Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
An inactive metabolite of PROGESTERONE by reduction at C5, C3, and C20 position. Pregnanediol has two hydroxyl groups, at 3-alpha and 20-alpha. It is detectable in URINE after OVULATION and is found in great quantities in the pregnancy urine.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
A condition caused by the excessive secretion of ANDROGENS from the ADRENAL CORTEX; the OVARIES; or the TESTES. The clinical significance in males is negligible. In women, the common manifestations are HIRSUTISM and VIRILISM as seen in patients with POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME and ADRENOCORTICAL HYPERFUNCTION.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Time interval, or number of non-contraceptive menstrual cycles that it takes for a couple to conceive.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Abnormally infrequent menstruation.
A condition observed in WOMEN and CHILDREN when there is excess coarse body hair of an adult male distribution pattern, such as facial and chest areas. It is the result of elevated ANDROGENS from the OVARIES, the ADRENAL GLANDS, or exogenous sources. The concept does not include HYPERTRICHOSIS, which is an androgen-independent excessive hair growth.
Absence of menstruation.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
Procedures using an electrically heated wire or scalpel to treat hemorrhage (e.g., bleeding ulcers) and to ablate tumors, mucosal lesions, and refractory arrhythmias. It is different from ELECTROSURGERY which is used more for cutting tissue than destroying and in which the patient is part of the electric circuit.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
The period of the MENSTRUAL CYCLE representing follicular growth, increase in ovarian estrogen (ESTROGENS) production, and epithelial proliferation of the ENDOMETRIUM. Follicular phase begins with the onset of MENSTRUATION and ends with OVULATION.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Compounds that interact with ANDROGEN RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of TESTOSTERONE. Depending on the target tissues, androgenic effects can be on SEX DIFFERENTIATION; male reproductive organs, SPERMATOGENESIS; secondary male SEX CHARACTERISTICS; LIBIDO; development of muscle mass, strength, and power.
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
Component of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH. It was initially established to investigate the broad aspects of human development as a means of understanding developmental disabilities, including mental retardation, and the events that occur during pregnancy. It now conducts and supports research on all stages of human development. It was established in 1962.
A medical-surgical specialty concerned with the morphology, physiology, biochemistry, and pathology of reproduction in man and other animals, and on the biological, medical, and veterinary problems of fertility and lactation. It includes ovulation induction, diagnosis of infertility and recurrent pregnancy loss, and assisted reproductive technologies such as embryo transfer, in vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes. (From Infertility and Reproductive Medicine Clinics of North America, Foreword 1990; Journal of Reproduction and Fertility, Notice to Contributors, Jan 1979)
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
Methods for controlling genetic SEX of offspring.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.

Histopathological findings of the ovaries in anovulatory women. (1/209)

Wedge resection of the ovary was carried out in 45 anovulatory women to study the correlation between the degree of disturbance of ovulation and the histopathological findings. Polycystic ovary was always found in patients with anovulatory cycles. The ovaries in grade 1 amenorrhea showing withdrawal bleeding in response to gestagen alone belonged to the nonspecific type, polycystic type and sclerotic type. These histological changes were relatively mild in many cases. The ovaries in grade 2 amenorrhea showing withdrawal bleeding in response to estrogen and gestagen but not to gestagen alone belonged to the non-specific type, polycystic type, sclerotic type, atrophic type and streak type. Even within the same histological entity, the histological findings of the ovaries were more pronounced in grade 2 amenorrhea than in grade 1 amenorrhea. The patients with primary amenorrhea had only hypoplastic and aplastic ovaries with marked histological abnormalities.  (+info)

Effects of time of suckling during the solar day on duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval in Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows. (2/209)

Previously published reports have indicated that postpartum anovulatory intervals can be markedly reduced and rebreeding performance enhanced in Bos taurus cows by eliminating nighttime suckling. We sought to confirm this hypothesis by examining the effects of day, nighttime, and ad libitum suckling on suckling behavior of calves, duration of the postpartum anovulatory interval, and pregnancy rates in 45 fall-calving Brahman x Hereford (F1) cows. Beginning on d 9 to 12 postpartum, calves were removed from lactating cows from 0700 to 1900 (Night-Suckled, n = 15) or from 1900 to 0700 (Day-Suckled, n = 15), or remained with their dams continuously (Ad Libitum-Suckled, n = 15). Cows in each group were maintained with fertile Angus bulls from d 10 postpartum until the first normal luteal phase or 100 d postpartum, whichever occurred first. Cows were observed for estrous behavior twice daily, and jugular blood samples were collected twice weekly for the determination of serum progesterone concentration. Mean number of suckling episodes per 24 h was greater (P < .0001) for the Ad Libitum-Suckled group than either Night- or Day-Suckled groups (5.9+/-.42 vs 3.8+/-.14, and 3.9+/-.32, respectively). Hourly analysis of suckling episodes in the Ad Libitum group indicated that they were not skewed toward a particular period, with suckling occurring at a periodicity of 4 to 6 h. Intervals to the first rise in progesterone > or = 1 ng/mL (32+/-2.5, 32+/-4.5, and 31+/-1.7 d, respectively), first normal luteal phase (38+/-3.1, 38+/-3.8, and 37+/-2.5 d, respectively), and first estrus (43+/-3.5, 40+/-3.9, and 36+/-1.1 d, respectively) did not differ (P > .05) among the three groups. Similarly, cumulative pregnancy rates within 100 d after calving did not differ (P > .05). These results in Bos indicus x Bos taurus (F1) cattle do not support the previous conclusions in Bos taurus that eliminating nighttime suckling reduces the postpartum anovulatory interval.  (+info)

Anovulations in an ovary during two menstrual cycles enhance the pregnancy potential of oocytes matured in that ovary during the following third cycle. (3/209)

The aim of this study was to test whether ovulation from an ovary affects the health of oocytes from dominant follicles in that ovary two cycles later. A total of 80 women each with two intact ovaries underwent 270 treatment cycles (155 natural cycles and 115 clomiphene citrate cycles) all showing unilateral ovulation. The results from the in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment were grouped according to whether ovulation (O) or anovulation (A) (no ovulation) was observed in the ovary with dominant follicle during the treatment cycle in the previous two cycles: O-O, A-O, O-A and A-A (previous second cycle-previous first cycle). The rate of pre-embryo formation in A-A was significantly higher than that of O-A. The pregnancy rate in A-A (29%) was also higher than those of O-A (13%), A-O (9%) and O-O (5%). These rates increased from O-O to A-A as the number of previous ovulations in an ovary decreased. The presence of a corpus luteum and/or a dominant follicle is likely to exert local negative effects on the health of the oocyte contained in the follicle selected to ovulate up to two cycles later. Anovulations in an ovary for two menstrual cycles may therefore provide improved conditions for the development of a healthier oocyte with an increased pregnancy potential.  (+info)

Nutritionally induced anovulation in beef heifers: ovarian and endocrine function preceding cessation of ovulation. (4/209)

Angus x Hereford heifers were used to determine endocrine and ovarian function preceding nutritionally induced anovulation. Six heifers were fed to maintain body condition score (M), and 12 heifers were fed a restricted diet (R) until they became anovulatory. Starting on d 13 of an estrous cycle, heifers were given PGF2alpha every 16 d thereafter to synchronize and maintain 16 d estrous cycles. Ovarian structures of M and R heifers were monitored by ultrasonography daily from d 8 to ovulation (d 1 of the subsequent cycle) until R heifers became anovulatory. Concentrations of LH and FSH were quantified in serum samples collected every 10 min for 8 h on d 2 and 15 (48 h after PGF2alpha), and estradiol and IGF-I were quantified in daily plasma samples from d 8 to 16 during the last ovulatory cycle (Cycle -2) and the subsequent anovulatory cycle (Cycle -1). During the last two cycles before anovulation, M heifers had 50% larger (P < .0001) ovulatory follicles than R heifers and 61% greater (P < .0001) growth rate of the ovulatory follicles. There was a treatment x cycle x day effect (P < .001) for concentrations of estradiol. The preovulatory increase in estradiol occurred in the R and M heifers during Cycle -2 but only in M heifers during Cycle -1. A treatment x cycle x day effect (P < .05) influenced LH concentrations. During Cycle -2, LH concentrations were similar for M and R heifers, but during Cycle -1, M heifers had greater LH concentrations than did R heifers. Concentrations of FSH were greater (P < .05) in R than M heifers after induced luteolysis when R heifers failed to ovulate. There was a treatment x cycle interaction (P < .05) for IGF-I concentrations, and M heifers had 4.7- and 8.6-fold greater IGF-I concentrations than did R heifers during Cycle -2 and -1, respectively. We conclude that growth rate and diameter of the ovulatory follicle, and concentrations of LH, estradiol, and IGF-I are reduced before the onset of nutritionally induced anovulation in beef heifers.  (+info)

Induction of ovulation by Sairei-to for polycystic ovary syndrome patients. (5/209)

In anovulatory patients ovulation is usually induced by clomiphene citrate (CC) or gonadotropin therapy, but in the case of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), diagnosed by the presence of several micropolycysts in the ovaries and a high LH/FSH ratio in the serum, CC is only minimally effective, and side effects are often a problem with gonadotropin therapy. In the present study we administered a Chinese herbal medicine Sairei-to which appears to have a steroidal effect in anovulatory PCOS patients. As a result of the treatment, serum LH and the LH/FSH ratio significantly decreased (P<0.01) and the ovulatory rate was 70.6%. Serum testosterone levels were within normal limits before the treatment, and did not significantly change during the treatment. Sairei-to may therefore be useful for the treatment of anovulation in PCOS patients.  (+info)

Twice daily suckling but not milking with calf presence prolongs postpartum anovulation. (6/209)

Two experiments were conducted to determine whether milking beef cows two or five times daily in the presence or absence of their own nonsuckling calves would alter postpartum interval to first ovulation. Multiparous Angus x Hereford cow-calf pairs were assigned randomly between 13 and 18 d postpartum to treatments for 4 wk. In Exp. 1, pairs were assigned to six treatments: 1) calf was weaned permanently from its dam (CW; n = 9); 2) same as CW, but dam was milked twice daily (CW+2xM; n = 9); 3) calf was present continuously with its dam but restricted from contact with the udder (CR; n = 9); 4) same as CR, but dam was milked twice daily (CR+2xM; n = 9); 5) same as CR, but calf was allowed to suckle twice daily (CR+2xS; n = 8); and 6) calf was present continuously with its dam and suckled ad libitum (CP; n = 9). The interval from onset of treatments to first postpartum ovulation was shorter (P<.05) in the CW (14.1+/-3.1 d), CR (14.2+/-3.1 d), CW+2xM (13.0+/-3.1 d), and CR+2xM (17.2+/-3.1 d) than in the CP (34.7+/-3.1 d) and CR+2xS (33.9+/-3.3 d) treatments. Daily milk yield during treatment was greater (P<.01) for CR+2xM cows (7.1+/-.6 kg) than for CW+2xM cows (3.5+/-.6 kg). In Exp. 2, cow-calf pairs were assigned to three treatments: 1) CR+2xM (n = 10); 2) same as CR+2xM but cows were milked five times daily (CR+5xM; n = 10); or 3) CP (n = 10). The interval to first postpartum ovulation was shorter (P<.05) in the CR+2xM (23.6+/-3.5 d) and CR+5xM (26.1+/-3.7 d) treatments than in the CP (37.7+/-3.7 d) treatment. Daily milk yield during treatment was greater (P<.05) for CR+5xM cows (7.7+/-.6 kg) than for CR+2xM cows (6.4+/-.6 kg) by 17%. We conclude that suckling twice daily was sufficient to prolong postpartum anestrus as much as suckling ad libitum. Furthermore, milk removal by suckling, but not by milking two or five times daily, even in the presence of the cow's own nonsuckling calf, is essential to prolong postpartum anovulation.  (+info)

Adipocyte insulin action following ovulation in polycystic ovarian syndrome. (7/209)

The role of anovulation and insulin resistance in the pathogenesis of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) remains to be determined. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the metabolic abnormality of insulin resistance in PCOS reflects, rather than causes, the ovarian dysfunction. Eight subjects with classical PCOS were studied on two occasions. Adipocyte insulin sensitivity together with hormonal and metabolic changes were investigated in patients with PCOS following prolonged amenorrhoea and then again in the early follicular phase after ovulation. Insulin receptor binding in amenorrhoeic subjects with PCOS was low at 0.78 +/- 0.08% and this increased to 1.18 +/- 0.19% after an ovulatory cycle (P < 0.05). Maximal insulin stimulated 3-O-methylglucose uptake was 0.70 +/- 0. 14 during amenorrhoea and increased to 1.08 +/- 0.25 pmol/10 cm(2) cell membrane (P < 0.05). Plasma testosterone fell (4.0 +/- 0.4 to 2. 3 +/- 0.2 nmol/l; P < 0.001), luteinizing hormone fell (17.6 +/- 2.3 to 6.7 +/- 0.8 IU/l; P < 0.001) but plasma insulin concentrations remained unchanged following ovulation (14.6 +/- 1.9 and 15.7 +/- 3. 8 pmol/l during amenorrhoea and after ovulation respectively). The results of this study suggest that chronic anovulation per se appears to modify the factors contributing to cellular insulin resistance seen in PCOS.  (+info)

Neonatal handling induces anovulatory estrous cycles in rats. (8/209)

Since previous work has shown that stimulation early in life decreases sexual receptiveness as measured by the female lordosis quotient, we suggested that neonatal handling could affect the function of the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis. The effects of neonatal handling on the estrous cycle and ovulation were analyzed in adult rats. Two groups of animals were studied: intact (no manipulation, N = 10) and handled (N = 11). Pups were either handled daily for 1 min during the first 10 days of life or left undisturbed. At the age of 90 days, a vaginal smear was collected daily at 9:00 a.m. and analyzed for 29 days; at 9:00 a.m. on the day of estrus, animals were anesthetized with thiopental (40 mg/kg, ip), the ovaries were removed and the oviduct was dissected and squashed between 2 glass slides. The number of oocytes of both oviductal ampullae was counted under the microscope. The average numbers for each phase of the cycle (diestrus I, diestrus II, proestrus and estrus) during the period analyzed were compared between the two groups. There were no significant differences between intact and handled females during any of the phases. However, the number of handled females that showed anovulatory cycles (8 out of 11) was significantly higher than in the intact group (none out of 10). Neonatal stimulation may affect not only the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal axis, as previously demonstrated, but also the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal axis in female rats.  (+info)

1. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): This is the most common cause of anovulation, affecting up to 75% of women with PCOS.
2. Hypothalamic dysfunction: The hypothalamus regulates hormonal signals that stimulate ovulation. Disruptions in these signals can lead to anovulation.
3. Thyroid disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can disrupt hormone levels and lead to anovulation.
4. Premature ovarian failure (POF): This condition is characterized by the premature loss of ovarian function before age 40.
5. Ovarian insufficiency: This occurs when the ovaries lose their ability to produce eggs, often due to aging or medical treatment.
6. Chronic diseases: Certain conditions like diabetes, hypertension, and obesity can increase the risk of anovulation.
7. Luteal phase defect: This occurs when the uterine lining does not properly thicken during the second half of the menstrual cycle, making it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant.
8. Ovulatory disorders: Disorders such as ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and pelvic inflammatory disease can interfere with ovulation.
9. Genetic factors: Some genetic mutations can affect ovulation, such as those associated with Turner syndrome or other rare genetic conditions.
10. Medications: Certain medications, such as hormonal contraceptives and antidepressants, can disrupt ovulation.

Anovulation is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and laboratory tests, including hormone levels and imaging studies. Treatment options for anovulation depend on the underlying cause and may include:

1. Hormonal medications to stimulate ovulation
2. Intrauterine insemination (IUI) or in vitro fertilization (IVF) to increase the chances of conception
3. Lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss and stress management
4. Surgery to correct anatomical abnormalities or remove any blockages in the reproductive tract
5. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART), such as IVF with egg donation or surrogacy.

It's important for women experiencing irregular periods or anovulation to seek medical attention, as timely diagnosis and treatment can improve their chances of conceiving and reduce the risk of complications during pregnancy.

1. Irregular menstrual cycles, or amenorrhea (the absence of periods).
2. Cysts on the ovaries, which are fluid-filled sacs that can be detected by ultrasound.
3. Elevated levels of androgens (male hormones) in the body, which can cause a range of symptoms including acne, excessive hair growth, and male pattern baldness.
4. Insulin resistance, which is a condition in which the body's cells do not respond properly to insulin, leading to high blood sugar levels.

PCOS is a complex disorder, and there is no single cause. However, genetics, hormonal imbalances, and insulin resistance are thought to play a role in its development. It is estimated that 5-10% of women of childbearing age have PCOS, making it one of the most common endocrine disorders affecting women.

There are several symptoms of PCOS, including:

1. Irregular menstrual cycles or amenorrhea
2. Weight gain or obesity
3. Acne
4. Excessive hair growth on the face, chest, and back
5. Male pattern baldness
6. Infertility or difficulty getting pregnant
7. Mood changes, such as depression and anxiety
8. Sleep apnea

PCOS can be diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests, including:

1. Pelvic exam: A doctor will examine the ovaries and uterus to look for cysts or other abnormalities.
2. Ultrasound: An ultrasound can be used to detect cysts on the ovaries and to evaluate the thickness of the uterine lining.
3. Hormone testing: Blood tests can be used to measure levels of androgens, estrogen, and progesterone.
4. Glucose tolerance test: This test is used to check for insulin resistance, which is a common finding in women with PCOS.
5. Laparoscopy: A small camera inserted through a small incision in the abdomen can be used to visualize the ovaries and uterus and to diagnose PCOS.

There is no cure for PCOS, but it can be managed with lifestyle changes and medication. Treatment options include:

1. Weight loss: Losing weight can improve insulin sensitivity and reduce androgen levels.
2. Hormonal birth control: Birth control pills or other hormonal contraceptives can help regulate menstrual cycles and reduce androgen levels.
3. Fertility medications: Clomiphene citrate and letrozole are commonly used to stimulate ovulation in women with PCOS.
4. Injectable fertility medications: Gonadotropins, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), can be used to stimulate ovulation.
5. Surgery: Laparoscopic ovarian drilling or laser surgery can improve ovulation and fertility in women with PCOS.
6. Assisted reproductive technology (ART): In vitro fertilization (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) can be used to help women with PCOS conceive.
7. Alternative therapies: Some complementary and alternative therapies, such as acupuncture and herbal supplements, may be helpful in managing symptoms of PCOS.

It is important for women with PCOS to work closely with their healthcare provider to develop a treatment plan that meets their individual needs and goals. With appropriate treatment, many women with PCOS can improve their menstrual regularity, fertility, and overall health.

There are several possible causes of hyperandrogenism, including:

1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH): A genetic disorder that affects the production of cortisol and aldosterone hormones by the adrenal glands.
2. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A hormonal disorder that affects women of reproductive age and is characterized by cysts on the ovaries, irregular menstrual cycles, and high levels of androgens.
3. Adrenal tumors: Tumors in the adrenal glands can cause excessive production of androgens.
4. Familial hyperandrogenism: A rare inherited condition that causes an overproduction of androgens.
5. Obesity: Excess body fat can lead to increased production of androgens.

The symptoms of hyperandrogenism can vary depending on the cause, but may include:

1. Acne
2. Hirsutism (excessive hair growth)
3. Virilization (male-like physical characteristics, such as deepening of the voice and clitoral enlargement in women)
4. Male pattern baldness
5. Increased muscle mass and strength
6. Irregular menstrual cycles or cessation of menstruation
7. Infertility
8. Elevated blood pressure
9. Elevated cholesterol levels

Treatment options for hyperandrogenism depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

1. Medications to reduce androgen production or block their effects
2. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to restore normal hormone balance
3. Surgery to remove tumors or cysts
4. Weight loss programs to reduce excess body fat
5. Lifestyle changes, such as exercise and dietary modifications, to improve overall health.

It's important to note that hyperandrogenism can also be caused by other factors, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia or ovarian tumors, so it's important to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Causes of Female Infertility

There are several potential causes of female infertility, including:

1. Hormonal imbalances: Disorders such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid dysfunction, and premature ovarian failure can affect hormone levels and ovulation.
2. Ovulatory disorders: Problems with ovulation, such as anovulation or oligoovulation, can make it difficult to conceive.
3. Tubal damage: Damage to the fallopian tubes due to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, or surgery can prevent the egg from traveling through the tube and being fertilized.
4. Endometriosis: This condition occurs when tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Fibroids: Noncancerous growths in the uterus can interfere with implantation of a fertilized egg or disrupt ovulation.
6. Pelvic adhesions: Scar tissue in the pelvis can cause fallopian tubes to become damaged or blocked, making it difficult for an egg to travel through the tube and be fertilized.
7. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities such as a bicornuate uterus or a narrow cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
8. Age: A woman's age can affect her fertility, as the quality and quantity of her eggs decline with age.
9. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and being overweight or underweight can affect fertility.
10. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and ovulation, making it more difficult to conceive.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical assistance, such as medication, surgery, or assisted reproductive technology (ART) like in vitro fertilization (IVF). If you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant, it is recommended that you speak with a healthcare provider to determine the cause of your infertility and discuss potential treatment options.

Treatment for oligomenorrhea depends on the underlying cause, but may include hormone replacement therapy, birth control pills, or other medications to regulate menstrual cycles. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct anatomical abnormalities or remove cysts that are interfering with normal menstruation.

Oligomenorrhea can have significant impacts on women's lives, including difficulty becoming pregnant due to irregular ovulation and increased risk of developing endometrial cancer. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are important to manage the condition and prevent potential complications.

Some of the symptoms of hirsutism include:

* Thick, dark hair on the face, chest, back, and buttocks
* Hair growth on the arms, legs, and other areas of the body
* Thinning or loss of hair on the head
* Acne and oily skin

Hirsutism can be caused by a variety of factors, including:

* Hormonal imbalances: Excessive levels of androgens, such as testosterone, can cause hirsutism.
* Genetics: Inheritance plays a role in the development of hirsutism.
* Medications: Certain medications, such as anabolic steroids and certain antidepressants, can cause hirsutism as a side effect.
* Other medical conditions: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), and other endocrine disorders can also cause hirsutism.

There are several treatment options for hirsutism, including:

* Medications such as anti-androgens and retinoids to reduce hair growth and improve skin texture
* Electrolysis and laser therapy to remove unwanted hair
* Hormonal therapies such as birth control pills and spironolactone to regulate hormone levels and reduce hair growth
* Plastic surgery to remove excess hair-bearing skin.

It is important for individuals with hirsutism to seek medical attention if they experience any of the following symptoms:

* Sudden or excessive hair growth
* Hair growth on the face, chest, back, or buttocks
* Thinning or loss of hair on the head
* Acne and oily skin.

Early diagnosis and treatment can help manage the symptoms of hirsutism and improve quality of life for individuals affected by this condition.


There are several possible causes of amenorrhea, including:

1. Hormonal Imbalance: Imbalance of hormones can prevent the uterus from preparing for menstruation.
2. Pregnancy: Pregnancy is one of the most common causes of amenorrhea.
3. Menopause: Women going through menopause may experience amenorrhea due to the decreased levels of estrogen and progesterone.
4. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS): PCOS is a hormonal disorder that can cause irregular periods or amenorrhea.
5. Thyroid Disorders: Both hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid) and hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) can cause amenorrhea.
6. Obesity: Women who are significantly overweight may experience amenorrhea due to the hormonal imbalance caused by excess body fat.
7. Stress: Chronic stress can disrupt hormone levels and cause amenorrhea.
8. Surgery or Trauma: Certain surgeries, such as hysterectomy or removal of the ovaries, can cause amenorrhea. Trauma, such as a severe injury or infection, can also cause amenorrhea.
9. Medications: Certain medications, such as steroids and chemotherapy drugs, can cause amenorrhea as a side effect.
10. Endocrine Disorders: Disorders such as hypogonadotropic hypogonadism, hyperprolactinemia, and hypothyroidism can cause amenorrhea.


Amenorrhea can cause a range of symptoms, including:

1. No menstrual period
2. Difficulty getting pregnant (infertility)
3. Abnormal vaginal bleeding or spotting
4. Painful intercourse
5. Weight gain or loss
6. Mood changes, such as anxiety or depression
7. Fatigue
8. Headaches
9. Insomnia
10. Hot flashes


Amenorrhea is typically diagnosed based on a patient's medical history and physical examination. Additional tests may be ordered to determine the underlying cause of amenorrhea, such as:

1. Blood tests to measure hormone levels, including estrogen, progesterone, and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH)
2. Imaging tests, such as ultrasound or MRI, to evaluate the ovaries and uterus
3. Laparoscopy, a minimally invasive procedure that allows the doctor to visually examine the ovaries and fallopian tubes
4. Hysteroscopy, a procedure that allows the doctor to examine the inside of the uterus


The treatment of amenorrhea depends on the underlying cause. Some common treatments include:

1. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to restore hormone balance and promote menstruation
2. Medications to stimulate ovulation, such as clomiphene citrate or letrozole
3. Surgery to remove fibroids, cysts, or other structural abnormalities that may be contributing to amenorrhea
4. Infertility treatments, such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), if the patient is experiencing difficulty getting pregnant
5. Lifestyle changes, such as weight loss or exercise, to improve overall health and promote menstruation


There is no specific way to prevent amenorrhea, but maintaining a healthy lifestyle and managing any underlying medical conditions can help reduce the risk of developing the condition. Some tips for prevention include:

1. Eating a balanced diet that includes plenty of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein sources
2. Exercising regularly to maintain a healthy weight and improve overall health
3. Managing stress through relaxation techniques, such as yoga or meditation
4. Getting enough sleep each night
5. Avoiding excessive alcohol consumption and smoking
6. Maintaining a healthy body mass index (BMI) to reduce the risk of developing hormonal imbalances
7. Managing any underlying medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), thyroid disorders, or adrenal gland disorders
8. Avoiding exposure to harmful chemicals and toxins that can disrupt hormone balance.

Infertility can be classified into two main categories:

1. Primary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has not been able to conceive a child after one year of regular sexual intercourse, and there is no known cause for the infertility.
2. Secondary infertility: This type of infertility occurs when a couple has been able to conceive at least once before but is now experiencing difficulty in conceiving again.

There are several factors that can contribute to infertility, including:

1. Age: Women's fertility declines with age, especially after the age of 35.
2. Hormonal imbalances: Imbalances of hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, and thyroid hormones can affect ovulation and fertility.
3. Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS): A common condition that affects ovulation and can cause infertility.
4. Endometriosis: A condition in which the tissue lining the uterus grows outside the uterus, causing inflammation and scarring that can lead to infertility.
5. Male factor infertility: Low sperm count, poor sperm quality, and blockages in the reproductive tract can all contribute to infertility.
6. Lifestyle factors: Smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, being overweight or underweight, and stress can all affect fertility.
7. Medical conditions: Certain medical conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, and thyroid disorders can affect fertility.
8. Uterine or cervical abnormalities: Abnormalities in the shape or structure of the uterus or cervix can make it difficult for a fertilized egg to implant in the uterus.
9. Previous surgeries: Surgeries such as hysterectomy, tubal ligation, and cesarean section can affect fertility.
10. Age: Both male and female age can impact fertility, with a decline in fertility beginning in the mid-30s and a significant decline after age 40.

It's important to note that many of these factors can be treated with medical interventions or lifestyle changes, so it's important to speak with a healthcare provider if you are experiencing difficulty getting pregnant.

The identification of anovulation is not easy; contrary to what is commonly believed, women undergoing anovulation still have ( ... Hyperprolactinemia anovulation makes up 5 to 10 percent of women with anovulation. Hyperprolactinemia inhibits gonadotropin ... Treatment should be based on diagnosis of anovulation. Treatment varies based on the 4 most common causes of anovulation: ... Anovulation is when the ovaries do not release an oocyte during a menstrual cycle. Therefore, ovulation does not take place. ...
Although anovulation is not considered a disease, it can be a sign of an underlying condition such as polycystic ovary syndrome ... Any alteration to balance of hormones can lead to anovulation. Stress, anxiety and eating disorders can cause a fall in GnRH, ... Chronic anovulation occurs in 6-15% of women during their reproductive years. Around menopause, hormone feedback dysregulation ... Cycles in which ovulation does not occur (anovulation) are common in girls who have just begun menstruating and in women around ...
Hamilton-Fairley, Diana; Taylor, Alison (2003-09-06). "Anovulation". BMJ: British Medical Journal. 327 (7414): 546-549. doi: ...
H.J.T. Coelingh Benni; H.M. Vemer (15 December 1990). Chronic Hyperandrogenic Anovulation. CRC Press. pp. 151-. ISBN 978-1- ...
H.J.T. Coelingh Benni; H.M. Vemer (15 December 1990). Chronic Hyperandrogenic Anovulation. CRC Press. pp. 152-. ISBN 978-1- ...
Coelingh HJ, Vemer HM (15 December 1990). Chronic Hyperandrogenic Anovulation. CRC Press. pp. 152-. ISBN 978-1-85070-322-8. ...
71-. ISBN 978-1-60327-829-4. H.J.T. Coelingh Benni; H.M. Vemer (15 December 1990). Chronic Hyperandrogenic Anovulation. CRC ...
26-. ISBN 978-0-323-48408-4. H.J.T. Coelingh Benni; H.M. Vemer (15 December 1990). Chronic Hyperandrogenic Anovulation. CRC ...
Coelingh Benni, H.J.T.; Vemer, H.M. (15 December 1990). Chronic Hyperandrogenic Anovulation. CRC Press. pp. 152-. ISBN 978-1- ...
In patients who do not want to get pregnant anovulation can be managed with the use of cyclic progesterone or progestin ... Menstrual cycle Ovulation Anovulation Park, KH; Song, CH (Feb 1995). "Bone mineral density in premenopausal anovulatory women ... Anemia Bone density loss Endometrial cancer Infertility A physician needs to investigate the cause of anovulation. Common ...
Anovulation at eMedicine Menstruation Disorders at eMedicine Oriel KA, Schrager S (October 1999). "Abnormal uterine bleeding". ... The absence of ovulation is called anovulation. Normal menstrual flow can occur without ovulation preceding it: an anovulatory ...
The anovulation chapter discusses its multiple possible causes. Longstanding anovulation can also lead to endometrial ... Causes of gynecologic bleeding include: Anovulation is a common cause of gynecological hemorrhage. Under the influence of ...
Anovulation and amenorrhea is the characteristic feature of FHA. If hypoestrogenism and impaired HPO axis occurs during puberty ... Functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA) is a form of amenorrhea and chronic anovulation and is one of the most common types of ... Because anovulation is a characteristic feature, patients often suffer from infertility. When diagnosing individuals with FHA ... and in turn leads to anovulation. Inhibition of the HPO axis also results in inhibition of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid ( ...
It is the main initial medical treatment for anovulation. Environment can have large impact on the HPG axis. For example, women ...
Not all women with PCOS have difficulty becoming pregnant.[citation needed] For those who do, anovulation is a common cause. ... The mechanism of this anovulation is uncertain, but there is evidence of arrested antral follicle development, which, in turn, ... PCOS usually causes infertility associated with anovulation, and therefore, the presence of ovulation indicates absence of ... ovulation induction to reverse the anovulation is the principal treatment used to help infertility in PCOS. Letrozole and ...
Masculinization is preceded by anovulation, oligomenorrhoea, amenorrhoea and defeminization. Additional signs include acne and ...
Masculinization is preceded by anovulation, oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea and defeminization. Additional signs include acne and ...
The ovary is normal until sexual maturity, at which point there is complete anovulation and the ovaries become enlarged, ... Because there is complete anovulation, female αERKO mice are infertile. The ovarian phenotype closely resembles that of ... However, there is partial anovulation and subfertility, which is due to ovarian defects, namely compromised follicular ...
... anovulation/oligoovulation and hyperandrogenism). This means that a woman can have PCOS (displaying anovulation and ... For those that do, anovulation or infrequent ovulation is a common cause and PCOS is the main cause of anovulatory infertility ... Diagnosis is based on two of the following three findings: anovulation, high androgen levels, and ovarian cysts. Cysts may be ... February 2018). "Inositol treatment of anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome: a meta-analysis of randomised ...
... caused by anovulation is called "anovulatory infertility", as opposed to "ovulatory infertility" in which ... Polycystic ovary syndrome (also see infertility in polycystic ovary syndrome) Anovulation. ... Ovulation induction for anovulation In vitro fertilization in for example tubal abnormalities Female infertility varies widely ...
Women with lipoid CAH have been infertile presumably due to anovulation.[citation needed] The genitalia of XY fetuses with ...
PCOS is the primary cause of anovulation, which results in female infertility. The induction of mono-ovulatory cycles can ... "Treatment strategies for women with WHO group II anovulation: systematic review and network meta-analysis". BMJ. 356: j138. doi ...
females with PCOS usually experience anovulation (where they will not regularly release an egg). The link between infertility ...
Hypergonadotropic hypoestrogenic anovulation: i.e., premature ovarian failure Hyperprolactinemic anovulation: i.e., pituitary ... Oligo-ovulation or anovulation results in infertility because no oocyte will be released monthly. In the absence of an oocyte, ... 50% are female causes with 25% being due to anovulation and 25% tubal problems/other. In Sweden, approximately 10% of couples ... World Health Organization subdivided ovulatory disorders into four classes: Hypogonadotropic hypogonadal anovulation: i.e., ...
In some cases, it is used in ovulation induction for reversal of anovulation as well. FSH is available mixed with LH activity ...
In women with anovulation, it may be an alternative after 7 to 12 attempted cycles of antiestrogens (as evidenced by clomifene ... Also, where anovulation or oligovulation is secondary to another disease, the treatment for the underlying disease can be ... In women with anovulation, 7 - 12 attempted cycles of pituitary feedback regimens (as evidenced by clomifene citrate) are ... Clomifene citrate (or clomid) is the medication which is most commonly used to treat anovulation. It is a selective estrogen- ...
FSH in Patients With Anovulation and Elevated LH Levels". Obstetrics & Gynecology. 51 (3): 270-277. doi:10.1097/00006250- ...
Anovulation was rare in winter, which suggested the effect of seasons on the estrous cycle. Gestation period lasts 257-270 days ...
PCOS accounts for approximately 90% of anovulation infertility, affecting 5-10% of woman of reproductive age. In women with ...
"Relative contributions of anovulation and luteal phase defect to the reduced pregnancy rate of breastfeeding women". Fertil ...
Hypothalamic chronic anovulation G C Lachelin et al. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1978. . ... Efficacy of different gonadotropin combinations to support ovulation induction in WHO type I anovulation infertility: clinical ... of progesterone-induced pituitary release of prolactin and gonadotropin in patients with hypothalamic chronic anovulation. ...
These results suggest a possible underlying cause of anovulation, such as a longer-term subclinical follicular, ovarian or ... The influence of sporadic anovulation on hormone levels in ovulatory cycles H L Hambridge 1 , S L Mumford, D R Mattison, A Ye, ... The influence of sporadic anovulation on hormone levels in ovulatory cycles H L Hambridge et al. Hum Reprod. 2013 Jun. ... Anovulation was defined as peak serum progesterone concentrations ≤5 ng/ml and no serum LH peak detected during the mid- or ...
Anovulation. On-line free medical diagnosis assistant. Ranked list of possible diseases from either several symptoms or a full ...
Filed Under: Services Tagged With: anovulation, couples conceiving, female fertility factor, fertility, fertility challenges, ... Filed Under: Articles Tagged With: anovulation, couples conceiving, estrogen, Fallopian tubes, female factor infertility, ...
Altered expression of IL-1ß, IL-1RI, IL-1RII, IL-1RA and IL-4 could contribute to anovulation and follicular persistence in ...
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by the inability to maintain a minimally normal weight, a devastating fear of weight gain, relentless dietary habits that prevent weight gain, and a disturbance in the way in which body weight and shape are perceived. This condition has potentially life-threatening physiologic effects and c...
When a woman doesnt ovulate during a menstrual cycle, its called anovulation. Potential causes of anovulation include the ...
It is characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. The role of insulin resistance in the etiology of PCOS has ...
Infertile patients with oligo-anovulation: The dose of Bravelle® to stimulate development of ovarian follicles must be ... and documentation of anovulation by means of basal body temperature, serial vaginal smears, examination of cervical mucus, ...
Anovulation. EN. dc.subject. Biopsy. EN. dc.subject. Cohort Studies. EN. dc.subject. Galactorrhea. EN. ...
Amenorrhea (no periods as result of anovulation [ovulation does not occur]). *Ectopic pregnancy ...
Hypothalamic chronic anovulation.. Lachelin GC; Yen SS. Am J Obstet Gynecol; 1978 Apr; 130(7):825-31. PubMed ID: 147631. [No ...
ANOVULATION. The failure to ovulate. This is the most common cause of female infertility. There are many different causes for ... High levels of prolactin in non-pregnant women can cause anovulation.. PROSTATE GLAND. The gland encircling the urethra in men ...
Anovulation. A decreased sex drive can be distressing, especially if you are trying for a baby, and there is an obvious reason ... Anovulation, when you do not release an egg, on the other hand, is more complicated. If youre not ovulating, you cant get ... like decreased libido and anovulation which may have an impact. ...
MeSH Terms: Adult; Anovulation/epidemiology*; Anovulation/etiology; Body Mass Index*; Canada/epidemiology; Case-Control Studies ...
Oligo-/anovulation: treatment approaches that increase conception and live birth. Guidance and Management Structure of Clinical ...
Low-Dose Aspirin and Sporadic Anovulation in the EAGeR Randomized Trial. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2017 ...
2. Oligovulation or anovulation. 3. Clinical or biochemical indications of hyperandrogenism. A. Oligovulation or anovulation of ... SYMPTOMS Anovulation or oligovulation is the commonest symptom of PCOS. Some of the cysts produce androgens, which result in ...
Get free answers on any health question about the test FSH from top U.S. doctors. Or, video or text chat with a U.S. doctor 24/7 on demand for advice, prescriptions and more for an affordable fee.
Anovulation,w,5813,,0,0,0,,, 2485,9583,Whiplash Injury,r,,TRAUMA;INJURY;DAMAGE;DESTRUCTION;TRAMATIC;DAMAGED;INJURED;INJURIES,0, ...
It leads to anovulation (when a person does not ovulate).. *Improper function of the hypothalamus and pituitary glands: When ...
Anovulation, or a complete lack of ovulation, is typically caused by disorders of the HPA or hypothalamic-pituitary-ovarian ... Table 2 lists several examples of conditions or causal factors that commonly lead to anovulation and amenorrhea according to ... This, in theory, could cause anovulation; however, one study found that cocaine use is not significantly associated with ... The primary pharmacotherapy for anovulation is the oral antiestrogen clomiphene citrate [45]. For women resistant to clomiphene ...
Women with PCOS will often very long cycles and very heavy bleeding; or amenorrhea, or anovulation with scanty bleeding. (Each ...
For the adolescent with constitutional delay and anovulation, the goal should be the restoration of ovulatory cycles. If ... Other than pregnancy, constitutional delay, anovulation, and chronic illness, most other disorders that cause amenorrhea may ...
reproductive abnormalities leading often to chronic anovulation, which is characterized by not getting menses in a regular ...
Toxins affecting fertility: PBS causes decreasing sperm count; heavy metals increase anovulation, impaired implantation and ...
Anatomic causes include: - ovarian factors, which are a major cause of infertility and are related to anovulation and ... Absence of presumptive signs suggests anovulation. Ovarian failure, in which the ovaries produce no ova, may result from ... Anovulation necessitates treatment with clomipbene, human menopausal gonadotropins, or human chorionic gonadotropin; ovulation ...
  • Efficacy of different gonadotropin combinations to support ovulation induction in WHO type I anovulation infertility: clinical evidences of human recombinant FSH/human recombinant LH in a 2:1 ratio and highly purified human menopausal gonadotropin stimulation protocols. (
  • Anatomic causes include: - ovarian factors, which are a major cause of infertility and are related to anovulation and oligoovulation (infrequent ovulation). (
  • With time, testosterone therapy often results in amenorrhea (no menstruation) and anovulation (no ovulation). (
  • When these structures don't function properly, the pituitary gland produces too much prolactin (a hormone), which may lead to anovulation. (
  • PCOS is a metabolic disorder and more severe form of PCOD can lead to anovulation where ovaries stop releasing eggs. (
  • Although used and Levator Ani Assay: The classic users have with increased adipose tissue anovulation, infertility and menstrual disturbances. (
  • 1. [Treatment of the amenorrhea-galatorrhea-anovulation syndrome with bromocryptin and the results]. (
  • or amenorrhea, or anovulation with scanty bleeding. (
  • Other than pregnancy, constitutional delay, anovulation, and chronic illness, most other disorders that cause amenorrhea may require referral to a subspecialist for treatment. (
  • The impairment of progesterone-induced pituitary release of prolactin and gonadotropin in patients with hypothalamic chronic anovulation. (
  • It is characterized by hyperandrogenism and chronic anovulation. (
  • reproductive abnormalities leading often to chronic anovulation, which is characterized by not getting menses in a regular pattern. (
  • Chandeying P, Pantasri T. Prevalence of conditions causing chronic anovulation and the proposed algorithm for anovulation evaluation. (
  • If a woman does not respond to clomiphene, she may have very low FSH and estrogen levels, a condition known as hypothalamic anovulation. (
  • For the adolescent with constitutional delay and anovulation, the goal should be the restoration of ovulatory cycles. (
  • She may also display subtle menstrual abnormalities, such as anovulation, luteal phase defects, and/or changes in cycle length, but not consider herself amenorrheic. (
  • Loss of LH-induced down-regulation of anti-Müllerian hormone receptor expression may contribute to anovulation in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. (
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a clinical triad of anovulation, hyperinsulinaemia, and androgen excess. (
  • Do ovulatory hormone profiles among healthy premenopausal women differ between women with and without sporadic anovulation? (
  • Anovulation occurs sporadically in healthy premenopausal women, but the influence of hormones in a preceding cycle and the impact on a subsequent cycle's hormone levels is unknown. (
  • Women suffering from anovulation miss on the basic criteria for being pregnant. (
  • heavy metals increase anovulation, impaired implantation and loss of foetal viability. (
  • Anovulation and the polycystic ovary syndrome. (
  • Franks S, Mason H, White D, Willis D. Etiology of anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome. (
  • 12. Lysyl oxidase blockade ameliorates anovulation in polycystic ovary syndrome. (
  • Patients with chronic anovulation are at increased risk for endometrial hyperplasia and malignancy, and endometrial sampling is imperative. (
  • Chronic anovulation due to CNS-hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction. (
  • reproductive abnormalities leading often to chronic anovulation, which is characterized by not getting menses in a regular pattern. (
  • however, little is known with regard to associations with reproductive hormones or anovulation. (
  • Dunaif A. Hyperandrogenic anovulation (PCOS): a unique disorder of insulin action associated with an increased risk of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. (
  • Medical management of PCOS is aimed at the treatment of metabolic derangements, anovulation, hirsutism, and menstrual irregularity. (
  • Blood cadmium and lead levels in relation to anovulation served as the motivating example, based on findings from the BioCycle Study (2005-2007). (
  • We investigated whether intakes of dairy foods and specific nutrients were associated with reproductive hormone concentrations across the cycle and the risk of sporadic anovulation among healthy women. (