Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Fenitrothion: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Africa, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Insecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.AfricaChromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Dieldrin: An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)Equatorial Guinea: A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cote d'Ivoire: A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Mosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Insemination: The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.Allethrin: Synthetic analogs of the naturally occurring insecticides cinerin, jasmolin, and pyrethrin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Acetylcholinesterase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.LaunderingHemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Arthropod Antennae: Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Plasmodium cynomolgi: A protozoan parasite that occurs naturally in the macaque. It is similar to PLASMODIUM VIVAX and produces a type of malaria similar to vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species has been found to give rise to both natural and experimental human infections.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Hemocytes: Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Carbamates: Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.Gambia: A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.Defensins: Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Suregada: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that contains gelonin, a ribosome-inactivating protein.Humidity: A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.Cecropins: Antimicrobial peptides that form channels in membranes that are more permeable to anions than cations. They resemble MAGAININS, with their N-terminal region forming a positively charged amphipathic alpha helix, but containing an additional C-terminal segment.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Piperonyl Butoxide: An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.Climate: The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Genetic Speciation: The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Catechol Oxidase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.Blood: The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.Africa, Central: The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

MalariaSphere: a greenhouse-enclosed simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) ecosystem in western Kenya. (1/829)

BACKGROUND: The development and implementation of innovative vector control strategies for malaria control in Africa requires in-depth ecological studies in contained semi-field environments. This particularly applies to the development and release of genetically-engineered vectors that are refractory to Plasmodium infection. Here we describe a modified greenhouse, designed to simulate a natural Anopheles gambiae Giles ecosystem, and the first successful trials to complete the life-cycle of this mosquito vector therein. METHODS: We constructed a local house, planted crops and created breeding sites to simulate the natural ecosystem of this vector in a screen-walled greenhouse, exposed to ambient climate conditions, in western Kenya. Using three different starting points for release (blood-fed females, virgin females and males, or eggs), we allowed subsequent stages of the life-cycle to proceed under close observation until one cycle was completed. RESULTS: Completion of the life-cycle was observed in all three trials, indicating that the major life-history behaviours (mating, sugar feeding, oviposition and host seeking) occurred successfully. CONCLUSION: The system described can be used to study the behavioural ecology of laboratory-reared and wild mosquitoes, and lends itself to contained studies on the stability of transgenes, fitness effects and phenotypic characteristics of genetically-engineered disease vectors. The extension of this approach, to enable continuous maintenance of successive and overlapping insect generations, should be prioritized. Semi-field systems represent a promising means to significantly enhance our understanding of the behavioural and evolutionary ecology of African malaria vectors and our ability to develop and evaluate innovative control strategies. With regard to genetically-modified mosquitoes, development of such systems is an essential prerequisite to full field releases.  (+info)

Early duplication and functional diversification of the opsin gene family in insects. (2/829)

Recent analysis of the complete mosquito Anopheles gambiae genome has revealed a far higher number of opsin genes than for either the Drosophila melanogaster genome or any other known insect. In particular, the analysis revealed an extraordinary opsin gene content expansion, whereby half are long wavelength-sensitive (LW) opsin gene duplicates. We analyzed this genomic data in relationship to other known insect opsins to estimate the relative timing of the LW opsin gene duplications and to identify "missing" paralogs in extant species. The inferred branching patterns of the LW opsin gene family phylogeny indicate at least one early gene duplication within insects before the emergence of the orders Orthoptera, Mantodea, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. These data predict the existence of one more LW opsin gene than is currently known from most insects. We tested this prediction by using a degenerate PCR strategy to screen the hymenopteran genome for novel LW opsin genes. We isolated two LW opsin gene sequences from each of five bee species, Bombus impatiens, B. terrestris, Diadasia afflicta, D. rinconis, and Osmia rufa, including 1.1 to 1.2 kb from a known (LW Rh1) and 1 kb from a new opsin gene (LW Rh2). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the novel hymenopteran gene is orthologous to A. gambiae GPRop7, a gene that is apparently missing from D. melanogaster. Relative rate tests show that LW Rh2 is evolving at a slower rate than LW Rh1 and, therefore, may be a useful marker for higher-level hymenopteran systematics. Site-specific rate tests indicate the presence of several amino acid sites between LW Rh1 and LW Rh2 that have undergone shifts in selective constraints after duplication. These sites and others are discussed in relationship to putative structural and functional differences between the two genes.  (+info)

The genetics of inviability and male sterility in hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis. (3/829)

Male hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis suffer from hybrid sterility, and inviability effects are sometimes present as well. We examined the genetic basis of these reproductive barriers between the two species, using 21 microsatellite markers. Generally, recessive inviability effects were found on the X chromosome of gambiae that are incompatible with at least one factor on each arabiensis autosome. Inviability is complete when the gambiae and arabiensis inviability factors are hemi- or homozygous. Using a QTL mapping approach, regions that contribute to male hybrid sterility were also identified. The X chromosome has a disproportionately large effect on male hybrid sterility. Additionally, several moderate-to-large autosomal QTL were found in both species. The effect of these autosomal QTL is contingent upon the presence of an X chromosome from the other species. Substantial regions of the autosomes do not contribute markedly to male hybrid sterility. Finally, no evidence for epistatic interactions between conspecific sterility loci was found.  (+info)

Innate immunity in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: comparative and functional genomics. (4/829)

The resurgence of malaria is at least partly attributed to the absence of an effective vaccine, parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs and resistance to insecticides of the anopheline mosquito vectors. Novel strategies are needed to combat the disease on three fronts: protection (vaccines), prophylaxis/treatment (antimalarial drugs) and transmission blocking. The latter entails either killing the mosquitoes (insecticides), preventing mosquito biting (bednets and repellents), blocking parasite development in the vector (transmission blocking vaccines), genetic manipulation or chemical incapacitation of the vector. During the past decade, mosquito research has been energized by several breakthroughs, including the successful transformation of anopheline vectors, analysis of gene function by RNAi, genome-wide expression profiling using DNA microarrays and, most importantly, sequencing of the Anopheles gambiae genome. These breakthroughs helped unravel some of the mechanisms underlying the dynamic interactions between the parasite and the vector and shed light on the mosquito innate immune system as a set of potential targets to block parasite development. In this context, putative pattern recognition receptors of the mosquito that act as positive and negative regulators of parasite development have been identified recently. Characterizing these molecules and others of similar function, and identifying their ligands on the parasite surface, will provide clues on the nature of the interactions that define an efficient parasite-vector system and open up unprecedented opportunities to control the vectorial capacity of anopheline mosquitoes.  (+info)

A weather-driven model of malaria transmission. (5/829)

BACKGROUND: Climate is a major driving force behind malaria transmission and climate data are often used to account for the spatial, seasonal and interannual variation in malaria transmission. METHODS: This paper describes a mathematical-biological model of the parasite dynamics, comprising both the weather-dependent within-vector stages and the weather-independent within-host stages. RESULTS: Numerical evaluations of the model in both time and space show that it qualitatively reconstructs the prevalence of infection. CONCLUSION: A process-based modelling structure has been developed that may be suitable for the simulation of malaria forecasts based on seasonal weather forecasts.  (+info)

Structural and evolutionary analyses of the Ty3/gypsy group of LTR retrotransposons in the genome of Anopheles gambiae. (6/829)

The recent availability of the genome of Anopheles gambiae offers an extraordinary opportunity for comparative studies of the diversity of transposable elements (TEs) and their evolutionary dynamics between two related species, taking advantage of the existing information from Drosophila melanogaster. To this goal, we screened the genome of A. gambiae for elements belonging to the Ty3/gypsy group of long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. The A. gambiae genome displays a rich diversity of LTR retrotransposons, clearly greater than D. melanogaster. We have characterized in detail 63 families, belonging to five of the nine main lineages of the Ty3/gypsy group. The Mag lineage is the most diverse and abundant, with more than 30 families. In sharp contrast with this finding, a single family belonging to this lineage has been found in D. melanogaster, here reported for the first time in the literature, most probably consisting of old inactive elements. The CsRn1 lineage is also abundant in A. gambiae but almost absent from D. melanogaster. Conversely, the Osvaldo lineage has been detected in Drosophila but not in Anopheles. Comparison of structural characteristics of different families led to the identification of several lineage-specific features such as the primer-binding site (PBS), the gag-pol translational recoding signal (TRS), which is extraordinarily diverse within the Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons of A. gambiae, or the presence/absence of specific amino acid motifs. Interestingly, some of these characteristics, although in general well conserved within lineages, may have evolved independently in particular branches of the phylogenetic tree. We also show evidence of recent activity for around 75% of the families. Nevertheless, almost all families contain a high proportion of degenerate members and solitary LTRs (solo LTRs), indicative of a lower turnover rate of retrotransposons belonging to the Ty3/gypsy group in A. gambiae than in D. melanogaster. Finally, we have detected significant overrepresentations of insertions on the X chromosome versus autosomes and of putatively active insertions on euchromatin versus heterochromatin.  (+info)

Invertebrate data predict an early emergence of vertebrate fibrillar collagen clades and an anti-incest model. (7/829)

Fibrillar collagens are involved in the formation of striated fibrils and are present from the first multicellular animals, sponges, to humans. Recently, a new evolutionary model for fibrillar collagens has been suggested (Boot-Handford, R. P., Tuckwell, D. S., Plumb, D. A., Farrington Rock, C., and Poulsom, R. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 31067-31077). In this model, a rare genomic event leads to the formation of the founder vertebrate fibrillar collagen gene prior to the early vertebrate genome duplications and the radiation of the vertebrate fibrillar collagen clades (A, B, and C). Here, we present the modular structure of the fibrillar collagen chains present in different invertebrates from the protostome Anopheles gambiae to the chordate Ciona intestinalis. From their modular structure and the use of a triple helix instead of C-propeptide sequences in phylogenetic analyses, we were able to show that the divergence of A and B clades arose early during evolution because alpha chains related to these clades are present in protostomes. Moreover, the event leading to the divergence of B and C clades from a founder gene arose before the appearance of vertebrates; altogether these data contradict the Boot-Handford model. Moreover, they indicate that all the key steps required for the formation of fibrils of variable structure and functionality arose step by step during invertebrate evolution.  (+info)

Distribution of ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone I in the nervous system and gut of mosquitoes. (8/829)

Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone I (OEH I) is a gonadotropin in the female mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Whole-mount immunocytochemistry using OEH I antisera revealed an extensive distribution of immunostained cells in larvae and adults of this mosquito comparable to that observed in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Medial neurosecretory cells were stained in brains of larvae and adult Ae. aegypti. In An gambiae the lateral neurosecretory cells were stained more often. In both species, immunostained axons from these cells extended out of the brain through the neurohemal organ associated with the aorta and branched extensively along the midgut. Immunostained endocrine cells were observed in larval and adult midguts of both species. In adults, abdominal metameric perivisceral organs were stained. Stained axons interconnected the perivisceral organs and neurosecretory cells in the abdominal ganglia. Episodic release of OEH I from these organs was evident in female Ae. aegypti, when staining disappeared at 12 hours after a blood meal and returned by 48 hours to levels observed before and up to 2 hours after the blood meal. Two sites were specifically stained only in An. gambiae: an axon net around the pyloric valve in the hindgut of larvae and adults and a ring of endocrine cells in the cardiac valve in the larval midgut. The markedly similar localizations of immunostained cells in larvae and adults of two distantly related species indicate that OEH I, or a homolog, is conserved within this group of Diptera and likely has stage- and sex-specific functions.  (+info)

*Anopheles gambiae

Anopheles arabiensis Anopheles bwambae Anopheles melas Anopheles merus Anopheles quadriannulatus Anopheles gambiae sensu ... Anopheles gambiae in Brazil". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 78 (1): 176-8. PMID 18187802. "Anopheles gambiae". VectorBase. "Anopheles ... The Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was recognized as a species complex only in the 1960s. The A. ... Anopheles quadriannulatus generally takes its blood meal from animals (zoophilic), whereas Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto ...

*Parasitic flies of domestic animals

ISBN 0-8138-2053-7. Anopheles gambiae female mosquito feeding. Stomxys calcitrans adult stable-fly. Tabanus bovinus adult ... Species of Aedes, Anopheles and Psorophora genera transmit equine encephalitis viruses to horses. Culex, Aedes and Anopheles ... against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in southern Benin. Transactions of the ... 1: Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Mansonia and Psorophora. Journal of Medical Entomology, 8: 687-695. doi: 10.1093/jmedent/ ...

*Domestication islands

ISBN 978-88-900622-7-8. Turner, T.L. (2005). "Genomic Islands of Speciation in Anopheles gambiae". PLOS Biology. 3 (9): e285. ...

*Fotis Kafatos

He also participated in the sequencing of the genome of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae completed in 2002. He was Assistant ... Dimopoulos, G.; Müller, H. M.; Kafatos, F. C. (1999). "How does Anopheles gambiae kill malaria parasites?". Parassitologia. 41 ... 2002). "The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Science. 298 (5591): 129-149. Bibcode:2002Sci...298.. ... "Low-resolution genome map of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...

*John Carlson (biologist)

March 4, 2010). "Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Nature. 464 (7285): 66-71. doi:10.1038/ ... repertoire and a similar study that characterized the Or repertoire of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito. Carlson lab research has ...

*Peritrophic matrix

Dinglasan, R.R.; M. Devenport; L. Florens; J.R. Johnson & C.A. McHugh (2009). "The Anopheles gambiae Adult Midgut Peritrophic ...

*Paratransgenesis

Ren, X; Hoiczyk, E; Rasgon, JL (Aug 22, 2008). "Viral paratransgenesis in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae". PLOS Pathogens ...

*InterPro

Oct 2002). "The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Science. 298 (5591): 129-149. Bibcode:2002Sci...298 ...

*Christos Louis

"The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Science, AAAS. Retrieved 2015-01-07. Topalis, P; Dialynas, E; ... He was a member of the European Drosophila Genome Project and the Anopheles Genome Project. Study of the molecular interactions ... With his colleagues in Crete, he developed AnoDB/AnoBase, the first genetic databases for Anopheles, which later evolved into ... between Anopheles and the Malaria parasite. Development of biomedical ontologies, especially for medical entomology, and ...

*List of sequenced eukaryotic genomes

October 2002). "The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Science. 298 (5591): 129-49. Bibcode:2002Sci... ...

*Effects of global warming on human health

"Effects of microclimatic changes caused by land use and land cover on duration of gonotrophic cycles of Anopheles gambiae ( ... "Survivorship of Immature Stages of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Natural Habitats in Western Kenya Highlands ... Anopheles mosquitoes in highland areas are to experience a larger shift in their metabolic rate due to the climate change. This ... Anopheles mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of diseases in the world, such as, malaria, lymphatic ...

*VectorBase

2002). "The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Science. 298 (5591): 129-49. Bibcode:2002Sci...298.. ... Aedes aegypti Anopheles gambiae Culex quinquefasciatus Ixodes scapularis Pediculus humanus Rhodnius prolixus Genome browser ... provides summary information VectorBase genome browsers Aedes aegypti genome browser at VectorBase Anopheles gambiae genome ...

*Elizabethkingia anophelis

... is a bacterium isolated in 2011 from the midgut of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes originating from ... nov., isolated from the midgut of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... MacCarthy Island, The Gambia. The genus Elizabethkingia, named for former US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) ...

*Elizabethkingia

nov., isolated from the midgut of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... The genus includes four species: Elizabethkingia anophelis, isolated from Anopheles mosquitoes, can cause respiratory tract ...

*Thorselliaceae

However, T. anophelis has also been found in the reproductive tissues of male and female Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii ... "Dynamic gut microbiome across life history of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae in Kenya". PLOS ONE. 6 (9): e24767. doi: ... "16S rRNA gene-based identification of midgut bacteria from field-caught Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and A. funestus mosquitoes ... "Thorsellia anophelis is the dominant bacterium in a Kenyan population of adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes". The ISME Journal ...

*Bwamba Fever

The main anthropophilic vectors are Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. The animal reservoir includes birds, monkeys and ... as far south as the Republic of South Africa and as far north westwards as Gambia'. Bwamba fever is endemic in several African ...

*Desiccation tolerance

"Physiology of desiccation resistance in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis". American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ...

*Q-system (genetics)

2016) Organisation of olfactory centers in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Nature Communications, 7, 13010. doi: ... the olfactory neurons of malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae. These successes make the Q-system the system of choice when ...

*Taxonomy of Anopheles

Geoffroy 1997 Anopheles gambiae* Giles 1902 Anopheles melas* Theobald 1903 Anopheles merus Dontiz 1902 Anopheles ... Anopheles lewisi Ludlow 1920 is a synonym of Anopheles thomasi Shannon 1933. Anopheles lineata Lutz is a synonym of Anopheles ... 2004) Anopheles aruni Sobti 1968 Anopheles confusus Evans & Leeson 1935 Anopheles funestus* Giles 1900 Anopheles funestus-like ... Anopheles anthropophagus* Xu & Feng 1975 Anopheles confusa Anopheles derooki Soesilo & Van Slooten 1931 Anopheles gracilis ...

*Fauna of Africa

Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti and Tsetse fly are important vectors of diseases. 1600 species of bees and 2000 species of ...

*Thioester-containing protein 1

TEP1 in Anopheles gambiae is the one of the best studied of these molecules. Despite close structural and functional ... TEP1 was first identified as a key immunity gene in 2001 through functional studies on Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. TEP1 is an ... Le BV, Williams M, Logarajah S, Baxter RH (2012). "Molecular basis for genetic resistance of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium: ... Blandin SA, Marois E, Levashina EA (2008). "Antimalarial responses in Anopheles gambiae: from a complement-like protein to a ...

*Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

According to CDC, such methods are not practical in Africa because "Anopheles gambiae, one of the primary vectors of malaria in ... Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna LC, Knols BG (October 2002). "Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons ... Thus far, pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles has not been a major problem. DDT in Australia DDT in New Zealand DDT in the ... Hargreaves K, Hunt RH, Brooke BD, Mthembu J, Weeto MM, Awolola TS, Coetzee M (December 2003). "Anopheles arabiensis and An. ...

*Deltamethrin

It is used as one of a battery of pyrethroid insecticides in control of malarial vectors, particularly Anopheles gambiae, and ... including important vectors of malaria like the mosquito Anopheles gambiae as well as non-disease carrying pests like bed bugs ... "Field-Caught Permethrin-Resistant Anopheles gambiae Overexpress CYP6P3, a P450 That Metabolises Pyrethroids". PLoS Genetics. 4 ...

*Raymond Corbett Shannon

One of his discoveries, in 1930, was of the arrival of Anopheles gambiae, the mosquito that carries malaria, into the New World ... Until 1930 Anopheles Gambiae, Malaria Carrier, Was Unknown on This Side of Atlantic". New York Times. 27 March 1939. Thompson, ...

*NUMT

In Plasmodium, Anopheles gambiae, and Aedes aegypti mosquitoes NUMT can barely be detected. In contrast, the conserved ...

*BioGRID

Anopheles gambiae PEST (African malaria mosquito) Apis mellifera (honey bee) Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) Bacillus ...
1. Takken W, Knols BG. Odor-mediated behavior of Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes. Annu Rev Entomol. 1999;44:131-157 2. Zwiebel LJ, Takken W. Olfactory regulation of mosquito-host interactions. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;34:645-652 3. Himeidan YE, Temu EA, El rayah EA. et al. Chemical cues for malaria vectors oviposition site selection: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Insects. 2013 Article ID685182: 1-9 4. Meijerink J, Braks MA, van Loon JJ. Olfactory receptors on the antennae of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae are sensitive to ammonia and other sweat-borne components. J Insect Physiol. 2001;47:455-464 5. Lu T, Qiu YT, Wang G. et al. Odor coding in the maxillary palp of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1533-1544 6. Qiu YT, van Loon JJ, Takken W. et al. Olfactory coding in antennal neurons of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Chem Senses. 2006;31:845-863 7. McIver SB. Sensilla of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. ...
Synthetic versions of human derived kairomones can be used as baits when trapping host seeking mosquitoes. The effectiveness of these lures depends not only on their attractiveness to the mosquitoes but also on the medium from which they are dispensed.We report on the development and evaluation of nylon strips as a method of dispensing odorants attractive to the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiaes.s. (Giles).When a synthetic blend of attractants was dispensed using this method, signiÞcantly more mosquitoes were trapped than when two previous methods, open glass vials or low density polyethylene sachets were used. We conclude that the nylon strips are suitable for dispensing odorants in mosquito trapping operations and can be adopted for use in rural and remote areas. The nylon material required is cheap and widely available and the strips can be prepared without specialized equipment or ...
Tests of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium among all pairs of loci within populations were done with GENEPOP 3.4 (Raymond and Rousset 1995). Diversity per locus and per population was assessed using allelic richness (RS), observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities, and inbreeding coefficients (FIS), and their significance was calculated using FSTAT 2.9.3.2 (Goudet 2001). To explore the impact of putative null alleles on our analyses, we used the program MICRO-CHECKER (Van Oosterhout et al. 2004) to estimate null allele frequencies (using the "Brookfield 2" estimator; Brookfield 1996) for potentially affected loci that showed a consistent significant excess of homozygotes across sample sites. Using these estimated frequencies, an adjusted data set, with nulls recoded as separate alleles, was produced for comparison with the original data set.. Genetic relationships within and between forms were assessed using three complementary approaches: two Bayesian clustering ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, one of the principal vectors of malaria, has been divided into two subspecific groups, known as the M and S molecular forms. Recent studies suggest that the M form found in Cameroon is genetically distinct from the M form found in Mali and elsewhere in West Africa, suggesting further subdivision within that form. Chromosomal, microsatellite and geographic/ecological evidence are synthesized to identify sources of genetic polymorphism among chromosomal and molecular forms of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Cytogenetically the Forest M form is characterized as carrying the standard chromosome arrangement for six major chromosomal inversions, namely 2La, 2Rj, 2Rb, 2Rc, 2Rd, and 2Ru. Bayesian clustering analysis based on molecular form and chromosome inversion polymorphisms as well as microsatellites describe the Forest M form as a distinct population relative to the West African M form (Mopti-M form) and the S form. The Forest-M form was the most highly diverged
Malaria is a serious threat to human life in sub-Saharan Africa, claiming many lives and causing the greatest morbidity as compared to other infectious diseases. Female Anopheles gambiae mosquito acts as the definitive host of Plasmodium protozoa, and allows sexual reproduction to take place in its gut. Infection rates may vary seasonally due to temperature changes, but this occurrence is not well studied in the Kenyan highlands. This study therefore aimed at investigating the seasonal variations in infection of Anopheles gambiae by Plasmodium oocysts and its implications on malaria prevalence in human beings. The study was conducted in three estates namely, Daraja mbili, Mwembe, and Maili Mbili which surround Kisii town in Nyanza province. Three villages in Keumbu location which is in the outskirts of Kisii town were also sampled to represent the rural population. Bi-weekly collection of mosquitoes during both wet and dry seasons was done for a period of 2 months in each season. Data were ...
Background: The non-random distribution of anopheline larvae in natural habitats suggests that gravid females discriminate between habitats of different quality. Whilst physical and chemical cues used by Culex and Aedes vector mosquitoes for selecting an oviposition site have been extensively studied, those for Anopheles remain poorly explored. Here the habitat selection by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), the principal African malaria vector, was investigated when presented with a choice of two infusions made from rabbit food pellets, or soil. Methods: Natural colonization and larval survival was evaluated in artificial ponds filled randomly with either infusion. Dual-choice, egg-count bioassays evaluated the responses of caged gravid females to (1) two- to six-day old infusions versus lake water; (2) autoclaved versus non-autoclaved soil infusions; and assessed (3) the olfactory memory of gravid females conditioned in pellet infusion as larvae. Results: Wild Anopheles exclusively colonized ...
Kabbale, F., Akol, A., Kaddu, J., & Onapa, A. (2013). Biting patterns and seasonality of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and Anopheles funestus mosquirtoes in Kamuli District, Uganda. Parasites and Vectors, 12, 1 - 20 ...
The work included in this thesis arose from a long-standing interest in the possible use of genetic control for one of the most important malaria vectors in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. It was hoped that the genes involved in animal biting in the sibling species Anopheles quadriannulatus could be exploited by crossing with An. gambiae s. s. and using the fertile female hybrids for successive backcrosses to An. gambiae s. s.. It was envisaged that this method could be used in an attempt to produce a mosquito stock that is harmless to humans because it is zoophilic but with the genetic background of An. gambiae s. s. so that there would be no barriers to cross-mating in the wild. The innate host preference of mosquitoes can be determined in the laboratory using an olfactometer, or in the field using baits. Host-selection patterns in nature are often affected by external factors, which may or may not mask the host preference of the mosquito species in question (discussed in section ...
Y chromosome function, structure and evolution is poorly understood in many species including the Anopheles genus of mosquitoes, an emerging model system for studying speciation that also represents the major vectors of malaria. While the Anopheline Y had previously been implicated in male mating behavior, recent data from the Anopheles gambiae complex suggests that, apart from the putative primary sex-determiner, no other genes are conserved on the Y. Studying the functional basis of the evolutionary divergence of the Y chromosome in the gambiae complex is complicated by complete F1 male hybrid sterility. Here we used an F1xF0 crossing scheme to overcome a severe bottleneck of male hybrid incompatibilities and enabled us to experimentally purify a genetically labelled A. gambiae Y chromosome in an A. arabiensis background. Whole genome sequencing confirmed that the A. gambiae Y retained its original sequence content in the A. arabiensis genomic background. In contrast to comparable experiments ...
Anopheles gambiae AGER protein: AGER - EGFR ortholog from Anopheles; from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: orthologs from Drosophila, human, mouse & chicken; Genbank, AJ301655 and AJ304406
... for FGENESH the program with parameters for major model organisms is available for on line usage at: http://www.softberry.com/berry.phtml?topic=gfind Method description: A new parameter set for gene prediction Anopheles gambiae is developed for FGENESH program. Accuracy of prediction of Plasmodium falciparum protein coding genes is about 98% on the nucleotide level. The FGENESH algorithm is based on pattern recognition of different types of signals and Markov chain models of coding regions. Optimal combination of these features is then found by dynamic programming and a set of gene models is constructed along given sequence. FGENESH is the fastest and most accurate ab initio gene prediction program available. Fgenesh output: fgenesh Tue Nov 5 16:23:15 EST 2002 FGENESH 1.1 Prediction of potential genes in Anopheles_gambiae genomic DNA Time : Tue Nov 5 16:23:16 2002 Seq name: Softberry SERVER PAST Sequence Length of sequence: 1542 Number of predicted genes ...
Various strategies that block malaria transmission from an infected human host to a female Anopheline mosquito that involve killing of the blood fed mosquito have been studied as a potential strategy to control malaria. These include the immunization of animal hosts with either whole homogenized blood fed mosquito midguts or their extracts. In 1939, William Trager first demonstrated anti-vector immunity by immunizing guinea pigs and rabbits with extracts of the tick Dermacentor variabilis. This immunological targeting of tick midgut antigens led to the commercial development of a vaccine against Boophilus microplus ticks licenced in 1985.This study investigated the mosquitocidal effects of an immune response elicited by immunization of BALB/c mice with a gene, Anopheles gambiae mucin 1 gene (AgMUC1 gene) alone or in combination with immunostimulatory cytokine genes GM-CSF or IL-12. The AgMUC1 genes were cloned from the midgut of blood fed female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Four groups of ...
Haematophagous insects are frequently carriers of parasitic diseases, including malaria. The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the major vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa and is thus responsible for thousands of deaths daily. Although the role of olfaction in A. gambiae host detection has been demonstrated, little is known about the combinations of ligands and odorant binding proteins (OBPs) that can produce specific odor-related responses in vivo. We identified a ligand, indole, for an A. gambiae odorant binding protein, AgamOBP1, modeled the interaction in silico and confirmed the interaction using biochemical assays. RNAi-mediated gene silencing coupled with electrophysiological analyses confirmed that AgamOBP1 binds indole in A. gambiae and that the antennal receptor cells do not respond to indole in the absence of AgamOBP1. This case represents the first documented instance of a specific A. gambiae OBP-ligand pairing combination, demonstrates the significance of OBPs in odor recognition, and can
Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) consists of several morphologically cryptic species throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In the Sahel region of Mali, this complex includes Anopheles arabiensis (Patton 1905) and A. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) (Giles 1902), which is further divided into the M and S molecular forms; all are important malaria vectors (Coluzzi et al., 1979; Collins et al., 2001; della Torre et al., 2001; Coluzzi et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2002). Although they are morphologically indistinguishable and can occur in sympatry (Lindsay et al., 1998; Coluzzi et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2005; Simard et al., 2009), these cryptic species often differ in abundance according to season, local rainfall, latitude and larval site characteristics (Gimnig et al., 2001; Edillo et al., 2002; Koenraadt et al., 2004; Diabaté et al., 2005; Edillo et al., 2006; Diabaté et al., 2008; Costantini et al., 2009), and thus local differentiation may occur between these ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was recently reclassified as two species, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s., in wild-caught mosquitoes, on the basis of the molecular form, denoted M or S, of a marker on the X chromosome. The An. gambiae Keele line is an outbred laboratory colony strain that was developed around 12 years ago by crosses between mosquitoes from 4 existing An. gambiae colonies. Laboratory colonies of mosquitoes often have limited genetic diversity because of small starting populations (founder effect) and subsequent fluctuations in colony size. Here we describe the characterisation of the chromosomal form(s) present in the Keele line, and investigate the diversity present in the colony using microsatellite markers on chromosome 3. We also characterise the large 2La inversion on chromosome 2. The results indicate that only the M-form of the chromosome X marker is present in the Keele colony, which was unexpected given that 3 of the 4 parent colonies were probably S-form. Levels of diversity
BACKGROUND: The strategy for malaria vector control in the context of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality has been the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets to universal coverage and indoor residual spraying. This has led to significant decline in malaria transmission. However, these vector control strategies rely on insecticides which are threatened by insecticide resistance. In this study the status of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and its implication in malaria transmission at the Kenyan Coast was investigated. RESULTS: Using World Health Organization diagnostic bioassay, levels of phenotypic resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin was determined. Anopheles arabiensis showed high resistance to pyrethroids while Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles funestus showed low resistance and susceptibility, respectively. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes were further genotyped for L1014S and L1014F kdr mutation by real time PCR. An allele frequency ...
Development of odour-baited trapping devices for biting insects remains a challenge for many important species, including African malaria vectors [1, 2]. Such traps may find application in mosquito surveillance [3], risk assessment and forecasting [4], and/or be used en masse for population suppression and disease transmission reduction similar to trap-bait systems developed for tsetse flies [5-7]. There are three important components of trap development, namely the attractant, the physical trap design, and trapping mechanism used. A fourth set of essentials follows, namely the cost, applicability and acceptance of such devices by end-users in anticipated market sectors.. Anopheles gambiae s.s. is a highly anthropophilic mosquito, with a tendency to blood feed and rest inside houses [8]. Studies on semiochemicals affecting its host-seeking behaviour have intensified since the late 1980s [1], with the main aim to replace the Human Biting Catch (HBC). Some traps use whole human odour, like the ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu lato IS a major vector of malaria in western Kenya where environmental conditions are highly conducive for its survival and reproduction. Breeding mostly occurs in newly formed small and transient water bodies but as the habitats age they may become unattractive for breeding of the species. The aim of this study was to deduce some of the ecological implications of this strategy of early colonization of breeding sites by Anopheles gambiae s.l. Ten semi-natural habitats (5 small and 5 large) were studied longitudinally (sampled same population over time) for a period of 12 weeks with daily sampling of all larval and pupal stages and quantification of all other identifiable aquatic fauna. This was followed by a final census and retrieval of all inhabitants of each habitat. A new set of 10 habitats was investigated together with the old habitats using the same procedures for an additional period of 9 weeks. Larval cohorts lasting on average twelve days were easily noticeable ...
Another powerful tool in this kit is a Cre-recombinase expressing line that is on the third chromosome and marker-free. The authors point out that this line will allow the development of gene exchange systems in Anopheles gambiae like those developed for Drosophila and will open the door for making conditional knockouts similar to those used in mouse genetics.. This group also characterizes six useful promoter sequences: Prophenoloxidase gene (PPO6), Lipophorin (Lp), Vitellogenin (Vg) , Drosophila Actin5C and Anopheles gambiae G12.. PPO6 is expressed in hemocytes. Lp is expressed in fat body and approximately 12-48 hrs post blood meal the expression is further increase in females. Vg allows inducible expression of genes in female fat body approximately 18hours after a blood meal. In the midgut Drosophila Actin5C allows for constitutive expression and Anopheles gambiae G12 allows for inducible expression.. ...
Smelly feet and heat - how malaria mosquitoes find their hosts. Spitzen et al. [1], studied the host-seeking behavior of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.
Natural infection of Anopheles gambiae by malaria-causing Plasmodium parasites is significantly influenced by the APL1 genetic locus. The locus contains three closely related leucine-rich repeat (LRR) genes, APL1A, APL1B and APL1C. Multiple studies have reported the participation of APL1A-C in the immune response of A. gambiae to invasion by both rodent and human Plasmodium isolates. APL1C forms a heterodimer with the related LRR protein LRIM1 via a C-terminal coiled-coil domain that is also present in APL1A and APL1B. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer protects A. gambiae from infection by binding the complement-like protein TEP1 to form a stable and active immune complex. We report solution x-ray scatting data for the LRIM1/APL1C heterodimer, the oligomeric state of LRIM1/APL1 LRR domains in solution and the crystal structure of the APL1B LRR domain. The LRIM1/APL1C heterodimeric complex has a flexible and extended structure in solution. In contrast to the APL1A, APL1C and LRIM1 LRR domains, the ...
To help improve the functional annotation of the Anopheles gambiae genome we have generated the MozAtlas, a unified catalogue of tissue-specific gene expression from a single mosquito strain. In Drosophila melanogaster, cataloguing tissue expression patterns has been useful, especially for inferring biological functions, since the majority of genes encoded in the genome are not ubiquitously expressed [19]. As with the fruit fly, Anopheles gene expression also exhibits substantial tissue specificity, with only a third of detectably expressed genes found in all tissues. Thus, the MozAtlas is a useful resource for better understanding the mosquito genome, providing direct evidence of genes with tissue restricted expression. Below we highlight the utility of MozAtlas for identifying classes of gene with tissue or sex-biased expression that may be exploited for vector control. Analysis of the MozAtlas also identifies gene expression features that are of interest from an evolutionary perspective, ...
Serine proteases play a crucial role during the digestion of the blood meal in the mosquito gut. The isolation and the analysis of the genomic organisation of the corresponding genes may lead to the characterization of gut-specific, inducible promoters, suitable for the expression of anti-parasitic agents in the gut of transgenic mosquitoes. We report here on the identification of a trypsin and a chymotrypsin gene family of Anopheles gambiae. Following a blood meal, the transcription of all members of the two identified gene clusters, seven trypsin genes (Antryp1-7) and two chymotrypsin genes (Anchym1-2), is induced. Recombinant Antryp1 and Antryp2, expressed in E. coli, were both active in vitro against blood proteins. Moreover, mouse sera raised against Antryp1, Anchym1 and Anchym2 recognized the corresponding proteases among the proteins of a lysate prepared from dissected guts of An. gambiae mosquitoes.. ...
Sawadogo, Simon P., Costantini, Carlo, Pennetier, Cédric, Diabaté, Abdoulaye, Gibson, Gabriella and Dabiré, Roch K. (2013) Differences in timing of mating swarms in sympatric populations of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae s.s. (formerly An. gambiae M and S molecular forms) in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Parasites & Vectors, 6 (1):275. ISSN 1756-3305 (Print), 1756-3305 (Online) (doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-275) Pennetier, Cédric, Warren, Ben, Dabiré, K. Roch, Russell, Ian J. and Gibson, Gabriella (2009) "Singing on the wing" as a mechanism for species recognition in the malarial mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Current Biology, 20 (2). pp. 131-136. ISSN 0960-9822 (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.040) Bonnet, Julien, Pennetier, Cédric, Duchon, Stéphane, Lapied, Bruno and Corbel, Vincent (2009) Multi-function oxidases are responsible for the synergistic interactions occurring between repellents and insecticides in mosquitoes. Parasites & Vectors, 2 (17). ISSN 1756-3305 (doi:10.1186/1756-3305-2-17) ...
Here we present data on a cluster of 3 female LRT-specific serine protease genes suggested to be involved in post-mating processes in A. gambiae s.s. As already shown for other genes with different functions, the reconstruction of the 3 gene-trees shows that most species share alleles at all loci, as an effect of introgression and/or retention of ancestral polymorphisms, and that only A. merus and A. melas are placed in monophyletic assemblages (Figure 2). On the other hand, we found an unusually high substitution rate, which contributes mostly to an exceptionally high level of intra-specific polymorphisms, especially at nonsynonymous sites (Table 1). Moreover, while A. gambiae, A. arabiensis, and A. quadriannulatus do not differ for any fixed replacement, A. melas and A. merus diverge from the other species at all loci, showing a high number of fixed substitutions at both synonymous (7-9) and nonsynonymous (13-23) sites at locus AGAP005195.. The comparisons of different site-models - used to ...
Mosquitoes are important vectors of infectious diseases and successful transmission depends on the efficacy of host discrimination and blood uptake. This process is directed by the need for the mosquito to feed on those hosts that provide greatest fitness. We have preliminary evidence that mosquitoes can detect the quality of the blood meal based on the volatiles emitted from the human skin. The mosquito would thus be able to decide who is the best host for the development of her eggs. We will unravel one of the most important evolutionary mechanisms behind mosquito host choice by answering the hypothesis that malaria mosquitoes detect the quality of a host by its skin volatiles. Therefore, we will link someones attractiveness towards mosquitoes with his/her blood quality. Blood of 40 individuals will be analysed and fed to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae in vivo and in vitro to determine differences in egg production. In addition, odour samples will be analysed and tested for ...
Renal function is essential to maintain homeostasis. This is particularly significant for insects that undergo complete metamorphosis; larval mosquitoes must survive a freshwater habitat whereas adults are terrestrial, and mature females must maintain ion and fluid homeostasis after blood feeding. To investigate the physiological adaptations required for successful development to adulthood, we studied the Malpighian tubule transcriptome of Anopheles gambiae using Affymetrix arrays. We assessed transcription under several conditions; as third instar larvae, as adult males fed on sugar, as adult females fed on sugar, and adult females after a blood meal. In addition to providing the most detailed transcriptomic data to date on the Anopheles Malpighian tubules, the data provide unique information on the renal adaptations required for the switch from freshwater to terrestrial habitats, on gender differences, and on the contrast between nectar-feeding and haematophagy. We found clear differences ...
Both new and previously identified immune markers are expressed in adult mosquitoes, and thus are suited for monitoring induction by the malaria parasite. The markers show distinct and in some cases complex developmental expression profiles, which may reflect potential non‐defence‐related functions. Developmental and immune‐related processes often share the same components: examples are regulatory factors such as Dif, Dorsal and Relish in D.melanogaster (Dushay et al., 1996; Hoffmann et al., 1996), or effectors such as the Sarcophaga antibacterial defence proteins sapecin, sapecin B and cathepsin L (Natori and Kubo, 1996). Some of the A.gambiae infection‐responsive markers, GNBP, IGALE20 and ICHIT, encode adhesive motifs (Dimopoulos et al., 1996, 1997), and could be involved both in binding to microbial substances in defence and in the removal of apoptotic cells and tissue remodelling during development. NOS is known to have multiple functions in a variety of physiological processes. The ...
integral component of membrane, mitochondrial inner membrane, L-aspartate transmembrane transporter activity, L-glutamate transmembrane transporter activity, aspartate transport, L-glutamate transmembrane transport, malate-aspartate shuttle
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
2015) Efficacy, Persistence and Vector Susceptibility to Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) Insecticide for Indoor Residual Spraying in Zanzibar. Parasites & vectors, 8 (1). p. 628. ISSN 1756-3305 (2014) Islands and Stepping-Stones: Comparative Population Structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and Implications for the Spread of Insecticide Resistance. PloS one, 9 (10). e110910. ISSN 1932-6203 (2013) Challenges for Malaria Elimination in Zanzibar: Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Poor Performance of Long-Lasting Insecticide Nets. Parasites & vectors, 6 (1). p. 82. ISSN 1756-3305 (2013) The Dynamics of Pyrethroid Nesistance in Anopheles Arabiensis from Zanzibar and an Assessment of the Underlying Genetic Basis. Parasites & vectors, 6. p. 343. ISSN 1756-3305 ...
For this study, Riabinina and colleagues turned to a transcription regulatory system analogous to the GAL4/UAS but from Neurospora and referred to as the Q System. The senior author of the manuscript was the original developer of the Q System in D. melanogaster. This system, the QF/QUAS, or Q-system, is composed of a transcription factor (QF) that binds to specific upstream activating sequences (QUAS).. Riabinina et al. modified the Q-system by cloning 15 copies of the QUAS upstream of the gene they wished to express, in this case a membrane-targeted GFP (mCD8:GFP) useful for visualizing neuronal axons (or any cell). To drive the expression of their QUAS-mCD8:GFP, this group created a QF "driver" construct using 9kb of sequence upstream of the olfactory receptor neuron-specific gene, Orco from Anopheles gambiae. The additional copies of the QUAS sequence in front of GFP ensured high levels of fluorescent expression in spite of the limited nature of the driver promoter, permitting reliable ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
9. Transcriptome-wide analysis of microRNA expression in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Biryukova I., Ye T., Levashina E.A., 2014 - BMC Genomics 15(1): 557 pubmed. 8. Drosophila mir-9a regulates wing development via fine-tuning expression of the LIM only factor, dLMO. Biryukova I, Asmar J, Abdesselem H, Heitzler P., 2009 - Dev Biol. 15;327(2):487-96. pubmed. 7. Drosophila C-terminal binding protein, dCtBP is required for sensory organ prepattern and sharpens proneural transcriptional activity of the GATA factor Pnr. Biryukova I, Heitzler P., 2008 - Dev Biol. 323(1):64-75. pubmed. 6. Drosophila dLMO-PA isoform acts as an early activator of achaete/scute proneural expression. Asmar J, Biryukova I, Heitzler P., 2008 - Dev Biol. 316(2):487-97. pubmed. 5. Long-distance interactions between regulatory elements are suppressed at the end of a terminally deficient chromosome in Drosophila melanogaster. Melnikova L, Biryukova I, Kan T, Georgiev P., 2008 - Chromosoma. 117(1):41-50. pubmed. 4. ...
Malaria is a blood-borne human disease, and is transmitted to mosquitoes in the bloodmeal, an obligatory step in human malaria transmission. This is a study of malaria parasites in the major mosquito vector of human malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. The intent of the study is to develop modern forms of vector control that would specifically decrease disease transmission by targeting the vector. Genetic linkage mapping of the mosquito vector (Anopheles gambiae) in Africa has identified a small genomic region in the mosquito that controls most of the natural genetic variation for resistance to mosquito infection with the human malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). In order to study the influence of mosquito vector genetics on transmission of malaria parasites, mosquitoes are exposed to malaria parasites and then the efficiency of parasite development within the mosquito is measured. The goal of the study is to promote and expand this non-transmitting subset of the vector population in ...
Malaria is a blood-borne human disease, and is transmitted to mosquitoes in the bloodmeal, an obligatory step in human malaria transmission. This is a study of malaria parasites in the major mosquito vector of human malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. The intent of the study is to develop modern forms of vector control that would specifically decrease disease transmission by targeting the vector. Genetic linkage mapping of the mosquito vector (Anopheles gambiae) in Africa has identified a small genomic region in the mosquito that controls most of the natural genetic variation for resistance to mosquito infection with the human malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). In order to study the influence of mosquito vector genetics on transmission of malaria parasites, mosquitoes are exposed to malaria parasites and then the efficiency of parasite development within the mosquito is measured. The goal of the study is to promote and expand this non-transmitting subset of the vector population in ...
The original description of clathrin-coated vesicles as intracellular transport shuttles was based upon ultrastructural studies of developing mosquito oocytes (Roth and Porter, 1964). Vesicular profiles encased within a `bristle coat were very prominent at the cortex of Aedes aegypti oocytes several hours following a blood meal (Roth and Porter, 1964). The dramatic appearance of this bristle border, which we now know is composed of clathrin and associated coat proteins, reflects the fact that both A. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are anautogenous - adult females must feed before egg production (Raikhel and Dhadialla, 1992). Thus, unlike Drosophila melanogaster, where a succession of progressively more mature egg chambers develop continuously (Drummond-Barbosa and Spradling, 2001; Schonbaum et al., 2000), egg maturation in newly eclosed A. aegypti or A. gambiae females developmentally arrests at a previtellogenic stage (Raikhel and Dhadialla, 1992; Roth and Porter, 1964). A blood meal ...
The ability to detect chemical information from the environment is of critical importance to insects, whose ecological and evolutionary boundaries typically revolve around taste and smell. Of the receptors involved in chemoperception, the gustatory receptor (Gr) protein family comprises most of the diversity in the insect chemoreceptor superfamily, including within it not only taste receptors, but select olfactory receptors as well. Manual annotation of the Gr family in the genome sequence of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, yielded a total of 114 potential proteins encoded by 79 genes. In the sequenced genome, 23 of these genes and protein isoforms are pseudogenic, leaving 91 putatively functional Grs. Comparison with the set of 76 Grs encoded by 52 genes in the distantly related Anopheles gambiae Giles mosquito revealed 13 new AgGrs encoded by eight genes. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the conservation of carbon dioxide, sugar and several orphan receptors in these two ...
Malaria is vectored by the mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Ag) in Sub-Saharan Africa and infects approximately 500 million people annually. The increasing prevalence of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes has amplified the need for development of new, selective mosquitocides for use on insecticide-treated nets. We have developed several phenyl-substituted N-methylcarbamates producing a high degree of selectivity for Anopheles gambiae acetylcholinesterase (AgAChE) over human AChE. Molecular models suggest alternate conformations (flexibility) of W84 and W431 (Ag numbering) at the hydrophobic subpocket of the AgAChE active site and poor flexibility within human AChE, allowing for the high selectivity of our novel carbamates. Initial selectivity data was obtained through screening of these insecticides while using ethanol as a solvent. Re-screening of these carbamates in the presence of 0.1% DMSO (v/v) resulted in antagonism of inhibition for AgAChE, thus reducing the AgAChE-selectivity by at least ...
The pyrethroid knockdown resistance gene (kdr) has become widespread in Anopheles gambiae in West Africa. A trial to test the continuing efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) was undertaken in experimental huts at 2 sites in Benin, the first where kdr is present at high frequency (Ladji), the second-where An. gambiae is susceptible (Malanville). Holes were made in the nets to mimic worn nets. At Malanville, 96% of susceptible An. gambiae were inhibited from blood-feeding, whereas at Ladji feeding was uninhibited by ITNs. The mortality rate of An. gambiae in ITN huts was 98% in Malanville but only 30% at Ladji. The efficacy of IRS was equally compromised. Mosquitoes at Ladji had higher oxidase and esterase activity than in a laboratory-susceptible strain, but this fact did not seem to contribute to resistance. Pyrethroid resistance in An. gambiae appears to threaten the future of ITN and IRS in Benin ...
Vector control is a major component of the malaria control strategy. The increasing spread of insecticide resistance has encouraged the development of new tools such as genetic control which use releases of modified male mosquitoes. The use of male mosquitoes as part of a control strategy requires an improved understanding of male mosquito biology, including the factors influencing their survival and dispersal, as well as the ability to accurately estimate the size of a target mosquito population. This study was designed to determine the seasonal variation in population size via repeated mark-release-recapture experiments and to estimate the survival and dispersal of male mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex in a small west African village ...
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Mosquitoes are vectors of parasitic and viral diseases of immense importance for public health. The acquisition of the genome sequence of the yellow fever and Dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Aa), has enabled a comparative phylogenomic analysis of the insect immune repertoire: in Aa, the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae (Ag), and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster (Dm). Analysis of immune signaling pathways and response modules reveals both conservative and rapidly evolving features associated with different functional gene categories and particular aspects of immune reactions. These dynamics reflect in part continuous readjustment between accommodation and rejection of pathogens and suggest how innate immunity may have evolved.
UC Riversides Bradley White has received a five-year grant of more than $1.8 million from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases to
In an article published in Nature Communications in January of 2015, a connection was revealed between the presence of antibiotics in human blood and increased mosquito transmissibility of malaria. The apparent link, between the otherwise disparate concepts, lies in the effect of antibiotics on the gut flora of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito - the main vector involved in malaria transmission [1]. It is largely accepted that the use of antibiotics in humans can change the personal microbiome, including the makeup of gut flora. However, it has also been argued that these changes may be permanent [2]. Long-term antibiotic use has been shown to increase susceptibility to infections, such as Clostridium difficile [3], by way of changes or reductions in the good bacteria in our gut flora. The effects of antibiotics on human microbiomes has been significantly studied and considered. What has not been considered are the effects of human antibiotic use on disease vectors. The Nature Communications study ...
Scientists at the University of Notre Dame have found that exposure to just 10 minutes of light at night suppresses biting and manipulates flight behavior in the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, the major vector for transmission ...
Originally From: Kostas Iatrou ,iatrou at bio.demokritos.gr, NATIONAL CENTRE FOR SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH DEMOKRITOS INSTITUTE OF BIOLOGY Insect Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology Group Director: Prof. Kostas Iatrou, PhD Tel: 210 650 3562, Email: iatrou at bio.demokritos.gr POST-DOCTORAL POSITION FOR STUDIES ON MOSQUITO OLFACTION A post-doctoral position to study the molecular and functional properties of odorant receptors in the malaria mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae is available in the laboratory of Insect Molecular Genetics and Biotechnology , Institute of Biology, National Centre for Scientific Research Demokritos . The research is conducted under the framework of a 4-year European research project entitled ENAROMaTIC: European Network for Advanced Research on Olfaction for Malaria Transmitting Insect Control . The project aims at a reduction in the frequency of malaria transmission through interference with the mosquito s capacity to detect in its environment the presence of odors of human ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
This is a double‐blind, randomised, placebo‐controlled, parallel‐group, 3‐arm, dose‐finding trial in adults with uncomplicated malaria. Monte Carlo simulations based on pharmacokinetic modelling were performed to determine the optimum dosing regimens to be tested. Modelling showed that a 3‐day regimen of 600 mcg/kg/day achieves similar median (5‐95 percentiles) Cmax concentrations of ivermectin to single‐dose of 800 mcg/kg, while increasing the median time above the LC50 (16 ng/mL) from 1.9 days (1.0‐5.7) to 6.8 (3.8‐13.4) days. The 300 mcg/kg/day dose was chosen at 50% of the higher dose to allow evaluation of the dose response. Mosquito survival will be assessed daily up to 28 days in laboratory‐reared Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations fed on patients blood taken at days 0, 2 (Cmax), 7 (primary outcome), 10, 14, 21, and 28 after the start of treatment. Safety outcomes include QT‐prolongation and mydriasis. The trial will be conducted in 6 health facilities in western ...
Gene expression is known to vary extensively among tissues and between sexes. However, detailed descriptions of tissue-and sex-specific gene expression are available for only a few model organisms. A new study published in BMC Genomics presents such a data set for the mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, which is the vector of human malaria. In addition to providing a valuable resource for the community of mosquito researchers, the study allows comparative transcriptomic studies of dipteran insects to be extended over 250 million years of evolution, since the divergence of A. gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. ...
Genomic and evolutionary analyses of Tango transposons in Aedes aegypti, Anopheles gambiae and other mosquito species.: Tango is a transposon of the Tc1 family
Disease, Ixodes, Tick, Bacteria, Gene, Microbiota, rRNA Gene, Bite, Lyme Disease, Report, Risk, River, Ticks, Acetic Acid, Aedes, Animal, Anopheles, Anopheles Gambiae, Cell, Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis
abstract = {A novel mosquito antimicrobial peptide, gambicin, and the corresponding gene were isolated in parallel through differential display-PCR, an expressed sequence tag (EST) project, and characterization of an antimicrobial activity in a mosquito cell line by reverse-phase chromatography. The 616-bp gambicin ORF encodes an 81-residue protein that is processed and secreted as a 61-aa mature peptide containing eight cysteines engaged in four disulfide bridges. Gambicin lacks sequence homology with other known proteins. Like other Anopheles gambiae antimicrobial peptide genes, gambicin is induced by natural or experimental infection in the midgut, fatbody, and hemocyte-like cell lines. Within the midgut, gambicin is predominantly expressed in the anterior part. Both local and systemic gambicin expression is induced during early and late stages of natural malaria infection. In vitro experiments showed that the 6.8-kDa mature peptide can kill both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, has ...
A recent report from a laboratory in California offers the hope for a method of genetic modification which could lead to species elimination from large geographical areas, such as Anopheles gambiae elimination from Africa. To quote the New York Times Science section of 22 December, "A gene drive designed to render a population extinct is known as a crash drive. A crash drive being developed for mosquitoes consists of a gene engineered into the Y chromosome that shreds the X chromosome in the cells that make the mosquitos sperm, thus ensuring that all progeny are male ...
SUV4-20: SUV4-20 subfamily methylates H4K20 in other species. Human, mouse, and Xenopus laevis have two SUV4-20 members, while in Drosophila and several other insects there is only one member. In silkworm, we identified only one SUV4-20 member like other insects. Phylogenetic analysis of SUV4-20 subfamily suggests that BmSuv4-20 clusters with Suv4-20 proteins of Drosophila, Anopheles gambiae, and other insects . Besides, SUV4-20 proteins of vertebrates cluster together. Among vertebrates, Suv4-20h2 (Suv4-20 homolog 2) of human and Rattus norvegicus are shorter than Suv4-20h1 (Suv4-20 homolog 1) and cluster together. BmSuv4-20 has the same domain structure as SUV4-20 proteins of other species that there is only one domain the SET located on the N-terminal of them20. (1) Reference ...
It begins with a bite, a painless bite. The mosquito comes in the night, alights on an exposed patch of flesh, and assumes the hunched, head-lowered posture of a sprinter in the starting blocks. Then she plunges her stiletto mouthparts into the skin.. The mosquito has long, filament-thin legs and dappled wings; shes of the genus Anopheles, the only insect capable of harboring the human malaria parasite. And shes definitely a she: Male mosquitoes have no interest in blood, while females depend on protein-rich hemoglobin to nourish their eggs. A mosquitos proboscis appears spike-solid, but its actually a sheath of separate tools-cutting blades and a feeding tube powered by two tiny pumps. She drills through the epidermis, then through a thin layer of fat, then into the network of blood-filled micro-capillaries. She starts to drink.. To inhibit the blood from coagulating, the mosquito oils the bite area with a spray of saliva. This is when it happens. Carried in the mosquitos salivary ...
Water channel, Aqp1; inhibited by HgCl2 and tetraethylammonium. Plays a role in water homeostasis during blood feeding and humidity adaptation of A. gambiae, a major mosquito vector of human malaria in Africa (Liu et al., 2011 ...
CAS No.: 130-13-2 EINECS: 204-975-5 Molecular Formula: C10H8NNaO3S Molecular Weight: 245.23 - Manufacturer - Producer - PSL44347YH
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Background: Genetic diversity is a key factor that enables adaptation and persistence of natural populations towards environmental conditions. It is influenced by the interaction of a natural populations dynamics and the environment it inhabits. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis are the two major and widespread malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies have examined the ecology and population dynamics of these vectors. Ecological conditions along the Kilombero valley in Tanzania influence the distribution and population density of these two vector species. It remains unclear whether the ecological diversity within the Kilombero valley has affected the population structure of An. gambiae s.l. populations. The goal of this study was to characterise the genetic structure of sympatric An. gambiae s.s and An. arabiensis populations along the Kilombero valley. Methodology: Mosquitoes were collected from seven locations in Tanzania: six from the Kilombero valley and one ...
Kurscheid, S., Lew-Tabor, A.E., Rodriguez Valle, M., Bruyeres, A.G., Doogan, V.J., Munderloh, U.G. et al. (2009) Evidence of a tick RNAi pathway by comparative genomics and reverse genetics screen of targets with known loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. BMC Mol Biol 10: 26 ...
Y chromosomes control essential male functions in many species, including sex determination and fertility. However, because of obstacles posed by repeat-rich heterochromatin, knowledge of Y chromosome sequences is limited to a handful of model organisms, constraining our understanding of Y biology across the tree of life. Here, we leverage long single-molecule sequencing to determine the content and structure of the nonrecombining Y chromosome of the primary African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae We find that the An. gambiae Y consists almost entirely of a few massively amplified, tandemly arrayed repeats, some of which can recombine with similar repeats on the X chromosome. Sex-specific genome resequencing in a recent species radiation, the An. gambiae complex, revealed rapid sequence turnover within An. gambiae and among species. Exploiting 52 sex-specific An. gambiae RNA-Seq datasets representing all developmental stages, we identified a small repertoire of Y-linked genes that lack X ...
Sample preparation was similar to that described in Helinski et al. [2]. The amount of nitrogen present in the spermatheca was below the detection limit of the mass spectrometer setup (approx. , 20 μg). Samples were therefore "spiked" with 10 μl of a standard ammonium sulphate solution containing ~20 μg of nitrogen [3]. Virgin (i.e. spermathecae from virgin females) and standard samples (i.e. tin cup containing just the spike on quartz paper) were included. Whole body analyses were performed on teneral mosquitoes to determine their overall level of enrichment. Sample analysis [4] and interpretation were similar to Helinski et al. [2]. The δ15N‰ values reported are referenced to the international reference standard for nitrogen, i.e. atmospheric nitrogen or AIR. Samples were analysed at the International Atomic Energy Agency.. Prior to analyses, data were checked for normality and the appropriate tests were performed (i.e. General Linear Models (GLMs) with planned contrasts (Tukeys HSD) or ...
Malaria parasite transmission depends on the successful transition of Plasmodium through discrete developmental stages in the lumen of the mosquito midgut. Like the human intestinal tract, the mosquito midgut contains a diverse microbial flora, which may compromise the ability of Plasmodium to establish infection. We have identified an Enterobacter bacterium isolated from wild mosquito populations in Zambia that renders the mosquito resistant to infection with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum by interfering with parasite development before invasion of the midgut epithelium. Phenotypic analyses showed that the anti-Plasmodium mechanism requires small populations of replicating bacteria and is mediated through a mosquito-independent interaction with the malaria parasite. We show that this anti-Plasmodium effect is largely caused by bacterial generation of reactive oxygen species.. ...
The Sterile Insect Technology (SIT) is a nonpolluting method of control of the invading insects that transmit disease. The method relies on the release of sterile or treated males in order to reduce the wild population of anopheles mosquito. We propose two mathematical models. The first model governs the dynamics of the anopheles mosquito. The second model, the SIT model, deals with the interaction between treated males and wild female anopheles. Using the theory of monotone operators, we obtain dynamical properties of a global nature that can be summarized as follows. Both models are dissipative dynamical systems on the positive cone R4 +. The value R = 1 of the basic offspring number R is a forward bifurcation for the model of the anopheles mosquito, with the trivial equilibrium 0 being globally asymptotically stable (GAS) when R ≤ 1, whereas 0 becomes unstable and one stable equilibrium is born with well determined basins of attraction when R , 1. For the SIT model, we obtain a threshold ...
The Anopheles gambiae peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) gene family consists of 7 genes with 13 PGRP domains. We analyze the role of these genes in the mosquito immune defense to bacteria and the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. We have previously shown that the NF-κB transcription factor REL2 is involved in defense against both types of bacteria and malaria parasites [1]. IMD is only responsible for the reaction against Gram-positive bacteria and Plasmodium. Our data suggests significant divergence as well as many similarities of immune signaling between Anopheles gambiae and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The differences most likely reflect the different lifestyles of the two insects and, consequently, different infectious agents that the two insects encounter during their lifetimes. In mosquitoes, one of these agents is the malaria parasite Plasmodium ...
Control of disease vectors and pest insects by use of chemical pesticides has generated several problems such as insecticide resistance, environmental pollution, safety risks for humans and domestic animals.The spread in resistance to majority of present synthetic insecticides by several mosquito species, in various geographical areas, calls for multi-pronged vector control programs and the necessity to develop alternative environmentally acceptable and cost-effective compounds. Mosquitoes depend on aquatic habitat for larval development, thus the fundamental means of control lies in eliminating their breeding habitats by drainage (temporary dewatering) or natural control such as removal of aquatic vegetation (protection and food). These approaches rarely achieve complete control and need to be reinforced by other measures such as house screening, insecticide/repellent and larvicide application. Insecticide treatment of larval habitats remains more effective in reducing culicine population than ...
Microbes in Mosquitos Gut Stimulate Immune Response Against Malaria Parasite. Bacteria in the gut of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito inhibit infection of the insect with Plasmodium falciparum, the parasite that causes malaria in humans, according to researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. Scientists with the Bloomberg Schools Malaria Research Institute found that removing these bacteria, or microbial flora, with antibiotics made the mosquitoes more susceptible to Plasmodium infection because of a lack of immune stimulation. Their study is published in the May 8, 2009, edition of the journal PLoS Pathogens.. As part of the malaria transmission cycle, a mosquito acquires the malaria-causing parasite when it feeds on blood from an infected person. The parasite develops within the mosquito and can then be transmitted to another human when the mosquito feeds again.. "Our study suggests that the microbial flora of mosquitoes is stimulating immune activity that protects the ...
I took my first degree at Edinburgh University, where I was awarded a first class honours degree in Genetics. My PhD project was a molecular genetic analysis of female sterile mutations in Drosophila melanogaster, also at the University of Edinburgh. I undertook postdoctoral research at Imperial College, London and at the University of Dundee. Prior to joining my present institution, I held a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship in Biodiversity, working on the malaria mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. ...
Anopheles stephensi é um o principal mosquito vector de malária nas áreas urbanas da Índia. Faz parte do mesmo subgénero do Anopheles gambiae, o principal vector da doença em África. Valenzuela, J.G.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Pham, V.M.; Garfield, M.K.; Ribeiro, J.M.C. (2003). «Exploring the salivary gland transcriptome and proteome of the Anopheles stephensi mosquito». Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (33): 717-732 ...
Abstract BACKGROUND: Malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites, which are transmitted via the bites of infected Anopheline mosquitoes. Midgut invasion is a major bottleneck for Pla..
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jose Luis Ramirez, Giselle de Almeida Oliveira, Eric Calvo, Jesmond Dalli, Romain A Colas, Charles N Serhan, Jose M Ribeiro, Carolina Barillas-Mury].
Since when ???? Anopheline fossile (20 Myr) ber/critters/skeeter-b.html (Amber from the Dominican Republic) Dr. David Grimaldi Cretaceous carnivorous dinosaures (145-65Myr) Oldest Culicidae-like fossile: Myr (canadian amber) FROM: index.php?id=galeria
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The Center for One Health Research Department of Environment & Occupational Health Sciences School of Public Health University of Washington Box 357234 Seattle, WA, USA ...
1.0 1.1 1.2 Bisby F.A., Roskov Y.R., Orrell T.M., Nicolson D., Paglinawan L.E., Bailly N., Kirk P.M., Bourgoin T., Baillargeon G., Ouvrard D. (red.) (2011). "Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life: 2011 Annual Checklist.". Species 2000: Reading, UK. Retrieved 24 september 2012. ...
mapkinase writes to let us know about articles in Nature on the completed sequencing of the honeybee genome. From the first article: Two other insects have already been sequenced: the malaria-carrying mosquito Anopheles gambiae, and one of sciences great model organisms, the fruitfly Drosophila me...
Background Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide) were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized ...
Evidence for introgression between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis has accumulated for some time. We examined the fate of introgressed DNA directly, using microsatellite markers located throughout the genome. Introgressed X chromosomes were removed within two generations. Furthermore, substantial differences in introgressive capacity between the two autosomes were found. After introgression from An. arabiensis into An. gambiae, most introgressed alleles at third chromosome markers, particularly those on 3R, decreased steadily, indicating selection against them. No such pattern was observed for 2L markers and several 2R markers. The frequency of introgressed alleles on 2L were close to the original frequency even after 19 generations, whereas only two 2R markers showed a modest decrease. Even though limited information was available on the reciprocal cross, the pattern appears to be identical. Although the decrease in frequency of the introgressed X chromosome can be attributed to the presence of
Dan Meyrowitsch explains that the 99 % fall in the malaria mosquito population during the end of the 1990s seems to be connected to a fall in precipitation. This may be due to global climate changes.. - From 2003 to 2009 the volume of precipitation was more stable, but the rain was more chaotic and fell outside the rainy season. And this may have disturbed the natural cycle of mosquito development, he says.. -Of course it is great that the number of malaria-related fatalities among children has fallen drastically in the last five or six years, but we need to know why!. Since the researchers can discount mosquito nets, the question is whether the mosquitoes have succumbed to disease, or communities have been using pesticides, or whether the fall is due to the chaotic new precipitation patterns.. - Unless we find the answer we will not be able to predict when the malaria mosquitoes will come back, and that could rapidly prove critical, Dan Meyrowitsch explains.. ...
Download full project about Anopheles Mosquito Comparative Genomics . Your business software is ready for download . You can use it for your own company / Office / home without any cost. We provide free business software for our visitor. The software is develop by using different model such as waterfall life-cycle ,traditional ,classic etc Anopheles Mosquito Comparative Genomics is a large and time consuming project. So, Our aim is to help all business vendors by sharing our best. We want your help by joining our community. You will get your project as you desire ...
Background: Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods: Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high x 0.5m wide) were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized ...
Deciphering the molecular mechanisms affecting ookinete survival in the mosquito. Vector immune responses are responsible, at least in part, for the major parasite losses during parasite development. We now know, largely from functional studies in our laboratory, that even what is called "susceptible" A. gambiae mosquitoes effectively kill a large number of invading ookinetes (80 %), which are most probably cleared by lysis. Two genes, LRIM1 and TEP1, were shown to be strongly involved in ookinete killing in susceptible mosquitoes (G3 strain). LRIM1 expression was strongly induced in mosquito midguts and carcasses in response to the invasion of the mosquito midgut epithelium by Plasmodium ookinetes. The transient KD of LRIM1 in susceptible mosquitoes by RNAi resulted in approximately a four-fold increase in the number of parasites that successfully develop in the mosquito midguts, suggesting that LRIM1 is involved in parasite killing. TEP1 is as a bona fide pattern-recognition receptor that ...
Sporozoite of Plasmodium gets into human blood through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito,sporozoites reproduce asexually in liver cells,then they get into red blood cells, there they reproduce asexually and infect mo…
Mosquito sperm have a sense of smell - a surprising finding that could one day help control disease-carrying mosquitoes, researchers say.. Mosquitoes use scent-detecting molecules known as odorant receptors in their antennae. These sensors help mosquitoes "sniff out" sources of blood as part of their sense of smell, technically known as olfaction.. Now, researchers have discovered mosquitoes have these same molecules in their sperm. Scientists analyzed the mosquito species Anopheles gambiae, one of the most common carriers of malaria. They found odorant receptors on the whip like tails of the mosquitoes sperm. These molecules help to spur the beating of the tails, and thus help control the movement of the sperm, the researchers said. read more. ...
An Anopheles mosquito takes a blood meal through the skin. If this blood carries sexual-stage stage parasites, they will develop in the mosquito and be passed on to others who are bit by this mosquito days later.
Download and buy this stock image: Male mosquito head family Culicidae. The large bushy antenna is used to detect females - EEA-BL0382 from age fotostocks photo library of over 50+ million high resolution stock photos, stock pictures, videos and stock vectors
E. Warr, S. Das, Y. Dong and G. Dimopoulos The Gram-Negative Bacteria-Binding Protein gene family: Its role in the innate immune system of Anopheles gambiae and in anti-Plasmodium defence Insect Molecular Biology 17. Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2008 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2008.00778.x. Complete the form below and we will send an e-mail message containing a link to the selected article on your behalf. Required = Required Field. ...
Anopheles A virus ATCC ® VR-1200AF™ Designation: Anopheles A (Purified) immune ascitic fluid [V-517-701-562] Application:
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements. They are a significant component of many eukaryotic genomes. They are involved in chromosomal rearrangement by serving as substrates for homologous recombination, in creating new genes through a process of TE "domestication", and in modifying and shuffling existing genes by transducing neighboring sequences (Lander et al., 2001). Therefore, both active and inactive TEs are potentially potent agents for genomic change (Kidwell and Lisch, 2001, 2002; Rizzon et al., 2002; Petrov et al., 2003). In the meantime, active TEs are being explored as useful tools for genetic transformation and possible gene drive mechanisms to deliver genes in natural populations (Ashburner et al.,1998; Alphey et al.,2002; Handler and OBrochta, 2004). My thesis project focuses on AGH1, a novel DNA-mediated TE in Anopheles gambiae and related mosquitoes. I have studied its genomic structure, insertion polymorphism, evolution, and transposition activity. As part of ...
Read "Genetic aspects of sexual behavior in malaria mosquitoes on the basis of specific acoustic signals at mating, Russian Journal of Genetics" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Wednesday, April 23, 2014. 627,000 deaths per year: thats a good figure. Malaria, the deadly illness caused by infected mosquitoes, is on the retreat, thanks to medical treatments that have reduced mortality rates by 42% since 2000. Among African children, the mortality rate has dropped even more: 54%. Even so, one African child dies of malaria every minute, according to the World Health Organisation.. Its not that NGOs and aid organisations dont try hard enough to prevent the parasite-infected mosquitoes from biting humans: its just that keeping every one of the tiny insects away with nets and insecticides is very hard work.. What if all that mosquito-chasing wasnt necessary? What if the insects killed themselves? Thats the idea behind Oxitec, an Oxford-based biotech company. It breeds sterile male mosquitoes for release in affected areas. As male mosquitoes always do, theyll find the females and mate with them - but because theyre sterile, the offspring will die. "Were using ...
The Anopheles mosquito is the only species known to spread malaria. The eMedTV Web page discusses its life cycle in detail, explains how mosquitoes transmit malaria, and measures designed to combat insect biting and control the spread of disease.
And as I think, once more I m bitten. -Dick Emmons Male mosquitoes drink only sugary fluids such as flower nectar. Both in the wild and in the laboratory, mosquitoes will visit certain flowers and will feed on fruit placed in their cage. Since they vigorously probe the flowers of some plants and can distinguish between different types of sugars, mosquitoes play a role in the pollination of certain plants. The females will also drink sugary fluids, but when hungry females are given a choice between sugar water and blood, they will always choose blood. If males are offered the same choice, they will always drink the sugar water. Since male mosquitoes do not suck blood, they also do not transmit diseases. Like the males of many other insect families, they are important for just one reason, and then they become superfluous. The female usually needs to mate just once in her life. She stores sperm in her body and fertilizes her eggs at the moment when she lays them. Shortly before or after mating, she ...
MELBOURNE, Australia, April 22 /PRNewswire/ -- Researchers in The Netherlands have achieved outstanding success in blocking the lifecycle of the mosquitoes which transmit malaria.
Name:C.I.Acid Brown 27,C.I.66710 Molecular Structure: anthraquinones C.I.Acid Brown 27,C.I.66710,CAS 1324-45-4,582.56,C32H19N2NaO6S C.I.Acid Brown 27,C.I.66710,CAS 1324-45-4,582.56,C32H19N2NaO6S Molecular Formula:C32H19N2NaO6S Molecular Weight: 582.56 CAS Registry Number: 1324-45-4
Male mosquitoes never bother us -- only the females do, because they need the protein they get from our blood to make their eggs. Even though we call the itchy, inflamed bumps they make on our skin bites, they really arent. In fact, it might be more accurate to call them mosquito drinks, ...
A*nophe*les (a*nofE*lEz), n. [NL., fr. Gr. anwfelh`s useless, hurtful.] (Zoöl.) A genus of mosquitoes which are se...
Is aging raw cattle urine efficient for sampling Anopheles arabiensis Patton?. Aneth M Mahande, Beda J Mwangonde, Shandala Msangi, Epiphania Kimaro, Ladslaus L Mnyone, Humphrey D Mazigo, Michael J Mahande and Eliningaya J Kweka BMC Infect Dis 10(1):172 (2010) ...
Category: API CAS NO: 43210-67-9 EC NO: 256-145-7 Molecular Formula: C15H13N3O2S Molecular Weight: 299.3476 Specification: EP/USP/CP(V) InChI: InChI=1/C15H13N3O2S/c1-20-15(19)18-14-16-12-8-7-11(9-13(12)17-14)21-10-5-3-2-4-6-10/h2-9H,1H3,(H2,16,17,18,19) ...
Malaria control programs are being jeopardized by the spread of insecticide resistance in mosquito vector populations. The situation in Burkina Faso is emblematic with Anopheles gambiae populations showing high levels of resistance to most available compounds. Although the frequency of insecticide target-site mutations including knockdown resistance (kdr) and insensitive acetylcholinesterase (Ace-1R) alleles has been regularly monitored in the area, it is not known whether detoxifying enzymes contribute to the diversity of resistance phenotypes observed in the field. Here, we propose an update on the phenotypic diversity of insecticide resistance in An. gambiae populations sampled from 10 sites in Burkina Faso in 2010. Susceptibility to deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, bendiocarb and fenithrotion was assessed. Test specimens (N = 30 per locality) were identified to species and molecular form and their genotype at the kdr and Ace-1 loci was determined. Detoxifying enzymes activities including ...
Mosquito sampling methods are essential for monitoring and evaluating malaria vector control interventions. In urban Dar es Salaam, human landing catch (HLC) is the only method sufficiently sensitive for monitoring malaria-transmitting Anopheles. HLC is labour intensive, cumbersome, hazardous, and requires such intense supervision that is difficulty to sustain on large scales. Novel tent traps were developed as alternatives to HLC. The Furvela tent, designed in Mozambique, incorporates a CDC Light trap (LT) components, while two others from Ifakara, Tanzania (designs A and B) require no electricity or moving parts. Their sensitivity for sampling malaria vectors was compared with LT and HLC over a wide range of vector abundances in rural and urban settings in Tanzania, with endophagic and exophagic populations, respectively, using randomised Latin-square and cross- over experimental designs. The sensitivity of LTs was greater than HLC while the opposite was true of Ifakara tent traps (crude mean catch of
Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. Adult females are likely to imbibe multiple blood meals during their lifetime. This results in regular exposure to potential toxins and blood-meal induced oxidative stress. Defence responses to these stressors may affect other factors of epidemiological significance, such as insecticide resistance and longevity. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of multiple blood-feeding on insecticide tolerance/resistance with increasing age, to assess the underlying biochemical mechanisms for the responses recorded, and to assess the effect of multiple blood-feeding on the life histories of adult females drawn from insecticide resistant and susceptible laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Laboratory reared An. arabiensis females from an insecticide resistant and an insecticide susceptible colony were offered either a single blood meal or multiple blood meals at 3-day intervals. Their tolerance or resistance to insecticide was then monitored by WHO
Elucidating the genetic basis of metabolic resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors is crucial to prolonging the effectiveness of insecticide-based control tools including long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Here, we show that cis-regulatory variants of the cytochrome P450 gene, CYP6P9b, are associated with pyrethroid resistance in the African malaria vector Anopheles funestus. A DNA-based assay is designed to track this resistance that occurs near fixation in southern Africa but not in West/Central Africa. Applying this assay we demonstrate, using semi-field experimental huts, that CYP6P9b-mediated resistance associates with reduced effectiveness of LLINs. Furthermore, we establish that CYP6P9b combines with another P450, CYP6P9a, to additively exacerbate the reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets. Double homozygote resistant mosquitoes (RR/RR) significantly survive exposure to insecticide-treated nets and successfully blood feed more than other genotypes. This study provides ...
In collaboration with The University of Queensland, QIMR scientists have found that the Wolbachia bacteria prevent Aedes aegypti mosquitoes from becoming infected with dengue virus, and means that the mosquitoes cant transmit the virus to humans.. Dr Peter Ryan from the Mosquito Control Laboratory at QIMR worked on the study, which was published in the 24 December edition of Cell.. "We discovered that infecting the Aedes aegypti mosquitoes with Wolbachiaprevented the virus from replicating inside the mosquitoes. The bacteria act like a barrier which prevents the mosquitoes from becoming infected with dengue virus," said Dr Ryan. "Its likely that the bacteria primes the mosquitoes immune system or competes for limited resources and prevents the virus from multiplying.". "Wolbachia live naturally in 60% of insect species, but do not naturally infect the species of mosquito that carry the dengue virus.". Dengue and the more severe form, dengue haemorrhagic fever lead to 50 million cases and cause ...
Progress in malaria control in the past decade can be attributed largely to a massive increase in the number of insecticide based management programmes targeting malaria carrying mosquitoes, using methods that include indoor residual spraying and insecticide impregnated bed nets. The effectiveness of these management techniques is now being compromised by insecticide resistant mosquito populations. In 2012, the UN World Health Organisation (WHO) launched a strategic plan to help fight insecticide resistance in malaria vectors. A crucial part in the management of insecticide resistant mosquito populations is access to current information on insecticide resistant populations. IR Mapper is a new interactive online mapping tool used to track insecticide resistance in mosquitoes. The tool collaborates reports of insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes into maps which aim to assist vector control strategies. Data consolidation for the programme was conducted by Swiss company Vestergaard ...
BACKGROUND: Molecular markers of insecticide resistance can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in malaria vector populations. Monitoring of insecticide resistance in vector populations is an important component of current malaria control programmes. Knockdown resistance (kdr) confers resistance to the pyrethroid class of insecticides with cross-resistance to DDT through single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. METHODS: To enable detection of kdr mutations at low frequency a method was developed that uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based technology, allowing rapid, reliable and cost-effective testing of large numbers of individual mosquitoes. This was used to assay mosquitoes from sites in lower Moshi, Tanzania. RESULTS: Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP) were used for simultaneous detection of both East and West African kdr mutations with high specificity and sensitivity. ...
Programmatic monitoring of insecticide resistance in disease vectors is mostly done on a large scale, often focusing on differences between districts, regions or countries. However, local heterogeneities in residual malaria transmission imply the need for finer-scale data. This study reports small-scale variations of insecticide susceptibility in Anopheles arabiensis between three neighbouring villages across two seasons in Tanzania, where insecticidal bed nets are extensively used, but malaria transmission persists. WHO insecticide susceptibility assays were conducted on female and male An. arabiensis from three proximal villages, Minepa, Lupiro, and Mavimba, during dry (June-December 2015) and wet (January-May 2016) seasons. Adults emerging from wild-collected larvae were exposed to 0.05% lambda-cyhalothrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.75% permethrin, 4% DDT, 4% dieldrin, 0.1% bendiocarb, 0.1% propoxur, 0.25% pirimiphos-methyl and 5% malathion. A hydrolysis probe assay was used to screen for L1014F ...

Insect Odorant Receptors Are Molecular Targets of the Insect Repellent DEET - NASA/ADSInsect Odorant Receptors Are Molecular Targets of the Insect Repellent DEET - NASA/ADS

Here, we show that DEET blocks electrophysiological responses of olfactory sensory neurons to attractive odors in Anopheles ... gambiae and Drosophila melanogaster. DEET inhibits behavioral attraction to food odors in Drosophila, and this inhibition ... we show that DEET blocks electrophysiological responses of olfactory sensory neurons to attractive odors in Anopheles gambiae ...
more infohttps://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Sci...319.1838D

Anopheles gambiae - WikipediaAnopheles gambiae - Wikipedia

Anopheles arabiensis Anopheles bwambae Anopheles melas Anopheles merus Anopheles quadriannulatus Anopheles gambiae sensu ... Anopheles gambiae in Brazil". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 78 (1): 176-8. PMID 18187802. "Anopheles gambiae". VectorBase. "Anopheles ... The Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was recognized as a species complex only in the 1960s. The A. ... Anopheles quadriannulatus generally takes its blood meal from animals (zoophilic), whereas Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anopheles_gambiae

Anopheles gambiae Gene finding parametersAnopheles gambiae Gene finding parameters

... Softberry Team softberry at softberry.com Tue Nov 5 16:33:34 EST 2002 *Previous ... Anopheles gambiae Gene finding parameters for FGENESH the program with parameters for major model organisms is available for on ... Fgenesh output: fgenesh Tue Nov 5 16:23:15 EST 2002 FGENESH 1.1 Prediction of potential genes in Anopheles_gambiae genomic DNA ... A new parameter set for gene prediction Anopheles gambiae is developed for FGENESH program. Accuracy of prediction of ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/genstruc/2002-November/000364.html

Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae | NatureOdorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae | Nature

Now the entire repertoire of odorant receptor proteins in the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, the major malaria vector in sub- ... Our analysis of the Anopheles gambiae repertoire identifies receptors that may be useful targets for controlling the ... Here we functionally characterize the Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor (AgOr) repertoire. We identify receptors that respond ... This analysis of the Anopheles gambiae receptors permits a comparison with the corresponding Drosophila melanogaster odorant ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/nature08834?error=cookies_not_supported&code=64653e9a-51bb-49e6-977f-a9406f3303db

Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae | PNASCentromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae | PNAS

Evidence for late Pleistocene population expansion of the malarial mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/102/44/15930/tab-article-info

AgaP AGAP010787 AGAP010787-PA [Anopheles gambiae str. PEST] - Gene - NCBIAgaP AGAP010787 AGAP010787-PA [Anopheles gambiae str. PEST] - Gene - NCBI

AgaP_AGAP010787 [Anopheles gambiae str. PEST] AgaP_AGAP010787 [Anopheles gambiae str. PEST]. Gene ID:5668064 ... Update of the Anopheles gambiae PEST genome assembly. Sharakhova MV, et al. Genome Biol, 2007. PMID 17210077, Free PMC Article ... The Anopheles gambiae genome: an update. Mongin E, et al. Trends Parasitol, 2004 Feb. PMID 14747013 ... Anopheles gambiae str. PEST (strain: PEST) Lineage. Eukaryota; Metazoa; Ecdysozoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/5668064

AgaP AGAP002356 AGAP002356-PA [Anopheles gambiae str. PEST] - Gene - NCBIAgaP AGAP002356 AGAP002356-PA [Anopheles gambiae str. PEST] - Gene - NCBI

AgaP_AGAP002356 [Anopheles gambiae str. PEST] AgaP_AGAP002356 [Anopheles gambiae str. PEST]. Gene ID:1273600 ... Update of the Anopheles gambiae PEST genome assembly. Sharakhova MV, et al. Genome Biol, 2007. PMID 17210077, Free PMC Article ... The Anopheles gambiae genome: an update. Mongin E, et al. Trends Parasitol, 2004 Feb. PMID 14747013 ... Anopheles gambiae str. PEST (strain: PEST) Lineage. Eukaryota; Metazoa; Ecdysozoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/gene/1273600

mRNA processing (Anopheles gambiae) - WikiPathwaysmRNA processing (Anopheles gambiae) - WikiPathways

Anopheles gambiae License=CC BY 2.0, ,Comment Source=GenMAPP notes,Gene lists from obtained from InterPro 9-23-2003: Mm ...
more infohttps://www.wikipathways.org/index.php?title=Pathway:WP1229&action=edit&oldid=40476

Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania | RTIMultiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania | RTI

gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) Kisumu strain.. Results: Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant malaria specie in the country, ... Molecular assay were used to determine distribution of Anopheles gambiae sub-species. A microplate assay approach was used for ... gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. Also bendiocarb resistance was recorded in Mbozi site, where An. gambiae s.s. is the dominant ... Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania. A major concern for malaria vector control ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/multiple-insecticide-resistance-anopheles-gambiae-tanzania

Pentose Phosphate Pathway (Anopheles gambiae) - WikiPathwaysPentose Phosphate Pathway (Anopheles gambiae) - WikiPathways

Pentose Phosphate Pathway (Anopheles gambiae). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 23:45, 29 July 2009 by MaintBot (Talk , ...
more infohttps://www.wikipathways.org/index.php?title=Pathway:WP1231&oldid=30800

The Genome Sequence of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae | ScienceThe Genome Sequence of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae | Science

The Genome Sequence of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae. By Robert A. Holt, G. Mani Subramanian, Aaron Halpern, Granger G ... The Genome Sequence of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae. By Robert A. Holt, G. Mani Subramanian, Aaron Halpern, Granger G ... The Genome Sequence of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/298/5591/129.full

RNAi Trigger Delivery into Anopheles gambiae Pupae | ProtocolRNAi Trigger Delivery into Anopheles gambiae Pupae | Protocol

Within the genus Anopheles, Anopheles gambiae is the species with the greatest vectorial capacity and is the most prominent ... RNAi Trigger Delivery into Anopheles gambiae Pupae. Kimberly Regna1, Rachel M. Harrison1, Shannon A. Heyse1, Thomas C. Chiles1 ... Harker, B. W., et al. Transcription Profiling Associated With Life Cycle of Anopheles gambiae. J Med Entomol. 49, (2), 316-325 ... Mitchell, S. N., et al. Metabolic and Target-Site Mechanisms Combine to Confer Strong DDT Resistance in Anopheles gambiae. PLoS ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/53738/rnai-trigger-delivery-into-anopheles-gambiae-pupae

Anopheles gambiae AGER protein
     Summary Report | CureHunterAnopheles gambiae AGER protein Summary Report | CureHunter

EGFR ortholog from Anopheles; from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: orthologs from Drosophila, human, mouse & chicken; ... Anopheles gambiae AGER protein. Subscribe to New Research on Anopheles gambiae AGER protein ... AGER - EGFR ortholog from Anopheles; from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: orthologs from Drosophila, human, mouse & ...
more infohttp://www.curehunter.com/public/keywordSummaryC452619-Anopheles-gambiae-AGER-protein.do

Systems genetic analysis of inversion polymorphisms in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae | PNASSystems genetic analysis of inversion polymorphisms in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae | PNAS

Systems genetic analysis of inversion polymorphisms in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Changde Cheng, John C. Tan, ... Here we take a systems genetics approach, analyzing two inversion systems implicated in climatic adaption by Anopheles gambiae ... Inversion polymorphisms in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae segregate along climatic gradients of aridity. Despite ... Systems genetic analysis of inversion polymorphisms in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/115/30/E7005.short?rss=1

The serpin gene family in Anopheles gambiaeThe serpin gene family in Anopheles gambiae

... gene family in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in Sub-Saharan Africa. We identified 18 A. gambiae SRPN ... Update of the Anopheles gambiae PEST genome assemply. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R5. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ... Anopheles gambiae SRPN2 facilitates midgut invasion by the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. EMBO Reports. 2005;6:891-897. [ ... Anopheles gambiae. Ms. Manduca sexta. Dm. Drosophila melanogaster. PPO. prophenoloxidase. PAP. prophenoloxidase-activating ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC2716094/

1272961 - AGAP002997-PA - Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito) - 1272961 gene & protein1272961 - AGAP002997-PA - Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito) - 1272961 gene & protein

Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... tr,Q7QD82,Q7QD82_ANOGA AGAP002997-PA OS=Anopheles gambiae OX=7165 GN=1272961 PE=4 SV=3 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q7QD82

1277418 - AGAP000901-PA - Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito) - 1277418 gene & protein1277418 - AGAP000901-PA - Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito) - 1277418 gene & protein

Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito). Anopheles dirus. Anopheles arabiensis (Mosquito). Anopheles epiroticus. Anopheles ... Anopheles merus (Mosquito). Anopheles minimus. Anopheles christyi. 552. UniRef90_Q7Q4R9. Cluster: AGAP000901-PA. 8. ... Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... tr,Q7Q4R9,Q7Q4R9_ANOGA AGAP000901-PA OS=Anopheles gambiae GN=1277418 PE=4 SV=5 ...
more infohttp://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/Q7Q4R9

Satellite DNA from the Y chromosome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae | GeneticsSatellite DNA from the Y chromosome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae | Genetics

Satellite DNA from the Y chromosome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Jaroslaw Krzywinski, Djibril Sangare and Nora ... Satellite DNA from the Y chromosome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Jaroslaw Krzywinski, Djibril Sangare and Nora ... Satellite DNA from the Y chromosome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Jaroslaw Krzywinski, Djibril Sangare and Nora ... Satellite DNA from the Y chromosome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/early/2004/09/30/genetics.104.034264

Anopheles gambiae: Metabolomic Profiles in Sugar-Fed, Blood-Fed, and Plasmodium falciparum-Infected MidgutAnopheles gambiae: Metabolomic Profiles in Sugar-Fed, Blood-Fed, and Plasmodium falciparum-Infected Midgut

... Cody J. Champion,1 ... E. Warr, R. Aguilar, Y. Dong, V. Mahairaki, and G. Dimopoulos, "Spatial and sex-specific dissection of the Anopheles gambiae ... A. Padrón, A. Molina-Cruz, M. Quinones et al., "In depth annotation of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito midgut transcriptome," ... J. C. Hoxmeier, B. D. Thompson, C. D. Broeckling et al., "Analysis of the metabolome of Anopheles gambiae mosquito after ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/dpis/2017/8091749/ref/

Tools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis | G3: Genes | Genomes | GeneticsTools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis | G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics

Tools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis. Gloria Volohonsky, Olivier Terenzi, Julien Soichot, Daniel A. Naujoks, Tony Nolan, ... Tools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis. Gloria Volohonsky, Olivier Terenzi, Julien Soichot, Daniel A. Naujoks, Tony Nolan, ... Tools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis. Gloria Volohonsky, Olivier Terenzi, Julien Soichot, Daniel A. Naujoks, Tony Nolan, ... Tools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from G3: Genes , Genomes , ...
more infohttp://www.g3journal.org/content/5/6/1151

Tools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis | G3: Genes | Genomes | GeneticsTools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis | G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics

Tools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis. Gloria Volohonsky, Olivier Terenzi, Julien Soichot, Daniel A. Naujoks, Tony Nolan, ... Tools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis. Gloria Volohonsky, Olivier Terenzi, Julien Soichot, Daniel A. Naujoks, Tony Nolan, ... Tools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis. Gloria Volohonsky, Olivier Terenzi, Julien Soichot, Daniel A. Naujoks, Tony Nolan, ... Tools for Anopheles gambiae Transgenesis Message Subject (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from G3: Genes , Genomes , ...
more infohttp://www.g3journal.org/content/5/6/1151.abstract

Ultra-deep exploration of transcription in Anopheles gambiae | VectorBaseUltra-deep exploration of transcription in Anopheles gambiae | VectorBase

are the primary victims and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the major vector. Novel. control strategies are urgently needed ... We propose to develop a comprehensive picture of the Anopheles gambiae. transcriptome using high-coverage RNA-seq through two ... gambiae and its response to physiological. and environmental stressors. We expect that deep insight into these processes will. ... Anopheles genomes that are currently in a sequencing pipeline. Further, it will be highly. informative for improvement of ...
more infohttps://www.vectorbase.org/projects/ultra-deep-exploration-transcription-anopheles-gambiae
  • Yakob L (2011) Epidemiological consequences of a newly discovered cryptic subgroup of Anopheles gambiae.Biol Lett G.B. White (1974). (wikipedia.org)
  • We propose to develop a comprehensive picture of the Anopheles gambiae transcriptome using high-coverage RNA-seq through two discrete, complementary study aims. (vectorbase.org)
  • Here we take a systems genetics approach, analyzing two inversion systems implicated in climatic adaption by Anopheles gambiae . (pnas.org)
  • AgaP_AGAP010787 AGAP010787-PA [Anopheles gambiae str. (nih.gov)
  • AgaP_AGAP002356 AGAP002356-PA [Anopheles gambiae str. (nih.gov)
  • Our analysis of the Anopheles gambiae repertoire identifies receptors that may be useful targets for controlling the transmission of malaria. (nature.com)
  • Analysis of the metabolome of Anopheles gambiae mosquito after exposure to Mycobacterium ulcerans ," Scientific Reports , vol. 5, article 9242, 2015. (hindawi.com)
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