesstravel.com)
  • The famed explorer Ernest SHACKLETON stopped there in 1914 en route to his ill-fated attempt to cross Antarctica on foot. (faqs.org)
  • This paper presents the first fossil penguin from East Antarctica, and the only one known south of the Antarctic Circle. (cambridge.org)
  • The SCAR Action Group on Antarctic Clouds and Aerosols (ACA) aims to organise an international large scale campaign to investigate clouds and aerosols in Antarctica through a series of special observing periods when intensive ground-based measurements would be made at the same time as in-situ measurements using instrumented aircraft. (scar.org)
  • Recovery Glacier, located in the Coats Land region of Antarctica, has always been a slumbering giant, transporting ice from the high plateau of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet down toward the Weddell Sea at a snail's pace of only 10 to 400 metres per year. (eurekalert.org)
  • Deschampsia antarctica, the Antarctic hairgrass, is one of two vascular plant species which grow along the west coast of the Antarctic Peninsula. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively called the Antarctic Treaty System or ATS , regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica , Earth's only continent without a native human population. (thefullwiki.org)
  • Although several countries have laid claim to various portions of Antarctica, it is governed by the 1958 Antarctic Treaty, which establishes the continent as a peaceful and cooperative international research zone. (wikitravel.org)
  • Approximately 80 companies belong to the International Association of Antarctica Tour Operators , a membership organization which regulates non-research travel to the region. (wikitravel.org)
  • Though, not all options are suitable but most of the travelers offering Antarctica Travel , and Arctic Travel from the United States to the Polar Regions may guide you to book the tour that includes all the attractions for you to enjoy. (esterobaymotel.com)
  • The U.S. Antarctic Program (USAP) supports scientific research in Antarctica and the Southern Ocean with logistics provided by OPP's Antarctic Infrastructure and Logistics Section (AIL). (nsf.gov)
  • Antarctic fieldwork is supported only for research that must be performed, or is best performed, in Antarctica. (nsf.gov)
  • Scientific research, along with operational support of that research, is the principal activity of the U.S. Antarctic Program in Antarctica. (nsf.gov)
  • Antarctic fieldwork will only be supported for research that can only be performed or is best performed in Antarctica. (nsf.gov)
  • The Antarctic peninsula is the most populated place in Antarctica . (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • The Trust's Ross Sea Heritage Restoration Project is a multi-year, multi-site heritage conservation programme in the Ross Sea region of Antarctica. (nzaht.org)
  • Up until about 30 million years ago the waters around Antarctica were warmer than they are today because South America was connected to Antarctica allowing warm air from the north to flow into Antarctic waters. (polartrec.com)
  • Antarctica became an isolated continent ringed by a band of seas that created a powerful water current that prevented Antarctic waters from mixing with warmer seas. (polartrec.com)
  • ARM deployed a mobile facility to McMurdo Station at the tip of West Antarctica for 14 months, plus a suite of instruments to the West Antarctic Ice Sheet (WAIS) Divide Ice Camp plateau, where storms travel inland, during Antarctica's summer season. (arm.gov)
  • Mycobiota of rock communities of Argentine Islands is rich on filamentous and yeast fungi similarly to other regions of Antarctica. (akjournals.com)
  • 1997. The United States in Antarctica: Report of the U.S. Antarctic Program External Panel . (nap.edu)
  • In Antarctica: A keystone in a changing world: Proceedings of the 10th International Symposium on Antarctic Earth Sciences , edited by A. K. Cooper, P. Barrett, H. Stagg, B. Storey, E. Stump, W. Wise, and the 10th ISAES editorial team. (nap.edu)
  • For the first time, scientists report, they have found bacteria living in the cold and dark deep under the Antarctic ice, a discovery that might advance knowledge of how life could survive on other planets or moons and that offers the first glimpse of a vast ecosystem of microscopic life in underground lakes in Antarctica. (sej.org)
  • Girvin, John P. 1999-05-01 00:00:00 AbstractA HISTORY OF Arctic and Antarctic exploration, whether to find a northwest passage, north pole, or south pole, is a story of triumph and tribulation. (deepdyve.com)
  • This experienced team will provide invaluable insights on the diversity of both the Arctic and Antarctic regions. (scenicnz.com)
  • The snow and ice of Earth's cryosphere are melting causing instability of the ground and changes in Arctic and Antarctic ecosystems. (windows2universe.org)
  • From the US people travel to arctic and Antarctic region which are quite different from that of the other parts of the world in terms of climate and the various things like the flora and fauna around the continents. (esterobaymotel.com)
  • The Arctic and Antarctic regions are melting. (abc.net.au)
  • For this reason, many of our passengers are surprised at how warm it is in both the Arctic and Antarctic during our regular summer voyages. (oceanwide-expeditions.com)
  • The Arctic and Antarctic regions are also very dry. (forbes.com)
  • POLISH POLAR RESEARCH covers a wide spectrum of Arctic and Antarctic Live and Earth Sciences and highly values interdisciplinary research. (degruyter.com)
  • An accurate projection of climate dynamics in the Southern Ocean, therefore, requires a sound assessment of aerosol precursor emissions from the sea ice region ecosystem. (nature.com)
  • Although the direct effect of a change in, for example, temperature, is known for very few Antarctic microorganisms, molecular techniques (to monitor population structure) and genomic techniques (to identify specific gene function) are starting to give us an insight into what the potential effects of climate change might be at the cellular level. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • Despite deficiencies and limitations, the reanalyses are still powerful tools for climate studies in the Antarctic region. (edu.au)
  • Warming water and receding sea ice in the Western Antarctic Peninsula is changing the local plankton community with potential consequences for climate change, according to an international team of researchers. (bas.ac.uk)
  • CAMBRIDGE: British Antarctic Survey welcomes the publication of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) Working Group 1 component of its Sixth Assessment Report. (bas.ac.uk)
  • The Late Miocene was a period of ice margin retreat and marine incursion into the Lambert embayment that followed Middle Miocene cooling of the Antarctic climate. (cambridge.org)
  • For this reason in many regions worldwide great efforts are being made to measure aerosols and cloud microphysical properties and the associated effect on the climate. (scar.org)
  • Climate model representations of the Antarctic climate rely on parameterisations of clouds and cloud properties that based on mid latitude observations and these are likely to be wrong -for example the number nuclei available for the formation of cloud particles will be very different in the pristine air over the Antarctic. (scar.org)
  • My impression is that models have known weaknesses in simulating Antarctic climate. (realclimate.org)
  • Results published this week by a team of polar scientists from Britain, Australia and France adds a new dimension to our understanding of Antarctic Peninsula climate change and the likely causes of the break-up of its ice shelves. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • The first comprehensive reconstruction of a 15,000 year climate history from an ice core collected from James Ross Island in the Antarctic Peninsula region is reported this week in the journal Nature . (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • The scientists reveal that the rapid warming of this region over the last 100 -years has been unprecedented and came on top of a slower natural climate warming that began around 600 years ago. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Our team wanted to understand how the recent warming and the loss of ice shelves compared to the longer term climate trends in the region. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • The large animals including mammals and reptiles make an annual round trip from one polar region to another either for food or a favorable climate. (worldatlas.com)
  • In a science campaign of unprecedented challenge, researchers recently completed the first substantial climate measurements on the West Antarctic Ice Sheet in 50 years. (arm.gov)
  • West Antarctica's ice sheet-more than 34 million years old-is one of the most rapidly warming regions on Earth, capable of raising sea levels by 11 feet or more, and its changing climate is linked to loss of ice across the continent and global sea level rise. (arm.gov)
  • More data from multiple sources are needed to improve earth system models to predict how climate will continue to change in this region. (arm.gov)
  • whether their focus is scrutinizing the surface energy balance from multiple locations, analyzing aerosol data, or providing meteorological insight at multiple scales via climate modeling and satellite remote sensing-each disparate effort exponentially strengthens the ultimate goal: interpreting new Antarctic data and creating more accurate, more complete earth system models and predications. (arm.gov)
  • Michigan State University Studies in Antarctic System Science offers Biology students an incredible opportunity to study in an extreme climate. (collegescholarships.org)
  • on the contrary, subantarctic regions harboured high diversity, and at least one giant penguin occurred in a region not quite 2,000 km south of the equator 35 mya, in a climate decidedly warmer than today. (reddit.com)
  • Antarctic terrestrial ecosystems are cold, dry, low nutrient environments, with large temperature fluctuations and paradoxically low levels of water availability. (northumbria.ac.uk)
  • and Antarctic Organisms and Ecosystems, $8M. (nsf.gov)
  • This chapter describes the interactions of environmental and anthropogenic sources of disturbance to Antarctic ecosystems and the recent advances in our understanding of the ecological contributions of indigenous soil prokaryote communities, delving into their capacity to remediate polluted terrestrial environments. (springer.com)
  • The aims are to highlight the crucial contributions of soil microbes to the functioning and sustainability of Antarctic ecosystems and enrich the body of knowledge supporting the engineering of bioremediation strategies for the restoration of terrestrial environments affected by anthropogenic sources of pollution. (springer.com)
  • You'll gain unparalleled access to the icy wonderlands as you fly out across the pristine Lofoten Islands and Norwegian Fjords, traversing further than most on the Antarctic continent and experiencing the thrill of hovering above the volcanic peaks of Iceland. (scenicnz.com)
  • GENEVA/BUENOS AIRES (Reuters) - A research base in the Antarctic has recorded the hottest temperature ever for the continent amid rising concern about global warming that has caused an increase in the melting of ice sheets around the south pole. (reuters.com)
  • A WMO committee will verify whether the temperature logged by Argentina's national meteorological service is a new record for the Antarctic continent. (reuters.com)
  • Using eighteen years of continuous satellite radar altimeter observations we have computed decadal-scale changes in ice-shelf thickness around the Antarctic continent. (envirolink.org)
  • In particular, the Antarctic Sciences Section supports research that expands fundamental knowledge of the region as well as research that relies on the unique characteristics of the Antarctic continent as a platform from which to support research. (nsf.gov)
  • The Dry Valleys are a unique ecosystem within the Antarctic continent. (phys.org)
  • Samples taken from a snow pit in the accumulation region of the Commonwealth Glacier suggest the black carbon transported from beyond the continent is not sufficient to reduce the albedo-the glacier's ability to reflect light-to a degree that would increase melting. (phys.org)
  • Temperatures on the Antarctic Continent drop to about -65°C (-85°F) in the austral winter (June to September) and in the Arctic hover around -43°C (-45°F) in the boreal winter (December to March). (oceanwide-expeditions.com)
  • Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba , (hereafter "krill") shape the structure of the marine Antarctic ecosystem, due to their central position within the Southern Ocean food web as prey of a wide range of higher trophic predators and as effective grazers on autotrophic and heterotrophic plankton organisms. (springer.com)
  • Strategies of survival and resource exploitation in the Antarctic fellfield ecosystem. (semanticscholar.org)
  • These adaptations resulted in an explosion of more than 90 new Notothenioid species that predominate in the Antarctic ecosystem today. (polartrec.com)
  • They conclude that further study of local carbon production and transport would help to understand the limited effects of local black carbon production on the Dry Valleys ecosystem, compared to the effects of windblown sediments, commonly deposited in the ablation regions of the glaciers, that have been shown to influence melt. (phys.org)
  • 2017). Pelagic and benthic communities of the Antarctic ecosystem of Potter Cove: Genomics and ecological implications. (springer.com)
  • Terres australes françaises ) or French Southern Territories , usually to emphasize non-recognition of French sovereignty over Adélie Land as part of the Antarctic Treaty system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters are located in Buenos Aires , Argentina, since September 2004 [ 1 ] . (thefullwiki.org)
  • Since the environmental protocol to the Antarctic Treaty prohibits the application of site-disruptive cleanup methods and the introduction of foreign species, studying the natural capacity of indigenous microbial communities to degrade pollutants (bioremediation) emerges as a key step in the design of suitable in situ pollution remediation strategies. (springer.com)
  • Here we report results of a study conducted during a research cruise across the Subantarctic and Antarctic waters of the Atlantic sector of the Southern Ocean in summer 2015, where low troposphere aerosols were characterised, source apportioned and compared with concurrent measurements in sea water and sea ice. (nature.com)
  • Rautenberger, R. and Bischof, K. (2004): Effects of ultraviolet radiation and temperature on the antioxidative status of two Enteromorpha (Chlorophyta) species from Antarctic and Subantarctic regions , Conference of the German Botanical Society, 5-10 Sept., Braunschweig, Germany. (awi.de)
  • Our expedition cruise experiences the wildlife wonders of the Antarctic Peninsula on Zodiac cruise amid enormous icebergs, sparkling glaciers, and teeming colonies of chattering penguins. (wildernesstravel.com)
  • A spectacular flight to King George Island in Antarctica's South Shetland Islands begins our expedition cruise into the magnificent iceberg-dotted realm of the Antarctic Peninsula, home to penguins, whales, and elephant seals. (wildernesstravel.com)
  • Explore the wildlife wonders of the Antarctic Peninsula then continue far south to cross the legendary Antarctic Circle on this expedition cruise. (wildernesstravel.com)
  • In February 2008, Jon and his team completed the final expedition in the 10-year-long project, along the Antarctic Peninsula. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Great White South: Being an Account of Experiences with Captain Scott's South Pole Expedition and of the Nature Life of the Antarctic. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the course of an extensive Antarctic expedition, researchers from the Alfred Wegener Institute Helmholtz Centre for Polar and Marine Research (AWI) recently investigated several lakes beneath Recovery Glacier that had been previously detected by satellite remote sensing. (eurekalert.org)
  • In an extensive expedition during the Antarctic summer of 2013/14, the AWI experts used radar to survey Recovery Glacier from on board the research aeroplane Polar 6. (eurekalert.org)
  • The identification of the diversity of microscopic fungi of lithobiont communities of the Argentine Islands in specimens collected during the 22nd Ukrainian Antarctic Expedition was the purpose of this work. (akjournals.com)
  • 2010. Vision for European astronomy and astrophysics at the Antarctic station Concordia, Dome C in the next decade 2010-2020 . (nap.edu)
  • 2011. Australian Antarctic science strategic plan: 2011-12 to 2020-21 . (nap.edu)
  • ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Sub-Antarctic islands represent the only mid to high latitude terrestrial biomes in the Southern Hemisphere. (sun.ac.za)
  • HNLC regions cover 20% of the world's oceans and are characterized by varying physical, chemical, and biological patterns. (antarctickrill.net)
  • The Antarctic is one of the world's least-explored regions. (collegescholarships.org)
  • The Antarctic is the world's last wild frontier. (greenpeace.org)
  • All sorts of living things call Earth s polar regions home from tiny lichens of the Arctic tundra to huge blue whales swimming through the frigid waters of the Southern Ocean. (windows2universe.org)
  • When systematic krill research started in the early twentieth century, it was driven by the intense whaling activity in Antarctic waters, culminating in a bonanza period between 1920 and 1930. (springer.com)
  • To survive living in frigid Antarctic waters some species of fishes, the Notothenioids, have developed proteins that act as antifreeze. (polartrec.com)
  • Most marine fish living in temperate and tropical regions don't have antifreeze proteins and would freeze to death in Antarctic waters. (polartrec.com)
  • Although our ice-strengthened ships are big and sturdy, the Antarctic waters can be unpredictable and rough. (peregrineadventures.com)
  • WASHINGTON -- Critics want a halt to offshore Arctic drilling in the wake of Shell's latest mishap in the waters off Alaska but there's no sign the Obama administration and key members of Congress are backing off their support for drilling in the sensitive region. (sej.org)
  • In 2009, CCAMLR members agreed to protect key Antarctic waters by 2012. (greenpeace.org)
  • On the basis of polyphasic taxonomic data, the Antarctic iron-reducing strains are placed in two new species, Shewanella frigidimarina sp. (nih.gov)
  • The marine species in the region rely on phytoplankton while the sea life includes whales, seals, penguins, and colossal squids. (worldatlas.com)
  • The region is characterized by several mammal species. (worldatlas.com)
  • The Notothenioids comprise about half of Antarctic marine fish species, but they account for 95% of all fish biomass in the region. (polartrec.com)
  • Antarctic Krill Oil 1250 mg, Crill Oil Omega 3 with Astaxanthin, DHA Supplements for Joint and Brain Health, No Fishy Taste & Easy to Swallow, 60 Capsules. (amazon.com)
  • Proposals requesting Antarctic fieldwork should be submitted no less than eighteen months prior to the desired deployment. (nsf.gov)
  • Our fieldwork at the Antarctic base Carlini was supported by Instituto Antártico Argentino, the University of Buenos Aires, and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), Argentina. (springer.com)
  • Among extant penguins, larger penguins inhabit colder regions, while smaller penguins are generally found in temperate or even tropical climates (Bergmann's Rule). (reddit.com)
  • with sterile glaciers, icebergs and colonies of not-so 'Happy Feet' penguins, buffeted for much of their lives in the extreme Antarctic wind. (greenpeace.org)
  • Low reproductive success in territorial male Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) suggests the existence of alternative mating strategies. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Microsatellites were used to conduct an analysis of paternity of Antarctic fur seals (Arctocephalus gazella) from Bird Island, South Georgia. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The Antarctic Fur Seal, or Arctocephalus gazelle, is a seal in the genus Arctocephalus in the subfamily Arctocephalinae. (worldatlas.com)
  • The Esperanza base on the northern tip of the Antarctic peninsula recorded a temperature of 18.3 degrees Celsius (64.94 degrees Fahrenheit), the highest on record, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) said on Friday. (reuters.com)
  • The "iconic" Antarctic temperature trends are the large warming seen on the Antarctic Peninsula, which has had various repercussions including the collapse of several ice shelves (some documented in a previous post ). (realclimate.org)
  • What we see in the ice core temperature record is that the Antarctic Peninsula warmed by about 6°C as it emerged from the last ice age. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • By 11,000 years ago the temperature had risen to about 1.3°C warmer than today's average and other research indicates that the Antarctic Peninsula ice sheet was shrinking at this time and some of the surrounding ice shelves retreated. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Students will determine how much antifreeze an Antarctic fish needs to lower the temperature of it's body fluids to -2.5°C. (polartrec.com)
  • They also show the best performance at an inland plateau site at 2800 m elevation, but are worst at Dome A, the summit of the East Antarctic ice sheet. (edu.au)
  • But if that's the case, what is the source of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet's massive ice streams? (eurekalert.org)
  • The experts found very few substantial bodies of water, which is a surprising result: up to that point, the scientific community had assumed that overflowing lakes below the East Antarctic Ice Sheet were the reason that ice masses began sliding and forming ice streams to begin with. (eurekalert.org)
  • The research community had previously assumed that meltwater lakes below the East Antarctic Ice Sheet were the cause, the idea being that said lakes occasionally overflow their banks, creating a lubricating film on which the ice above can slide, like when a car begins to aquaplane. (eurekalert.org)
  • Copies of the event logs/station lists taken from the Aurora Australis, Astrolabe and Umitaka Maru during their CEAMARC cruises (collaborative East Antarctic Marine Census). (nasa.gov)
  • In this respect, a miss-match in timing of the occurrence of the last phytoplankton blooms in autumn and the start of the sea ice formation, as has been increasingly observed in the west Antarctic Peninsula (WAP) region, will impact larval krill development during winter in terms of food supply and consequently the krill stock in this region. (springer.com)
  • The mechanisms behind West Antarctic warming remain a mystery, but scientists hypothesize a linkage between moisture from Southern Ocean storm clouds and the surface energy balance over this ice sheet may play a role. (arm.gov)
  • The second ARM Mobile Facility collected data at McMurdo Station for the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE). (arm.gov)
  • The campaign, called the ARM West Antarctic Radiation Experiment (AWARE) , was motivated by a need to collect a sophisticated, complete atmospheric data set to elucidate West Antarctica's rapid warming. (arm.gov)
  • 2009. Reassessment of the potential sea-level rise from a collapse of the West Antarctic ice sheet. (nap.edu)
  • In an attempt to understand the evolution and biogeography of terrestrial taxa in the South Polar Region, the first broad-scale molecular phylogeny was constructed for the unique terrestrial group, the ameronothroid mites (genus Halozetes (Oribatida)), collected from sub-Antarctic and Maritime Antarctic localities. (sun.ac.za)
  • Novel psychrotolerant bacterial strains were isolated from the Antarctic Dry Valleys, an environmental analogue of the martian surface, and identified by 16S rRNA gene phylogeny as representatives of Brevundimonas, Rhodococcus, and Pseudomonas genera. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of oil spills on microbial heterotrophs in Antarctic soils. (springer.com)
  • 2004). Hydrocarbons spills on Antarctic soils: Effects and management. (springer.com)
  • ARENA (Antarctic Research, a European Network for Astrophysics). (nap.edu)
  • The French Southern and Antarctic Lands have formed a territoire d'outre-mer (an overseas territory) of France since 1955. (wikipedia.org)
  • Antarctic Fur Seals are most commonly seen on the Antarctic Peninsula and sub-Antarctic islands to the north. (worldatlas.com)
  • Antarctic Fur Seal has a shorter and broader snout compared to other seals in the family. (worldatlas.com)
  • strain Ant30-3, isolated from fuel-contaminated Antarctic soil, exhibited distinctive psychrotolerant attributes and the potential for degrading aromatic hydrocarbon compounds at cold temperatures. (usda.gov)
  • The above temperatures apply to the islands and coastal regions that tourists ordinarily visit. (wikitravel.org)
  • The Antarctic Peninsula is one of the fastest warming places on Earth - average temperatures from meteorological stations near James Ross Island have risen by nearly 2°C in the past 50 years. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Of course, temperatures in the Antarctic can be freezing, but it can get surprisingly warm - when the sun comes out, for instance, or with increased physical activity. (peregrineadventures.com)
  • The V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene were analyzed to assess prokaryotic diversity and community compositions within 19 surface sediment samples collected from three different regions (depth: 250-3,548 m) of Prydz Bay, the Antarctic Peninsula region, and the Ross Sea. (frontiersin.org)
  • In general, the biodiversity of Prydz Bay was higher than those of the Antarctic Peninsula region and the Ross Sea, and there were similar prokaryotic communities in different geographic locations. (frontiersin.org)
  • British Antarctic Survey (BAS) is a component of the Natural Environment Research Council (NERC). (bas.ac.uk)
  • In the beginning of the 1970s, a revival of marine Antarctic research started. (springer.com)
  • New research by scientists at British Antarctic Survey and Bielefeld University explains how the chaotic formation of genetic islands can occur in marine molluscs. (bas.ac.uk)
  • In the research experiments, the size of the cavitating region was reduced by varying the upstream and downstream pressures. (innovations-report.com)
  • Thanks to Russian and British research projects at Lake Vostok and Lake Ellsworth, we know that there certainly are subglacial lakes in the Antarctic. (eurekalert.org)
  • The National Science Foundation's Antarctic Sciences Section fosters research on globally and regionally important scientific problems. (nsf.gov)
  • The Antarctic Sciences Section strongly encourages research using existing samples, models, and data as well as research at the intersection between disciplines. (nsf.gov)
  • 2011. Antarctic Grounding Line Mapping from Differential Satellite Radar Interferometry, Geophyical Research Letters . (nsidc.org)
  • Researchers took the samples during the 2013-2014 Antarctic research season. (phys.org)
  • Because there is still so much to learn about the Antarctic, and because nobody actually lives there, it is where many international agencies and countries go to jointly conduct research. (collegescholarships.org)
  • Arctic Antarctic and Alpine Research 41(2):155-163. (nap.edu)
  • POLISH POLAR RESEARCH is an international journal publishing original research articles presenting the results of studies carried out in polar regions. (degruyter.com)
  • Leidos is seeking an IT and Communications Operations Manager within the Leidos Antarctic Support Contract (ASC) to manage the operations and maintenance of the Information Technology and Communications infrastructure for the United States Antarctic Program (USAP). (careerbuilder.com)
  • The Antarctic krill, Euphausia superba, has evolved seasonal rhythms of physiology and behaviour to survive under the extreme photoperiodic conditions in the Southern Ocean. (awi.de)
  • Biodiversity of the Antarctic Region: Is it a Losing Battle? (polartrec.com)
  • Physical relief map of the Ross Sea regions. (mappery.com)
  • The IOD influence is at a maximum in the region west of the Ross Sea. (ametsoc.org)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate seasonal differences in gene expression in three different latitudinal regions (South Georgia, South Orkneys/Bransfield Strait, Lazarev Sea) and to identify genes with potential regulatory roles in the seasonal life cycle of Antarctic krill. (awi.de)
  • Our results suggest that in the South Orkneys/Bransfield Strait and Lazarev Sea region, Antarctic krill entered a state of metabolic depression and regressed development (winter quiescence) in winter. (awi.de)
  • Today, the station houses scientists from the British Antarctic Survey. (faqs.org)
  • To our knowledge, these are the first high time resolution aerosol composition measurements reported in the sea ice region of the Weddell Sea. (nature.com)
  • Here we demonstrate that concurrent upper-ocean preconditioning and meteorological perturbations are responsible for the appearance of polynyas in the Weddell Sea region of the Southern Ocean. (nature.com)
  • It floats on the oceans that are in Earth's polar regions. (windows2universe.org)
  • In 2008 Jon completed his ten-year OCEANS 8 project with a trip to the Larsen Ice Shelf and the Antarctic Peninsula, which is the subject of his recently[when? (wikipedia.org)
  • We need your help to save the Antarctic oceans! (greenpeace.org)
  • 2016 . MEaSUREs Antarctic Grounding Line from Differential Satellite Radar Interferometry, Version 2 . (nsidc.org)
  • Air mass trajectories were used to define "open water" (OW) and "sea-ice" (SI) source regions according to the characteristics of the area overflown (Supplementary Figure 1 and Table 1 ). (nature.com)
  • Here, Jason answers some of the most commonly-asked questions about the special characteristics of each region and what to expect on your unforgettable Scenic Eclipse voyage to either region. (scenicnz.com)
  • Storm characteristics were studied over the Indianapolis region and four peripheral rural counties approximately 120 km away from the urban center. (phys.org)
  • Continuous year round records of atmospheric sea-salt concentrations have been recovered at three coastal Antarctic stations (Halley, Dumont D'Urville, and Neumayer) at temporal resolutions typically between 1 day and 2 weeks. (bas.ac.uk)
  • Coastal communities, especially in low-lying regions, will be increasingly vulnerable to flooding as sea level rises , especially where tropical storm events are common. (windows2universe.org)
  • We just have to commit to increasing the number and types of coastal regions being studied. (innovations-report.com)
  • With the human activity associated with industrialization, however, came the burning of fossil fuels for manufacturing and transportation, putting more carbon dioxide into the air and creating an increased pressure of this gas on some regions of the earth's surface - including coastal areas. (innovations-report.com)
  • Antarctic notothenioid fishes and several northern cods are phylogenetically distant (in different orders and superorders), yet produce near-identical antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) to survive in their respective freezing environments. (pnas.org)
  • First, although Antarctic notothenioid AFGP genes have been shown to originate from a pancreatic trypsinogen, Arctic cod AFGP genes share no sequence identity with the trypsinogen gene, indicating trypsinogen is not the progenitor. (pnas.org)
  • The most striking example of evolution of the same type of antifreeze protein in unrelated fishes is the near-identical antifreeze glycoproteins (AFGPs) in the Antarctic notothenioid fishes and several northern cods of the family Gadidae ( 8 , 9 ). (pnas.org)
  • Notothenioid AFGP genes have recently been discovered to evolve from a trypsinogen gene through recruitment of segments of the trypsinogen sequence, plus de novo amplification of a 9-nt Thr-Ala-Ala coding element from the trypsinogen progenitor, to form a new coding region for the repetitive tripeptide backbone of AFGPs ( 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • It has also led to the development of hypotheses such as grazing control which poses that HNLC regions are formed, in part, from the grazing of phytoplankton (e.g. dinoflagellates, ciliates) by smaller organisms (e.g. protists). (antarctickrill.net)
  • The wildlife focus and fascination for many in the Arctic region is the polar bears. (scenicnz.com)
  • This 11-day Antarctic Whale Journey offers the opportunity of a lifetime for wildlife lovers, increasing the likelihood of spotting orcas, minke and humpback whales during an adventure on the Antarctic Peninsula. (peregrineadventures.com)
  • Moreover, seasonal gene expression signatures seems to be driven by a photoperiodic timing system that may adapt the flexible behaviour and physiology of Antarctic krill to the highly seasonal environment according to the latitudinal region. (awi.de)
  • However, at the lower latitude South Georgia region, food availability might represent the main environmental cue influencing seasonal physiology. (awi.de)
  • AIUS was designed to measure and to study the chemical processes of ozone (O 3 ) and other trace gases in the upper troposphere and stratosphere over the Antarctic. (mdpi.com)
  • It would also make the recovery of the Antarctic ozone hole take much longer and would cause a lot of ozone loss over the Arctic region. (windows2universe.org)
  • While there are signs of recovery of the Antarctic ozone, an international study using data collected by satellite missions since 1985 has found that the lower part of the ozone layer at lower latitudes and altitudes is not recovering as expected. (theiet.org)
  • A polyphasic taxonomic study was performed to characterize dissimilatory iron-reducing strains mostly isolated from Antarctic sea ice. (nih.gov)
  • The Antarctic Sciences Section anticipates committing approximately $55M as either standard or continuing awards made in response to this solicitation contingent on the availability of funds. (nsf.gov)
  • The National Science Foundation offers an international graduate training course in Antarctic Biology. (collegescholarships.org)
  • Dissemination and survival of non-indigenous bacterial genomes in pristine Antarctic environments. (springer.com)
  • Gordon, A. L. Deep Antarctic convection west of Maud Rise. (nature.com)