A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A carbamate insecticide.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Living facilities for humans.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.
Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
A superfamily of nematodes of the order ENOPLIDA. Characteristics include a reduced alimentary tract and the presence of a trophosome. Its organisms can be present in the human intestine through ingestion of unwashed or contaminated raw vegetables.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.
A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)

Can anything be done to maintain the effectiveness of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets against malaria vectors? (1/1919)

Pyrethroid-treated bednets are the most promising available method of controlling malaria in the tropical world. Every effort should be made to find methods of responding to, or preventing, the emergence of pyrethroid resistance in the Anopheles vectors. Some cases of such resistance are known, notably in An. gambiae in West Africa where the kdr type of resistance has been selected, probably because of the use of pyrethroids on cotton. Because pyrethroids are irritant to mosquitoes, laboratory studies on the impact of, and selection for, resistance need to be conducted with free-flying mosquitoes in conditions that are as realistic as possible. Such studies are beginning to suggest that, although there is cross-resistance to all pyrethroids, some treatments are less likely to select for resistance than others are. Organophosphate, carbamate and phenyl pyrazole insecticides have been tested as alternative treatments for nets or curtains. Attempts have been made to mix an insect growth regulator and a pyrethroid on netting to sterilize pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes that are not killed after contact with the netting. There seems to be no easy solution to the problem of pyrethroid resistance management, but further research is urgently needed.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (2/1919)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

Purification and cloning of the salivary peroxidase/catechol oxidase of the mosquito Anopheles albimanus. (3/1919)

Salivary homogenates of the adult female mosquito Anopheles albimanus have been shown previously to contain a vasodilatory activity associated with a catechol oxidase/peroxidase activity. We have now purified the salivary peroxidase using high-performance liquid chromatography. The pure enzyme is able to relax rabbit aortic rings pre-constricted with norepinephrine. The peroxidase has a relative molecular mass of 66 907 as estimated by mass spectrometry. Amino-terminal sequencing allowed us to design oligonucleotide probes for isolation of cDNA clones derived from the salivary gland mRNA from female mosquitoes. The full sequence of the cDNA demonstrated homology between A. albimanus salivary peroxidase and several members of the myeloperoxidase gene family. A close comparison of A. albimanus salivary peroxidase with canine myeloperoxidase, for which the crystal structure is known, showed that all six disulfide bridges were conserved and demonstrated identity for all five residues associated with a Ca2+-binding site. In addition, 16 of 26 residues shown to be in close proximity to the heme moiety in the canine myeloperoxidase were identical. We conclude that the salivary peroxidase of A. albimanus belongs to the myeloperoxidase gene family. Other possible functions for this molecule in blood feeding are discussed.  (+info)

Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis? (4/1919)

A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme.  (+info)

Bancroftian filariasis in an irrigation project community in southern Ghana. (5/1919)

An epidemiological study to document the endemicity and transmission characteristics of bancroftian filariasis was conducted in an irrigation project community in southern Ghana. In a 50% random sample of the population, the prevalence of microfilaraemia was 26.4% and the geometric mean microfilarial intensity among positives was 819 microfilariae/ml of blood. Hydrocoele was found in 13.8% of the males aged > or =18 years, and 1.4% of the residents examined, all females, had tymphoedema/elephantiasis. Detailed monitoring of the microfilarial intensity in 8 individuals over a 24-h period confirmed its nocturnal periodicity with a peak at approximately 0100 hours. The most important vector was Anopheles gambiae s.l., followed by An. funestus. The abundance of these mosquitoes and their relative importance as vectors varied considerably between the wet and the dry season. Opening of the irrigation canals late in the dry season resulted in a remarkable increase in the population of An. gambiae (8.3% of which carried infective filarial larvae) to levels comparable to those seen during the wet season, suggesting that the irrigation project is responsible for increased transmission of lymphatic filariasis in the community.  (+info)

Host haematological factors influencing the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes to Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes. (6/1919)

We investigated the relationship between selected host haematological and parasitological parameters and the density and infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. 143 individuals (age range 1-62 years) attending an outpatient clinic in Farafenni, The Gambia, who had peripheral blood gametocytaemia were recruited (mean gametocyte density 123.7/microl, range 5-17,000/microl). Of the parameters measured, packed cell volume (PCV), reticulocyte count (RetC) and lymphocyte count (LyC) were significantly associated with gametocyte density (r = - 0.17, P < 0.05; r = 0.21, P < 0.01; r = 0.18, P < 0.05, respectively). Data from membrane feeding experiments in which 15 or more mosquitoes were dissected showed that 60.7% (53/87) of gametocyte carriers infected one or more mosquitoes. Gametocyte density was strongly correlated with transmission success (TS) (r = 0.3, P < 0.005) and, in successful infections, with both mosquito prevalence (MP) (r = 0.36, P < 0.005) and mean oocyst burden (MOB) (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001). None of the other factors measured were significantly associated with any of these indices in bivariate analysis. Regression modelling showed that both gametocyte density and PCV were positively associated with gametocyte carrier infectivity to mosquitoes (LRchi2 = 100.7 and 47.2, respectively) and, in successful infections, with MOB (beta = 0.16, t = 4.9, P < 0.001; beta = 0.02, t = 2.3, P < 0.05, respectively). The positive association with PCV suggests that blood meal quality influences infection probably as a nutritional requirement, however, as this effect was most apparent at high gametocyte densities, its epidemiological significance is questionable. Though the haematological parameters associated with gametocyte density are a direct consequence of asexual infection, they may also represent an adaptive mechanism for optimization of sexual stage development.  (+info)

Control of malaria vectors: cost analysis in a province of northern Vietnam. (7/1919)

The cost of permethrin-treated bednets (50% EC; 0.2 g/m2, 2 rounds per year) was compared to the cost of residual spraying with lambdacyhalothrin 10% WP (0.03 g/m2, once yearly) in Hoa Binh, a mountainous province in northern Vietnam. Calculations of the amounts of insecticides needed were based on national guidelines, on data from a cross-sectional survey and on district activity reports. The actual cost of insecticide required per person per year was lower for impregnation (US$ 0.26) than for spraying (US$ 0.36), but the difference was smaller than expected. The total cost for impregnated bednets per person per year amounted to US$ 0.90 compared to USS 0.47 for spraying. The determining factor was the cost of the net, amounting to US$ 0.58 per person per year, assuming a 5-year life of the net. Other material (excluding nets), labour and transport combined, accounted for only 17% of the impregnation cost and 23% of spraying expenses. However, for the National Malaria Control Programme of Vietnam, the cost per person per year for impregnated bednets amounted to US$ 0.32 only, because the vast majority of nets are bought by the population. For spraying, the programme had to bear the entire cost.  (+info)

A hemocyte-like cell line established from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae expresses six prophenoloxidase genes. (8/1919)

Cell lines from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been established as a tool for the study of the mosquito innate immune system in vitro. Here, we describe the first continuous insect cell line that produces prophenoloxidase (PPO). This cell line (4a-3B) expresses constitutively six PPO genes, three of which are novel (PPO4, PPO5, and PPO6). The PPO genes show distinct temporal expression profiles in the intact mosquito, spanning stages from the embryo to the adult in an overlapping manner. Transient induction of larva-specific PPO genes in blood-fed adult females suggests that the developmental hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone may be involved in PPO gene regulation. Indeed, exposure of 4a-3B cells to 20-hydroxyecdysone in culture results in induction of those PPO genes that are mainly expressed in early developmental stages, and repression of PPO5, which is preferentially expressed at the adult stage. The cell line shows bacteria-induced immune transcripts that encode defensin and Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein, but no induction of PPO transcripts. This cell line most likely derives from a hemocyte lineage, and represents an appropriate in vitro model for the study of the humoral and cellular immune defenses of A. gambiae.  (+info)

Introduction. Malaria vector control in southern Africa relies mainly on indoor residual house spraying (IRS) with insecticides. Synthetic pyrethroids and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) are used in IRS applications, while permethrin-treated bed-nets are used for personal protection in some households. DDT was introduced for malaria control in 1946 in South Africa and remained in use until 1996 when the choice of insecticide was changed to the pyrethroid deltamethrin.1 Following a major upsurge of malaria cases in 1999/2000 and the detection of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus,2 DDT was re-introduced in 2001 and a marked reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality was recorded.3,4 Deltamethrin is currently used in modern-style houses with painted walls while DDT is used in traditional houses.. Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in southern Africa, second only to Anopheles funestus. Historically, it has been considered to be susceptible to ...
Mosquito control remains a central pillar of efforts to reduce malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, insecticide resistance is entrenched in malaria vector populations, and countries with a high malaria burden face a daunting challenge to sustain malaria control with a limited set of surveillance and intervention tools. Here we report on the second phase of a project to build an open resource of high-quality data on genome variation among natural populations of the major African malaria vector species |i|Anopheles gambiae|/i| and |i|Anopheles coluzzii|/i| We analyzed whole genomes of 1142 individual mosquitoes sampled from the wild in 13 African countries, as well as a further 234 individuals comprising parents and progeny of 11 laboratory crosses. The data resource includes high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calls at 57 million variable sites, genome-wide copy number variation (CNV) calls, and haplotypes phased at biallelic SNPs. We use these data to analyze genetic
Anopheles funestus Giles is a major malaria vector in Africa belonging to a group of species with morphologically similar characteristics. Morphological identification of members of the A. funestus group is difficult because of overlap of distinguishing characteristics in adult or immature stages as well as the necessity to rear isofemale lines to examine larval and egg characters. A rapid rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been developed to accurately identify five members of the A. funestus group. This PCR is based on species-specific primers in the ITS2 region on the rDNA to identify A. funestus (approximately 505bp), Anopheles vaneedeni Gillies and Coetzee (approximately 587bp), Anopheles rivulorum Leeson (approximately 411bp), Anopheles leesoni Evans (approximately 146bp), and Anopheles parensis Gillies (approximately 252bp).
Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles funestus populations has led to an increase in malaria transmission in southern Africa. Resistance has been attributed to elevated activities of cytochrome P450s but the molecular basis underlying this metabolic resistance is unknown. Microsatellite and SNP markers were used to construct a linkage map and to detect a quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with pyrethroid resistance in the FUMOZ-R strain of An. funestus from Mozambique. By genotyping 349 F2 individuals from 11 independent families, a single major QTL, rp1, at the telomeric end of chromosome 2R was identified. The rp1 QTL appears to present a major effect since it accounts for more than 60% of the variance in susceptibility to permethrin. This QTL has a strong additive genetic effect with respect to susceptibility. Candidate genes associated with pyrethroid resistance in other species were physically mapped to An. funestus polytene chromosomes. This showed that rp1 is genetically linked to a cluster
Experimental studies for understanding the relationship between Plasmodium vivax and its vector hosts are difficult, because of to the lack of a long-term, in vitro continuous culture system unavailability of infected blood samples, seasonality of the disease, and the concentration of most cases in remote areas. This study evaluates the duration of the infectivity of P. vivax to Anopheles aquasalis after collecting blood from malaria-infected patients. Blood was collected from patients and stored at 4 ºC and 37 ºC. Every day, for 4 days, the blood was fed to An. aquasalis adult females, and a Giemsa-stained thick blood smear was mounted to account for sexual (gametocytes) and asexual (trophozoites and schizonts) stages and calculate parasitemia. ...
Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. Adult females are likely to imbibe multiple blood meals during their lifetime. This results in regular exposure to potential toxins and blood-meal induced oxidative stress. Defence responses to these stressors may affect other factors of epidemiological significance, such as insecticide resistance and longevity. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of multiple blood-feeding on insecticide tolerance/resistance with increasing age, to assess the underlying biochemical mechanisms for the responses recorded, and to assess the effect of multiple blood-feeding on the life histories of adult females drawn from insecticide resistant and susceptible laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Laboratory reared An. arabiensis females from an insecticide resistant and an insecticide susceptible colony were offered either a single blood meal or multiple blood meals at 3-day intervals. Their tolerance or resistance to insecticide was then monitored by WHO
Susceptibility of principal Anopheles malaria vectors to common insecticides was monitored over a 5-year period across Malawi to inform and guide the national malaria control programme. Adult blood-fed Anopheles spp. and larvae were collected from multiple sites in sixteen districts across the country between 2011 and 2015. First generation (F1) progeny aged 2-5 days old were tested for susceptibility, using standard WHO procedures, against pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin), carbamates (bendiocarb and propoxur), organophosphates (malathion and pirimiphos-methyl) and an organochlorine (DDT). Mortality of Anopheles funestus to deltamethrin, permethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur declined significantly over the 5-year (2011-2015) monitoring period. There was wide variation in susceptibility to DDT but it was not associated with time. In contrast, An. funestus exhibited 100% mortality to the organophosphates (malathion and pirimiphos-methyl) at all sites tested. There was reduced mortality of Anopheles
A. stephensi is a predominant malaria vector in urban parts of the Indian subcontinent. In spite of its importance as a malaria vector, no in-depth transcriptomic information is available on the midgut tissue of A. stephensi during sugar feeding and parasite infection. We herein report generation, annotation, and analysis of ESTs from sugar-fed and P. yoelii infected adult female A. stephensi midgut tissues.. 7061 high quality ESTs were obtained from the sugar-fed cDNA library and 8306 ESTs from the 24 h post blood-fed infected cDNA library. With 15367 ESTs, our study represents the first intensive effort in complementing gene sequence information for this mosquito. Although the genome of the closely related anopheline species, A. gambiae is available, discovery of novel transcripts (1513) in A. stephensi suggests a significant interspecies variation. In addition, mapping of novel transcripts (189) to the A. gambiae genome testifies the usefulness of our data in gene discovery process.. Like ...
In a single village in South Halmahera, Indonesia, Anopheles mosquitoes captured in human, goat, and cow-baited tents were compared to determine species-specific host attraction and feeding behaviour. Nine Anopheles species were molecularly identified in these collections: An. kochi, An. farauti s.s., An. hackeri, An. hinesorum, An. indefinitus, An. punctulatus, An. tessellatus, An. vagus, and An. vanus (Table 1). Additionally, bloodmeals of fed mosquitoes were typed and mosquitoes were analysed for the presence of Plasmodium spp. sporozoites. Frequent multiple host-feeding within a single night and flexibility in host choice within Anopheles species were observed.. There was a large discrepancy between morphological and molecular Anopheles species identifications, with 35% of specimens showing discordance between morphological and molecular identifications (Table 1). This could likely be the result of the presence of many cryptic species complexes and high Anopheles diversity in the country. ...
Bubaque is the most populous island of the Bijagos archipelago, a group of malaria-endemic islands situated off the coast of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Malaria vector control on Bubaque relies almost exclusively on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, there is little information on local vector bionomics and insecticide resistance. A survey of mosquito species composition was performed at the onset of the wet season (June/July) and the beginning of the dry season (November/December). Sampling was performed using indoor adult light-traps and larval dipping. Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level and assessed for kdr allele frequency by TaqMan PCR. Females were analysed for sporozoite positivity by CSP-ELISA. Resistance to permethrin and α-cypermethrin was measured using the CDC-bottle bioassay incorporating the synergist piperonyl-butoxide. Several Anopheles species were found on the island, all belonging to the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) complex,
Although the An. funestus group conceals one of the major malaria vectors in Africa, little is known about the dynamics of members of this group across the continent. Here, we investigated the species composition, infection rate and susceptibility to insecticides of this species group in Uganda. Indoor resting blood-fed Anopheles adult female mosquitoes were collected from 3 districts in Uganda. Mosquitoes morphologically belonging to the An. funestus group were identified to species by PCR. The sporozoite infection rates were determined by TaqMan and a nested PCR. Susceptibility to major insecticides was assessed using WHO bioassays. The potential role of four candidate resistance genes was assessed using qRT-PCR. An. funestus s.s. and An. parensis, were the only members of the An. funestus group identified. Both species were sympatric in Masindi (North-West), whereas only An. parensis was present in Mityana (Central) and Ntungamo (South-West). The Plasmodium falciparum infection detected in An.
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Anopheles stephensi, female mosquito vector carrier of malaria. Anopheles is a genus of mosquito from the family Culicidae. There are approximately 400 species of the Anopheles mosquito, 30 to 40 transmit four different species of the parasite, Plasmodium, that causes malaria. Anopheles stephensiis the main urban mosquito vector of malaria in the Indian subcontinent. Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and an enormous public-health problem. The most serious forms of the disease are caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax. The parasites, transmitted by the female mosquito when she sucks blood, multiply within red blood cells, causing symptoms that include symptoms of anaemia, as well as other general symptoms such as fever, chills, nausea, flu-like illness, coma and death. Magnification: x4. 5 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3659
Background: Metabolic resistance to insecticides is the biggest threat to the continued effectiveness of malariavector control. However, its underlying molecular basis, crucial for successful resistance management, remainspoorly characterized.Results: Here, we demonstrate that the single amino acid change L119F in an upregulated glutathione S-transferasegene, GSTe2, confers high levels of metabolic resistance to DDT in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Genome-widetranscription analysis revealed that GSTe2 was the most over-expressed detoxification gene in DDT and permethrinresistantmosquitoes from Benin. Transgenic expression of GSTe2 in Drosophila melanogaster demonstrated thatover-transcription of this gene alone confers DDT resistance and cross-resistance to pyrethroids. Analysis of GSTe2polymorphism established that the point mutation is tightly associated with metabolic resistance to DDT and itsgeographical distribution strongly correlates with DDT resistance patterns across Africa. ...
In total, 2456 female anopheline mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from the study area. Anopheles vagus Doenitz (35.71%) was the dominant species followed by An. philippinensis Ludlow (26.67%) and An. minimus s.l. Theobald (5.78%). All species were collected by LTs set indoors (n = 1094), 19 species were from outdoors (n = 784), whereas, six by PS (n = 549) and four species by HB (n = 29). Anopheline species composition significantly differed between every possible combination of the three collection methods (χ2 test, P , 0.001). Host blood meals were successfully detected from 1318 (53.66%) Anopheles samples belonging to 17 species. Values of the human blood index (HBI) of anophelines collected from indoors and outdoors were 6.96% and 11.73%, respectively. The highest values of HBI were found in An. baimai Baimaii (80%), followed by An. minimus s.l. (43.64%) and An. annularis Van den Wulp (37.50%). Anopheles baimai (Bi = 0.63) and An. minimus s.l. (Bi = 0.24) showed strong ...
Eles aquasalis Immune ResponseFigure 1. Characterization of Catalase cDNA. A: Schematic representation of A. aquasalis catalase (AqCAT) deduced protein. Red - clade 3 of the heme-binding catalase domain. B: Phylogenetic tree for catalase constructed based on the neighbor-joining method. C: Multiple aminoacid sequence alignment of insect catalase related proteins. Accession numbers of catalase sequences from: A. aquasalis (Aq) (HQ659100), A. gambiae (Ag) (XP_314995.4), A. aegypti (Aa) (XP_001663600.1), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cq) (XP_001848573.1) and D. melanogaster (Dm) (NP_536731.1). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057014.gROS in Anopheles aquasalis Immune ResponseFigure 2. Characterization of SOD3A and SOD3B cDNA. A: Schematic representation of SOD3A (A) and 3B (B) protein from A. aquasalis (AqSOD3A and SOD3B). Green: iron/manganese superoxide dismutases alpha-hairpin domain; blue: iron/manganese superoxide dismutases Cterminal domain; red: Cu-Zn_superoxide_dismutase domain. B: Phylogenetic tree for ...
A. quadriannulatus mosquito feeding. Lateral view of a female Anopheles quadriannulatus mosquito feeding on human skin. It has used its sharp, needle-like labrum to extract blood that is seen in its abdomen, forming a blood meal. As a member of the A. gambiae species complex, A. quadriannulatus is a known vector for the parasitic disease malaria. Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which is transmitted into the bloodstream by mosquito bites. Malaria results in cyclic fevers and can kill. It affects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. - Stock Image C024/8532
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide QTL mapping of saltwater tolerance in sibling species of Anopheles (malaria vector) mosquitoes. AU - Smith, H. A.. AU - White, B. J.. AU - Kundert, P.. AU - Cheng, C.. AU - Romero-Severson, J.. AU - Andolfatto, P.. AU - Besansky, N. J.. PY - 2015/11/1. Y1 - 2015/11/1. N2 - Although freshwater (FW) is the ancestral habitat for larval mosquitoes, multiple species independently evolved the ability to survive in saltwater (SW). Here, we use quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to investigate the genetic architecture of osmoregulation in Anopheles mosquitoes, vectors of human malaria. We analyzed 1134 backcross progeny from a cross between the obligate FW species An. coluzzii, and its closely related euryhaline sibling species An. merus. Tests of 2387 markers with Bayesian interval mapping and machine learning (random forests) yielded six genomic regions associated with SW tolerance. Overlap in QTL regions from both approaches enhances confidence in QTL identification. ...
The naturally acquired microbiota of Anopheles can influence vectors susceptibility to Plasmodium and its capacity to transmit them. Microbiota modification is a new challenge to limit disease transmission but it still needs advanced knowledges on bacterial community in Anopheles, especially in wild and infected specimens from diverse origin and species. Bacterial culture and 16S rRNA gene-PCR associated to Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis (TTGE) were applied to explore the bacterial diversity in the abdomen of 100 wild specimens (8 Anopheles species) collected in the Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam. Culture and PCR-TTGE were complementary. The bacterial richness of the mosquito collection encompassed 105 genera belonging to 7 phyla, mostly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Bacillus in Firmicutes were the most prevalent genera. However, Proteobacteria represented by 57 genera was the most diversified phylum in Anopheles microbiota. The high overall
Abstract Remote sensing is particularly helpful for assessing the location and extent of vegetation formations, such as herbaceous wetlands, that are difficult to examine on the ground. Marshes that are sparsely populated with emergent macrophytes and dense cyanobacterial mats have previously been identified as very productive Anopheles albimanus larval habitats. This type of habitat was detectable on a classified multispectral Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre image of northern Belize as a mixture of two isoclasses. A similar spectral signature is characteristic for vegetation of river margins consisting of aquatic grasses and water hyacinth, which constitutes another productive larval habitat. Based on the distance between human settlements (sites) of various sizes and the nearest marsh/river exhibiting this particular class combination, we selected two groups of sites: those located closer than 500 m and those located more than 1,500 m from such habitats. Based on previous adult
Kurscheid, S., Lew-Tabor, A.E., Rodriguez Valle, M., Bruyeres, A.G., Doogan, V.J., Munderloh, U.G. et al. (2009) Evidence of a tick RNAi pathway by comparative genomics and reverse genetics screen of targets with known loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. BMC Mol Biol 10: 26 ...
BACKGROUND: Molecular markers of insecticide resistance can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in malaria vector populations. Monitoring of insecticide resistance in vector populations is an important component of current malaria control programmes. Knockdown resistance (kdr) confers resistance to the pyrethroid class of insecticides with cross-resistance to DDT through single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. METHODS: To enable detection of kdr mutations at low frequency a method was developed that uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based technology, allowing rapid, reliable and cost-effective testing of large numbers of individual mosquitoes. This was used to assay mosquitoes from sites in lower Moshi, Tanzania. RESULTS: Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP) were used for simultaneous detection of both East and West African kdr mutations with high specificity and sensitivity. ...
A longitudinal survey of mosquito larval habitats was carried out in Asembo Bay, western Kenya, during the rainy season of 1998. All pools of standing water along a 700-m transect were sampled twice per week. For each habitat, eight environmental variables were recorded and a sample of anopheline larvae was collected for identification. In total, 1,751 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 2,784 Anopheles funestus Giles were identified. Identification of An. gambiae s.l. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that 240 (14.7%) were An. gambiae Giles and 858 (52.4%) were An. arabiensis Patton; PCR failed to identify 539 (32.9%) specimens. Repeated measures logistic regression analysis indicated that An. gambiae and An. arabiensis larvae were associated with small, temporary habitats with algae and little or no aquatic vegetation. Anopheles funestus larvae were associated with larger, semipermanent bodies of water containing aquatic vegetation and algae. Direct comparison of habitat characteristics ...
Prevalence of febrile illness with P. falciparum was highest among the 5 to 17 year olds (62.4%) while malaria attack rate was highest among the two to 4 year olds (5.2/1,000/day). Infected individuals were spatially concentrated in three of the 11 residential zones of the camp. The indoor densities of Anopheles arabiensis, the sole malaria vector, were similar during the wet and dry seasons, but were distributed in an aggregated fashion and predominantly in the same zones where malaria attack rates were high. Larval habitats and larval populations were also concentrated in these zones. Larval habitats were man-made pits of water associated with tap-stands installed as the water delivery system to residents with year round availability in the camp. Three percent of A. arabiensis adult females were infected with P. falciparum sporozoites in the rainy season ...
Model composition best online myambutol and sequences are listed in S2 Table. A microsporidian impairs Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. All atomic coordinates were randomly displaced by 0. The Fourier shell correlation coefficient of the SSU-head and tRNA site. Global and local resolution for the automated data collection Sample quality and homogeneity were analyzed by cryo-EM.. Zheng SQ, best online myambutol Palovcak E, Armache JP, Verba KA, Cheng Y, Agard DA. Staying alive: metabolic adaptations to quiescence. A comparative analysis of the microsporidian ribosome. Class 1 and S2D), acting as a hibernation factor in microsporidia suggests that microsporidia either encode a separate means to ensure complete coverage of all particles resulted in a cryo-EM map with the yeast counterpart, whereas the short es6D and the 3 larger segments es6A, es6B, and es6E have been truncated.. A microsporidian best online myambutol impairs Plasmodium falciparum transmission ...
Download full project about Anopheles Mosquito Comparative Genomics . Your business software is ready for download . You can use it for your own company / Office / home without any cost. We provide free business software for our visitor. The software is develop by using different model such as waterfall life-cycle ,traditional ,classic etc Anopheles Mosquito Comparative Genomics is a large and time consuming project. So, Our aim is to help all business vendors by sharing our best. We want your help by joining our community. You will get your project as you desire ...
The major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa belong to subgenus Cellia. Yet, phylogenetic relationships and temporal diversification among African mosquito species have not been unambiguously determined. Knowledge about vector evolutionary history is crucial for correct interpretation of genetic changes identified through comparative genomics analyses. In this study, we estimated a molecular phylogeny using 49 gene sequences for the African malaria vectors An. gambiae, An. funestus, An. nili, the Asian malaria mosquito An. stephensi, and the outgroup species Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. To infer the phylogeny, we identified orthologous sequences uniformly distributed approximately every 5 Mb in the five chromosomal arms. The sequences were aligned and the phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods. Bayesian molecular dating using a relaxed log normal model was used to infer divergence times. Trees from individual genes agreed with ...
From 1987 to 1995, NASAs Ames Research Center, in collaboration with university and health agency scientists, conducted research on the ecology of the Anopheles albimanus mosquito, a key vector of human malaria in the coastal areas of southern Chiapas, Mexico. The field research focused on the relationship of An. albimanus to environmental variables associated with regional landscape elements, including larval habitats, bloodmeal sources, and resting sites. The results indicated the importance of flooded pastures and transitional wetlands for larval habitat, cattle in pastures for bloodmeal sources, and trees for potential resting sites. The remote sensing research involved identifying and mapping these landscape elements, along with seven others, using multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. NASA ER-2 aircraft imagery was used to create a map of human settlements, from which 40 villages were randomly selected. These villages were the focus of a study to examine the relationship ...
Sporozoite of Plasmodium gets into human blood through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito,sporozoites reproduce asexually in liver cells,then they get into red blood cells, there they reproduce asexually and infect mo…
The understanding of the roles of gut bacteria in the fitness and vectorial capacity of mosquitoes that transmit malaria, is improving; however, the factors shaping the composition and structure of such bacterial communities remain elusive. In this study, a high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was conducted to understand the effect of developmental stage, feeding status, species, and geography on the composition of the gut bacterial microbiota of two main Colombian malaria vectors, Anopheles nuneztovari and Anopheles darlingi. The results revealed that mosquito developmental stage, followed by geographical location, are more important determinants of the gut bacterial composition than mosquito species or adult feeding status. Further, they showed that mosquito gut is a major filter for environmental bacteria colonization. The sampling design and analytical approach of this study allowed to untangle the influence of factors that are simultaneously shaping the microbiota composition of two Latin
Members of the Anopheles hyrcanus group have been incriminated as important malaria vectors. This study aims to identify the species and explore the insecticide susceptibility profile within the Anopheles hyrcanus group in Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand where increasing numbers of malaria cases were reported in 2014.. ...
Espesye sa langaw ang Anopheles minutus[1]. Una ning gihulagway ni Macquart ni adtong 1834. Ang Anopheles minutus sakop sa kahenera nga Anopheles sa kabanay nga Culicidae.[1][2]. Kini nga matang hayop na sabwag sa Senegal.[1] Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya.[1]. ...
Pronunciation guide: Learn how to pronounce anopheles in English with native pronunciation. anopheles translation and audio pronunciation
CURRENT SYNONYMS. None. CURRENT SUBSPECIES. None. CITED REFERENCES. Bailly-Choumara, H., & Adam, J.P. (1959). Anopheles maliensis n. sp. (Diptera Culicidae), une espèce nouvelle danophélinés du Fouta-Djalon, République de Guinée. Academie des Sciences (Paris), 248(26), 3741-3743.. Bailly-Choumara, H., & Adam, J.P. (1960). Notes complémentaires sur la morphologie, la position systematique et la biologie dAnopheles (Neomyzomyia) maliensis Bailly-Choumara et Adam, 1959. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, 52, 110-119.. Kyalo, D., Amratia, P., Mundia, C.W., Mbogo, C.M., Coetzee, M., & Snow, R.W. (2017). A geo-coded inventory of anophelines in the Afrotropical Region south of the Sahara: 1898-2016. Wellcome Open Research, 2, 57.. Irish, S.R., Kyalo, D., Snow, R.W., & Coetzee, M. (2020). Updated list of Anopheles species (Diptera: Culicidae) by country in the Afrotropical Region and associated islands. Zootaxa, 4747(3), 401-449.. CITE THIS PAGE. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit ...
A peek behind the paper: Digital droplet PCR and IDAA for the detection of CRISPR indel edits in the malaria species Anopheles stephensi
290. vector in the western half of the country and Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the eastern half. Introduced malaria has, however, been uncommon in the United States, apparently because of improvements in standards of land use and housing, together with increased urbanization and a concomitant decline in the rural population, all factors which tend to separate man from mosquitoes and, in many instances, promote an adverse environment for the anopheline vector (Barrett 1968, p.431). Nonetheless, introduced malaria has been documented in this country. In 1952, 35 cases occurred among a group of Camp Fire Girls in California. The probable source was a recently returned Korean veteran (Brunetti, Fritz, and Hollister 1954). At Fort Benning, Ga., two cases of introduced vivax malaria were observed in 1964 and 1965, the probable source again being a serviceman who had been stationed in Korea (Luby et al. 1967). There is evidence of at least one instance of introduced vivax malaria resulting from ...
Sunday 25 April is World Malaria Day. The malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi, originally found in South Asian cities, is making its way to cities in the Horn of Africa.
An Anopheles mosquito takes a blood meal through the skin. If this blood carries sexual-stage stage parasites, they will develop in the mosquito and be passed on to others who are bit by this mosquito days later.
The authors demonstrate that these marked symbionts can then be transmitted to their progeny through mating and to non-sibling larvae by horizontal transmission via the water in which the animals are living.. The authors created a number of strains of AS1 containing a collection of anti Plasmodium effectors either singly or in combination and show that these have significant impacts on the intensity of midgut infections.. This is a very interesting paper that seems to bring the promise of paratransgenic approaches closer to fruition as tools for combating vector borne diseases.. An interesting feature of this approach is that it can be used to simultaneously reduce the vectoral capacity of multiple anopheles species in an environment whereas transgenic approaches would require solving the problems of creating transgenics from these other species. Not necessarily and easy task.. The widespread presence of these genetically modified bacteria in water sources will elicit questions related to risk ...
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Malaria is a disease that has been around for many years and it is said to have originated in Africa. This disease is caused by plasmodium, a parasite transmitted through bites of a female Anopheles mosquito. Only the Anopheles mosquito carries this parasite and they become infected if they have sucked the blood of an already infected person. Once the parasite enters the human body, it will multiply in the liver, infecting the red blood cells in the process. Since the parasite is found in the individuals red blood cells, this disease can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, or by sharing needles contaminated with infected blood. Thankfully, an anti-malarial drug was developed and has been available for more than 50 years. In recent years, the scientists from Britain and United States have cracked the code of the parasite genome which takes a huge step towards boosting the campaign against this disease. Read More ». ...
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evolutionary models such as Drosophila.. Although vector status was of prime importance in the selection of sequencing targets, choice was constrained by availability of colonies housed by the Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource Center (MR4), which will be a project and community resource for DNA, RNA and live mosquitoes from colonies. Since the initial whitepaper was approved, two additional species have been added to the project following the acquisition of available sequencing template: An. melas and An. christyi.. In addition to the approved goals of (1) high quality reference genome assemblies of each species and (2) transcriptome sequencing in support of gene annotation, a limited amount of SNP discovery based on wild specimens will augment these genome projects. Illumina-based genome sequencing and assembly, RNAseq and SNP discovery will be managed by the Broad Institute (under the direction of Daniel Neafsey). Genome annotation will be based on contributions by the Broad ...
Studies on the roles of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus complexes in the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in Makurdi, Nigeria across four localities: High-level, Wurukum, North- bank and Wadata were undertaken from July, 2011 to June, 2012. 1,681 adult female mosquitoes were identified and dissected with the aid of standard keys and procedures to determine their incrimination rates with microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti. 1,040 (61.87%) of these were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato while 641 (38.13%) were Anopheles funestus. The results showed a significant difference ( between the mosquito species and their abundance. The overall microfilarial incrimination rate was 5.77% (97/1,681); Anopheles gambiae s.l. was more incriminated (3.57%) than Anopheles funestus (2.20%). The incrimination rates differed significantly ( between the two mosquito species surveyed. ANOVA also showed significant variations (P < 0.05) in the microfilarial incrimination rates across the localities and ...
The work included in this thesis arose from a long-standing interest in the possible use of genetic control for one of the most important malaria vectors in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. It was hoped that the genes involved in animal biting in the sibling species Anopheles quadriannulatus could be exploited by crossing with An. gambiae s. s. and using the fertile female hybrids for successive backcrosses to An. gambiae s. s.. It was envisaged that this method could be used in an attempt to produce a mosquito stock that is harmless to humans because it is zoophilic but with the genetic background of An. gambiae s. s. so that there would be no barriers to cross-mating in the wild. The innate host preference of mosquitoes can be determined in the laboratory using an olfactometer, or in the field using baits. Host-selection patterns in nature are often affected by external factors, which may or may not mask the host preference of the mosquito species in question (discussed in section ...
Kabbale, F., Akol, A., Kaddu, J., & Onapa, A. (2013). Biting patterns and seasonality of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and Anopheles funestus mosquirtoes in Kamuli District, Uganda. Parasites and Vectors, 12, 1 - 20 ...
Background: The non-random distribution of anopheline larvae in natural habitats suggests that gravid females discriminate between habitats of different quality. Whilst physical and chemical cues used by Culex and Aedes vector mosquitoes for selecting an oviposition site have been extensively studied, those for Anopheles remain poorly explored. Here the habitat selection by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), the principal African malaria vector, was investigated when presented with a choice of two infusions made from rabbit food pellets, or soil. Methods: Natural colonization and larval survival was evaluated in artificial ponds filled randomly with either infusion. Dual-choice, egg-count bioassays evaluated the responses of caged gravid females to (1) two- to six-day old infusions versus lake water; (2) autoclaved versus non-autoclaved soil infusions; and assessed (3) the olfactory memory of gravid females conditioned in pellet infusion as larvae. Results: Wild Anopheles exclusively colonized ...
This site is managed by Public Health England and the Natural History Museum on behalf of the contributors, who retain copyright. Content can be used in accordance with a CC License. More information on the site contributors can be found here.. This site uses Drupal and is based on a set of templates and modules defined by the EDIT team at the Natural History Museum, London.. ...
BACKGROUND: The strategy for malaria vector control in the context of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality has been the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets to universal coverage and indoor residual spraying. This has led to significant decline in malaria transmission. However, these vector control strategies rely on insecticides which are threatened by insecticide resistance. In this study the status of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and its implication in malaria transmission at the Kenyan Coast was investigated. RESULTS: Using World Health Organization diagnostic bioassay, levels of phenotypic resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin was determined. Anopheles arabiensis showed high resistance to pyrethroids while Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles funestus showed low resistance and susceptibility, respectively. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes were further genotyped for L1014S and L1014F kdr mutation by real time PCR. An allele frequency ...
A large scale microarray (20k MMC1) from the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae was used to monitor gene expression in insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of the Asian mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Heterologous hybridization at slightly reduced stringency yielded approximately 7000 s …
Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) consists of several morphologically cryptic species throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In the Sahel region of Mali, this complex includes Anopheles arabiensis (Patton 1905) and A. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) (Giles 1902), which is further divided into the M and S molecular forms; all are important malaria vectors (Coluzzi et al., 1979; Collins et al., 2001; della Torre et al., 2001; Coluzzi et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2002). Although they are morphologically indistinguishable and can occur in sympatry (Lindsay et al., 1998; Coluzzi et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2005; Simard et al., 2009), these cryptic species often differ in abundance according to season, local rainfall, latitude and larval site characteristics (Gimnig et al., 2001; Edillo et al., 2002; Koenraadt et al., 2004; Diabaté et al., 2005; Edillo et al., 2006; Diabaté et al., 2008; Costantini et al., 2009), and thus local differentiation may occur between these ...
Elucidating the genetic basis of metabolic resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors is crucial to prolonging the effectiveness of insecticide-based control tools including long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Here, we show that cis-regulatory variants of the cytochrome P450 gene, CYP6P9b, are associated with pyrethroid resistance in the African malaria vector Anopheles funestus. A DNA-based assay is designed to track this resistance that occurs near fixation in southern Africa but not in West/Central Africa. Applying this assay we demonstrate, using semi-field experimental huts, that CYP6P9b-mediated resistance associates with reduced effectiveness of LLINs. Furthermore, we establish that CYP6P9b combines with another P450, CYP6P9a, to additively exacerbate the reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets. Double homozygote resistant mosquitoes (RR/RR) significantly survive exposure to insecticide-treated nets and successfully blood feed more than other genotypes. This study provides ...
1. Takken W, Knols BG. Odor-mediated behavior of Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes. Annu Rev Entomol. 1999;44:131-157 2. Zwiebel LJ, Takken W. Olfactory regulation of mosquito-host interactions. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;34:645-652 3. Himeidan YE, Temu EA, El rayah EA. et al. Chemical cues for malaria vectors oviposition site selection: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Insects. 2013 Article ID685182: 1-9 4. Meijerink J, Braks MA, van Loon JJ. Olfactory receptors on the antennae of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae are sensitive to ammonia and other sweat-borne components. J Insect Physiol. 2001;47:455-464 5. Lu T, Qiu YT, Wang G. et al. Odor coding in the maxillary palp of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1533-1544 6. Qiu YT, van Loon JJ, Takken W. et al. Olfactory coding in antennal neurons of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Chem Senses. 2006;31:845-863 7. McIver SB. Sensilla of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. ...
Malaria remains a major public health problem that is made worse by poor implementation of control measures, and by the spread of drug- and insecticide-resistant parasites and vectors, respectively. Availability of the Anopheles gambiae genome sequence will accelerate identification and exploitation of new target genes in this insect vector. This provides unique opportunities to improve on existing vector control tools and to generate new tools within a global partnership. However, significant capacity needs to be built for investigators in disease-endemic countries to exploit the genome data. When integrated with existing strategies, the new tools will form an effective package for selective vector control in an effort to prevent mortality and morbidity due to malaria. ...
In Brazil, malaria transmission is mostly confined to the Amazon, where substantial progress has been achieved towards disease control in the past decade. Vector control has been historically considered a fundamental part of the main malaria control programs implemented in Brazil. However, the conventional vector-control tools have been insufficient to eliminate local vector populations due to the complexity of the Amazonian rainforest environment and ecological features of malaria vector species in the Amazon, especially Anopheles darlingi. Malaria elimination in Brazil and worldwide eradication will require a combination of conventional and new approaches that takes into account the regional specificities of vector populations and malaria transmission dynamics. Here we present an overview on both conventional and novel promising vector-focused tools to curb malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon. If well designed and employed, these new vector-based approaches may improve the implementation of
Several cases of malaria are frequently recorded during the dry period in Ouagadougou town (Burkina Faso). This has led to the design of a series of studies focusing on both parasitological and entomological investigations intended to provide relevant health data on the risk of local malaria transmission according to the way of urbanisation. A cross-sectional entomological survey was carried out in various districts of Ouagadougou in April and October 2006. Adult malaria vectors were collected using CDC traps and indoor insecticide spraying performed in four houses during four consecutive days/nights. Intensive larval sampling was also done in available water ponds throughout the study sites. In April, the anopheline breeding sites consisted only of semi-permanent or permanent swamps located mainly in the two peripheral districts. Despite the presence of anopheline larvae in these breeding sites, less than five Anopheles gambiae s.l. adults were caught by CDC traps and indoor insecticide spraying. In
Author Summary Malaria causes more than one million deaths every year, mostly among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Anopheles mosquitoes are exclusive vectors of human malaria. Many malaria vectors belong to species complexes, and members within these complexes can vary significantly in their ecological adaptations and ability to transmit the parasite. To better understand evolution of epidemiologically important traits, we studied relationships among nonvector and vector species of the African Anopheles gambiae complex. We analyzed gene orders at genomic regions where evolutionary breaks of chromosomal inversions occurred in members of the complex and compared them with gene orders in species outside the complex. This approach allowed us to identify ancient and recent gene orders for three chromosomal inversions. Surprisingly, the more ancestral chromosomal arrangements were found in mosquito species that are vectors of human malaria, while the more derived arrangements were found in both nonvectors
When taking a blood meal on a person infected with malaria, female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the major vector of human malaria, acquire nutrients that will activate egg development (oogenesis) in their ovaries. Simultaneously, they infect themselves with the malaria parasite. On traversing the mosquito midgut epithelium, invading Plasmodium ookinetes are met with a potent innate immune response predominantly controlled by mosquito blood cells. Whether the concomitant processes of mosquito reproduction and immunity affect each other remains controversial. Here, we show that proteins that deliver nutrients to maturing mosquito oocytes interfere with the antiparasitic response. Lipophorin (Lp) and vitellogenin (Vg), two nutrient transport proteins, reduce the parasite-killing efficiency of the antiparasitic factor TEP1. In the absence of either nutrient transport protein, TEP1 binding to the ookinete surface becomes more efficient. We also show that Lp is required for the normal expression of Vg, and
Author(s): Wang, Ying; Zhong, Daibin; Cui, Liwang; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yan, Guiyun; Zhou, Guofa | Abstract: Understanding the ecology of malaria vectors such as species composition and population dynamics is essential for developing cost-effective strategies to control mosquito vector populations.Adult mosquitoes (n = 79,567) were collected in five villages along the China-Myanmar border from April 2012 to September 2014 using the CDC light trap without bait method. Mosquito community structure, Anopheles species composition and diversity were analyzed.Twenty species of Anopheles mosquitoes were identified, with An. minimus s.l. accounting for 85% of the total collections. Mosquito densities varied from 0.05 females per trap per night (f/t/n) to 3.00 f/t/n, with strong seasonality in all sites and densities peaked from June to August. An. minimus s.l. was predominant (accounting for 54-91% of total captures) in four villages, An. maculatus s.l. was predominant (71%) in the high elevation
Anopheles gambiae AGER protein: AGER - EGFR ortholog from Anopheles; from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: orthologs from Drosophila, human, mouse & chicken; Genbank, AJ301655 and AJ304406
Synthetic versions of human derived kairomones can be used as baits when trapping host seeking mosquitoes. The effectiveness of these lures depends not only on their attractiveness to the mosquitoes but also on the medium from which they are dispensed.We report on the development and evaluation of nylon strips as a method of dispensing odorants attractive to the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiaes.s. (Giles).When a synthetic blend of attractants was dispensed using this method, signiÞcantly more mosquitoes were trapped than when two previous methods, open glass vials or low density polyethylene sachets were used. We conclude that the nylon strips are suitable for dispensing odorants in mosquito trapping operations and can be adopted for use in rural and remote areas. The nylon material required is cheap and widely available and the strips can be prepared without specialized equipment or ...
Here, we show that an alpha-proteobacterium of the genus Asaia is stably associated with larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi, an important mosquito vector of Plasmodium vivax, a main malaria agent in Asia. Asaia bacteria dominate mosquito-associated microbiota, as shown by 16S rRNA gene abundance, quantitative PCR, transmission electron microscopy and in situ-hybridization of 165 rRNA genes. In adult mosquitoes, Asaia sp. is present in high population density in the female gut and in the male reproductive tract. Asaia sp. from An. stephensi has been cultured in cell-free media and then transformed with foreign DNA. A green fluorescent protein-tagged Asaia sp. strain effectively lodged in the female gut and salivary glands, sites that are crucial for Plasmodium sp. development and transmission. The larval gut and the male reproductive system were also colonized by the transformed Asaia sp. strain. As an efficient inducible colonizer of mosquitoes that transmit Plasmodium sp., Asaia sp. may ...
Malaria is a serious threat to human life in sub-Saharan Africa, claiming many lives and causing the greatest morbidity as compared to other infectious diseases. Female Anopheles gambiae mosquito acts as the definitive host of Plasmodium protozoa, and allows sexual reproduction to take place in its gut. Infection rates may vary seasonally due to temperature changes, but this occurrence is not well studied in the Kenyan highlands. This study therefore aimed at investigating the seasonal variations in infection of Anopheles gambiae by Plasmodium oocysts and its implications on malaria prevalence in human beings. The study was conducted in three estates namely, Daraja mbili, Mwembe, and Maili Mbili which surround Kisii town in Nyanza province. Three villages in Keumbu location which is in the outskirts of Kisii town were also sampled to represent the rural population. Bi-weekly collection of mosquitoes during both wet and dry seasons was done for a period of 2 months in each season. Data were ...
CURRENT SYNONYMS. None. CURRENT SUBSPECIES. None. CITED REFERENCES. De Meillon, B. (1947b). The Anophelini of the Ethiopian geographical region. Publications of the South African Institute for Medical Research, 10(49), 1-272.. Irish, S.R., Kyalo, D., Snow, R.W., & Coetzee, M. (2020). Updated list of Anopheles species (Diptera: Culicidae) by country in the Afrotropical Region and associated islands. Zootaxa, 4747(3), 401-449.. Koekemoer, L.L., Misiani, E.A., Hunt, R.H., Kent, R.J., Norris, D.E., & Coetzee, M. (2009). Cryptic species within Anopheles longipalpis from southern Africa and phylogenetic comparison with members of the An. funestus group. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 99(1), 41-49.. Kyalo, D., Amratia, P., Mundia, C.W., Mbogo, C.M., Coetzee, M., & Snow, R.W. (2017). A geo-coded inventory of anophelines in the Afrotropical Region south of the Sahara: 1898-2016. Wellcome Open Research, 2, 57.. Ribeiro, H., & da Cunha Ramos, H. (1975). Research on the mosquitoes of Angola. VI. The ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu lato IS a major vector of malaria in western Kenya where environmental conditions are highly conducive for its survival and reproduction. Breeding mostly occurs in newly formed small and transient water bodies but as the habitats age they may become unattractive for breeding of the species. The aim of this study was to deduce some of the ecological implications of this strategy of early colonization of breeding sites by Anopheles gambiae s.l. Ten semi-natural habitats (5 small and 5 large) were studied longitudinally (sampled same population over time) for a period of 12 weeks with daily sampling of all larval and pupal stages and quantification of all other identifiable aquatic fauna. This was followed by a final census and retrieval of all inhabitants of each habitat. A new set of 10 habitats was investigated together with the old habitats using the same procedures for an additional period of 9 weeks. Larval cohorts lasting on average twelve days were easily noticeable ...
ABSTRACT Objective: Previous mosquito surveys performed in the Federation of St Kitts and Nevis identified Anopheles albimanus in Nevis but there is no recorded occurrence of this mosquito in St Kitts. To determine the presence of this and other species in St Kitts and Nevis, a mosquito survey was conducted. Methods: Surveys were performed in two phases - the dry season (March
Anopheles gambiae Gene finding parameters for FGENESH the program with parameters for major model organisms is available for on line usage at: http://www.softberry.com/berry.phtml?topic=gfind Method description: A new parameter set for gene prediction Anopheles gambiae is developed for FGENESH program. Accuracy of prediction of Plasmodium falciparum protein coding genes is about 98% on the nucleotide level. The FGENESH algorithm is based on pattern recognition of different types of signals and Markov chain models of coding regions. Optimal combination of these features is then found by dynamic programming and a set of gene models is constructed along given sequence. FGENESH is the fastest and most accurate ab initio gene prediction program available. Fgenesh output: fgenesh Tue Nov 5 16:23:15 EST 2002 FGENESH 1.1 Prediction of potential genes in Anopheles_gambiae genomic DNA Time : Tue Nov 5 16:23:16 2002 Seq name: Softberry SERVER PAST Sequence Length of sequence: 1542 Number of predicted genes ...
AB - After being ingested by a female Anopheles mosquito during a bloodmeal on an infected host, and before they can reach the mosquito salivary glands to be transmitted to a new host, Plasmodium parasites must establish an infection of the mosquito midgut in the form of oocysts. To achieve this, they must first survive a series of robust innate immune responses that take place prior to, during, and immediately after ookinete traversal of the midgut epithelium. Understanding how parasites may evade these responses could highlight new ways to block malaria transmission. We show that an ookinete and sporozoite surface protein designated as PIMMS43 (Plasmodium Infection of the Mosquito Midgut Screen 43) is required for parasite evasion of the Anopheles coluzzii complement-like response. Disruption of PIMMS43 in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei triggers robust complement activation and ookinete elimination upon mosquito midgut traversal. Silencing components of the complement-like ...
2015) Efficacy, Persistence and Vector Susceptibility to Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) Insecticide for Indoor Residual Spraying in Zanzibar. Parasites & vectors, 8 (1). p. 628. ISSN 1756-3305 (2014) Islands and Stepping-Stones: Comparative Population Structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and Implications for the Spread of Insecticide Resistance. PloS one, 9 (10). e110910. ISSN 1932-6203 (2013) Challenges for Malaria Elimination in Zanzibar: Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Poor Performance of Long-Lasting Insecticide Nets. Parasites & vectors, 6 (1). p. 82. ISSN 1756-3305 (2013) The Dynamics of Pyrethroid Nesistance in Anopheles Arabiensis from Zanzibar and an Assessment of the Underlying Genetic Basis. Parasites & vectors, 6. p. 343. ISSN 1756-3305 ...
Adisak Bhumiratana abstract presented on Adaptation of Anopheles vectors to Anthropogenic Malaria-associated rubber plantations and indoor residual spraying: establishing population dynamics and insecticide susceptibility at Parasitology 2018 | Conferenceseries Ltd
Hydropower plants provide more than 78 % of Brazils electricity generation, but the countrys reservoirs are potential new habitats for main vectors of malaria. In a case study in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, habitat suitability of Anopheles darlingi was studied. Habitat profile was characterized by collecting environmental data. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were applied to extract additional spatial layers of land use, distance maps, and relief characteristics for spatial model building. Logistic regression analysis and ROC curves indicate significant relationships between the environment and presence of An. darlingi. Probabilities of presence strongly vary as a function of land cover and distance from the lake shoreline. Vector presence was associated with spatial proximity to reservoir and semi-deciduous forests followed by Cerrado woodland. Vector absence was associated with open vegetation formations such as grasslands and agricultural
Background:Despite recent successes at controlling malaria, progress has stalled with an estimated 219 million cases and 435,000 deaths in 2017 alone. Combined with emerging resistance to front line antimalarial therapies in Southeast Asia, there is an urgent need for new treatment options and novel approaches to halt the spread of malaria. Plasmodium, the parasite responsible for malaria propagates through mosquito transmission. This imposes an acute bottleneck on the parasite population and transmission-blocking interventions exploiting this vulnerability are recognized as vital for malaria elimination. Methods:13,533 small molecules with known activity against Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasites were screened for additional transmission-blocking activity in an ex vivo Plasmodium berghei ookinete development assay. Active molecules were then counterscreened in dose response against HepG2 cells to determine their activity/cytotoxicity window and selected non-toxic representative molecules were
a) Female Anopheles Mosquito: As the sexual phase of the malarial parasite occurs in the mosquito it is considered the definitive (= primary) host of malarial parasite.. (b) Human beings: As the asexual phase of the malarial parasite occurs in man, it is considered the intermediate (= secondary) host. As the female Anopheles mosquitoes feed on blood, only they can serve as vector hosts (= carrier) of malarial parasites. The parasite does not harm the mosquito.. Historical Aspects: Lancisi (1717) first suspected a relationship between swamp, ma-laria and mosquito. Laveran (1880) discovered that malaria is caused by protozoan parasite. In fact he discovered Plasmodium. He got Nobel Prize in 1907. His topic of discovery was Role of Protozoans in Causing Disease.. Golgi (1885) confirmed Laverans discovery by observing stages of Plasmodium malariae in human RBCs. In 1897 Sir Ronald Ross, a doctor who was born at Almora in India and he was in Indian Army, established that malarial parasite is ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was recently reclassified as two species, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s., in wild-caught mosquitoes, on the basis of the molecular form, denoted M or S, of a marker on the X chromosome. The An. gambiae Keele line is an outbred laboratory colony strain that was developed around 12 years ago by crosses between mosquitoes from 4 existing An. gambiae colonies. Laboratory colonies of mosquitoes often have limited genetic diversity because of small starting populations (founder effect) and subsequent fluctuations in colony size. Here we describe the characterisation of the chromosomal form(s) present in the Keele line, and investigate the diversity present in the colony using microsatellite markers on chromosome 3. We also characterise the large 2La inversion on chromosome 2. The results indicate that only the M-form of the chromosome X marker is present in the Keele colony, which was unexpected given that 3 of the 4 parent colonies were probably S-form. Levels of diversity
Renal function is essential to maintain homeostasis. This is particularly significant for insects that undergo complete metamorphosis; larval mosquitoes must survive a freshwater habitat whereas adults are terrestrial, and mature females must maintain ion and fluid homeostasis after blood feeding. To investigate the physiological adaptations required for successful development to adulthood, we studied the Malpighian tubule transcriptome of Anopheles gambiae using Affymetrix arrays. We assessed transcription under several conditions; as third instar larvae, as adult males fed on sugar, as adult females fed on sugar, and adult females after a blood meal. In addition to providing the most detailed transcriptomic data to date on the Anopheles Malpighian tubules, the data provide unique information on the renal adaptations required for the switch from freshwater to terrestrial habitats, on gender differences, and on the contrast between nectar-feeding and haematophagy. We found clear differences ...
Status of Anopheles gambiae Resistance to Carbamates and Organophosphates Insecticides and Implication on Malaria Vector Control in Cote Dâ  ivoire, Toure Mahama, Djogbeno
The events between the ingestion of Plasmodium berghei-infected mouse blood and the establishment of the ookinetes in the epithelium of the midgut in refractory (R) and susceptible (S)Anopheles...
BackgroundSince insecticides are commonly used in agriculture/cultivation and in vector control, they are frequently found in agricultural water bodies, where mosquito larvae are exposed. Although their concentration is often so low as not to kill the larvae, they affec...
Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium falciparum and is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes (pictured above). When an Anopheles mosquito bites a person infected with the malaria parasite, the mosquito becomes a carrier of the disease. When that mosquito bites another person, that person becomes infected with the parasite too. Malaria causes the infected person to develop a fever and flu-like symptoms. While most infected individuals recover from malaria, it can cause death, especially in children. Each year there are between 350 million and 500 million cases of malaria worldwide. Over one million of those people die from the disease. Most of the people who die from malaria are children in Sub-Saharan Africa.. The geographic distribution of malaria depends on climate. Regions where the climate is ideal for the Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit malaria parasites, are more prone to the disease. Anopheles mosquitoes thrive in regions with warm temperatures, humid conditions, and high ...
QUESTION. What are the causes of malaria?. ANSWER. Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes. In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells. Usually, people get malaria by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Only Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria and they must have been infected through a previous blood meal taken on an infected person. When a mosquito bites an infected person, a small amount of blood is taken in which contains microscopic malaria parasites. About 1 week later, when the mosquito takes its next blood meal, these parasites mix with the mosquitos saliva and are injected into the person being bitten.. Because the malaria parasite is found in red blood cells of an infected person, malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, or the shared use of needles or syringes contaminated with blood. Malaria may also be ...
Taxonomy of Anopheles Tropical disease "Anopheles - Define Anopheles at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Meigen, J. W. (1818). ... PMID 17205136 Wikimedia Commons has media related to Anopheles. Anopheles Database Anopheles gambiae Genome and Related Data ... The Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus clades diverged between 80 million years ago and 36 million years ago. A molecular ... Two main groupings within the genus Anopheles are used: one formed by the Celia and Anopheles subgenera and a second by ...
Anopheles (Cellia) varuna is a species complex of zoophilic mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is found in India, ... "Food of larval Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna in a stream habitat in Sri Lanka". Journal of the American Mosquito ... Confirmation of Anopheles varuna in Vietnam, previously misidentified and mistargeted as the malaria vector Anopheles minimus ... Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna breeding water in a dry zone stream in Sri ...
... (formerly Anopheles balabacensis introlatus) is the main vector for Plasmodium cynomolgi (a simian malaria ... 1963). "Identification of Anopheles balabacensis introlatus as a vector of monkey malaria in Malaya". Bull World Health Organ. ...
... is a mosquito that exists in aquatic environments under areas with little light presence. The preferred ... The anatomy of A. crucians is very similar to that of Anopheles bradleyi. The proboscis is dark colored and black like that of ... In research conducted by W.V. King in 1916, it was discovered that Anopheles female mosquitoes are carriers of malaria. In this ... King, W.V (1916). "Experiments on the development of malaria parasites in three American species of Anopheles". Journal of ...
... is a species complex of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is found in India, and Sri Lanka and ... "Molecular identification of mosquito species in the Anopheles annularis group in southern Asia". Med Vet Entomol. 21: 30-5. doi ... population dynamics of malaria vectors in three previously ignored aquatic systems in Sri Lanka On the Importance of Anopheles ...
Anopheles (Anopheles) peditaeniatus is a species complex of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles, of the Hyrcanus Group. ... "Anopheles peditaeniatus (Leicester) new to the Iranian mosquito fauna with notes on Anopheles hyrcanus group in Iran". Journal ... Confirmation of Anopheles peditaeniatus and Anopheles sundaicus as Malaria Vectors (Diptera: Culicidae) in Sungai Nyamuk ... Village, Sebatik Island North Kalimantan, Indonesia Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay Seasonal abundance of Anopheles ...
... is a tree hole breeding mosquito mainly located in eastern North America. The larvae are predators of other ...
Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Anopheles punctimacula, and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l. populations in lowland and highland Ecuador ... Anopheles albimanus is a species of mosquito in the order Diptera. It is found in coastal Central and South America, the ... Anopheles albimanus appears to be a single species that shows polymorphism. It is believed that this species originated in the ... Colonies of Anopheles mosquitoes are maintained for several areas of research, such as malaria vector ability, transmission of ...
... is a species of mosquito can be found around Oriental region included: India, Myanmar, Thailand, Laos, ... "Anopheles minimus". Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International). 2019-11-22. ... Dev, Vas; Manguin, Sylvie (2016-11-15). "Biology, distribution and control of Anopheles (Cellia) minimus in the context of ...
... is a species complex of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. Larvae found in clean, lotic bodies ... "Anopheles (Anopheles) barbirostris species complex". Malaria Atlas Project. Retrieved 23 December 2016. Molecular ... A molecular phylogeny of mosquitoes in the Anopheles barbirostris Subgroup reveals cryptic species: Implications for ... characterization of the malaria vector Anopheles barbirostris van der Wulp in Sri Lanka Anopheles barbirostris/campestris as a ...
... is a species of mosquito in genus Anopheles. It is native to North America. The larvae of this species ... Anopheles punctipennis. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Anopheles punctipennis. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit ... 1998). Lake Vera revisited: parity and survival rates of Anopheles punctipennis at the site of a malaria outbreak in the Sierra ... Anopheles, Insect vectors of human pathogens, Insects described in 1823, All stub articles, Culicoidea stubs). ...
Harbach, R. E. (2013). The phylogeny and classification of Anopheles. In Anopheles mosquitoes-new insights into malaria vectors ... Anopheles atroparvus is a European species of mosquito, which was first identified in 1927. It is one of the most abundant ... "Anopheles atroparvus- Factsheet for experts". European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. 2014. Roiz, D., Ruiz, S., ... A. atroparvus belongs to the subgenre Anopheles among a group defined by the maculipennis complex Differentiation between ...
... of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. The genus Anopheles has been subdivided into seven subgenera - Anopheles, Baimaia ... "Anopheles (Cellia) subpictus species complex". Malaria Atlas Project. Retrieved 30 January 2017. "Anopheles (Cel.) subpictus". ... Anopheles (Cellia) subpictus is a species complex of four species (A, B, C and D) ... The full classification of this species complex is: Subgenus Cellia Series Pyretophorus Complex Anopheles subpictus The larvae ...
"Anopheles darlingi". GBIF. Retrieved 2020-01-22. Hiwat, Hélène; Bretas, Gustavo (2011-09-16). "Ecology of Anopheles darlingi ... Anopheles darlingi, the American malaria mosquito, is a species of mosquito in the family Culicidae. A. darlingi is one of the ... "Anopheles darlingi Report". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved 2020-01-22. " ... Anopheles darlingi". Malaria Journal. 13 (1): 203. doi:10.1186/1475-2875-13-203. ISSN 1475-2875. PMC 4059831. VITTOR, AMY ...
... is a primary mosquito vector of malaria in urban India and is included in the same subgenus as Anopheles ... Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles subpictus Towards Adulticides and Larvicides in Arid and Semi-Arid Areas of India". Journal ... "Vector alert: Anopheles stephensi invasion and spread". WHO. 2019-08-26. Retrieved 2020-11-11. Takken, Willlem; Lindsay, Steve ... "Anopheles stephensi". Invasive Species Compendium (ISC). CABI (Centre for Agriculture and Bioscience International). 2019-11-22 ...
"ITIS - Report: Anopheles hermsi". Barr, A.R. & Guptavanij, P. Anopheles hermsi n. sp., an unrecognized American species of the ... Anopheles hermsi is a species of mosquito in the family Culicidae. It is a known vector of Plasmodium vivax malaria. An. hermsi ... Occurrence of Anopheles hermsi (Diptera: Culicidae) in Arizona and Colorado. J Med Entomol. 2001 Mar;38(2):341-3. doi: 10.1603/ ... 1988) Porter, C. H., & Collins, F. H. (1990). Susceptibility of Anopheles hermsi to Plasmodium vivax, The American Journal of ...
Anopheles (Anopheles) nigerrimus is a species complex of zoophilic mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It belongs to the ... Re: Anopheles nigerrimus as a vector of malaria in India.[comment]. Comment on: J Am Mosq Control Assoc Suppl. 1990 Jun;2:1-93 ... "Anopheles (Ano.) nigerrimus". Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit. Retrieved 30 January 2017. Hemingway, J; Jayawardena, KG; Herath ... hybridization and molecular evidence of four cytological forms of Anopheles nigerrimus (Hyrcanus Group) in Thailand and ...
... is a species complex of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is endemic to Sri Lanka. Two subspecies ...
Rueda, Leopoldo M. (2005). "Two new species of Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Republic of ... Anopheles kleini is a species of mosquito. It is found in South Korea. The species name honors US Army Colonel Terry A. Klein, ... Anopheles, Insects described in 2005, All stub articles, Culicoidea stubs). ...
... is a species of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. Larvae found in clean, lotic bodies of water ... "Anopheles (Cellia) annularis van der Wulp, 1884". Malaria Atlas Project. Retrieved 23 December 2016. (Articles with short ... description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Anopheles, Insects described ...
... is a species of mosquito in the Culicidae family. The scientific name of this species was first published in ... Anopheles, Insects described in 1926, All stub articles, Culicoidea stubs). ...
"Anopheles (Anopheles) freeborni Aitken, 1939". MAP. Retrieved 2019-10-02. Howell, Paul I.; Knols, Bart GJ (2009-11-16). "Male ... A. freeborni is part of the genus Anopheles. It is most closely phylogenetically related to the species Anopheles hermsi. It ... "Anopheles freeborni". GBIF. Retrieved 2019-09-23. "Anopheles freeborni species Information". BugGuide.net. Retrieved 2019-09-23 ... Anopheles freeborni, commonly known as the western malaria mosquito, is a species of mosquito in the family Culicidae. It is ...
Anopheles (Cellia) vagus is a species complex of zoophilic mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is found in India, Sri ... "Isolation of Japanese encephalitis virus from Anopheles annularis and Anopheles vagus in Lombok, Indonesia". Trans R Soc Trop ... "Evaluation of Insecticides Susceptibility and Malaria Vector Potential of Anopheles annularis s.l. and Anopheles vagus in Assam ... Sri Lanka LARVAL HABITATS OF MALARIA VECTORS AND OTHER ANOPHELES MOSQUITOES AROUND A TRANSMISSION FOCUS IN NORTHWESTERN ...
... is a species of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. The species group (Reid and Knight, 1961) is ... "A revision of the Anopheles aitkenii group in Malaya and Borneo". Retrieved 23 December 2016. (Articles with short description ... Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Anopheles, Insects described in 1903). ...
... is species of mosquito from Anopheles genus, described by James in 1911. According to Catalogue of Life ... Anopheles barianensis don't have known subspecies. Bisby F.A.; Roskov Y.R.; Orrell T.M.; Nicolson D.; Paglinawan L.E.; Bailly N ...
... is a species complex of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It has 12-36 thin attenuated branches ... Anopheles culicifacies breeding in polluted water bodies in Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka (Articles with short description ... "The Distribution and Bionomics of Anopheles Malaria Vector Mosquitoes in Indonesia". Research Gate. Retrieved 30 January 2017. ... Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Anopheles, Insects described in 1927). ...
"Highlights on Anopheles nili and Anopheles moucheti, Malaria Vectors in Africa", Anopheles Mosquitoes: New Insights into ... Anopheles moucheti is a species of mosquito that highly anthropophilia and endophilia, is can be mainly located in Congo Basin ... "Anopheles moucheti Evans, 1923 , Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit (WRBU)". wrbu.si.edu. Retrieved 2022-03-11. (Articles with ...
... is a zoophilic species of mosquito and a vector of disease endemic to Africa. Polytene chromosomes have a ... "Anopheles (Cellia) arabiensis Patton, 1905". Malaria Atlas. 2018-02-15. Retrieved 2022-01-23. Sinden, Robert E.; Butcher, Geoff ... "Anopheles arabiensis". Species 2000 & ITIS Catalogue of Life. Species 2000: Naturalis, Leiden, the Netherlands. Krzywinski, ... "A review on the progress of sex-separation techniques for sterile insect technique applications against Anopheles arabiensis ...
... is a species complex of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is found in India, Sri Lanka, ...
Anopheles (Cellia) jamesii is a species complex of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is found in India, and Sri ... Anopheles (Cellia) jamesii: a potential natural vector of Bancroftian filariasis in Sri Lanka (Articles with short description ... Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles with 'species' microformats, Anopheles, Insects described in 1901). ...
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Some Anopheles male mosquitoes fly in large swarms, usually around dusk, and the females fly in the swarms to mate. ... Anopheles species mosquitoes. It usually takes 10-14 days for an egg to develop into an adult mosquito. ... Anopheles mosquitoes generally dont fly more than a 1.2 miles (2 km) from their larval habitats. ... Adult female Anopheles mosquitoes prefer to feed on people or animals, such as cattle. ...
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There are approximately 400 species of Anopheles throughout the world, only about 60 are vectors of malaria under natural ...
Holstein, M. (‎1957)‎. Cytogenetics of Anopheles gambiae. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 16 (‎2)‎, 456 - 458. https ...
A years experience of the habits of Anopheles in Ellichpur. The description of the species of Anopheles found in Ellichpur ... Anopheles stephensi Liston, 1901 References[edit]. Primary references[edit]. *Liston, W.G. 1901. ... Genus: Anopheles. Subgenus: Anopheles (Cellia). Species: Anopheles stephensi Name[edit]. ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anopheles_stephensi&oldid=8000686" ...
A strain of Anopheles gambiae, which was selected for complete … ... Genetic selection of a Plasmodium-refractory strain of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae Science. 1986 Oct 31;234(4776):607- ... A strain of Anopheles gambiae, which was selected for complete refractoriness to the simian malaria parasite Plasmodium ...
Anopheles gambiae str. PEST). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay ...
Elliott, R. & Ochoa-Aguirre, O. (‎1974)‎. Overnight access to sugar and response to DDT in Anopheles albimanus Wied. Bulletin ... Overnight access to sugar and response to DDT in Anopheles albimanus Wied. ...
Lutz, E. K., Ha, K. T., & Riffell, J. A. (2020). Distinct navigation behaviors in Aedes, Anopheles and Culex mosquito larvae. ... Sinka, M.E., Bangs, M.J., Manguin, S., Coetzee, M., Mbogo, C.M., Hemingway, J., . . . Hay, S.I. (2010a). The dominant Anopheles ... Ribeiro, H., da Cunha Ramos, H., Pires, C.A., & Capela, R.A. (1979). Description and biometric study of Anopheles (Cellia) ... Cambournac, F.J.C., Petrarca, V., & Coluzzi, M. (1982). Anopheles arabiensis in the Cape Verde Archipelago. Parassitologia, 24( ...
Intron retention identifies a malaria vector within the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitaris complex (Diptera: Culicidae). ... 21Intron retention identifies a malaria vector within the Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitaris complex (Diptera: Culicidae). ...
infecting Anopheles balabacensis Baisas in Sabah, Malaysia. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017;11:. e0005991. . DOIPubMedGoogle Scholar ... We collected Anopheles cracens, An. introlatus, and An. barbirostris sensu lato mosquitoes at the camp by using human landing ... We found a P. inui-positive Anopheles cracens mosquito in the same site as the human infections. Investigators should use ... Natural Plasmodium inui Infections in Humans and Anopheles cracens Mosquito, Malaysia On This Page ...
Lastly, Anopheles albimanus, Anopheles aquasalis, Anopheles argyritarsis, Anopheles darlingi, Anopheles hectoris, Anopheles ... In North America (Mexico) and Central America, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albimanus and Anopheles (Anopheles) pseudopunctipennis ... Also in Brazil, Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) aquasalis has been reported in the coastal regions, while Anopheles (Kerteszia) ... pseudopunctipennis was the most abundant species followed by Anopheles argyritarsis and Anopheles evansae. The density of ...
AgaP_AGAP010283 ( XM_001238161.2 ) cDNA ORF clone, Anopheles gambiae str. PEST -, XP_001238162.2 Anopheles gambiae str. PEST ... The Anopheles gambiae genome: an update.. Trends in parasitology20(2)49-52(2004 Feb). Mongin E,Louis C,Holt RA,Birney E,Collins ... Anopheles gambiae str. PEST AGAP010283-RA (AgaP_AGAP010283), partial mRNA.. pcDNA3.1-C-(k)DYK or customized vector. 7-9. $ ... The Anopheles gambiae genome: an update.. Mongin E, Louis C, Holt RA, Birney E, Collins FH. Trends in parasitology20(2)49-52( ...
Anopheles sinensis is one of the major malaria vectors and among the dominant species in Hainan Province, China. The resistance ... Anopheles sinensis, Anopheles fluviatilis, Anopheles candidiensis, Anopheles philippinensis, Anopheles minimus, and Anopheles ... Anopheles quadriannulatus. and Anopheles arabiensis. in Malawi: evidence for larval selection. . Med Vet Entomol 22. : 258. - ... Anopheles quadriannulatus. and Anopheles arabiensis. in Malawi: evidence for larval selection. . Med Vet Entomol 22. : 258. - ...
Culicidae » Anophelinae » Null » Anopheles » Kerteszia » bellator Dyar and Knab. 1906b:160 (A). Type-loc: Trinidad (USNM) ...
Evidence for population-specific positive selection on immune genes of Anopheles gambiae. ... from 28 immune-related loci in wild samples of multiple genetic subpopulations of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles ...
For initial understanding of infections with local strains of P. vivax, colonized Anopheles stephensi will serve as a good ... Overall at the level of oocyst development, significant difference was found between the colonized and wild Anopheles stephensi ... vivax in Anopheles stephensi, the most common urban mosquito carrying human malaria. In this quest, the possible effects of ... Sporozoite infection rate and 4+ sporozoite load in laboratory and wild Anopheles stephensi. a There is no significant ...
Malaria Consortium The effect of cattle administered ivermectin and fipronil on the mortality and fecundity of anopheles ... The effect of cattle-administered ivermectin and fipronil on the mortality and fecundity of Anopheles arabiensis Patton. ... The effect of cattle-administered ivermectin and fipronil on the mortality and fecundity of Anopheles arabiensis Patton ... on the survival and fecundity of zoophilic Anopheles arabiensis. ...
To further association studies in Anopheles gambiae we conducted a major resequencing programme, primarily targeting regions ... Wilding, C.S., Weetman, D., Steen, K. et al. High, clustered, nucleotide diversity in the genome of Anopheles gambiae revealed ... The Anopheles/Plasmodium Affymetrix Genechip, which was designed for gene expression studies, rather than as a genotyping tool ... Slotman M, Della Torre A, Powell JR: Female sterility in hybrids between Anopheles gambiae and A. arabiensis, and the causes of ...
The method relies on the release of sterile or treated males in order to reduce the wild population of anopheles mosquito. We ... Mathematical modeling of sterile insect technology for control of anopheles mosquito. Anguelov, Roumen; Dumont, Yves; Lubuma, ... The first model governs the dynamics of the anopheles mosquito. The second model, the SIT model, deals with the interaction ... These theoretical results are rephrased in terms of possible strategies for the control of the anopheles mosquito and they are ...
In addition, the mRNA for an Anopheles fibrinogen domain gene was induced on day 2 after an infectious blood meal, at the time ... In addition, the mRNA for an Anopheles fibrinogen domain gene was induced on day 2 after an infectious blood meal, at the time ... In addition, the mRNA for an Anopheles fibrinogen domain gene was induced on day 2 after an infectious blood meal, at the time ... In addition, the mRNA for an Anopheles fibrinogen domain gene was induced on day 2 after an infectious blood meal, at the time ...
The UV LED trap (Mosclean trap) was efficacious for sampling Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes. Its efficacy was comparable to and ... When simultaneously placed inside the same semi-field chamber, the Mosclean trap caught twice as many Anopheles arabiensis as ... Molasses as a source of carbon dioxide for attracting the malaria mosquitoes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus. Malar J ... Assessing proportions of parous and proportions of inseminated female Anopheles mosquitoes in Mosclean trap and CDC-light trap ...
In certain insect species, particularly the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, resistance to this class of insecticides is a ... Mortality of Anopheles gambiae 24-hours post one-hour exposure to insecticide-impregnated papers at each study period. (A): ... From: Trends in DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiaes.s. populations from urban and agro-industrial settings in ...
The evolution of TEP1, an exceptionally polymorphic immunity gene in Anopheles gambiae. ...
Eva Heinz had previously published the first strong evidence for a high density, natural infection of Anopheles mosquitoes with ... The researchers now present an in-depth analysis of the genomes for these Anopheles-associated Wolbachia strains, led by Dr. ... Eva Heinz had previously published the first strong evidence for a high density, natural infection of Anopheles mosquitoes with ... This discovery had opened the door for potential mosquito control strategies for malaria in other Anopheles species. ...
  • Adult female Anopheles mosquitoes prefer to feed on people or animals, such as cattle. (cdc.gov)
  • Some Anopheles male mosquitoes fly in large swarms, usually around dusk, and the females fly in the swarms to mate. (cdc.gov)
  • Anopheles mosquitoes generally don't fly more than a 1.2 miles (2 km) from their larval habitats. (cdc.gov)
  • Anopheles mosquitoes are attracted to dark, sheltered areas for resting during the daytime. (cdc.gov)
  • Percentage of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes from the total collected mosquito samples per each study site. (cdc.gov)
  • Types of breeding sites from which larvae of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were collected. (cdc.gov)
  • not determine which sibling species of the complex are present in those provinces, Mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis and since then no further studies have been complex have been incriminated as some of carried out to determine current distribu- the main malaria vectors in Europe and the tion. (who.int)
  • The UV LED trap (Mosclean trap) was efficacious for sampling Anopheles and Culex mosquitoes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers from LSTM have now completed an in-depth analysis of the genomes for two Wolbachia bacterial endosymbiont strains that infect Anopheles mosquitoes. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • As part of a large international team including scientists from Cameroon, the DRC and the UK including LSTM's mosquito microbiome researchers Dr. Grant Hughe s and Dr. Eva Heinz had previously published the first strong evidence for a high density, natural infection of Anopheles mosquitoes with two different strains of Wolbachia . (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Unravelling the Evolution of the Allatostatin-Type A, KISS and Galanin Peptide-Receptor Gene Families in Bilaterians: Insights from Anopheles Mosquitoes. (ualg.pt)
  • To determine how evolution and feeding modified the function of AST-AR the duplicate receptors in Anopheles mosquitoes, were characterised. (ualg.pt)
  • Speciation of Anopheles mosquitoes affected receptor gene organisation and characterisation of AST-AR duplicates (GPRALS1 and 2) revealed that in common with other insects, the mosquito receptors were activated by insect AST-A peptides and the iCa2+-signalling pathway was stimulated. (ualg.pt)
  • Efficient method for establishing F1 progeny from wild populations of Anopheles mosquitoes. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • A brief survey of the mosquitoes of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, with special Reference to the identity of Anopheles barbirostris (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Margolembo area. (si.edu)
  • The complex disease human malaria is caused by Plasmodium parasites, which are transmitted by female Anopheles mosquitoes [ 3 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An Anopheles gambiae salivary gland promoter analysis in transgenic mosquitoes and fruit flies. (uniroma1.it)
  • Overall the fruit fly analysis suggests a partial conservation of some "basic" salivary gland regulatory elements between the two species, whereas the discrepancies observed between Drosophila and Anopheles could be explained by a "specialized" additional control elements perhaps acquired by the mosquitoes during the evolution of haematophagy. (uniroma1.it)
  • In this study, we investigated retention and rearrangement of positionally overlapping genes between the mosquitoes Aedes aegypti (dengue virus vector) and Anopheles gambiae (malaria vector). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The average of Anopheles MHD is 0.02-0.17, most of the mosquitoes found from inside the house collection and cattle cage collection. (kemkes.go.id)
  • all Anopheles mosquitoes tested belonged to the Anopheles gambiae complex. (bvsalud.org)
  • Finally, the predicted climate change may expand the ecological zones hospitable to Anopheles mosquitoes and therefore receptive to the establishment of malaria transmission. (who.int)
  • Human Plasmodium parasites were observed in both human and chimpanzee blood, although not in the Anopheles mosquitoes that were collected. (wur.nl)
  • The life cycle of the West Nile virus involves the microbe's transmission from nonhuman animals to humans by way of Aedes, Culex, or Anopheles mosquitoes. (medscape.com)
  • Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae): monitoring of the Anopheles punctulatus group of mosquitoes from populations to improve control strategies in Argentina. (who.int)
  • Numerous species of mosquitoes from the genera Anopheles , Culex , Aedes, and Mansonia serve as the intermediate host. (medscape.com)
  • Treatment of malaria Malaria is a parasitic infection caused by the Plasmodium parasite, which is transmitted to humans through the bites of infected Anopheles mosquitoes. (mexapharma.com)
  • The Malaria Genomic Epidemiology Network (MalariaGEN) is an international community of researchers working to understand how genetic variation in humans,Plasmodium parasites, and Anopheles mosquitoes affects the biology and epidemiology of malaria, and using this knowledge to develop more effective ways to control the disease. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Avoiding mosquito bites Avoiding the bites of Anopheles mosquitoes (which usually bite only between dusk and dawn) is the best way to prevent infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Red indicates sites of Anopheles stephensi mosquito collection. (cdc.gov)
  • A strain of Anopheles gambiae, which was selected for complete refractoriness to the simian malaria parasite Plasmodium cynomolgi, also has varying degrees of refractoriness to most other malaria species examined, including the human parasites P. falciparum, P. ovale, and P. vivax for which this mosquito is the principal African vector. (nih.gov)
  • Distinct navigation behaviors in Aedes , Anopheles and Culex mosquito larvae. (si.edu)
  • We found a P. inui -positive Anopheles cracens mosquito in the same site as the human infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. (genscript.com)
  • In this study, we sequenced alleles from 28 immune-related loci in wild samples of multiple genetic subpopulations of the African malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae, obtaining unprecedented sample sizes and providing the first opportunity to contrast patterns of molecular evolution at immune-related loci in the recently discovered GOUNDRY population to those of the indoor-resting M and S molecular forms. (pasteur.fr)
  • Mapping of loci controlling traits of interest in the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae is dependent upon the availability of suitable genomic markers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The method relies on the release of sterile or treated males in order to reduce the wild population of anopheles mosquito. (up.ac.za)
  • The first model governs the dynamics of the anopheles mosquito. (up.ac.za)
  • These theoretical results are rephrased in terms of possible strategies for the control of the anopheles mosquito and they are illustrated by numerical simulations. (up.ac.za)
  • This discovery had opened the door for potential mosquito control strategies for malaria in other Anopheles species. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • The mosquito Anopheles stephensi is a vector of urban malaria in Asia that recently invaded Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • An 800 bp promoter fragment from the AgApy gene, previously shown to drive a weak but tissue-specific expression in adult Drosophila melanogaster salivary glands, was analyzed in the mosquito Anopheles stephensi. (uniroma1.it)
  • Olfaction plays an important role in the host-seeking behavior of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. (wur.nl)
  • Anopheles quadrimaculatus (Common Malaria Mosquito) is most abundant in the south-eastern states, but is occasionally found in South Dakota. (allmosquitos.com)
  • The oils were more toxic to a mosquito called Anopheles quadrimaculatus than it was to the Yellow Fever mosquito. (usda.gov)
  • Key differences in swarming behaviour and sound communication between closely related mosquito species help explain apparent reproductive isolation and ultimately speciation in the malarial mosquito Anopheles gambiae species complex, with fieldwork in Burkina Faso. (nri.org)
  • Anopheles obscurus was the most abundant Anopheles mosquito, with a generalistic host preference observed from the olfactory response and the detection of various Plasmodium parasites. (wur.nl)
  • In Asia, long-tailed and pig-tailed macaques and mitered-leaf monkeys are normal hosts for P. knowlesi , which overlap in distribution with Anopheles mosquito vectors, which can transmit infection to humans who encroach upon their habitat. (cdc.gov)
  • METHODS: A multi-centre study involving 21 laboratories worldwide generated data on the susceptibility of seven mosquito species (Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto [An. (cdc.gov)
  • Her studies in Anopheles integrate themes in fields like Mosquito control and Ecology. (research.com)
  • Mosquito of the species Anopheles stephensi, one of the Malaria vectors (Public domain, by CDC). (wordpress.com)
  • The malaria-carrying mosquito, Anopheles gambiae , turned out to be at least seven distinct species. (wordpress.com)
  • They demonstrate diploS/HIC by simulating different selective scenarios based on data from an Anopheles gambiae mosquito population. (genestogenomes.org)
  • Malaria is a potentially life-threatening parasitic disease caused by infection with Plasmodium protozoa transmitted by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. (medscape.com)
  • The disease is transmitted by the female Anopheles mosquito which injects the disease-causing parasite, Plasmodium, into its human host through its saliva during a blood meal. (bloggoing.com)
  • The malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae s.s. and the Southern house mosquito, Culex quinquefasciatus, using a World Health Organisation (WHO)-approved topical application bioassay (ii) the brown ear tick, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, using a climbing repellency assay, and (iii) the red poultry mite, Dermanyssus gallinae, using field trapping experiments. (permaculturenews.org)
  • Malaria Regions of the World Malaria and its symptoms Malaria is a serious disease that occurs when an infected Anopheles mosquito bites a person and injects malaria parasites into the blood. (cdc.gov)
  • Subtractive hybridization cDNA libraries were constructed that are enriched for Plasmodium berghei and Anopheles stephensi genes expressed during oocyst differentiation on the midgut. (elsevier.com)
  • Of the 608 expressed sequence tags with data base hits, 320 (53%) had significant matches to the non-redundant protein data base, whereas 288 (47%) with matches only to genomic data bases represent novel Plasmodium and Anopheles genes. (elsevier.com)
  • Background: Malaria is an important parasitic disease of humans caused by infection with a parasite of the genus Plasmodium and transmitted by female anopheles. (bvsalud.org)
  • The project aims to decipher the molecular cross-talk between a) the tsetse fly, its intestinal microflora and the trypanosome, and b) the anopheles, its microflora and the plasmodium. (france-genomique.org)
  • Anopheles larvae breath by using special organs (called spiracles) located on their abdomen. (cdc.gov)
  • Species composition and spatio-temporal abundance of Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae and their relationship with environmental variables were studied in an endemic malarious area of northwestern Argentina, where Anopheles pseudopunctipennis is the main vector involved in malaria transmission. (bioone.org)
  • The density of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis larvae fluctuated between the end of spring until autumn, when malaria cases occur in the area. (bioone.org)
  • In conclusion, the breeding places that were found in this research are a suitable habitat for breeding Anopheles larvae. (kemkes.go.id)
  • Influence of environmental factors on the abundance of Anopheles farauti larvae in large brackish water 12. (who.int)
  • Ethiopia - Researchers from Ethiopia's Armauer Hansen Research Institute conducting surveillance for Anopheles stephensi larvae in a concrete cistern. (cdc.gov)
  • 97%) against Aedes aegypti (L.) and Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. (usda.gov)
  • But Aedes aegypti and Anopheles gambiae are well known for their preference for human blood and their role as vectors which transmit disease in humans. (healthworldnet.com)
  • Anopheles (5 species), Armigeres (1 species), Culex (7 species), Aedes (2 species), Mansonia (2 species) and Mimomyia (1 species). (faunajournal.com)
  • The Current Insecticide Resistance in Main Malaria Vector Anopheles arabiensis in Yemen. (gale.com)
  • This paper reports the results of studies conducted to monitor the insecticide resistance of the main malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, to the insecticides currently used in the vector control in four different locations. (gale.com)
  • Anopheles farauti is the primary malaria vector throughout the coastal regions of the Southwest Pacific. (edu.au)
  • Anopheles stephensi is the primary vector of urban malaria in the Indian subcontinent and the Middle East and an emerging malaria vector in Africa [ 9 , 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anopheles gambiae is the principal vector for human malaria in Africa. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Anopheles quadrimaculatus is the most important vector of malaria in the U.S. It frequently attacks humans, and is the most common Anopheles species found in houses. (allmosquitos.com)
  • mostly harmless and another ( Anopheles ) that is actually a genus (including hundreds of species). (healthworldnet.com)
  • Anopheles indefinitus and Culex fuscanus (Diptera: Culicidae) in Saipan. (si.edu)
  • Anopheles arabiensis in the Cape Verde Archipelago. (si.edu)
  • Anopheles arabiensis s pecies page. (si.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two endectocide drugs, injectable ivermectin and topical fipronil, on the survival and fecundity of zoophilic Anopheles arabiensis. (malariaconsortium.org)
  • When simultaneously placed inside the same semi-field chamber, the Mosclean trap caught twice as many Anopheles arabiensis as the CDC-light trap, and equal numbers to HLCs. (biomedcentral.com)
  • funestus, Anopheles mascarensis, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles squamosus. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The population genetic makeup of the 13th generation of a laboratory colony of Anopheles arabiensis mosquitos at 11 microsatellite loci was compared to that of the field population from which the colony was founded. (herts.ac.uk)
  • n., a seventh member of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Diptera, Culicidae) endemic to the Cape Verde archipelago. (si.edu)
  • The Anopheles ( Anopheles ) crucians subgroup in the United States (Diptera: Culicidae). (si.edu)
  • A key to the Anopheles of the southeastern United States, by male genitalia (Diptera, Culicidae). (si.edu)
  • Updated list of Anopheles species (Diptera: Culicidae) by country in the Afrotropical Region and associated islands. (si.edu)
  • Anopheles funestus, Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles minimus and Anopheles albimanus) to seven public health insecticides in five classes, including pyrethroids (metofluthrin, prallethrin and transfluthrin), neonicotinoids (clothianidin), pyrroles (chlorfenapyr), juvenile hormone mimics (pyriproxyfen) and butenolides (flupyradifurone), in glass bottle assays. (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Quek, the study's first author, explains: "The significantly reduced size of such regions within these two Wolbachia strains is of interest, particularly when viewed in context of their high density and high prevalence rates, in naturally infected Anopheles populations. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • This, in addition to the heterogeneous infection of both host populations with Wolbachia as shown in our earlier work, opens exciting avenues to understand what factors make Anopheles permissive or impede a symbiosis with Wolbachia . (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Pencidukan larva Anopheles spp. (kemkes.go.id)
  • Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah habitat yang ditemukan cocok bagi perkembangbiakan larva Anopheles spp, perilaku Anopheles spp. (kemkes.go.id)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles dirus in Assam. (who.int)
  • Prakash A, Bhattacharya DR, Mohapatra PK, Mahanta J. Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles dirus in Assam. (who.int)
  • Insecticide susceptibility of Anopheles gambiae s.l and identification of some resistance mechanisms in Kwilu Province in the Democratic Republic of Congo. (bvsalud.org)
  • The relationship between the mortality of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and that of deltamethrin in Anopheles sinensis population. (ajtmh.org)
  • Names for the Anopheles gambiae complex. (si.edu)
  • The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in Africa, Europe and the Middle East: Occurrence, data, distribution maps and bionomic précis. (si.edu)
  • Anopheles gambiae females are the world's most successful vectors of human malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sporozoite infection rate and 4+ sporozoite load in laboratory and wild Anopheles stephensi . (biomedcentral.com)
  • AgaP_AGAP010283 gene cDNA ORF clone, Anopheles gambiae str. (genscript.com)
  • In addition, the mRNA for an Anopheles fibrinogen domain gene was induced on day 2 after an infectious blood meal, at the time of ookinete to oocyst differentiation. (elsevier.com)
  • The alleles of knock down resistance (Kdr) gene and species of anopheles were determined by PCR -RLFP. (bvsalud.org)
  • To further association studies in Anopheles gambiae we conducted a major resequencing programme, primarily targeting regions within or close to candidate genes for insecticide resistance. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biology of Anopheles gambiae : research in French West Africa / M. H. Holstein. (who.int)
  • The arrival of Anopheles stephensi in Africa, with its potential to enhance periurban transmission of malaria, has prompted a new WHO initiative. (thelancet.com)
  • Here, we use a population genomic approach to investigate the basis of pirimiphos-methyl resistance in the major malaria vectors Anopheles gambiae and A. coluzzii. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The Anopheles gambiae genome: an update. (genscript.com)
  • 2007 [ 5 ] compared overlapping genes of Drosophila melanogaster and Anopheles gambiae with Apis mellifera (honey bee) and suggested that relocalization of overlapping genes may have played a significant role in genome evolution of these insects. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Mortality of Anopheles gambiae 24-hours post one-hour exposure to insecticide-impregnated papers at each study period . (biomedcentral.com)
  • ABSTRACT A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using species-specific primers and direct sequencing was used to identify members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex in the north-west and central regions of the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • Description and biometric study of Anopheles ( Cellia ) quadriannulatus davidsoni ssp. (si.edu)
  • Oviposition was induced by enclosing gravid females in eppendorf tubes as initially described for Anopheles funestus. (archives-ouvertes.fr)
  • The introduction of effective insecticides, such as the organophosphate pirimiphos-methyl, is essential to overcome the recurrent emergence of resistance driven by the highly diverse Anopheles genomes. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Resistance to pirimiphos-methyl in West African Anopheles is spreading via duplication and introgression of the Ace1 locus. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The objective of this study is to determine the status and resistance mechanisms involved in Anopheles gambiae s.l. population of DRC. (bvsalud.org)
  • Their work, published in Microbial Genomics , shows significantly reduced prophage regions in both strains compared to previously sequenced Wolbachi a genomes, with potential implications on how these strains affect their Anopheles hosts. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • The researchers now present an in-depth analysis of the genomes for these Anopheles -associated Wolbachia strains, led by Dr. Shannon Quek. (lstmed.ac.uk)
  • Weetman D., Anopheles gambiae 1000 Genomes Consortium None. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Unique Anopheles eggs have floats on either side. (cdc.gov)
  • Notes on the eggs of some east African Anopheles. (si.edu)
  • With the objective to identify Anopheles gambiae salivary gland promoters we focused our attention on the salivary genes AgApy, which encodes the platelet inhibitor apyrase, and D7-related. (uniroma1.it)
  • AgaP_AGAP006885 (Anopheles gambiae str. (nih.gov)
  • The second model, the SIT model, deals with the interaction between treated males and wild female anopheles. (up.ac.za)
  • The variation was generally greater with transfluthrin and flupyradifurone than with the other compounds tested, especially against Anopheles species. (cdc.gov)
  • was the most abundant species followed by Anopheles argyritarsis and Anopheles evansae . (bioone.org)