An eating disorder that is characterized by the lack or loss of APPETITE, known as ANOREXIA. Other features include excess fear of becoming OVERWEIGHT; BODY IMAGE disturbance; significant WEIGHT LOSS; refusal to maintain minimal normal weight; and AMENORRHEA. This disorder occurs most frequently in adolescent females. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 1994)
The lack or loss of APPETITE accompanied by an aversion to food and the inability to eat. It is the defining characteristic of the disorder ANOREXIA NERVOSA.
Eating an excess amount of food in a short period of time, as seen in the disorder of BULIMIA NERVOSA. It is caused by an abnormal craving for food, or insatiable hunger also known as "ox hunger".
An eating disorder that is characterized by a cycle of binge eating (BULIMIA or bingeing) followed by inappropriate acts (purging) to avert weight gain. Purging methods often include self-induced VOMITING, use of LAXATIVES or DIURETICS, excessive exercise, and FASTING.
A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.
A condition of metabolic imbalance that is caused by complications of initially feeding a severely malnourished patient too aggressively. Usually occurring within the first 5 days of refeeding, this syndrome is characterized by WATER-ELECTROLYTE IMBALANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS; and DIARRHEA.
General ill health, malnutrition, and weight loss, usually associated with chronic disease.
The consumption of edible substances.
Natural recurring desire for food. Alterations may be induced by APPETITE DEPRESSANTS or APPETITE STIMULANTS.
Agents that are used to stimulate appetite. These drugs are frequently used to treat anorexia associated with cancer and AIDS.
Absence of menstruation.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
Agents that are used to suppress appetite.
Abnormal distention of the STOMACH due to accumulation of gastric contents that may reach 10 to 15 liters. Gastric dilatation may be the result of GASTRIC OUTLET OBSTRUCTION; ILEUS; GASTROPARESIS; or denervation.
A form of group psychotherapy. It involves treatment of more than one member of the family simultaneously in the same session.
Clinical manifestation of excessive LEANNESS usually caused by disease or a lack of nutrition (MALNUTRITION).
Individuals' concept of their own bodies.
A 28-amino acid, acylated, orexigenic peptide that is a ligand for GROWTH HORMONE SECRETAGOGUE RECEPTORS. Ghrelin is widely expressed but primarily in the stomach in the adults. Ghrelin acts centrally to stimulate growth hormone secretion and food intake, and peripherally to regulate energy homeostasis. Its large precursor protein, known as appetite-regulating hormone or motilin-related peptide, contains ghrelin and obestatin.
A 16-kDa peptide hormone secreted from WHITE ADIPOCYTES. Leptin serves as a feedback signal from fat cells to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM in regulation of food intake, energy balance, and fat storage.
Physiologic mechanisms which regulate or control the appetite and food intake.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Ventral part of the DIENCEPHALON extending from the region of the OPTIC CHIASM to the caudal border of the MAMMILLARY BODIES and forming the inferior and lateral walls of the THIRD VENTRICLE.
Megestrol acetate is a progestogen with actions and uses similar to those of the progestogens in general. It also has anti-androgenic properties. It is given by mouth in the palliative treatment or as an adjunct to other therapy in endometrial carcinoma and in breast cancer. Megestrol acetate has been approved to treat anorexia and cachexia. (From Reynolds JEF(Ed): Martindale: The Extra Pharmacopoeia (electronic version). Micromedex, Inc, Englewood, CO, 1995)
The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.
Neoplastic, inflammatory, infectious, and other diseases of the hypothalamus. Clinical manifestations include appetite disorders; AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SLEEP DISORDERS; behavioral symptoms related to dysfunction of the LIMBIC SYSTEM; and neuroendocrine disorders.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.
The forcible expulsion of the contents of the STOMACH through the MOUTH.
Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Decrease in existing BODY WEIGHT.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Peptides derived from pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) which can stimulate MELANOCYTES or CORTICOTROPHS. Melanocortins include ACTH; ALPHA-MSH; and other peptides such as BETA-MSH and GAMMA-MSH, derived from other fragments of POMC. These peptides act through a variety of MELANOCORTIN RECEPTORS to control different functions including steroidogenesis, energy homeostasis, feeding, and skin pigmentation.
The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.
Death resulting from the presence of a disease in an individual, as shown by a single case report or a limited number of patients. This should be differentiated from DEATH, the physiological cessation of life and from MORTALITY, an epidemiological or statistical concept.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
Full gratification of a need or desire followed by a state of relative insensitivity to that particular need or desire.
Recurrent localized itching, swelling and painful erythema on the fingers, toes or ears, produced by exposure to cold.
Antagonist of urate oxidase.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An acute infection of the skin caused by species of STREPTOCOCCUS. This disease most frequently affects infants, young children, and the elderly. Characteristics include pink-to-red lesions that spread rapidly and are warm to the touch. The commonest site of involvement is the face.
The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.
Hormones synthesized from amino acids. They are distinguished from INTERCELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS in that their actions are systemic.
A 30-kDa protein synthesized primarily in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND and the HYPOTHALAMUS. It is also found in the skin and other peripheral tissues. Depending on species and tissues, POMC is cleaved by PROHORMONE CONVERTASES yielding various active peptides including ACTH; BETA-LIPOTROPIN; ENDORPHINS; MELANOCYTE-STIMULATING HORMONES; and others (GAMMA-LPH; CORTICOTROPIN-LIKE INTERMEDIATE LOBE PEPTIDE; N-terminal peptide of POMC or NPP).
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
A centrally active drug that apparently both blocks serotonin uptake and provokes transport-mediated serotonin release.
A 36-amino acid peptide present in many organs and in many sympathetic noradrenergic neurons. It has vasoconstrictor and natriuretic activity and regulates local blood flow, glandular secretion, and smooth muscle activity. The peptide also stimulates feeding and drinking behavior and influences secretion of pituitary hormones.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.

Role of central melanocortins in endotoxin-induced anorexia. (1/490)

Inflammation and microbial infection produce symptoms, including fever, anorexia, and hypoactivity, that are thought to be mediated by endogenous proinflammatory cytokines. Melanocortins are known to act centrally to suppress effects on fever and other sequelae of proinflammatory cytokine actions in the central nervous system, but the roles of melanocortins in anorexia and hypoactivity occurring during the acute phase response are unknown. The present study was designed to determine the effects of exogenous and endogenous alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced anorexia in relation to their effects on fever. Rats were fasted overnight to promote feeding behavior, then injected intraperitoneally with LPS (100 micrograms/kg ip), followed 30 min later by intracerebroventricular injection of either alpha-MSH or the melanocortin receptor subtype 3/subtype 4 (MC3-R/MC4-R) antagonist SHU-9119. Food intake, locomotor activity, and body temperature (Tb) were monitored during the ensuing 24-h period. Each of two intracerebroventricular doses of alpha-MSH (30 and 300 ng) potentiated the suppressive effects of LPS on food intake and locomotion, despite the fact that the higher dose alleviated LPS-induced fever. In control rats that were not treated with LPS, only the higher dose of alpha-MSH significantly inhibited food intake, and Tb and locomotor activity were unaffected. To assess the roles of endogenous central melanocortins, LPS-treated rats received intracerebroventricular SHU-9119 (200 ng). Central MC3-R/MC4-R blockade did not affect Tb or food intake in the absence of LPS treatment, but it reversed the LPS-induced reduction in 24-h food intake and increased LPS-induced fever without altering the LPS-induced suppression of locomotion. Taken together, the results suggest that exogenous and endogenous melanocortins acting centrally exert divergent influences on different aspects of the acute phase response, suppressing LPS-induced fever but contributing to LPS-induced anorexia and hypoactivity.  (+info)

Weaning anorexia may contribute to local inflammation in the piglet small intestine. (2/490)

Compromising alterations in villus-crypt structure are common in pigs postweaning. Possible contributions of local inflammatory reactions to villus-crypt alterations during the weaning transition have not been described. This study evaluated local inflammatory responses and their relationship with morphological changes in the intestine in 21-d-old pigs (n = 112) killed either at weaning (Day 0) or 0.5, 1, 2, 4 or 7 d after weaning to either milk- or soy-based pelleted diets. Cumulative intake averaged <100 g during the first 2 d postweaning, regardless of diet. During this period of weaning anorexia, inflammatory T-cell numbers and local expression of the matrix metalloproteinase stromelysin increased while jejunal villus height, crypt depth and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I RNA expression decreased. Upon resumption of feed intake by the fourth d postweaning, villus height and crypt depth, CD8(+) T cell numbers, MHC class I RNA expression and local expression of stromelysin returned to Day 0 values. Together the results indicate that inadequate feed intake during the immediate postweaning period may contribute to intestinal inflammation and thereby compromise villus-crypt structure and function.  (+info)

The hypothalamic satiety peptide CART is expressed in anorectic and non-anorectic pancreatic islet tumors and in the normal islet of Langerhans. (3/490)

The hypothalamic satiety peptide CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) is expressed at high levels in anorectic rat glucagonomas but not in hypoglycemic insulinomas. However, a non-anorectic metastasis derived from the glucagonoma retained high CART expression levels and produced circulating CART levels comparable to that of the anorectic tumors. Moreover, distinct glucagonoma lines derived by stable HES-1 transfection of the insulinoma caused severe anorexia but retained low circulating levels of CART comparable to that of insulinoma bearing or control rats. Islet tumor associated anorexia and circulating CART levels are thus not correlated, and in line with this peripheral administration of CART (5-50 mg/kg) produced no effect on feeding behavior. In the rat two alternatively spliced forms of CART mRNA exist and quantitative PCR revealed expression of both forms in the hypothalamus, in the different islet tumors, and in the islets of Langerhans. Immunocytochemistry as well as in situ hybridization localized CART expression to the somatostatin producing islet D cell. A potential endocrine/paracrine role of islet CART remains to be clarified.  (+info)

Evidence of splanchnic-brain signaling in inhibition of ingestive behavior by middle molecules. (4/490)

Anorexia, nausea, and vomiting are common symptoms of uremic intoxication. Fractions in the middle molecule weight range, isolated from normal urine and uremic plasma ultrafiltrate, inhibit ingestive behavior in the rat. To investigate their site of action and specificity, male rats were injected intraperitoneally, intravenously, or intracerebroventricularly with concentrated fractions of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate or normal urine (molecular weight range: 1.0 to 5.0 kD) and tested for ingestive and sexual behavior. An intraperitoneal injection of 0.5 ml of urine fraction (10:1) or 2.0 ml of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate fraction (25:1) inhibited carbohydrate intake by 76.3 and 45.9%, respectively, but an intravenous injection had no effect. However, intravenous injection of higher doses inhibited carbohydrate ingestion. An intracerebroventricular injection of 5 or 10 microl of urine (20:1) middle molecule fraction inhibited carbohydrate intake by 13.4 and 41.6%, respectively. An injection of 5 or 10 microl of uremic plasma ultrafiltrate (125:1) middle molecule fraction inhibited carbohydrate intake by 22.6 and 49.5%, respectively. Injections of the corresponding fraction from normal plasma ultrafiltrate had no effect. Injection of urine or uremic plasma ultrafiltrate middle molecule fractions did not affect the display of sexual behavior. These results suggest that middle molecule fractions from uremic plasma ultrafiltrate or normal urine act in the splanchnic region and/or brain to inhibit food intake and that the effect is specific for ingestive behavior.  (+info)

Capsaicin-sensitive fibers are required for the anorexic action of systemic but not central bombesin. (5/490)

Bombesin (BN) suppresses food intake in rats whether given centrally or systemically. Although the brain BN-sensitive receptors are known to be essential for the anorexic effect of systemic BN, the mode of communication between the gut and the brain remains unclear. This study assessed whether the anorexic effect of systemic BN is mediated humorally or via neural circuits. Afferent neurons were lesioned using capsaicin (50 mg/kg sc) on postnatal day 2, and responses to BN were assessed during adulthood. Capsaicin treatment decreased body weight gain significantly from postnatal age 4-7 wk. Peripheral BN (4-16 micrograms/kg ip) dose dependently suppressed food intake in control animals. However, this effect was completely blocked in capsaicin-treated rats. In contrast to systemic effects, feeding-suppressant effects of centrally administered BN (0.01-0.5 microgram icv) were not affected by capsaicin treatment. This research suggests that peripheral BN communicates with the brain via a neuronal system(s) whose afferent arm is constituted of capsaicin-sensitive C and/or Adelta-fibers, whereas the efferent arm of this satiety- and/or anorexia-mediating circuitry is capsaicin resistant.  (+info)

Role of cholecystokinin in the anorexia produced by duodenal delivery of peptone in rats. (6/490)

We used the cholecystokinin receptor antagonist devazepide to assess the importance of CCK in mediating the anorexia produced by 2-h duodenal infusions of peptone, a protein digest, at dark onset in nonfasted rats. Peptone alone (0.14-2.24 g/h) suppressed food intake dose dependently by 18-96%, with an approximate half-maximal dose of 1 g/h. Peptone-induced reductions in caloric ingestion were comparable to the caloric loads infused. Devazepide alone (30-1,000 microgram/kg) stimulated food intake dose dependently by 30-73%, with a minimal effective dose of 100 micrograms/kg. Devazepide appeared to reverse the anorexic response to peptone (1.1 g/h) dose dependently by 29-65%, with a minimal effective dose of 30 micrograms/kg. The magnitudes of these devazepide-induced effects were similar to, and in some cases were larger than, those produced when the same doses of devazepide were administered alone. Coadministration of devazepide (1,000 micrograms/kg) and a lower peptone dose (0.8 g/h) produced similar results. These results suggest that an essential CCK mechanism plays a significant role in mediating the satiety response to duodenal delivery of protein.  (+info)

Distinct patterns of neuropeptide gene expression in the lateral hypothalamic area and arcuate nucleus are associated with dehydration-induced anorexia. (7/490)

We have investigated the hormonal and hypothalamic neuropeptidergic substrates of dehydration-associated anorexia. In situ hybridization and hormone analyses of anorexic and paired food-restricted rats revealed two distinct profiles. First, both groups had the characteristic gene expression and endocrine signatures usually associated with starvation: increased neuropeptide Y and decreased proopiomelanocortin and neurotensin mRNAs in the arcuate nucleus (ARH); increased circulating glucocorticoid but reduced leptin and insulin. Dehydrated animals are strongly anorexic despite these attributes, showing that the output of leptin- and insulin-sensitive ARH neurons that ordinarily stimulate eating must be inhibited. The second pattern occurred only in anorexic animals and had two components: (1) reduced corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) mRNA in the neuroendocrine paraventricular nucleus (PVH) and (2) increased CRH and neurotensin mRNAs in the lateral hypothalamic (LHA) and retrochiasmatic areas. However, neither corticosterone nor suppressed PVH CRH gene expression is required for anorexia after dehydration because PVH CRH mRNA in dehydrated adrenalectomized animals is unchanged from euhydrated adrenalectomized controls. We also showed that LHA CRH mRNA was strongly correlated with the intensity of anorexia, increased LHA CRH gene expression preceded the onset of anorexia, and dehydrated adrenalectomized animals (which also develop anorexia) had elevated LHA CRH gene expression with a distribution pattern similar to intact animals. Finally, we identified specific efferents from the CRH-containing region of the LHA to the PVH, thereby providing a neuroanatomical framework for the integration by the PVH of neuropeptidergic signals from the ARH and the LHA. Together, these observations suggest that CRH and neurotensin neurons in the LHA constitute a novel anatomical substrate for their well known anorexic effects.  (+info)

Changes in neuropeptide Y receptors and pro-opiomelanocortin in the anorexia (anx/anx) mouse hypothalamus. (8/490)

The pro-opiomelanocortinergic (POMCergic) system originating in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus extends projections widely over the brain and has been shown to be intricately linked and parallel to the arcuate neuropeptide Y (NPY) system. Both NPY and POMC-derived peptides (melanocortins) have been strongly implicated in the control of feeding behavior, with the former exerting orexigenic effects and the latter having anorexigenic properties. Mice homozygous for the lethal anorexia (anx) mutation are hypophagic, emaciated, and exhibit anomalous processing of NPY exclusively in the arcuate nucleus, providing an interesting model to study NPY-POMC interactions. In the present study, several morphological markers were used to investigate the histochemistry and morphology of the POMC system in anx/anx mice. In situ hybridization demonstrated decreased numbers of POMC mRNA-expressing neurons in the anx/anx arcuate nucleus. In parallel, mRNA levels for both the NPY Y1 and Y5 receptors, which are expressed in POMC neurons, were decreased. Also, expression of the NPY Y2 autoreceptor was attenuated. Immunohistochemistry using antibodies against adrenocorticotropic hormone to demonstrate POMC cell bodies, against alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone to demonstrate axonal projections and against the NPY Y1 receptor to demonstrate dendritic arborizations, showed strikingly decreased immunoreactivities for all these markers. The present data suggest that degeneration of the arcuate POMC system is a feature characteristic of the anx/anx mouse. The possible relationship to the NPYergic phenotype of this animal is discussed.  (+info)

Anorexia nervosa is a psychological eating disorder characterized by an intense fear of gaining weight, a distorted body image, and extremely restrictive eating behaviors leading to significantly low body weight. It primarily affects adolescent girls and young women but can also occur in boys and men. The diagnostic criteria for anorexia nervosa, as per the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), include:

1. Restriction of energy intake relative to requirements leading to a significantly low body weight in the context of age, sex, developmental trajectory, and physical health. Significantly low weight is defined as a weight that is less than minimally normal or, for children and adolescents, less than that expected.
2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, even though underweight.
3. Disturbance in the way in which one's body weight or shape is experienced, undue influence of body weight or shape on self-evaluation, or denial of the seriousness of the current low body weight.
4. In postmenarcheal females, amenorrhea (the absence of at least three consecutive menstrual cycles). A woman is considered to have amenorrhea if her periods occur only following hormone replacement therapy.

Anorexia nervosa can manifest in two subtypes: the restricting type and the binge-eating/purging type. The restricting type involves limiting food intake without engaging in binge eating or purging behaviors, while the binge-eating/purging type includes recurrent episodes of binge eating or purging through self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas.

Anorexia nervosa can lead to severe medical complications, including but not limited to malnutrition, electrolyte imbalances, heart problems, bone density loss, and hormonal disturbances. Early identification, intervention, and comprehensive treatment, which often involve a combination of psychotherapy, nutrition counseling, and medication management, are crucial for improving outcomes and reducing the risk of long-term health consequences.

Anorexia is a medical condition defined as a loss of appetite or aversion to food, leading to significant weight loss. It can be a symptom of various underlying causes, such as mental health disorders (most commonly an eating disorder called anorexia nervosa), gastrointestinal issues, cancer, infections, or side effects of medication. In this definition, we are primarily referring to anorexia as a symptom rather than the specific eating disorder anorexia nervosa.

Anorexia nervosa is a psychological eating disorder characterized by:

1. Restriction of energy intake leading to significantly low body weight (in context of age, sex, developmental trajectory, and physical health)
2. Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat, or persistent behavior that interferes with weight gain
3. Disturbed body image, such as overvaluation of self-worth regarding shape or weight, or denial of the seriousness of low body weight

Anorexia nervosa has two subtypes: restricting type and binge eating/purging type. The restricting type involves limiting food intake without engaging in binge eating or purging behaviors (such as self-induced vomiting or misuse of laxatives, diuretics, or enemas). In contrast, the binge eating/purging type includes recurrent episodes of binge eating and compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

It is essential to differentiate between anorexia as a symptom and anorexia nervosa as a distinct psychological disorder when discussing medical definitions.

Bulimia nervosa is a mental health disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. These compensatory behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa often have a fear of gaining weight and a distorted body image, which can lead to a cycle of binge eating and purging that can be difficult to break. The disorder can have serious medical consequences, including electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dental problems, and damage to the digestive system.

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women more often than men. Treatment for bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, and nutritional counseling. If left untreated, bulimia nervosa can lead to serious health complications and negatively impact a person's quality of life.

Bulimia nervosa is a mental health disorder that is characterized by recurrent episodes of binge eating, followed by compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain. These compensatory behaviors may include self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics, fasting, or excessive exercise.

Individuals with bulimia nervosa often experience a lack of control over their eating habits and may feel intense shame, guilt, and distress about their binge eating and compensatory behaviors. The disorder can lead to serious medical complications, such as electrolyte imbalances, dehydration, dental problems, and gastrointestinal issues.

Bulimia nervosa typically begins in late adolescence or early adulthood and affects women more often than men. The exact cause of the disorder is not known, but it is believed to be related to a combination of genetic, biological, psychological, and social factors. Treatment for bulimia nervosa may include cognitive-behavioral therapy, medication, nutrition counseling, and support groups.

Eating disorders are mental health conditions characterized by significant disturbances in eating behaviors and associated distressing thoughts and emotions. They include several types of disorders, such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED). These disorders can have serious medical and psychological consequences if left untreated.

Anorexia nervosa is characterized by restrictive eating, low body weight, and an intense fear of gaining weight or becoming fat. Individuals with anorexia may also have a distorted body image and deny the severity of their low body weight.

Bulimia nervosa involves recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by compensatory behaviors such as purging (e.g., self-induced vomiting, misuse of laxatives or diuretics), fasting, or excessive exercise to prevent weight gain.

Binge eating disorder is characterized by recurrent episodes of eating large amounts of food in a short period of time, often to the point of discomfort, accompanied by feelings of loss of control and distress. Unlike bulimia nervosa, individuals with binge eating disorder do not engage in compensatory behaviors to prevent weight gain.

Other specified feeding or eating disorders (OSFED) include atypical anorexia nervosa, subthreshold bulimia nervosa, and subthreshold binge eating disorder, which may have similar symptoms to the above disorders but do not meet all the diagnostic criteria.

Eating disorders can affect people of any age, gender, race, or ethnicity, and they are often associated with other mental health conditions such as depression, anxiety, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. Treatment typically involves a combination of psychological therapy, nutrition counseling, and medical management to address both the physical and psychological aspects of the disorder.

Refeeding syndrome is a potentially fatal shift in fluid and electrolyte balance that may occur in malnourished individuals when they begin to receive nutrition. This occurs due to significant metabolic changes, including increased insulin secretion, which leads to shifts of fluids and electrolytes from the extracellular to intracellular space.

This shift can result in hypophosphatemia (low phosphate levels), hypokalemia (low potassium levels), hypomagnesemia (low magnesium levels), and fluid overload, which can cause serious complications such as heart failure, seizures, and even death if not properly managed. It's important to monitor and correct electrolyte imbalances and fluid status during refeeding to prevent these complications.

Cachexia is a complex metabolic disorder characterized by severe weight loss, muscle wasting, and weakness. It is often associated with chronic diseases such as cancer, HIV/AIDS, heart failure, kidney disease, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cachexia differs from simple malnutrition or starvation in that it involves a significant loss of muscle mass and an imbalance in energy metabolism, even when adequate calories are consumed.

The hallmark features of cachexia include:

1. Weight loss: Unintentional loss of more than 5% of body weight over 12 months or less, or more than 2% in individuals already underweight.
2. Muscle wasting: Reduction in skeletal muscle mass and strength, leading to weakness and functional impairment.
3. Fatigue and anorexia: Decreased appetite and reduced food intake due to various factors such as inflammation, hormonal imbalances, and psychological distress.
4. Inflammation: Elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNF-α, IL-1, IL-6) that contribute to metabolic dysregulation and muscle wasting.
5. Insulin resistance: Impaired glucose uptake and utilization by cells, leading to increased blood glucose levels and altered energy metabolism.
6. Altered protein metabolism: Increased protein breakdown and decreased protein synthesis in skeletal muscles, contributing to muscle wasting.
7. Altered lipid metabolism: Increased lipolysis (breakdown of fat) and impaired lipogenesis (formation of fat), leading to loss of adipose tissue and altered energy storage.

Cachexia significantly impacts patients' quality of life, treatment outcomes, and overall survival. Currently, there is no single effective treatment for cachexia, and management typically involves addressing the underlying disease, nutritional support, exercise interventions, and pharmacological therapies to target specific aspects of the metabolic dysregulation associated with this condition.

The medical definition of "eating" refers to the process of consuming and ingesting food or nutrients into the body. This process typically involves several steps, including:

1. Food preparation: This may involve cleaning, chopping, cooking, or combining ingredients to make them ready for consumption.
2. Ingestion: The act of taking food or nutrients into the mouth and swallowing it.
3. Digestion: Once food is ingested, it travels down the esophagus and enters the stomach, where it is broken down by enzymes and acids to facilitate absorption of nutrients.
4. Absorption: Nutrients are absorbed through the walls of the small intestine and transported to cells throughout the body for use as energy or building blocks for growth and repair.
5. Elimination: Undigested food and waste products are eliminated from the body through the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Eating is an essential function that provides the body with the nutrients it needs to maintain health, grow, and repair itself. Disorders of eating, such as anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, can have serious consequences for physical and mental health.

Appetite is the desire to eat or drink something, which is often driven by feelings of hunger or thirst. It is a complex process that involves both physiological and psychological factors. Physiologically, appetite is influenced by the body's need for energy and nutrients, as well as various hormones and neurotransmitters that regulate hunger and satiety signals in the brain. Psychologically, appetite can be affected by emotions, mood, stress levels, and social factors such as the sight or smell of food.

In medical terms, a loss of appetite is often referred to as anorexia, which can be caused by various factors such as illness, medication, infection, or psychological conditions like depression. On the other hand, an excessive or abnormal appetite is known as polyphagia and can be a symptom of certain medical conditions such as diabetes or hyperthyroidism.

It's important to note that while "anorexia" is a medical term used to describe loss of appetite, it should not be confused with the eating disorder anorexia nervosa, which is a serious mental health condition characterized by restrictive eating, distorted body image, and fear of gaining weight.

Appetite stimulants are medications or substances that increase the desire to eat or improve appetite. They work by affecting brain chemicals, hormones, or other systems involved in regulating hunger and fullness. Some commonly used appetite stimulants include:

1. Megestrol acetate: a synthetic progestin hormone that is often prescribed for cancer-related weight loss and anorexia. It works by stimulating appetite and promoting weight gain.
2. Dronabinol: a synthetic form of THC, the active ingredient in marijuana. It is approved for treating AIDS-related anorexia and chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Dronabinol can increase appetite and promote weight gain.
3. Corticosteroids: medications that mimic the effects of hormones produced by the adrenal gland. They can help improve appetite, but their long-term use is associated with significant side effects.
4. Cyproheptadine: an antihistamine medication that can also stimulate appetite. It is sometimes used off-label to treat appetite loss in various conditions, such as cancer or HIV/AIDS.
5. Ghrelin agonists: these are medications that mimic the effects of ghrelin, a hormone produced by the stomach that increases hunger and appetite. Currently, there are no FDA-approved ghrelin agonists for appetite stimulation, but research is ongoing.

It's important to note that while appetite stimulants can help improve food intake in some individuals, they may not be effective for everyone, and their use should be carefully monitored due to potential side effects and interactions with other medications. Always consult a healthcare professional before starting any new medication or supplement.

Amenorrhea is a medical condition characterized by the absence or cessation of menstrual periods in women of reproductive age. It can be categorized as primary amenorrhea, when a woman who has not yet had her first period at the expected age (usually around 16 years old), or secondary amenorrhea, when a woman who has previously had regular periods stops getting them for six months or more.

There are various causes of amenorrhea, including hormonal imbalances, pregnancy, breastfeeding, menopause, extreme weight loss or gain, eating disorders, intense exercise, stress, chronic illness, tumors, and certain medications or medical treatments. In some cases, amenorrhea may indicate an underlying medical condition that requires further evaluation and treatment.

Amenorrhea can have significant impacts on a woman's health and quality of life, including infertility, bone loss, and emotional distress. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider if you experience amenorrhea or missed periods to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Feeding behavior refers to the various actions and mechanisms involved in the intake of food and nutrition for the purpose of sustaining life, growth, and health. This complex process encompasses a coordinated series of activities, including:

1. Food selection: The identification, pursuit, and acquisition of appropriate food sources based on sensory cues (smell, taste, appearance) and individual preferences.
2. Preparation: The manipulation and processing of food to make it suitable for consumption, such as chewing, grinding, or chopping.
3. Ingestion: The act of transferring food from the oral cavity into the digestive system through swallowing.
4. Digestion: The mechanical and chemical breakdown of food within the gastrointestinal tract to facilitate nutrient absorption and eliminate waste products.
5. Assimilation: The uptake and utilization of absorbed nutrients by cells and tissues for energy production, growth, repair, and maintenance.
6. Elimination: The removal of undigested material and waste products from the body through defecation.

Feeding behavior is regulated by a complex interplay between neural, hormonal, and psychological factors that help maintain energy balance and ensure adequate nutrient intake. Disruptions in feeding behavior can lead to various medical conditions, such as malnutrition, obesity, eating disorders, and gastrointestinal motility disorders.

Appetite depressants are medications or substances that reduce or suppress feelings of hunger and appetite. They can be prescribed to treat various medical conditions, such as obesity or binge eating disorder, where weight loss is a recommended treatment goal. Some common appetite depressants include:

1. Phentermine: This medication works by stimulating the release of certain neurotransmitters in the brain that help suppress appetite and increase metabolism. It is often prescribed for short-term use (up to 12 weeks) as part of a comprehensive weight loss plan.

2. Diethylpropion: Similar to phentermine, diethylpropion stimulates the release of neurotransmitters that suppress appetite and increase metabolism. It is also prescribed for short-term use in treating obesity.

3. Naltrexone-bupropion (Contrave): This combination medication helps manage weight by reducing appetite and increasing feelings of fullness. Naltrexone is an opioid antagonist that blocks the rewarding effects of food, while bupropion is an antidepressant that can help reduce cravings for high-calorie foods.

4. Lorcaserin (Belviq): This medication works by selectively activating serotonin receptors in the brain, which helps promote satiety and reduce appetite. It was withdrawn from the US market in 2020 due to concerns about its potential link to an increased risk of cancer.

5. Topiramate (Topamax): Although primarily used as an anticonvulsant, topiramate has also been found to have appetite-suppressing effects. It is often combined with phentermine in a single formulation (Qsymia) for the treatment of obesity.

6. Cannabis: Some studies suggest that cannabinoids, the active compounds in marijuana, may help reduce hunger and promote weight loss by interacting with the endocannabinoid system in the body. However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential as an appetite depressant.

It's important to note that appetite suppressants should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional and as part of a comprehensive weight management plan. These medications can have side effects and potential risks, so it's crucial to discuss their use with your doctor before starting any new treatment regimen.

Gastric dilatation, also known as stomach dilation or distention, refers to the abnormal enlargement or expansion of the stomach. This condition often occurs when the stomach fills with gas, food, or fluids and is unable to empty properly. Gastric dilatation can be caused by various factors such as overeating, swallowing excessive air, gastroparesis (delayed gastric emptying), intestinal obstruction, or certain medical conditions like hiatal hernia or pregnancy.

In severe cases, gastric dilatation may lead to gastric volvulus, where the stomach twists on itself, cutting off its blood supply and leading to ischemia and necrosis of the stomach tissue. This is a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms of gastric dilatation include abdominal pain, bloating, vomiting, loss of appetite, and difficulty breathing.

Family therapy, also known as family systems therapy, is a type of psychological counseling that involves all members of a nuclear or extended family. Its primary goal is to promote understanding and improve communication between family members in order to resolve conflicts and foster healthy relationships. It is based on the belief that the family system is an interconnected unit and that changes in one part of the system affect the other parts as well.

Family therapy can be used to address a wide range of issues, including behavioral problems in children and adolescents, mental health disorders such as depression and anxiety, substance abuse, marital conflicts, and chronic illness or disability. The therapist will typically observe the family's interaction patterns and communication styles during sessions and provide feedback and guidance on how to make positive changes.

Family therapy can be conducted with the entire family present in the same room, or it may involve individual sessions with different family members. The number of sessions required will depend on the severity and complexity of the issues being addressed. It is important for all family members to be open and willing to participate in the therapy process in order for it to be effective.

Emaciation is a state of extreme leanness or thinness, often due to lack of nutrition or disease. It is characterized by significant loss of body fat and muscle mass, resulting in a noticeable decrease in overall body weight. Emaciation can be a serious medical condition that requires immediate attention and treatment. In addition to malnutrition and various diseases, emaciation can also result from substance abuse, eating disorders, or mental health conditions such as depression and anxiety. It is important to consult with a healthcare professional if you are experiencing unexplained weight loss or signs of emaciation.

Body image is a person's perception and attitude towards their own physical appearance, shape, and size. It involves how a person thinks and feels about their body, including their self-perceived strengths and flaws. Body image can be influenced by many factors, such as cultural and societal standards of beauty, personal experiences, and media messages. A positive body image is associated with higher self-esteem, confidence, and overall well-being, while a negative body image can contribute to emotional distress, anxiety, depression, and disordered eating behaviors.

Ghrelin is a hormone primarily produced and released by the stomach with some production in the small intestine, pancreas, and brain. It is often referred to as the "hunger hormone" because it stimulates appetite, promotes food intake, and contributes to the regulation of energy balance.

Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after eating. In addition to its role in regulating appetite and meal initiation, ghrelin also has other functions, such as modulating glucose metabolism, insulin secretion, gastric motility, and cardiovascular function. Its receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R), is found in various tissues throughout the body, indicating its wide range of physiological roles.

Leptin is a hormone primarily produced and released by adipocytes, which are the fat cells in our body. It plays a crucial role in regulating energy balance and appetite by sending signals to the brain when the body has had enough food. This helps control body weight by suppressing hunger and increasing energy expenditure. Leptin also influences various metabolic processes, including glucose homeostasis, neuroendocrine function, and immune response. Defects in leptin signaling can lead to obesity and other metabolic disorders.

Appetite regulation refers to the physiological and psychological processes that control and influence the desire to eat food. This complex system involves a variety of hormones, neurotransmitters, and neural pathways that work together to help maintain energy balance and regulate body weight. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a key role in appetite regulation by integrating signals from the digestive system, fat cells, and other organs to adjust feelings of hunger and fullness.

The hormones leptin and ghrelin are also important regulators of appetite. Leptin is released from fat cells and acts on the hypothalamus to suppress appetite and promote weight loss, while ghrelin is produced in the stomach and stimulates appetite and promotes weight gain. Other factors that can influence appetite regulation include stress, emotions, sleep patterns, and cultural influences.

Abnormalities in appetite regulation can contribute to the development of eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder, as well as obesity and other health problems. Understanding the mechanisms of appetite regulation is an important area of research for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

Body Mass Index (BMI) is a measure used to assess whether a person has a healthy weight for their height. It's calculated by dividing a person's weight in kilograms by the square of their height in meters. Here is the medical definition:

Body Mass Index (BMI) = weight(kg) / [height(m)]^2

According to the World Health Organization, BMI categories are defined as follows:

* Less than 18.5: Underweight
* 18.5-24.9: Normal or healthy weight
* 25.0-29.9: Overweight
* 30.0 and above: Obese

It is important to note that while BMI can be a useful tool for identifying weight issues in populations, it does have limitations when applied to individuals. For example, it may not accurately reflect body fat distribution or muscle mass, which can affect health risks associated with excess weight. Therefore, BMI should be used as one of several factors when evaluating an individual's health status and risk for chronic diseases.

The hypothalamus is a small, vital region of the brain that lies just below the thalamus and forms part of the limbic system. It plays a crucial role in many important functions including:

1. Regulation of body temperature, hunger, thirst, fatigue, sleep, and circadian rhythms.
2. Production and regulation of hormones through its connection with the pituitary gland (the hypophysis). It controls the release of various hormones by producing releasing and inhibiting factors that regulate the anterior pituitary's function.
3. Emotional responses, behavior, and memory formation through its connections with the limbic system structures like the amygdala and hippocampus.
4. Autonomic nervous system regulation, which controls involuntary physiological functions such as heart rate, blood pressure, and digestion.
5. Regulation of the immune system by interacting with the autonomic nervous system.

Damage to the hypothalamus can lead to various disorders like diabetes insipidus, growth hormone deficiency, altered temperature regulation, sleep disturbances, and emotional or behavioral changes.

Megestrol acetate is a synthetic progestin, which is a hormone that acts like progesterone in the body. It is used to treat various conditions such as endometrial cancer, breast cancer, and anorexia associated with AIDS. It works by blocking the action of certain hormones in the body, which can slow or stop the growth of some types of cancer cells. In addition, megestrol acetate can help increase appetite and weight gain in people with HIV/AIDS.

The medication is available in various forms, including tablets and oral suspension, and its use should be under the supervision of a healthcare professional who will determine the appropriate dosage based on the patient's medical condition and response to treatment. Common side effects of megestrol acetate include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, gas, headache, dizziness, and changes in mood or sex drive.

In medical terms, "hunger" is not specifically defined as a clinical condition. However, it generally refers to the physiological need or desire for food and calories, driven by mechanisms in the brain and body that regulate energy balance. This sensation often arises when the body's energy stores are depleted, or when there has been a prolonged period without food intake.

Hunger is primarily mediated by hormones such as ghrelin, which stimulates appetite, and leptin, which signals satiety. The hypothalamus in the brain plays a crucial role in integrating these hormonal signals to regulate hunger and energy balance. Additionally, other factors like sleep deprivation, stress, and certain medical conditions can also influence feelings of hunger.

Hypothalamic diseases refer to conditions that affect the hypothalamus, a small but crucial region of the brain responsible for regulating many vital functions in the body. The hypothalamus helps control:

1. Body temperature
2. Hunger and thirst
3. Sleep cycles
4. Emotions and behavior
5. Release of hormones from the pituitary gland

Hypothalamic diseases can be caused by genetic factors, infections, tumors, trauma, or other conditions that damage the hypothalamus. Some examples of hypothalamic diseases include:

1. Hypothalamic dysfunction syndrome: A condition characterized by various symptoms such as obesity, sleep disturbances, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic damage.
2. Kallmann syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the development of the hypothalamus and results in a lack of sexual maturation and a decreased sense of smell.
3. Prader-Willi syndrome: A genetic disorder that causes obesity, developmental delays, and hormonal imbalances due to hypothalamic dysfunction.
4. Craniopharyngiomas: Tumors that develop near the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, often causing visual impairment, hormonal imbalances, and growth problems.
5. Infiltrative diseases: Conditions such as sarcoidosis or histiocytosis can infiltrate the hypothalamus, leading to various symptoms related to hormonal imbalances and neurological dysfunction.
6. Traumatic brain injury: Damage to the hypothalamus due to head trauma can result in various hormonal and neurological issues.
7. Infections: Bacterial or viral infections that affect the hypothalamus, such as encephalitis or meningitis, can cause damage and lead to hypothalamic dysfunction.

Treatment for hypothalamic diseases depends on the underlying cause and may involve medications, surgery, hormone replacement therapy, or other interventions to manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Nutrition disorders refer to conditions that result from eating, drinking, or absorbing nutrients in a way that is not consistent with human physiological needs. These disorders can manifest as both undernutrition and overnutrition. Undernutrition includes disorders such as protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, and mineral deficiencies, while overnutrition includes conditions such as obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Malnutrition is the broad term used to describe a state in which a person's nutrient intake is insufficient or excessive, leading to negative consequences for their health. Malnutrition can be caused by a variety of factors, including poverty, food insecurity, lack of education, cultural practices, and chronic diseases.

In addition to under- and overnutrition, disordered eating patterns such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders can also be considered nutrition disorders. These conditions are characterized by abnormal eating habits that can lead to serious health consequences, including malnutrition, organ damage, and mental health problems.

Overall, nutrition disorders are complex conditions that can have significant impacts on a person's physical and mental health. They require careful assessment, diagnosis, and treatment by healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition and dietetics.

Vomiting is defined in medical terms as the forceful expulsion of stomach contents through the mouth. It is a violent, involuntary act that is usually accompanied by strong contractions of the abdominal muscles and retching. The body's vomiting reflex is typically triggered when the brain receives signals from the digestive system that something is amiss.

There are many potential causes of vomiting, including gastrointestinal infections, food poisoning, motion sickness, pregnancy, alcohol consumption, and certain medications or medical conditions. In some cases, vomiting can be a symptom of a more serious underlying condition, such as a brain injury, concussion, or chemical imbalance in the body.

Vomiting is generally not considered a serious medical emergency on its own, but it can lead to dehydration and other complications if left untreated. If vomiting persists for an extended period of time, or if it is accompanied by other concerning symptoms such as severe abdominal pain, fever, or difficulty breathing, it is important to seek medical attention promptly.

There is no medical definition for "dog diseases" as it is too broad a term. However, dogs can suffer from various health conditions and illnesses that are specific to their species or similar to those found in humans. Some common categories of dog diseases include:

1. Infectious Diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include distemper, parvovirus, kennel cough, Lyme disease, and heartworms.
2. Hereditary/Genetic Disorders: Some dogs may inherit certain genetic disorders from their parents. Examples include hip dysplasia, elbow dysplasia, progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), and degenerative myelopathy.
3. Age-Related Diseases: As dogs age, they become more susceptible to various health issues. Common age-related diseases in dogs include arthritis, dental disease, cancer, and cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CDS).
4. Nutritional Disorders: Malnutrition or improper feeding can lead to various health problems in dogs. Examples include obesity, malnutrition, and vitamin deficiencies.
5. Environmental Diseases: These are caused by exposure to environmental factors such as toxins, allergens, or extreme temperatures. Examples include heatstroke, frostbite, and toxicities from ingesting harmful substances.
6. Neurological Disorders: Dogs can suffer from various neurological conditions that affect their nervous system. Examples include epilepsy, intervertebral disc disease (IVDD), and vestibular disease.
7. Behavioral Disorders: Some dogs may develop behavioral issues due to various factors such as anxiety, fear, or aggression. Examples include separation anxiety, noise phobias, and resource guarding.

It's important to note that regular veterinary care, proper nutrition, exercise, and preventative measures can help reduce the risk of many dog diseases.

Weight loss is a reduction in body weight attributed to loss of fluid, fat, muscle, or bone mass. It can be intentional through dieting and exercise or unintentional due to illness or disease. Unintentional weight loss is often a cause for concern and should be evaluated by a healthcare professional to determine the underlying cause and develop an appropriate treatment plan. Rapid or significant weight loss can also have serious health consequences, so it's important to approach any weight loss plan in a healthy and sustainable way.

"Energy intake" is a medical term that refers to the amount of energy or calories consumed through food and drink. It is an important concept in the study of nutrition, metabolism, and energy balance, and is often used in research and clinical settings to assess an individual's dietary habits and health status.

Energy intake is typically measured in kilocalories (kcal) or joules (J), with one kcal equivalent to approximately 4.184 J. The recommended daily energy intake varies depending on factors such as age, sex, weight, height, physical activity level, and overall health status.

It's important to note that excessive energy intake, particularly when combined with a sedentary lifestyle, can lead to weight gain and an increased risk of chronic diseases such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. On the other hand, inadequate energy intake can lead to malnutrition, decreased immune function, and other health problems. Therefore, it's essential to maintain a balanced energy intake that meets individual nutritional needs while promoting overall health and well-being.

Melanocortins are a group of peptides that are derived from the post-translational processing of the proopiomelanocortin (POMC) gene. This gene is expressed in various tissues, including the pituitary gland, hypothalamus, and skin. The POMC precursor protein is cleaved into several active peptides, including adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), β-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), γ-MSH, and α-MSH. These melanocortins exert their effects through binding to melanocortin receptors (MCRs), which are G protein-coupled receptors.

The different melanocortins have distinct physiological roles, but they all share some common functions, such as modulating pigmentation, energy homeostasis, and immune responses. For instance, α-MSH and β-MSH bind to MCRs in the skin and increase melanin production, leading to skin tanning. Additionally, α-MSH can act on MCRs in the hypothalamus to regulate appetite and energy expenditure. ACTH, on the other hand, primarily stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland, but it can also bind to MCRs and influence pigmentation and sexual behavior.

Overall, melanocortins are crucial signaling molecules that play a significant role in various physiological processes, and dysregulation of melanocortin signaling has been implicated in several diseases, including obesity, depression, and skin disorders.

Body composition refers to the relative proportions of different components that make up a person's body, including fat mass, lean muscle mass, bone mass, and total body water. It is an important measure of health and fitness, as changes in body composition can indicate shifts in overall health status. For example, an increase in fat mass and decrease in lean muscle mass can be indicative of poor nutrition, sedentary behavior, or certain medical conditions.

There are several methods for measuring body composition, including:

1. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This method uses low-level electrical currents to estimate body fat percentage based on the conductivity of different tissues.
2. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This method uses low-dose X-rays to measure bone density and body composition, including lean muscle mass and fat distribution.
3. Hydrostatic weighing: This method involves submerging a person in water and measuring their weight underwater to estimate body density and fat mass.
4. Air displacement plethysmography (ADP): This method uses air displacement to measure body volume and density, which can be used to estimate body composition.

Understanding body composition can help individuals make informed decisions about their health and fitness goals, as well as provide valuable information for healthcare providers in the management of chronic diseases such as obesity, diabetes, and heart disease.

A fatal outcome is a term used in medical context to describe a situation where a disease, injury, or illness results in the death of an individual. It is the most severe and unfortunate possible outcome of any medical condition, and is often used as a measure of the severity and prognosis of various diseases and injuries. In clinical trials and research, fatal outcome may be used as an endpoint to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of different treatments or interventions.

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the body's function is not maintained. It can also refer to a deficiency or excess of vitamins, minerals, protein, energy, and/or water. This condition can have negative effects on physical and mental health. Malnutrition includes undernutrition (wasting, stunting, underweight), overnutrition (overweight, obesity) and micronutrient deficiencies or excesses.

It's important to note that malnutrition is different from malabsorption, which is the inability to absorb nutrients from food. Malabsorption can also lead to malnutrition if it results in a lack of necessary nutrients for the body's function.

Satiation is a term used in the field of nutrition and physiology, which refers to the feeling of fullness or satisfaction that one experiences after eating food. It is the point at which further consumption of food no longer adds to the sensation of hunger or the desire to eat. This response is influenced by various factors such as the type and amount of food consumed, nutrient composition, energy density, individual appetite regulatory hormones, and gastric distension.

Satiation plays a crucial role in regulating food intake and maintaining energy balance. Understanding the mechanisms underlying satiation can help individuals make healthier food choices and prevent overeating, thereby reducing the risk of obesity and other related health issues.

Chilblains are small, itchy, painful swellings on the skin that occur as a reaction to cold and damp conditions. They most often affect the extremities, such as the fingers, ears, and toes. The medical term for chilblains is "perniosis." Chilblains can cause the skin to turn red, purple, or blue, and they may also become painful, swollen, and sensitive to touch. In severe cases, chilblains can lead to blistering, open sores, and infection.

Chilblains occur when the small blood vessels in the skin constrict in response to cold temperatures, causing a lack of oxygen and nutrients to reach the skin tissue. When the skin is then exposed to warmth, the blood vessels dilate rapidly, leading to leakage of fluid into the surrounding tissues and inflammation.

Chilblains are more common in people who have poor circulation or who are sensitive to cold temperatures. They can be prevented by keeping the skin warm and dry, avoiding sudden changes in temperature, and wearing protective clothing when exposed to cold conditions. Treatment typically involves relieving symptoms with warm compresses, elevating the affected area, and avoiding further exposure to cold. In some cases, medication may be necessary to reduce inflammation and promote healing.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Oxonic Acid" is not a recognized term in medical or clinical sciences. It is, however, a chemical compound with the formula C5H7NO5. It is a type of organic acid that is used in research and industrial settings, particularly as a precursor in the synthesis of other chemicals.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them for you!

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Erysipelas is a skin infection characterized by the rapid onset of sharply demarcated, raised, and indurated (hardened) red plaques or patches with surrounding edema (swelling). It is typically caused by group A Streptococcus bacteria (\*Streptococcus pyogenes*). The infection involves the upper dermis and superficial lymphatics, resulting in painful, tender, warm, and erythematous (red) lesions. Erysipelas can also present with fever, chills, malaise, and generalized fatigue. Common sites for this infection include the face and lower extremities. Treatment usually involves antibiotics to eliminate the bacterial infection and supportive care to manage symptoms. If left untreated, erysipelas can lead to severe complications such as sepsis or necrotizing fasciitis.

Bone density refers to the amount of bone mineral content (usually measured in grams) in a given volume of bone (usually measured in cubic centimeters). It is often used as an indicator of bone strength and fracture risk. Bone density is typically measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans, which provide a T-score that compares the patient's bone density to that of a young adult reference population. A T-score of -1 or above is considered normal, while a T-score between -1 and -2.5 indicates osteopenia (low bone mass), and a T-score below -2.5 indicates osteoporosis (porous bones). Regular exercise, adequate calcium and vitamin D intake, and medication (if necessary) can help maintain or improve bone density and prevent fractures.

Peptide hormones are a type of hormone consisting of short chains of amino acids known as peptides. They are produced and released by various endocrine glands and play crucial roles in regulating many physiological processes in the body, including growth and development, metabolism, stress response, and reproductive functions.

Peptide hormones exert their effects by binding to specific receptors on the surface of target cells, which triggers a series of intracellular signaling events that ultimately lead to changes in cell behavior or function. Some examples of peptide hormones include insulin, glucagon, growth hormone, prolactin, oxytocin, and vasopressin.

Peptide hormones are synthesized as larger precursor proteins called prohormones, which are cleaved by enzymes to release the active peptide hormone. They are water-soluble and cannot pass through the cell membrane, so they exert their effects through autocrine, paracrine, or endocrine mechanisms. Autocrine signaling occurs when a cell releases a hormone that binds to receptors on the same cell, while paracrine signaling involves the release of a hormone that acts on nearby cells. Endocrine signaling, on the other hand, involves the release of a hormone into the bloodstream, which then travels to distant target cells to exert its effects.

Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) is a precursor protein that gets cleaved into several biologically active peptides in the body. These peptides include adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), beta-lipotropin, and multiple opioid peptides such as beta-endorphin, met-enkephalin, and leu-enkephalin.

ACTH stimulates the release of cortisol from the adrenal gland, while beta-lipotropin has various metabolic functions. The opioid peptides derived from POMC have pain-relieving (analgesic) and rewarding effects in the brain. Dysregulation of the POMC system has been implicated in several medical conditions, including obesity, addiction, and certain types of hormone deficiencies.

Nutritional status is a concept that refers to the condition of an individual in relation to their nutrient intake, absorption, metabolism, and excretion. It encompasses various aspects such as body weight, muscle mass, fat distribution, presence of any deficiencies or excesses of specific nutrients, and overall health status.

A comprehensive assessment of nutritional status typically includes a review of dietary intake, anthropometric measurements (such as height, weight, waist circumference, blood pressure), laboratory tests (such as serum albumin, total protein, cholesterol levels, vitamin and mineral levels), and clinical evaluation for signs of malnutrition or overnutrition.

Malnutrition can result from inadequate intake or absorption of nutrients, increased nutrient requirements due to illness or injury, or excessive loss of nutrients due to medical conditions. On the other hand, overnutrition can lead to obesity and related health problems such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Therefore, maintaining a good nutritional status is essential for overall health and well-being, and it is an important consideration in the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of various medical conditions.

Fenfluramine is a drug that was previously used for the short-term treatment of obesity. It works by suppressing appetite and increasing the feeling of fullness. Fenfluramine is an amphetamine derivative and stimulates the release of serotonin, a neurotransmitter in the brain that helps regulate mood, appetite, and sleep.

Fenfluramine was commonly prescribed in combination with phentermine, another appetite suppressant, under the brand name Fen-Phen. However, in 1997, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued a public health warning about the potential risk of serious heart valve damage associated with the use of fenfluramine and withdrew its approval for the drug's use. Since then, fenfluramine has not been approved for medical use in many countries, including the United States.

Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a neurotransmitter and neuropeptide that is widely distributed in the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is a member of the pancreatic polypeptide family, which includes peptide YY and pancreatic polypeptide. NPY plays important roles in various physiological functions such as energy balance, feeding behavior, stress response, anxiety, memory, and cardiovascular regulation. It is involved in the modulation of neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and neural development. NPY is synthesized from a larger precursor protein called prepro-NPY, which is post-translationally processed to generate the mature NPY peptide. The NPY system has been implicated in various pathological conditions such as obesity, depression, anxiety disorders, hypertension, and drug addiction.

Neoplasms are abnormal growths of cells or tissues in the body that serve no physiological function. They can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign neoplasms are typically slow growing and do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant neoplasms are aggressive, invasive, and can metastasize to distant sites.

Neoplasms occur when there is a dysregulation in the normal process of cell division and differentiation, leading to uncontrolled growth and accumulation of cells. This can result from genetic mutations or other factors such as viral infections, environmental exposures, or hormonal imbalances.

Neoplasms can develop in any organ or tissue of the body and can cause various symptoms depending on their size, location, and type. Treatment options for neoplasms include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted therapy, among others.

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Anorexia is not to be confused with the mental health disorder anorexia nervosa. Because the term 'anorexia' is often used as a ... Individuals with anorexia nervosa may seek them to suppress appetite.) Topiramate may cause anorexia as a side effect. Other ... An anorexic or anorectic is also a description given to substances that cause anorexia for weight loss purposes. Anorexia ... In these species, anorexia may be referred to as inappetence. As in humans, loss of appetite can be due to a range of diseases ...
With sports anorexia, it is important to go to a dietitian as well as a personal trainer. People with sports anorexia need to ... Anorexia athletica (sports anorexia), also referred to as hypergymnasia, is an eating disorder characterized by excessive and ... Research has shown that an area on chromosome 1 is linked to anorexia nervosa-sports anorexia. Thus, a person is more likely to ... A study at the Anorexia Centre at Huddinge Hospital in Stockholm, Sweden showed that sports anorexia can result in mental ...
Look up anorexia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. Anorexia may refer to: Anorexia (symptom), the symptom of poor appetite ... for the sake of piety Anorexia Nervosa (band), a French symphonic black metal band Anorexia Nervosa, a two-part album by the ... band Showbread Anorexia (album) Nervosa (album) Sexual anorexia, a lack of "appetite" for romantic-sexual interaction Anorectic ... an eating disorder of excessive weight loss and usually undue concern about body shape Anorexia mirabilis, people who would ...
Overall, the remission rates of atypical anorexia nervosa and anorexia nervosa are similar at 71% for atypical anorexia nervosa ... Atypical anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder in which individuals meet all the qualifications for anorexia nervosa, ... The current consensus is that atypical anorexia patients are at risk for many of the same medical complications of anorexia ... A calorie range of 1000-1400 kcal is recommended when first starting treatment for anorexia nervosa or atypical anorexia ...
Anorexia Nervosa (full name Anorexia Nervosa the Nihilistic Orchestra) was formed in 1991 as Necromancia, with a line-up ... "Anorexia Nervosa Biography", Allmusic, Macrovision Corporation "ANOREXIA NERVOSA Vocalist Quits Archived June 26, 2007, at the ... Anorexia Nervosa is a French symphonic black metal band from Limoges, formed in 1991. They are currently "on hold" due to the ... Anorexia Nervosa then went on hiatus for three years, returning with a new album, Redemption Process in 2004, now on Listenable ...
... (IIA) performs a vital function during an infection. That is, anorexia is an active defence ... During infection-induced anorexia, autophagic flux is upregulated systemically. A decrease in serum amino acids during an ... v t e (Anorexia nervosa, All stub articles, Medicine stubs). ... "Autophagy-A free meal in sickness-associated anorexia". ... Exton, M. S. (December 1997). "Infection-induced anorexia: active host defence strategy". Appetite. 29 (3): 369-383. doi: ...
... is the promotion of behaviors related to the eating disorder anorexia nervosa. It is often referred to ... The scientific community recognises anorexia nervosa as a serious illness. Some research suggests anorexia nervosa has the ... "Pro-anorexia, weight-loss drugs and the internet: an "anti-recovery" explanatory model of anorexia" (PDF), Sociology of Health ... Over Pro-Anorexia Content". The Daily Beast. Retrieved 16 June 2023. EDM 659 Anorexia Web Sites, UK Parliament, 3 February 2009 ...
The term anorexia nervosa was established in 1873 by Queen Victoria's personal physician, Sir William Gull. The term anorexia ... Holy Anorexia. U Chicago P Hepworth, Julie. 1999. The Social Construction of Anorexia Nervosa. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage ... Lasègue's paper, it had equally occurred to me that Anorexia would be more correct. Although the medical facts of anorexia ... Her death on February 4, 1983, was attributed to heart failure as a consequence of anorexia nervosa. Awareness of anorexia ...
Exile is the first studio album by the French symphonic black metal band Anorexia Nervosa. It was released in 1997, through ... All tracks are written by Marc Zabé and Stéphane Gerbaut Anorexia Nervosa Pierre Couquet - bass guitar Nilcas Vant - drums Marc ... Anorexia Nervosa (band) albums, 1997 debut albums, Season of Mist albums). ...
Anorexia Nervosa is a psychological disorder characterized by extremely reduced intake of food. People with anorexia nervosa ... Anorexia and weight loss also may occur with SLE and while rare it may be misdiagnosed as AN. Lyme disease is known as the " ... Lin, L.; Liao, S. C.; Lee, Y. J.; Tseng, M. C.; Lee, M. B. (2003). "Brain tumor presenting as anorexia nervosa in a 19-year-old ... While BDD has been misdiagnosed as anorexia nervosa, it also occurs comorbidly in 25% to 39% of AN cases. BDD is a chronic and ...
This is a list of notable people who had anorexia nervosa. Often simply known as anorexia, this is an eating disorder which is ... "Kings of Leon's Caleb Followill Admits to Struggling With Anorexia". Sams, Christine (6 June 2004). "Anorexia almost killed me ... List of people with bulimia nervosa List of deaths from anorexia nervosa "Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia Nervosa." The New ... People with anorexia usually restrict their caloric intake and limit types of food they eat. Some people are also known to ...
This is a list of notable people who have died from anorexia nervosa, in chronological order. 1380: Catherine of Siena - ... "Brazil Model Who Battled Anorexia Dies". The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. 16 November 2006. ISSN 0190-8286. Retrieved 25 ... aged 35 History of anorexia nervosa List of people who died of starvation Lists of people by cause of death VH1, Behind the ... anorexia activist, and actress, aged 28 2018: Javiera Muñoz - Swedish singer, aged 40 2021: Nikki Grahame - English television ...
Lisa's struggle with anorexia began during her junior year of high school. She started having problems with her friendships and ... Hungry: A Mother and Daughter Fight Anorexia is a 2009 book cowritten by Sheila Himmel and Lisa Himmel. Written by a daughter ... Hopewell, Deborah (2009-07-31). "Review: 'Hungry,' a wrenching memoir of family bonds tested by anorexia". San Jose Mercury ... Burrell, Jackie (2009-08-05). "Restaurant critic, daughter pen book on battle with anorexia". Contra Costa Times. Retrieved 10 ...
... is an autobiography written by Marya Hornbacher, detailing her fourteen-year battle ... Anorexia nervosa Hunger for Life Claudia Mitchell; Jacqueline Reid-Walsh (30 December 2007). Girl Culture: An Encyclopedia [2 ... Anorexia nervosa, Books about eating disorders, All stub articles, American biographical book stubs). ...
She was told by experts, "Anorexia Nervosa is so rare that there are probably no more than 2000 cases of Anorexia Nervosa in ... She opened up her home and her heart and launched the first helpline and referral service in the nation for anorexia nervosa ... When a family member was diagnosed with anorexia nervosa, Vivian was unable to find any information or resources on eating ... ANAD assists people struggling with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa and also provides resources ...
... highlights important questions over the links between anorexia and autism, or anorexia and gender dysphoria as it presents in ... Moss, Sarah (16 April 2023). "Sarah Moss on Good Girls: A story and study of anorexia by Hadley Freeman". The Irish Times. ... Good Girls: A story and study of anorexia is a 2023 autobiographical memoir written by Hadley Freeman, and published by Fourth ... Paul, Pamela (20 April 2023). "Why Are So Many Girls Suffering From Anorexia?". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 April 2023. ...
Anorexia is one of the most prevalent eating disorders in Western countries "affecting an estimated 2.5 million people in the ... Anorexia's deep psychological roots make it difficult to treat and often extend the recovery process into a life-long journey. ... New York: Vintage, ISBN 978-0-679-74101-5. Parks, Peggy J. (2009). Anorexia. San Diego, CA: ReferencePoint Press. pp. 6-10. ... Perfectionistic, unattainable goals are cited as an explanation for the increasing rates of plastic surgery and anorexia ...
"Anorexia , Bulimia , Anorexia Nervosa , OCD , Psychotherapist Steven Levenkron". - his personal website Steven ... Becker, Daniel (2005). This Mean Disease: Growing Up in the Shadow of My Mother's Anorexia Nervosa. Gurze Books. Google Books. ... Steven Levenkron (born 1941) is an American psychotherapist and writer known for his research into anorexia nervosa and self- ... Levenkron started his research in 1970 and later took part in the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated ...
Gastrointestinal: Nausea and vomiting; anorexia; epigastric distress; diarrhea; peculiar taste; stomatitis; abdominal cramps; ...
Amenorrhoea is often associated with anorexia nervosa and other eating disorders. Relative energy deficiency in sport, also ... Fitzpatrick, Kathleen Kara; Lock, James (2011-04-11). "Anorexia nervosa". BMJ Clinical Evidence. 2011: 1011. ISSN 1752-8526. ... Södersten P, Bergh C, Zandian M (November 2006). "Psychoneuroendocrinology of anorexia nervosa". Psychoneuroendocrinology. 31 ( ...
Katehakis, Alexandra (November 2, 2010). "Sexual Anorexia". Good TherapyOn-line article about sexual anorexia{{cite journal}}: ... In her practice, Katehakis focuses on treating sexual dysfunction, sexual anorexia, sexual addiction and love addiction in ...
In her article "Perceptual and Conceptual Disturbances in Anorexia Nervosa" she wrote: What is pathognomic of anorexia is not ... Patients with anorexia nervosa have negative thoughts about their body, such as "I'm too fat," "I'm ugly," and other negative ... However, patients with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa frequently perceive their body as larger than it is in reality. ... Patients with anorexia nervosa believe that they are overweight, perceive their body as being "fat" and misperceive their ...
Activity anorexia; a condition where animals exercise excessively while simultaneously reducing their food intake. Adjunctive ... Hampstead, B.M.; LaBounty, L.P.; Hurd, C. (2003). "Multiple exposures to activity anorexia in rats: Effects on eating, weight ...
... anorexia 2. nausea 3. vomiting 4. pallor E. Not attributed to another disorder - International Classification of Headache ...
"Anorexia Nervosa". AllMusic. Retrieved 10 September 2009. Leggett, Steve. "Antaeus". AllMusic. Retrieved 10 September 2009. ...
The delayed ankle jerks are associated with: hypothyroidism; Huntington's disease; several neurological symptoms; anorexia ...
Not all people with anorexia recover completely: about 20% develop anorexia nervosa as a chronic disorder. If anorexia nervosa ... Anorexia purging is a subtype of anorexia, wherein the person severely restricts most of the time but has recurring episodes of ... The treatment for anorexia of aging is undifferentiated as anorexia for any other age group. Some of the treatment options ... Anorexia nervosa (AN), often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder characterized by low weight, food ...
Anorexia is a symptom, not a diagnosis. Anorexia is not to be confused with the mental health disorder anorexia nervosa. ... Because the term anorexia is often used as a short-form of anorexia nervosa, to avoid confusion a provider must clarify to a ... "Anorexia" vs "anorexic" vs anorexia nervosa[edit]. Anorexic is a description of somebody with the stereotypical thin, frail, ... Topiramate may cause anorexia as a side effect.. *Other drugs may be used to intentionally cause anorexia in order to help a ...
People with the eating disorder anorexia are very afraid of gaining weight. They have unrealistic views of their body and try ... Anorexia. What Is Anorexia?. Anorexia is an eating disorder. People with anorexia (an-eh-REK-see-uh) are very afraid of gaining ... In extreme cases, anorexia can cause severe malnutrition and even death.. What Causes Anorexia?. The exact cause of anorexia is ... How Is Anorexia Diagnosed?. If a doctor thinks a child or teen might have anorexia, theyll do an exam, take a medical history ...
Pregnant women with anorexia are at increased risk for poor outcomes and require multidisciplinary care that includes mental ... "Anorexia in pregnancy has been an overlooked area of clinical care as many believed only women in remission become pregnant, ... "For instance, reducing the likelihood of prematurity or low birth weight at birth that can be associated with anorexia in ... Anorexia affects pregnancy and neonatal outcomes through low calorie intake, nutritional and vitamin deficiencies, stress, ...
The image, bearing the words "No Anorexia", was first displayed during Milan Fashion Week in September. It was shot by ... "promote responsibility towards the problem of anorexia". The photographer, Mr Toscani, told Reuters news agency he was ...
Anorexia is one of the most serious illnesses for adolescent girls and young women (and increasingly boys). Twenty percent die ... Its all about how the culture creates anorexia. Ebert gave it three stars. Inspired, they march on. ...
Anorexia is not a life. Anorexia is suffering. "She" isnt my friend and "she" destroys everything around me, everything what ... My Diary: Anorexia Is Not A Life, Anorexia Is Suffering April 7, 2014 ...
Research suggests that the cause of anorexia nervosa is a mixture of several factors, including social pressures and genetics. ... In this article, we will discuss if anorexia is hereditary, risk factors for anorexia, treatment for anorexia, and when a ... Anorexia nervosa, which people may refer to as anorexia, is an eating disorder in which a person loses more weight than ... If a person thinks they may be experiencing anorexia, they need to contact a doctor as soon as possible. Anorexia can lead to ...
Anorexia Nervosa News and Research. RSS A person with anorexia nervosa, often called anorexia, has an intense fear of gaining ... Someone with anorexia thinks about food a lot and limits the food she or he eats, even though she or he is too thin. Anorexia ... Study shows anorexia linked to how cholesterol processes The largest DNA-sequencing study of anorexia nervosa has linked the ... Most people with anorexia are female. While anorexia mostly affects girls and women (85 - 95 percent of anorexics are female), ...
Anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating… For some people, these words are just something they occasionally hear or… ... Study: Anorexia Is Similar To Autism. by Lana Vrzic October 24, 2019. ... What Age Group Is Most Affected by Anorexia. by Lana Vrzic May 7, 2021. ... A new study suggests that girls suffering from anorexia display similar personality traits to those with autism, such… ...
Anorexia #16: Aliens & Anorexia posted by Jon W under Guests ... Aliens & Anorexia #16: Aliens & Anorexia by Jon W, May 25, 2005 ...
A new study shows notable shrinkage of key brain structures in patients with anorexia that improves with weight gain. ... Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) have notable shrinkage in key brain structures and these deficits are less severe in ... Cite this: Anorexia Linked to Notable Shrinkage of Key Brain Structures - Medscape - Jun 24, 2022. ... "The brain changes in anorexia were more severe than in other any psychiatric condition we have studied. Effects of treatments ... is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Contact us: sinisavuk[at] ...
Just 5%-15% of those with anorexia or bulimia are male. Attempting to quell eating disorders in its nation, Israel passed a new ... Eating disorders are common in the United States: Up to 24 million people of all ages and genders suffer from anorexia, bulimia ... or binge eating disorders, said the National Association of Anorexia Nervosa and Associated Disorders, which cited a Renfrew ...
Girls with autism are at higher risk of anorexia. Yet they are also more likely to be misdiagnosed with an eating disorder. ... Ms Evans sees overlap between the perfectionism of anorexia and the rigid thinking of autism. She notes that people with autism ... When she moved away for university, she "crashed and burned". She developed anorexia mixed with binge-purge behaviour and ... Girls and women on the autism spectrum are at higher risk of anorexia nervosa than males, research suggests. ...
Anorexia women are more likely to have unplanned pregnancies than those without the eating disorder. ... Those women with anorexia were also more likely to give birth earlier. The average age of the mothers at delivery was 26.2 ... And 24.2 percent of those with anorexia said they had had an abortion compared with 14.6 percent of women who didnt have the ... Women with anorexia are more likely to have unplanned pregnancies and abortions than those without the eating disorder, ...
Find in-depth information about eating disorders including anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder. ... Two teenage friends struggling with anorexia and bulimia discuss their illness, treatment, and how to support one another. ...
Anorexia is a term used to describe the situation where a dog loses his appetite and does not want to eat or is unable to eat. ... Overview of Anorexia (Loss of Appetite) in Dogs. Anorexia is a term used to describe the situation where a dog loses his ... Home Care for Anorexia in Dogs. Home care is concerned with observing your dog for possible reasons for his anorexia and ... Diagnosis of Anorexia in Dogs. Because of the numerous causes of anorexia, your veterinarian will recommend certain procedures ...
... or commentary about Anorexia? Find all of that and more at Queerty -your site for LGBTQ life, entertainment, and politics. ...
Read more: Nikki Grahame determined to get her life back as she enters treatment to beat anorexia ... Read more: Nikki Grahame on Anorexia battle: I was used to walking around emaciated ... Former Big Brother contestant Nikki Grahame has died after suffering from anorexia. ... Watch: Big Brother star Nikki Grahame dies aged 38 after anorexia battle ...
The exact causes of anorexia nervosa arent established. But these social, genetic, biological, environmental, and ... What Is Chronic Anorexia? Medically reviewed by Karin Gepp, PsyD. Living with chronic anorexia can impact many aspects of your ... Anorexia Symptoms and Signs. Medically reviewed by Nicole Washington, DO, MPH. Anorexia symptoms can impact your body, emotions ... Sometimes anorexia can be activated when a person who has other anorexia risk factors spends a lot of time in situations where ...
Low sex drive among people with anorexia nervosa is common. Here are five reasons why and what you can do about it. ... with anorexia, and they can get in the way of interest in sex. Sex might feel too messy. It might feel out of control. It might ... But heres the thing: If you have anorexia and experience low sex drive, you are not weird. Youre not abnormal, atypical, or ... So if you have been diagnosed with anorexia nervosa and find your sex drive to be low, here are five reasons why this might be ...
Collins, who plays a woman struggling with anorexia, told The Hollywood Reporter that she connected with both Noxon and the ...
In this age of day-by-day increasing mental stress, strain and competition, we are finding it more and more difficult to cope with the pressures of ...
Sexual anorexia, also known as sexual aversion disorder, refers to a condition in which people avoid or fear sex and intimacy. ... Causes of sexual anorexia. The exact cause of sexual anorexia is not known and may vary from person to person but is often ... Is sexual anorexia the same as low libido?. Libido can be decreased due to several factors aside from sexual anorexia. ... Treatment for sexual anorexia. Sexual anorexia is not an official diagnosis and it may be caused by several different factors, ...
The science of metabolic changes in anorexia recovery: contemporary findings. ... How Does Metabolic Rate Really Change After Anorexia? Part 1 The science of metabolic changes in anorexia recovery: ... My post back in 2014 on Recovery from anorexia: Why the rules *do* apply to you, was prompted by many comments and questions ... In the chronic semi-starvation of anorexia, REE may reduce to as little as 50-70% of predicted levels, but as soon as refeeding ...
Anorexia to binge eating Hi kcsauk,. I know its been years but I just saw your post about going from anorexia to binge eating ... Binging after anorexia Hi I need advice, I previously had anorexia and still have a few tendencies here and there to restrict, ... I suffered from anorexia when I was 13-14 years old. I managed to get into a healthier mental state and ate healthy for about 2 ... I had anorexia and recovered last year. I gained weight in recovery quite quickly because I was really determined and if Im ...
Tag: anorexia. Before You Forget by Julia Lawrinson. Someone yelling wakes me up. I have no idea what time it is. I jump out of ... Categories Young AdultTags Alzeimer, anorexia, art, Before You Forget, dementia, family, friendship, Julia Lawinson, Penguin, ...
Anosognosia and Anorexia Symptoms, Lauren Muhlheim, PsyD, CEDS, Verywell Mind. Medications Used to Treat Eating Disorders, ... Rethinking anorexia: Biology may be more important than culture, new studies reveal, Jennifer Couzin-Frankel, ScienceMag ... Individuals with anorexia nervosa generally restrict the amount of calories or types of food they eat. Some also engage in ... Anorexia Nervosa (AN) is a serious metabo-psychiatric disorder which affects about 1% of the population across all genders, ...
American Anorexia Bulimia Association benefits when you shop. Help today! ... Help American Anorexia Bulimia Association. Every purchase from great stores helps American Anorexia Bulimia Association. ... is the easy way to support American Anorexia Bulimia Association. Your everyday purchases American Anorexia Bulimia ... American Anorexia Bulimia Association. New York, New York. Cause Description:. National non-profit organization dedicated to ...

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