Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Pregnanediol: An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Hyperandrogenism: A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.Clomiphene: A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Time-to-Pregnancy: Time interval, or number of non-contraceptive menstrual cycles that it takes for a couple to conceive.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Follicle Stimulating Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Follicle Stimulating Hormone, Human: A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Oligomenorrhea: Abnormally infrequent menstruation.Hirsutism: A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.Amenorrhea: Absence of menstruation.Progesterone: The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Androstenedione: A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.Ovulation Induction: Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Menstrual Cycle: The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.Electrocoagulation: Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.Fertility Agents, Female: Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Gonadotropins: Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.Follicular Phase: The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Testosterone: A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.Androgens: Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.Gonadotropin-Releasing Hormone: A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.Pregnancy Rate: The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.Hypothalamo-Hypophyseal System: A collection of NEURONS, tracts of NERVE FIBERS, endocrine tissue, and blood vessels in the HYPOTHALAMUS and the PITUITARY GLAND. This hypothalamo-hypophyseal portal circulation provides the mechanism for hypothalamic neuroendocrine (HYPOTHALAMIC HORMONES) regulation of pituitary function and the release of various PITUITARY HORMONES into the systemic circulation to maintain HOMEOSTASIS.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Gynecology: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the physiology and disorders primarily of the female genital tract, as well as female endocrinology and reproductive physiology.Electronic Mail: Messages between computer users via COMPUTER COMMUNICATION NETWORKS. This feature duplicates most of the features of paper mail, such as forwarding, multiple copies, and attachments of images and other file types, but with a speed advantage. The term also refers to an individual message sent in this way.Food Dispensers, Automatic: Mechanical food dispensing machines.Editorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Postal Service: The functions and activities carried out by the U.S. Postal Service, foreign postal services, and private postal services such as Federal Express.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Endometrial Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of ENDOMETRIUM, the mucous lining of the UTERUS. These neoplasms can be benign or malignant. Their classification and grading are based on the various cell types and the percent of undifferentiated cells.Ultrasonography, Interventional: The use of ultrasound to guide minimally invasive surgical procedures such as needle ASPIRATION BIOPSY; DRAINAGE; etc. Its widest application is intravascular ultrasound imaging but it is useful also in urology and intra-abdominal conditions.Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Menarche: The first MENSTRUAL CYCLE marked by the initiation of MENSTRUATION.Primary Ovarian Insufficiency: Cessation of ovarian function after MENARCHE but before the age of 40, without or with OVARIAN FOLLICLE depletion. It is characterized by the presence of OLIGOMENORRHEA or AMENORRHEA, elevated GONADOTROPINS, and low ESTRADIOL levels. It is a state of female HYPERGONADOTROPIC HYPOGONADISM. Etiologies include genetic defects, autoimmune processes, chemotherapy, radiation, and infections.Hypothalamic Diseases: Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Audiovisual Aids: Auditory and visual instructional materials.

Histopathological findings of the ovaries in anovulatory women. (1/209)

Wedge resection of the ovary was carried out in 45 anovulatory women to study the correlation between the degree of disturbance of ovulation and the histopathological findings. Polycystic ovary was always found in patients with anovulatory cycles. The ovaries in grade 1 amenorrhea showing withdrawal bleeding in response to gestagen alone belonged to the nonspecific type, polycystic type and sclerotic type. These histological changes were relatively mild in many cases. The ovaries in grade 2 amenorrhea showing withdrawal bleeding in response to estrogen and gestagen but not to gestagen alone belonged to the non-specific type, polycystic type, sclerotic type, atrophic type and streak type. Even within the same histological entity, the histological findings of the ovaries were more pronounced in grade 2 amenorrhea than in grade 1 amenorrhea. The patients with primary amenorrhea had only hypoplastic and aplastic ovaries with marked histological abnormalities.  (+info)

Effects of time of suckling during the solar day on duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval in Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows. (2/209)

Previously published reports have indicated that postpartum anovulatory intervals can be markedly reduced and rebreeding performance enhanced in Bos taurus cows by eliminating nighttime suckling. We sought to confirm this hypothesis by examining the effects of day, nighttime, and ad libitum suckling on suckling behavior of calves, duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval, and pregnancy rates in 45 fall-calving Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows. Beginning on d 9 to 12 postpartum, calves were removed from lactating cows from 0700 to 1900 (Night-Suckled, n = 15) or from 1900 to 0700 (Day-Suckled, n = 15), or remained with their dams continuously (Ad Libitum-Suckled, n = 15). Cows in each group were maintained with fertile Angus bulls from d 10 postpartum until the first normal luteal phase or 100 d postpartum, whichever occurred first. Cows were observed for estrous behavior twice daily, and jugular blood samples were collected twice weekly for the determination of serum progesterone concentration. Mean number of suckling episodes per 24 h was greater (P < .0001) for the Ad Libitum-Suckled group than either Night- or Day-Suckled groups (5.9+/-.42 vs 3.8+/-.14, and 3.9+/-.32, respectively). Hourly analysis of suckling episodes in the Ad Libitum group indicated that they were not skewed toward a particular period, with suckling occurring at a periodicity of 4 to 6 h. Intervals to the first rise in progesterone > or = 1 ng/mL (32+/-2.5, 32+/-4.5, and 31+/-1.7 d, respectively), first normal luteal phase (38+/-3.1, 38+/-3.8, and 37+/-2.5 d, respectively), and first estrus (43+/-3.5, 40+/-3.9, and 36+/-1.1 d, respectively) did not differ (P > .05) among the three groups. Similarly, cumulative pregnancy rates within 100 d after calving did not differ (P > .05). These results in Bos indicus x Bos taurus (F1) cattle do not support the previous conclusions in Bos taurus that eliminating nighttime suckling reduces the postpartum anovulatory interval.  (+info)

Anovulations in an ovary during two menstrual cycles enhance the pregnancy potential of oocytes matured in that ovary during the following third cycle. (3/209)

The aim of this study was to test whether ovulation from an ovary affects the health of oocytes from dominant follicles in that ovary two cycles later. A total of 80 women each with two intact ovaries underwent 270 treatment cycles (155 natural cycles and 115 clomiphene citrate cycles) all showing unilateral ovulation. The results from the in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment were grouped according to whether ovulation (O) or anovulation (A) (no ovulation) was observed in the ovary with dominant follicle during the treatment cycle in the previous two cycles: O-O, A-O, O-A and A-A (previous second cycle-previous first cycle). The rate of pre-embryo formation in A-A was significantly higher than that of O-A. The pregnancy rate in A-A (29%) was also higher than those of O-A (13%), A-O (9%) and O-O (5%). These rates increased from O-O to A-A as the number of previous ovulations in an ovary decreased. The presence of a corpus luteum and/or a dominant follicle is likely to exert local negative effects on the health of the oocyte contained in the follicle selected to ovulate up to two cycles later. Anovulations in an ovary for two menstrual cycles may therefore provide improved conditions for the development of a healthier oocyte with an increased pregnancy potential.  (+info)

Nutritionally induced anovulation in beef heifers: ovarian and endocrine function preceding cessation of ovulation. (4/209)

Angus x Hereford heifers were used to determine endocrine and ovarian function preceding nutritionally induced anovulation. Six heifers were fed to maintain body condition score (M), and 12 heifers were fed a restricted diet (R) until they became anovulatory. Starting on d 13 of an estrous cycle, heifers were given PGF2alpha every 16 d thereafter to synchronize and maintain 16 d estrous cycles. Ovarian structures of M and R heifers were monitored by ultrasonography daily from d 8 to ovulation (d 1 of the subsequent cycle) until R heifers became anovulatory. Concentrations of LH and FSH were quantified in serum samples collected every 10 min for 8 h on d 2 and 15 (48 h after PGF2alpha), and estradiol and IGF-I were quantified in daily plasma samples from d 8 to 16 during the last ovulatory cycle (Cycle -2) and the subsequent anovulatory cycle (Cycle -1). During the last two cycles before anovulation, M heifers had 50% larger (P < .0001) ovulatory follicles than R heifers and 61% greater (P < .0001) growth rate of the ovulatory follicles. There was a treatment x cycle x day effect (P < .001) for concentrations of estradiol. The preovulatory increase in estradiol occurred in the R and M heifers during Cycle -2 but only in M heifers during Cycle -1. A treatment x cycle x day effect (P < .05) influenced LH concentrations. During Cycle -2, LH concentrations were similar for M and R heifers, but during Cycle -1, M heifers had greater LH concentrations than did R heifers. Concentrations of FSH were greater (P < .05) in R than M heifers after induced luteolysis when R heifers failed to ovulate. There was a treatment x cycle interaction (P < .05) for IGF-I concentrations, and M heifers had 4.7- and 8.6-fold greater IGF-I concentrations than did R heifers during Cycle -2 and -1, respectively. We conclude that growth rate and diameter of the ovulatory follicle, and concentrations of LH, estradiol, and IGF-I are reduced before the onset of nutritionally induced anovulation in beef heifers.  (+info)

Induction of ovulation by Sairei-to for polycystic ovary syndrome patients. (5/209)

In anovulatory patients ovulation is usually induced by clomiphene citrate (CC) or gonadotropin therapy, but in the case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), diagnosed by the presence of several micropolycysts in the ovaries and a high LH/FSH ratio in the serum, CC is only minimally effective, and side effects are often a problem with gonadotropin therapy. In the present study we administered a Chinese herbal medicine Sairei-to which appears to have a steroidal effect in anovulatory PCOS patients. As a result of the treatment, serum LH and the LH/FSH ratio significantly decreased (P<0.01) and the ovulatory rate was 70.6%. Serum testosterone levels were within normal limits before the treatment, and did not significantly change during the treatment. Sairei-to may therefore be useful for the treatment of anovulation in PCOS patients.  (+info)

Twice daily suckling but not milking with calf presence prolongs postpartum anovulation. (6/209)

Two experiments were conducted to determine whether milking beef cows two or five times daily in the presence or absence of their own nonsuckling calves would alter postpartum interval to first ovulation. Multiparous Angus x Hereford cow-calf pairs were assigned randomly between 13 and 18 d postpartum to treatments for 4 wk. In Exp. 1, pairs were assigned to six treatments: 1) calf was weaned permanently from its dam (CW; n = 9); 2) same as CW, but dam was milked twice daily (CW+2xM; n = 9); 3) calf was present continuously with its dam but restricted from contact with the udder (CR; n = 9); 4) same as CR, but dam was milked twice daily (CR+2xM; n = 9); 5) same as CR, but calf was allowed to suckle twice daily (CR+2xS; n = 8); and 6) calf was present continuously with its dam and suckled ad libitum (CP; n = 9). The interval from onset of treatments to first postpartum ovulation was shorter (P<.05) in the CW (14.1+/-3.1 d), CR (14.2+/-3.1 d), CW+2xM (13.0+/-3.1 d), and CR+2xM (17.2+/-3.1 d) than in the CP (34.7+/-3.1 d) and CR+2xS (33.9+/-3.3 d) treatments. Daily milk yield during treatment was greater (P<.01) for CR+2xM cows (7.1+/-.6 kg) than for CW+2xM cows (3.5+/-.6 kg). In Exp. 2, cow-calf pairs were assigned to three treatments: 1) CR+2xM (n = 10); 2) same as CR+2xM but cows were milked five times daily (CR+5xM; n = 10); or 3) CP (n = 10). The interval to first postpartum ovulation was shorter (P<.05) in the CR+2xM (23.6+/-3.5 d) and CR+5xM (26.1+/-3.7 d) treatments than in the CP (37.7+/-3.7 d) treatment. Daily milk yield during treatment was greater (P<.05) for CR+5xM cows (7.7+/-.6 kg) than for CR+2xM cows (6.4+/-.6 kg) by 17%. We conclude that suckling twice daily was sufficient to prolong postpartum anestrus as much as suckling ad libitum. Furthermore, milk removal by suckling, but not by milking two or five times daily, even in the presence of the cow's own nonsuckling calf, is essential to prolong postpartum anovulation.  (+info)

Adipocyte insulin action following ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome. (7/209)

The role of anovulation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the metabolic abnormality of insulin resistance in PCOS reflects, rather than causes, the ovarian dysfunction. Eight subjects with classical PCOS were studied on two occasions. Adipocyte insulin sensitivity together with hormonal and metabolic changes were investigated in patients with PCOS following prolonged amenorrhoea and then again in the early follicular phase after ovulation. Insulin receptor binding in amenorrhoeic subjects with PCOS was low at 0.78 +/- 0.08% and this increased to 1.18 +/- 0.19% after an ovulatory cycle (P < 0.05). Maximal insulin stimulated 3-O-methylglucose uptake was 0.70 +/- 0. 14 during amenorrhoea and increased to 1.08 +/- 0.25 pmol/10 cm(2) cell membrane (P < 0.05). Plasma testosterone fell (4.0 +/- 0.4 to 2. 3 +/- 0.2 nmol/l; P < 0.001), luteinizing hormone fell (17.6 +/- 2.3 to 6.7 +/- 0.8 IU/l; P < 0.001) but plasma insulin concentrations remained unchanged following ovulation (14.6 +/- 1.9 and 15.7 +/- 3. 8 pmol/l during amenorrhoea and after ovulation respectively). The results of this study suggest that chronic anovulation per se appears to modify the factors contributing to cellular insulin resistance seen in PCOS.  (+info)

Neonatal handling induces anovulatory estrous cycles in rats. (8/209)

Since previous work has shown that stimulation early in life decreases sexual receptiveness as measured by the female lordosis quotient, we suggested that neonatal handling could affect the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The effects of neonatal handling on the estrous cycle and ovulation were analyzed in adult rats. Two groups of animals were studied: intact (no manipulation, N = 10) and handled (N = 11). Pups were either handled daily for 1 min during the first 10 days of life or left undisturbed. At the age of 90 days, a vaginal smear was collected daily at 9:00 a.m. and analyzed for 29 days; at 9:00 a.m. on the day of estrus, animals were anesthetized with thiopental (40 mg/kg, ip), the ovaries were removed and the oviduct was dissected and squashed between 2 glass slides. The number of oocytes of both oviductal ampullae was counted under the microscope. The average numbers for each phase of the cycle (diestrus I, diestrus II, proestrus and estrus) during the period analyzed were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between intact and handled females during any of the phases. However, the number of handled females that showed anovulatory cycles (8 out of 11) was significantly higher than in the intact group (none out of 10). Neonatal stimulation may affect not only the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, as previously demonstrated, but also the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in female rats.  (+info)

  • These changes include reduction of body weight, prevention of obesity, insulin level normalization, and insulin tolerance tests, preventing the elevation of steroids and especially the reversal of fertility restoration with anovulation. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Pituitary failure, as may occur following a massive postpartum hemorrhage, can lead to anovulation because of the lack of pituitary gonadotropins. (news-medical.net)
  • Anovulation can be cause by a simple illness or infection, or it can be caused by pituitary or thyroid problems. (thelaboroflove.com)
  • Today, with women seeking assistance for increasingly subtle symptoms and with the availability of sophisticated diagnostic aids, the diagnosis of pituitary tumor-induced anovulation is being made more frequently. (glowm.com)
  • Hypothetically, then, the ovarian factors responsible for anovulation might include absence of primordial follicles, resistance to gonadotropin stimulation, and failure of steroidogenesis, resulting in inadequate feedback to the pituitary and hypothalamus. (glowm.com)
  • Significant hormonal imbalances that can cause anovulation are based on a disrupted interaction between the hypothalamus, which releases GnRH, and the pituitary gland, which is responsible for the release of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) . (fertilitytips.com)
  • WHO class 1 anovulation harbors the different anovulatory patients with a central origin (hypothalamic/pituitary) of their ovulatory dysfunction. (clinicalgate.com)
  • The diagnosis of anovulation may require blood tests to measure the levels of prolactin, thyroid-stimulating hormone, adrenal function ( DHEA ), and male and female sex hormones (LH, FSH, and testosterone). (healthcentral.com)
  • The common hypothesis observed is that the genetic factors related to sex steroids result in hormonal imbalances, which predisposes a woman to HA and oligo/anovulation [ 5 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • There are various fertility tests that may be performed in order to diagnose a hormonal imbalance that is causing anovulation. (fertilityfactor.com)
  • There are a variety of herbal treatments for anovulation as well. (thelaboroflove.com)
  • What are the Potential Treatments for Anovulation? (ind.in)
  • After discussing health and reproductive history, as well as the menstrual cycle, we may perform blood tests to evaluate numerous hormone levels that may help us to determine why oligoovulation or anovulation may be occurring. (ivfspecialists.com)
  • The most common treatment for anovulation is fertility drugs . (verywellfamily.com)
  • Nonetheless, various fertility treatments are available to help increase the odds of getting pregnant, and minimize the effects of anovulation on fertility. (fertilityfactor.com)
  • Anovulation may signal an underlying fertility problem , or otherwise simply be caused by lifestyle factors. (fertilityfactor.com)
  • Luckily, for women experiencing anovulation due to minor lifestyle factors, treatment of this fertility condition may be relatively easy. (fertilityfactor.com)
  • Thus in the present study, the duration of lactational amenorrhoea/anovulation was compared between undernourished and well-nourished women while taking into account the other factors such as infant feeding pattern and maternal basal prolactin levels which are known to influence postpartum fertility. (who.int)
  • Anovulation is sometimes associated with underlying fertility complications and reproductive system disorders. (netmums.com)
  • It is not uncommon for a woman to experience anovulation from time to time. (thelaboroflove.com)
  • A disruption of GnRH secretion by the hypothalamus, which is caused by prolactin, prevents the production of FSH and LH, leading to anovulation. (fertilitytips.com)
  • This type of anovulation is generally accompanied by amenorrhea and normal menstruation returns when the woman adjusts her regimen so that it is more in since with her body's physiology. (healthcentral.com)
  • Eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are at one extreme of the spectrum of hypothalamic anovulation. (news-medical.net)
Anovulation Follow-up: Further Outpatient Care
Anovulation Follow-up: Further Outpatient Care (emedicine.medscape.com)
Trying to get pregnant,periods started. What is the use of Ubiphene 50? - Doctor's insight on HealthcareMagic
Trying to get pregnant,periods started. What is the use of Ubiphene 50? - Doctor's insight on HealthcareMagic (healthcaremagic.com)
Why could malnutrition cause anovulation? - Answered by top doctors on HealthTap
Why could malnutrition cause anovulation? - Answered by top doctors on HealthTap (healthtap.com)
Anovulation Pathophysiology
Anovulation Pathophysiology (news-medical.net)
Anovulation: epidemiology
Anovulation: epidemiology (news-medical.net)
Anovulation Medication: Ovulation stimulators, Thyroid products, Oral contraceptives, Bisphosphonate derivatives, Oral...
Anovulation Medication: Ovulation stimulators, Thyroid products, Oral contraceptives, Bisphosphonate derivatives, Oral... (emedicine.medscape.com)
Anovulation: Symptoms, causes, and treatment
Anovulation: Symptoms, causes, and treatment (medicalnewstoday.com)
Cook Children's Health Library - Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Conditions - 11629
Cook Children's Health Library - Polycystic Ovary Syndrome - Conditions - 11629 (healthlibrary.epnet.com)
PCOS and Menstruation Problems
PCOS and Menstruation Problems (womens-health.co.uk)
Anovulation - Periods Without Ovulating Issues
Anovulation - Periods Without Ovulating Issues (safemenopausesolutions.com)
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: 5 Things You Might Not Know
Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: 5 Things You Might Not Know (medscape.com)
Infertility Glossary of Medical Terms
Infertility Glossary of Medical Terms (drmalpani.com)
Ovulation induction
Ovulation induction (rcog.org.uk)
Anovulation definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary
Anovulation definition and meaning | Collins English Dictionary (collinsdictionary.com)
Traditional Clomiphene Citrate Administration vs. Stair-step Approach - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov
Traditional Clomiphene Citrate Administration vs. Stair-step Approach - Full Text View - ClinicalTrials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov)
Dermatologic Aspects of Addison Disease: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology
Dermatologic Aspects of Addison Disease: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology (emedicine.medscape.com)
Anorexia Nervosa: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology
Anorexia Nervosa: Practice Essentials, Background, Pathophysiology (emedicine.medscape.com)
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3 Ways to Take an Ovulation Test - wikiHow (wikihow.com)
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Anovulation Global Clinical Trials Review, H2, 2018
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3 Ways to Choose an Ovulation Predictor Kit - wikiHow (wikihow.com)
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Infertility | Reproductive Health | CDC (cdc.gov)
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Ana J. Torvie, M.D. | Seattle, WA (swedish.org)
Maureen O. Brown, M.D. | Seattle, WA
Maureen O. Brown, M.D. | Seattle, WA (swedish.org)
Katherine Schwab, M.D. | Seattle, WA
Katherine Schwab, M.D. | Seattle, WA (swedish.org)