A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)
A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
A carbamate insecticide.
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
Synthetic analogs of the naturally occurring insecticides cinerin, jasmolin, and pyrethrin. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of ACETYLCHOLINE to CHOLINE and acetate. In the CNS, this enzyme plays a role in the function of peripheral neuromuscular junctions. EC 3.1.1.7.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
Paired sense organs connected to the anterior segments of ARTHROPODS that help them navigate through the environment.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
A protozoan parasite that occurs naturally in the macaque. It is similar to PLASMODIUM VIVAX and produces a type of malaria similar to vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species has been found to give rise to both natural and experimental human infections.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
Any blood or formed element especially in invertebrates.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Living facilities for humans.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Sexual activities of animals.
Derivatives of carbamic acid, H2NC(=O)OH. Included under this heading are N-substituted and O-substituted carbamic acids. In general carbamate esters are referred to as urethanes, and polymers that include repeating units of carbamate are referred to as POLYURETHANES. Note however that polyurethanes are derived from the polymerization of ISOCYANATES and the singular term URETHANE refers to the ethyl ester of carbamic acid.
A republic in western Africa, constituting an enclave within SENEGAL extending on both sides of the Gambia River. Its capital is Banjul, formerly Bathurst.
Family of antimicrobial peptides that have been identified in humans, animals, and plants. They are thought to play a role in host defenses against infections, inflammation, wound repair, and acquired immunity.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that contains gelonin, a ribosome-inactivating protein.
A measure of the amount of WATER VAPOR in the air.
Antimicrobial peptides that form channels in membranes that are more permeable to anions than cations. They resemble MAGAININS, with their N-terminal region forming a positively charged amphipathic alpha helix, but containing an additional C-terminal segment.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.
An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.
The longterm manifestations of WEATHER. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The splitting of an ancestral species into daughter species that coexist in time (King, Dictionary of Genetics, 6th ed). Causal factors may include geographic isolation, HABITAT geometry, migration, REPRODUCTIVE ISOLATION, random GENETIC DRIFT and MUTATION.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the reaction between catechol and oxygen to yield benzoquinone and water. It is a complex of copper-containing proteins that acts also on a variety of substituted catechols. EC 1.10.3.1.
The body fluid that circulates in the vascular system (BLOOD VESSELS). Whole blood includes PLASMA and BLOOD CELLS.
The geographical area of Africa comprising CAMEROON; CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC; CHAD; CONGO; EQUATORIAL GUINEA; GABON; and DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.

MalariaSphere: a greenhouse-enclosed simulation of a natural Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) ecosystem in western Kenya. (1/829)

BACKGROUND: The development and implementation of innovative vector control strategies for malaria control in Africa requires in-depth ecological studies in contained semi-field environments. This particularly applies to the development and release of genetically-engineered vectors that are refractory to Plasmodium infection. Here we describe a modified greenhouse, designed to simulate a natural Anopheles gambiae Giles ecosystem, and the first successful trials to complete the life-cycle of this mosquito vector therein. METHODS: We constructed a local house, planted crops and created breeding sites to simulate the natural ecosystem of this vector in a screen-walled greenhouse, exposed to ambient climate conditions, in western Kenya. Using three different starting points for release (blood-fed females, virgin females and males, or eggs), we allowed subsequent stages of the life-cycle to proceed under close observation until one cycle was completed. RESULTS: Completion of the life-cycle was observed in all three trials, indicating that the major life-history behaviours (mating, sugar feeding, oviposition and host seeking) occurred successfully. CONCLUSION: The system described can be used to study the behavioural ecology of laboratory-reared and wild mosquitoes, and lends itself to contained studies on the stability of transgenes, fitness effects and phenotypic characteristics of genetically-engineered disease vectors. The extension of this approach, to enable continuous maintenance of successive and overlapping insect generations, should be prioritized. Semi-field systems represent a promising means to significantly enhance our understanding of the behavioural and evolutionary ecology of African malaria vectors and our ability to develop and evaluate innovative control strategies. With regard to genetically-modified mosquitoes, development of such systems is an essential prerequisite to full field releases.  (+info)

Early duplication and functional diversification of the opsin gene family in insects. (2/829)

Recent analysis of the complete mosquito Anopheles gambiae genome has revealed a far higher number of opsin genes than for either the Drosophila melanogaster genome or any other known insect. In particular, the analysis revealed an extraordinary opsin gene content expansion, whereby half are long wavelength-sensitive (LW) opsin gene duplicates. We analyzed this genomic data in relationship to other known insect opsins to estimate the relative timing of the LW opsin gene duplications and to identify "missing" paralogs in extant species. The inferred branching patterns of the LW opsin gene family phylogeny indicate at least one early gene duplication within insects before the emergence of the orders Orthoptera, Mantodea, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera, and Diptera. These data predict the existence of one more LW opsin gene than is currently known from most insects. We tested this prediction by using a degenerate PCR strategy to screen the hymenopteran genome for novel LW opsin genes. We isolated two LW opsin gene sequences from each of five bee species, Bombus impatiens, B. terrestris, Diadasia afflicta, D. rinconis, and Osmia rufa, including 1.1 to 1.2 kb from a known (LW Rh1) and 1 kb from a new opsin gene (LW Rh2). Phylogenetic analysis suggests that the novel hymenopteran gene is orthologous to A. gambiae GPRop7, a gene that is apparently missing from D. melanogaster. Relative rate tests show that LW Rh2 is evolving at a slower rate than LW Rh1 and, therefore, may be a useful marker for higher-level hymenopteran systematics. Site-specific rate tests indicate the presence of several amino acid sites between LW Rh1 and LW Rh2 that have undergone shifts in selective constraints after duplication. These sites and others are discussed in relationship to putative structural and functional differences between the two genes.  (+info)

The genetics of inviability and male sterility in hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis. (3/829)

Male hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis suffer from hybrid sterility, and inviability effects are sometimes present as well. We examined the genetic basis of these reproductive barriers between the two species, using 21 microsatellite markers. Generally, recessive inviability effects were found on the X chromosome of gambiae that are incompatible with at least one factor on each arabiensis autosome. Inviability is complete when the gambiae and arabiensis inviability factors are hemi- or homozygous. Using a QTL mapping approach, regions that contribute to male hybrid sterility were also identified. The X chromosome has a disproportionately large effect on male hybrid sterility. Additionally, several moderate-to-large autosomal QTL were found in both species. The effect of these autosomal QTL is contingent upon the presence of an X chromosome from the other species. Substantial regions of the autosomes do not contribute markedly to male hybrid sterility. Finally, no evidence for epistatic interactions between conspecific sterility loci was found.  (+info)

Innate immunity in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: comparative and functional genomics. (4/829)

The resurgence of malaria is at least partly attributed to the absence of an effective vaccine, parasite resistance to antimalarial drugs and resistance to insecticides of the anopheline mosquito vectors. Novel strategies are needed to combat the disease on three fronts: protection (vaccines), prophylaxis/treatment (antimalarial drugs) and transmission blocking. The latter entails either killing the mosquitoes (insecticides), preventing mosquito biting (bednets and repellents), blocking parasite development in the vector (transmission blocking vaccines), genetic manipulation or chemical incapacitation of the vector. During the past decade, mosquito research has been energized by several breakthroughs, including the successful transformation of anopheline vectors, analysis of gene function by RNAi, genome-wide expression profiling using DNA microarrays and, most importantly, sequencing of the Anopheles gambiae genome. These breakthroughs helped unravel some of the mechanisms underlying the dynamic interactions between the parasite and the vector and shed light on the mosquito innate immune system as a set of potential targets to block parasite development. In this context, putative pattern recognition receptors of the mosquito that act as positive and negative regulators of parasite development have been identified recently. Characterizing these molecules and others of similar function, and identifying their ligands on the parasite surface, will provide clues on the nature of the interactions that define an efficient parasite-vector system and open up unprecedented opportunities to control the vectorial capacity of anopheline mosquitoes.  (+info)

A weather-driven model of malaria transmission. (5/829)

BACKGROUND: Climate is a major driving force behind malaria transmission and climate data are often used to account for the spatial, seasonal and interannual variation in malaria transmission. METHODS: This paper describes a mathematical-biological model of the parasite dynamics, comprising both the weather-dependent within-vector stages and the weather-independent within-host stages. RESULTS: Numerical evaluations of the model in both time and space show that it qualitatively reconstructs the prevalence of infection. CONCLUSION: A process-based modelling structure has been developed that may be suitable for the simulation of malaria forecasts based on seasonal weather forecasts.  (+info)

Structural and evolutionary analyses of the Ty3/gypsy group of LTR retrotransposons in the genome of Anopheles gambiae. (6/829)

The recent availability of the genome of Anopheles gambiae offers an extraordinary opportunity for comparative studies of the diversity of transposable elements (TEs) and their evolutionary dynamics between two related species, taking advantage of the existing information from Drosophila melanogaster. To this goal, we screened the genome of A. gambiae for elements belonging to the Ty3/gypsy group of long-terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons. The A. gambiae genome displays a rich diversity of LTR retrotransposons, clearly greater than D. melanogaster. We have characterized in detail 63 families, belonging to five of the nine main lineages of the Ty3/gypsy group. The Mag lineage is the most diverse and abundant, with more than 30 families. In sharp contrast with this finding, a single family belonging to this lineage has been found in D. melanogaster, here reported for the first time in the literature, most probably consisting of old inactive elements. The CsRn1 lineage is also abundant in A. gambiae but almost absent from D. melanogaster. Conversely, the Osvaldo lineage has been detected in Drosophila but not in Anopheles. Comparison of structural characteristics of different families led to the identification of several lineage-specific features such as the primer-binding site (PBS), the gag-pol translational recoding signal (TRS), which is extraordinarily diverse within the Ty3/gypsy retrotransposons of A. gambiae, or the presence/absence of specific amino acid motifs. Interestingly, some of these characteristics, although in general well conserved within lineages, may have evolved independently in particular branches of the phylogenetic tree. We also show evidence of recent activity for around 75% of the families. Nevertheless, almost all families contain a high proportion of degenerate members and solitary LTRs (solo LTRs), indicative of a lower turnover rate of retrotransposons belonging to the Ty3/gypsy group in A. gambiae than in D. melanogaster. Finally, we have detected significant overrepresentations of insertions on the X chromosome versus autosomes and of putatively active insertions on euchromatin versus heterochromatin.  (+info)

Invertebrate data predict an early emergence of vertebrate fibrillar collagen clades and an anti-incest model. (7/829)

Fibrillar collagens are involved in the formation of striated fibrils and are present from the first multicellular animals, sponges, to humans. Recently, a new evolutionary model for fibrillar collagens has been suggested (Boot-Handford, R. P., Tuckwell, D. S., Plumb, D. A., Farrington Rock, C., and Poulsom, R. (2003) J. Biol. Chem. 278, 31067-31077). In this model, a rare genomic event leads to the formation of the founder vertebrate fibrillar collagen gene prior to the early vertebrate genome duplications and the radiation of the vertebrate fibrillar collagen clades (A, B, and C). Here, we present the modular structure of the fibrillar collagen chains present in different invertebrates from the protostome Anopheles gambiae to the chordate Ciona intestinalis. From their modular structure and the use of a triple helix instead of C-propeptide sequences in phylogenetic analyses, we were able to show that the divergence of A and B clades arose early during evolution because alpha chains related to these clades are present in protostomes. Moreover, the event leading to the divergence of B and C clades from a founder gene arose before the appearance of vertebrates; altogether these data contradict the Boot-Handford model. Moreover, they indicate that all the key steps required for the formation of fibrils of variable structure and functionality arose step by step during invertebrate evolution.  (+info)

Distribution of ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone I in the nervous system and gut of mosquitoes. (8/829)

Ovary ecdysteroidogenic hormone I (OEH I) is a gonadotropin in the female mosquito, Aedes aegypti. Whole-mount immunocytochemistry using OEH I antisera revealed an extensive distribution of immunostained cells in larvae and adults of this mosquito comparable to that observed in the African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Medial neurosecretory cells were stained in brains of larvae and adult Ae. aegypti. In An gambiae the lateral neurosecretory cells were stained more often. In both species, immunostained axons from these cells extended out of the brain through the neurohemal organ associated with the aorta and branched extensively along the midgut. Immunostained endocrine cells were observed in larval and adult midguts of both species. In adults, abdominal metameric perivisceral organs were stained. Stained axons interconnected the perivisceral organs and neurosecretory cells in the abdominal ganglia. Episodic release of OEH I from these organs was evident in female Ae. aegypti, when staining disappeared at 12 hours after a blood meal and returned by 48 hours to levels observed before and up to 2 hours after the blood meal. Two sites were specifically stained only in An. gambiae: an axon net around the pyloric valve in the hindgut of larvae and adults and a ring of endocrine cells in the cardiac valve in the larval midgut. The markedly similar localizations of immunostained cells in larvae and adults of two distantly related species indicate that OEH I, or a homolog, is conserved within this group of Diptera and likely has stage- and sex-specific functions.  (+info)

Cues that guide gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu lato to oviposition sites can be manipulated to create new strategies for monitoring and controlling malaria vectors. However, progress towards identifying such cues is slow in part due to the lack of appropriate tools for investigating long-range attraction to putative oviposition substrates. This study aimed to develop a relatively easy-to-use bioassay system that can effectively analyse chemical attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. BG-Sentinel™ mosquito traps that use fans to dispense odourants were modified to contain aqueous substrates. Choice tests with two identical traps set in an 80 m2 screened semi-field system were used to analyse the catch efficacy of the traps and the effectiveness of the bioassay. A different batch of 200 gravid An. gambiae s.s. was released on every experimental night. Choices tested were (1) distilled versus distilled water (baseline) and (2) distilled water versus soil infusion. Further, comparisons were
1. Takken W, Knols BG. Odor-mediated behavior of Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes. Annu Rev Entomol. 1999;44:131-157 2. Zwiebel LJ, Takken W. Olfactory regulation of mosquito-host interactions. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;34:645-652 3. Himeidan YE, Temu EA, El rayah EA. et al. Chemical cues for malaria vectors oviposition site selection: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Insects. 2013 Article ID685182: 1-9 4. Meijerink J, Braks MA, van Loon JJ. Olfactory receptors on the antennae of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae are sensitive to ammonia and other sweat-borne components. J Insect Physiol. 2001;47:455-464 5. Lu T, Qiu YT, Wang G. et al. Odor coding in the maxillary palp of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1533-1544 6. Qiu YT, van Loon JJ, Takken W. et al. Olfactory coding in antennal neurons of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Chem Senses. 2006;31:845-863 7. McIver SB. Sensilla of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. ...
Synthetic versions of human derived kairomones can be used as baits when trapping host seeking mosquitoes. The effectiveness of these lures depends not only on their attractiveness to the mosquitoes but also on the medium from which they are dispensed.We report on the development and evaluation of nylon strips as a method of dispensing odorants attractive to the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiaes.s. (Giles).When a synthetic blend of attractants was dispensed using this method, signiÞcantly more mosquitoes were trapped than when two previous methods, open glass vials or low density polyethylene sachets were used. We conclude that the nylon strips are suitable for dispensing odorants in mosquito trapping operations and can be adopted for use in rural and remote areas. The nylon material required is cheap and widely available and the strips can be prepared without specialized equipment or ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, one of the principal vectors of malaria, has been divided into two subspecific groups, known as the M and S molecular forms. Recent studies suggest that the M form found in Cameroon is genetically distinct from the M form found in Mali and elsewhere in West Africa, suggesting further subdivision within that form. Chromosomal, microsatellite and geographic/ecological evidence are synthesized to identify sources of genetic polymorphism among chromosomal and molecular forms of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae s.s. Cytogenetically the Forest M form is characterized as carrying the standard chromosome arrangement for six major chromosomal inversions, namely 2La, 2Rj, 2Rb, 2Rc, 2Rd, and 2Ru. Bayesian clustering analysis based on molecular form and chromosome inversion polymorphisms as well as microsatellites describe the Forest M form as a distinct population relative to the West African M form (Mopti-M form) and the S form. The Forest-M form was the most highly diverged
The long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs) and indoor residual spraying of insecticide (IRS) are major malaria vector control strategies in Mali. The success of control strategies depends on a better understanding of the status of malaria vectors with respect to the insecticides used. In this study we evaluate the level of resistance of Anopheles gambiae (sensu lato) to bendiocarb and the molecular mechanism that underlies it. Larvae of An. gambiae (s.l.) were collected from breeding habitats encountered in the three study sites and bioassayed with bendiocarb. The ace-1 target site substitution G119S was genotyped using a TaqMan assay. The three species of the An. gambiae complex in Mali, i.e. An. arabiensis, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae (s.s.) were found in sympatry in the three surveyed localities with different frequencies. We observed a resistance and suspicious resistance of the three species to bendiocarb with a mortality rate ranging from 37% to 86%. The allelic frequency of the G119S mutation
Studies on the roles of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus complexes in the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in Makurdi, Nigeria across four localities: High-level, Wurukum, North- bank and Wadata were undertaken from July, 2011 to June, 2012. 1,681 adult female mosquitoes were identified and dissected with the aid of standard keys and procedures to determine their incrimination rates with microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti. 1,040 (61.87%) of these were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato while 641 (38.13%) were Anopheles funestus. The results showed a significant difference ( between the mosquito species and their abundance. The overall microfilarial incrimination rate was 5.77% (97/1,681); Anopheles gambiae s.l. was more incriminated (3.57%) than Anopheles funestus (2.20%). The incrimination rates differed significantly ( between the two mosquito species surveyed. ANOVA also showed significant variations (P < 0.05) in the microfilarial incrimination rates across the localities and ...
Malaria is a serious threat to human life in sub-Saharan Africa, claiming many lives and causing the greatest morbidity as compared to other infectious diseases. Female Anopheles gambiae mosquito acts as the definitive host of Plasmodium protozoa, and allows sexual reproduction to take place in its gut. Infection rates may vary seasonally due to temperature changes, but this occurrence is not well studied in the Kenyan highlands. This study therefore aimed at investigating the seasonal variations in infection of Anopheles gambiae by Plasmodium oocysts and its implications on malaria prevalence in human beings. The study was conducted in three estates namely, Daraja mbili, Mwembe, and Maili Mbili which surround Kisii town in Nyanza province. Three villages in Keumbu location which is in the outskirts of Kisii town were also sampled to represent the rural population. Bi-weekly collection of mosquitoes during both wet and dry seasons was done for a period of 2 months in each season. Data were ...
Background: The non-random distribution of anopheline larvae in natural habitats suggests that gravid females discriminate between habitats of different quality. Whilst physical and chemical cues used by Culex and Aedes vector mosquitoes for selecting an oviposition site have been extensively studied, those for Anopheles remain poorly explored. Here the habitat selection by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), the principal African malaria vector, was investigated when presented with a choice of two infusions made from rabbit food pellets, or soil. Methods: Natural colonization and larval survival was evaluated in artificial ponds filled randomly with either infusion. Dual-choice, egg-count bioassays evaluated the responses of caged gravid females to (1) two- to six-day old infusions versus lake water; (2) autoclaved versus non-autoclaved soil infusions; and assessed (3) the olfactory memory of gravid females conditioned in pellet infusion as larvae. Results: Wild Anopheles exclusively colonized ...
Kabbale, F., Akol, A., Kaddu, J., & Onapa, A. (2013). Biting patterns and seasonality of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and Anopheles funestus mosquirtoes in Kamuli District, Uganda. Parasites and Vectors, 12, 1 - 20 ...
The work included in this thesis arose from a long-standing interest in the possible use of genetic control for one of the most important malaria vectors in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. It was hoped that the genes involved in animal biting in the sibling species Anopheles quadriannulatus could be exploited by crossing with An. gambiae s. s. and using the fertile female hybrids for successive backcrosses to An. gambiae s. s.. It was envisaged that this method could be used in an attempt to produce a mosquito stock that is harmless to humans because it is zoophilic but with the genetic background of An. gambiae s. s. so that there would be no barriers to cross-mating in the wild. The innate host preference of mosquitoes can be determined in the laboratory using an olfactometer, or in the field using baits. Host-selection patterns in nature are often affected by external factors, which may or may not mask the host preference of the mosquito species in question (discussed in section ...
Anopheles gambiae AGER protein: AGER - EGFR ortholog from Anopheles; from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: orthologs from Drosophila, human, mouse & chicken; Genbank, AJ301655 and AJ304406
Anopheles gambiae Gene finding parameters for FGENESH the program with parameters for major model organisms is available for on line usage at: http://www.softberry.com/berry.phtml?topic=gfind Method description: A new parameter set for gene prediction Anopheles gambiae is developed for FGENESH program. Accuracy of prediction of Plasmodium falciparum protein coding genes is about 98% on the nucleotide level. The FGENESH algorithm is based on pattern recognition of different types of signals and Markov chain models of coding regions. Optimal combination of these features is then found by dynamic programming and a set of gene models is constructed along given sequence. FGENESH is the fastest and most accurate ab initio gene prediction program available. Fgenesh output: fgenesh Tue Nov 5 16:23:15 EST 2002 FGENESH 1.1 Prediction of potential genes in Anopheles_gambiae genomic DNA Time : Tue Nov 5 16:23:16 2002 Seq name: Softberry SERVER PAST Sequence Length of sequence: 1542 Number of predicted genes ...
Various strategies that block malaria transmission from an infected human host to a female Anopheline mosquito that involve killing of the blood fed mosquito have been studied as a potential strategy to control malaria. These include the immunization of animal hosts with either whole homogenized blood fed mosquito midguts or their extracts. In 1939, William Trager first demonstrated anti-vector immunity by immunizing guinea pigs and rabbits with extracts of the tick Dermacentor variabilis. This immunological targeting of tick midgut antigens led to the commercial development of a vaccine against Boophilus microplus ticks licenced in 1985.This study investigated the mosquitocidal effects of an immune response elicited by immunization of BALB/c mice with a gene, Anopheles gambiae mucin 1 gene (AgMUC1 gene) alone or in combination with immunostimulatory cytokine genes GM-CSF or IL-12. The AgMUC1 genes were cloned from the midgut of blood fed female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes. Four groups of ...
Scientists at the University of Notre Dame have found that exposure to just 10 minutes of light at night suppresses biting and manipulates flight behavior in the Anopheles gambiae mosquito,... Read more ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) consists of several morphologically cryptic species throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In the Sahel region of Mali, this complex includes Anopheles arabiensis (Patton 1905) and A. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) (Giles 1902), which is further divided into the M and S molecular forms; all are important malaria vectors (Coluzzi et al., 1979; Collins et al., 2001; della Torre et al., 2001; Coluzzi et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2002). Although they are morphologically indistinguishable and can occur in sympatry (Lindsay et al., 1998; Coluzzi et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2005; Simard et al., 2009), these cryptic species often differ in abundance according to season, local rainfall, latitude and larval site characteristics (Gimnig et al., 2001; Edillo et al., 2002; Koenraadt et al., 2004; Diabaté et al., 2005; Edillo et al., 2006; Diabaté et al., 2008; Costantini et al., 2009), and thus local differentiation may occur between these ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was recently reclassified as two species, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s., in wild-caught mosquitoes, on the basis of the molecular form, denoted M or S, of a marker on the X chromosome. The An. gambiae Keele line is an outbred laboratory colony strain that was developed around 12 years ago by crosses between mosquitoes from 4 existing An. gambiae colonies. Laboratory colonies of mosquitoes often have limited genetic diversity because of small starting populations (founder effect) and subsequent fluctuations in colony size. Here we describe the characterisation of the chromosomal form(s) present in the Keele line, and investigate the diversity present in the colony using microsatellite markers on chromosome 3. We also characterise the large 2La inversion on chromosome 2. The results indicate that only the M-form of the chromosome X marker is present in the Keele colony, which was unexpected given that 3 of the 4 parent colonies were probably S-form. Levels of diversity
BACKGROUND: The strategy for malaria vector control in the context of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality has been the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets to universal coverage and indoor residual spraying. This has led to significant decline in malaria transmission. However, these vector control strategies rely on insecticides which are threatened by insecticide resistance. In this study the status of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and its implication in malaria transmission at the Kenyan Coast was investigated. RESULTS: Using World Health Organization diagnostic bioassay, levels of phenotypic resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin was determined. Anopheles arabiensis showed high resistance to pyrethroids while Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles funestus showed low resistance and susceptibility, respectively. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes were further genotyped for L1014S and L1014F kdr mutation by real time PCR. An allele frequency ...
Malaria remains a major public health problem that is made worse by poor implementation of control measures, and by the spread of drug- and insecticide-resistant parasites and vectors, respectively. Availability of the Anopheles gambiae genome sequence will accelerate identification and exploitation of new target genes in this insect vector. This provides unique opportunities to improve on existing vector control tools and to generate new tools within a global partnership. However, significant capacity needs to be built for investigators in disease-endemic countries to exploit the genome data. When integrated with existing strategies, the new tools will form an effective package for selective vector control in an effort to prevent mortality and morbidity due to malaria. ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu lato IS a major vector of malaria in western Kenya where environmental conditions are highly conducive for its survival and reproduction. Breeding mostly occurs in newly formed small and transient water bodies but as the habitats age they may become unattractive for breeding of the species. The aim of this study was to deduce some of the ecological implications of this strategy of early colonization of breeding sites by Anopheles gambiae s.l. Ten semi-natural habitats (5 small and 5 large) were studied longitudinally (sampled same population over time) for a period of 12 weeks with daily sampling of all larval and pupal stages and quantification of all other identifiable aquatic fauna. This was followed by a final census and retrieval of all inhabitants of each habitat. A new set of 10 habitats was investigated together with the old habitats using the same procedures for an additional period of 9 weeks. Larval cohorts lasting on average twelve days were easily noticeable ...
Smelly feet and heat - how malaria mosquitoes find their hosts. Spitzen et al. [1], studied the host-seeking behavior of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto.
A large scale microarray (20k MMC1) from the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae was used to monitor gene expression in insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of the Asian mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Heterologous hybridization at slightly reduced stringency yielded approximately 7000 s …
When natural larval habitats of An. gambiae s.l. dry up, their contribution towards the population dynamics of the adult stage is often neglected, since mass larval mortality is assumed to occur [9]. We found that eggs of An. gambiae s.s. hatched and that emerging larvae showed limited capability of reaching a nearby breeding site, when placed on damp soil. With this experiment we simulated a natural situation whereby eggs remain on damp soil when the water level drops or eggs are oviposited deliberately on damp soil after desiccation of the habitat [8, 10]. In addition, we found that larvae of An. gambiae s.s. survive for several days in sites that are drying up, depending on the larval stage.. Larvae that hatch from eggs on damp soil were able to reach a breeding site within a distance of 10 cm, albeit in low numbers. We induced hatching of the eggs by keeping the soil of our experimental sites damp by daily spraying of water, but during spraying we made sure that no water ran off or that a ...
Author Summary Malaria causes more than one million deaths every year, mostly among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Anopheles mosquitoes are exclusive vectors of human malaria. Many malaria vectors belong to species complexes, and members within these complexes can vary significantly in their ecological adaptations and ability to transmit the parasite. To better understand evolution of epidemiologically important traits, we studied relationships among nonvector and vector species of the African Anopheles gambiae complex. We analyzed gene orders at genomic regions where evolutionary breaks of chromosomal inversions occurred in members of the complex and compared them with gene orders in species outside the complex. This approach allowed us to identify ancient and recent gene orders for three chromosomal inversions. Surprisingly, the more ancestral chromosomal arrangements were found in mosquito species that are vectors of human malaria, while the more derived arrangements were found in both nonvectors
To help improve the functional annotation of the Anopheles gambiae genome we have generated the MozAtlas, a unified catalogue of tissue-specific gene expression from a single mosquito strain. In Drosophila melanogaster, cataloguing tissue expression patterns has been useful, especially for inferring biological functions, since the majority of genes encoded in the genome are not ubiquitously expressed [19]. As with the fruit fly, Anopheles gene expression also exhibits substantial tissue specificity, with only a third of detectably expressed genes found in all tissues. Thus, the MozAtlas is a useful resource for better understanding the mosquito genome, providing direct evidence of genes with tissue restricted expression. Below we highlight the utility of MozAtlas for identifying classes of gene with tissue or sex-biased expression that may be exploited for vector control. Analysis of the MozAtlas also identifies gene expression features that are of interest from an evolutionary perspective, ...
Relative humidity drops to levels that are uncomfortable for mosquitoes at the end of the rainy season. In one village, Banizoumbou, water pools dried up and interrupted mosquito breeding shortly after the end of the rainy season. In this case, relative humidity had little effect on the mosquito population. However, in the other village, Zindarou, the relatively shallow water table led to water pools that persisted several months beyond the end of the rainy season. In this case, the decrease in mosquito survival due to relative humidity improved the models ability to reproduce the seasonal pattern of observed mosquito abundance ...
Serine proteases play a crucial role during the digestion of the blood meal in the mosquito gut. The isolation and the analysis of the genomic organisation of the corresponding genes may lead to the characterization of gut-specific, inducible promoters, suitable for the expression of anti-parasitic agents in the gut of transgenic mosquitoes. We report here on the identification of a trypsin and a chymotrypsin gene family of Anopheles gambiae. Following a blood meal, the transcription of all members of the two identified gene clusters, seven trypsin genes (Antryp1-7) and two chymotrypsin genes (Anchym1-2), is induced. Recombinant Antryp1 and Antryp2, expressed in E. coli, were both active in vitro against blood proteins. Moreover, mouse sera raised against Antryp1, Anchym1 and Anchym2 recognized the corresponding proteases among the proteins of a lysate prepared from dissected guts of An. gambiae mosquitoes.. ...
Sawadogo, Simon P., Costantini, Carlo, Pennetier, Cédric, Diabaté, Abdoulaye, Gibson, Gabriella and Dabiré, Roch K. (2013) Differences in timing of mating swarms in sympatric populations of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae s.s. (formerly An. gambiae M and S molecular forms) in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Parasites & Vectors, 6 (1):275. ISSN 1756-3305 (Print), 1756-3305 (Online) (doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-275) Pennetier, Cédric, Warren, Ben, Dabiré, K. Roch, Russell, Ian J. and Gibson, Gabriella (2009) Singing on the wing as a mechanism for species recognition in the malarial mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Current Biology, 20 (2). pp. 131-136. ISSN 0960-9822 (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.040) Bonnet, Julien, Pennetier, Cédric, Duchon, Stéphane, Lapied, Bruno and Corbel, Vincent (2009) Multi-function oxidases are responsible for the synergistic interactions occurring between repellents and insecticides in mosquitoes. Parasites & Vectors, 2 (17). ISSN 1756-3305 (doi:10.1186/1756-3305-2-17) ...
Here we present data on a cluster of 3 female LRT-specific serine protease genes suggested to be involved in post-mating processes in A. gambiae s.s. As already shown for other genes with different functions, the reconstruction of the 3 gene-trees shows that most species share alleles at all loci, as an effect of introgression and/or retention of ancestral polymorphisms, and that only A. merus and A. melas are placed in monophyletic assemblages (Figure 2). On the other hand, we found an unusually high substitution rate, which contributes mostly to an exceptionally high level of intra-specific polymorphisms, especially at nonsynonymous sites (Table 1). Moreover, while A. gambiae, A. arabiensis, and A. quadriannulatus do not differ for any fixed replacement, A. melas and A. merus diverge from the other species at all loci, showing a high number of fixed substitutions at both synonymous (7-9) and nonsynonymous (13-23) sites at locus AGAP005195.. The comparisons of different site-models - used to ...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 1943-2631. ...
Mosquitoes are important vectors of infectious diseases and successful transmission depends on the efficacy of host discrimination and blood uptake. This process is directed by the need for the mosquito to feed on those hosts that provide greatest fitness. We have preliminary evidence that mosquitoes can detect the quality of the blood meal based on the volatiles emitted from the human skin. The mosquito would thus be able to decide who is the best host for the development of her eggs. We will unravel one of the most important evolutionary mechanisms behind mosquito host choice by answering the hypothesis that malaria mosquitoes detect the quality of a host by its skin volatiles. Therefore, we will link someones attractiveness towards mosquitoes with his/her blood quality. Blood of 40 individuals will be analysed and fed to the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae in vivo and in vitro to determine differences in egg production. In addition, odour samples will be analysed and tested for ...
Renal function is essential to maintain homeostasis. This is particularly significant for insects that undergo complete metamorphosis; larval mosquitoes must survive a freshwater habitat whereas adults are terrestrial, and mature females must maintain ion and fluid homeostasis after blood feeding. To investigate the physiological adaptations required for successful development to adulthood, we studied the Malpighian tubule transcriptome of Anopheles gambiae using Affymetrix arrays. We assessed transcription under several conditions; as third instar larvae, as adult males fed on sugar, as adult females fed on sugar, and adult females after a blood meal. In addition to providing the most detailed transcriptomic data to date on the Anopheles Malpighian tubules, the data provide unique information on the renal adaptations required for the switch from freshwater to terrestrial habitats, on gender differences, and on the contrast between nectar-feeding and haematophagy. We found clear differences ...
Both new and previously identified immune markers are expressed in adult mosquitoes, and thus are suited for monitoring induction by the malaria parasite. The markers show distinct and in some cases complex developmental expression profiles, which may reflect potential non‐defence‐related functions. Developmental and immune‐related processes often share the same components: examples are regulatory factors such as Dif, Dorsal and Relish in D.melanogaster (Dushay et al., 1996; Hoffmann et al., 1996), or effectors such as the Sarcophaga antibacterial defence proteins sapecin, sapecin B and cathepsin L (Natori and Kubo, 1996). Some of the A.gambiae infection‐responsive markers, GNBP, IGALE20 and ICHIT, encode adhesive motifs (Dimopoulos et al., 1996, 1997), and could be involved both in binding to microbial substances in defence and in the removal of apoptotic cells and tissue remodelling during development. NOS is known to have multiple functions in a variety of physiological processes. The ...
integral component of membrane, mitochondrial inner membrane, L-aspartate transmembrane transporter activity, L-glutamate transmembrane transporter activity, aspartate transport, L-glutamate transmembrane transport, malate-aspartate shuttle
p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.,/p> ,p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.,/p> ,p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).,/p> ,p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x,sup>64,/sup> + x,sup>4,/sup> + x,sup>3,/sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. ,/p> ,p class=publication>Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.,br /> ,strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums,/strong>,br /> ,a href=http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php>Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993),/a>),/p> Checksum:i ...
Spectral analysis of A. aegypti Aaop8 and Aaop10 rhodopsins expressed in transgenic Drosophila. (A) An electroretinogram (ERG) of the positive control Drosophila genotype norpAP24; cn bw; ,pRh1:norpA ,ninaEI17/ninaE+ (Rh1 expressed) shows a dual peak response in the blue (500-450 nm) and UV (350 nm) regions. Stimuli were adjusted to contain similar photon flux (20 μE m−2 s−1) at the indicated wavelengths and were administered as depicted in the diagram under the trace. (B) An ERG of the Drosophila genotype norpAP24; cn bw ,pRh1:Aaop8 ,/cn bw; ,pRh1:norpA ,ninaEI17/ninaEI17 shows that flies expressing Aaop8 are maximally sensitive to UV light. The stimuli were identical to those used in A. (C) Difference spectra obtained from Aaop8-expressing Drosophila head membrane extracts. Blue light treatment generates the rhodopsin form of Aaop8 with a λmax at ~330 nm (left arrow). UV light treatment generates the metarhodopsin form of Aaop8 with a λmax at ~460 nm (right arrow). (D) ERG of the ...
2015) Efficacy, Persistence and Vector Susceptibility to Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) Insecticide for Indoor Residual Spraying in Zanzibar. Parasites & vectors, 8 (1). p. 628. ISSN 1756-3305 (2014) Islands and Stepping-Stones: Comparative Population Structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and Implications for the Spread of Insecticide Resistance. PloS one, 9 (10). e110910. ISSN 1932-6203 (2013) Challenges for Malaria Elimination in Zanzibar: Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Poor Performance of Long-Lasting Insecticide Nets. Parasites & vectors, 6 (1). p. 82. ISSN 1756-3305 (2013) The Dynamics of Pyrethroid Nesistance in Anopheles Arabiensis from Zanzibar and an Assessment of the Underlying Genetic Basis. Parasites & vectors, 6. p. 343. ISSN 1756-3305 ...
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Malaria is a blood-borne human disease, and is transmitted to mosquitoes in the bloodmeal, an obligatory step in human malaria transmission. This is a study of malaria parasites in the major mosquito vector of human malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. The intent of the study is to develop modern forms of vector control that would specifically decrease disease transmission by targeting the vector. Genetic linkage mapping of the mosquito vector (Anopheles gambiae) in Africa has identified a small genomic region in the mosquito that controls most of the natural genetic variation for resistance to mosquito infection with the human malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). In order to study the influence of mosquito vector genetics on transmission of malaria parasites, mosquitoes are exposed to malaria parasites and then the efficiency of parasite development within the mosquito is measured. The goal of the study is to promote and expand this non-transmitting subset of the vector population in ...
Malaria is a blood-borne human disease, and is transmitted to mosquitoes in the bloodmeal, an obligatory step in human malaria transmission. This is a study of malaria parasites in the major mosquito vector of human malaria in Africa, Anopheles gambiae. The intent of the study is to develop modern forms of vector control that would specifically decrease disease transmission by targeting the vector. Genetic linkage mapping of the mosquito vector (Anopheles gambiae) in Africa has identified a small genomic region in the mosquito that controls most of the natural genetic variation for resistance to mosquito infection with the human malaria parasite (Plasmodium falciparum). In order to study the influence of mosquito vector genetics on transmission of malaria parasites, mosquitoes are exposed to malaria parasites and then the efficiency of parasite development within the mosquito is measured. The goal of the study is to promote and expand this non-transmitting subset of the vector population in ...
The original description of clathrin-coated vesicles as intracellular transport shuttles was based upon ultrastructural studies of developing mosquito oocytes (Roth and Porter, 1964). Vesicular profiles encased within a `bristle coat were very prominent at the cortex of Aedes aegypti oocytes several hours following a blood meal (Roth and Porter, 1964). The dramatic appearance of this bristle border, which we now know is composed of clathrin and associated coat proteins, reflects the fact that both A. aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes are anautogenous - adult females must feed before egg production (Raikhel and Dhadialla, 1992). Thus, unlike Drosophila melanogaster, where a succession of progressively more mature egg chambers develop continuously (Drummond-Barbosa and Spradling, 2001; Schonbaum et al., 2000), egg maturation in newly eclosed A. aegypti or A. gambiae females developmentally arrests at a previtellogenic stage (Raikhel and Dhadialla, 1992; Roth and Porter, 1964). A blood meal ...
The ability to detect chemical information from the environment is of critical importance to insects, whose ecological and evolutionary boundaries typically revolve around taste and smell. Of the receptors involved in chemoperception, the gustatory receptor (Gr) protein family comprises most of the diversity in the insect chemoreceptor superfamily, including within it not only taste receptors, but select olfactory receptors as well. Manual annotation of the Gr family in the genome sequence of the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti Linnaeus, yielded a total of 114 potential proteins encoded by 79 genes. In the sequenced genome, 23 of these genes and protein isoforms are pseudogenic, leaving 91 putatively functional Grs. Comparison with the set of 76 Grs encoded by 52 genes in the distantly related Anopheles gambiae Giles mosquito revealed 13 new AgGrs encoded by eight genes. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the conservation of carbon dioxide, sugar and several orphan receptors in these two ...
Malaria is vectored by the mosquito Anopheles gambiae (Ag) in Sub-Saharan Africa and infects approximately 500 million people annually. The increasing prevalence of pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes has amplified the need for development of new, selective mosquitocides for use on insecticide-treated nets. We have developed several phenyl-substituted N-methylcarbamates producing a high degree of selectivity for Anopheles gambiae acetylcholinesterase (AgAChE) over human AChE. Molecular models suggest alternate conformations (flexibility) of W84 and W431 (Ag numbering) at the hydrophobic subpocket of the AgAChE active site and poor flexibility within human AChE, allowing for the high selectivity of our novel carbamates. Initial selectivity data was obtained through screening of these insecticides while using ethanol as a solvent. Re-screening of these carbamates in the presence of 0.1% DMSO (v/v) resulted in antagonism of inhibition for AgAChE, thus reducing the AgAChE-selectivity by at least ...
The pyrethroid knockdown resistance gene (kdr) has become widespread in Anopheles gambiae in West Africa. A trial to test the continuing efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) was undertaken in experimental huts at 2 sites in Benin, the first where kdr is present at high frequency (Ladji), the second-where An. gambiae is susceptible (Malanville). Holes were made in the nets to mimic worn nets. At Malanville, 96% of susceptible An. gambiae were inhibited from blood-feeding, whereas at Ladji feeding was uninhibited by ITNs. The mortality rate of An. gambiae in ITN huts was 98% in Malanville but only 30% at Ladji. The efficacy of IRS was equally compromised. Mosquitoes at Ladji had higher oxidase and esterase activity than in a laboratory-susceptible strain, but this fact did not seem to contribute to resistance. Pyrethroid resistance in An. gambiae appears to threaten the future of ITN and IRS in Benin ...
Vector control is a major component of the malaria control strategy. The increasing spread of insecticide resistance has encouraged the development of new tools such as genetic control which use releases of modified male mosquitoes. The use of male mosquitoes as part of a control strategy requires an improved understanding of male mosquito biology, including the factors influencing their survival and dispersal, as well as the ability to accurately estimate the size of a target mosquito population. This study was designed to determine the seasonal variation in population size via repeated mark-release-recapture experiments and to estimate the survival and dispersal of male mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae complex in a small west African village ...
Appropriate monitoring of vector insecticide susceptibility is required to provide the rationale for optimal insecticide selection in vector control programs. In order to assess the influence of mosquito age on susceptibility to various insecticides, field-collected larvae of An. gambiae s.l. from Tiassalé were reared to adults. Females aged 1, 2, 3, 5 and 10 days were exposed to 5 insecticides (deltamethrin, permethrin, DDT, malathion and propoxur) using WHO susceptibility test kits. Outcome measures included the LT50 (exposure time required to achieve 50% knockdown), the RR (resistance ratio, i.e. a calculation of how much more resistant the wild population is compared with a standard susceptible strain) and the mortality rate following 1 hour exposure, for each insecticide and each mosquito age group. There was a positive correlation between the rate of knockdown and mortality for all the age groups and for all insecticides tested. For deltamethrin, the RR50 was highest for 2 day old and lowest for
Kurscheid, S., Lew-Tabor, A.E., Rodriguez Valle, M., Bruyeres, A.G., Doogan, V.J., Munderloh, U.G. et al. (2009) Evidence of a tick RNAi pathway by comparative genomics and reverse genetics screen of targets with known loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. BMC Mol Biol 10: 26 ...
Y chromosomes control essential male functions in many species, including sex determination and fertility. However, because of obstacles posed by repeat-rich heterochromatin, knowledge of Y chromosome sequences is limited to a handful of model organisms, constraining our understanding of Y biology across the tree of life. Here, we leverage long single-molecule sequencing to determine the content and structure of the nonrecombining Y chromosome of the primary African malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae We find that the An. gambiae Y consists almost entirely of a few massively amplified, tandemly arrayed repeats, some of which can recombine with similar repeats on the X chromosome. Sex-specific genome resequencing in a recent species radiation, the An. gambiae complex, revealed rapid sequence turnover within An. gambiae and among species. Exploiting 52 sex-specific An. gambiae RNA-Seq datasets representing all developmental stages, we identified a small repertoire of Y-linked genes that lack X ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide QTL mapping of saltwater tolerance in sibling species of Anopheles (malaria vector) mosquitoes. AU - Smith, H. A.. AU - White, B. J.. AU - Kundert, P.. AU - Cheng, C.. AU - Romero-Severson, J.. AU - Andolfatto, P.. AU - Besansky, N. J.. PY - 2015/11/1. Y1 - 2015/11/1. N2 - Although freshwater (FW) is the ancestral habitat for larval mosquitoes, multiple species independently evolved the ability to survive in saltwater (SW). Here, we use quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to investigate the genetic architecture of osmoregulation in Anopheles mosquitoes, vectors of human malaria. We analyzed 1134 backcross progeny from a cross between the obligate FW species An. coluzzii, and its closely related euryhaline sibling species An. merus. Tests of 2387 markers with Bayesian interval mapping and machine learning (random forests) yielded six genomic regions associated with SW tolerance. Overlap in QTL regions from both approaches enhances confidence in QTL identification. ...
Anopheles funestus Giles is a major malaria vector in Africa belonging to a group of species with morphologically similar characteristics. Morphological identification of members of the A. funestus group is difficult because of overlap of distinguishing characteristics in adult or immature stages as well as the necessity to rear isofemale lines to examine larval and egg characters. A rapid rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been developed to accurately identify five members of the A. funestus group. This PCR is based on species-specific primers in the ITS2 region on the rDNA to identify A. funestus (approximately 505bp), Anopheles vaneedeni Gillies and Coetzee (approximately 587bp), Anopheles rivulorum Leeson (approximately 411bp), Anopheles leesoni Evans (approximately 146bp), and Anopheles parensis Gillies (approximately 252bp).
Adaptive introgression can provide novel genetic variation to fuel rapid evolutionary responses, though it may be counterbalanced by potential for detrimental disruption of the recipient genomic background. We examine the extent and impact of recent introgression of a strongly selected insecticide-resistance mutation (Vgsc-1014F) located within one of two exceptionally large genomic islands of divergence separating the Anopheles gambiae species pair. Here we show that transfer of the Vgsc mutation results in homogenization of the entire genomic island region (~1.5% of the genome) between species. Despite this massive disruption, introgression is clearly adaptive with a dramatic rise in frequency of Vgsc-1014F and no discernable impact on subsequent reproductive isolation between species. Our results show (1) how resilience of genomes to massive introgression can permit rapid adaptive response to anthropogenic selection and (2) that even extreme prominence of genomic islands of divergence can be an
SUMMARY Malaria kills millions of people every year, yet there has been little progress in controlling this disease. For transmission to occur, the malaria parasite has to complete a complex developmental cycle in the mosquito. The mosquito is therefore a potential weak link in malaria transmission, and generating mosquito populations that are refractory to the parasite is a potential means of controlling the disease. There has been considerable progress over the last decade towards developing the tools for creating a refractory mosquito. Accomplishments include germline transformation of several important mosquito vectors, the completed genomes of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae and the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, and the identification of promoters and effector genes that confer resistance in the mosquito. These tools have provided researchers with the ability to engineer a refractory mosquito vector, but there are fundamental gaps in our knowledge of how to transfer this technology safely
The Anopheles gambiae peptidoglycan recognition protein (PGRP) gene family consists of 7 genes with 13 PGRP domains. We analyze the role of these genes in the mosquito immune defense to bacteria and the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. We have previously shown that the NF-κB transcription factor REL2 is involved in defense against both types of bacteria and malaria parasites [1]. IMD is only responsible for the reaction against Gram-positive bacteria and Plasmodium. Our data suggests significant divergence as well as many similarities of immune signaling between Anopheles gambiae and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster. The differences most likely reflect the different lifestyles of the two insects and, consequently, different infectious agents that the two insects encounter during their lifetimes. In mosquitoes, one of these agents is the malaria parasite Plasmodium ...
I took my first degree at Edinburgh University, where I was awarded a first class honours degree in Genetics. My PhD project was a molecular genetic analysis of female sterile mutations in Drosophila melanogaster, also at the University of Edinburgh. I undertook postdoctoral research at Imperial College, London and at the University of Dundee. Prior to joining my present institution, I held a Wellcome Trust Senior Research Fellowship in Biodiversity, working on the malaria mosquitoes of the Anopheles gambiae species complex. ...
This new mosquito is classified with the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, but it appears to be vastly different than any other mosquito collected over the four year period.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Gr family of candidate gustatory and olfactory receptors in the yellow-fever mosquito Aedes aegypti. AU - Kent, Lauren B.. AU - Walden, Kimberly K.O.. AU - Robertson, Hugh M. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - The gustatory receptor (Gr) protein family contains most of the diversity in the insect chemoreceptor superfamily, including within it not only taste receptors but select olfactory receptors as well. Manual annotation of the Gr family in the genome sequence of the yellow-fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti , yielded a total of 114 potential proteins encoded by 79 genes. In the sequenced genome, 23 of these genes and protein isoforms are pseudogenic, leaving 91 putatively functional Grs. Comparison with our previously published set of 76 Grs encoded by 52 genes in the distantly related Anopheles gambiae mosquito revealed 13 new AgGrs encoded by 8 genes. Phylogenetic analysis reveals the conservation of carbon dioxide, sugar, and several orphan receptors in these 2 mosquitoes ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Jose Luis Ramirez, Giselle de Almeida Oliveira, Eric Calvo, Jesmond Dalli, Romain A Colas, Charles N Serhan, Jose M Ribeiro, Carolina Barillas-Mury].
Since when ???? Anopheline fossile (20 Myr) ber/critters/skeeter-b.html (Amber from the Dominican Republic) Dr. David Grimaldi Cretaceous carnivorous dinosaures (145-65Myr) Oldest Culicidae-like fossile: Myr (canadian amber) FROM: index.php?id=galeria
PubMed Central Canada (PMC Canada) provides free access to a stable and permanent online digital archive of full-text, peer-reviewed health and life sciences research publications. It builds on PubMed Central (PMC), the U.S. National Institutes of Health (NIH) free digital archive of biomedical and life sciences journal literature and is a member of the broader PMC International (PMCI) network of e-repositories.
The Center for One Health Research Department of Environment & Occupational Health Sciences School of Public Health University of Washington Box 357234 Seattle, WA, USA ...
mapkinase writes to let us know about articles in Nature on the completed sequencing of the honeybee genome. From the first article: Two other insects have already been sequenced: the malaria-carrying mosquito Anopheles gambiae, and one of sciences great model organisms, the fruitfly Drosophila me...
Background Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high × 0.5m wide) were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized ...
Dan Meyrowitsch explains that the 99 % fall in the malaria mosquito population during the end of the 1990s seems to be connected to a fall in precipitation. This may be due to global climate changes.. - From 2003 to 2009 the volume of precipitation was more stable, but the rain was more chaotic and fell outside the rainy season. And this may have disturbed the natural cycle of mosquito development, he says.. -Of course it is great that the number of malaria-related fatalities among children has fallen drastically in the last five or six years, but we need to know why!. Since the researchers can discount mosquito nets, the question is whether the mosquitoes have succumbed to disease, or communities have been using pesticides, or whether the fall is due to the chaotic new precipitation patterns.. - Unless we find the answer we will not be able to predict when the malaria mosquitoes will come back, and that could rapidly prove critical, Dan Meyrowitsch explains.. ...
Download full project about Anopheles Mosquito Comparative Genomics . Your business software is ready for download . You can use it for your own company / Office / home without any cost. We provide free business software for our visitor. The software is develop by using different model such as waterfall life-cycle ,traditional ,classic etc Anopheles Mosquito Comparative Genomics is a large and time consuming project. So, Our aim is to help all business vendors by sharing our best. We want your help by joining our community. You will get your project as you desire ...
Background: Little is known about how malaria mosquitoes locate oviposition sites in nature. Such knowledge is important to help devise monitoring and control measures that could be used to target gravid females. This study set out to develop a suite of tools that can be used to study the attraction of gravid Anopheles gambiae s.s. towards visual or olfactory cues associated with aquatic habitats. Methods: Firstly, the study developed and assessed methods for using electrocuting nets to analyse the orientation of gravid females towards an aquatic habitat. Electric nets (1m high x 0.5m wide) were powered by a 12V battery via a spark box. High and low energy settings were compared for mosquito electrocution and a collection device developed to retain electrocuted mosquitoes when falling to the ground. Secondly, a range of sticky materials and a detergent were tested to quantify if and where gravid females land to lay their eggs, by treating the edge of the ponds and the water surface. A randomized ...
Deciphering the molecular mechanisms affecting ookinete survival in the mosquito. Vector immune responses are responsible, at least in part, for the major parasite losses during parasite development. We now know, largely from functional studies in our laboratory, that even what is called susceptible A. gambiae mosquitoes effectively kill a large number of invading ookinetes (80 %), which are most probably cleared by lysis. Two genes, LRIM1 and TEP1, were shown to be strongly involved in ookinete killing in susceptible mosquitoes (G3 strain). LRIM1 expression was strongly induced in mosquito midguts and carcasses in response to the invasion of the mosquito midgut epithelium by Plasmodium ookinetes. The transient KD of LRIM1 in susceptible mosquitoes by RNAi resulted in approximately a four-fold increase in the number of parasites that successfully develop in the mosquito midguts, suggesting that LRIM1 is involved in parasite killing. TEP1 is as a bona fide pattern-recognition receptor that ...
Working primarily on Aedes, Culex and Anopheles mosquitoes, and phlebotomine sandflies, our projects employ a diverse range of methodologies for candidate discovery and functional validation including microarrays, RNAseq, genomewide association studies, in vitro metabolomics, transgenesis, and whole genome sequencing, especially via the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute Anopheles gambiae 1000 genomes consortium project, co-led by LSTM.
Sporozoite of Plasmodium gets into human blood through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito,sporozoites reproduce asexually in liver cells,then they get into red blood cells, there they reproduce asexually and infect mo…
Mosquito sperm have a sense of smell - a surprising finding that could one day help control disease-carrying mosquitoes, researchers say.. Mosquitoes use scent-detecting molecules known as odorant receptors in their antennae. These sensors help mosquitoes sniff out sources of blood as part of their sense of smell, technically known as olfaction.. Now, researchers have discovered mosquitoes have these same molecules in their sperm. Scientists analyzed the mosquito species Anopheles gambiae, one of the most common carriers of malaria. They found odorant receptors on the whip like tails of the mosquitoes sperm. These molecules help to spur the beating of the tails, and thus help control the movement of the sperm, the researchers said. read more. ...
An Anopheles mosquito takes a blood meal through the skin. If this blood carries sexual-stage stage parasites, they will develop in the mosquito and be passed on to others who are bit by this mosquito days later.
A chemical-free eradication method for the human malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae, that is self-sustaining and requires no additional inputs beyond pushing the button to get it started, sounds fantastic. For geneticists it has not been terribly difficult to think of […]. Read More ». ...
E. Warr, S. Das, Y. Dong and G. Dimopoulos The Gram-Negative Bacteria-Binding Protein gene family: Its role in the innate immune system of Anopheles gambiae and in anti-Plasmodium defence Insect Molecular Biology 17. Version of Record online: 30 JAN 2008 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2583.2008.00778.x. Complete the form below and we will send an e-mail message containing a link to the selected article on your behalf. Required = Required Field. ...
Transposable elements (TEs) are mobile genetic elements. They are a significant component of many eukaryotic genomes. They are involved in chromosomal rearrangement by serving as substrates for homologous recombination, in creating new genes through a process of TE domestication, and in modifying and shuffling existing genes by transducing neighboring sequences (Lander et al., 2001). Therefore, both active and inactive TEs are potentially potent agents for genomic change (Kidwell and Lisch, 2001, 2002; Rizzon et al., 2002; Petrov et al., 2003). In the meantime, active TEs are being explored as useful tools for genetic transformation and possible gene drive mechanisms to deliver genes in natural populations (Ashburner et al.,1998; Alphey et al.,2002; Handler and OBrochta, 2004). My thesis project focuses on AGH1, a novel DNA-mediated TE in Anopheles gambiae and related mosquitoes. I have studied its genomic structure, insertion polymorphism, evolution, and transposition activity. As part of ...
Read Genetic aspects of sexual behavior in malaria mosquitoes on the basis of specific acoustic signals at mating, Russian Journal of Genetics on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The approximately 250-amino-acid protein domain EAL (www.sanger.ac.uk/Software/Pfam), also referred to as domain of unknown function 2 or DUF2 (http://smart.embl-heidelberg.de), is conserved in the Bacteria. The domain name originates from one of the most conserved amino acid signature motifs, EAL (Glu-Ala-Leu). EAL is encoded by most sequenced genomes in all branches of the bacterial phylogenetic tree, which implies that EAL-containing proteins play important roles in Bacteria (8, 9). This domain is not encoded in the genomes of Archaea or Eukarya, except for two putative proteins of Anopheles gambiae, which probably originated from bacterial contamination (19). EAL is often linked to sensory and/or output (signal transduction) domains and is, in fact, one of the most ubiquitous bacterial signal transduction domains whose biochemical activity has not been characterized yet (8, 9). In many proteins, EAL is located C terminal of the approximately 170-amino-acid GGDEF domain (also known as DUF1). ...
The authors demonstrate that these marked symbionts can then be transmitted to their progeny through mating and to non-sibling larvae by horizontal transmission via the water in which the animals are living.. The authors created a number of strains of AS1 containing a collection of anti Plasmodium effectors either singly or in combination and show that these have significant impacts on the intensity of midgut infections.. This is a very interesting paper that seems to bring the promise of paratransgenic approaches closer to fruition as tools for combating vector borne diseases.. An interesting feature of this approach is that it can be used to simultaneously reduce the vectoral capacity of multiple anopheles species in an environment whereas transgenic approaches would require solving the problems of creating transgenics from these other species. Not necessarily and easy task.. The widespread presence of these genetically modified bacteria in water sources will elicit questions related to risk ...
Wednesday, April 23, 2014. 627,000 deaths per year: thats a good figure. Malaria, the deadly illness caused by infected mosquitoes, is on the retreat, thanks to medical treatments that have reduced mortality rates by 42% since 2000. Among African children, the mortality rate has dropped even more: 54%. Even so, one African child dies of malaria every minute, according to the World Health Organisation.. Its not that NGOs and aid organisations dont try hard enough to prevent the parasite-infected mosquitoes from biting humans: its just that keeping every one of the tiny insects away with nets and insecticides is very hard work.. What if all that mosquito-chasing wasnt necessary? What if the insects killed themselves? Thats the idea behind Oxitec, an Oxford-based biotech company. It breeds sterile male mosquitoes for release in affected areas. As male mosquitoes always do, theyll find the females and mate with them - but because theyre sterile, the offspring will die. Were using ...
The Anopheles mosquito is the only species known to spread malaria. The eMedTV Web page discusses its life cycle in detail, explains how mosquitoes transmit malaria, and measures designed to combat insect biting and control the spread of disease.
And as I think, once more I m bitten. -Dick Emmons Male mosquitoes drink only sugary fluids such as flower nectar. Both in the wild and in the laboratory, mosquitoes will visit certain flowers and will feed on fruit placed in their cage. Since they vigorously probe the flowers of some plants and can distinguish between different types of sugars, mosquitoes play a role in the pollination of certain plants. The females will also drink sugary fluids, but when hungry females are given a choice between sugar water and blood, they will always choose blood. If males are offered the same choice, they will always drink the sugar water. Since male mosquitoes do not suck blood, they also do not transmit diseases. Like the males of many other insect families, they are important for just one reason, and then they become superfluous. The female usually needs to mate just once in her life. She stores sperm in her body and fertilizes her eggs at the moment when she lays them. Shortly before or after mating, she ...
MELBOURNE, Australia, April 22 /PRNewswire/ -- Researchers in The Netherlands have achieved outstanding success in blocking the lifecycle of the mosquitoes which transmit malaria.
Name:C.I.Acid Brown 27,C.I.66710 Molecular Structure: anthraquinones C.I.Acid Brown 27,C.I.66710,CAS 1324-45-4,582.56,C32H19N2NaO6S C.I.Acid Brown 27,C.I.66710,CAS 1324-45-4,582.56,C32H19N2NaO6S Molecular Formula:C32H19N2NaO6S Molecular Weight: 582.56 CAS Registry Number: 1324-45-4
Male mosquitoes never bother us -- only the females do, because they need the protein they get from our blood to make their eggs. Even though we call the itchy, inflamed bumps they make on our skin bites, they really arent. In fact, it might be more accurate to call them mosquito drinks, ...
A*nophe*les (a*nofE*lEz), n. [NL., fr. Gr. anwfelh`s useless, hurtful.] (Zoöl.) A genus of mosquitoes which are se...
Is aging raw cattle urine efficient for sampling Anopheles arabiensis Patton?. Aneth M Mahande, Beda J Mwangonde, Shandala Msangi, Epiphania Kimaro, Ladslaus L Mnyone, Humphrey D Mazigo, Michael J Mahande and Eliningaya J Kweka BMC Infect Dis 10(1):172 (2010) ...
Category: API CAS NO: 43210-67-9 EC NO: 256-145-7 Molecular Formula: C15H13N3O2S Molecular Weight: 299.3476 Specification: EP/USP/CP(V) InChI: InChI=1/C15H13N3O2S/c1-20-15(19)18-14-16-12-8-7-11(9-13(12)17-14)21-10-5-3-2-4-6-10/h2-9H,1H3,(H2,16,17,18,19) ...
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FHV has been shown to infect medically important genera of insects: mosquitos, e.g. Anopheles gambiae; the tsetse fly; and the ...
ISBN 0-8138-2053-7. Anopheles gambiae female mosquito feeding. Stomxys calcitrans adult stable-fly. Tabanus bovinus adult ... Species of genera Aedes, Anopheles and Psorophora transmit equine encephalitis viruses to horses. Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles ... against pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in southern Benin. Transactions of the ... 1: Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Mansonia and Psorophora. Journal of Medical Entomology, 8: 687-695. doi: 10.1093/jmedent/ ...
ISBN 978-88-900622-7-8. Turner, T.L. (2005). "Genomic Islands of Speciation in Anopheles gambiae". PLOS Biology. 3 (9): e285. ...
He also participated in the sequencing of the genome of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae completed in 2002. He was Assistant ... Dimopoulos, G.; Müller, H. M.; Kafatos, F. C. (1999). "How does Anopheles gambiae kill malaria parasites?". Parassitologia. 41 ... 2002). "The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Science. 298 (5591): 129-149. Bibcode:2002Sci...298.. ... "Low-resolution genome map of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
March 4, 2010). "Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Nature. 464 (7285): 66-71. doi:10.1038/ ... repertoire and a similar study that characterized the Or repertoire of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito. Carlson lab research has ...
Dinglasan, R.R.; M. Devenport; L. Florens; J.R. Johnson & C.A. McHugh (2009). "The Anopheles gambiae Adult Midgut Peritrophic ...
Anopheles gambiae) has 7 PGRP genes, with 9 splice variants. Mammals have up to four PGRPs, all of which are secreted. These ... "Immunity-related genes and gene families in Anopheles gambiae". Science. 298 (5591): 159-165. Bibcode:2002Sci...298..159C. doi: ...
... is a bacterium isolated from the midgut of Anopheles gambiae G3 mosquitoes reared in captivity. The ... nov., isolated from the midgut of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... "Transstadial and horizontal transfer of bacteria within a colony of Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) and oviposition ...
Blackwood, Oxford Service, MW (1971). "Studies on sampling larval populations of the Anopheles gambiae complex". Bull World ...
The main anthropophilic vectors are Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. The animal reservoir includes birds, monkeys and ... as far south as the Republic of South Africa and as far north westwards as Gambia'. Bwamba fever is endemic in several African ...
nov., isolated from the midgut of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary ... The genus includes four species: Elizabethkingia anophelis, isolated from Anopheles mosquitoes, can cause respiratory tract ...
"Organization of olfactory centres in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Nature Communications. 7: 13010. doi:10.1038/ ...
However, T. anophelis has also been found in the reproductive tissues of male and female Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii ... "Dynamic gut microbiome across life history of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae in Kenya". PLOS ONE. 6 (9): e24767. doi: ... "16S rRNA gene-based identification of midgut bacteria from field-caught Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and A. funestus mosquitoes ... "Thorsellia anophelis is the dominant bacterium in a Kenyan population of adult Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes". The ISME Journal ...
2002). "The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Science. Science, AAAS. 298 (5591): 129-149. doi: ... He was a member of the European Drosophila Genome Project and the Anopheles Genome Project. Study of the molecular interactions ... With his colleagues in Crete, he developed AnoDB/AnoBase, the first genetic databases for Anopheles, which later evolved into ... between Anopheles and the Malaria parasite. Development of biomedical ontologies, especially for medical entomology, and ...
"Physiology of desiccation resistance in Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles arabiensis". American Journal of Tropical Medicine and ...
For example, an insecticide-resistant mutation arose in Anopheles gambiae African mosquitoes. Migration of some A. gambiae ... The genetic diversity was increased in A. gambiae by mutation and in A. coluzziin by gene flow. When humans initially started ... mosquitoes to a population of Anopheles coluzziin mosquitoes resulted in a transfer of the beneficial resistance gene from one ...
It is used as one of a battery of pyrethroid insecticides in control of malarial vectors, particularly Anopheles gambiae, and ... Resistance has been identified in several insects, including important vectors of malaria like the mosquito Anopheles gambiae ... "Field-Caught Permethrin-Resistant Anopheles gambiae Overexpress CYP6P3, a P450 That Metabolises Pyrethroids". PLOS Genetics. 4 ...
For instance, in 2006, a study showing that one of the malaria mosquitoes (Anopheles gambiae) is attracted equally to the smell ... Knols, Brad; De Jong, Ruurd (April 1996). "Limburger cheese as an attractant for the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s.". ...
"Discovery of Plasmodium modulators by genome-wide analysis of circulating hemocytes in Anopheles gambiae". Proc Natl Acad Sci U ... the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes". Science. 347 (6217): 62176. Bibcode:2015Sci...347...43N. doi:10.1126/science.1258522. ...
... and aerial parts have been reported to be repellent to Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes which are vectors for the malaria parasite ... "Repellency of essential oils of some plants from the Kenyan coast against Anopheles gambiae". Acta Tropica. 95 (3): 210-218. ...
Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus are likely the natural mosquito hosts of P. ovale. Experimentally, several other ... Anopheles albimanus Anopheles atroparvus Anopheles dirus Anopheles farauti Anopheles freeborni Anopheles maculatus Anopheles ... quadrimaculatus Anopheles stephensi Anopheles subpictus The full genomes of the two P. ovale species can be seen on geneDB.org ...
Behavioral tests with Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes indicated that DEET placed 5 cm from a resting mosquito did not repel the ... Recent evidence with Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes suggests DEET does not directly inhibit olfactory receptors, but instead ... January 2012). "Anopheles gambiae odorant binding protein crystal complex with the synthetic repellent DEET: implications for ... A 2011 structural study (PDB: 3N7H) revealed that DEET binds to Anopheles gambiae odorant binding protein 1 (AgamOBP1) with ...
"Coalescent Analysis of Phylogenomic Data Confidently Resolves the Species Relationships in the Anopheles gambiae Species ...
... evolutionary implications from comparison with orthologs of Anopheles gambiae and other insects". BMC Evolutionary Biology. 13 ...
Genomic analysis of Drosophila and other insect species (Anopheles gambiae, Apis mellifera, Bombyx mori, and Triboliumcastaneum ... "The Anopheles gambiae Odorant Binding Protein 1 (AgamOBP1) Mediates Indole Recognition in the Antennae of Female Mosquitoes". ... The OBP family contains 21 (in A. mellifera) to 66 genes (in A. gambiae), whereas it ranges from 52 members in Drosophila to 20 ... Proteins and Olfactory Receptors Identify Distinct Trichoid Sensilla on the Antenna of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae ...
... exemplified in Anopheles gambiae, a species of malaria carrying mosquito. A well studied incidence involves the evolution of ... "Insecticide resistance mechanisms associated with different environments in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae: a case study ...
Leaf and Seed Extracts of Zanthoxylum heitzii against the African Malaria Vector Anopheles gambiae". Molecules. MDPI AG. 19 (12 ... constituents of Zanthoxylum heitzii stem bark and their insecticidal activity against the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". ...
... of a strain of Anopheles gambiae resistant to dieldrin.]". Bull Soc Pathol Exot Filiales (in French). 52: 736-41. PMID 14424701 ... the prevalence of gametocytes and Anopheles gambiae sporozoites were reduced substantially. A MDA was also combined with DDT ... In 1999 in The Gambia residents living in 33 of 42 villages in the catchment area received a single dose of sulfadoxine / ... placebo-controlled trial in The Gambia". Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 97 (2): 217-25. doi:10.1016/S0035-9203(03)90125-8. PMID ...
"The costs of mounting an immune response are reflected in the reproductive fitness of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Oikos. ...
... including malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Wilson stated, "I'm talking about a very small number of species that have co- ... She says that the Anopheles mosquitoes (which spread malaria) and Aedes mosquitoes (which spread dengue fever, yellow fever, ...
Pryfed: Drosophila melanogaster (pry ffrwythau), Anopheles gambiae (mosgito), Aedes aegypti (mosgito). *Abwydod: Caenorhabditis ...
Malaria-bearing mosquitos, such as Anopheles gambiae: Mass drug administration of a population with ivermectin for purposes of ...
The diamond-shaped alary muscles (green) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae and their structural relationship to the tube-like ...
The tube-like heart (green) of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae extends horizontally across the body, interlinked with the ...
... a hypervariable immunoglobulin domain-containing receptor of the Anopheles gambiae innate immune system". PLOS Biology. 4 (7): ...
The Anopheles gambiae mosquito complex contains both species which are a vector for malaria, and species which are not.[40] ... "Molecular phylogeny of the Anopheles gambiae complex suggests genetic introgression between principal malaria vectors". ...
Killeen G, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna L, Knols B (2002). "Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons for malaria ... 2006). "[Pyrethroid and DDT resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) in five agricultural ecosystems from Côte ...
The Anopheles gambiae mosquito complex contains both species that are a vector for malaria and species that are not.[40] ... "Molecular phylogeny of the Anopheles gambiae complex suggests genetic introgression between principal malaria vectors". ... Anopheles,the fungi causing cryptococcosis, and sister species of Bactrocera tyroni, or the Queensland fruit fly. Curiously, ...
"Flight performance of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles atroparvus" (PDF)។ Journal of Vector Ecology 29 (1): ... The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is currently undergoing speciation into the M(opti) and S(avanah) molecular forms. Consequently ... Expression error: Unrecognized punctuation character '១'. "Widespread Divergence Between Incipient Anopheles gambiae Species ... "Daily temperature profiles in and around Western Kenyan larval habitats of Anopheles gambiae as related to egg mortality"។ ...
Anopheles gambiae Strain: PEST, mosquito (vector of malaria) (2002[120]). *Anopheles gambiae Strain: M, mosquito (vector of ... Anopheles gambiae Strain: S, mosquito (vector of malaria) (2010)[121]). *Anopheles sinensis, mosquito (vector of vivax malaria ... October 2002). "The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Science. 298 (5591): 129-49. Bibcode:2002Sci... ... "Widespread divergence between incipient Anopheles gambiae species revealed by whole genome sequences". Science. 330 (6003): 512 ...
Anopheles gambiae genome: completing the malaria triad. Science. 2002, 298 (5591): 13. PMID 12364752. doi:10.1126/science. ... 控制病媒的方法除了化學方法之外,現在還有使用基因工程的做法。基因體是瘧疾研究的中心,目前惡性瘧原蟲、病媒蚊岡比亞瘧蚊(英语:Anopheles stephensi),和人類的基因體皆已定序[209]。科學家改造瘧蚊的基因,使其壽命縮短,或是可
"Comparative molecular modeling of Anopheles gambiae CYP6Z1, a mosquito P450 capable of metabolizing DDT". Proceedings of the ... and CYP6Z1 in the mosquito malaria vector Anopheles gambiae is capable of directly metabolizing DDT.[35] ...
Anopheles gambiae és una de les més conegudes a causa del seu paper important en la transmissió del Plasmodium falciparum. ... Anopheles és un gènere de dípters nematòcers de la família Cuculidae. N'hi ha aproximadament 400 espècies, de les quals 30-40 ... Com tots els mosquits, els Anopheles travessen quatre fases: ou, larva, pupa i adult. Les primeres 3 etapes transcorren en medi ... Mapa del món mostrant la distribució de diversos mosquits Anopheles. *Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit. - Enllaços a catàleg en ...
Espesye sa langaw ang Anopheles gambiae[1]. Una ning gihulagway ni Giles ni adtong 1902. Ang Anopheles gambiae sakop sa ... Gikuha gikan sa "https://ceb.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anopheles_gambiae&oldid=17989925" ... kahenera nga Anopheles sa kabanay nga Culicidae.[1][2] Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya.[1] ...
Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna LC, Knols BG (October 2002). "Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons ... "Anopheles gambiae, one of the primary vectors of malaria in Africa, breeds in numerous small pools of water that form due to ... Hargreaves K, Hunt RH, Brooke BD, Mthembu J, Weeto MM, Awolola TS, Coetzee M (December 2003). "Anopheles arabiensis and An. ... Thus far, pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles has not been a major problem.[113] ...
Anopheles, Aedes, Culex larvae Antinociception, antihyperalgesic. S. acmella. Flowers. CWE. Formalin test of nociception and ... A. gambiae, Culex larvae Anti-inflammatory. S. acmella. Aerial parts. Aqueous. Carragenan-induced paw edema in rats ...
Anopheles coustani. Anopheles crypticus. Anopheles farauti. Anopheles forattinii. Anopheles funestus. Anopheles gambiae. ... Anopheles minimus. 'Anopheles moucheti. Anopheles nili. Anopheles ovengensis. Anopheles pampanae. Anopheles peytoni. Anopheles ... Anopheles grabhamii. Anopheles hailarensis. Anopheles halophylus. Anopheles hyrcanus. Anopheles kosiensis. Anopheles ... Anopheles gambiae adalah paling terkenal akibat peranannya sebagai penyebar parasit malaria (contoh. Plasmodium falciparum) ...
"Survivorship of Immature Stages of Anopheles gambiae s.l. (Diptera: Culicidae) in Natural Habitats in Western Kenya Highlands ... Anopheles mosquitoes in highland areas are to experience a larger shift in their metabolic rate due to the climate change. This ... Anopheles mosquitoes are responsible for the transmission of a number of diseases in the world, such as, malaria, lymphatic ... as deforestation could increase local temperatures in the highlands thus could enhance the vectorial capacity of the anopheles. ...
This was the second mosquito species to have its genome sequenced in full (the first was Anopheles gambiae). The published data ... and Anopheles gambiae and this species diverged about 150 million years ago.[37][38] ... This approach could also be applied to control Aedes albopictus and the Anopheles mosquitoes that spread malaria.[33] ...
Anopheles gambiae". Proc Biol Sci. 265 (1398): 763-8. doi:10.1098/rspb.1998.0358. PMC 1689045 . PMID 9628035.. ... Mosquitoes of the genera Culex, Anopheles, Culiseta, Mansonia and Aedes may act as insect hosts for various Plasmodium species ... The best studies of these have been the Anopheles mosquitoes which host Plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria, as well ... Several of the species which infect rodents have been shown to also infect the mosquito Anopheles stephensi. ...
... gambiae taxonomy, facts and life cycle. *Anopheles quadrimaculatus, common malaria mosquito on the University of ... Anopheles gambiae Genome and Related Data. *CDC - National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of Parasitic Diseases; ... Țânțarul anofel (Anopheles), numit și „țânțarul malariei" sau al febrei de baltă, este un gen de țânțari care face parte din ... Genul Anopheles cuprinde 420 de specii din care circa 40 de specii transmit malaria. Acești țânțari sunt mici, având dimensiuni ...
Oct 2002). "The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Science. 298 (5591): 129-149. Bibcode:2002Sci...298 ...
Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna LC, Knols BG (October 2002). "Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons ... "Anopheles gambiae, un dos vectores principais da malaria en África, reprodúcese en numerosas pequenas pozas de auga que se ... Os autores do estudo concluíron que o feito de "atopar resistencia ao DDT no vector Anopheles arabiensis, preto da área na que ... Polo de agora, a resistencia aos piretroides en Anopheles non supón un problema de importancia.[101] ...
"Flight performance of the malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles atroparvus" (PDF). Journal of Vector Ecology. 29 (1 ... These include Aedes aegypti, Aedes vexans, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles sinensis, Culex pipiens,[111] Aedes communis, Anopheles ... The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is currently undergoing speciation into the M(opti) and S(avanah) molecular forms. Consequently ... Sep 24, 2018). "A CRISPR-Cas9 gene drive targeting doublesex causes complete population suppression in caged Anopheles gambiae ...
... and in the Republic of the Gambia, West Africa, following children during the period when they are most susceptible to ...
Tia E, Akogbeto M, Koffi A, et al. (2006). "[Pyrethroid and DDT resistance of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (Diptera: Culicidae) in ... Killeen G, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna L, Knols B (2002). "Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons for malaria ... அனாஃபிலிஸ் கொசு (Anopheles genus) பேரினத்தின் பெண் கொசுக்களே ஒட்டுண்ணியின் முதல்நிலை (முதல்தர) ஊட்டுயிர்கள் மற்றும் பரவும் ... வழக்கமாக நோய்க்காவியான பெண் அனாஃபிலிஸ் (Anopheles) கொசு அல்லது நுளம்பு மக்களைக் கடிப்பதன் மூலம் மலேரியா நோய் ஏற்படுகிறது. ...
"Activation of Akt Signaling Reduces the Prevalence and Intensity of Malaria Parasite Infection and Lifespan in Anopheles ... gambiae mosquito from transmitting disease.[153] ...
Anopheles gambiae PEST (African malaria mosquito) Apis mellifera (honey bee) Arabidopsis thaliana (thale cress) Bacillus ...
Recent evidence in Anopheles gambiae and Culex quequinfasciatius mosquitoes suggest DEET reduces the volatility of 1-octen-3-ol ... "Commonly Used Insect Repellents Hide Human Odors from Anopheles Mosquitoes". Current Biology. 29 (21): 3669-3680.e5. doi: ...
... precise role CPs play in constructing insects and annotating the CP genes of Anopheles gambiae, the major vector of malaria. " ...
Anopheles arabiensis Anopheles bwambae Anopheles melas Anopheles merus Anopheles quadriannulatus Anopheles gambiae sensu ... The Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was recognized as a species complex only in the 1960s. The A. ... Anopheles gambiae in Brazil". Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 78 (1): 176-8. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.2008.78.176. PMID 18187802. "Anopheles ... "Anopheles gambiae: First genome of a vector for a parasitic disease". Genoscope. Lawniczak, M. K.; et al. (Oct 22, 2010). " ...
Now the entire repertoire of odorant receptor proteins in the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, the major malaria vector in sub- ... Our analysis of the Anopheles gambiae repertoire identifies receptors that may be useful targets for controlling the ... Here we functionally characterize the Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor (AgOr) repertoire. We identify receptors that respond ... This analysis of the Anopheles gambiae receptors permits a comparison with the corresponding Drosophila melanogaster odorant ...
Evidence for late Pleistocene population expansion of the malarial mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ...
... Softberry Team softberry at softberry.com Tue Nov 5 16:33:34 EST 2002 *Previous ... Anopheles gambiae Gene finding parameters for FGENESH the program with parameters for major model organisms is available for on ... Fgenesh output: fgenesh Tue Nov 5 16:23:15 EST 2002 FGENESH 1.1 Prediction of potential genes in Anopheles_gambiae genomic DNA ... A new parameter set for gene prediction Anopheles gambiae is developed for FGENESH program. Accuracy of prediction of ...
AgaP_AGAP010787 [Anopheles gambiae str. PEST] AgaP_AGAP010787 [Anopheles gambiae str. PEST]. Gene ID:5668064 ... Update of the Anopheles gambiae PEST genome assembly. Sharakhova MV, et al. Genome Biol, 2007. PMID 17210077, Free PMC Article ... The Anopheles gambiae genome: an update. Mongin E, et al. Trends Parasitol, 2004 Feb. PMID 14747013 ... Anopheles gambiae str. PEST (strain: PEST) Lineage. Eukaryota; Metazoa; Ecdysozoa; Arthropoda; Hexapoda; Insecta; Pterygota; ...
Systems genetic analysis of inversion polymorphisms in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Changde Cheng, John C. Tan, ... Here we take a systems genetics approach, analyzing two inversion systems implicated in climatic adaption by Anopheles gambiae ... Inversion polymorphisms in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae segregate along climatic gradients of aridity. Despite ... Systems genetic analysis of inversion polymorphisms in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae ...
gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) Kisumu strain.. Results: Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant malaria specie in the country, ... Molecular assay were used to determine distribution of Anopheles gambiae sub-species. A microplate assay approach was used for ... gambiae s.s. and An. arabiensis. Also bendiocarb resistance was recorded in Mbozi site, where An. gambiae s.s. is the dominant ... Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania. A major concern for malaria vector control ...
The Genome Sequence of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae. By Robert A. Holt, G. Mani Subramanian, Aaron Halpern, Granger G ... The Genome Sequence of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae. By Robert A. Holt, G. Mani Subramanian, Aaron Halpern, Granger G ... The Genome Sequence of the Malaria Mosquito Anopheles gambiae Message Subject. (Your Name) has forwarded a page to you from ...
NOT Open Access , Feeding frequency and survival of Anopheles gambiae in a rice-growing area in Ghana August 15, 2012 - 07:53 ... Read more about NOT Open Access , Feeding frequency and survival of Anopheles gambiae in a rice-growing area in Ghana ... Read more about NOT Open Access , Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae from the rubber cultivated area of Niete, South ... Read more about NOT Open Access , The Anopheles gambiae cE5, a tight- and fast-binding thrombin inhibitor with post- ...
Satellite DNA from the Y chromosome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Jaroslaw Krzywinski, Djibril Sangare and Nora ... Satellite DNA from the Y chromosome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Jaroslaw Krzywinski, Djibril Sangare and Nora ... Satellite DNA from the Y chromosome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. Jaroslaw Krzywinski, Djibril Sangare and Nora ... Satellite DNA from the Y chromosome of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae ...
Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito). Anopheles quadriannulatus (Mosquito). 668. UniRef100_Q7QI16. Cluster: AGAP000958- ... Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito). Anopheles quadriannulatus (Mosquito). Aedes albopictus (Asian tiger mosquito) ( ... Anopheles epiroticus. Anopheles stephensi (Indo-Pakistan malaria mosquito). Anopheles funestus (African malaria mosquito). 668 ... Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ...
Anopheles gambiae (African malaria mosquito)Imported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using ... tr,Q7PQ16,Q7PQ16_ANOGA AGAP005213-PA OS=Anopheles gambiae OX=7165 GN=1274922 PE=3 SV=4 ...
... Cody J. Champion,1 ... E. Warr, R. Aguilar, Y. Dong, V. Mahairaki, and G. Dimopoulos, "Spatial and sex-specific dissection of the Anopheles gambiae ... A. Padrón, A. Molina-Cruz, M. Quinones et al., "In depth annotation of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito midgut transcriptome," ... J. C. Hoxmeier, B. D. Thompson, C. D. Broeckling et al., "Analysis of the metabolome of Anopheles gambiae mosquito after ...
Anopheles gambiae License=CC BY 2.0, ,Comment Source=GenMAPP notes,Gene lists from obtained from InterPro 9-23-2003: Mm ...
mRNA processing (Anopheles gambiae). From WikiPathways. Revision as of 19:22, 11 February 2010 by Khanspers (Talk , contribs) ...
Within the genus Anopheles, Anopheles gambiae is the species with the greatest vectorial capacity and is the most prominent ... RNAi Trigger Delivery into Anopheles gambiae Pupae. Kimberly Regna1, Rachel M. Harrison1, Shannon A. Heyse1, Thomas C. Chiles1 ... Harker, B. W., et al. Transcription Profiling Associated With Life Cycle of Anopheles gambiae. J Med Entomol. 49, (2), 316-325 ... Mitchell, S. N., et al. Metabolic and Target-Site Mechanisms Combine to Confer Strong DDT Resistance in Anopheles gambiae. PLoS ...
Olfactory Coding in Antennal Neurons of the Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae.. [Yu Tong Qiu, Joop J A van Loon, Willem ... of the electrophysiological responses of olfactory neurons in the antennae of the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s ...
The article contains a summary of the published data on the biology of Anopheles gambiae and of the author's studies of ... Among other things, the author investigated the potentially very important problem: are there two races of gambiae-zoophilic ... gambiae for malaria parasites in French West Africa. Because the author's studies are largely ecological the lack of ... Identification of Single Specimens of the Anopheles Gambiae Complex by the Polymerase Chain Reaction Julie A. Scott, William G ...
1984 Field observations on swarming and mating in Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes in Tanzania. Netherlands J. Zool. 34: 367-387. ... The Genetics of Inviability and Male Sterility in Hybrids Between Anopheles gambiae and An. arabiensis. M. Slotman, A. della ... The Anopheles gambiae complex represents a very interesting model in this respect, as it includes seven currently recognized ... 1979 Lack of recombination between the X chromosomes of different members of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Heredity 42: 323- ...
gambiae collected in six sentinel sites in Côte dIvoire. The sites were selected on the basis of their bioclimatic status and ... gambiae populations were significantly higher than the levels found in the susceptible strain Kisumu. Pre-exposure of ... gambiae populations across sites showed high levels of resistance to organochloride, pyrethroid and carbamate insecticides. The ... Anopheles gambiae Is the Subject Area "Anopheles gambiae" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
Exposure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection enhances the ability of their immune system to respond to ... A mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex mediates innate immune priming in Anopheles gambiae.. [Jose Luis Ramirez, Giselle de ...
... the role of L-lactic acid was investigated in relation to host-seeking and selection by female Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu ... L-lactic acid: a human-signifying host cue for the anthropophilic mosquito Anopheles gambiae Med Vet Entomol. 2002 Mar;16(1):91 ... the role of L-lactic acid was investigated in relation to host-seeking and selection by female Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu ... gambiae. Analysis of skin rubbings from various vertebrates (carnivores, chickens, primates, rodents, ungulates) indicated that ...
The ancestral STAT gene (AgSTAT-A) appears to have duplicated in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, giving rise to a second ... The STAT pathway mediates late-phase immunity against Plasmodium in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae Cell Host Microbe. 2009 May ... The ancestral STAT gene (AgSTAT-A) appears to have duplicated in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, giving rise to a second ... Thus, the AgSTAT-A pathway mediates a late-phase antiplasmodial response that reduces oocyst survival in A. gambiae. ...
... gene family in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in Sub-Saharan Africa. We identified 18 A. gambiae SRPN ... Update of the Anopheles gambiae PEST genome assemply. Genome Biol. 2007;8:R5. [PMC free article] [PubMed] ... Anopheles gambiae SRPN2 facilitates midgut invasion by the malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei. EMBO Reports. 2005;6:891-897. [ ... Anopheles gambiae. Ms. Manduca sexta. Dm. Drosophila melanogaster. PPO. prophenoloxidase. PAP. prophenoloxidase-activating ...
EGFR ortholog from Anopheles; from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: orthologs from Drosophila, human, mouse & chicken; ... Anopheles gambiae AGER protein. Subscribe to New Research on Anopheles gambiae AGER protein ... AGER - EGFR ortholog from Anopheles; from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: orthologs from Drosophila, human, mouse & ...
We show that a peroxidase, secreted by the Anopheles gambiae midgut, and dual oxidase form a dityrosine network that decreases ... A Peroxidase/Dual Oxidase System Modulates Midgut Epithelial Immunity in Anopheles gambiae ... A Peroxidase/Dual Oxidase System Modulates Midgut Epithelial Immunity in Anopheles gambiae ... A Peroxidase/Dual Oxidase System Modulates Midgut Epithelial Immunity in Anopheles gambiae ...
Comparative studies on sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Dipt., Culicidae): bionomics and vectorial ... Davidson, G. (1962). Anopheles gambiae complex.-Nature, Lond. 196. 907.. Davidson, G. (1964 a). Anopheles gambiae, a complex of ... Ramsdale, C. D. & Fontaine, R. E. (1970). Ecological investigations of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. I. Dry season ... Davidson, G., Paterson, H. E., Coluzzi, M., Mason, G. F. & Micks, D. W. (1967). The Anopheles gambiae complex. In Wright, J. W. ...
  • The Anopheles gambiae complex or Anopheles gambiae sensu lato was recognized as a species complex only in the 1960s. (wikipedia.org)
  • gambiae sensu lato in selected locations in Tanzania. (rti.org)
  • Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) consists of several morphologically cryptic species throughout sub-Saharan Africa. (biologists.org)
  • Here the habitat selection by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), the principal African malaria vector, was investigated when presented with a choice of two infusions made from rabbit food pellets, or soil. (diva-portal.org)
  • Here, insecticide susceptibility was investigated in Anopheles gambiae sensu lato from an area of large scale ITN distribution programme in south-western Chad. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anopheles gambiae sensu lato IS a major vector of malaria in western Kenya where environmental conditions are highly conducive for its survival and reproduction. (ac.ke)
  • Thioester-containing protein 1 (TEP1) is a central component in the innate immune response of Anopheles gambiae to Plasmodium infection. (malariaworld.org)
  • Anopheles stephensi p38 MAPK signaling regulates innate immunity and bioenergetics during Plasmodium falciparum infection," Parasites and Vectors , vol. 8, article 424, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • Exposure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection enhances the ability of their immune system to respond to subsequent infections. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • In insects, including Anopheles mosquitoes, Dscam (Down syndrome cell adhesion molecule) appears to be involved in phagocytosis of pathogens, and shows pathogen-specific splice-form expression between divergent pathogen (or parasite) types (e.g. between bacteria and Plasmodium or between Plasmodium berghei and Plasmodium falciparum ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Malaria is a worldwide infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites and transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, we aim to investigate the role of this parasite's by-product as stimulator of Anopheles gambiae immunity to Plasmodium berghei . (biomedcentral.com)
  • We propose that hemozoin boosts the innate immunity in Anopheles , activating key effector genes involved in mosquito resistance to Plasmodium, and this activation is REL2-mediated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It has been suggested that variation in a thioester-containing protein called TEP1 (AGAP010815) may alter the ability of Anopheles mosquitoes to transmit Plasmodium parasites, and high divergence between alleles of this gene suggests the possible action of long-term balancing selection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analyses of the immunity genes of Anopheles gambiae , the primary mosquito vector for Plasmodium falciparum in Africa, have, for some time, lagged behind those of the model Drosophila , but this is changing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, although it is clear that phenotypic variation for resistance to malaria is abundant in natural A . gambiae populations [ 15 , 16 ], it has not yet been precisely determined which Anopheles genes explain variation in resistance to Plasmodium (or indeed any parasite or pathogen of Anopheles ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles are the only arthropods capable of transmitting the Plasmodium parasites that cause human malaria, which infects over 200 million people and kills nearly one million people globally each year ( Enayati & Hemingway, 2010 ). (peerj.com)
  • Six gene markers have been used to map the progress of the innate immune response of the mosquito vector, Anopheles gambiae , upon infection by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium berghei . (embopress.org)
  • The life cycle of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei in the mosquito vector Anopheles gambiae begins with the ingestion of sexual stage gametocytes during blood feeding on an infected rodent host. (embopress.org)
  • Females of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, the major vector of the life-threatening parasite Plasmodium falciparum , strongly rely on their sense of smell to find appropriate human blood hosts, nectar sources and oviposition sites [ 1 - 3 ]. (ijbs.com)
  • Microarray analyses included in this site were based on the Affymetrix GeneChip Plasmodium/Anopheles Genome Array. (uci.edu)
  • The database was updated 12/16/08 with new parameters to link Affymetrix Anopheles/Plasmodium array probeset IDs with associated gene IDs. (uci.edu)
  • Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes are efficient vectors for Plasmodium falciparum, although variation exists in their susceptibility to infection. (ru.nl)
  • Determinants of Plasmodium falciparum development and transmission by Anopheles gambiae s.l. in Bancoumana, Mali / by Abdoulaye Mohamed Touré. (who.int)
  • The impact of insecticide resistance and exposure on Plasmodium infection level and prevalence in the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • This project is investigating how genetic insecticide resistance mechanisms and non-genetic responses to insecticide exposure affect Anopheles gambiae susceptibility to Plasmodium falciparum. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • However, the ability to target genes using RNAi during pre-adult stages is limited in the major human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae . (jove.com)
  • We identified 18 A. gambiae SRPN genes, all on chromosomes 2 and 3, through searches of genomic DNA and EST databases. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Insecticide Exposure Triggers a Modulated Expression of ABC Transporter Genes in Larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (mdpi.com)
  • In Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in Sub-Saharan Africa, 18 SRPN genes encoding 23 distinct proteins have been identified. (k-state.edu)
  • Using deep RNA sequencing of multiple Anopheles gambiae life stages, we have identified 2,949 lncRNAs and more than 300 previously unannotated putative protein-coding genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We find that across the genus Anopheles , lncRNAs display much lower sequence conservation than protein-coding genes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To further investigate renal conservation across species we selected four D. melanogaster genes with orthologues highly enriched in the Anopheles tubules, and generated RNAi knockdown flies. (gla.ac.uk)
  • There are eight lysozyme genes in the Anopheles gambiae genome. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Transcripts of one of these genes, LYSC-1, increased in Anopheles gambiae cell line 4a3B by 24 h after exposure to heat-killed Micrococcus luteus. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A thorough understanding of the A. gambiae genome and the genes and protein products integral to successful parasite transmission may inform malaria control strategies, including those capitalizing on natural malaria resistance and those using transgenic approaches. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was hoped that the genes involved in animal biting in the sibling species Anopheles quadriannulatus could be exploited by crossing with An. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Availability of the Anopheles gambiae genome sequence will accelerate identification and exploitation of new target genes in this insect vector. (meta.org)
  • gambiae genes, AGAP009551 and AGAP011615, was measured during aging under laboratory and field conditions in three mosquito strains. (duhnnae.com)
  • gambiae were co-injected with ONNV and the respective double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) based on a cDNAs of the hsc70b and two other candidate genes, Agglutinin attachment subunit (Agglutinin), EF-1γ from above cDNA microarray study (Sim et al. (nd.edu)
  • The Anopheles gambiae complex consists of at least seven morphologically indistinguishable species of mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The A. gambiae complex consists of: Anopheles arabiensis Anopheles bwambae Anopheles melas Anopheles merus Anopheles quadriannulatus Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto Anopheles coluzzii Anopheles amharicus The individual species of the complex are morphologically difficult to distinguish from each other, although it is possible for larvae and adult females. (wikipedia.org)
  • For example, Anopheles quadriannulatus is both a saltwater and mineralwater species. (wikipedia.org)
  • A. melas and A. merus are saltwater species, while the remainder are freshwater species.Anopheles quadriannulatus generally takes its blood meal from animals (zoophilic), whereas Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto generally feeds on humans, i.e. is considered anthropophilic. (wikipedia.org)
  • gambiae s.s. has been discovered to be currently in a state of diverging into two different species-the Mopti (M) and Savannah (S) strains-though as of 2007, the two strains are still considered to be a single species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fecundity of A. gambiae depends on the detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by catalase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pennetier C, Warren B, Dabiré KR, Russell IJ, Gibson G (2009) "Singing on the wing" as a mechanism for species recognition in the malarial mosquito Anopheles gambiae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Molecular assay were used to determine distribution of Anopheles gambiae sub-species. (rti.org)
  • Results: Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant malaria specie in the country, accounting for 52% of the sibling species identified, while An. (rti.org)
  • gambiae s.s. is the dominant species. (rti.org)
  • The article contains a summary of the published data on the biology of Anopheles gambiae and of the author's studies of certain aspects of the biology of that species. (ajtmh.org)
  • The Anopheles gambiae complex represents a very interesting model in this respect, as it includes seven currently recognized sibling species, several of which hybridize in nature. (genetics.org)
  • The main Afrotropical malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is undergoing a process of sympatric ecological diversification leading to at least two incipient species (the M and S molecular forms) showing heterogeneous levels of divergence across the genome. (diva-portal.org)
  • Comparative studies on sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Dipt. (cambridge.org)
  • Females of A. gambiae were identified cytotaxonomically as sibling species A or B of the complex. (cambridge.org)
  • In houses during 1970, A. gambiae species B was more numerous at first than A, but A became predominant during the long rains of March-May. (cambridge.org)
  • Similar cycles of species A and B were observed outdoors, although the relative numbers outdoors/indoors averaged 2·3 times more for species B than for species A. In A. funestus, A. gambiae species A and A. gambiae species B Human Blood Indices were 97·5%, 91·2% and 60·9% indoors and 24%, 2% and 7% outdoors, respectively. (cambridge.org)
  • I. DETAILED STUDY OF A FRONTIER Opportunity for a full study of the advance of a species of anopheles into new territory is not often offered to the investigator, and is a matter of much sanitary importance. (ajtmh.org)
  • The plant species studied were selected on the basis of criteria (Table 1), such as lack of information on activity against Anopheles and Culex larvae, botanical families (Euphorbiaceae, Verbenaceae, and Meliaceae) from which number of larvicidal plant were reported and large distribution in West Africa. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were collected from four sites across Benin and identified to species/molecular form. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gambiae and may therefore affect pathogen survival within this important vector species. (k-state.edu)
  • gambiae mosquitoes were identified to species and to M or S molecular forms using PCR techniques. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • In addition to previously described repeats, a novel highly repetitive element called Zanzibar was discovered and mapped to the males of various Anopheles sibling species. (vt.edu)
  • Larvicidal properties of some Tanzanian plant species against Anopheles gambiae s.s. (ac.ke)
  • BACKGROUND: Attempts over the last three decades to reconstruct the phylogenetic history of the Anopheles gambiae species complex have been important for developing better strategies to control malaria transmission. (cnrs.fr)
  • METHODOLOGY: We used fingerprint genotyping data from 414 field-collected female mosquitoes at 42 microsatellite loci to infer the evolutionary relationships of four species in the A. gambiae complex, the two major malaria vectors A. gambiae sensu stricto (A. gambiae s.s.) and A. arabiensis, as well as two minor vectors, A. merus and A. melas. (cnrs.fr)
  • Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level and assessed for kdr allele frequency by TaqMan PCR. (springer.com)
  • In this study, we have investigated if ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a major component of the defensome machinery, are involved in defence against the insecticide permethrin, in susceptible larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. (mdpi.com)
  • Anopheles gambiae (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae were found in large numbers in the open ground pools at Rayfield, Jos and a few from along the stream edges formed by some pool. (scirj.org)
  • We investigated the hatchability rates of freshly laid Anopheles gambiae s.s. eggs in presence of third instars larvae. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Freshly laid eggs of An.gambiae s.s. were washed in microcosms containing larvae of third instars in different three densities (20, 60 and 100) and likewise in control microcosms (without larvae). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Examination of chromatograms of karyotyped larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis has revealed that there are differences in the profile of their epicuticular hydrocarbons. (core.ac.uk)
  • Known potential predators of Anopheles gambiae larvae were largely absent or few during the early stages of habitats colonization. (ac.ke)
  • Generally, recessive inviability effects were found on the X chromosome of gambiae that are incompatible with at least one factor on each arabiensis autosome. (genetics.org)
  • Inviability is complete when the gambiae and arabiensis inviability factors are hemi- or homozygous. (genetics.org)
  • In the Sahel, the Anopheles gambiae complex consists of Anopheles arabiensis and the M and S molecular forms of A. gambiae sensu stricto . (biologists.org)
  • To our knowledge, this study provides the first measurements of metabolic rates of A. gambiae and A. arabiensis in the field. (biologists.org)
  • The mean metabolic rate of A. arabiensis was higher than that of M-form A. gambiae when accounting for the effects of female gonotrophic status, temperature and flight activity. (biologists.org)
  • In the Sahel region of Mali, this complex includes Anopheles arabiensis (Patton 1905) and A. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s. (biologists.org)
  • These comparisons suggest that the A. gambiae M form is more arid adapted than A. arabiensis , which is more arid adapted than the A. gambiae S form. (biologists.org)
  • s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis being the most abundant and widespread. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles arabiensis were also killed when ingesting R2B6 serum but Anopheles freeborni, Anopheles albimanus, and Aedes aegypti were not affected. (elsevier.com)
  • The genera Culex, Aedes and Anopheles are the most important vectors involved in diseases transmission to humans. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • gambiae mosquitoes, our work prompts for new alternative strategies to be urgently developed for the control of major malaria vectors in Burkina Faso. (cirad.fr)
  • BACKGROUND : The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is characterized as a holoendemic malaria area with the main vectors being Anopheles funestus and members of the Anopheles gambiae complex. (up.ac.za)
  • The work included in this thesis arose from a long-standing interest in the possible use of genetic control for one of the most important malaria vectors in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • The level of susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae to 4% DDT, 0.75% permethrin, 0.05% deltamethrin, 0.1% bendiocarb and 5% malathion were compared between mosquitoes collected from polluted, non polluted and cultivated areas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Using a dual-choice olfactometer, the role of L-lactic acid was investigated in relation to host-seeking and selection by female Anopheles gambiae Giles sensu stricto (Diptera: Culicidae) mosquitoes in a Y-tube bioassay. (nih.gov)
  • Larvicidal potential of some plants from west Africa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and anopheles gambiae giles (Diptera: Culicidae). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Ang Anopheles gambiae sakop sa kahenera nga Anopheles sa kabanay nga Culicidae . (wikipedia.org)
  • The main aim of this work was to investigate the host preferences of the two most behaviourally diverse members of the Anopheles gambiae complex (An. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • The impact of these findings on our current understanding of the behaviour of members of the Anopheles gambiae complex is discussed. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Collections of Anopheles gambiae Giles complex, A. funestus Giles group and other mosquitoes were made by spray-catch from twelve catching stations indoors and by hand-catch from pit shelters at two catching stations at Segera, Tanzania, between January 1970 and June 1971. (cambridge.org)
  • Differential attractiveness of humans to the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Giles : effects of host characteristics and parasite infection / Wolfgang Richard Mukabana. (who.int)
  • Whilst physical and chemical cues used by Culex and Aedes vector mosquitoes for selecting an oviposition site have been extensively studied, those for Anopheles remain poorly explored. (diva-portal.org)
  • However recently, two strains of Wolbachia, wAlbB from Aedes albopictus, and wRi from Drosophila simulans were cultured in Anopheles gambiae Sua5B cells. (omicsdi.org)
  • Overall design: Two strains of Wolbachia, wRi from Drosophila simulans and wAlbB from Aedes albopictus were transfered into Anopheles gambiae Sua5B cells via the shell vial technique. (omicsdi.org)
  • Transcriptional profiling has been proposed as a method for predicting mosquito age for Aedes and Anopheles mosquitoes, however, whether this new method is adequate for natural conditions is unknown. (duhnnae.com)
  • Differential rhodopsin gene expression within specialized R7 photoreceptor cells divides the retinas of Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes into distinct domains. (biologists.com)
  • Cloning and molecular characterization of two invertebrate-type lysozymes from Anopheles gambiae. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Despite the importance of light as a regulator of malaria transmission, our knowledge on the molecular interactions between environmental cues, the circadian oscillators and the host seeking and feeding systems of the Anopheles mosquitoes is limited. (biomedcentral.com)
  • gambiae s.s. based upon conserved sequences to miRNA found in Drosophila. (wikipedia.org)
  • This analysis of the Anopheles gambiae receptors permits a comparison with the corresponding Drosophila melanogaster odorant receptor repertoire. (nature.com)
  • To analyze the similarities and differences in this pathway between Drosophila and mosquito, we performed an in-depth analysis of the genomic loci producing piRNAs and their targets in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae . (biomedcentral.com)
  • In depth annotation of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito midgut transcriptome," BMC Genomics , vol. 15, article no. 636, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • We propose to develop a comprehensive picture of the Anopheles gambiae transcriptome using high-coverage RNA-seq through two discrete, complementary study aims. (vectorbase.org)
  • To investigate the physiological adaptations required for successful development to adulthood, we studied the Malpighian tubule transcriptome of Anopheles gambiae using Affymetrix arrays. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Bacteria of the genus Asaia stably associate with Anopheles stephensi, an Asian malarial mosquito vector. (semanticscholar.org)
  • For example, in several populations of the major malaria vector in Africa, Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes, mutations in the DDT/pyrethroid target site, known as knockdown resistance ( kdr ) alleles, have been found in conjunction with resistance alleles of the acetylcholinesterase gene ( Ace-1 R ), the target site of organophosphates and carbamates ( 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • gambiae s.l. populations. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The situation in Burkina Faso is emblematic with Anopheles gambiae populations showing high levels of resistance to most available compounds. (cirad.fr)
  • gambiae populations sampled from 10 sites in Burkina Faso in 2010. (cirad.fr)
  • gambiae populations from this country. (cirad.fr)
  • Results: Anopheles gambiae populations were dominated by the M form. (cirad.fr)
  • gambiae complex while also help identify novel targets to create successful transgenic male populations. (vt.edu)
  • Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania: A major concern for malaria vector control. (rti.org)
  • Multiple Insecticide Resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.l. (cirad.fr)
  • The Anopheles innate immune system in the defense against malaria infection. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Anopheles gambiae had the highest sporozoite rate in both seasons, with infection rates of 13.9% and 20% in June/July and November/December, respectively. (springer.com)
  • gambiae in ONNV infection, ONNV infectious system (ONNV-eGFP) which is capable of express green fluorescent protein (Brault 2004), has been used to characterize tissue tropism and dissemination of ONNV in An. (nd.edu)
  • gambiae clearly showed the accumulation of GFP in the anterior midguts, foreguts, hindguts, cardia, ovaries, salivary glands and heads at 6 days post infection. (nd.edu)
  • gambiae posterior midguts are different from other Culicine infection with alphaviruses. (nd.edu)
  • gambiae Kisumu susceptible reference strain. (cirad.fr)
  • Here, we examined resistance of P. falciparum isolates of African origin (NF54, NF165 and NF166) to TEP1-mediated killing in a susceptible Ngousso and a refractory L3-5 strain of A. gambiae. (ru.nl)
  • This study explored the protein composition of specific Anopheles gambiae mosquito head tissue isolates, with particular relevance to brain function, and the sensory modalities of vision, olfaction and gustation. (vectorbase.org)
  • The combined injections from Anopheles tissue yielded 8230 peptide identifications at a 1% false discovery rate (FDR) and 8350 at a 5% FDR, and 1,322 non-redundant protein identifications. (vectorbase.org)
  • The quality and accuracy of the reannotation was assessed by comparison with end sequences from 20,249 full-length cDNA clones, and evaluation of mass spectrometry peptide hit rates from an A. gambiae shotgun proteomic dataset confirms that the reannotated CDSs offer a high quality protein database for proteomics. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Daily rhythms in antennal protein and olfactory sensitivity in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae . (vectorbase.org)
  • In Anopheles gambiae , predominant heritable insecticide resistance mechanisms cause major conformational protein changes, which would be expected to impact physiological performance, including the ability to withstand parasites, because the insecticide targets are essential components of the nervous system. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Prevalence of insecticide resistance in Anopheles multiple insecticide-resistance mechanisms ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
  • In the arid savanna zone of West Africa, where potential oviposition sites are scarce, widespread collection from larval pools in the peridomestic human habitat yielded a comprehensive genetic survey of local A. gambiae population subgroups, independent of adult resting behavior and ecological preference. (usda.gov)
  • The survivorship of Anopheles gambiae larval and pupal stages was lower in small habitats (0.0597) than in the large habitats (0.094 I). The colonization rate varied through time as various factors in the habitats became manifest during the experimental period. (ac.ke)
  • Impact of permethrin-treated bednets on malaria transmission by the Anopheles gambiae complex in The Gambia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Following evidence of associations between the mosquito microbiota and insecticide resistance, the microbiota of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) from Tulukuyi village, Bungoma, Kenya, with differing permethrin resistance profiles were comparatively characterized. (cdc.gov)
  • We show that a peroxidase, secreted by the Anopheles gambiae midgut, and dual oxidase form a dityrosine network that decreases gut permeability to immune elicitors. (sciencemag.org)
  • High titers of antibodies against Anopheles gambiae midguts were produced in New Zealand rabbits to identify midgut targets for an antimosquito vaccine. (elsevier.com)
  • The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. (nih.gov)
  • The current Ensembl gene predictions for the A. gambiae genome sequence are an extremely important resource that has transformed malaria vector biology into a genomic discipline. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the major vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. (nature.com)
  • Metabolomic and ecdysteroid variations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes exposed to the stressful conditions of the dry season in Burkina Faso, West Africa," Physiological and Biochemical Zoology , vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 486-497, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • Some of the advice which is given is unduly elementary, but perhaps this must be viewed in the light of the fact that in his search of the literature the author could find only two published reports of dissections of A. gambiae for malaria parasites in French West Africa. (ajtmh.org)
  • In this study, we characterized the serpin ( SRPN ) gene family in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae , the major malaria vector in Sub-Saharan Africa. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Approximately 90% of deaths caused by mosquito-borne disease are attributable to malaria in sub-Saharan Africa, where children under the age of five are the primary victims and the mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the major vector. (vectorbase.org)
  • Background: Insecticide resistance of the main malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae, has been reported in south-western Burkina Faso, West Africa. (cirad.fr)
  • Because free-insecticide treated net distribution is planned in Benin (West Africa) during the next few years, we investigated the type, frequency and distribution of insecticide resistance mechanisms in Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes in four localities selected on the basis of contrasting agricultural practices, use of insecticides and environment. (lshtm.ac.uk)
  • Human malaria parasites are transmitted by anopheline mosquitoes, of which Anopheles gambiae is the most prevalent vector in Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We identify six taxonomic units, including a clear separation of West and East Africa A. gambiae s.s. (cnrs.fr)
  • This study tests the applicability of transcriptional profiling for age-grading of Anopheles gambiae, the most important malaria vector in Africa. (duhnnae.com)
  • Almost all of the P. agglomerans -infected bugs were malaria-free, and the suckers in this study ( Anopheles gambiae ) were indigenous to Africa. (wired.com)
  • Identification of olfactory stimulants for Anopheles gambiae from human sweat samples. (nature.com)
  • Olfactory Coding in Antennal Neurons of the Malaria Mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We performed an analysis of the electrophysiological responses of olfactory neurons in the antennae of the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. and investigated the effect of blood feeding on responsiveness. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • To investigate the genetic basis of olfactory modulation in mosquitoes, we assayed changes in CO 2 detection from receptor gene expression through physiological function to behaviour, associated with the onset of host seeking in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae . (biologists.org)
  • In order to find a blood host and to select appropriate oviposition sites female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes rely on olfactory cues which are sensed by olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) located within morphologically different sensilla hairs. (ijbs.com)
  • The ancestral STAT gene (AgSTAT-A) appears to have duplicated in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, giving rise to a second intronless STAT gene (AgSTAT-B), which we show regulates AgSTAT-A expression in adult females. (nih.gov)
  • gambiae s.l. females discriminate between potential aquatic habitats for oviposition. (diva-portal.org)
  • gambiae females and males. (up.ac.za)
  • gambiae, analysis of transcription levels showed that the glutathione-S-transferase, GSTS1-2, produced the highest fold change in expression (7.6-fold in females and 31-fold in males) followed by GSTE2, thioredoxin peroxidase (TPX2), and cytochrome oxidases (CYP6M2 and CYP6P1). (up.ac.za)
  • Genome-wide analysis of gene expression in adult Anopheles gambiae . (uci.edu)
  • gambiae sensu stricto, a vector of malaria, had adapted to HM pollutants in nature despite their proclivity for unpolluted aquatic habitats. (ac.ke)
  • Gene expression patterns associated with blood-feeding in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae ," BMC Genomics , vol. 6, article 5, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • gambiae s.s. and show that the gene expression response is modulated across time, being continuous, but stronger at the earliest and latest times after exposure. (mdpi.com)
  • In addition to providing a comprehensive view of temporal and spatial gene expression during the A. gambiae life cycle, this large-scale comparative transcriptomic analysis has detected important evolutionary features of insect transcriptomes. (unige.ch)
  • Welcome to the Anopheles gambiae Gene Expression Database at UC Irvine. (uci.edu)
  • Anopheles gambiae gene expression database with integrated comparative algorithms for identifying conserved DNA motifs in promoter sequences. (uci.edu)
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  • Anopheles funestus annotations of the microarray reporter sequences. (up.ac.za)
  • Yakob L (2011) Epidemiological consequences of a newly discovered cryptic subgroup of Anopheles gambiae.Biol Lett G.B. White (1974). (wikipedia.org)
  • Characterization of expression, activity and role in antibacterial immunity of Anopheles gambiae lysozyme c-1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A mosquito lipoxin/lipocalin complex mediates innate immune priming in Anopheles gambiae. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Additionally, we find that lncRNA secondary structure is highly conserved within the Gambiae complex, but diverges rapidly across the rest of the genus Anopheles . (biomedcentral.com)
  • gambiae complex. (vt.edu)
  • Malaria vector mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex were studied in four hamlets in The Gambia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Here we functionally characterize the Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor (AgOr) repertoire. (nature.com)
  • Champion M.M., Sheppard A.D., Rund S.S.C., Freed S.A., O'Tousa J.E. and Duffield G.E. (2015) Qualitative and quantitative proteomics methods for the analysis of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito proteome. (vectorbase.org)
  • Dissections of the salivary gland of the Anopheles yielded chromosomes which spread successfully as expected. (scirj.org)
  • The development of insecticide resistance in anopheles mosquitoes is a major threat for malaria vector control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Among other things, the author investigated the potentially very important problem: are there two races of gambiae -zoophilic and anthropophilic? (ajtmh.org)
  • We describe an in vivo model for investigation of detoxification mechanisms of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae, important for the development of malaria control programmes. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Studies on mechanisms of resistance and factors selecting each type of mechanism in Anopheles gambiae from south western Nigeria and Kwara State / by Djouaka-Folefack, Jean Rousseau. (who.int)
  • gambiae s. s. by hybridisation experiments with the zoophilic An. (lshtm.ac.uk)