The type specimens of sucking lice (Anoplura) deposited in the entomological collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. (1/20)This study presents a list of 34 Anoplura type specimens deposited in the Werneck Collection of Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil. It includes 18 holotypes, 16 allotypes, 88 paratypes and 10 neotypes, distributed among the genera: Enderleinellus, Fahrenholzia, Haematopinus, Hoplopleura, Linognathus, Microthoracius, Pecaroecus, Polyplax and Pterophthirus. The types are related according to their respective data and literature. (+info)
Prevalence of sucking and chewing lice on cattle entering feedlots in southern Alberta. (2/20)Beef calves from 2 sources entering southern Alberta feedlots in the winters of 1997-98 and 1998-99, were surveyed for the presence of lice. A random sample of multiple source (MS), that is, auction market-derived, calves entering commercial feedlots and single source (SS) calves entering a backgrounding feedlot were examined for the presence of lice at entry to the feedlot. A standardized examination, which involved hair-part examination of 8 louse predilection sites, was conducted on each selected calf to determine prevalence and intensity of infestation. The long-nosed sucking louse, Linognathus vituli, was the most commonly encountered species. This species infested from 57.8% to 95.6% of the calves selected from both MS and SS calves during both winters. Louse index values, indicating intensity of infestation, for L. vituli ranged from 1 to 243 lice per animal. The chewing louse, Bovicola bovis, was present on MS and SS calves only in the winter of 1998-99. The louse index values for B. bovis ranged from 1 to 230 lice per animal. Mixed infestations of the L. vituli and B. bovis were common. The little blue cattle louse, Solenopotes capillatus, was present only on the SS calves in the winter of 1997-98. The short-nosed sucking louse, Haematopinus eurysternus, was present at very low intensities, 1-2 lice per animal, on 2.6% to 4.4% of the MS calves during both winters. Comparison of results from the current study with published literature suggests that efforts to determine the economic impact of louse infestations are confounded by the lack of a uniform method to assess louse population levels. (+info)
Eradication of lice in cattle. (3/20)The purpose of this field study was to develop and evaluate eradication as a strategy to control lice in cattle. Thirty-three herds of cattle were selected and observed during a period of two and a half years. Before eradication, biting lice (Damalinia bovis) were present in 94% of the herds and 27% of the animals. Sucking lice (Linognathus vituli) were present in 42% of the herds and 5% of the animals. These levels were very similar to those reported from other countries in Northern Europe. The eradication strategy was successful in 28 of 33 herds, but lice were still present in 5 herds 3 to 6 months after treatment. Biting lice were present in all these 5 herds, sucking lice were present in 3 herds. During the next 12 months, nine of the 28 herds were reinfected with lice. Six herds were reinfected with just biting lice, 2 herds with just sucking lice and one herd was reinfected with both. There was no significant difference between the 2 louse species regarding the risk of unsuccessful eradication or reinfection. The only significant risk factor for reinfection was either purchase of livestock or use of common pasture, combined with failure in pre-treatment of newly introduced animals. (+info)
Ultrastructure of Proechinophthirus zumpti (Anoplura, Echinophthiriidae) by scanning electron microscopy. (4/20)The ultrastructure of Proechinophthirus zumpti Werneck, 1955, mainly the external chorionic features of the egg, is described through electronic microscopy techniques. This species was first cited in Argentina, infesting Arctocephalus australis (Zimmermann, 1873). The morphological adaptations of adults and nymphs are described in both species of Proechinophthirus parasitic on Otariidae: P. fluctus (Ferris, 1916) and P. zumpti. (+info)
The sex ratio distortion in the human head louse is conserved over time. (5/20)BACKGROUND: At the turn of the 19th century the first observations of a female-biased sex ratio in broods and populations of the head louse, Pediculus humanus capitis, had been reported. A study by Buxton in 1940 on the sex ratio of lice on prisoners in Ceylon is still today the subject of reanalyses. This sex ratio distortion had been detected in ten different countries. In the last sixty years no new data have been collected, especially on scalp infestations under economically and socially more developed conditions. RESULTS: Here we report a female bias of head lice in a survey of 480 school children in Argentina. This bias is independent of the intensity of the pediculosis, which makes local mate competition highly unlikely as the source of the aberrant sex ratio; however, other possible adaptive mechanisms cannot be discounted. These lice as well as lice from pupils in Britain were carrying several strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis, one of the most wide spread intracellular sex ratio distorters. Similar Wolbachia strains are also present in the pig louse, Haematopinus suis, suggesting that this endosymbiont might have a marked influence on the biology of the whole order. The presence of a related obligate nutritional bacterium in lice prevents the investigation of a causal link between sex ratio and endosymbionts. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of its origin, this sex ratio distortion in head lice that has been reported world wide, is stable over time and is a remarkable deviation from the stability of frequency-dependent selection of Fisher's sex ratio. A female bias first reported in 1898 is still present over a hundred years and a thousand generations later. (+info)
Pair of lice lost or parasites regained: the evolutionary history of anthropoid primate lice. (6/20)BACKGROUND: The parasitic sucking lice of primates are known to have undergone at least 25 million years of coevolution with their hosts. For example, chimpanzee lice and human head/body lice last shared a common ancestor roughly six million years ago, a divergence that is contemporaneous with their hosts. In an assemblage where lice are often highly host specific, humans host two different genera of lice, one that is shared with chimpanzees and another that is shared with gorillas. In this study, we reconstruct the evolutionary history of primate lice and infer the historical events that explain the current distribution of these lice on their primate hosts. RESULTS: Phylogenetic and cophylogenetic analyses suggest that the louse genera Pediculus and Pthirus are each monophyletic, and are sister taxa to one another. The age of the most recent common ancestor of the two Pediculus species studied matches the age predicted by host divergence (ca. 6 million years), whereas the age of the ancestor of Pthirus does not. The two species of Pthirus (Pthirus gorillae and Pthirus pubis) last shared a common ancestor ca. 3-4 million years ago, which is considerably younger than the divergence between their hosts (gorillas and humans, respectively), of approximately 7 million years ago. CONCLUSION: Reconciliation analysis determines that there are two alternative explanations that account for the current distribution of anthropoid primate lice. The more parsimonious of the two solutions suggests that a Pthirus species switched from gorillas to humans. This analysis assumes that the divergence between Pediculus and Pthirus was contemporaneous with the split (i.e., a node of cospeciation) between gorillas and the lineage leading to chimpanzees and humans. Divergence date estimates, however, show that the nodes in the host and parasite trees are not contemporaneous. Rather, the shared coevolutionary history of the anthropoid primates and their lice contains a mixture of evolutionary events including cospeciation, parasite duplication, parasite extinction, and host switching. Based on these data, the coevolutionary history of primates and their lice has been anything but parsimonious. (+info)
Haemodipsus species occurring on hares (Lepus eurapeus, L.): two new species in Turkish lice fauna. (7/20)The aim of this paper was to give information about Haemodipsus species occurring on hares in the Konya province. Thirty three lice specimens collected from forty hares (Lepus europaeus, L.) were examined; two species, Haemodipsus lyriocephalus (Burmeister, 1839) and H. setoni (Ewing, 1924) were identified. Information about and discussion of the morphological characteristics of these species is given in this paper. This is the first time that Haemodipsus lyriocephalus and H. setoni have been reported in Turkey. (+info)
Phocid seals, seal lice and heartworms: a terrestrial host-parasite system conveyed to the marine environment. (8/20)Adaptation of pinnipeds to the marine habitat imposed parallel evolutions in their parasites. Ancestral pinnipeds must have harboured sucking lice, which were ancestors of the seal louse Echinophthirius horridus. The seal louse is one of the few insects that successfully adjusted to the marine environment. Adaptations such as keeping an air reservoir and the ability to hold on to and move on the host were necessary, as well as an adjustment of their life cycle to fit the diving habits of their host. E. horridus are confined to the Northern Hemisphere and have been reported from 9 species of northern phocids belonging to 4 genera, including land-locked seal species. The transmission from seal to seal is only possible when animals are hauled-out on land or ice. Lice are rarely found on healthy adult seals, but frequently on weak and young animals. The seal louse is suggested to play an important role as an intermediate host transmitting the heartworm Acanthocheilonema spirocauda among seals. However, the evidence is restricted to a single study where the first 3 larval stages of the heartworm were shown to develop in the louse. The fourth-stage larvae develop in the blood system of seals and eventually transform into the adult stage that matures in the heart. Since all other studies failed to confirm the presence of heartworm larvae in seal lice, other unknown intermediate hosts could be involved in the transmission of the heartworm. Transplacental transmission of microfilariae in seals has been suggested as an additional possibility, but is not likely to be important since the occurrence of heartworms in adult seals is very rare compared with juveniles. Furthermore, there are no findings of the first 3 larval stages in seals. This review shows that the heartworm infects nearly the same species of seals as the seal louse, except for the grey seal Halichoerus grypus, where the heartworm is absent. Prevalence and intensity of infection differ among regions in the Northern Hemisphere. As for seal lice, heartworms mainly infect immature seals, and after infection the prevalence seems to decrease with increasing age of the host. (+info)
Lice infestations refer to the presence of parasitic insects, known as lice, on the human body. These infestations can affect both children and adults and are typically caused by head lice, body lice, or pubic lice. Lice feed on human blood and can cause itching, inflammation, and skin irritation.
There are three main types of lice infestations:
1. Head lice infestations: These are the most common type of lice infestation and affect the hair and scalp. Head lice are small, wingless insects that feed on human blood.
2. Body lice infestations: These affect the skin and clothing, and are typically found in areas where hygiene is poor or where individuals are unable to keep their bodies clean.
3. Pubic lice infestations: These affect the pubic area and are typically spread through sexual contact.
Lice infestations can be treated with over-the-counter or prescription medications, such as permethrin or ivermectin. In addition to treating the infestation, it is important to also treat any underlying conditions that may be contributing to the infestation, such as poor hygiene or malnutrition.
In addition to these medical definitions, there are also several slang terms and phrases that are used to describe lice infestations, including "cooties," "nitwits," and "pediculosis." These terms are often used in a derogatory manner to refer to individuals who have lice infestations.
It's important to note that lice infestations can be a source of embarrassment and stigma, and individuals who have them may be subject to social exclusion or discrimination. However, it is important to remember that lice infestations are a common condition that can affect anyone, regardless of their background or socioeconomic status.
Overall, the medical definition of lice infestations refers to the presence of parasitic insects on the human body, and the condition can be treated with medication and good hygiene practices. It's important to approach individuals with lice infestations with compassion and understanding, rather than stigma or discrimination.
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- Detection of Bartonella quintana from body lice ( Anoplura: Pediculidae ) infesting homeless people in Tokyo by molecular technique. (ajtmh.org)
- In general, they are divided into two categories: bloodsucking (or sucking) lice (order Anoplura) and chewing (or biting) lice (formerly the order Mallophaga, now composed of three suborders). (merckvetmanual.com)
- Introduction to mosquitoes (Culicidae) -- Anopheline mosquitoes (Anophelinae) -- Culicine mosquitoes (Culicinae) -- Black flies (Simuliidae) -- Phlebotomine sand flies (Phlebotominae) -- Biting midges (Ceratopogonidae) -- Horse flies (Tabanidae) -- Tsetse flies (Glossinidae) -- House flies and stable flies (Muscidae) and latrine flies (Fanniidae) -- Flies and myiasis -- Fleas (Siphonaptera) -- Sucking lice (Anoplura) -- Bedbugs (Cimicidae) -- Triatomine bugs (Triatominae) -- Cockroaches (Blattaria) -- Soft ticks (Argasidae) -- Hard ticks (Ixodidae) -- Scabies mites (sarcoptidae) -- Scrub typhus mites (Trombiculidae) -- Miscellaneous mites. (who.int)
- or an Essay on the British Species of Parasitic Insects belonging to the order Anoplura of Leach. (biodiversitylibrary.org)
- They belong to the phylum Arthropoda, the class Insecta, the order Phthiraptera, and the suborder Anoplura (known as the sucking lice). (medscape.com)
- Physical methods such as high and low temperatures were used in the past for the control of human body louse, Pediculus humanus humanus L. (Anoplura: Pediculidae). (nih.gov)