Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.TurtlesCell Hypoxia: A condition of decreased oxygen content at the cellular level.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Artemia: A genus of CRUSTACEA of the order ANOSTRACA, found in briny pools and lakes and often cultured for fish food. It has 168 chromosomes and differs from most crustaceans in that its blood contains hemoglobin.Pyruvate Decarboxylase: Catalyzes the decarboxylation of an alpha keto acid to an aldehyde and carbon dioxide. Thiamine pyrophosphate is an essential cofactor. In lower organisms, which ferment glucose to ethanol and carbon dioxide, the enzyme irreversibly decarboxylates pyruvate to acetaldehyde. EC 4.1.1.1.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Sodium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes and is used as a test reagent for the function of chemoreceptors. It is also used in many industrial processes.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Potamogetonaceae: A plant family of the order Najadales, subclass Alismatidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons).Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Carps: Common name for a number of different species of fish in the family Cyprinidae. This includes, among others, the common carp, crucian carp, grass carp, and silver carp.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Iridaceae: A monocot plant family of the Liliopsida class. It is classified by some in the Liliales order and some in the Asparagales order.Oxygen Consumption: The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)Araliaceae: The ginseng plant family of the order Apiales, subclass Rosidae, class Magnoliopsida. Leaves are generally alternate, large, and compound. Flowers are five-parted and arranged in compound flat-topped umbels. The fruit is a berry or (rarely) a drupe (a one-seeded fruit). It is well known for plant preparations used as adaptogens (immune support and anti-fatigue).Hepatopancreas: A primitive form of digestive gland found in marine ARTHROPODS, that contains cells similar to those found in the mammalian liver (HEPATOCYTES), and the PANCREAS.Dinitrophenols: Organic compounds that contain two nitro groups attached to a phenol.Acorus: A plant genus of the family ACORACEAE, order Arales, subclass Arecidae most notable for Acorus calamus L. root which contains asarone and has been used in TRADITIONAL MEDICINE.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.VeratrineAmobarbital: A barbiturate with hypnotic and sedative properties (but not antianxiety). Adverse effects are mainly a consequence of dose-related CNS depression and the risk of dependence with continued use is high. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p565)Echinochloa: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is grown mainly as a hay crop.Protoveratrines: Mixtures of closely related hypotensive alkaloids from Veratrum album (Liliaceae). They have been used in the treatment of hypertension but have largely been replaced by drugs with fewer adverse effects.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Sagittaria: A plant genus of the family ALISMATACEAE that grows in salty marshes and is used for phytoremediation of oil spills. The unisexual flowers have 3 sepals and 3 petals. Members contain trifoliones (DITERPENES).Nystatin: Macrolide antifungal antibiotic complex produced by Streptomyces noursei, S. aureus, and other Streptomyces species. The biologically active components of the complex are nystatin A1, A2, and A3.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Carbonyl Cyanide p-Trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone: A proton ionophore that is commonly used as an uncoupling agent in biochemical studies.Hagfishes: Common name for a family of eel-shaped jawless fishes (Myxinidae), the only family in the order MYXINIFORMES. They are not true vertebrates.Labyrinthine Fluids: Fluids found within the osseous labyrinth (PERILYMPH) and the membranous labyrinth (ENDOLYMPH) of the inner ear. (From Gray's Anatomy, 30th American ed, p1328, 1332)Endolymphatic Duct: The part of the membranous labyrinth that traverses the bony vestibular aqueduct and emerges through the bone of posterior cranial fossa (CRANIAL FOSSA, POSTERIOR) where it expands into a blind pouch called the endolymphatic sac.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Kymography: The recording of wavelike motions or undulations. It is usually used on arteries to detect variations in blood pressure.Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Iodoacetates: Iodinated derivatives of acetic acid. Iodoacetates are commonly used as alkylating sulfhydryl reagents and enzyme inhibitors in biochemical research.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Iodoacetic Acid: A derivative of ACETIC ACID that contains one IODINE atom attached to its methyl group.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Cyanides: Inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE containing the -CN radical. The concept also includes isocyanides. It is distinguished from NITRILES, which denotes organic compounds containing the -CN radical.Hermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Sodium Lactate: The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.Adenine NucleotidesAcidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Snails: Marine, freshwater, or terrestrial mollusks of the class Gastropoda. Most have an enclosing spiral shell, and several genera harbor parasites pathogenic to man.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1: A basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that plays a role in APOPTOSIS. It is composed of two subunits: ARYL HYDROCARBON RECEPTOR NUCLEAR TRANSLOCATOR and HYPOXIA-INDUCIBLE FACTOR 1, ALPHA SUBUNIT.Cell Respiration: The metabolic process of all living cells (animal and plant) in which oxygen is used to provide a source of energy for the cell.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Oxidative Phosphorylation: Electron transfer through the cytochrome system liberating free energy which is transformed into high-energy phosphate bonds.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Alcohol Dehydrogenase: A zinc-containing enzyme which oxidizes primary and secondary alcohols or hemiacetals in the presence of NAD. In alcoholic fermentation, it catalyzes the final step of reducing an aldehyde to an alcohol in the presence of NADH and hydrogen.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Antimetabolites: Drugs that are chemically similar to naturally occurring metabolites, but differ enough to interfere with normal metabolic pathways. (From AMA Drug Evaluations Annual, 1994, p2033)Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Cytosol: Intracellular fluid from the cytoplasm after removal of ORGANELLES and other insoluble cytoplasmic components.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Ischemia: A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Adenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Salt Gland: A compound tubular gland, located around the eyes and nasal passages in marine animals and birds, the physiology of which figures in water-electrolyte balance. The Pekin duck serves as a common research animal in salt gland studies. A rectal gland or rectal salt gland in the dogfish shark is attached at the junction of the intestine and cloaca and aids the kidneys in removing excess salts from the blood. (Storer, Usinger, Stebbins & Nybakken: General Zoology, 6th ed, p658)Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Fructose-Bisphosphate Aldolase: An enzyme of the lyase class that catalyzes the cleavage of fructose 1,6-biphosphate to form dihydroxyacetone phosphate and glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate. The enzyme also acts on (3S,4R)-ketose 1-phosphates. The yeast and bacterial enzymes are zinc proteins. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) E.C. 4.1.2.13.Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1, alpha Subunit: Hypoxia-inducible factor 1, alpha subunit is a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor that is regulated by OXYGEN availability and is targeted for degradation by VHL TUMOR SUPPRESSOR PROTEIN.Hypoglossal Nerve: The 12th cranial nerve. The hypoglossal nerve originates in the hypoglossal nucleus of the medulla and supplies motor innervation to all of the muscles of the tongue except the palatoglossus (which is supplied by the vagus). This nerve also contains proprioceptive afferents from the tongue muscles.Mitochondria, Heart: The mitochondria of the myocardium.Antimycin A: An antibiotic substance produced by Streptomyces species. It inhibits mitochondrial respiration and may deplete cellular levels of ATP. Antimycin A1 has been used as a fungicide, insecticide, and miticide. (From Merck Index, 12th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.UtahHot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Optic Nerve: The 2nd cranial nerve which conveys visual information from the RETINA to the brain. The nerve carries the axons of the RETINAL GANGLION CELLS which sort at the OPTIC CHIASM and continue via the OPTIC TRACTS to the brain. The largest projection is to the lateral geniculate nuclei; other targets include the SUPERIOR COLLICULI and the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEI. Though known as the second cranial nerve, it is considered part of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.2,4-Dinitrophenol: A toxic dye, chemically related to trinitrophenol (picric acid), used in biochemical studies of oxidative processes where it uncouples oxidative phosphorylation. It is also used as a metabolic stimulant. (Stedman, 26th ed)Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Nitrites: Salts of nitrous acid or compounds containing the group NO2-. The inorganic nitrites of the type MNO2 (where M=metal) are all insoluble, except the alkali nitrites. The organic nitrites may be isomeric, but not identical with the corresponding nitro compounds. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Adenosine Monophosphate: Adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group esterified to the sugar moiety in the 2'-, 3'-, or 5'-position.Deoxyglucose: 2-Deoxy-D-arabino-hexose. An antimetabolite of glucose with antiviral activity.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Heat-Shock Proteins: Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Naphthols: Naphthalene derivatives carrying one or more hydroxyl (-OH) groups at any ring position. They are often used in dyes and pigments, as antioxidants for rubber, fats, and oils, as insecticides, in pharmaceuticals, and in numerous other applications.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Cold Temperature: An absence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably below an accustomed norm.Cobalt: A trace element that is a component of vitamin B12. It has the atomic symbol Co, atomic number 27, and atomic weight 58.93. It is used in nuclear weapons, alloys, and pigments. Deficiency in animals leads to anemia; its excess in humans can lead to erythrocytosis.Myocardial Reperfusion Injury: Damage to the MYOCARDIUM resulting from MYOCARDIAL REPERFUSION (restoration of blood flow to ischemic areas of the HEART.) Reperfusion takes place when there is spontaneous thrombolysis, THROMBOLYTIC THERAPY, collateral flow from other coronary vascular beds, or reversal of vasospasm.Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Organisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.Carotid Body: A small cluster of chemoreceptive and supporting cells located near the bifurcation of the internal carotid artery. The carotid body, which is richly supplied with fenestrated capillaries, senses the pH, carbon dioxide, and oxygen concentrations in the blood and plays a crucial role in their homeostatic control.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Rhizome: Root-like underground horizontal stem of plants that produces shoots above and roots below. Distinguished from true roots which don't have buds and nodes. Similar to true roots in being underground and thickened by storage deposits.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Microtomy: The technique of using a microtome to cut thin or ultrathin sections of tissues embedded in a supporting substance. The microtome is an instrument that hold a steel, glass or diamond knife in clamps at an angle to the blocks of prepared tissues, which it cuts in sections of equal thickness.Myocardial Contraction: Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Hydroxy Acids: Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.Decanoic Acids: 10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.Sodium-Calcium Exchanger: An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.Myocardial Ischemia: A disorder of cardiac function caused by insufficient blood flow to the muscle tissue of the heart. The decreased blood flow may be due to narrowing of the coronary arteries (CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE), to obstruction by a thrombus (CORONARY THROMBOSIS), or less commonly, to diffuse narrowing of arterioles and other small vessels within the heart. Severe interruption of the blood supply to the myocardial tissue may result in necrosis of cardiac muscle (MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION).Ischemic Preconditioning: A technique in which tissue is rendered resistant to the deleterious effects of prolonged ISCHEMIA and REPERFUSION by prior exposure to brief, repeated periods of vascular occlusion. (Am J Physiol 1995 May;268(5 Pt 2):H2063-7, Abstract)Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Fluorometry: An analytical method for detecting and measuring FLUORESCENCE in compounds or targets such as cells, proteins, or nucleotides, or targets previously labeled with FLUORESCENCE AGENTS.Freezing: Liquids transforming into solids by the removal of heat.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Luminescence: Emission of LIGHT when ELECTRONS return to the electronic ground state from an excited state and lose the energy as PHOTONS. It is sometimes called cool light in contrast to INCANDESCENCE. LUMINESCENT MEASUREMENTS take advantage of this type of light emitted from LUMINESCENT AGENTS.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Uncoupling Agents: Chemical agents that uncouple oxidation from phosphorylation in the metabolic cycle so that ATP synthesis does not occur. Included here are those IONOPHORES that disrupt electron transfer by short-circuiting the proton gradient across mitochondrial membranes.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Glutamates: Derivatives of GLUTAMIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the 2-aminopentanedioic acid structure.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Carbonyl Cyanide m-Chlorophenyl Hydrazone: A proton ionophore. It is commonly used as an uncoupling agent and inhibitor of photosynthesis because of its effects on mitochondrial and chloroplast membranes.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Hypoxanthine: A purine and a reaction intermediate in the metabolism of adenosine and in the formation of nucleic acids by the salvage pathway.Oceans and Seas: A great expanse of continuous bodies of salt water which together cover more than 70 percent of the earth's surface. Seas may be partially or entirely enclosed by land, and are smaller than the five oceans (Atlantic, Pacific, Indian, Arctic, and Antarctic).Nitrate Reductase: An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of nitrite to nitrate. It is a cytochrome protein that contains IRON and MOLYBDENUM.Purinergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of PURINERGIC RECEPTORS.Phosphocreatine: An endogenous substance found mainly in skeletal muscle of vertebrates. It has been tried in the treatment of cardiac disorders and has been added to cardioplegic solutions. (Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1996)Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Phosphofructokinase-1: An allosteric enzyme that regulates glycolysis by catalyzing the transfer of a phosphate group from ATP to fructose-6-phosphate to yield fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. D-tagatose- 6-phosphate and sedoheptulose-7-phosphate also are acceptors. UTP, CTP, and ITP also are donors. In human phosphofructokinase-1, three types of subunits have been identified. They are PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, MUSCLE TYPE; PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, LIVER TYPE; and PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE-1, TYPE C; found in platelets, brain, and other tissues.Deferoxamine: Natural product isolated from Streptomyces pilosus. It forms iron complexes and is used as a chelating agent, particularly in the mesylate form.Electron Transport Chain Complex Proteins: A complex of enzymes and PROTON PUMPS located on the inner membrane of the MITOCHONDRIA and in bacterial membranes. The protein complex provides energy in the form of an electrochemical gradient, which may be used by either MITOCHONDRIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES or BACTERIAL PROTON-TRANSLOCATING ATPASES.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Pacific OceanScopolamine Hydrobromide: An alkaloid from SOLANACEAE, especially DATURA and SCOPOLIA. Scopolamine and its quaternary derivatives act as antimuscarinics like ATROPINE, but may have more central nervous system effects. Among the many uses are as an anesthetic premedication, in URINARY INCONTINENCE, in MOTION SICKNESS, as an antispasmodic, and as a mydriatic and cycloplegic.

Quantification of tumour vasculature and hypoxia by immunohistochemical staining and HbO2 saturation measurements. (1/8649)

Despite the possibility that tumour hypoxia may limit radiotherapeutic response, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. A new methodology has been developed in which information from several sophisticated techniques is combined and analysed at a microregional level. First, tumour oxygen availability is spatially defined by measuring intravascular blood oxygen saturations (HbO2) cryospectrophotometrically in frozen tumour blocks. Second, hypoxic development is quantified in adjacent sections using immunohistochemical detection of a fluorescently conjugated monoclonal antibody (ELK3-51) to a nitroheterocyclic hypoxia marker (EF5), thereby providing information relating to both the oxygen consumption rates and the effective oxygen diffusion distances. Third, a combination of fluorescent (Hoechst 33342 or DiOC7(3)) and immunohistological (PECAM-1/CD31) stains is used to define the anatomical vascular densities and the fraction of blood vessels containing flow. Using a computer-interfaced microscope stage, image analysis software and a 3-CCD colour video camera, multiple images are digitized, combined to form a photo-montage and revisited after each of the three staining protocols. By applying image registration techniques, the spatial distribution of HbO2 saturations is matched to corresponding hypoxic marker intensities in adjacent sections. This permits vascular configuration to be related to oxygen availability and allows the hypoxic marker intensities to be quantitated in situ.  (+info)

Effect of chronic hypoxia on alpha-1 adrenoceptor-mediated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling in ovine uterine artery. (2/8649)

The present study examined the effect of chronic hypoxia on coupling efficiency of alpha-1 adrenoceptors to inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) signaling in ovine uterine artery. Chronic hypoxia did not change the time course of InsP3 formation, but significantly decreased the potency (pD2: 6.17 +/- 0.09 --> 5.26 +/- 0.12) and the maximal response (220.7 +/- 21.7 --> 147.7 +/- 15.3 pmol/mg protein) of norepinephrine-induced InsP3 synthesis. The coupling efficiency of alpha-1 adrenoceptors to InsP3 synthesis (picomoles InsP3 per femtomoles receptor) was decreased 45% by chronic hypoxia. In addition, simultaneous measurement of norepinephrine-induced contractions and InsP3 synthesis indicated that for a given amount of InsP3 generated, the contractile force of the uterine artery was significantly less in chronically hypoxic than in control tissues (0. 27 +/- 0.01 versus 0.35 +/- 0.02 g tension/pmol InsP3). InsP3 receptors were characterized using radioligand binding techniques. Although the density of InsP3 receptors was not changed by chronic hypoxia (Bmax: 325 +/- 35 --> 378 +/- 18 fmol/mg protein), the dissociation constant (Kd) of InsP3 to its receptors was significantly increased (Kd: 5.20 +/- 0.40 --> 7.81 +/- 0.34 nM). Analysis of InsP3 receptor occupancy-tension development relationship indicated no difference in intrinsic ability of the InsP3-receptor complex in eliciting contractions between the control and hypoxic tissues. Our results suggest that chronic hypoxia attenuates coupling efficiency of alpha-1 adrenoceptors to InsP3 synthesis in the uterine artery. In addition, the tissue contractile sensitivity to InsP3 is reduced, which is mediated predominantly by a decrease in InsP3 binding affinity to InsP3 receptors.  (+info)

Nonlinear indicial response of complex nonstationary oscillations as pulmonary hypertension responding to step hypoxia. (3/8649)

This paper is devoted to the quantization of the degree of nonlinearity of the relationship between two biological variables when one of the variables is a complex nonstationary oscillatory signal. An example of the situation is the indicial responses of pulmonary blood pressure (P) to step changes of oxygen tension (DeltapO2) in the breathing gas. For a step change of DeltapO2 beginning at time t1, the pulmonary blood pressure is a nonlinear function of time and DeltapO2, which can be written as P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). An effective method does not exist to examine the nonlinear function P(t-t1 | DeltapO2). A systematic approach is proposed here. The definitions of mean trends and oscillations about the means are the keys. With these keys a practical method of calculation is devised. We fit the mean trends of blood pressure with analytic functions of time, whose nonlinearity with respect to the oxygen level is clarified here. The associated oscillations about the mean can be transformed into Hilbert spectrum. An integration of the square of the Hilbert spectrum over frequency yields a measure of oscillatory energy, which is also a function of time, whose mean trends can be expressed by analytic functions. The degree of nonlinearity of the oscillatory energy with respect to the oxygen level also is clarified here. Theoretical extension of the experimental nonlinear indicial functions to arbitrary history of hypoxia is proposed. Application of the results to tissue remodeling and tissue engineering of blood vessels is discussed.  (+info)

Depression of peripheral chemosensitivity by a dopaminergic mechanism in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome. (4/8649)

In the present study, respiratory drives to chemical stimuli and peripheral chemosensitivity were evaluated in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSAS). The effects of oral administration of domperidone, a selective dopamine D2-receptor antagonist, were also examined, to study the respiratory effects of endogenous dopamine on peripheral chemoreceptors. Sixteen patients with OSAS and nine normal control subjects were studied. Respiratory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia were measured using the rebreathing method and isocapnic progressive hypoxia method, respectively. The hypoxic withdrawal test, which measures the decrease in ventilation caused by two breaths of 100% O2 under mild hypercapnic hypoxic conditions (end-tidal oxygen and carbon dioxide tensions approximately 8.0 kPa and 5.3-6.7 kPa, respectively), was used to evaluate peripheral chemosensitivity. In the patients with OSAS, ventilatory responses to hypercapnia and hypoxia were significantly decreased compared with those of control subjects. Hypoxic withdrawal tests showed that peripheral chemosensitivity was significantly lower in patients with OSAS than in normal subjects. Hypercapnic ventilatory response and peripheral chemosensitivity were enhanced by administration of domperidone in the patients with OSAS, although no changes in either of these were observed in the control subjects. The hypoxic ventilatory response and peripheral chemosensitivity in the patients with OSAS were each significantly correlated with severity of hypoxia during sleep. These findings suggest that peripheral chemosensitivity in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome may be decreased as a result of abnormality in dopaminergic mechanisms and that the reduced chemosensitivity observed in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome may affect the severity of hypoxia during sleep.  (+info)

Evidence of O2 supply-dependent VO2 max in the exercise-trained human quadriceps. (5/8649)

Maximal O2 delivery and O2 uptake (VO2) per 100 g of active muscle mass are far greater during knee extensor (KE) than during cycle exercise: 73 and 60 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (2.4 kg of muscle) (R. S. Richardson, D. R. Knight, D. C. Poole, S. S. Kurdak, M. C. Hogan, B. Grassi, and P. D. Wagner. Am. J. Physiol. 268 (Heart Circ. Physiol. 37): H1453-H1461, 1995) and 28 and 25 ml. min-1. 100 g-1 (7.5 kg of muscle) (D. R. Knight, W. Schaffartzik, H. J. Guy, R. Predilleto, M. C. Hogan, and P. D. Wagner. J. Appl. Physiol. 75: 2586-2593, 1993), respectively. Although this is evidence of muscle O2 supply dependence in itself, it raises the following question: With such high O2 delivery in KE, are the quadriceps still O2 supply dependent at maximal exercise? To answer this question, seven trained subjects performed maximum KE exercise in hypoxia [0.12 inspired O2 fraction (FIO2)], normoxia (0.21 FIO2), and hyperoxia (1.0 FIO2) in a balanced order. The protocol (after warm-up) was a square wave to a previously determined maximum work rate followed by incremental stages to ensure that a true maximum was achieved under each condition. Direct measures of arterial and venous blood O2 concentration in combination with a thermodilution blood flow technique allowed the determination of O2 delivery and muscle VO2. Maximal O2 delivery increased with inspired O2: 1.3 +/- 0.1, 1.6 +/- 0.2, and 1.9 +/- 0.2 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Maximal work rate was affected by variations in inspired O2 (-25 and +14% at 0.12 and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, compared with normoxia, P < 0.05) as was maximal VO2 (VO2 max): 1.04 +/- 0.13, 1. 24 +/- 0.16, and 1.45 +/- 0.19 l/min at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively (P < 0.05). Calculated mean capillary PO2 also varied with FIO2 (28.3 +/- 1.0, 34.8 +/- 2.0, and 40.7 +/- 1.9 Torr at 0.12, 0.21, and 1.0 FIO2, respectively, P < 0.05) and was proportionally related to changes in VO2 max, supporting our previous finding that a decrease in O2 supply will proportionately decrease muscle VO2 max. As even in the isolated quadriceps (where normoxic O2 delivery is the highest recorded in humans) an increase in O2 supply by hyperoxia allows the achievement of a greater VO2 max, we conclude that, in normoxic conditions of isolated KE exercise, KE VO2 max in trained subjects is not limited by mitochondrial metabolic rate but, rather, by O2 supply.  (+info)

Mechanisms of hypoxic vasodilatation of isolated rat mesenteric arteries: a comparison with metabolic inhibition. (6/8649)

1. Hypoxia (PO2 < 5 mmHg) decreased vessel tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries precontracted with either high [K+] or the thromboxane analogue U46619. This response was not altered by N-nitro-L-arginine (L-NA) and indomethacin. 2. Simultaneous measurement of pHi and tension showed that the decrease in vessel tone was accompanied by an intracellular acidification. Similar reductions in tone and pHi were observed with the metabolic inhibitors 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) and sodium azide. 3. The presence of the lactate transport inhibitor alpha-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamic acid (CHC) increased the magnitude of the acidification and resulted in a significantly faster reduction in tone in response to hypoxia. Addition of CHC to normoxic tissues caused both a vasodilatation and a reduction of pHi. 4. A decrease in pHi induced on washout of ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) resulted in an increase in tone. 5. Relaxation to hypoxia or metabolic inhibition was unaffected when the change in pHi was neutralized by addition of the weak base trimethylamine (TMA). 6. It is concluded that severe hypoxia decreases tone in isolated rat mesenteric arteries by a mechanism which is independent of nitric oxide and prostaglandins. Both severe hypoxia and metabolic inhibition reduced pHi, although this does not appear to be contributing to the changes in tone observed.  (+info)

Comparison of vascular reactivity in spinal cord and brain. (7/8649)

The local tissue PO2 in the brain cortex and in the spinal cord of rats was examined with ultramicroelectrodes. In the spinal cord the PO2 was highest in white matter, intermediate in dorsal horn gray matter, and lowest in the ventral horn gray matter. In the gray matter of the cord, as well as in the brain, the PO2 at a fixed locus was found normally to oscillate. CO2 responses were more brisk in the cord than in the brain while the responses to hypoxia were similar. Therefore, it appears that the physiological regulation of blood flow in the spinal cord is qualitatively similar to that of the brain.  (+info)

Estimation of corneal endothelial pump function in long-term contact lens wearers. (8/8649)

PURPOSE: To study the effects of long-term contact lens wear on morphologic and physiologic properties of corneal endothelial cells. METHODS: The endothelial permeability to fluorescein and the rate of corneal deswelling from hypoxia-induced edema were measured in 20 long-term (mean, 17+/-9 years; range, 5-33 years) contact lens wearers and 20 age-matched control subjects. From these data, the relative endothelial pump rate in each subject was estimated, based on the pump-leak hypothesis of corneal hydration control. Corneal autofluorescence and the aqueous humor flow rate were determined by fluorescein fluorophotometry. Images of corneal endothelial cells were recorded by using specular microscopy, and morphologic indices (cell density, coefficient of variation of cell area, percentage of hexagonal cells, and skewness) were determined. RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between the contact lens and control groups in endothelial permeability, corneal deswelling, relative endothelial pump rate ([mean +/- SD] 1.07+/-0.33 relative pump units versus 1.01+/-0.25 relative pump units; contact lens versus control; P = 0.57), and endothelial cell density. Contact lens wearers had a significantly higher aqueous humor flow rate (3.57+/-1.03 microl/min versus 2.77+/-0.51 microl/min; P = 0.005), coefficient of variation of cell area (0.35+/-0.09 versus 0.28+/-0.04; P = 0.006), and corneal autofluorescence (3.1+/-0.6 ng/ml versus 2.3+/-0.3 ng/ml fluorescein equivalents; P < 0.001) than did non-contact lens wearers. CONCLUSIONS: Despite the known effects of long-term contact lens wear on corneal endothelial morphometry, no effect on endothelial function was found.  (+info)

  • TOXIC Anoxia caused by toxins or substances that interfere with the use of oxygen. (neurorhb.com)
  • The formation of an egg mass was reduced in the near anoxia treatment, but egg clutches did not form at all in the treatment that combined near anoxia and 10 micromolar ammonium. (tdl.org)
  • Once this time has elapsed, the anoxia will begin to cause damage to the brain tissue, and this damage will become more and more severe the longer the anoxia lasts. (neurorhb.com)
  • This is why brain tissue is widely accepted as being capable of surviving for up to four or five minutes of sustained anoxia. (neurorhb.com)
  • Previous studies have found indications of cell division in this fish after 7 days of anoxia. (uio.no)
  • One possibility is that anoxia initiates apoptotic pathways in the brain without leading to actual cell death until oxygen is restored. (uio.no)
  • Besides the expected induction of genes encoding enzymes involved in Suc metabolism and alcoholic fermentation, a large number of genes not related to these pathways were affected by anoxia. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Our data show a sharp shift to lighter δ 238 U values at the LPME that persist through the Early Triassic period, which indicates a protracted period of anoxia. (confex.com)
  • Here, we show that anoxia reduces expression of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), a natural inhibitor of angiogenesis, in glioblastoma cells. (rupress.org)
  • Together, our results show that anoxia induced a greatly reduced rate of heterotrophic metabolism in Ammonia tepida on a time scale of less than 24 hours, these observations are consistent with a state of dormancy. (epfl.ch)
  • The analysis of whole single specimens or of their successive chambers may provide essential information about short-term environmental variability and/or the causes of anoxia. (biogeosciences.net)
  • Anemic anoxia takes place where there is not enough hemoglobin in a person's blood, or the hemoglobin present has become ineffective. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Anemic anoxia occurs when your blood can't carry enough oxygen around your body to keep your organs functioning properly. (healthline.com)
  • This lack of oxygen can cause anemic anoxia. (healthline.com)
  • Anemic anoxia results from a decrease in the amount of hemoglobin or RBCs in the blood, which reduces the ability to get oxygen to the tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellow-bellied slider turtle Trachemys scripta scripta and anoxia tolerant red-eared slider Trachemys scripta. (nih.gov)
  • The complete mitochondrial genomes of the yellow-bellied slider (Trachemys scripta scripta) and anoxia tolerant red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans) turtles were sequenced to analyze gene arrangement. (nih.gov)
  • Persistent environmental stresses such as hyperwarming and ocean anoxia may have delayed the biotic recovery [1,2, (confex.com)
  • In order to characterize the duration and extent of ocean anoxia after the LPME, we have measured the U isotope composition (δ 238 U) - a proxy for global ocean anoxia - in well-preserved marine carbonates across the Late Permian to the Middle Triassic at Zal (Iran). (confex.com)
  • The nature of the protracted global ocean anoxia might be a key and direct factor that caused the delayed biotic recovery from the LPME. (confex.com)
  • This impact of bioturbation on global biogeochemistry likely affected animal evolution through expanded ocean anoxia, high atmospheric CO2 levels and global warming. (tudelft.nl)
  • These data indicate that the worst part of the F-F extinction was not related directly to oceanic anoxia in this region and potentially globally. (usgs.gov)
  • Apoptosis has been shown to be involved in mitochondrial dysfunction, and upregulating expression of SIRT1 can inhibit the apoptosis of cardiomyocytes induced by anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R). Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether the protective effects of Cap against the injury to the cardiomyocytes are mediated by SIRT1. (hindawi.com)
  • Objective: To study the protective effect of β carotene in anoxia injured cardiomyocytes. (cnki.com.cn)
  • WT5FZ]Methods: The cultured rat neonatal cardiomyocytes were subjected to 2h anoxia and the changes of lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) activity, malondialdehyde (MDA), oxygen free radical (OFR) contents and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were detected. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Results: The LDH, MDA, OFR and SOD of cardiomycytes were changed significantly after 2h anoxia (P0.01).However, the β carotene pre treated cardiomyocytes showed less changes. (cnki.com.cn)
  • Conclusion: β carotene (10 -2 ~10 -1 ) mmol/L can protect cardiomyocytes from anoxia injury. (cnki.com.cn)
  • During anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury, intracellular chloride ion concentration ([Cl - ] i ) homeostasis may play a role in maintaining the normal physiological function of cardiomyocytes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The results showed that rice, a species highly tolerant to anoxia, can readily break down starch under anaerobiosis concomitant with germination, while wheat does not germinate and fails to degrade starch present in the endosperm. (nih.gov)
  • Small ncRNA profiles were broadly conserved among species under normoxic conditions, and these expression patterns were largely conserved during exposure to anoxia. (frontiersin.org)
  • Indeed, some species are able to survive complete anoxia for weeks to months. (epfl.ch)
  • From the results presented in this thesis and elsewhere, it is concluded that-the immediate cause of seedling death during anoxia is a shortage of substrate for glycolysis, and that the additional effect of ethanol accumulation in some species may reduce their subsequent rate of recovery. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Did anoxia terminate Ediacaran benthic communities? (whiterose.ac.uk)
  • Increasing water levels, DOC, and phytoplankton concentrations reduced light reaching the sediment surface, eliminating most benthic primary production and promoting anoxia in the hypolimnion. (usu.edu)
  • Anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R) injury refers to a phenomenon in which ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) myocardial tissues aggravate the injury to myocardial structures and functions [ 1 ], which can lead to arrhythmia, heart hypofunction, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and other disorders [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • Another possibility is that anoxia in itself does not induce apoptosis, but that the following reoxygenation causes increased apoptosis. (uio.no)
  • Despite the frequent inflows to the Baltic Sea during the period 2014-2016 approximately 18% of the bottom area was affected by anoxia and 28% by hypoxia during 2017. (smhi.se)
  • 2017. https://nursing.unboundmedicine.com/nursingcentral/view/Tabers-Dictionary/746744/all/anoxia. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Low temperature pre-conditions fish heart for prolonged anoxia by changes in activity of excitation-contraction coupling genes and thereby allows sustained bradycardia and prolongation of ventricular action potential when oxygen shortage sets in. (biologists.org)
  • Red dots represent genes induced or repressed by either anoxia or heat, while blue dots represent genes that were not found to be heat responsive. (plantphysiol.org)
  • A, Heat map showing the expression of anaerobic genes showing a reduced expression in the combined heat + anoxia treatment. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Anoxia-induced Suc synthases showed a lower induction in presence of exogenous Suc, suggesting that induction of these genes might be related to an anoxia-dependent sugar starvation. (plantphysiol.org)
  • Anoxia is a condition characterized by an absence of oxygen supply to an organ or a tissue. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • When the tissue or organ itself has a reduced ability to accept and use the oxygen, it is called histotoxic anoxia. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anoxia occurs when oxygen is absent or depleted and unable to properly reach organs or tissue. (alleydog.com)
  • Effects of HypoThermosol, an experimental acellular solution for tissue preservation and cardiopulmonary bypass, on isolated newborn lamb coronary vessels subjected to ultra profound hypothermia and anoxia. (biolifesolutions.com)
  • In anoxia, why can't humans be more like western painted turtles? (eurekalert.org)
  • For example, calculations based on creatine phosphate depletion and lactate accumulation during anoxia suggested that ATP production was markedly reduced (by approx 88%) [1, (springer.com)
  • Hearts from the reserpine-treated rats had higher left ventricular pressures, maximal rate of left ventricular pressure rise, and lactate output after 2 minutes of anoxia than the hearts from control rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Inhibitory effect of anoxia on 125I-insulin binding by rat hepatocytes. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The inhibitory effect of anoxia on 125I-insulin binding was not due to any effect on 125I-insulin degradation or on cell viability. (biomedsearch.com)
  • These adaptations solve the main problem encountered during anoxia, which is to supply cells with enough ATP. (uio.no)
  • Anoxia n : the absence of oxygen in inspired gases or in arterial blood or in the tissues. (paranormality.com)
  • Affinity anoxia involves a defect in the chemistry of the blood such that the hemoglobin can no longer pick up as much oxygen from the air, even though the quantities are normal, reducing how much is delivered to the tissues. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Anoxia is a scientific term which refers to insufficient oxygen levels in the tissues of an organ, despite unrestricted blood flow. (medicalmalpracticehelp.com)
  • Enhanced nuclear presence under anoxia was also observed in both tissues by 22-2.8 fold. (chalmers.se)
  • Cardiovascular variables were continuously monitored during normoxia, 2 h of anoxia, and during recovery at normoxia. (nih.gov)
  • Because anoxia causes significant amounts of distress to the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, it is essential to identify and treat the problem with haste. (medicalmalpracticehelp.com)
  • It was concluded that 1) N2-delivery patterns consisting of long anoxia, short normoxia and high cycle frequency increased disruption of brain [K+]o baseline maintenance, 2) males were more susceptible to repeated anoxia than females at room temperature, and 3) hypothermia had a protective effect on brain K+ homeostasis during repetitive anoxia. (queensu.ca)
  • Transcriptome analysis of anoxia-, heat-, and heat + anoxia-treated Arabidopsis seedlings. (plantphysiol.org)
  • H 2 O 2 (5 m m ) was added (2-h treatment) to the wells containing the seedlings followed by rinsing in fresh medium and transfer to anoxia (26 h). (plantphysiol.org)
  • We used the Affymetrix ATH1 GeneChip containing more than 22,500 probe sets to explore the anaerobic transcriptome of Arabidopsis seedlings kept under anoxia for 6 h in presence or absence of exogenous Suc. (plantphysiol.org)
  • to characterize the response of Arabidopsis seedlings treated for 6 h under anoxia in presence or absence of exogenous Suc. (plantphysiol.org)
  • We used anoxia to obtain a rapid anaerobic response and choose seedlings as they represent a very homogeneous plants material at a growth stage at which plants often experience low oxygen conditions ( Perata and Alpi, 1993 ). (plantphysiol.org)
  • Increasing amounts of K+ were lost from the roots of whole seedlings during anoxia, and seedling recovery on return to air was associated with the seedlings' ability to reabsorb most of the leaked K+. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Aerobic respiration in the root tips was associated with both K+ uptake by pea seedlings, and the recovery and subsequent growth of pea and three varieties of rice after anoxia. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Although some pea and rice seedlings appeared undamaged after anoxia, the subsequent growth rates of pea and rice, cv. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Pea seedlings that were prevented from transpiring during anoxia were damaged earlier than controls, possibly because of an increase in the rate of accumulation of a toxic product of anaerobic metabolism in these seedlings. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Two percent glucose merely delayed, and did not prevent, the onset of damage in whole pea seedlings during anoxia, nor did it enhance the subsequent growth of the seedlings. (st-andrews.ac.uk)
  • Fetal anoxia may occur from inadequate oxygenation of the mother, low maternal blood pressure, or abnormalities in the uterus, placenta, or umbilical cord that result in inadequate blood flow to the fetus. (britannica.com)
  • Anoxia" means "total absence of oxygen," and in Lea's hands the term heralds aural environments that are full of the dreams of humanity yet may well be devoid of its living presence. (forcedexposure.com)
  • For the autumn period each profile in the dataset was examined for the occurrence of hypoxia (oxygen deficiency) and anoxia (total absence of oxygen). (smhi.se)
  • Anoxia with posttraumatic amnesia Hello there, This is a serious attempt to find more information and consultation from various experts around the world within the field of neuropsychology. (bio.net)
  • Anoxia has been shown to cause brain damage that can have lasting consequences like amnesia. (alleydog.com)
  • result from insufficient oxygen ( anoxia ) during a difficult and prolonged delivery or from the condition known as kernicterus, in which the baby becomes jaundiced because of incompatibility between its blood and that of the mother. (britannica.com)
BAYERNN- Sailor - YouTube
BAYERNN- Sailor - YouTube (youtube.com)
Dementia Causes: Genetics and Other Factors
Dementia Causes: Genetics and Other Factors (healthline.com)
Anoxia - Intense Killings: CD, Album, Ltd For Sale | Discogs
Anoxia - Intense Killings: CD, Album, Ltd For Sale | Discogs (discogs.com)
Fumigacja|Anoxia|D.|Dezynsekcja|Deratyzacja|Kraków|Insektum2
Fumigacja|Anoxia|D.|Dezynsekcja|Deratyzacja|Kraków|Insektum2 (insektum2.krakow.pl)
Anoxia tolerance | Journal of Experimental Biology
Anoxia tolerance | Journal of Experimental Biology (jeb.biologists.org)
June 1947 - Volume 2 - Issue 3 : Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey
June 1947 - Volume 2 - Issue 3 : Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey (journals.lww.com)
Anoxia: Symptoms, types, and treatment
Anoxia: Symptoms, types, and treatment (medicalnewstoday.com)
The hyperoxic switch: assessing respiratory water loss rates in tracheate arthropods with continuous gas exchange | Journal of...
The hyperoxic switch: assessing respiratory water loss rates in tracheate arthropods with continuous gas exchange | Journal of... (jeb.biologists.org)
The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel-encoded dSUR gene is required for Drosophila heart function and is regulated by...
The ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel-encoded dSUR gene is required for Drosophila heart function and is regulated by... (pnas.org)
Characterizing the metabolic capacity of the anoxic hagfish heart | Journal of Experimental Biology
Characterizing the metabolic capacity of the anoxic hagfish heart | Journal of Experimental Biology (jeb.biologists.org)
Avoidance and tolerance of freezing in ectothermic vertebrates | Journal of Experimental Biology
Avoidance and tolerance of freezing in ectothermic vertebrates | Journal of Experimental Biology (jeb.biologists.org)
Neural stem/progenitor cells display a low requirement for oxidative metabolism independent of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha...
Neural stem/progenitor cells display a low requirement for oxidative metabolism independent of hypoxia inducible factor-1alpha... (onlinelibrary.wiley.com)
Restauración | Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía
Restauración | Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía (museoreinasofia.es)
IntechOpen Open Access Publisher - Open Science Open Minds | IntechOpen
IntechOpen Open Access Publisher - Open Science Open Minds | IntechOpen (intechopen.com)
GSA Bulletin: Rock avalanches, ancient weather, astronomical clocks, anoxia, and volcanism | EurekAlert! Science News
GSA Bulletin: Rock avalanches, ancient weather, astronomical clocks, anoxia, and volcanism | EurekAlert! Science News (eurekalert.org)
In anoxia, why can't humans be more like western painted turtles? | EurekAlert! Science News
In anoxia, why can't humans be more like western painted turtles? | EurekAlert! Science News (eurekalert.org)
Long-Term History of Chesapeake Bay Anoxia | Science
Long-Term History of Chesapeake Bay Anoxia | Science (science.sciencemag.org)
Types of Brain Injuries Caused By Opioids - Brain and Spinal Cord
Types of Brain Injuries Caused By Opioids - Brain and Spinal Cord (brainandspinalcord.org)
Severely Hypoxic and Anoxic Areas - Long Island Sound Study
Severely Hypoxic and Anoxic Areas - Long Island Sound Study (longislandsoundstudy.net)
Area of Hypoxia - Long Island Sound Study
Area of Hypoxia - Long Island Sound Study (longislandsoundstudy.net)
Oceanic Anoxia and the End Permian Mass Extinction | Science
Oceanic Anoxia and the End Permian Mass Extinction | Science (science.sciencemag.org)
How do medications treat toxic anoxia? | Anoxic Brain Injuries - Sharecare
How do medications treat toxic anoxia? | Anoxic Brain Injuries - Sharecare (sharecare.com)
Birth Injury
Birth Injury (oshmanlaw.com)
The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events | Ebook | Ellibs Ebookstore
The Trace-Fossil Record of Major Evolutionary Events | Ebook | Ellibs Ebookstore (ellibs.com)
A multicenter assessment of single-cell models aligned to standard measures of cell health for prediction of acute...
A multicenter assessment of single-cell models aligned to standard measures of cell health for prediction of acute... (link.springer.com)
Table of Contents - August 08, 2014, 345 (6197) | Science
Table of Contents - August 08, 2014, 345 (6197) | Science (science.sciencemag.org)
Frontiers | Small Non-coding RNA Expression and Vertebrate Anoxia Tolerance | Genetics
Frontiers | Small Non-coding RNA Expression and Vertebrate Anoxia Tolerance | Genetics (frontiersin.org)
Chesapeake Bay Anoxia: Origin, Development, and Significance | Science
Chesapeake Bay Anoxia: Origin, Development, and Significance | Science (science.sciencemag.org)
Go to Anoxia Misdiagnosis.
Go to Anoxia Misdiagnosis. (medicalmalpracticehelp.com)
Acute mountain sickness: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia
Acute mountain sickness: MedlinePlus Medical Encyclopedia (medlineplus.gov)