Bursa of Fabricius: An epithelial outgrowth of the cloaca in birds similar to the thymus in mammals. It atrophies within 6 months after birth and remains as a fibrous remnant in adult birds. It is composed of lymphoid tissue and prior to involution, is the site of B-lymphocyte maturation.Bursa, Synovial: A fluid-filled sac lined with SYNOVIAL MEMBRANE that provides a cushion between bones, tendons and/or muscles around a joint.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalPhonetics: The science or study of speech sounds and their production, transmission, and reception, and their analysis, classification, and transcription. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Language: A verbal or nonverbal means of communicating ideas or feelings.Oncorhynchus: A genus of the family SALMONIDAE (salmons and trouts). They are named for their hooked (onco) nose (rhynchus). They are usually anadromous and occasionally inhabit freshwater. They can be found in North Pacific coastal areas from Japan to California and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean. Salmon and trout are popular game and food fish. Various species figure heavily in genetic, metabolism, and hormone research.Lactobacillus plantarum: A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Carnosine: A naturally occurring dipeptide neuropeptide found in muscles.beta-Alanine: An amino acid formed in vivo by the degradation of dihydrouracil and carnosine. Since neuronal uptake and neuronal receptor sensitivity to beta-alanine have been demonstrated, the compound may be a false transmitter replacing GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. A rare genetic disorder, hyper-beta-alaninemia, has been reported.Mental Competency: The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Creatine: An amino acid that occurs in vertebrate tissues and in urine. In muscle tissue, creatine generally occurs as phosphocreatine. Creatine is excreted as CREATININE in the urine.Creatine Kinase: A transferase that catalyzes formation of PHOSPHOCREATINE from ATP + CREATINE. The reaction stores ATP energy as phosphocreatine. Three cytoplasmic ISOENZYMES have been identified in human tissues: the MM type from SKELETAL MUSCLE, the MB type from myocardial tissue and the BB type from nervous tissue as well as a mitochondrial isoenzyme. Macro-creatine kinase refers to creatine kinase complexed with other serum proteins.AnserineNitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Pharmacopoeias as Topic: Authoritative treatises on drugs and preparations, their description, formulation, analytic composition, physical constants, main chemical properties used in identification, standards for strength, purity, and dosage, chemical tests for determining identity and purity, etc. They are usually published under governmental jurisdiction (e.g., USP, the United States Pharmacopoeia; BP, British Pharmacopoeia; P. Helv., the Swiss Pharmacopoeia). They differ from FORMULARIES in that they are far more complete: formularies tend to be mere listings of formulas and prescriptions.Congresses as Topic: Conferences, conventions or formal meetings usually attended by delegates representing a special field of interest.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Information Services: Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Musculoskeletal Diseases: Diseases of the muscles and their associated ligaments and other connective tissue and of the bones and cartilage viewed collectively.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Exhibits as Topic: Discussions, descriptions or catalogs of public displays or items representative of a given subject.Nutritional Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease.United States Department of Agriculture: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Friction: Surface resistance to the relative motion of one body against the rubbing, sliding, rolling, or flowing of another with which it is in contact.Olecranon Process: A prominent projection of the ulna that that articulates with the humerus and forms the outer protuberance of the ELBOW JOINT.Ischium: One of three bones that make up the coxal bone of the pelvic girdle. In tetrapods, it is the part of the pelvis that projects backward on the ventral side, and in primates, it bears the weight of the sitting animal.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Diospyros: A plant genus of the family EBENACEAE, order Ebenales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida best known for the edible fruit and the antibacterial activity and compounds of the wood.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Proanthocyanidins: Dimers and oligomers of flavan-3-ol units (CATECHIN analogs) linked mainly through C4 to C8 bonds to leucoanthocyanidins. They are structurally similar to ANTHOCYANINS but are the result of a different fork in biosynthetic pathways.Powders: Substances made up of an aggregation of small particles, as that obtained by grinding or trituration of a solid drug. In pharmacy it is a form in which substances are administered. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.DucksMuseumsMelanotrophs: Neuroendocrine cells in the INTERMEDIATE LOBE OF PITUITARY. They produce MELANOCYTE STIMULATING HORMONES and other peptides from the post-translational processing of pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC).Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.MedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.

Carnosine stimulates vimentin expression in cultured rat fibroblasts. (1/24)

Two-dimensional electrophoretic gel profiles were compared between rat 3Y1 fibroblasts cultured in the presence and absence of 30 mM L-carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine) for one week without any replenishment of medium. While a number of cellular proteins changed their expression levels by the addition of carnosine, we identified one of the most prominently varied proteins as vimentin. Immunoblot analysis with anti-vimentin antibody demonstrated that the vimentin levels increased about 2-fold after one-week culture in the presence of carnosine. We also confirmed that the increase of vimentin expression was dependent on the concentration of carnosine added to the medium. Moreover, when cultured cells were stained with anti-vimentin antibody and observed by light microscopy, most cells grown in the presence of carnosine were found to have markedly developed vimentin filaments. The increase of vimentin expression was also observed by adding with carnosine related dipeptides, N-acetylcarnosine and anserine.  (+info)

Hydrogen peroxide-mediated Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase fragmentation: protection by carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine. (2/24)

The fragmentation of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) was observed during incubation with H(2)O(2). Hydroxyl radical scavengers such as sodium azide, formate and mannitol protected the fragmentation of Cu,Zn-SOD. These results suggested that *OH was implicated in the hydrogen peroxide-mediated Cu,Zn-SOD fragmentation. Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine have been proposed to act as anti-oxidants in vivo. We investigated whether three compounds could protect the fragmentation of Cu,Zn-SOD induced by H(2)O(2). The results showed that carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine significantly protected the fragmentation of Cu,Zn-SOD. All three compounds also protected the loss of enzyme activity induced by H(2)O(2). Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine effectively inhibited the formation of *OH by the Cu,Zn-SOD/H(2)O(2) system. These results suggest that carnosine and related compounds can protect the hydrogen peroxide-mediated Cu,Zn-SOD fragmentation through the scavenging of *OH.  (+info)

A re-evaluation of the antioxidant activity of purified carnosine. (3/24)

The antioxidant activity of carnosine has been re-evaluated due to the presence of contaminating hydrazine in commercial carnosine preparations. Purified carnosine is capable of scavenging peroxyl radicals. Inhibition of the oxidation of phosphatidylcholine liposomes by purified carnosine is greater in the presence of copper than iron, a phenomenon likely to be due to the copper chelating properties of carnosine. Purified carnosine is capable of forming adducts with aldehydic lipid oxidation products. Adduct formation is greatest for alpha,beta-monounsaturated followed by polyunsaturated and saturated aldehydes. While the ability of carnosine to form adducts with aldehydic lipid oxidation products is lower than other compounds such as glutathione, the higher concentrations of carnosine in skeletal muscle are likely to make it the most important molecule that forms aldehyde adducts. Monitoring changes in carnosine concentrations in oxidizing skeletal muscle shows that carnosine oxidation does not occur until the later stages of oxidation suggesting that carnosine may not be as effective free radical scavenger in vivo as other antioxidants like alpha-tocopherol.  (+info)

Effect of carnosine and related compounds on the inactivation of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by modification of fructose and glycolaldehyde. (4/24)

Glycolaldehyde, an intermediate of the Maillard reaction, and fructose, which is mainly derived from the polyol pathway, rapidly inactivate human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) at the physiological concentration. We employed this inactivation with these carbonyl compounds as a model glycation reaction to investigate whether carnosine and its related compounds could protect the enzyme from inactivation. Of eight derivatives examined, histidine, Gly-His, carnosine and Ala-His inhibited the inactivation of the enzyme by fructose (p<0.001), and Gly-His, Ala-His, anserine, carnosine, and homocarnosine exhibited a marked protective effect against the inactivation by glycolaldehyde (p<0.001). The carnosine-related compounds that showed this highly protective effect against the inactivation by glycolaldehyde had high reactivity with glycolaldehyde and high scavenging activity toward the hydroxyl radical as common properties. On the other hand, the carnosine-related compounds that had a protective effect against the inactivation by fructose showed significant hydroxyl radical-scavenging ability. These results indicate that carnosine and such related compounds as Gly-His and Ala-His are effective anti-glycating agents for human Cu,Zn-SOD and that the effectiveness is based not only on high reactivity with carbonyl compounds but also on hydroxyl radical scavenging activity.  (+info)

Protection by carnosine-related dipeptides against hydrogen peroxide-mediated ceruloplasmin modification. (5/24)

Carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine are present in high concentrations in the muscle and brain of many animals and humans. Previous studies showed that these compounds have an antioxidant function. We investigated the protective effects of carnosine and related compounds on the modification of human ceruloplasmin that is induced by H2O2. Carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine significantly inhibited the fragmentation and inactivation of ceruloplasmin that is induced by H2O2. All three compounds also inhibited the release of copper ion from protein, and the formation of hydroxyl radicals in the ceruloplasmin/H2O2 system. These compounds inhibited the fragmentation of human serum albumin that is induced by the copper-catalyzed oxidation system, as well as by the iron-catalyzed oxidation system. These results suggest that carnosine, homocarnosine, and anserine might protect ceruloplasmin against H2O2-mediated oxidative damage through a combination of copper chelation and free radical scavenging.  (+info)

Protective effects of carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine against peroxyl radical-mediated Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase modification. (6/24)

Carnosine (beta-alanyl-L-histidine), homocarnosine (gamma-amino-butyryl-L-histidine) and anserine (beta-alanyl-1-methyl-L-histidine) have been proposed to act as anti-oxidants in vivo. The protective effects of carnosine and related compounds against the oxidative damage of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) by peroxyl radicals generated from 2,2'-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) were studied. The oxidative damage to Cu,Zn-SOD by AAPH-derived radicals led to protein fragmentation, which is associated with the inactivation of enzyme. Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine significantly inhibited the fragmentation and inactivation of Cu,Zn-SOD by AAPH. All three compounds also inhibited the release of copper ions from the enzyme and the formation of carbonyl compounds in AAPH-treated Cu,Zn-SOD. These compounds inhibited the fragmentation of other protein without copper ion. The results suggest that carnosine and related compounds act as the copper chelator and peroxyl radical scavenger to protect the protein fragmentation. Oxidation of amino acid residues in Cu,Zn-SOD induced by AAPH were significantly inhibited by carnosine and related compounds. It is proposed that carnosine and related dipeptides might be explored as potential therapeutic agents for pathologies that involve Cu,Zn-SOD modification mediated by peroxyl radicals.  (+info)

Carnosine and related dipeptides protect human ceruloplasmin against peroxyl radical-mediated modification. (7/24)

Ceruloplasmin (CP) is the major plasma antioxidant and copper transport protein. In a previous study, we showed that the aggregation of human ceruloplasmin was induced by peroxyl radicals. We investigated the effects of antioxidant dipeptides carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine on peroxyl radical-mediated ceruloplasmin modification. Carnosine, homocarnosine and anserine significantly inhibited the aggregation of CP induced by peroxyl radicals. When CP was incubated with peroxyl radicals in the presence of three compounds, ferroxidase activity, as measured by the activity staining method, was protected. All three compounds also inhibited the formation of dityrosine in peroxyl radicals-treated CP. The results suggest that carnosine and related compounds act as peroxyl radical scavenger to protect the protein modification. It is proposed that carnosine and related peptides might be explored as potential therapeutic agents for pathologies that involve CP modification mediated by peroxyl radicals generated in the lipid peroxidation.  (+info)

Enhanced oligomerization of the alpha-synuclein mutant by the Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase and hydrogen peroxide system. (8/24)

The alpha-synuclein is a major component of Lewy bodies that are found in the brains of patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Also, two point mutations in this protein, A53T and A30P, are associated with rare familial forms of the disease. We investigated whether there are differences in the Cu,Zn-SOD and hydrogen peroxide system mediated-protein modification between the wild-type and mutant alpha-synucleins. When alpha-synuclein was incubated with both Cu,Zn-SOD and H2O2, then the amount of A53T mutant oligomerization increased relative to that of the wild-type protein. This process was inhibited by radical scavenger, spin-trapping agent, and copper chelator. These results suggest that the oligomerization of alpha-synuclein is mediated by the generation of the hydroxyl radical through the metal-catalyzed reaction. The dityrosine formation of the A53T mutant protein was enhanced relative to that of the wild-type protein. Antioxidant molecules, carnosine, and anserine effectively inhibited the wild-type and mutant proteins' oligomerization. Therefore, these compounds may be explored as potential therapeutic agents for PD patients. The present experiments, in part, may provide an explanation for the association between PD and the alpha-synuclein mutant.  (+info)

  • Anserine (β-alanyl-N-methylhistidine) is a dipeptide containing β-alanine and 1-methylhistidine, which can be found in the skeletal muscle and brain of mammals and birds. (wikipedia.org)
  • report in their paper in the Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics that the provision of both, carnosine and its "bird analogue" anserine, which is the major "buffering" dipeptide in bird muscle, will have astonishingly significant beneficial effects on the cognitive functioning and physical capacity of elderly individuals. (blogspot.com)
  • carnosine, a dipeptide synthesized from beta-alanine and l -histidine, and its methylated derivatives anserine and ophidine/balenine are known as histidyl dipeptides ( 8 ). (physiology.org)
  • The lamprey secretory-type enzyme may be classified as a new peptidase of M20A.Imidazole-related dipeptides, such as carnosine and anserine, occur widely in skeletal muscles of jawed vertebrates. (chemweb.com)
  • The objective of this research was to determine the concentration of anserine and carnosine in surimi wash water (SWW) at all stages of surimi processing, and undertake preliminary methods to remove and concentrate the two dipeptides and study the effect of surimi wash water extract on color. (oregonstate.edu)
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