Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.
Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC
A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.
A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.
A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass Alismatidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.
The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The ginseng plant family of the order Apiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are generally alternate, large, and compound. Flowers are five-parted and arranged in compound flat-topped umbels. The fruit is a berry or (rarely) a drupe (a one-seeded fruit). It is well known for plant preparations used as adaptogens (immune support and anti-fatigue).
A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.
Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.
A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.
A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.
Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)
A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is grown mainly as a hay crop.
Mixtures of closely related hypotensive alkaloids from Veratrum album (Liliaceae). They have been used in the treatment of hypertension but have largely been replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).
Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.
Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.
Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)
The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.
Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.
Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.
The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.
A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.
The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.
Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.
An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)
A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.
The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.
Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.
A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)
Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.
The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.
The mitochondria of the myocardium.
An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.
Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.
2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.
Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.
A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.
Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.
A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).
A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.
Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.
A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.
A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.
The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.
A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.
Drugs that bind to and block the activation of PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.
An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)
Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.
Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.
A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.
An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.

Quantification of tumour vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements. (1/8649)

Despite the possibility that tumour hypoxia may limit radiotherapeutic response, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A new methodology has been developed in which information from several sophisticated techniques is combined and analysed at a microregional level. First, tumour oxygen availability is spatially defined by measuring intravascular blood oxygen saturations (HbO2) cryospectrophotometrically in frozen tumour blocks. Second, hypoxic development is quantified in adjacent sections using immunohistochemical detection of a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) to a nitroheterocyclic hypoxia marker (EF5), thereby providing information relating to both the oxygen consumption rates and the effective oxygen diffusion distances. Third, a combination of fluorescent (Hoechst 33342 or DiOC7(3)) and immunohistological (PECAM-1/CD31) stains is used to define the anatomical vascular densities and the fraction of blood vessels containing flow. Using a computer-interfaced microscope stage, image analysis software and a 3-CCD colour video camera, multiple images are digitized, combined to form a photo-montage and revisited after each of the three staining protocols. By applying image registration techniques, the spatial distribution of HbO2 saturations is matched to corresponding hypoxic marker intensities in adjacent sections. This permits vascular configuration to be related to oxygen availability and allows the hypoxic marker intensities to be quantitated in situ.  (+info)

Effect of chronic hypoxia on alpha-1 adrenoceptor-mediated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling in ovine uterine artery. (2/8649)

The present study examined the effect of chronic hypoxia on coupling efficiency of alpha-1 adrenoceptors to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) signaling in ovine uterine artery. Chronic hypoxia did not change the time course of InsP3 formation, but significantly decreased the potency (pD2: 6.17 +/- 0.09 --> 5.26 +/- 0.12) and the maximal response (220.7 +/- 21.7 --> 147.7 +/- 15.3 pmol/mg protein) of norepinephrine-induced InsP3 synthesis. The coupling efficiency of alpha-1 adrenoceptors to InsP3 synthesis (picomoles InsP3 per femtomoles receptor) was decreased 45% by chronic hypoxia. In addition, simultaneous measurement of norepinephrine-induced contractions and InsP3 synthesis indicated that for a given amount of InsP3 generated, the contractile force of the uterine artery was significantly less in chronically hypoxic than in control tissues (0. 27 +/- 0.01 versus 0.35 +/- 0.02 g tension/pmol InsP3). InsP3 receptors were characterized using radioligand binding techniques. Although the density of InsP3 receptors was not changed by chronic hypoxia (Bmax: 325 +/- 35 --> 378 +/- 18 fmol/mg protein), the dissociation constant (Kd) of InsP3 to its receptors was significantly increased (Kd: 5.20 +/- 0.40 --> 7.81 +/- 0.34 nM). Analysis of InsP3 receptor occupancy-tension development relationship indicated no difference in intrinsic ability of the InsP3-receptor complex in eliciting contractions between the control and hypoxic tissues. Our results suggest that chronic hypoxia attenuates coupling efficiency of alpha-1 adrenoceptors to InsP3 synthesis in the uterine artery. In addition, the tissue contractile sensitivity to InsP3 is reduced, which is mediated predominantly by a decrease in InsP3 binding affinity to InsP3 receptors.  (+info)

Nonlinear indicial response of complex nonstationary oscillations as pulmonary hypertension responding to step hypoxia. (3/8649)

This paper is devoted to the quantization of the degree of nonlinearity of the relationship between two biological variables when one of the variables is a complex nonstationary oscillatory signal. An example of the situation is the indicial responses of pulmonary blood pressure (P) to step changes of oxygen tension (DeltapO2) in the breathing gas. For a step change of DeltapO2 beginning at time t1, the pulmonary blood pressure is a nonlinear function of time and DeltapO2, which can be written as P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). An effective method does not exist to examine the nonlinear function P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). A systematic approach is proposed here. The definitions of mean trends and oscillations about the means are the keys. With these keys a practical method of calculation is devised. We fit the mean trends of blood pressure with analytic functions of time, whose nonlinearity with respect to the oxygen level is clarified here. The associated oscillations about the mean can be transformed into Hilbert spectrum. An integration of the square of the Hilbert spectrum over frequency yields a measure of oscillatory energy, which is also a function of time, whose mean trends can be expressed by analytic functions. The degree of nonlinearity of the oscillatory energy with respect to the oxygen level also is clarified here. Theoretical extension of the experimental nonlinear indicial functions to arbitrary history of hypoxia is proposed. Application of the results to tissue remodeling and tissue engineering of blood vessels is discussed.  (+info)

Depression of peripheral chemosensitivity by a dopaminergic mechanism in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. (4/8649)

In the present study, respiratory drives to chemical stimuli and peripheral chemosensitivity were evaluated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSAS). The effects of oral administration of domperidone, a selective dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, were also examined, to study the respiratory effects of endogenous dopamine on peripheral chemoreceptors. Sixteen patients with OSAS and nine normal control subjects were studied. Respiratory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia were measured using the rebreathing method and isocapnic progressive hypoxia method, respectively. The hypoxic withdrawal test, which measures the decrease in ventilation caused by two breaths of 100% O2 under mild hypercapnic hypoxic conditions (end-tidal oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions approximately 8.0 kPa and 5.3-6.7 kPa, respectively), was used to evaluate peripheral chemosensitivity. In the patients with OSAS, ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia were significantly decreased compared with those of control subjects. Hypoxic withdrawal tests showed that peripheral chemosensitivity was significantly lower in patients with OSAS than in normal subjects. Hypercapnic ventilatory response and peripheral chemosensitivity were enhanced by administration of domperidone in the patients with OSAS, although no changes in either of these were observed in the control subjects. The hypoxic ventilatory response and peripheral chemosensitivity in the patients with OSAS were each significantly correlated with severity of hypoxia during sleep. These findings suggest that peripheral chemosensitivity in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome may be decreased as a result of abnormality in dopaminergic mechanisms and that the reduced chemosensitivity observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome may affect the severity of hypoxia during sleep.  (+info)

Evidence of O2 supply-dependent VO2 max in the exercise-trained human quadriceps. (5/8649)

Maximal O2 delivery and O2 uptake (VO2) per 100 g of active muscle mass are far greater during knee extensor (KE) than during cycle exercise: 73 and 60 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (2.4 kg of muscle) (R. S. Richardson, D. R. Knight, D. C. Poole, S. S. Kurdak, M. C. Hogan, B. Grassi, and P. D. Wagner. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 37): H1453-H1461, 1995) and 28 and 25 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (7.5 kg of muscle) (D. R. Knight, W. Schaffartzik, H. J. Guy, R. Predilleto, M. C. Hogan, and P. D. Wagner. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2586-2593, 1993), respectively. Although this is evidence of muscle O2 supply dependence in itself, it raises the following question: With such high O2 delivery in KE, are the quadriceps still O2 supply dependent at maximal exercise? To answer this question, seven trained subjects performed maximum KE exercise in hypoxia [0.12 inspired O2 fraction (FIO2)], normoxia (0.21 FIO2), and hyperoxia (1.0 FIO2) in a balanced order. The protocol (after warm-up) was a square wave to a previously determined maximum work rate followed by incremental stages to ensure that a true maximum was achieved under each condition. Direct measures of arterial and venous blood O2 concentration in combination with a thermodilution blood flow technique allowed the determination of O2 delivery and muscle VO2. Maximal O2 delivery increased with inspired O2: 1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.2, and 1.9 +/- 0.2 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Maximal work rate was affected by variations in inspired O2 (-25 and +14% at 0.12 and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, compared with normoxia, P < 0.05) as was maximal VO2 (VO2 max): 1.04 +/- 0.13, 1. 24 +/- 0.16, and 1.45 +/- 0.19 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Calculated mean capillary PO2 also varied with FIO2 (28.3 +/- 1.0, 34.8 +/- 2.0, and 40.7 +/- 1.9 Torr at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, P < 0.05) and was proportionally related to changes in VO2 max, supporting our previous finding that a decrease in O2 supply will proportionately decrease muscle VO2 max. As even in the isolated quadriceps (where normoxic O2 delivery is the highest recorded in humans) an increase in O2 supply by hyperoxia allows the achievement of a greater VO2 max, we conclude that, in normoxic conditions of isolated KE exercise, KE VO2 max in trained subjects is not limited by mitochondrial metabolic rate but, rather, by O2 supply.  (+info)

Mechanisms of hypoxic vasodilatation of isolated rat mesenteric arteries: a comparison with metabolic inhibition. (6/8649)

1. Hypoxia (PO2 < 5 mmHg) decreased vessel tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries precontracted with either high [K+] or the thromboxane analogue U46619. This response was not altered by N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) and indomethacin. 2. Simultaneous measurement of pHi and tension showed that the decrease in vessel tone was accompanied by an intracellular acidification. Similar reductions in tone and pHi were observed with the metabolic inhibitors 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and sodium azide. 3. The presence of the lactate transport inhibitor alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHC) increased the magnitude of the acidification and resulted in a significantly faster reduction in tone in response to hypoxia. Addition of CHC to normoxic tissues caused both a vasodilatation and a reduction of pHi. 4. A decrease in pHi induced on washout of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) resulted in an increase in tone. 5. Relaxation to hypoxia or metabolic inhibition was unaffected when the change in pHi was neutralized by addition of the weak base trimethylamine (TMA). 6. It is concluded that severe hypoxia decreases tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries by a mechanism which is independent of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Both severe hypoxia and metabolic inhibition reduced pHi, although this does not appear to be contributing to the changes in tone observed.  (+info)

Comparison of vascular reactivity in spinal cord and brain. (7/8649)

The local tissue PO2 in the brain cortex and in the spinal cord of rats was examined with ultramicroelectrodes. In the spinal cord the PO2 was highest in white matter, intermediate in dorsal horn gray matter, and lowest in the ventral horn gray matter. In the gray matter of the cord, as well as in the brain, the PO2 at a fixed locus was found normally to oscillate. CO2 responses were more brisk in the cord than in the brain while the responses to hypoxia were similar. Therefore, it appears that the physiological regulation of blood flow in the spinal cord is qualitatively similar to that of the brain.  (+info)

Estimation of corneal endothelial pump function in long-term contact lens wearers. (8/8649)

PURPOSE: To study the effects of long-term contact lens wear on morphologic and physiologic properties of corneal endothelial cells. METHODS: The endothelial permeability to fluorescein and the rate of corneal deswelling from hypoxia-induced edema were measured in 20 long-term (mean, 17+/-9 years; range, 5-33 years) contact lens wearers and 20 age-matched control subjects. From these data, the relative endothelial pump rate in each subject was estimated, based on the pump-leak hypothesis of corneal hydration control. Corneal autofluorescence and the aqueous humor flow rate were determined by fluorescein fluorophotometry. Images of corneal endothelial cells were recorded by using specular microscopy, and morphologic indices (cell density, coefficient of variation of cell area, percentage of hexagonal cells, and skewness) were determined. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between the contact lens and control groups in endothelial permeability, corneal deswelling, relative endothelial pump rate ([mean +/- SD] 1.07+/-0.33 relative pump units versus 1.01+/-0.25 relative pump units; contact lens versus control; P = 0.57), and endothelial cell density. Contact lens wearers had a significantly higher aqueous humor flow rate (3.57+/-1.03 microl/min versus 2.77+/-0.51 microl/min; P = 0.005), coefficient of variation of cell area (0.35+/-0.09 versus 0.28+/-0.04; P = 0.006), and corneal autofluorescence (3.1+/-0.6 ng/ml versus 2.3+/-0.3 ng/ml fluorescein equivalents; P < 0.001) than did non-contact lens wearers. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the known effects of long-term contact lens wear on corneal endothelial morphometry, no effect on endothelial function was found.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Intermittent hypoxic training protects canine myocardium from infarction. AU - Zong, Pu. AU - Setty, Srinath. AU - Sun, Wei. AU - Martinez, Rodolfo. AU - Tune, Johnathan D.. AU - Ehrenburg, Igor V.. AU - Tkatchouk, Elena N.. AU - Mallet, Robert T.. AU - Downey, H. Fred. PY - 2004/9. Y1 - 2004/9. N2 - This investigation examined cardiac protective effects of normobaric intermittent hypoxia training. Six dogs underwent intermittent hypoxic training for 20 consecutive days in a normobaric chamber ventilated intermittently with N2 to reduce fraction of inspired oxygen (FIO2) to 9.5%-10%. Hypoxic periods, initially 5 mins and increasing to 10 mins, were followed by 4-min normoxic periods. This hypoxia-normoxia protocol was repeated, initially 5 times and increasing to 8 times. The dogs showed no discomfort during intermittent hypoxic training. After 20 days of hypoxic training, the resistance of ventricular myocardium to infarction was assessed in an acute experiment. The left ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute intermittent hypoxia exposures enhance arterial oxygen delivery. AU - Zhang, Peizhen. AU - Downey, H. Fred. AU - Shi, Xiangrong. PY - 2010/9. Y1 - 2010/9. N2 - Physiological adaptations to intermittent hypoxia (IH) conditioning are based on the cumulative effect of repeated IH exposures. The present study sought to test the hypothesis that acute IH exposures would promote arterial O2 delivery and regional tissue oxygenation. Changes in arterial O2 saturation (SaO2, oximeter), forearm muscle and cerebral tissue oxygenations (SmO2 and ScO2, near-infrared spectroscopy) were compared during five repeated hypoxia exposures (10±0.2% O2 for 5-min each) interposed with four-minute inhalation of room air in 11 healthy subjects (24±0.9 y). Baseline, prehypoxia partial pressure of end-tidal O2 (PETO 2, mass spectrometer) and SaO2 (107±2 mmHg and 97.3±0.3%) were decreased (P, 0.05) after the first bout as compared with those during normoxia prior to the second (94±2 mmHg and ...
Intermittent hypoxia-induced changes in tumor-associated macrophages and tumor malignancy in a mouse model of sleep apnea.: Our findings support the notion that
Background Although obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is more common in patients with kidney disease, whether nocturnal hypoxia affects kidney function is unknown. Methods We studied all adult subjects referred for diagnostic testing of sleep apnea between July 2005 and December 31 2007 who had serial measurement of their kidney function. Nocturnal hypoxia was defined as oxygen saturation (SaO2) below 90% for ≥12% of the nocturnal monitoring time. The primary outcome, accelerated loss of kidney function, was defined as a decline in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥4 ml/min/1.73 m2 per year. Results 858 participants were included and followed for a mean study period of 2.1 years. Overall 374 (44%) had nocturnal hypoxia, and 49 (5.7%) had accelerated loss of kidney function. Compared to controls without hypoxia, patients with nocturnal hypoxia had a significant increase in the adjusted risk of accelerated kidney function loss (odds ratio (OR) 2.89, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25, 6.67).
Effectiveness of Three Short Intermittent Hypobaric Hypoxia Protocols: Hematological Responses HÉCTOR CASAS 1, MIREIA CASAS 1, ANTONI RICART 2, RAMÓN RAMA 1, JORDI IBÁÑEZ 1, LUIS PALACIOS 1, FERRAN A. RODRÍGUEZ 3, JOSEP L. VENTURA 2, GINÉS VISCOR 1 and TERESA PAGÉS 1 1 Departament de Fisiologia, Facultat de Biologia, Universitat de Barcelona, Barcelona, .
TY - JOUR. T1 - Adiponectin protects rat myocardium against chronic intermittent hypoxia-induced injury via inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress. AU - Ding, Wenxiao. AU - Zhang, Xiaofeng. AU - Huang, Hanpeng. AU - Ding, Ning. AU - Zhang, Shijiang. AU - Hutchinson, Sean Z.. AU - Zhang, Xilong. PY - 2014/4/9. Y1 - 2014/4/9. N2 - Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is associated with many cardiovascular disorders such as heart failure, hypertension, atherosclerosis, and arrhythmia and so on. Of the many associated factors, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) in particular is the primary player in OSAS. To assess the effects of CIH on cardiac function secondary to OSAS, we established a model to study the effects of CIH on Wistar rats. Specifically, we examined the possible underlying cellular mechanisms of hypoxic tissue damage and the possible protective role of adiponectin against hypoxic insults. In the first treatment group, rats were exposed to CIH conditions (nadir O2, 5-6%) for 8 ...
The time course of the pulmonary vascular response to hypoxia in humans has not been fully defined. In this investigation, study A was designed to assess the form of the increase in pulmonary vascular tone at the onset of hypoxia and to determine whether a steady plateau ensues over the following approximately 20 min. Twelve volunteers were exposed twice to 5 min of isocapnic euoxia (end-tidal Po(2) = 100 Torr), 25 min of isocapnic hypoxia (end-tidal Po(2) = 50 Torr), and finally 5 min of isocapnic euoxia. Study B was designed to look for the onset of a slower pulmonary vascular response, and, if possible, to determine a latency for this process. Seven volunteers were exposed to 5 min of isocapnic euoxia, 105 min of isocapnic hypoxia, and finally 10 min of isocapnic euoxia. For both studies, control protocols consisting of isocapnic euoxia were undertaken. Doppler echocardiography was used to measure cardiac output and the maximum tricuspid pressure gradient during systole, and estimates of pulmonary
Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women worldwide and the second most common cancer overall. The most aggressive and most lethal form of breast cancer is inflammatory breast cancer (IBC). The mechanisms underlying the aggressiveness of IBC are still poorly understood. A key feature in the development and progression of breast cancer is the tumor microenvironment that is, amongst others, characterized by a specific composition of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and by the occurrence of tissue hypoxia and oxidative stress. Due to vascular remodeling, leading to structurally and functionally abnormal tumor vessels, tumor cells are exposed to alternating periods of hypoxia and reoxygenation, called chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH). CIH is a cause of increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and has been identified as an important factor in promoting tumor progression and metastasis. However, the molecular mechanisms through which CIH increases the aggressiveness of breast cancer ...
The specificity of computed tomography (CT) for subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) is very high. However, physicians should be aware of rare false positive findings, also referred to as pseudo-SAH. We present an unusual case in which such a finding was caused by chronic hypoxaemia. A 37-year-old male patient presented with headaches. His CT-scan showed multiple confluent subarachnoid hyperattenuations, which mimicked SAH. However, the headache was chronic and had no features typical for SAH. The patient suffered from severe chronic hypoxaemia due to congenital heart failure. On CT-angiography diffuse intracranial vessel proliferation was found and laboratory results revealed a highly raised level of haematocrit, which had both probably developed as compensatory mechanisms. A combination of these findings explained the subarachnoid hyperdensities. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed no signs of SAH and visualized hypoxaemia in cerebral veins. A diagnosis of pseudo-SAH was made. The patients symptoms
Intermittent hypoxia often occurs in early infancy in both preterm and term infants and especially at 36 to 44 weeks postmenstrual age. These episodes of intermittent hypoxia could result from sleep-disordered breathing or may be temporally unrelated to apnea or bradycardia events. There are numerous reports indicating adverse effects of intermittent hypoxia on development, behavior, academic achievement and cognition in children with sleep apnea syndrome. It remains uncertain the exact causative relationship between the neurocognitive and behavioral morbidities and intermittent hypoxia and/or its associated sleep fragmentation. On the other hand, well-controlled and moderate intermittent hypoxia conditioning/training has been used in sick children for treating their various forms of bronchial asthma, allergic dermatoses, autoimmune thyroiditis, cerebral palsy, and obesity. This review article provides an updated and impartial analysis on the currently available evidence in supporting either side of the
Intermittent hypoxia (IH) is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of hypertension in obstructive sleep apnea through mechanisms that include activation of the renin-angiotensin system. The objective of this study was to assess the role of the t
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Hyperoxia and moderate hypoxia fail to affect inspiratory muscle fatigue in humans. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
OBJECTIVE: Recently, we showed that 5 days of normobaric intermittent hypoxia at rest (IH; 2 hours daily at 3,800 m simulated altitude; partial pressure of inspired oxygen 90 torr) can induce an increase in the isocapnic hypoxic ventilatory response
The study is a prospective field evaluation to assess the effects of the chronic Intermittent Hypoxia exposure in 12 healthy humans.. Precisely, the study was designed to :. Set up a new model of Chronic Intermittent Hypoxia (CIH) applied to healthy human. This CIH is mimicking the CIH undergone by patients suffering from Sleep Apnea Syndrome.. Evaluate the cardiovascular effect of CIH. Neuronal and humoral sympathetic control, blood pressure control, vascular resistance.. Evaluate the Sleep quality, the ventilation under exposure and the long terms effect on ventilation control of CIH (central and peripheral chemoreflex).. Investigates the biological aspects of CIH exposure. ...
The hormonal responses to submaximal exercise under normoxic and hypoxic conditions were studied in eight fit males, aged 22--28 yr, with mean maximal oxygen uptake of 4.4 +/- 0.7 l/min. Studies were performed in a hypobaric chamber, decompressed to a simulated altitude of 4,550 m (PIO2 = 83 Torr). The subjects exercised for 20 min at 750 kpm/min on a cycle ergometer. Venous blood samples were obtained at rest, during exercise and for 60 min after exercise. Plasma glucose, free fatty acids, lactate, cortisol, and serum growth hormone concentrations all increased more during hypoxic exercise than under normoxic conditions. Serum insulin concentration showed a small decrease under normoxic conditions, but decreased by 50% during hypoxic exercise, and was followed by marked rebound when exercise stopped. These changes suggest that energy substrate-hormone interrelationships are altered by hypoxic exercise, resulting in increased fat mobilization and increased gluconeogenesis.
Regional alveolar hypoxia in the lung induces regional pulmonary vasoconstriction which diverts blood flow from the hypoxic area. However, the predominant determinant of the distribution of perfusion in the normal erect lung is gravity so that more perfusion occurs at the base than at the apex. To determine the strength of the regional alveolar hypoxic response in diverting flow with or against the gravity gradient a divided tracheal cannula was placed in anesthetized dogs and unilateral alveolar hypoxia created by venilating one lung with nitrogen while ventilating the other lung with oxygen to preserve normal systemic oxygentation. Scintigrams of the distribution of perfusion obtained with intravenous 13-N and the MGH positron camera revealed a 34 and 32 per cent decrease in perfusion to the hypoxic lung in the supine and erect positions and a 26 per cent decrease in the decubitus position with the hypoxic lung dependent (P equal to 0.94 from supine shift), indicating nearly equal vasoconstriction
Pulmonary hypertension (PH) and right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy frequently develop in patients with hypoxic lung disease. Chronic alveolar hypoxia (CH) promotes sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction and pulmonary artery (PA) remodeling by acting on lung cells, resulting in the development of PH. RV hypertrophy develops in response to PH, but arterial hypoxemia in CH may influence that response by activating Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1α (HIF-1α) and/or HIF-2α in cardiomyocytes. Indeed, other studies show that attenuation of PH in CH fails to prevent RV remodeling, suggesting that PH-independent factors regulate RV hypertrophy. Therefore, we examined the role of HIFs in RV remodeling in CH-induced PH. We deleted HIF-1α and/or HIF-2α in hearts of adult mice that were then housed under normoxia or CH (10% O2) for 4 weeks. RNA-seq analysis of the RV revealed that HIF-1α and HIF-2α regulate the transcription of largely distinct gene sets during CH. RV systolic pressure (RVSP) increased and RV ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Age-dependent vulnerability to ischemia-reperfusion injury of cyanotic myocardium in a chronic hypoxic rat model. AU - Fujita, Yasufumi. AU - Ishino, Kozo. AU - Nakanishi, Koji. AU - Fujii, Yasuhiro. AU - Kawada, Masaaki. AU - Sano, Shunji. PY - 2009/11. Y1 - 2009/11. N2 - This study evaluated the effects of chronic hypoxia from birth on the resistance of rat hearts to global ischemia, with special emphasis on the duration of hypoxia. Male Wistar rats were housed from birth for 4 weeks or 8 weeks either in a hypoxic environment (FiO2 = 0.12) or in ambient air (8 animals for each group). Isolated rat hearts were perfused for 40 min with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer, subjected to 20 min global no-flow ischemia at 37°C, and then underwent 40 min of reperfusion. A non-elastic balloon was inserted into the left ventricle and inflated until the pre-ischemic LVEDP rose to 8mmHg. Cardiac function was measured before and after ischemia. The post-ischemic percent recovery of LVDP in ...
Areas of hypoxia are found in coastal areas worldwide, and have become increasingly widespread. These areas vary in their duration and dissolved oxygen concentration from occasional diurnal hypoxia, as found in Corpus Christi Bay, Texas, seasonal hypoxia as in the northern Gulf of Mexico, to continuous hypoxia as found in oceanic oxygen minimum zones. The effects of exposure to low dissolved oxygen (DO) depend on the duration of exposure, the DO concentration and an organisms tolerance to hypoxic conditions. Most studies have focused on lethal effects of hypoxia by comparing the abundance of benthic organisms and the species composition of benthic communities between hypoxic and normoxic areas. Sub-lethal effects of such as changes in reproduction may occur at less severe hypoxic conditions (by definition), but may still have effects at the population level. The goal of this study is to examine the sub-lethal reproductive effects of low DO on harpacticoid copepods. The life-history traits and ...
Training at altitude is beneficial because the air is thinner. Its not the lack of oxygen that makes your body work so hard at altitude. It really has to do with the barometric pressure. … The big challenge is your ability at altitude to extract the oxygen and get it into your bloodstream at altitude ...
Although tumor progression involves genetic and epigenetic alterations to normal cellular biology, the underlying mechanisms of these changes remain obscure. Numerous studies have shown that hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (HIF-1α) is overexpressed in many human cancers and up-regulates a host of hypoxia-responsive genes for cancer growth and survival. We recently identified an alternative mechanism of HIF-1α function that induces genetic alterations by suppressing DNA repair. Here, we show that long-term hypoxia, which mimics the tumor microenvironment, drives a perpetual epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through up-regulation of the zinc finger E-box binding homeobox protein ZEB2, whereas short-term hypoxia induces a reversible EMT that requires the transcription factor Twist1. Moreover, we show that the perpetual EMT driven by chronic hypoxia depends on HIF-1α induction of genetic alterations rather than its canonical transcriptional activator function. These mesenchymal tumor cells not ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Chronic hypoxia upregulates endothelial and inducible NO synthase gene and protein expression in rat lung. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
so that they are sensitive to hopoxia level. but Extreme hypoxia eventually causes failure of brain stem functions. The brainstem is a part of the brain most resistant to the effects of hypoxia, and only malfunctions and fails at degrees of hypoxia causing failure of the rest of the brain. Extreme hypoxia causes failure of all cerebral cortex functions, as well as brainstem malfunction so inducing loss of consciousness, together with abnormal breathing. Even more extreme hypoxia causes failure of all brainstem functions, causing loss of consciousness and cessation of breathing, resulting in anoxia, subsequent irreversible brainstem damage and death. I hope this helped you ...
In the current study, three portions of the ARAS (the dorsal lower ARAS, ventral lower ARAS and upper ARAS) in a patient with impaired consciousness following DPHL caused by CO poisoning were evaluated using DTT. We found that these three portions of the ARAS were injured in both hemispheres: the upper ARAS - decreased neural connectivity to both frontal cortexes, basal forebrains, basal ganglia and thalami, the dorsal lower ARAS - non-reconstruction in the right side and narrowing in the left side and the ventral lower ARAS -non-reconstruction in both sides. We believe that the impaired consciousness in this patient was ascribed to the injury of the three portions of the ARAS.. Many studies have reported abnormality of the white matter including basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) in patients with DPHL using various neuroimaging tools including conventional MRI [5-13]. Neurological manifestations were observed as follows: 1) cognitive impairments - confusion, ...
As solid tumors grow, regions in the tumor become hypoxic because of increased metabolism, heterogeneous and abnormal vasculature delivering oxygen within the tumor, and greater size. In order for the tumor to continue to grow, it depends on survival mechanisms to overcome this hypoxic state, including up-regulation in glycolysis, invasion and metastasis, and angiogenesis, or the growth of new blood vessels. The hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) transcription factor complex is a major mediator of the cells response to a hypoxic state and a tumors survival mechanism under hypoxia. The complex is composed of the hypoxia-dependent HIF-1α subunit and a constitutively expressed HIF-1α subunit, and it requires the co-activator protein p300 to function. In the presence of oxygen, HIF-1α is rapidly degraded. Under hypoxia, HIF-1α forms a complex with HIF-1α and p300 in the nucleus to up-regulate transcription of pro-survival and angiogenic genes. Targeting this transcription factor complex in tumors ...
Hypoxia increases the proliferation of hCMPCs. hCMPCs were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions for the indicated time intervals. An increase in the n
fr] OBJECTIF: hypoxie cycliques dans les tumeurs proviennent de lhétérogénéité dans le flux de RBC et influence non seulement les cellules tumorales mais également des cellules endothéliales qui tapissent les vaisseaux sanguins tumoraux. Whether pO(2) fluctuations, particularly transient reoxygenation periods, alter the well-known hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent gene program is largely unknown. Que Po (2) les fluctuations, en particulier réoxygénation des périodes transitoires, de modifier lhypoxie bien connue-inducible factor (HIF)-programme des gènes dépendant est largement inconnue. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We compared the transcriptomic profiles of endothelial and tumor cells exposed to cyclic hypoxia versus continuous hypoxia to uncover a possible differential effect on angiogenesis and metastases. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Nous avons comparé les profils transcriptomiques de endothéliales et les cellules tumorales exposées à lhypoxie cyclique par rapport à lhypoxie ...
Hypoxia increases transcript levels of enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis, iron-associated and SreA-associated processes. Microarray datasets include three b
BACKGROUND: Exposure to intermittent hypoxia (IH) may enhance cardiac function and protects heart against ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury. To elucidate the underlying mechanisms, we developed a cardioprotective IH model that was characterized at hemodynamic, biochemical and molecular levels. METHODS: Mice were exposed to 4 daily IH cycles (each composed of 2-min at 6-8% O2 followed by 3-min reoxygenation for 5 times) for 14 days, with normoxic mice as controls. Mice were then anesthetized and subdivided in various subgroups for analysis of contractility (pressure-volume loop), morphology, biochemistry or resistance to I/R (30-min occlusion of the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD) followed by reperfusion and measurement of the area at risk and infarct size). In some mice, the phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor wortmannin was administered (24 µg/kg ip) 15 min before LAD. RESULTS: We found that IH did not induce myocardial hypertrophy; rather both contractility and ...
19 pigs with depressed arterial oxygen tensions had DDFPe administered. DDFPe increased arterial, venous, and muscle oxygen tensions.
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Hielscher A, Qiu C, Porterfield J, Smith Q, Gerecht S. Hypoxia affects the structure of breast cancer cell-derived matrix to support angiogenic responses of endothelial cells (2013) Journal of Carcinogenesis and Mutagenesis doi: 10.4172/2157-2518.S13-005 ...
Four types of hypoxia are distinguished in medicine: (1) the hypoxemic type, in which the oxygen pressure in the blood going to the tissues is too low to saturate the hemoglobin; (2) the anemic type, in which the amount of functional hemoglobin is too small, and hence the capacity of the blood to carry oxygen is too … ...
The epidemiology and clinical characteristics of COVID-19 are much better understood today compared to the early stage of the pandemic several months ago. However, our knowledge of the pathophysiological changes in the lung remains largely elusive. Many patients with COVID-19 present with severe hypoxemia, yet remain remarkably comfortable, a phenomenon that has been alluded to…
En Hospitales Nisa somos especialistas en el tratamiento de enfermedades cerebrales como la anoxia. Informacion, Causas y Tratamiento
Hypoxemia and/or hypoxia is a condition in which there is a deficiency of oxygen reaching the tissues. Know about the symptoms, causes, prevention and treatment.
Intermittent hypoxia has been suggested to increase exercise tolerance by enhancing stress resistance and improving oxygen delivery. Because the improvement of exercise tolerance reduces mortality in the elderly with and without coronary artery disease intermittent hypoxia might be a valuable preventive and therapeutic tool. However, controlled studies are lacking. Sixteen males (50-70 years, 8 with and 8 without prior myocardial infarction) were randomly assigned in a double-blind fashion to receive 15 sessions of passive intermittent hypoxia (hypoxia group) or normoxia (control group) within 3 weeks. For the hypoxia group each session consisted of three to five hypoxic (14-10% oxygen) periods (3-5 min) with 3-min normoxic intervals. Controls inhaled only normoxic air in the same way. Exercise tests were performed before and after the 3-week breathing program. After 3 weeks of intermittent hypoxia peak oxygen consumption had increased compared to normoxic conditions (+ 6.2% vs.-3%, p , 0.001). ...
Whether long-term oxygen therapy (LTOT) improves quality of life in chronic hypoxaemia has been questioned. LTOT with an oxygen concentrator (C/C) and gas cylinders for ambulation is considered cumbersome compared to mobile liquid oxygen equipment (L). The hypothesis for this study was that LTOT with liquid oxygen treatment (L) improves patients health-related quality of life, but that it is also more expensive compared to concentrator (C/C) treatment. A prospective, randomized multicentre trial comparing C/C with L for LTOT was conducted during a six-month period. Fifty-one patients (29 on L and 22 on C/C) with chronic hypoxaemia, regularly active outside the home, participated in the study initially. Costs for oxygen were obtained from the pharmacies. Patient diaries and telephone contacts with members of the healthcare sector were used to estimate costs. Health-related quality of life was measured by the Sickness Impact Profile (SIP) and the EuroQol, instruments at the start and after 6 ...
Exposure to perinatal hypoxia results in alteration of the adult pulmonary circulation, which is linked among others to alterations in K(+) channels in pulmonary artery (PA) smooth muscle cells. In particular, large conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK(Ca)) channels protein expression and activity were increased in adult PA from mice born in hypoxia compared with controls. We evaluated long-term effects of perinatal hypoxia on the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)/protein kinase A (PKA) pathway-mediated activation of BK(Ca) channels, using isoproterenol, forskolin, and dibutyryl-cAMP. Whole-cell outward current was higher in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells from mice born in hypoxia compared with controls. Spontaneous transient outward currents, representative of BK(Ca) activity, were present in a greater proportion in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells of mice born in hypoxia than in controls. Agonists induced a greater relaxation in PA of mice born in hypoxia compared with controls, and BK
Sleep apnea (SA) affects as many as 20% of the adult population in the United States. It elicits intermittent hypoxia (IH) and causes pulmonary hypertension (PH), however the mechanisms of this PH have not been well studied. IH has been shown to cause polycythemia, pulmonary vascular remodeling and increases in vasoconstrictor reactivity. CO2 supplementation may be protective in the development of PH, therefore we assessed effects of IH with and without CO2 supplementation on indices of PH and pulmonary vasoconstrictor reactivity. IH with CO2 supplementation resulted in eucapnic IH (E-IH) and the lack of polycythemia or vascular remodeling. However, E-IH caused significant right ventricular hypertrophy and increased pulmonary vasoconstrictor reactivity, which was mediated by vascular smooth muscle (VSM) Ca2+ sensitization. We, therefore, sought to determine the mechanism of this enhanced vasoconstrictor reactivity by assessing vasoconstriction and VSM Ca2+ responses to the endothelium-derived
TY - JOUR. T1 - Long-term histological outcome after post-hypoxic treatment with 100% or 40% oxygen in a model of perinatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. AU - Grafe, Marjorie. AU - Woodworth, K. Nina. AU - Noppens, Kristin. AU - Perez-Polo, J. Regino. PY - 2008/2. Y1 - 2008/2. N2 - Hypoxic newborns have traditionally been given supplemental oxygen, and until recently, guidelines for neonatal resuscitation recommended that 100% oxygen be used. Exposure to 100% oxygen after hypoxic injury, however, may exacerbate oxidative stress. The current study evaluated the effect of exposure to 100, 40 or 21% oxygen after neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury on the severity of brain injury after long-term survival. The severity of histological brain injury was not different in animals exposed to 100% oxygen versus room air. Male animals treated with 40% oxygen post-hypoxia had the lowest mean total histology scores, but this was not statistically significant due to the large variation in injury within each ...
During ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia (VAH), the relationship between ventilation (VE) and end-tidal PCO2 (PETCO2) changes. This study was designed to determine 1) whether these changes can be seen early in VAH and 2) if these changes are present, whether the responses differ between isocapnic and poikilocapnic exposures. Ten healthy volunteers were studied by using three 8-h exposures: 1) isocapnic hypoxia (IH), end-tidal PO2 (PETO2) = 55 Torr and PETCO2 held at the subjects normal prehypoxic value; 2) poikilocapnic hypoxia (PH), PETO2 = 55 Torr; and 3) control (C), air breathing. The VE-PETCO2 relationship was determined in hyperoxia (PETO2 = 200 Torr) before and after the exposures. We found a significant increase in the slopes of VE-PETCO2 relationship after both hypoxic exposures compared with control (IH vs. C, P | 0.01; PH vs. C, P | 0.001; analysis of covariance with pairwise comparisons). This increase was not significantly different between protocols IH and PH. No significant changes
TY - JOUR. T1 - Moderating Effect of Low Doses of Ethanol on Reoxygenation Injury in the Anoxic Myocardium. AU - Kobayashi, H.. AU - Ashraf, Muhammad. AU - Rahamathulla, P. M.. AU - Minami, M.. PY - 1987/1/1. Y1 - 1987/1/1. N2 - We have investigated the action of ethanol on the reoxygenation injury in isolated rat hearts. Perfusion of the anoxic Krebs-Henseleit medium for 40 minutes followed by 30 minutes of perfusion with aerobic medium produced considerable myocardial cell injury. Incorporation of ethanol (21.7 mMol), in both anoxic and aerobic perfusion media resulted in a marked reduction of cell injury and inhibition of creative kinase. Contraction band necrosis was reduced to 0.25 as compared to 1.14 per field in the non-treated hearts. The tissue Ca++ was decreased to 8.2 as compared to 12.12 µmoll/g/dry weight in the non-treated hearts and tissue ATP was increased by 50% in the treated tissue (9.33 µmoll/g/dry wt) as compared to the non-treated anoxic tissue (S.S µmol). Thus, ethanol ...
Continuous or intermittent hypobaric hypoxia can lead to long-term contraction of the pulmonary artery and structural changes in the pulmonary vascular wall known as hypoxic pulmonary vessel remodelling (HPVR) [20]. HPVR is characterised by thickening of small pulmonary artery wall and muscularizing of pulmonary arteriole, which can result in sustained high pulmonary artery pressure and right ventricular hypertrophy [21]. It has become clear that pulmonary vascular smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) are closely related to the development of pulmonary hypertension, which are regulated by intracellular Ca2+ concentrations and calmodulin (CaM) [1]. The intracellular Ca2+ concentration has also been suggested to regulate gene expression and cellular proliferation [2, 6, 22-25]. Intracellular calcium levels in PASMCs are mainly regulated by extracellular calcium influx and the release of intracellular calcium stores. Chelation of extracellular calcium in human PASMCs can significantly inhibit serum or ...
The primary objective of the current study was to determine the effect of moderate normobaric hypoxia exposure during constant load cycling on post-exercise energy metabolism recorded in normoxia. Indirect calorimetry was used to examine whole body substrate oxidation before, during, 40-60 min post, and 22 h after performing 60 min of cycling exercise at two different fractions of inspired oxygen (FIO2): (i) FIO2 = 0.2091 (normoxia) and (ii) FIO2 = 0.15 (hypoxia). Seven active healthy male participants (26 ± 4 years of age) completed both experimental trials in randomized order with a 7-day washout period to avoid carryover effects between conditions. Resting energy expenditure was initially elevated following cycling exercise in normoxia and hypoxia (Δ 0.14 ± 0.05, kcal min−1, p = 0.037; Δ 0.19 ± 0.03 kcal min−1, p −1, p = 0.019) and tended to suppress carbohydrate oxidation (Δ −55 ± 26 mg min−1, p = 0.076) 40-60 min post-exercise. This shift in substrate oxidation persisted the next
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of hematocrit on systemic O2 transport in hypoxic and normoxic exercise in rats. AU - Gonzalez, N C. AU - Erwig, Lars Peter. AU - Painter, C F. AU - Clancy, R L. AU - Wagner, P D. PY - 1994/9/1. Y1 - 1994/9/1. N2 - The effect of hematocrit (Hct) on O2 transport in hypoxic [inspired PO2 (PIO2) approximately 70 Torr] and normoxic (PIO2 approximately 145 Torr) exercise was studied in rats acclimatized to 3 wk of PIO2 at approximately 70 Torr (A rats) and in nonacclimatized littermates (NA rats). Isovolumic exchange transfusion of plasma or red blood cells was used to lower Hct in A rats from approximately 60 to 45% and to raise Hct of NA rats from 45 to 60%: Controls were A and NA rats exchange transfused with whole blood at constant Hct. Lowering Hct of A rats lowered the arterial O2 concentration (CaO2) and the arterial-mixed venous O2 difference and increased the maximal cardiac output (Qmax) without changes in maximal O2 uptake (VO2 max) or in the product of Qmax x CaO2, ...
Serotonin initiates neuroplasticity in a number of invertebrate and vertebrate experimental models. The first report of serotonin-dependent plasticity in respiratory motor control was a long-lasting facilitation of phrenic activity following episodic stimulation of chemoafferent neurons [1], a phenomenon now known as long-term facilitation (LTF). Recent progress has contributed considerably towards an understanding of the mechanisms and manifestations of this potentially important model of respiratory plasticity. In this presentation, recent progress in understanding the mechanism of LTF will be reviewed. In all studies, we exposed awake or anesthetized Sprague Dawley rats to episodic hypoxia as an experimental model of LTF. Both awake and anesthetized rats express LTF following episodic hypoxia. Intermittent, but not continuous hypoxia elicits LTF, indicating remarkable pattern sensitivity in its underlying mechanism. Both episodic chemoafferent activation by stimulation of the carotid sinus ...
This strategy aims to increase RCV while preventing the hypoxia-induced decrease in training speed/workload that occurs at altitude. However, the frequent descents do not only impose logistic constraints but also reduce the hypoxic dose and hence presumably the chance for RCV expansion. As most of the day, and particularly the night, are still spent at altitude, other adverse effects of altitude exposure likely persist, potentially explaining why performance can remain unchanged or decrease following LHTL even if RCV increases (9). Nevertheless, support comes from the pioneering study by Levine and Stray-Gundersen (7), where 4 wk of LHTL enhanced RCV and improved time trial (TT) performance of runners more than a training camp near SL. What complicates the interpretation is that throughout the intervention training effort was approximately 50% larger in the LHTL group, which may, at least in part, explain the larger increases in RCV and TT performance. Three further controlled LHTL studies using ...
Tissue hypoxia is frequently found under various pathophysiological conditions, such as circulatory failure, myocardial infarction and cerebral ischemia (Garin et al., 2005; Li and Jackson, 2002; McCord, 1985; Michiels, 2004). Owing to the high incidence and clinical relevance of tissue hypoxia and ischemia-reperfusion injury, an understanding of the hypoxia-associated cellular and molecular mechanisms is essential for the development of new and effective strategies to reduce ischemia-reperfusion- and tissue-hypoxia-mediated cell damage.. An elegant and straightforward method for the investigation of hypoxia-associated mechanisms is the use of cell culture systems. So far, different in vitro models (e.g. hypoxic chambers, chemical or enzymatic generation of hypoxia) have been employed to induce hypoxic conditions in cultures of cell lines and primary cells and to evaluate the effects as well as underlying mechanisms of in vitro hypoxia. Unfortunately, all of the currently described models have ...
A hypoxicator is a medical device intended to provide a stimulus for the adaptation of an individuals cardiovascular system by means of breathing reduced oxygen hypoxic air and triggering mechanisms of compensation. The aim of intermittent hypoxic training or hypoxic therapy conducted with such a device is to obtain benefits in physical performance and wellbeing through improved oxygen metabolism. There are several commercial systems available, the most popular being Hypoxico, Inc., who pioneered normobaric hypoxic altitude training systems. Most of these systems have not been cleared for medical applications by the FDA and are used by athletes for altitude training. Advanced hypoxicators have a built-in pulse oximeter used to monitor and in some cases control the temporary reduction of arterial oxygen saturation that results in physiological responses evident at both systemic and cellular levels even after only a few minutes of hypoxia. Hypoxic Training Index (HTi) can be used to measure the ...
This study demonstrates for the first time changes in the expression of HDAC proteins, specifically increased HDAC1 (class I) and HDAC5 (class II), in human IPAH lung. These data were replicated in lungs and RV from rats with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension. The lack of change in HDAC expression in the kidneys from these animals links the observed changes in HDAC expression to the pathological vascular remodeling of pulmonary hypertension rather than the hypoxic stimulus per se. Immunohistochemical assessment of human IPAH and chronic hypoxic rat lungs confirmed increased nuclear expression of HDAC1 and cytoplasmic expression of HDAC5 in remodeled vessels. These vessels also express the proliferative marker Ki67, supporting a link between aberrant epigenetic changes and dysregulated cell proliferation. Consistent with a functional role for HDACs in pulmonary hypertension, long-term administration of VPA, a HDAC class I inhibitor, not only prevented hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension ...
1. Six groups of 20 male adult rats were maintained in an environmental chamber, each group for a period of 28 days. One group breathed air throughout its experimental period, and a second group breathed a normobaric atmosphere of 12% oxygen. The other four groups were exposed to this hypoxic atmosphere for only a proportion of each 24 h cycle: 2, 4 and 12 h daily, and eight periods of 30 min daily.. 2. After 28 days, measurement was made, in each rat, of right ventricule (RV) weight and of red cell mass (RCM) by using 51Cr-labelled rat erythrocytes.. 3. In the normoxic control group, RV weight corrected for log body weight in grams was 63.2 ± 1 mg/log body wt. and RCM was 2.02 ± 0.05 ml/100 g body wt. This was significantly less than in the group hypoxic for only 2 h each day for 28 days: RV weight 66.6 ± 0.8 mg/log body wt. (P , 0.05) and RCM 2.27 ± 0.05 ml/100g body wt. (P , 0.05). Greater increases compared with control were observed in all the other hypoxic groups. There was no ...
Background: It has been observed that PGC-1α content decreases in type 2 diabetes. In addition, hypoxia has been introduced as a new therapeutic intervention in type 2 diabetes. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight weeks of daily normobaric hypoxia (60 minutes) on PGC-1α content of soleus ...
Results Green fluorescence was observed in the cells transfected of negative control siRNA group though the fluorescence microscope. Compared with the blank control group, The MTT assay determined that the survival rate of H9C2 was decreased (p , 0.05) after the injured by hypoxia. And the results of flow cytometry showed that hypoxia increased cell apoptosis rate (P , 0.01) and the concentration of calcium (p , 0.01), while the transfection of Bim-siRNA reduced the effects caused by hypoxia (P , 0.05 or P , 0.01). Compared with the hypoxia group, the transfection of Bim-siRNA increased the cell survival rate, decreased cell apoptosis rate and the concentration of calcium (p , 0.01 or p , 0.05). While there was no significant difference among Hypoxia Group, Hypoxia + Negative Control siRNA Group and Hypoxia + Mock control Group (p , 0.05). The results of Western blotting showed that the transfection of Bim-siRNA reduced the expression of Bim obviously (p , 0.01); meanwhile, reduced the ...
METHODS AND RESULTS: Using a rodent model of neonatal hypoxia, in combination with rat primary ventricular neonatal cardiomyocytes (PVNCs) and H9c2 cells, we sought to determine if Misoprostol can prevent cardiomyocyte proliferation and what the key molecular players may be in this pathway. At post-natal day (PND) 5, hypoxia-exposed rat pups demonstrated elevated heart weights, while histological analysis confirmed, significant increases in left-ventricular wall thickness in the absence of fibrosis (P < 0.05) and increased nuclei number (P < 0.05), which was completely attenuated with the addition of 10 μg/kg/day Misoprostol. Concurrently, molecular markers of proliferation, including Cyclin-D1 were significantly elevated in hypoxia-exposed hearts and cells, which was also prevented in the presence of Misoprostol (P < 0.05). We further describe a critical role for Bnip3-Delta-Exon3 in the regulation of cardiomyocyte proliferation at the transcriptional level, where this isoform reduced the ...
Pulmonary vascular remodeling is one of the typical responses to chronic alveolar hypoxia in the rat model of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Neither the etiology nor the structural and functional consequences of this remodeling are well understood. It is known that chronic treatment with ACE inhibitors results in a reduction of lung perfusion pressures and vascular changes in hypoxic PH, but the effect of treatment with ACE inhibitors on arterial tree morphology and mechanical properties of the artery walls in the intact lung have not been examined. In addition to using standard hemodynamic analysis, we approach this problem with x-ray micro-CT imaging and measure the distensibility of pulmonary arteries (approximate range of 50 - 2000 um diameter) in rat lungs. We examine consequences of chronic hypoxic exposure (10% O2) with and without Captopril treatment in FH, SD and BN rats. The FH rat strain is known to possess a genetic susceptibility to PH whereas the BN strain is resistant to PH. An example of
Erythropoietin (EPO) mRNA levels were measured by ribonuclease (RNase) protection in organs from unstimulated rats and from animals after normobaric hypoxia or hemorrhagic anemia. Both liver and kidney responded to stimulation with large increases in EPO mRNA, but the response characteristic to graded stimulation was different. The liver responded poorly to mild normobaric hypoxia, accounting for only 2 ± 1% of total EPO mRNA at 11% O2, but hepatic EPO mRNA levels increased steeply with more severe hypoxia so that at 7.5% O2 the liver contributed to 33 ± 7% of the total. After hemorrhagic anemia, the liver also responded more strongly to more severe stimulation, but at all points it accounted for a significant proportion of total EPO mRNA, contributing 18 ± 6% after removal of 2.5 ml (hematocrit 37.2 ± 1.3%), increasing to 37 ± 14% after venesection of 10.5 ml (hematocrit 15.8 ± 0.8%). Studies of EPO mRNA in other organs confirmed that EPO production outside the liver and kidney were
p,This study evaluated the effects of chronic hypoxia from birth on the resistance of rat hearts to global ischemia, with special emphasis on the duration of hypoxia. Male Wistar rats were housed from birth for 4 weeks or 8 weeks either in a hypoxic environment (FiO20.12) or in ambient air (8 animals for each group). Isolated rat hearts were perfused for 40 min with oxygenated Krebs-Henseleit buffer, subjected to 20 min global no-flow ischemia at 37, and then underwent 40 min of reperfusion. A non-elastic balloon was inserted into the left ventricle and inflated until the pre-ischemic LVEDP rose to 8mmHg. Cardiac function was measured before and after ischemia. The post-ischemic percent recovery of LVDP in hypoxic hearts was worse than in normoxic hearts (4 weeks:55+/-7 vs. 96+/-3%, p0.01;8 weeks:40+/-5 vs. 92+/-4%, p0.01), and was worst in the 8-week-hypoxic hearts. Similarly, the percent recovery of dP/dt in the hypoxic hearts was lower than in the normoxic hearts (4 weeks:51+/-5 vs. 96+/-7%, ...
NO/cGMP signal transduction plays an important role in the modulation of pulmonary vascular tone and structure in response to acute and chronic changes in oxygen tension. In this study, single aerosol delivery of adenoviral vectors expressing NOS2 and NOS3 gene in rat lungs resulted in immunoreactive NOS2 and NOS3 localized in bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells. NOS gene transfer increased pulmonary cGMP levels and elevated exhaled NO levels for at least 1 week. Significantly higher NO production was observed in NOS2-aerosolized rats than in NOS3- and control virus-infected rats. The acute hypoxia-induced vasoconstrictor response was significantly and equally reduced in both NOS2- and NOS3-infected rats. In contrast, in rats breathing Fio2 0.10 for 1 week, a single administration of AdNOS2 significantly reduced the rise in PAP, the increase in fractional right ventricular weight, and the degree of pulmonary vascular remodeling. In contrast, single administration of AdRR5 or AdNOS3 did not ...
We report that chronic sublethal hypoxia in newborn mice produces an initial 30% deficit in cortical neurons, two-thirds of which are excitatory neurons expressing the transcription factor Tbr1. Over the ensuing 4 weeks in normoxic conditions, the deficit in neuron number recovers, such that neither NeuN+, Tbr1+ nor SMI-32+ neurons are decreased in the cortex of hypoxic-reared mice at P48. However, there is an enduring loss in PV+ and CR+ inhibitory interneurons in the hypoxic mice, which creates an imbalance between excitatory and inhibitory neurons in the hypoxic cortex. Disrupting the Fgfr1 gene in GFAP+ cells of the developing dorsal telencephalon (including cortical radial glial cells and all their progeny) does not alter the initial loss of cortical neurons but precludes the recovery of NeuN+, Tbr1+ and SMI-32+ neuron number in the cerebral cortex. Hypoxic exposure increases cell proliferation and the generation of Tbr1+ cortical excitatory neurons and that of OB granular neurons, ...
Hypoxic exposure lasting a few hours results in an elevation of ventilation and a lowering of end-tidal P(CO2) (P(ET(CO2))) that persists on return to breathing air. We sought to determine whether this increment in ventilation is fixed (hypothesis 1), or whether it increases in proportion to the rise in metabolic rate associated with exercise (hypothesis 2). Ten subjects were studied on two separate days. On 1 day, subjects were exposed to 8h of isocapnic hypoxia (end-tidal P(O2) 55 Torr) and on the other day to 8 h of euoxia as a control. Before and 30 min after each exposure, subjects undertook an incremental exercise test. The best fit of a model for the variation in P(ET(CO2)) with metabolic rate gave a residual squared error that was approximately 20-fold less for hypothesis 2 than for hypothesis 1 (p|0.005, F-ratio test). We conclude that the alterations in respiratory control induced during early ventilatory acclimatization to hypoxia better reflect those associated with hypothesis 2 rather than
It has been generally thought that PH predominantly resulted from hypoxia-induced structural changes in the pulmonary vasculature, which produced a fixed increase in resistance. These structural changes included remodeling of the arteriolar walls leading to encroachment into the vascular lumen, and loss of blood vessels, suggesting that interventions, which successfully ameliorated PH, would act by preventing or reversing such structural changes. The results of the present study cast doubt on this paradigm by demonstrating that chronic hypoxia did not cause a structurally based reduction of pulmonary vascular lumen diameter, nor did it cause a loss of pulmonary vessels. Moreover, we report that chronic inhibition of ROCK abrogated the development of hypoxic PH, not by preventing structural encroachment into the vascular lumen, but by inhibiting sustained pulmonary vasoconstriction. Importantly, we also found hypoxia-induced capillary angiogenesis in the adult lung that was dependent on the ...
R.J. Simpson, K. Raja, T.J. Peters; Studies of Iron Uptake by Duodenal Brush Boeder Membrane Vesicles Prepared Prom Normal and Hypoxic Mice. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 September 1983; 65 (3): 68P. doi: Download citation file:. ...
The effects of intravenous endothelin-1 (ET-1) on the ventilatory response to hypoxia were studied in healthy humans. Nine volunteers were each exposed twice to 4 hr eucapnic hypoxia. They received a continuous infusion of ET-1 during the ET-1 protocol and an infusion of saline during the control protocol. Plasma ET-1 levels and an index of ventilation were measured regularly. Hypoxia caused a rise in plasma ET-1 in the control protocol. Hypoxia also caused the index of ventilation to increase in both protocols, and this increase was greater in the ET-1 protocol than in the control protocol. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that ET-1 plays a role in controlling the ventilatory response to hypoxia in man.
Cerebral ischemia /hypoxia information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
Tumour cells exploit both genetic and adaptive means to survive and proliferate in hypoxic microenvironments, resulting in the outgrowth of more aggressive tumour cell clones. Direct measurements of tumour oxygenation, and surrogate markers of the hypoxic response in tumours (for instance, hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha, carbonic anhydrase 9 and glucose transporter-1) are well-established prognostic markers in solid cancers. However, individual markers do not fully capture the complex, dynamic and heterogeneous hypoxic response in cancer. To overcome this, expression profiling has been employed to identify hypoxia signatures in cohorts or models of human cancer. Several of these hypoxia signatures have demonstrated prognostic significance in independent cancer datasets. Nevertheless, individual hypoxia markers have been shown to predict the benefit from hypoxia-modifying or anti-angiogenic therapies. This review aims to discuss the clinical impact of translational work on hypoxia markers and to explore
Results Pre-incubation with rHDL inhibited the hypoxia-induced increases in PHD2 and PHD3 levels (32% and 45% respectively, p,0.05) while Siah1 and Siah2 mRNA levels were increased (58% and 88% respectively, p,0.05) with rHDL pre-incubation. Following siRNA knockdown of Siah1 and Siah2, HDL lost its ability to induce the expression of HIF-1α (11% reduction, p,0.05) and VEGF (18% reduction, p,0.05). Augmentation of tubulogenesis by HDL was attenuated in Siah siRNA-transfected cells (55% in siSiah1; 40% in siSiah2, p,0.05). Siah knockdown also abrogated HDL inhibition of hypoxia-mediated induction of PHD2 and PHD3 (p,0.05). PI3K and Akt are upstream regulators of HIF-1α/VEGF and also regulate Siahs. Specific inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway revealed that it plays a key role in HDL-induced elevations in Siah1 and Siah2 (37% and 20% reduction respectively, p,0.05) as well as HIF-1α and VEGF (65% and 15% reduction respectively, p,0.05). ...
The 19th Research Postgraduate Symposium (RPS 2014), Li Ka Shing Faculty of Medicine, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, 10-11 December 2014 ...
Honey treatment was able to completely block mortality and locomotor phenotypes. In addition, honey was able to reverse ROS production and hypoxia-induced changes in mitochondrial complex I and II activity. Hypoxia also induced an up-regulation in mRNA expression of Sima (HIF-1), NFκβ, NRF2, HOX, AKT-1, InR, dILP2, dILP5 and HSP27. Honey treatment was not able to modulate changes in the tested genes, indicating that its protective effects involve additional mechanisms other than transcriptional activity of hypoxia-driven adaptive responses in flies ...
Hypoxia triggers a proangiogenic pathway involving cancer cell microvesicles and PAR-2-mediated heparin-binding EGF signaling in endothelial cells.: Highly mali
Vishal R Yadav, Yun-Min Zheng and Yong-Xiao Wang-Essential Role of Phospholipase C-g1 in Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Vasoconstriction and Hypertension
Rapidly growing tumors and tumor metastases are exposed to ongoing hypoxic conditions in the tissue microenvironment. Hypoxia, in turn, has a profound influence on tumor pathophysiology. The survival of the tumor and its aggressiveness depend on its ability to respond quickly to hypoxia cues. Cells undergo a variety of biological responses when placed under hypoxic conditions, including activation of signaling pathways that regulate proliferation, angiogenesis, and death (1-3). Cancer cells have adapted these pathways, allowing tumors to survive and even grow under hypoxic conditions (2). Although tissue hypoxia is a well-documented phenomenon, our understanding of the response of tumor cells to hypoxia is far from being complete. The response to hypoxia may be divided into two mechanisms: the first one sensing the level of oxygen and the second one activating the hypoxia-induced genes, some of which contribute to tumor angiogenesis. A large body of evidence accumulated with regard to the role ...
Rat and human studies have shown that uric acid levels in hypoxia are much higher than normoxia and hyperoxia. There is a correlation that hypoxia results in greater purine catabolism and leading to increased production of uric acid. Hence we often see lactate levels correlating well with uric acid levels in sepsis. ...
The Barker hypothesis proposes that the risk of ischaemic heart disease may be increased in later life by perinatal events that programme permanent alterations to the bodys structure and metabolism. Perinatal modification of arterial compliance and function could initiate and amplify this risk of disease in later life. The aim of this study was to determine whether short-term nitric oxide synthase (NOS) inhibition and transient hypoxia in the perinatal period could initiate changes in vasomotility demonstrable in later life. Dams were given Ng-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (n = 5) in drinking water or were kept in a normobaric hypoxic chamber (FiO2 10 %) for one week pre- and one week post-partum. Male offspring were sacrificed at 10 weeks and results compared with the male offspring of control dams (n = 7). Coronary artery reactivity, to both constrictors and dilators, was studied using the wire myograph and isolated blood perfused heart preparations. Perinatal inhibition of NOS increased the ...
The principal findings of this study include increased neuronal susceptibility to ASH in animals undergoing chronic exposures to intermittent hypoxia during sleep, mimicking the highly prevalent disorder of sleep apnea. Furthermore, we now show that this increased susceptibility is mediated, at least in part, by chronic IH-induced decreases in the neuronal expression of MCT2, such that alternative sources of energy to neurons during and after ASH cannot be effectively delivered. Together, these results present opportunities to further understand the mechanism underlying the dysregulation of MCT2 in the context of chronic IH and the development of effective strategies aiming at promoting MCT2 expression in patients with sleep apnea who may be at risk for cerebrovascular ischemic events (Minoguchi et al., 2007).. The conceptual framework of a monocarboxylate-dependent energy source alternative to neuronal function and survival has been the subject of substantial debate over the past 2 decades. ...
Principal Investigator:森 泰生, Project Period (FY):2014-07-10 - 2019-03-31, Research Category:Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas (Research in a proposed research area), Project Area:Oxygen biology: a new criterion for integrated understanding of life
2017 (English)In: Journal of applied physiology, ISSN 8750-7587, E-ISSN 1522-1601, Vol. 122, no 2, 410-410 p.Article in journal (Refereed) Published ...
A.C. Davidson, I.R. Cameron; Potentiation of the Ventilatory Response to Inhaled CO2 Following Acute Exposure to Hypoxia. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 September 1982; 63 (3): 18P. doi: Download citation file:. ...
Cell hypoxia is a serious condition in which cells dont have enough oxygen. If not quickly treated, cell hypoxia can lead to...
Anoxia: …contrast, lack of oxygen (anoxia) may result in a coma that lasts for several weeks and is often fatal. Stroke, a rupture or blockage of vessels supplying blood to the brain, can cause sudden loss of consciousness in some patients, while comas caused by metabolic abnormalities or cerebral tumours…
The term anoxia means a total depletion in the level of oxygen, an extreme form of hypoxia or "low oxygen". The terms anoxia ... Look up anoxia, anoxic, or anoxically in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... when the body or a region of the body is deprived of adequate oxygen supply Cerebral anoxia, when the brain is completely ... This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Anoxia. If an internal link led you here, you may wish to ...
Anoxia affinis Anoxia africana Anoxia arenbergeri Anoxia asiatica Anoxia australis Anoxia baraudi Anoxia caphtor Anoxia ... Anoxia pasiphae Anoxia pilosa Anoxia rattoi Anoxia reisseri Anoxia rotroui Anoxia scutellaris Anoxia smyrnensis Anoxia tristis ... Anoxia cingulata Anoxia cretica Anoxia cypria Anoxia derelicta Anoxia desbrochersi Anoxia emarginata Anoxia hirta Anoxia ... Anoxia kocheri Anoxia kraatzi Anoxia laevimacula Anoxia lodosi Anoxia luteipilosa Anoxia maculiventris Anoxia makrisi Anoxia ...
... matutinalis Laporte de Castelnau, 1823 Anoxia matutinalis suturalis Reitter, 1890 Anoxia matutinalis can ... In Sardinia is present an endemic specie, the Anoxia matutinalis sardoa Biolib William Ciesla Forest Entomology Fauna europaea ... Anoxia matutinalis is a species of dung beetle in the family Scarabaeidae. ... Francesco (2017-03-05). "Sardinian Insects: Anoxia matutinalis sardoa". Neperos. Retrieved 2022-11-23. v t e (Articles with ...
Anoxia in the Western Interior Seaway during Oceanic Anoxic Event II is still an enigma. Oceanic Anoxic Event II is believed to ... The episodes of anoxia came about at times when very high sea levels coincided with the nearby Sevier orogeny that affected ... It has been argued that the Western Interior Seaway could have had patches of anoxia, or places where water is stratified. This ... Molybdenum, an oxygen-sensitive trace metal, will be present in unoxidized form in strata only if there is anoxia. One study ...
Anoxia. Cellular Origin, Life in Extreme Habitats and Astrobiology. Vol. 21. pp. 205-17. doi:10.1007/978-94-007-1896-8_12. ISBN ...
The Fink effect, also known as "diffusion anoxia", "diffusion hypoxia", or the "second gas effect", is a factor that influences ... ISBN 978-0-443-06785-3. Bernard R. Fink (1955). "Diffusion Anoxia". Anesthesiology. 16 (4): 511-519. doi:10.1097/00000542- ...
He first explained the Fink Effect in his 1955 paper "Diffusion anoxia". He went to the University of London at 16. He served ... B. R. Fink (1955). "Diffusion anoxia". Anesthesiology. 16 (51): 1-519. doi:10.1097/00000542-195507000-00007. PMID 13238868. ...
Another anoxia-tolerant animal that is commonly used as a model to study anoxia in the mammalian brain is the crucian carp, ... Even though glycolysis is stimulated early in anoxia in both the crucian carp and C. picta, the crucian carp is able to stay ... Anoxia-prone cells in the brain include the hippocampal pyramidal cells of CA1, cerebellar purkinje cells, pyramidal ... Selective vulnerability is how some parts of the brain are more sensitive to anoxia than others, and thus to ischemic insult. ...
Argon anoxia - Similar to cryofumigation, but using dry argon gas to exclude oxygen. This process may cost more than carbon ... Nitrogen anoxia - Similar to cryofumigation, but using dry nitrogen gas to exclude oxygen This process may cost more than ... "Insect Mortality under Anoxia". Keepsafe. Keepsafe Microclimate Systems. Retrieved 2015-05-20. Daniel, Vinod; et al. (25 ... asphyxiating the insects Carbon dioxide anoxia - Similar to cryofumigation, but using compressed dry carbon dioxide gas to ...
Peskine, A; Picq, C; Pradat-Diehl, P (Dec 2004). "Cerebral anoxia and disability". Brain Injury. 18 (12): 1243-54. doi:10.1080/ ...
Anoxia and the Electroencephalogram. Springfield, Illinois, C. C. Thomas 1961 Bonduelle M, Gastaut H, eds. Les Myoclonies. ...
Stroke or brain anoxia. Brain tumor Brain trauma Autoimmune disease Paraneoplastic syndrome Micrometastasis neurodegenerative ...
Francesco (5 March 2017). "Sardinian Insects: Anoxia matutinalis sardoa". Neperos. Retrieved 23 November 2022. "Hooded Crow: ... the Galeruca sardoa and the Anoxia matutinalis sardoa. Sardinia has four endemic subspecies of birds found nowhere else in the ...
p.295 PLUM, FRED (July 1962). "Delayed Neurological Deterioration After Anoxia". Archives of Internal Medicine. 110 (1): 18-25 ...
Bond DP, Grasby SE (18 May 2020). "Late Ordovician mass extinction caused by volcanism, warming, and anoxia, not cooling and ... Watson AJ (December 2016). "Oceans on the edge of anoxia". Science. 354 (6319): 1529-1530. Bibcode:2016Sci...354.1529W. doi: ... full-scale ocean anoxia would take "thousands of years to develop". Kump, Pavlov and Arthur (2005) have proposed that during ... "Massive release of hydrogen sulfide to the surface ocean and atmosphere during intervals of oceanic anoxia". Geology. 33 (5): ...
Miller JA (July 1949). "Factors in Neonatal Resistance to Anoxia. I. Temperature and Survival of Newborn Guinea Pigs Under ... Anoxia". Science. 110 (2848): 113-114. Bibcode:1949Sci...110..113M. doi:10.1126/science.110.2848.113. PMID 17780238. Enhorning ...
Neretin LE (2006). Past and present water column anoxia. Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 978-1-4020-4297-3. OCLC 209932741. Blees, ...
... anoxia in at least some strata; high turbidity; high incident irradiation; and low macrophyte biomass. The bacterium is thought ...
Anoxia and Ischemia; and collected papers in Emergency Medical Services and Traumatology. Editorial boards: Disaster Medicine; ...
anoxia Tissues completely lacking in oxygen. anoxic Environment or gas completely lacking in oxygen. AODC Association of ...
This is because anoxia slows the degradation of organic matter, allowing for greater burial in the sediments. Other evidence ... This caused a temporary state of total anoxia in the fjord, and resulted in dramatic fish mortality. This fjord is marked by a ... The degree of pyritization and the δ34S were both high, supporting the presence of anoxia and sulfide, as well as the depletion ... Anoxia and sulfidic conditions often occur together. In anoxic conditions anaerobic, sulfate reducing bacteria convert sulfate ...
However, anoxia was also rife during the Hirnantian (late Ordovician) ice age. Oceanic anoxic events have been recognized ... Several places on Earth exhibit the features of anoxia on a local scale such as algal/bacterial blooms and localized "dead ... Page, A. (2007). "Deglacial anoxia in a long-lived Early Palaeozoic Icehouse." (PDF). In Budd, G. E.; Streng, M.; Daley, A. C ... Pearce, C. R.; Cohen, A. S.; Coe, A. L.; Burton, K. W. (March 2008). "Molybdenum isotope evidence for global ocean anoxia ...
... or soil anoxia as oxygen levels plummeted. Before the Permian extinction, Archaeplastida (red and green algae) had been the ...
". "Autopsy results reveal triathlete died of anoxia". Siskiyou Daily News, Yreka, CA. Retrieved 2019-07-19. Harding, Thomas ( ...
Anoxia is further influenced by biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), which is the amount of oxygen used by marine organisms in the ... This property leads to daily anoxic cycles on small geographic scales and seasonal cycles of anoxia on larger scales. Thus, ... Sarmiento, J. L.; Herbert, T. D.; Toggweiler, J. R. (1988). "Causes of anoxia in the world ocean". Global Biogeochemical Cycles ... H2O2 Anoxia is quite common in muddy ocean bottoms where there are both high amounts of organic matter and low levels of inflow ...
He experiences anoxia, resulting in brain damage. Henry survives but can neither move nor talk and he suffers retrograde ...
Gelfan, Samuel; Tarlov, I. M. (1955). "Differential Vulnerability of Spinal Cord Structures to Anoxia". Journal of ...
Seliger, H.H; Boggs, J.A; Biggley, W.H (1985). "Catastrophic Anoxia in the Chesapeake Bay in 1984". Science. 228 (4695): 70-73 ...
The cause of death is "anoxia and hypercarbia". Due to the fact adult beetles mostly live outside, permanent mitigation is ...
Tyson, R.V.; T.H. Pearson (1991). "Modern and ancient continental shelf anoxia: an overview". Geological Society, London, ...
Anoxia and Hypoxia are two conditions described by CNS Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation that result due to inadequate ... Brain Injury , Brain Injury Overview , Anoxia and Hypoxia. Anoxia and Hypoxia. Description. Specifically, anoxia is a condition ... Anoxia and hypoxia may be caused by a number of events, such as smoke or carbon monoxide inhalation, high altitude exposure, ... Treatment of anoxia and hypoxia consists of establishing an adequate airway as soon as possible, using enough oxygen to ...
Tag: Anoxia SKELETAL REMAINS bring fresh new old school metal to Canberra. Skeletal Remains profile with Allan Sko Californian ...
Anoxia * Subject Areas on Research. * A bidirectional kinesin motor in live Drosophila embryos. ... Differential induction of mRNAs for the glycolytic and ethanolic fermentative pathways by hypoxia and anoxia in maize seedlings ... CVN-AD Alzheimers mice show premature reduction in neurovascular coupling in response to spreading depression and anoxia ...
Download Anoxia AOE Bold font. - boldyear, Shake Your Plums, Anoxia AOE Bold, Anoxia AOE, boldyear otf (700), Baysoir ... Similar fonts for Anoxia AOE Bold from Anoxia AOE Bold Font. ... Similar fonts for Anoxia AOE Bold from Bebas Neue Rounded Regular Font. ... Similar fonts for Anoxia AOE Bold from boldyear otf (700) Font. ...
Persons tagged with «Anoxia» Name. Phone. E-mail. Tags. Lefevre, Sjannie Associate Professor +4722859061 [email protected] ... Comparative physiology, Respiration, Fish, Hypoxia, Anoxia, Respirometry, Molecular biology, Transcriptomics, Metabolomics ...
... ... The purpose of our study was to define the protective effects of BHB on brain damage induced by hypoxia, anoxia and ischemia. ... showed remarkable protective effects against hypoxia and anoxia. BHB administered immediately after a bilateral carotid artery ...
What is anoxia in Hindi? See pronunciation, translation, synonyms, examples, definitions of anoxia ऐनाक्सीअ in Hindi ... anoxia का हिन्दी अर्थ, anoxia का हिन्दी अनुवाद।. Tags for the entry "anoxia". What is anoxia meaning in Hindi, anoxia ... About anoxia in Hindi. See anoxia meaning in Hindi, anoxia definition, translation and meaning of anoxia in Hindi. Learn and ... pronunciations and examples of anoxia in Hindi. anoxia का हिन्दी मीनिंग, anoxia का हिन्दी अर्थ, anoxia का हिन्दी अनुवाद ...
The volume and area of hypoxia and anoxia have been calculated and the results have then been transformed to maps and diagrams ... For the autumn period each profile in the dataset was examined for the occurrence of hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and anoxia ( ... Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2017 - Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-2017 (1.2 MB, pdf) ... Oxygen Survey in the Baltic Sea 2017 - Extent of Anoxia and Hypoxia, 1960-2017. ...
Late Ordovician mass extinction caused by volcanism, warming, and anoxia, not cooling and glaciation *Bond, David P. G. ...
... DSpace/Manakin Repository. ... Keywords: Green sulfur bacteria, Biofacies, Oxford Clay Formation, Anoxia, Isorenieratane, Peterborough Member ...
"It is possible that early mobile bilaterian animals may have evolved in response to the expanded ocean anoxia and these animals ... to determine if an expansion of ocean anoxia contributed to the decline in early animal diversity. ...
Reconciling evidence of oxidative weathering and atmospheric anoxia on Archean Earth. In: Science Advances. 2021 ; Vol. 7, No. ... Reconciling evidence of oxidative weathering and atmospheric anoxia on Archean Earth. Science Advances. 2021 Oct;7(40):abj0108 ... Reconciling evidence of oxidative weathering and atmospheric anoxia on Archean Earth. Aleisha C. Johnson, Chadlin M. Ostrander ... Reconciling evidence of oxidative weathering and atmospheric anoxia on Archean Earth. / Johnson, Aleisha C.; Ostrander, Chadlin ...
... proteome and fermentation profiles revealed that cells with increased ADHE abundance exhibit better survival under dark anoxia ... and Starch in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Increases Survival under Dark Anoxia Robert van Lis 1 Marion Popek 2 Yohann Couté 3 ... and Starch in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Increases Survival under Dark Anoxia. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 2017, 292 (6), ... proteome and fermentation profiles revealed that cells with increased ADHE abundance exhibit better survival under dark anoxia ...
Comparison of anoxia-induced changes in brain water ADC, and in volume and tortuosity of the extracellular space in grey and ... Comparison of anoxia-induced changes in brain water ADC, and in volume and tortuosity of the extracellular space in grey and ... T1 - Comparison of anoxia-induced changes in brain water ADC, and in volume and tortuosity of the extracellular space in grey ... title = "Comparison of anoxia-induced changes in brain water ADC, and in volume and tortuosity of the extracellular space in ...
SUBHADRA DEVI N. Perinatal anoxia. Indian Journal of Pediatrics. 1958 Jul; 25(126): 417-21. ...
... - 228 Studies Found. Status. Study Not yet recruiting. Study Name: Low-Flow vs. High-Flow Nasal Cannula for Hypoxemic ...
To survive anoxia, neural ATP levels have to be defended. Reducing electrical activity, which accounts for 50% or more of ... View more ,To survive anoxia, neural ATP levels have to be defended. Reducing electrical activity, which accounts for 50% or ... A virtually total suppression of ERG in anoxia, probably resulting in functional blindness, has previously been seen in the ... after 40 min in anoxia. The specific A1 adenosine receptor antagonist CPT significantly delayed the suppression of turtle ERG, ...
phenomena (en) > biological phenomena (en) > diseases (en) > human diseases (en) > hypoxia (en) > anoxia (en) ... The term anoxia means a total depletion in the level of oxygen, an extreme form of hypoxia or low oxygen. Source: https://en. ...
Learn about the usual causes of anoxia by reading here. ... Anoxia arises if the brain or body is fully deprived of oxygen ... Management of anoxia. The treatment for anoxia is based on the length of time the brain or other parts of the body has been ... The treatment for anoxia is based on the length of time the brain or other parts of the body has been deprived of oxygen.. ... Close look on anoxia. Leave a Comment / Major Medical Issues / By C. Young ...
Text; Format: print ; Literary form: Not fiction Publication details: Genève : Organisation mondiale de la Santé 2017Title translated: Oxygen therapy for children : a manual for health workers.Availability: Items available for reference: WHO HQ: Not For Loan (1)Call number: WS 290 2017OX-1. ...
By 20 h anoxia, kidney tissue established a reversible state of G0, characterized by the prescence of a p130/E2F4 DNA-bound ... Overall, results from this thesis indicate that both kidney and liver enter into a G1 arrest during anoxia. By contrast, the ... However, it appears that liver G1 arrest was not established until 20 h anoxia. Future studies will need to explore the ... Interestingly, kidney established a state of G1 arrest within 5 h anoxia and subsequently transitioned to a sustainable G0 ...
Thus, FnrP is a true orthologue of FNR from E. coli and switches on target genes in response to anoxia. Inactivation of FnrP by ... Thus, FnrP is a true orthologue of FNR from E. coli and switches on target genes in response to anoxia. Inactivation of FnrP by ... Thus, FnrP is a true orthologue of FNR from E. coli and switches on target genes in response to anoxia. Inactivation of FnrP by ... Thus, FnrP is a true orthologue of FNR from E. coli and switches on target genes in response to anoxia. Inactivation of FnrP by ...
Reeditado en vinilo por KTC y Crust As Fuck.Anoxia by Posession ... POSESSION - Anoxia - LP. Precio habitual €9.00 Oferta Default ...
Anoxia Disinfestation Process An ecological, user-friendly, disinfestations method. This process has no noxious secondary on ... Anoxia eliminates the investing insects at any stage of their development - eggs, larva or adults. ...
Anoxia. Deficiency of oxygen, especially one so severe as to result in permanent damage.. ...
Anoxia. Anoxia, severe hypoxia (lowered oxygen levels in body tissues), whether due to lack of oxygen in air inhaled or lack of ...
High altitude cerebral edema; Altitude anoxia; Altitude sickness; Mountain sickness; High altitude pulmonary edema ...
Ventricular fibrillation (VF) is a life-threatening cardiac arrhythmia in which the coordinated contraction of the ventricular myocardium is replaced by high-frequency, disorganized excitation, resulting in failure of the heart to pump blood. VF is the most commonly identified arrhythmia in cardiac arrest patients.
Anemic anoxia: Anemic anoxia occurs when the blood cannot properly carry enough oxygen or if there is not enough blood in the ... Toxic anoxia: Toxic anoxia occurs when chemicals or poisons hinder the ability of the brain to receive oxygen from blood cells. ... Anoxic anoxia: Anoxic anoxia is caused by the lack of oxygen in the air, resulting in suffocation. ... Anoxia and Hypoxia Treatment. The overall life expectancy for patients with anoxic or hypoxic brain injuries can vary based on ...
Anoxia, cyanosis; visual disturbance, central scotomas; bad taste, burning mouth, dry throat, thirst; yellowing hair, eyes, ...
  • The isotonic solution of BHB administered 30 min before the induction of ischemia at doses over 50 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1) showed remarkable protective effects against hypoxia and anoxia. (
  • The depths of onset of hypoxia and anoxia were then interpolated between sampling stations producing two surfaces representing the depth at which hypoxic and anoxic conditions respectively are found. (
  • The volume and area of hypoxia and anoxia have been calculated and the results have then been transformed to maps and diagrams to visualize the annual autumn oxygen situation during the analysed period. (
  • They measured uranium isotope variations from the fossil-bearing carbonates of the Dengying Formation (South China) to determine if an expansion of ocean anoxia contributed to the decline in early animal diversity. (
  • It is possible that early mobile bilaterian animals may have evolved in response to the expanded ocean anoxia and these animals outcompeted the largely immobile Ediacaran metazoans," says Kendall. (
  • A virtually total suppression of ERG in anoxia, probably resulting in functional blindness, has previously been seen in the extremely anoxia-tolerant crucian carp (Carassius carassius). (
  • The particular Metabolomic Reply regarding Crucian Carp (Carassius carassius) to Anoxia as well as Reoxygenation May differ among Cells and Shows Uncharacterized Tactical Strategies. (
  • Specifically, anoxia is a condition in which there is an absence of oxygen supply to an organ's tissues although there is adequate blood flow to the tissue. (
  • For the autumn period each profile in the dataset was examined for the occurrence of hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and anoxia (total absence of oxygen). (
  • Surprisingly, the equally anoxiatolerant turtle, which strongly depresses brain and whole-body metabolism during anoxia, exhibited a relatively modest anoxic reduction in ERG: the combined amplitude of turtle ERG waves was reduced by ~50% after 2 h. (
  • Anoxic anoxia is caused by the lack of oxygen in the air, resulting in suffocation. (
  • In severe cases of anoxia and hypoxia, from any cause, the patient is often stuperous or comatose (in a state of unconsciousness) for periods ranging from hours to days, weeks, or months. (
  • In contrast, the shark b-wave amplitude practically disappeared after 30 min of severe hypoxia, and the frog b-wave was decreased by ~75% after 40 min in anoxia. (
  • Experimental NMDA - GLU receptor blockers such as MK-801 (dizocilpine) have also demonstrated the ability to reduce or eliminate brain damage from acute conditions such as stroke, ischaemia/hypoxia/anoxia, severe hypoglycaemia, spinal cord injury and head trauma (1-3). (
  • We demonstrated that BHB, unlike glycerin, when used as an energy substrate in ischemic brain, has protective effects on cerebral hypoxia, anoxia and ischemia-induced metabolic change. (
  • Definition (PSY) Physical injuries (such as brain damage) received during birth, mostly in, but not limited to, breech births, instrument deliveries, neonatal anoxia, or premature births. (
  • The NINDS supports and conducts studies aimed at understanding neurological conditions that can damage the brain such as anoxia and hypoxia. (
  • The purpose of our study was to define the protective effects of BHB on brain damage induced by hypoxia, anoxia and ischemia. (
  • Comparison of anoxia-induced changes in brain water ADC, and in volume and tortuosity of the extracellular space in grey and white matter in the rat. (
  • Anoxia arises if the brain or body is fully deprived of oxygen supply. (
  • Remember that anoxia can be detrimental to the brain. (
  • The treatment for anoxia is based on the length of time the brain or other parts of the body has been deprived of oxygen. (
  • Anemic anoxia occurs when the blood cannot properly carry enough oxygen or if there is not enough blood in the body itself to support the oxygen needs of the brain (i.e., lack of oxygen to the brain). (
  • Toxic anoxia occurs when chemicals or poisons hinder the ability of the brain to receive oxygen from blood cells. (
  • But that is not the case: Medical studies verified by The Joint Commission3 establish that patients can tie something around their necks tightly enough to cause death or irreparable brain damage in as little as 4 to 5 minutes by inducing a condition called anoxia. (
  • Anoxia eliminates the investing insects at any stage of their development - eggs, larva or adults. (
  • Intermittent hypoxia improves atrial tolerance to subsequent anoxia and reduces stress protein expression. (
  • Despite the frequent inflows to the Baltic Sea during the period 2014-2016 approximately 18% of the bottom area was affected by anoxia and 28% by hypoxia during 2017. (
  • ERG) in three vertebrates that exhibit varying degrees of anoxia tolerance: freshwater turtle (Trachemys scripta), epaulette shark (Hemiscyllium ocellatum) and leopard frog (Rana pipiens). (
  • Interestingly, kidney established a state of G1 arrest within 5 h anoxia and subsequently transitioned to a sustainable G0 arrest by 20 h anoxia. (
  • To survive anoxia, neural ATP levels have to be defended. (
  • Indeed, some species are able to survive complete anoxia for weeks to months. (
  • By contrast, the cell cycle in white skeletal muscle was found to be minimally regulated during anoxia and this finding is likely a reflection of its overall post-mitotic nature. (
  • In contrast, in anoxia, fewer diatoms were initially ingested and these were not assimilated or metabolized further, but remained visible within the foraminiferal cytoplasm even after 4 weeks. (
  • Our results show that the increased resistance of the isolated atria to anoxia following IH may contribute to the concomitant reductions in basal and hypoxia-induced Hsp expression as the overall stress response is reduced. (
  • Mechanisms that serve to depress apoptosis include the inhibition of caspase activity by high potassium in energetically healthy cells, alterations in nucleotide abundance during energy-limited states like diapause and anoxia, resistance to opening of the calcium-induced MPTP, and viral accommodation during persistent viral infection. (
  • Analyses of the overall proteome and fermentation profiles revealed that cells with increased ADHE abundance exhibit better survival under dark anoxia. (
  • See anoxia meaning in Hindi , anoxia definition, translation and meaning of anoxia in Hindi. (
  • What is anoxia meaning in Hindi, anoxia translation in Hindi, anoxia definition, pronunciations and examples of anoxia in Hindi. (
  • Treatment of anoxia and hypoxia consists of establishing an adequate airway as soon as possible, using enough oxygen to saturate the blood, supporting the cardiovascular system as needed, and preventing or treating pneumonia. (
  • In case a heart condition is responsible for anoxia, the doctor will manage these conditions or refer the individual to a specialist for further treatment. (
  • Reach out to Shepherd Center today to discuss treatment options for anoxia or hypoxia and learn about our specialists now. (
  • The AnoxiBug is a 100% effective anoxia pest control treatment, making it possible to eliminate insect pests from organic materials cost-effectively and efficiently. (
  • FnrP can activate both class I and class II FNR-dependent promoters in response to anoxia but shows a marked preference for the class II promoter, where the FNR binding site is centered at -41.5 with respect to the transcription start site. (
  • Thus, FnrP is a true orthologue of FNR from E. coli and switches on target genes in response to anoxia. (
  • Overall, results from this thesis indicate that both kidney and liver enter into a G1 arrest during anoxia. (
  • Systemic damage is usually a secondary result of anoxia caused by loss of lung function. (
  • The appellant was of the opinion that D7 disclosed down-grading of carcasses due to careless handling and not to bone damage as a result of electropletic convulsions and he contended that no experimental evidence was given by D7 in support of the contention that anoxia was humane. (