Anopheles: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.Anopheles gambiae: A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.Insect Vectors: Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.Insecticide Resistance: The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Mosquito Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.Insecticides: Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.Pyrethrins: The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.Entomology: A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.Insect Bites and Stings: Bites and stings inflicted by insects.Disease Vectors: Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.DDT: A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Culicidae: A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Plasmodium: A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.Permethrin: A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.Culex: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.Insect Repellents: Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Benin: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Sporozoites: The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.Plasmodium berghei: A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.Oocysts: Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.Plasmodium falciparum: A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Plasmodium vivax: A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.Senegal: A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.Genome, Insect: The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.ColombiaInsecticide-Treated Bednets: Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Mali: A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.Dieldrin: An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)Oviposition: The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Cameroon: A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.Aedes: A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.Fenitrothion: An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.Salivary Glands: Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Malaria, Vivax: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.Salivary Proteins and Peptides: Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.LaunderingAfrica, Western: The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.Phenylcarbamates: Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.Pest Control, Biological: Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.Beauveria: A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.DEET: A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Propoxur: A carbamate insecticide.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Digestive System: A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).AfricaMolecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Chromosome Inversion: An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Insect Control: The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Chromosomes, Insect: Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Biological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Life Cycle Stages: The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.Equatorial Guinea: A republic in central Africa, bordering the Bay of Biafra, CAMEROON is to the north and GABON to the south. Its capital is Malabo.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Melanesia: The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)Malathion: A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.Polytene Chromosomes: Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.Metarhizium: A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.Receptors, Odorant: Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Plasmodium malariae: A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Nitriles: Organic compounds containing the -CN radical. The concept is distinguished from CYANIDES, which denotes inorganic salts of HYDROGEN CYANIDE.BrazilBelizeSatellite Communications: Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.Endemic Diseases: The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)Guinea: A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.Mermithoidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order ENOPLIDA. Characteristics include a reduced alimentary tract and the presence of a trophosome. Its organisms can be present in the human intestine through ingestion of unwashed or contaminated raw vegetables.Hemolymph: The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.Pupa: An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.Central AmericaMosquito Nets: Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.French Guiana: A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)

Can anything be done to maintain the effectiveness of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets against malaria vectors? (1/1919)

Pyrethroid-treated bednets are the most promising available method of controlling malaria in the tropical world. Every effort should be made to find methods of responding to, or preventing, the emergence of pyrethroid resistance in the Anopheles vectors. Some cases of such resistance are known, notably in An. gambiae in West Africa where the kdr type of resistance has been selected, probably because of the use of pyrethroids on cotton. Because pyrethroids are irritant to mosquitoes, laboratory studies on the impact of, and selection for, resistance need to be conducted with free-flying mosquitoes in conditions that are as realistic as possible. Such studies are beginning to suggest that, although there is cross-resistance to all pyrethroids, some treatments are less likely to select for resistance than others are. Organophosphate, carbamate and phenyl pyrazole insecticides have been tested as alternative treatments for nets or curtains. Attempts have been made to mix an insect growth regulator and a pyrethroid on netting to sterilize pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes that are not killed after contact with the netting. There seems to be no easy solution to the problem of pyrethroid resistance management, but further research is urgently needed.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (2/1919)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

Purification and cloning of the salivary peroxidase/catechol oxidase of the mosquito Anopheles albimanus. (3/1919)

Salivary homogenates of the adult female mosquito Anopheles albimanus have been shown previously to contain a vasodilatory activity associated with a catechol oxidase/peroxidase activity. We have now purified the salivary peroxidase using high-performance liquid chromatography. The pure enzyme is able to relax rabbit aortic rings pre-constricted with norepinephrine. The peroxidase has a relative molecular mass of 66 907 as estimated by mass spectrometry. Amino-terminal sequencing allowed us to design oligonucleotide probes for isolation of cDNA clones derived from the salivary gland mRNA from female mosquitoes. The full sequence of the cDNA demonstrated homology between A. albimanus salivary peroxidase and several members of the myeloperoxidase gene family. A close comparison of A. albimanus salivary peroxidase with canine myeloperoxidase, for which the crystal structure is known, showed that all six disulfide bridges were conserved and demonstrated identity for all five residues associated with a Ca2+-binding site. In addition, 16 of 26 residues shown to be in close proximity to the heme moiety in the canine myeloperoxidase were identical. We conclude that the salivary peroxidase of A. albimanus belongs to the myeloperoxidase gene family. Other possible functions for this molecule in blood feeding are discussed.  (+info)

Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis? (4/1919)

A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme.  (+info)

Bancroftian filariasis in an irrigation project community in southern Ghana. (5/1919)

An epidemiological study to document the endemicity and transmission characteristics of bancroftian filariasis was conducted in an irrigation project community in southern Ghana. In a 50% random sample of the population, the prevalence of microfilaraemia was 26.4% and the geometric mean microfilarial intensity among positives was 819 microfilariae/ml of blood. Hydrocoele was found in 13.8% of the males aged > or =18 years, and 1.4% of the residents examined, all females, had tymphoedema/elephantiasis. Detailed monitoring of the microfilarial intensity in 8 individuals over a 24-h period confirmed its nocturnal periodicity with a peak at approximately 0100 hours. The most important vector was Anopheles gambiae s.l., followed by An. funestus. The abundance of these mosquitoes and their relative importance as vectors varied considerably between the wet and the dry season. Opening of the irrigation canals late in the dry season resulted in a remarkable increase in the population of An. gambiae (8.3% of which carried infective filarial larvae) to levels comparable to those seen during the wet season, suggesting that the irrigation project is responsible for increased transmission of lymphatic filariasis in the community.  (+info)

Host haematological factors influencing the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes to Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes. (6/1919)

We investigated the relationship between selected host haematological and parasitological parameters and the density and infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. 143 individuals (age range 1-62 years) attending an outpatient clinic in Farafenni, The Gambia, who had peripheral blood gametocytaemia were recruited (mean gametocyte density 123.7/microl, range 5-17,000/microl). Of the parameters measured, packed cell volume (PCV), reticulocyte count (RetC) and lymphocyte count (LyC) were significantly associated with gametocyte density (r = - 0.17, P < 0.05; r = 0.21, P < 0.01; r = 0.18, P < 0.05, respectively). Data from membrane feeding experiments in which 15 or more mosquitoes were dissected showed that 60.7% (53/87) of gametocyte carriers infected one or more mosquitoes. Gametocyte density was strongly correlated with transmission success (TS) (r = 0.3, P < 0.005) and, in successful infections, with both mosquito prevalence (MP) (r = 0.36, P < 0.005) and mean oocyst burden (MOB) (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001). None of the other factors measured were significantly associated with any of these indices in bivariate analysis. Regression modelling showed that both gametocyte density and PCV were positively associated with gametocyte carrier infectivity to mosquitoes (LRchi2 = 100.7 and 47.2, respectively) and, in successful infections, with MOB (beta = 0.16, t = 4.9, P < 0.001; beta = 0.02, t = 2.3, P < 0.05, respectively). The positive association with PCV suggests that blood meal quality influences infection probably as a nutritional requirement, however, as this effect was most apparent at high gametocyte densities, its epidemiological significance is questionable. Though the haematological parameters associated with gametocyte density are a direct consequence of asexual infection, they may also represent an adaptive mechanism for optimization of sexual stage development.  (+info)

Control of malaria vectors: cost analysis in a province of northern Vietnam. (7/1919)

The cost of permethrin-treated bednets (50% EC; 0.2 g/m2, 2 rounds per year) was compared to the cost of residual spraying with lambdacyhalothrin 10% WP (0.03 g/m2, once yearly) in Hoa Binh, a mountainous province in northern Vietnam. Calculations of the amounts of insecticides needed were based on national guidelines, on data from a cross-sectional survey and on district activity reports. The actual cost of insecticide required per person per year was lower for impregnation (US$ 0.26) than for spraying (US$ 0.36), but the difference was smaller than expected. The total cost for impregnated bednets per person per year amounted to US$ 0.90 compared to USS 0.47 for spraying. The determining factor was the cost of the net, amounting to US$ 0.58 per person per year, assuming a 5-year life of the net. Other material (excluding nets), labour and transport combined, accounted for only 17% of the impregnation cost and 23% of spraying expenses. However, for the National Malaria Control Programme of Vietnam, the cost per person per year for impregnated bednets amounted to US$ 0.32 only, because the vast majority of nets are bought by the population. For spraying, the programme had to bear the entire cost.  (+info)

A hemocyte-like cell line established from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae expresses six prophenoloxidase genes. (8/1919)

Cell lines from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been established as a tool for the study of the mosquito innate immune system in vitro. Here, we describe the first continuous insect cell line that produces prophenoloxidase (PPO). This cell line (4a-3B) expresses constitutively six PPO genes, three of which are novel (PPO4, PPO5, and PPO6). The PPO genes show distinct temporal expression profiles in the intact mosquito, spanning stages from the embryo to the adult in an overlapping manner. Transient induction of larva-specific PPO genes in blood-fed adult females suggests that the developmental hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone may be involved in PPO gene regulation. Indeed, exposure of 4a-3B cells to 20-hydroxyecdysone in culture results in induction of those PPO genes that are mainly expressed in early developmental stages, and repression of PPO5, which is preferentially expressed at the adult stage. The cell line shows bacteria-induced immune transcripts that encode defensin and Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein, but no induction of PPO transcripts. This cell line most likely derives from a hemocyte lineage, and represents an appropriate in vitro model for the study of the humoral and cellular immune defenses of A. gambiae.  (+info)

*Anopheles

Taxonomy of Anopheles Tropical disease "Anopheles - Define Anopheles at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Angus Stevenson (19 ... The Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus clades diverged between 80 million years ago and 36 million years ago. A molecular ... Two main groupings within the genus Anopheles are used: one formed by the Cellia and Anopheles subgenera and a second by ... Anopheles Database Anopheles gambiae Genome and Related Data CDC - National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of ...

*Anopheles punctipennis

... is a species of mosquito in genus Anopheles. It is native to North America. The larvae of this species ... Anopheles punctipennis. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Anopheles punctipennis. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit ... 1998). Lake Vera revisited: parity and survival rates of Anopheles punctipennis at the site of a malaria outbreak in the Sierra ...

*Anopheles reidi

Anopheles (Anopheles) reidi is a species complex of barbirostris mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is endemic to ... H. LARVAE Anopheles (An.) Reidi, A New Species of the Barbirostris Species Complex from Sri Lanka (Diptera:Culicidae). ...

*Anopheles karwari

Anopheles (Celia) karwari is a species complex of zoophilic mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is found in India, ... "Learn more about Anopheles". ScienceDirect. Retrieved 30 January 2017. Anopheles subpictus carry human malaria parasites in an ... Spatial and temporal variation in abundance of Anopheles (Diptera:Culicidae) in a malaria endemic area in Papua New Guinea.. ...

*Anopheles barbirostris

... is a species complex of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. Larvae found in clean, lotic bodies ... "Anopheles (Anopheles) barbirostris species complex". Malaria Atlas Project. Retrieved 23 December 2016. Molecular ... A molecular phylogeny of mosquitoes in the Anopheles barbirostris Subgroup reveals cryptic species: Implications for ... characterization of the malaria vector Anopheles barbirostris van der Wulp in Sri Lanka Anopheles barbirostris/campestris as a ...

*Anopheles aconitus

... is a species of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is mostly found in uplands generally ... "Anopheles (Cellia) aconitus Dönitz, 1902". Malaria Atlas Project. Retrieved 23 December 2016. ...

*Anopheles claviger

Kasap, M (1986). "Seasonal variation in populations of Anopheles maculipennis, Anopheles claviger and Culex pipiens in Turkey ... "Polymerase chain reaction-based differentiation of the mosquito sibling species Anopheles claviger s.s. and Anopheles ... Anopheles claviger was first described by Johann Wilhelm Meigen in 1804. However due to its close resemblance with other ... Gramiccia, G (1956). "Anopheles claviger in the Middle East". Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 15 (3-5): 816-21. PMC ...

*Anopheles kleini

Rueda, Leopoldo M. (2005). "Two new species of Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Republic of ... Anopheles kleini is a species of mosquito. It is found in South Korea. The species name honors US Army Colonel Terry A. Klein, ...

*Anopheles annularis

... is a species of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. Larvae found in clean, lotic bodies of water ... "Anopheles (Cellia) annularis van der Wulp, 1884". Malaria Atlas Project. Retrieved 23 December 2016. ...

*Anopheles daciae

... is a species of mosquito. It is found in eastern Europe and the Balkan States, and might be a possible malaria ... Nicolescu, G.; Linton, Y.-M.; Vladimirescu, A.; Howard, T.M.; Harbach, R.E. (2007). "Mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis ...

*Anopheles insulaeflorum

... is a species complex of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is found in India, Sri Lanka, ... "Anopheles (Anopheles) peytoni new species, the "An. insulaeflorum" auct. from Sri Lanka (Diptera: Culicidae)" (PDF). Mosquito ...

*Anopheles walkeri

... , as with many other anophelines, begins to become active later in the evening than most other mosquito ... Anopheles walkeri has a multivoltine life cycle. It produces a hardy winter egg which differs morphologically from the more ... Anopheles walkeri is a species of mosquito found predominantly throughout the Mississippi River Valley, with its habitat ... Due to habitat preferences, coupled with particularly low rates of virus detection, Anopheles walkeri is considered to be an ...

*Anopheles belenrae

Rueda, Leopoldo M. (2005). "Two new species of Anopheles (Anopheles) Hyrcanus Group (Diptera: Culicidae) from the Republic of ... Anopheles belenrae is a species of mosquito. It is found in South Korea. ...

*Anopheles albimanus

Anopheles pseudopunctipennis, Anopheles punctimacula, and Anopheles oswaldoi s.l. populations in lowland and highland Ecuador ... Anopheles albimanus is a species of mosquito in the order Diptera. It is found in coastal Central and South America, the ... Anopheles albimanus appears to be a single species that shows polymorphism. It is believed that this species originated in the ... Colonies of Anopheles mosquitoes are maintained for several areas of research, such as malaria vector ability, transmission of ...

*Anopheles stephensi

... is a primary mosquito vector of malaria in urban India and is included in the same subgenus as Anopheles ... B.D. (2011). Resistance status of the malaria vector mosquitoes, Anopheles stephensi and Anopheles subpictus towards ... Malhotra, P.R., Jatav, C.P., & Chauhan, R.S. (2000). Surface morphology of the egg of Anopheles stephensi stephensi sensu ... Maouchehri, A.V., Javadian, E., Eshghy, N., & Motabar, M. (1976). Ecology of Anopheles stephensi Liston in southern Iran. ...

*Anopheles latens

The Anopheles latens mosquito (part of the An. leucosphyrus group) is an important vector for the transmission of malaria in ... Wharton, R.H.; Eyles, DE; Warren, M; Moorhouse, DE (1962). "Anopheles leucosphyrus identified as a vector of monkey malaria in ... Sallum MA, Peyton EL, Wilkerson RC (2005). "Six new species of the Anopheles leucosphyrus group, reinterpretation of An. ... "Natural transmission of Plasmodium knowlesi to humans by Anopheles latens in Sarawak, Malaysia". Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 100 ...

*Anopheles dirus

... is a vector of malaria in Asian forested zones. It is often seen as a species complex including at least seven ... A new classification for the Leucosphyrus group of Anopheles (Cellia). Mosq. Syst. 21:197-205. Yang TH (1983) A review of ... Six new species of the Anopheles leucosphyrus group, reinterpretation of An. elegans and vector implications. Med. Vet. Entomol ... Obsomer, Valerie; Defourny, Pierre; Coosemans, Marc (2007). "The Anopheles dirus complex: spatial distribution and ...

*Anopheles barianensis

... is species of mosquito from Anopheles genus, described by James in 1911. According Catalogue of Life ... Anopheles barianensis don't have known subspecies. Bisby F.A.; Roskov Y.R.; Orrell T.M.; Nicolson D.; Paglinawan L.E.; Bailly N ...

*Anopheles earlei

... is a small insect found throughout North America. The Anopheles earlei larvae are found in cold, clear water ...

*Anopheles elegans

... is a species complex of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is found in India and Sri Lanka. In ... "Anopheles tnaculatus (Theobald) and Anopheles elegans (James) breeding in water storage containers in Kandy, Sri Lanka" (PDF). ... Anopheles elegans, a natural vector of simian malaria in Ceylon. ...

*Anopheles nigerrimus

Anopheles (Anopheles) nigerrimus is a species complex of zoophilic mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is belongs to ... Re: Anopheles nigerrimus as a vector of malaria in India.[comment]. Comment on: J Am Mosq Control Assoc Suppl. 1990 Jun;2:1-93 ... "Anopheles (Ano.) nigerrimus". Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit. Retrieved 30 January 2017. Hemingway, J; Jayawardena, KG; Herath ... "Pesticide resistance mechanisms produced by field selection pressures on Anopheles nigerrimus and A. culicifacies in Sri Lanka ...

*Anopheles tessellatus

Anopheles (Celia) tessellatus is a species complex of zoophilic mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is found in India ... The resting sites and blood-meal sources of Anopheles minimus in Taiwan The Salivary Gland Chromosomes of Anopheles tessellatus ... "Anopheles (Cel.) tessellatus". Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit. Retrieved 30 January 2017. Infectivity of Plasmodium vivax and ... Studies on Anopheles tessellatus Plasmodium falciparum interactions Anopheles tessellatus midgut glycoproteins and the midguts ...

*Anopheles pattoni

... is a species of mosquito in the Culicidae family. The scientific name of this species was first published in ...

*Anopheles aitkenii

... is a species of mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. The species group (Reid and Knight, 1961) is ... "A revision of the Anopheles aitkenii group in Malaya and Borneo". ResearchGate. Retrieved 23 December 2016. ...

*Anopheles sinensis

Yajun, M; Xu, J (2005). "The Hyrcanus group of Anopheles (Anopheles) in China (Diptera: Culicidae): species discrimination and ... "Molecular evidence supports that Anopheles anthropophagus from China and Anopheles lesteri from Japan are the same species". ... "Evidence to support natural hybridization between Anopheles sinensis and Anopheles kleini (Diptera: Culicidae): possibly a ... Anopheles sinensis is a species of mosquito that transmits malaria as well as lymphatic filariasis. It is regarded as the most ...
Introduction. Malaria vector control in southern Africa relies mainly on indoor residual house spraying (IRS) with insecticides. Synthetic pyrethroids and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) are used in IRS applications, while permethrin-treated bed-nets are used for personal protection in some households. DDT was introduced for malaria control in 1946 in South Africa and remained in use until 1996 when the choice of insecticide was changed to the pyrethroid deltamethrin.1 Following a major upsurge of malaria cases in 1999/2000 and the detection of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus,2 DDT was re-introduced in 2001 and a marked reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality was recorded.3,4 Deltamethrin is currently used in modern-style houses with painted walls while DDT is used in traditional houses.. Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in southern Africa, second only to Anopheles funestus. Historically, it has been considered to be susceptible to ...
O Wikispecies tem informações sobre: Anopheles triannulatus Anopheles triannulatus é um mosquito pertencente ao género Anopheles e composto de duas subespécie que são o Anopheles triannulatus triannulatus (Neiva & Pinto, 1922) e o Anopheles triannulatus davisi Peterson & Shannon, 1927. Consoli RAGB, Lourenço-de-Oliveira R. (1994). "Principais mosquitos de importância sanitária no Brasil" (PDF). Editora Fundação Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Catalogo de Mosquito ...
Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. Adult females are likely to imbibe multiple blood meals during their lifetime. This results in regular exposure to potential toxins and blood-meal induced oxidative stress. Defence responses to these stressors may affect other factors of epidemiological significance, such as insecticide resistance and longevity. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of multiple blood-feeding on insecticide tolerance/resistance with increasing age, to assess the underlying biochemical mechanisms for the responses recorded, and to assess the effect of multiple blood-feeding on the life histories of adult females drawn from insecticide resistant and susceptible laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Laboratory reared An. arabiensis females from an insecticide resistant and an insecticide susceptible colony were offered either a single blood meal or multiple blood meals at 3-day intervals. Their tolerance or resistance to insecticide was then monitored by WHO
Susceptibility of principal Anopheles malaria vectors to common insecticides was monitored over a 5-year period across Malawi to inform and guide the national malaria control programme. Adult blood-fed Anopheles spp. and larvae were collected from multiple sites in sixteen districts across the country between 2011 and 2015. First generation (F1) progeny aged 2-5 days old were tested for susceptibility, using standard WHO procedures, against pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin), carbamates (bendiocarb and propoxur), organophosphates (malathion and pirimiphos-methyl) and an organochlorine (DDT). Mortality of Anopheles funestus to deltamethrin, permethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur declined significantly over the 5-year (2011-2015) monitoring period. There was wide variation in susceptibility to DDT but it was not associated with time. In contrast, An. funestus exhibited 100% mortality to the organophosphates (malathion and pirimiphos-methyl) at all sites tested. There was reduced mortality of Anopheles
A. stephensi is a predominant malaria vector in urban parts of the Indian subcontinent. In spite of its importance as a malaria vector, no in-depth transcriptomic information is available on the midgut tissue of A. stephensi during sugar feeding and parasite infection. We herein report generation, annotation, and analysis of ESTs from sugar-fed and P. yoelii infected adult female A. stephensi midgut tissues.. 7061 high quality ESTs were obtained from the sugar-fed cDNA library and 8306 ESTs from the 24 h post blood-fed infected cDNA library. With 15367 ESTs, our study represents the first intensive effort in complementing gene sequence information for this mosquito. Although the genome of the closely related anopheline species, A. gambiae is available, discovery of novel transcripts (1513) in A. stephensi suggests a significant interspecies variation. In addition, mapping of novel transcripts (189) to the A. gambiae genome testifies the usefulness of our data in gene discovery process.. Like ...
Anopheles stephensi é um o principal mosquito vector de malária nas áreas urbanas da Índia. Faz parte do mesmo subgénero do Anopheles gambiae, o principal vector da doença em África. Valenzuela, J.G.; Francischetti, I.M.B.; Pham, V.M.; Garfield, M.K.; Ribeiro, J.M.C. (2003). «Exploring the salivary gland transcriptome and proteome of the Anopheles stephensi mosquito». Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology (33): 717-732 ...
In a single village in South Halmahera, Indonesia, Anopheles mosquitoes captured in human, goat, and cow-baited tents were compared to determine species-specific host attraction and feeding behaviour. Nine Anopheles species were molecularly identified in these collections: An. kochi, An. farauti s.s., An. hackeri, An. hinesorum, An. indefinitus, An. punctulatus, An. tessellatus, An. vagus, and An. vanus (Table 1). Additionally, bloodmeals of fed mosquitoes were typed and mosquitoes were analysed for the presence of Plasmodium spp. sporozoites. Frequent multiple host-feeding within a single night and flexibility in host choice within Anopheles species were observed.. There was a large discrepancy between morphological and molecular Anopheles species identifications, with 35% of specimens showing discordance between morphological and molecular identifications (Table 1). This could likely be the result of the presence of many cryptic species complexes and high Anopheles diversity in the country. ...
Bubaque is the most populous island of the Bijagos archipelago, a group of malaria-endemic islands situated off the coast of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Malaria vector control on Bubaque relies almost exclusively on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, there is little information on local vector bionomics and insecticide resistance. A survey of mosquito species composition was performed at the onset of the wet season (June/July) and the beginning of the dry season (November/December). Sampling was performed using indoor adult light-traps and larval dipping. Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level and assessed for kdr allele frequency by TaqMan PCR. Females were analysed for sporozoite positivity by CSP-ELISA. Resistance to permethrin and α-cypermethrin was measured using the CDC-bottle bioassay incorporating the synergist piperonyl-butoxide. Several Anopheles species were found on the island, all belonging to the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) complex,
Although the An. funestus group conceals one of the major malaria vectors in Africa, little is known about the dynamics of members of this group across the continent. Here, we investigated the species composition, infection rate and susceptibility to insecticides of this species group in Uganda. Indoor resting blood-fed Anopheles adult female mosquitoes were collected from 3 districts in Uganda. Mosquitoes morphologically belonging to the An. funestus group were identified to species by PCR. The sporozoite infection rates were determined by TaqMan and a nested PCR. Susceptibility to major insecticides was assessed using WHO bioassays. The potential role of four candidate resistance genes was assessed using qRT-PCR. An. funestus s.s. and An. parensis, were the only members of the An. funestus group identified. Both species were sympatric in Masindi (North-West), whereas only An. parensis was present in Mityana (Central) and Ntungamo (South-West). The Plasmodium falciparum infection detected in An.
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Anopheles stephensi, female mosquito vector carrier of malaria. Anopheles is a genus of mosquito from the family Culicidae. There are approximately 400 species of the Anopheles mosquito, 30 to 40 transmit four different species of the parasite, Plasmodium, that causes malaria. Anopheles stephensiis the main urban mosquito vector of malaria in the Indian subcontinent. Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and an enormous public-health problem. The most serious forms of the disease are caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax. The parasites, transmitted by the female mosquito when she sucks blood, multiply within red blood cells, causing symptoms that include symptoms of anaemia, as well as other general symptoms such as fever, chills, nausea, flu-like illness, coma and death. Magnification: x4. 5 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3659
The Sterile Insect Technology (SIT) is a nonpolluting method of control of the invading insects that transmit disease. The method relies on the release of sterile or treated males in order to reduce the wild population of anopheles mosquito. We propose two mathematical models. The first model governs the dynamics of the anopheles mosquito. The second model, the SIT model, deals with the interaction between treated males and wild female anopheles. Using the theory of monotone operators, we obtain dynamical properties of a global nature that can be summarized as follows. Both models are dissipative dynamical systems on the positive cone R4 +. The value R = 1 of the basic offspring number R is a forward bifurcation for the model of the anopheles mosquito, with the trivial equilibrium 0 being globally asymptotically stable (GAS) when R ≤ 1, whereas 0 becomes unstable and one stable equilibrium is born with well determined basins of attraction when R , 1. For the SIT model, we obtain a threshold ...
Abstract. We collected anophelines every second week for one year from randomly selected houses in southwestern Ethiopia by using Centers for Disease Control (CDC) light traps, pyrethrum spray catches, and artificial pit shelter constructions to detect circumsporozoite proteins and estimate entomologic inoculation rates (EIRs). Of 3,678 Anopheles arabiensis tested for circumsporozoite proteins, 11 were positive for Plasmodium falciparum and three for P. vivax. The estimated annual P. falciparum EIR of An. arabiensis was 17.1 infectious bites per person per year (95% confidence interval = 7.03-34.6) based on CDC light traps and 0.1 infectious bites per person per year based on pyrethrum spray catches. The P. falciparum EIRs from CDC light traps varied from 0 infectious bites per person per year (in 60% of houses) to 73.2 infectious bites per person per year in the house nearest the breeding sites. Risk of exposure to infectious bites was higher in wet months than dry months, with a peak in April (9.6
In total, 2456 female anopheline mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from the study area. Anopheles vagus Doenitz (35.71%) was the dominant species followed by An. philippinensis Ludlow (26.67%) and An. minimus s.l. Theobald (5.78%). All species were collected by LTs set indoors (n = 1094), 19 species were from outdoors (n = 784), whereas, six by PS (n = 549) and four species by HB (n = 29). Anopheline species composition significantly differed between every possible combination of the three collection methods (χ2 test, P , 0.001). Host blood meals were successfully detected from 1318 (53.66%) Anopheles samples belonging to 17 species. Values of the human blood index (HBI) of anophelines collected from indoors and outdoors were 6.96% and 11.73%, respectively. The highest values of HBI were found in An. baimai Baimaii (80%), followed by An. minimus s.l. (43.64%) and An. annularis Van den Wulp (37.50%). Anopheles baimai (Bi = 0.63) and An. minimus s.l. (Bi = 0.24) showed strong ...
A. quadriannulatus mosquito feeding. Lateral view of a female Anopheles quadriannulatus mosquito feeding on human skin. It has used its sharp, needle-like labrum to extract blood that is seen in its abdomen, forming a blood meal. As a member of the A. gambiae species complex, A. quadriannulatus is a known vector for the parasitic disease malaria. Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which is transmitted into the bloodstream by mosquito bites. Malaria results in cyclic fevers and can kill. It affects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. - Stock Image C024/8532
To provide information for public health policy on mosquito nets in the Amazon region of Colombia, we conducted landing catches to estimate Anopheles species composition and biting activity. Two hundred twenty person-nights of catches were done in seven locations over a period of 14 mo. A total of 1,780 Anopheles mosquitoes were caught (8.1 per person-night). Among the nine species found, An. oswaldoi Peryassú was the most common (776 mosquitoes, 44%), followed by An. darlingi Root s.l. (498, 28%). An. oswaldoi was the most common species collected outdoors, where its biting rate dropped steadily from a peak of ,15 bites/person-night at the start of the night (1800-1900 hours) to ≈2 bites/person-night before dawn. An. darlingi was the most common species collected indoors, with a biting rate of ≈3-4 bites/person-night until about midnight, when the rate dropped below 1 bite/person-night, before showing a secondary peak before dawn. Sixty-four mosquito nets were analyzed by the technique of ...
Summary and Conclusions Cross mating experiments were designed to show whether sexual isolation exists between Anopheles quadrimaculatus, A. freeborni and A. aztecus. It was found that a definite barrier to cross mating exists between males of A. quadrimaculatus and females of A. freeborni and A. aztecus, between males of A. aztecus and females of A. quadrimaculatus and A. freeborni, and between A. freeborni males and A. quadrimaculatus females. However, A. aztecus females were fertilized as readily by A. freeborni males as were A. freeborni females. These results support conclusions drawn from other studies that A. aztecus and A. freeborni are much more closely related to one another than they are to A. quadrimaculatus. Sexual isolation could be a secondary result of long geographic separation. There is only a partial barrier between the A. freeborni and A. aztecus and although this might contribute towards a segregation of the two populations, the readiness with which A. aztecus females will mate with
The naturally acquired microbiota of Anopheles can influence vectors susceptibility to Plasmodium and its capacity to transmit them. Microbiota modification is a new challenge to limit disease transmission but it still needs advanced knowledges on bacterial community in Anopheles, especially in wild and infected specimens from diverse origin and species. Bacterial culture and 16S rRNA gene-PCR associated to Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis (TTGE) were applied to explore the bacterial diversity in the abdomen of 100 wild specimens (8 Anopheles species) collected in the Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam. Culture and PCR-TTGE were complementary. The bacterial richness of the mosquito collection encompassed 105 genera belonging to 7 phyla, mostly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Bacillus in Firmicutes were the most prevalent genera. However, Proteobacteria represented by 57 genera was the most diversified phylum in Anopheles microbiota. The high overall
Abstract Remote sensing is particularly helpful for assessing the location and extent of vegetation formations, such as herbaceous wetlands, that are difficult to examine on the ground. Marshes that are sparsely populated with emergent macrophytes and dense cyanobacterial mats have previously been identified as very productive Anopheles albimanus larval habitats. This type of habitat was detectable on a classified multispectral Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre image of northern Belize as a mixture of two isoclasses. A similar spectral signature is characteristic for vegetation of river margins consisting of aquatic grasses and water hyacinth, which constitutes another productive larval habitat. Based on the distance between human settlements (sites) of various sizes and the nearest marsh/river exhibiting this particular class combination, we selected two groups of sites: those located closer than 500 m and those located more than 1,500 m from such habitats. Based on previous adult
Kurscheid, S., Lew-Tabor, A.E., Rodriguez Valle, M., Bruyeres, A.G., Doogan, V.J., Munderloh, U.G. et al. (2009) Evidence of a tick RNAi pathway by comparative genomics and reverse genetics screen of targets with known loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. BMC Mol Biol 10: 26 ...
BACKGROUND: Molecular markers of insecticide resistance can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in malaria vector populations. Monitoring of insecticide resistance in vector populations is an important component of current malaria control programmes. Knockdown resistance (kdr) confers resistance to the pyrethroid class of insecticides with cross-resistance to DDT through single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. METHODS: To enable detection of kdr mutations at low frequency a method was developed that uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based technology, allowing rapid, reliable and cost-effective testing of large numbers of individual mosquitoes. This was used to assay mosquitoes from sites in lower Moshi, Tanzania. RESULTS: Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP) were used for simultaneous detection of both East and West African kdr mutations with high specificity and sensitivity. ...
Link to Pubmed [PMID] - 28078104. Virus Evol 2017 Jan;3(1):vew035. The Flavivirus genus encompasses several arboviruses of public health significance such as dengue, yellow fever, and Zika viruses. It also includes insect-specific flaviviruses (ISFs) that are only capable of infecting insect hosts. The vast majority of mosquito-infecting flaviviruses have been associated with mosquito species of the Aedes and Culex genera in the Culicinae subfamily, which also includes most arbovirus vectors. Mosquitoes of the Anophelinae subfamily are not considered significant arbovirus vectors; however, flaviviruses have occasionally been detected in field-caught Anopheles specimens. Whether such observations reflect occasional spillover or laboratory contamination or whether Anopheles mosquitoes are natural hosts of flaviviruses is unknown. Here, we provide in silico and in vivo evidence of transcriptionally active, flavivirus-derived endogenous viral elements (EVEs) in the genome of Anopheles minimus and ...
A longitudinal survey of mosquito larval habitats was carried out in Asembo Bay, western Kenya, during the rainy season of 1998. All pools of standing water along a 700-m transect were sampled twice per week. For each habitat, eight environmental variables were recorded and a sample of anopheline larvae was collected for identification. In total, 1,751 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 2,784 Anopheles funestus Giles were identified. Identification of An. gambiae s.l. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that 240 (14.7%) were An. gambiae Giles and 858 (52.4%) were An. arabiensis Patton; PCR failed to identify 539 (32.9%) specimens. Repeated measures logistic regression analysis indicated that An. gambiae and An. arabiensis larvae were associated with small, temporary habitats with algae and little or no aquatic vegetation. Anopheles funestus larvae were associated with larger, semipermanent bodies of water containing aquatic vegetation and algae. Direct comparison of habitat characteristics ...
Prevalence of febrile illness with P. falciparum was highest among the 5 to 17 year olds (62.4%) while malaria attack rate was highest among the two to 4 year olds (5.2/1,000/day). Infected individuals were spatially concentrated in three of the 11 residential zones of the camp. The indoor densities of Anopheles arabiensis, the sole malaria vector, were similar during the wet and dry seasons, but were distributed in an aggregated fashion and predominantly in the same zones where malaria attack rates were high. Larval habitats and larval populations were also concentrated in these zones. Larval habitats were man-made pits of water associated with tap-stands installed as the water delivery system to residents with year round availability in the camp. Three percent of A. arabiensis adult females were infected with P. falciparum sporozoites in the rainy season ...
Background & objectives: In the present study, an attempt was made to find reasons of ineffectiveness of indoor residual spray to interrupt malaria transmission by investigating the behaviour of two variants of Anopheles stepnesi, viz. type form and
Download full project about Anopheles Mosquito Comparative Genomics . Your business software is ready for download . You can use it for your own company / Office / home without any cost. We provide free business software for our visitor. The software is develop by using different model such as waterfall life-cycle ,traditional ,classic etc Anopheles Mosquito Comparative Genomics is a large and time consuming project. So, Our aim is to help all business vendors by sharing our best. We want your help by joining our community. You will get your project as you desire ...
From 1987 to 1995, NASAs Ames Research Center, in collaboration with university and health agency scientists, conducted research on the ecology of the Anopheles albimanus mosquito, a key vector of human malaria in the coastal areas of southern Chiapas, Mexico. The field research focused on the relationship of An. albimanus to environmental variables associated with regional landscape elements, including larval habitats, bloodmeal sources, and resting sites. The results indicated the importance of flooded pastures and transitional wetlands for larval habitat, cattle in pastures for bloodmeal sources, and trees for potential resting sites. The remote sensing research involved identifying and mapping these landscape elements, along with seven others, using multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. NASA ER-2 aircraft imagery was used to create a map of human settlements, from which 40 villages were randomly selected. These villages were the focus of a study to examine the relationship ...
Biting rhythm as well as vertical and horizontal distribution of host-seeking Anopheles arabiensis Patton was studied at a remote warm-water spring in the Kruger National Park, South Africa, which usually is devoid of human presence. An. arabiensis s
In the present investigation acetone and methanol extract of Eranthemum roseum leaves were tested for its larvicidal, ovicidal and pupicidal activities against the important malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi. The present experiments were designed and carried out by adapting the standard protocols. Results pertaining to the present investigation clearly revealed that the methanol extract was more prominent than the acetone extract and the results are on par with the control groups. The bioefficacy of E. rosum was due to the existence of several phytochemical groups and this needs further exploration of mosquitocidal compounds by various spectral analyses. The information given in this is the first report on mosquito about its bio efficacies. Thus, it could pave the way for possible utilization of E. roseum as an alternative potential agent in Vector Control Programme.. ...
Sporozoite of Plasmodium gets into human blood through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito,sporozoites reproduce asexually in liver cells,then they get into red blood cells, there they reproduce asexually and infect mo…
Espesye sa langaw ang Anopheles minutus[1]. Una ning gihulagway ni Macquart ni adtong 1834. Ang Anopheles minutus sakop sa kahenera nga Anopheles sa kabanay nga Culicidae.[1][2]. Kini nga matang hayop na sabwag sa Senegal.[1] Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya.[1]. ...
Pronunciation guide: Learn how to pronounce anopheles in English with native pronunciation. anopheles translation and audio pronunciation
290. vector in the western half of the country and Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the eastern half. Introduced malaria has, however, been uncommon in the United States, apparently because of improvements in standards of land use and housing, together with increased urbanization and a concomitant decline in the rural population, all factors which tend to separate man from mosquitoes and, in many instances, promote an adverse environment for the anopheline vector (Barrett 1968, p.431). Nonetheless, introduced malaria has been documented in this country. In 1952, 35 cases occurred among a group of Camp Fire Girls in California. The probable source was a recently returned Korean veteran (Brunetti, Fritz, and Hollister 1954). At Fort Benning, Ga., two cases of introduced vivax malaria were observed in 1964 and 1965, the probable source again being a serviceman who had been stationed in Korea (Luby et al. 1967). There is evidence of at least one instance of introduced vivax malaria resulting from ...
An Anopheles mosquito takes a blood meal through the skin. If this blood carries sexual-stage stage parasites, they will develop in the mosquito and be passed on to others who are bit by this mosquito days later.
The authors demonstrate that these marked symbionts can then be transmitted to their progeny through mating and to non-sibling larvae by horizontal transmission via the water in which the animals are living.. The authors created a number of strains of AS1 containing a collection of anti Plasmodium effectors either singly or in combination and show that these have significant impacts on the intensity of midgut infections.. This is a very interesting paper that seems to bring the promise of paratransgenic approaches closer to fruition as tools for combating vector borne diseases.. An interesting feature of this approach is that it can be used to simultaneously reduce the vectoral capacity of multiple anopheles species in an environment whereas transgenic approaches would require solving the problems of creating transgenics from these other species. Not necessarily and easy task.. The widespread presence of these genetically modified bacteria in water sources will elicit questions related to risk ...
Anopheles A virus ATCC ® VR-1200AF™ Designation: Anopheles A (Purified) immune ascitic fluid [V-517-701-562] Application:
Malaria is a disease that has been around for many years and it is said to have originated in Africa. This disease is caused by plasmodium, a parasite transmitted through bites of a female Anopheles mosquito. Only the Anopheles mosquito carries this parasite and they become infected if they have sucked the blood of an already infected person. Once the parasite enters the human body, it will multiply in the liver, infecting the red blood cells in the process. Since the parasite is found in the individuals red blood cells, this disease can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, or by sharing needles contaminated with infected blood. Thankfully, an anti-malarial drug was developed and has been available for more than 50 years. In recent years, the scientists from Britain and United States have cracked the code of the parasite genome which takes a huge step towards boosting the campaign against this disease. Read More ». ...
Academic Journals Database is a universal index of periodical literature covering basic research from all fields of knowledge, and is particularly strong in medical research, humanities and social sciences. Full-text from most of the articles is available. Academic Journals Database contains complete bibliographic citations, precise indexing, and informative abstracts for papers from a wide range of periodicals.
evolutionary models such as Drosophila.. Although vector status was of prime importance in the selection of sequencing targets, choice was constrained by availability of colonies housed by the Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource Center (MR4), which will be a project and community resource for DNA, RNA and live mosquitoes from colonies. Since the initial whitepaper was approved, two additional species have been added to the project following the acquisition of available sequencing template: An. melas and An. christyi.. In addition to the approved goals of (1) high quality reference genome assemblies of each species and (2) transcriptome sequencing in support of gene annotation, a limited amount of SNP discovery based on wild specimens will augment these genome projects. Illumina-based genome sequencing and assembly, RNAseq and SNP discovery will be managed by the Broad Institute (under the direction of Daniel Neafsey). Genome annotation will be based on contributions by the Broad ...
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The Anopheles mosquito is the only species known to spread malaria. The eMedTV Web page discusses its life cycle in detail, explains how mosquitoes transmit malaria, and measures designed to combat insect biting and control the spread of disease.
Sporozoites =, merozoites (in liver) =, merozoites (in RBCs) =, release of merozoites due to the RBC rupture, merozoites infect other RBCs. Some merozoites differentiate into gametocytes =, gametocytes containing red cells are sucked by female anopheles mosquito. ...
Mosquitoes arent just annoying at summer barbecues. In many parts of the world, they carry pathogens for Zika, dengue, yellow fever and malaria, the most devastating of mosquito-borne diseases. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 440,000 people died in sub-Saharan Africa in 2016 from malaria, contracted from the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Protecting U.S. military personnel who continue to serve in this part of world is critical.
... is a disease caused by an infection with parasites called Plasmodium. This eMedTV page explains how the disease is usually transmitted through the bite of an infected female Anopheles mosquito. Symptoms and treatment are also discussed.
In October 2010, one case of autochthonous malaria due to Plasmodium vivax was diagnosed in Spain. The case occurred in Aragon, north-eastern Spain, where the vector Anopheles atroparvus is present. Although the source of infection could not be identified, this event highlights that sporadic autochthonous transmission of vector-borne diseases in continental Europe is possible and calls for enhanced surveillance and vector control measures.
Causes=Female Anopheles mosquito, feed on human blood,proboscis is used to withdraw blood. parasite gamete sucked in to mosquito stomach, zygotes form, infective stage move to mosqito slavary glands,injects anticoagulant,salvia conatin parasite, into blood, into liver, multiply, enter rbc gametes are ...
PubMed journal article Transcriptome analysis of Anopheles stephensi-Plasmodium berghei interaction were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Documents : WHO/Mal/370-371, WHO/Mal/372 (WHO/Vector Control/12), WHO/Mal/373-374, WHO/Mal/375 (WHO/Vector Control/15), WHO/Mal/376 (AFR/Mal/9/62), WHO/Mal/377 (WHO/Vector Control/21), WHO/Mal/378-382, WHO/Mal/383 (WHO/Vector Control/22), WHO/Mal/384-385, bound in 1 ...
361 Species Characteristics The characteristics of the species of Anopheles which were most important to the U.S. troops in the China-Burma-India theater are described in the paragraphs to follow. Anopheles culicifacies Giles 1901 is a widespread species that has been found breeding in a variety of situations. Usually it is found in fresh, clean water but occasionally in brackish water and often in irrigation channels, pools, overflow water collects, slow-moving streams, and quite frequently in wells. The culexlike adults are small to medium sized. They feed on both human and cattle blood indiscriminately. The anthropophilic index has been found to vary from 0.3 to 80 percent (the latter, exceptionally high for this species, is believed due to a relative absence of cattle). This mosquito is often found in houses or cowsheds in the daytime on the walls or secreting itself in holes; that is, among dung cakes and chaff. Effective flight is normally about one-half of a mile but may extend to a mile ...
Fonseca-Gonz lez, Idalyd et al. Mixed-function oxidases and esterases associated with cross-r esistance between DDT and lambda-cyhalothrin in Anopheles darlingi Root 1926 populations from Colombia. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz, Feb 2009, vol.104, no.1, p.18-26. ISSN 0074- ...
There are four stages in the life-cycle of the malaria parasite:. Stage 1 - Mosquito Stage: Female anopheles takes blood meal and injects parasite into blood. Stage 2 - Human Liver Stage: liver cells infected, then rupture. Stage 3 - Human Blood Stage: RBCs infected, then rupture. Stage 4 - Sexual stage: Female anopheles takes another blood meals and ingests parasite. There are four major types of malaria and one rare type:. ...
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Gantz et al have also included a pair of genes coding for single chain antibodies that have been shown to antogonize Plasmodium infections in mosquitoes however the ability of the mosquitoes created for this study to support and transmit Plasmodium are not reported.. Besides demonstrating the feasibility of rapidly assembling a Cas9-based gene drive system in an important insect species there are valuable data and resources for scientists working with CRISPR-Cas9 and mosquitoes. In order to construct their system Gantz et al. identified and isolated the Anopheles stephensi U6A promoter - a PolIII promoter useful for expressing gRNA in vivo. The investigators use the promoter from the A. stephensi gene vasa to regulate expression of Cas9 and saw some maternal effects that were interesting and important. Finally, they report the efficiency of homology dependent repair (drive efficiency) over the course of 3 generations in populations on the order of 1000 individuals and found it to be quiet high - ...
subgenus, with the aim of detecting differences between both subgenera and of estimating the degree of genetic intere specific divergence. Samples from Macap á , State of Amap á and Janauari Lake, near Manaus, State of Amazonas, were analyzed for eight isoenzymatic loci. Analysis revealed differences in the average number of alleles per locus (1.6-2.3) and heterozygosity (0.060-0.284). However, the proportion of polymorphic loci was the same for An. (Nys.) darlingi , An. (Nys.) triannulatus and An. (Ano.) mattogrossensis (50%), but differed for An. (Nys.) albitarsis (62.5%) and An. (Ano.) intermedius (25%). Only the IDH1 (P > 0.5) locus in all species studied was in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. The fixation index demonstrated elevated genetic structuring among species, based on values of Fst = 0.644 and genetic distance (0.344-0.989). Genetic difference was higher between An. (Nys.) triannulatus and An. (Ano.) intermedius (0.989) and smaller between An. (Nys.) albitarsis sensu lato and An. ...
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
Disclaimer: The Animal Diversity Web is an educational resource written largely by and for college students. ADW doesnt cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. Though we edit our accounts for accuracy, we cannot guarantee all information in those accounts. While ADW staff and contributors provide references to books and websites that we believe are reputable, we cannot necessarily endorse the contents of references beyond our control. ...
A*nophe*les (a*nofE*lEz), n. [NL., fr. Gr. anwfelh`s useless, hurtful.] (Zoöl.) A genus of mosquitoes which are se...
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Is aging raw cattle urine efficient for sampling Anopheles arabiensis Patton?. Aneth M Mahande, Beda J Mwangonde, Shandala Msangi, Epiphania Kimaro, Ladslaus L Mnyone, Humphrey D Mazigo, Michael J Mahande and Eliningaya J Kweka BMC Infect Dis 10(1):172 (2010) ...
Inequitable conduct arises when a material reference was intentionally withheld by the patent applicant in order to deceive or mislead the examiner…
UNGGAS 1. Chronic respiratory Disease (CRD) Penyebab : Mycoplasma Gallisepticum (Mg) Stress akibat jeleknya ventilasi dapat menyebabkan CRD Penularan : induk yang terinfeksi Mg dapat menularkan pada anaknya melalui telur. Penularan juga dapat terjadi melalui kontak langsung. Ternak : ayam dan kalkun Tanda-tanda klinik : gangguan respirasi, bersin/batuk, menurunkan bobot badan, meningkatkan konversi pakan, produksi…
Insecticide resistance in malaria vector mosquitoes reduces the efficacy of insecticide in killing and can therefore cause a major problem for malaria vector control by insecticides. In Mozambique, pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles funestus was first detected in December 1999 in the southern corner of Maputo Province. Since then, various collections have been made at selected sites throughout the country and WHO standard susceptibility tests and biochemical assays were conducted to determine the susceptibility status and the major resistance mechanisms, in the Fl generation of field collected mosquitoes. Three malaria vector species: Anopheles funestus s.s., Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis were identified in this study by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and their distributions plotted. The susceptibility data indicate that the Anopheles funestus s.s population in southern Mozambique is widely resistant to pyrethroid and with low levels of carbamate resistance evident at six ...
Definition of Anopheles aquasalis. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
The work included in this thesis arose from a long-standing interest in the possible use of genetic control for one of the most important malaria vectors in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. It was hoped that the genes involved in animal biting in the sibling species Anopheles quadriannulatus could be exploited by crossing with An. gambiae s. s. and using the fertile female hybrids for successive backcrosses to An. gambiae s. s.. It was envisaged that this method could be used in an attempt to produce a mosquito stock that is harmless to humans because it is zoophilic but with the genetic background of An. gambiae s. s. so that there would be no barriers to cross-mating in the wild. The innate host preference of mosquitoes can be determined in the laboratory using an olfactometer, or in the field using baits. Host-selection patterns in nature are often affected by external factors, which may or may not mask the host preference of the mosquito species in question (discussed in section ...
Kabbale, F., Akol, A., Kaddu, J., & Onapa, A. (2013). Biting patterns and seasonality of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and Anopheles funestus mosquirtoes in Kamuli District, Uganda. Parasites and Vectors, 12, 1 - 20 ...
Background: The non-random distribution of anopheline larvae in natural habitats suggests that gravid females discriminate between habitats of different quality. Whilst physical and chemical cues used by Culex and Aedes vector mosquitoes for selecting an oviposition site have been extensively studied, those for Anopheles remain poorly explored. Here the habitat selection by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), the principal African malaria vector, was investigated when presented with a choice of two infusions made from rabbit food pellets, or soil. Methods: Natural colonization and larval survival was evaluated in artificial ponds filled randomly with either infusion. Dual-choice, egg-count bioassays evaluated the responses of caged gravid females to (1) two- to six-day old infusions versus lake water; (2) autoclaved versus non-autoclaved soil infusions; and assessed (3) the olfactory memory of gravid females conditioned in pellet infusion as larvae. Results: Wild Anopheles exclusively colonized ...
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BACKGROUND: The strategy for malaria vector control in the context of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality has been the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets to universal coverage and indoor residual spraying. This has led to significant decline in malaria transmission. However, these vector control strategies rely on insecticides which are threatened by insecticide resistance. In this study the status of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and its implication in malaria transmission at the Kenyan Coast was investigated. RESULTS: Using World Health Organization diagnostic bioassay, levels of phenotypic resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin was determined. Anopheles arabiensis showed high resistance to pyrethroids while Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles funestus showed low resistance and susceptibility, respectively. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes were further genotyped for L1014S and L1014F kdr mutation by real time PCR. An allele frequency ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) consists of several morphologically cryptic species throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In the Sahel region of Mali, this complex includes Anopheles arabiensis (Patton 1905) and A. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) (Giles 1902), which is further divided into the M and S molecular forms; all are important malaria vectors (Coluzzi et al., 1979; Collins et al., 2001; della Torre et al., 2001; Coluzzi et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2002). Although they are morphologically indistinguishable and can occur in sympatry (Lindsay et al., 1998; Coluzzi et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2005; Simard et al., 2009), these cryptic species often differ in abundance according to season, local rainfall, latitude and larval site characteristics (Gimnig et al., 2001; Edillo et al., 2002; Koenraadt et al., 2004; Diabaté et al., 2005; Edillo et al., 2006; Diabaté et al., 2008; Costantini et al., 2009), and thus local differentiation may occur between these ...
Elucidating the genetic basis of metabolic resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors is crucial to prolonging the effectiveness of insecticide-based control tools including long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Here, we show that cis-regulatory variants of the cytochrome P450 gene, CYP6P9b, are associated with pyrethroid resistance in the African malaria vector Anopheles funestus. A DNA-based assay is designed to track this resistance that occurs near fixation in southern Africa but not in West/Central Africa. Applying this assay we demonstrate, using semi-field experimental huts, that CYP6P9b-mediated resistance associates with reduced effectiveness of LLINs. Furthermore, we establish that CYP6P9b combines with another P450, CYP6P9a, to additively exacerbate the reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets. Double homozygote resistant mosquitoes (RR/RR) significantly survive exposure to insecticide-treated nets and successfully blood feed more than other genotypes. This study provides ...
1. Takken W, Knols BG. Odor-mediated behavior of Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes. Annu Rev Entomol. 1999;44:131-157 2. Zwiebel LJ, Takken W. Olfactory regulation of mosquito-host interactions. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;34:645-652 3. Himeidan YE, Temu EA, El rayah EA. et al. Chemical cues for malaria vectors oviposition site selection: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Insects. 2013 Article ID685182: 1-9 4. Meijerink J, Braks MA, van Loon JJ. Olfactory receptors on the antennae of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae are sensitive to ammonia and other sweat-borne components. J Insect Physiol. 2001;47:455-464 5. Lu T, Qiu YT, Wang G. et al. Odor coding in the maxillary palp of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1533-1544 6. Qiu YT, van Loon JJ, Takken W. et al. Olfactory coding in antennal neurons of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Chem Senses. 2006;31:845-863 7. McIver SB. Sensilla of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. ...
We analysed genetic variability in Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae populations using micro-satellite loci to determine whether the Rift Valley restricts the flow of genes. Deviations from Hardy-Weinberg expectations were significant, and were most likely to be due to the high frequency of null alleles observed. An. arabiensis populations occurring between 40 and 700 km apart across the Eastern arm of the Rift Valley were not differentiated (pair-wise Fst range: 0.0033-0.0265, P , 0.05). Neither were An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Ghana (Fst: 0.0063, P , 0.05) despite a geographical separation of about 5000 km. In contrast, significant differentiation was observed between An. gambiae populations from Asembo Bay and Kilifi (about 700 km apart; FST= 0.1249, P , 0.01), suggesting the presence of a barrier to gene flow ...
Y chromosome function, structure and evolution is poorly understood in many species including the Anopheles genus of mosquitoes, an emerging model system for studying speciation that also represents the major vectors of malaria. While the Anopheline Y had previously been implicated in male mating behavior, recent data from the Anopheles gambiae complex suggests that, apart from the putative primary sex-determiner, no other genes are conserved on the Y. Studying the functional basis of the evolutionary divergence of the Y chromosome in the gambiae complex is complicated by complete F1 male hybrid sterility. Here we used an F1xF0 crossing scheme to overcome a severe bottleneck of male hybrid incompatibilities and enabled us to experimentally purify a genetically labelled A. gambiae Y chromosome in an A. arabiensis background. Whole genome sequencing confirmed that the A. gambiae Y retained its original sequence content in the A. arabiensis genomic background. In contrast to comparable experiments ...
Author Summary Malaria causes more than one million deaths every year, mostly among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Anopheles mosquitoes are exclusive vectors of human malaria. Many malaria vectors belong to species complexes, and members within these complexes can vary significantly in their ecological adaptations and ability to transmit the parasite. To better understand evolution of epidemiologically important traits, we studied relationships among nonvector and vector species of the African Anopheles gambiae complex. We analyzed gene orders at genomic regions where evolutionary breaks of chromosomal inversions occurred in members of the complex and compared them with gene orders in species outside the complex. This approach allowed us to identify ancient and recent gene orders for three chromosomal inversions. Surprisingly, the more ancestral chromosomal arrangements were found in mosquito species that are vectors of human malaria, while the more derived arrangements were found in both nonvectors
Anopheles gambiae AGER protein: AGER - EGFR ortholog from Anopheles; from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: orthologs from Drosophila, human, mouse & chicken; Genbank, AJ301655 and AJ304406
Synthetic versions of human derived kairomones can be used as baits when trapping host seeking mosquitoes. The effectiveness of these lures depends not only on their attractiveness to the mosquitoes but also on the medium from which they are dispensed.We report on the development and evaluation of nylon strips as a method of dispensing odorants attractive to the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiaes.s. (Giles).When a synthetic blend of attractants was dispensed using this method, signiÞcantly more mosquitoes were trapped than when two previous methods, open glass vials or low density polyethylene sachets were used. We conclude that the nylon strips are suitable for dispensing odorants in mosquito trapping operations and can be adopted for use in rural and remote areas. The nylon material required is cheap and widely available and the strips can be prepared without specialized equipment or ...
Here, we show that an alpha-proteobacterium of the genus Asaia is stably associated with larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi, an important mosquito vector of Plasmodium vivax, a main malaria agent in Asia. Asaia bacteria dominate mosquito-associated microbiota, as shown by 16S rRNA gene abundance, quantitative PCR, transmission electron microscopy and in situ-hybridization of 165 rRNA genes. In adult mosquitoes, Asaia sp. is present in high population density in the female gut and in the male reproductive tract. Asaia sp. from An. stephensi has been cultured in cell-free media and then transformed with foreign DNA. A green fluorescent protein-tagged Asaia sp. strain effectively lodged in the female gut and salivary glands, sites that are crucial for Plasmodium sp. development and transmission. The larval gut and the male reproductive system were also colonized by the transformed Asaia sp. strain. As an efficient inducible colonizer of mosquitoes that transmit Plasmodium sp., Asaia sp. may ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu lato IS a major vector of malaria in western Kenya where environmental conditions are highly conducive for its survival and reproduction. Breeding mostly occurs in newly formed small and transient water bodies but as the habitats age they may become unattractive for breeding of the species. The aim of this study was to deduce some of the ecological implications of this strategy of early colonization of breeding sites by Anopheles gambiae s.l. Ten semi-natural habitats (5 small and 5 large) were studied longitudinally (sampled same population over time) for a period of 12 weeks with daily sampling of all larval and pupal stages and quantification of all other identifiable aquatic fauna. This was followed by a final census and retrieval of all inhabitants of each habitat. A new set of 10 habitats was investigated together with the old habitats using the same procedures for an additional period of 9 weeks. Larval cohorts lasting on average twelve days were easily noticeable ...
Comparative morphometric and morphological studies of eggs under scanning electron microscope (SEM) were undertaken in the three strains of two karyotypic forms of Anopheles aconitus, i.e., Form B (Chiang Mai and Phet Buri strains) and Form C (Chiang Mai and Mae Hong Son strains). Morphometric examination revealed the intraspecific variation with respect to the float width [36.77 +/- 2.30 microm (Form C: Chiang Mai strain) = 38.49 +/- 2.78 microm (Form B: Chiang Mai strain) = 39.06 +/- 2.37 microm (Form B: Phet Buri strain) , 32.40 +/- 3.52 microm (Form C: Mae Hong Son strain)] and number of posterior tubercles on deck [2.40 +/- 0.52 (Form B: Phet Buri strain) = 2.70 +/- 0.82 (Form B: Chiang Mai strain) ,3.10 +/- 0.32 (Form C: Chiang Mai strain) = 3.20 +/- 0.42 (Form C: Mae Hong Son strain)], whereas the surface topography of eggs among the three strains of two karyotypic forms were morphologically similar.. ...
... for FGENESH the program with parameters for major model organisms is available for on line usage at: http://www.softberry.com/berry.phtml?topic=gfind Method description: A new parameter set for gene prediction Anopheles gambiae is developed for FGENESH program. Accuracy of prediction of Plasmodium falciparum protein coding genes is about 98% on the nucleotide level. The FGENESH algorithm is based on pattern recognition of different types of signals and Markov chain models of coding regions. Optimal combination of these features is then found by dynamic programming and a set of gene models is constructed along given sequence. FGENESH is the fastest and most accurate ab initio gene prediction program available. Fgenesh output: fgenesh Tue Nov 5 16:23:15 EST 2002 FGENESH 1.1 Prediction of potential genes in Anopheles_gambiae genomic DNA Time : Tue Nov 5 16:23:16 2002 Seq name: Softberry SERVER PAST Sequence Length of sequence: 1542 Number of predicted genes ...
To help improve the functional annotation of the Anopheles gambiae genome we have generated the MozAtlas, a unified catalogue of tissue-specific gene expression from a single mosquito strain. In Drosophila melanogaster, cataloguing tissue expression patterns has been useful, especially for inferring biological functions, since the majority of genes encoded in the genome are not ubiquitously expressed [19]. As with the fruit fly, Anopheles gene expression also exhibits substantial tissue specificity, with only a third of detectably expressed genes found in all tissues. Thus, the MozAtlas is a useful resource for better understanding the mosquito genome, providing direct evidence of genes with tissue restricted expression. Below we highlight the utility of MozAtlas for identifying classes of gene with tissue or sex-biased expression that may be exploited for vector control. Analysis of the MozAtlas also identifies gene expression features that are of interest from an evolutionary perspective, ...
Definition of Anopheles culicifacies. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions.
2015) Efficacy, Persistence and Vector Susceptibility to Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) Insecticide for Indoor Residual Spraying in Zanzibar. Parasites & vectors, 8 (1). p. 628. ISSN 1756-3305 (2014) Islands and Stepping-Stones: Comparative Population Structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and Implications for the Spread of Insecticide Resistance. PloS one, 9 (10). e110910. ISSN 1932-6203 (2013) Challenges for Malaria Elimination in Zanzibar: Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Poor Performance of Long-Lasting Insecticide Nets. Parasites & vectors, 6 (1). p. 82. ISSN 1756-3305 (2013) The Dynamics of Pyrethroid Nesistance in Anopheles Arabiensis from Zanzibar and an Assessment of the Underlying Genetic Basis. Parasites & vectors, 6. p. 343. ISSN 1756-3305 ...
Adisak Bhumiratana abstract presented on Adaptation of Anopheles vectors to Anthropogenic Malaria-associated rubber plantations and indoor residual spraying: establishing population dynamics and insecticide susceptibility at Parasitology 2018 | Conferenceseries Ltd
Anopheles introlatus (antes Anopheles balabacensis introlatus) es un mosquito culícido, el principal vector del Plasmodium cynomolgi (una malaria de simios) en Malasia.[1]​ Eyles DE, Warren M, Guinn E, et al. (1963). «Identification of Anopheles balabacensis introlatus as a vector of monkey malaria in Malaya». Bull World Health Organ 28: 134-5. PMID 14166986 ...
a) Female Anopheles Mosquito: As the sexual phase of the malarial parasite occurs in the mosquito it is considered the definitive (= primary) host of malarial parasite.. (b) Human beings: As the asexual phase of the malarial parasite occurs in man, it is considered the intermediate (= secondary) host. As the female Anopheles mosquitoes feed on blood, only they can serve as vector hosts (= carrier) of malarial parasites. The parasite does not harm the mosquito.. Historical Aspects: Lancisi (1717) first suspected a relationship between swamp, ma-laria and mosquito. Laveran (1880) discovered that malaria is caused by protozoan parasite. In fact he discovered Plasmodium. He got Nobel Prize in 1907. His topic of discovery was "Role of Protozoans in Causing Disease".. Golgi (1885) confirmed Laverans discovery by observing stages of Plasmodium malariae in human RBCs. In 1897 Sir Ronald Ross, a doctor who was born at Almora in India and he was in Indian Army, established that malarial parasite is ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was recently reclassified as two species, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s., in wild-caught mosquitoes, on the basis of the molecular form, denoted M or S, of a marker on the X chromosome. The An. gambiae Keele line is an outbred laboratory colony strain that was developed around 12 years ago by crosses between mosquitoes from 4 existing An. gambiae colonies. Laboratory colonies of mosquitoes often have limited genetic diversity because of small starting populations (founder effect) and subsequent fluctuations in colony size. Here we describe the characterisation of the chromosomal form(s) present in the Keele line, and investigate the diversity present in the colony using microsatellite markers on chromosome 3. We also characterise the large 2La inversion on chromosome 2. The results indicate that only the M-form of the chromosome X marker is present in the Keele colony, which was unexpected given that 3 of the 4 parent colonies were probably S-form. Levels of diversity
Tests of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) and linkage disequilibrium among all pairs of loci within populations were done with GENEPOP 3.4 (Raymond and Rousset 1995). Diversity per locus and per population was assessed using allelic richness (RS), observed (HO) and expected (HE) heterozygosities, and inbreeding coefficients (FIS), and their significance was calculated using FSTAT 2.9.3.2 (Goudet 2001). To explore the impact of putative null alleles on our analyses, we used the program MICRO-CHECKER (Van Oosterhout et al. 2004) to estimate null allele frequencies (using the "Brookfield 2" estimator; Brookfield 1996) for potentially affected loci that showed a consistent significant excess of homozygotes across sample sites. Using these estimated frequencies, an adjusted data set, with nulls recoded as separate alleles, was produced for comparison with the original data set.. Genetic relationships within and between forms were assessed using three complementary approaches: two Bayesian clustering ...
Renal function is essential to maintain homeostasis. This is particularly significant for insects that undergo complete metamorphosis; larval mosquitoes must survive a freshwater habitat whereas adults are terrestrial, and mature females must maintain ion and fluid homeostasis after blood feeding. To investigate the physiological adaptations required for successful development to adulthood, we studied the Malpighian tubule transcriptome of Anopheles gambiae using Affymetrix arrays. We assessed transcription under several conditions; as third instar larvae, as adult males fed on sugar, as adult females fed on sugar, and adult females after a blood meal. In addition to providing the most detailed transcriptomic data to date on the Anopheles Malpighian tubules, the data provide unique information on the renal adaptations required for the switch from freshwater to terrestrial habitats, on gender differences, and on the contrast between nectar-feeding and haematophagy. We found clear differences ...
The events between the ingestion of Plasmodium berghei-infected mouse blood and the establishment of the ookinetes in the epithelium of the midgut in refractory (R) and susceptible (S)Anopheles...
Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium falciparum and is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes (pictured above). When an Anopheles mosquito bites a person infected with the malaria parasite, the mosquito becomes a carrier of the disease. When that mosquito bites another person, that person becomes infected with the parasite too. Malaria causes the infected person to develop a fever and flu-like symptoms. While most infected individuals recover from malaria, it can cause death, especially in children. Each year there are between 350 million and 500 million cases of malaria worldwide. Over one million of those people die from the disease. Most of the people who die from malaria are children in Sub-Saharan Africa.. The geographic distribution of malaria depends on climate. Regions where the climate is ideal for the Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit malaria parasites, are more prone to the disease. Anopheles mosquitoes thrive in regions with warm temperatures, humid conditions, and high ...
QUESTION. What are the causes of malaria?. ANSWER. Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes. In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells. Usually, people get malaria by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Only Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria and they must have been infected through a previous blood meal taken on an infected person. When a mosquito bites an infected person, a small amount of blood is taken in which contains microscopic malaria parasites. About 1 week later, when the mosquito takes its next blood meal, these parasites mix with the mosquitos saliva and are injected into the person being bitten.. Because the malaria parasite is found in red blood cells of an infected person, malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, or the shared use of needles or syringes contaminated with blood. Malaria may also be ...
Transmission-blocking interventions aim to reduce the prevalence of infection in endemic communities by targeting Plasmodium within the insect host. Although many studies have reported the successful reduction of infection in the mosquito vector, direct evidence that there is an onward reduction in infection in the vertebrate host is lacking. Here we report the first experiments using a population, transmission-based study of Plasmodium berghei in Anopheles stephensi to assess the impact of a transmission-blocking drug upon both insect and host populations over multiple transmission cycles. We demonstrate that the selected transmission-blocking intervention, which inhibits transmission from vertebrate to insect by only 32%, reduces the basic reproduction number of the parasite by 20%, and in our model system can eliminate Plasmodium from mosquito and mouse populations at low transmission intensities. These findings clearly demonstrate that use of transmission-blocking interventions alone can eliminate
Documents : WHO/Mal/267, WHO/Mal/268 (WHO/Insecticides/113), WHO/Mal/269, WHO/Mal/270 (WHO/Insecticides/114), WHO/Mal/271-273, WHO/Mal/274 (WHO/Insecticides/115), WHO/Mal/275-276, WHO/Mal/277 (WHO/Insecticides/116), WHO/Mal/278-282, bound in 1 ...
Malaria (Anopheles) Mosquito ,Close-up of human skin containing hair follicles, with biting anopheles (malaria) mosquito. This mosquito is characterized by its method of biting its victim with hindlegs suspended in the air. Commercial requests only; no classroom or student inquiries will be answered. Minimum license fee is $300.00. Copyright Teri J. McDermott
Journal of Tropical Medicine is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies on all aspects of tropical diseases. Articles on the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of tropical diseases, parasites and their hosts, epidemiology, and public health issues will be considered. Journal of Tropical Medicine aims to facilitate the communication of advances addressing global health and mortality relating to tropical diseases.
Sawadogo, Simon P., Costantini, Carlo, Pennetier, Cédric, Diabaté, Abdoulaye, Gibson, Gabriella and Dabiré, Roch K. (2013) Differences in timing of mating swarms in sympatric populations of Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles gambiae s.s. (formerly An. gambiae M and S molecular forms) in Burkina Faso, West Africa. Parasites & Vectors, 6 (1):275. ISSN 1756-3305 (Print), 1756-3305 (Online) (doi:10.1186/1756-3305-6-275) Pennetier, Cédric, Warren, Ben, Dabiré, K. Roch, Russell, Ian J. and Gibson, Gabriella (2009) "Singing on the wing" as a mechanism for species recognition in the malarial mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Current Biology, 20 (2). pp. 131-136. ISSN 0960-9822 (doi:10.1016/j.cub.2009.11.040) Bonnet, Julien, Pennetier, Cédric, Duchon, Stéphane, Lapied, Bruno and Corbel, Vincent (2009) Multi-function oxidases are responsible for the synergistic interactions occurring between repellents and insecticides in mosquitoes. Parasites & Vectors, 2 (17). ISSN 1756-3305 (doi:10.1186/1756-3305-2-17) ...
Aedes sp. Marks no. 52: (NSW, QLD) collected occasionally from coastal locations. Has been found breeding in semi-permanent ground pools. Adults are known to bite humans, but it is unlikely to be a significant vector. Anopheles amictus: (NSW, NT, QLD, northern WA) the larvae breed in a variety of groundpools. Several arbovirus including Ross River has been isolated from this species in northern Queensland, and it is a suspect malaria vector. Similar in appearance to Anopheles hilli (Photo). Anopheles annulipes: (all states) see Anopheles annulipes Fact Sheet. (Photo). Anopheles atratipes: (NSW, QLD, SA, TAS, southwest WA) collected in coastal regions and occasionally bites humans near the larval habitat of ground pools. Vector status unknown. (Photo). Anopheles bancroftii: (northern NSW, NT, QLD, northern WA) an extremely dark mosquito in appearance, and collected only from northern Australia. It breeds in shaded, heavily vegetated permanent water. Bites humans and is a suspected vector of ...
The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.
The call for malaria control, over the last century, marked a new epoch in the history of this disease. Many control strategies targeting either the Plasmodium parasite or the Anopheles vector were shown to be effective. Yet, the emergence of drug resistant parasites and insecticide resistant mosquito strains, along with numerous health, environmental, and ecological side effects of many chemical agents, highlighted the need to develop alternative tools that either complement or substitute conventional malaria control approaches. The use of biological means is considered a fundamental part of the recently launched malaria eradication program and has so far shown promising results, although this approach is still in its infancy. This review presents an overview of the most promising biological control tools for malaria eradication, namely fungi, bacteria, larvivorous fish, parasites, viruses and nematodes.
Background: Genetic diversity is a key factor that enables adaptation and persistence of natural populations towards environmental conditions. It is influenced by the interaction of a natural populations dynamics and the environment it inhabits. Anopheles gambiae s.s. and Anopheles arabiensis are the two major and widespread malaria vectors in sub-Saharan Africa. Several studies have examined the ecology and population dynamics of these vectors. Ecological conditions along the Kilombero valley in Tanzania influence the distribution and population density of these two vector species. It remains unclear whether the ecological diversity within the Kilombero valley has affected the population structure of An. gambiae s.l. populations. The goal of this study was to characterise the genetic structure of sympatric An. gambiae s.s and An. arabiensis populations along the Kilombero valley. Methodology: Mosquitoes were collected from seven locations in Tanzania: six from the Kilombero valley and one ...
BACKGROUND : The Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) is characterized as a holoendemic malaria area with the main vectors being Anopheles funestus and members of the Anopheles gambiae complex. Due to political instability and socio-economic challenges in the region, knowledge of insecticide resistance status and resistance mechanisms in these vectors is limited. Mosquitoes were collected from a mining site in the north-eastern part of the country and, following identification, were subjected to extensive testing for the target-site and biochemical basis of resistance. Quantitative real-time PCR was used to assess a suite of 10 genes frequently involved in pyrethroid and dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) resistance in An. gambiae females and males. In An. funestus, gene expression microarray analysis was carried out on female mosquitoes. RESULTS : In both species, deltamethrin resistance was recorded along with high resistance and suspected resistance to DDT in An. gambiae and An. ...
Malaria vector mosquitoes belonging to the Anopheles gambiae complex were studied in four hamlets in The Gambia. All inhabitants were given bednets treated either with a placebo (milk) in two hamlets or with the pyrethroid insecticide permethrin (500 mg/m2) in two other hamlets. Malaria transmission occurred mainly during a few weeks of the rainy season, in September and October 1987. The indoor resting densities of mosquitoes in permethrin-treated hamlets were reduced, and we estimated over 90% reduction in biting on man by An. gambiae Giles sensu stricto in these hamlets. No mosquitoes were found under permethrin-treated bednets compared with eighty-one recovered from placebo-treated bednets. Mosquitoes exited more readily from rooms where permethrin-treated bednets were used than from rooms with placebo-treated nets. The annual mean probability that a child would receive an infective bite was estimated to be 0.09 in hamlets with insecticide-treated bednets, compared with 1.9 where placebo-treated
Resistance to permethrin in an East African population of the major malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae is multifactorial. A mutated sodium channel allele and enhanced insecticide metabolism contribute to the resistance phenotype. We used microsatellite markers to scan the genome for quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with permethrin resistance. Two major and one minor QTL were identified. The first QTL, rtp1, colocalizes with the sodium channel gene on chromosome 2L thus further supporting the importance of mutations in this gene in conferring permethrin resistance. The second two loci are located on the third chromosome and one of these, rtp2, flanks a large cluster of cytochrome P450 genes. Further detailed mapping of these regions will help elucidate the molecular mechanisms of metabolic resistance to insecticides.. ...
Controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) is a critical component of malaria vaccine and drug development and is an important element of any strategy for accelerating the development of new tools for malaria control, elimination and eradication. Until now, CHMI has been performed in malaria naïve subjects from countries not endemic for malaria using both infectious mosquitoes and recently, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites (PfSPZ). Results from these studies report significant infection success in all study subjects and an excellent safety profile.. The conduct of CHMI studies in malaria endemic populations will allow early understanding of responses to new vaccines and drugs in endemic country populations and for direct comparisons between previously exposed and non-exposed individuals. Performing CHMI studies in malaria endemic countries will reduce associated costs, speed-up the process of testing and substantially contribute to the acceleration of the ...
Sri Lanka achieved the WHO certificate as a malaria free country in September 2016, thus monitoring of malaria transmission using sensitive and effective tools is an important need. Use of age-specific antibody prevalence as a serological tool to predict transmission intensity is proven to be a cost effective and reliable method under elimination settings. This paper discusses the correlation of four anti-malarial antibodies against vivax and falciparum malaria with the declining transmission intensities in two previously high malaria endemic districts i.e. Kurunegala and Moneragala of Sri Lanka. Sera was collected from 1,186 individuals from the two districts and were subjected to standard ELISA together with control sera from non-immune individuals to obtain Optical Density (OD) values for four anti-malarial antibodies i.e. anti-MSP1 and anti-AMA1 for both Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium falciparum. The sero-positive samples were determined as mean OD + 3SD of the negative controls. The ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Murine model for assessment of Plasmodium falciparum transmission-blocking vaccine using transgenic Plasmodium berghei parasites expressing the target antigen Pfs25. AU - Mlambo, Godfree. AU - Maciel, Jorge. AU - Kumar, Nirbhay. PY - 2008/5. Y1 - 2008/5. N2 - Currently, there is no animal model for Plasmodium falciparum challenge to evaluate malaria transmission-blocking vaccines based on the well-established Pfs25 target antigen. The biological activity of transmission-blocking antibodies is typically assessed using an assay known as the membrane feeding assay (MFA). It is an in vitro method that involves mixing antibodies with cultured P. falciparum gametocytes and feeding them to mosquitoes through an artificial membrane followed by assessment of infection in the mosquitoes. We genetically modified Plasmodium berghei to express Pfs25 and demonstrated that the transgenic parasites (TrPfs25Pb) are susceptible to anti-Pfs25 antibodies during mosquito-stage development. The ...
The pyrethroid knockdown resistance gene (kdr) has become widespread in Anopheles gambiae in West Africa. A trial to test the continuing efficacy of insecticide-treated nets (ITN) and indoor residual spraying (IRS) was undertaken in experimental huts at 2 sites in Benin, the first where kdr is present at high frequency (Ladji), the second-where An. gambiae is susceptible (Malanville). Holes were made in the nets to mimic worn nets. At Malanville, 96% of susceptible An. gambiae were inhibited from blood-feeding, whereas at Ladji feeding was uninhibited by ITNs. The mortality rate of An. gambiae in ITN huts was 98% in Malanville but only 30% at Ladji. The efficacy of IRS was equally compromised. Mosquitoes at Ladji had higher oxidase and esterase activity than in a laboratory-susceptible strain, but this fact did not seem to contribute to resistance. Pyrethroid resistance in An. gambiae appears to threaten the future of ITN and IRS in Benin ...

Insect Odorant Receptors Are Molecular Targets of the Insect Repellent DEET - NASA/ADSInsect Odorant Receptors Are Molecular Targets of the Insect Repellent DEET - NASA/ADS

Here, we show that DEET blocks electrophysiological responses of olfactory sensory neurons to attractive odors in Anopheles ... Here, we show that DEET blocks electrophysiological responses of olfactory sensory neurons to attractive odors in Anopheles ...
more infohttps://ui.adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008Sci...319.1838D

Anopheles - Viquipèdia, lenciclopèdia lliureAnopheles - Viquipèdia, l'enciclopèdia lliure

Anopheles gambiae és una de les més conegudes a causa del seu paper important en la transmissió del Plasmodium falciparum. ... Anopheles és un gènere de dípters nematòcers de la família Cuculidae. Nhi ha aproximadament 400 espècies, de les quals 30-40 ... Com tots els mosquits, els Anopheles travessen quatre fases: ou, larva, pupa i adult. Les primeres 3 etapes transcorren en medi ... Mapa del món mostrant la distribució de diversos mosquits Anopheles. *Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit. - Enllaços a catàleg en ...
more infohttps://ca.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anopheles

ArboCat Virus: Anopheles A (ANAV)ArboCat Virus: Anopheles A (ANAV)

Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/Arbocat/VirusDetails.aspx?ID=23&SID=9

ArboCat Virus: Anopheles B (ANBV)ArboCat Virus: Anopheles B (ANBV)

Note: Javascript is disabled or is not supported by your browser. For this reason, some items on this page will be unavailable. For more information about this message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov ...
more infohttps://wwwn.cdc.gov/Arbocat/VirusDetails.aspx?ID=24&SID=14

Anopheles aztecus definition | Drugs.comAnopheles aztecus definition | Drugs.com

Definition of Anopheles aztecus. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ...
more infohttps://www.drugs.com/dict/anopheles-aztecus.html

Anopheles Eradication in Cyprus | The BMJAnopheles Eradication in Cyprus | The BMJ

Anopheles Eradication in Cyprus. Br Med J 1949; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4619.176-a (Published 16 July 1949) Cite ...
more infohttp://www.bmj.com/content/2/4619/176.2

Anopheles gambiae Gene finding parametersAnopheles gambiae Gene finding parameters

... Softberry Team softberry at softberry.com Tue Nov 5 16:33:34 EST 2002 *Previous ... Anopheles gambiae Gene finding parameters for FGENESH the program with parameters for major model organisms is available for on ... Fgenesh output: fgenesh Tue Nov 5 16:23:15 EST 2002 FGENESH 1.1 Prediction of potential genes in Anopheles_gambiae genomic DNA ... A new parameter set for gene prediction Anopheles gambiae is developed for FGENESH program. Accuracy of prediction of ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/genstruc/2002-November/000364.html

Anopheles - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebasAnopheles - Wikipedia bahasa Indonesia, ensiklopedia bebas

Anopheles minimus. Anopheles moucheti. Anopheles nili. Anopheles ovengensis. Anopheles pampanae. Anopheles peytoni. Anopheles ... Anopheles beklemishevi. Anopheles coustani. Anopheles crypticus. Anopheles farauti. Anopheles forattinii. Anopheles funestus. ... Anopheles gambiae. Anopheles grabhamii. Anopheles hailarensis. Anopheles halophylus. Anopheles hyrcanus. Anopheles kosiensis. ... Anopheles (nyamuk malaria) merupakan salah satu genus nyamuk. Terdapat 400 spesies nyamuk Anopheles, namun hanya 30-40 ...
more infohttps://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anopheles

Odorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae | NatureOdorant reception in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae | Nature

Now the entire repertoire of odorant receptor proteins in the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, the major malaria vector in sub- ... Our analysis of the Anopheles gambiae repertoire identifies receptors that may be useful targets for controlling the ... Here we functionally characterize the Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor (AgOr) repertoire. We identify receptors that respond ... This analysis of the Anopheles gambiae receptors permits a comparison with the corresponding Drosophila melanogaster odorant ...
more infohttps://www.nature.com/articles/nature08834?error=cookies_not_supported&code=64653e9a-51bb-49e6-977f-a9406f3303db

Anopheles labranchiae | BioLib.czAnopheles labranchiae | BioLib.cz

Anopheles labranchiae Falleroni, 1926 kingdom Animalia - animals » phylum Arthropoda - arthropods » class Insecta - insects » ... order Diptera - true flies, mosquitoes and gnats » family Culicidae - mosquitoes » genus Anopheles » subgenus Anopheles ... Pest Information Wiki [Anopheles_labranchiae] Pest Information Wiki [http://wiki.pestinfo.org] [as Anopheles labranchiae ( ... de Jong, Y.S.D.M. (ed.): Fauna Europaea [http://www.faunaeur.org] [as Anopheles labranchiae Falleroni, 1926]. Data retrieved on ...
more infohttps://www.biolib.cz/en/taxon/id118203/

Anopheles darlingi, whole genome shotgun sequencing project - Nucleotide - NCBIAnopheles darlingi, whole genome shotgun sequencing project - Nucleotide - NCBI

Anopheles darlingi, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Anopheles darlingi, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. gi, ... Anopheles darlingi, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. GenBank: ADMH00000000.2. * This entry is the master record for a ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/ADMH00000000

Anopheles sinensis, whole genome shotgun sequencing project - Nucleotide - NCBIAnopheles sinensis, whole genome shotgun sequencing project - Nucleotide - NCBI

Anopheles sinensis, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Anopheles sinensis, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. gi, ... Anopheles sinensis, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. GenBank: ATLV00000000.1. * This entry is the master record for a ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/ATLV00000000

anopheles sinensis | MalariaWorldanopheles sinensis | MalariaWorld

A standard cytogenetic map for Anopheles sinensis and chromosome arm homology between the subgenera Anopheles and Cellia. ... Read more about A standard cytogenetic map for Anopheles sinensis and chromosome arm homology between the subgenera Anopheles ... Genome sequence of Anopheles sinensis provides insight into genetics basis of mosquito competence for malaria parasites. ... Genetic variations of ND5 gene of mtDNA in populations of Anopheles sinensis (Diptera: Culicidae) malaria vector in China. ...
more infohttps://malariaworld.org/category/calais-document-category/calais-document-category-519?page=1

anopheles species | MalariaWorldanopheles species | MalariaWorld

Preliminary survey on Anopheles species distribution in Botswana shows the presence of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus ... Detection of Anopheles rivulorum-like, a member of the Anopheles funestus group, in South Africa. May 15, 2018 - 14:41 -- Open ... Read more about Detection of Anopheles rivulorum-like, a member of the Anopheles funestus group, in South Africa ... Read more about Preliminary survey on Anopheles species distribution in Botswana shows the presence of Anopheles gambiae and ...
more infohttps://malariaworld.org/category/calais-document-category/calais-document-category-1025

Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae | PNASCentromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae | PNAS

Characterization of swarming and mating behaviour between Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles melas in a sympatry area of Benin ... Evidence for late Pleistocene population expansion of the malarial mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/102/44/15930/tab-article-info

Anopheles stephensi...Anopheles stephensi...

Anopheles stephensi Liston is a major malaria vector with a geographical range from the Middle East through the Indian ... Genome analysis of a major urban malaria vector mosquito, Anopheles stephensi. Genome Analysis Of Vectorial Capacity In Major ... The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic ... Throughout its natural range, Anopheles stephensi is an important vector for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax. ...
more infohttps://www.vectorbase.org/organisms/anopheles-stephensi

Arrestin C domain-containing protein - Anopheles farautiArrestin C domain-containing protein - Anopheles farauti

Anopheles farautiImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,A0A182QD30,A0A182QD30_9DIPT Arrestin_C domain-containing protein OS=Anopheles farauti OX=69004 PE=4 SV=1 ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/uniprot/A0A182QD30

Anopheles farauti | VectorBaseAnopheles farauti | VectorBase

Anopheles irenicus is not anthropophilic whereas An. farauti s.s. readily bites humans. Feeding of An. farauti s.l. is mainly ... Anopheles farauti sensu stricto (formerly A. farauti 1) is distributed in Papua New Guinea and Australia where it is and it was ... Anopheles farauti is a complex of seven species distributed in the Moluccas (Indonesia) and extend eastward through Papua New ... The dominant Anopheles vectors of human malaria in the Asia-Pacific region: occurrence data, distribution maps and bionomic ...
more infohttps://www.vectorbase.org/node/9766378

anopheles pronunciation: How to pronounce anopheles in Englishanopheles pronunciation: How to pronounce anopheles in English

Learn how to pronounce anopheles in English with native pronunciation. anopheles translation and audio pronunciation ... anopheles pronunciation Pronunciation by carsonpowers (Male from United States) 0 votes Good Bad ... Can you pronounce it better? Or with a different accent? Pronounce anopheles in English ...
more infohttps://forvo.com/word/anopheles/

Anopheles - WikipediaAnopheles - Wikipedia

Taxonomy of Anopheles Tropical disease "Anopheles - Define Anopheles at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Angus Stevenson (19 ... The Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus clades diverged between 80 million years ago and 36 million years ago. A molecular ... Two main groupings within the genus Anopheles are used: one formed by the Cellia and Anopheles subgenera and a second by ... Anopheles Database Anopheles gambiae Genome and Related Data CDC - National Center for Infectious Diseases, Division of ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anopheles

Insecticide resistance in Anopheles sacharovi Favre in southern Turkey.Insecticide resistance in Anopheles sacharovi Favre in southern Turkey.

Kasap, H., Kasap, M., Alptekin, D., Lüleyap, U. & Herath, P. R. (‎2000)‎. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles sacharovi Favre ...
more infohttp://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/268142

Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania | RTIMultiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania | RTI

Results: Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant malaria specie in the country, accounting for 52% of the sibling species ... Molecular assay were used to determine distribution of Anopheles gambiae sub-species. A microplate assay approach was used for ... Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania. A major concern for malaria vector control ... Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania: A major concern for malaria vector control. Malaria Journal ...
more infohttps://www.rti.org/publication/multiple-insecticide-resistance-anopheles-gambiae-tanzania

Anopheles punctipennis - WikipediaAnopheles punctipennis - Wikipedia

Anopheles punctipennis is a species of mosquito in genus Anopheles. It is native to North America. The larvae of this species ... Anopheles punctipennis. Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) Anopheles punctipennis. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit ... 1998). Lake Vera revisited: parity and survival rates of Anopheles punctipennis at the site of a malaria outbreak in the Sierra ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anopheles_punctipennis

mRNA processing (Anopheles gambiae) - WikiPathwaysmRNA processing (Anopheles gambiae) - WikiPathways

Anopheles gambiae License=CC BY 2.0, ,Comment Source=GenMAPP notes,Gene lists from obtained from InterPro 9-23-2003: Mm ...
more infohttps://www.wikipathways.org/index.php?title=Pathway:WP1229&action=edit&oldid=40476
  • Anopheles gambiae és una de les més conegudes a causa del seu paper important en la transmissió del Plasmodium falciparum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Plasmodium falciparum ) dalam kawasan endemik di Afrika, sedangkan Anopheles sundaicus adalah penyebar malaria di Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Throughout its natural range, Anopheles stephensi is an important vector for both Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax . (vectorbase.org)
  • Simultaneous microarray-based transcription analysis of 4987 Anopheles stephensi midgut and Plasmodium berghei infection stage specific cDNAs was done at seven successive time points: 6, 20 and 40h, and 4, 8, 14 and 20 days after ingestion of malaria infected blood. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • The study reveals the molecular components of several Anopheles processes relating to blood digestion, midgut expansion and response to Plasmodium-infected blood such as digestive enzymes, transporters, cytoskeletal and structural components and stress and immune responsive factors. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Temporal correlation between transcription profiles of both organisms identifies putative gene clusters of interacting processes, such as Plasmodium invasion of the midgut epithelium, Anopheles immune responses to Plasmodium infection, and apoptosis and expulsion of invaded midgut cells from the epithelium. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Quando Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say e Anopheles stephensi Liston foram incluídas como grupos externos, os dados combinados dos genes White e COI recuperaram o monofiletismo de An. (usp.br)
  • When Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Anopheles stephensi Liston were included as outgroups, combined white and COI data resolved An. (usp.br)
  • The system of subgenera originated with the work of Christophers, who in 1915 described three subgenera: Anopheles (widely distributed), Myzomyia (later renamed Cellia) (Old World) and Nyssorhynchus (Neotropical). (wikipedia.org)
  • The larger subgenera (Anopheles, Cellia and Nyssorhynchus) have been subdivided into sections and series which in turn have been divided into groups and subgroups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anopheles albertoi Unti e Anopheles arthuri Unti são retiradas da sinonímia com Anopheles strodei Root, e uma forma morfologicamente distinta, adiante designada Anopheles CP, do Complexo Strodei de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) é caracterizada. (usp.br)
  • Anopheles albertoi Unti and Anopheles arthuri Unti are revived from the synonymy with Anopheles strodei Root, and a distinct morphological form (herein designated Anopheles CP Form) from the Strodei complex of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) is characterized. (usp.br)
  • The Anopheles genome, at 230-284 million base pairs (Mbp), is comparable in size to that of Drosophila, but considerably smaller than those found in other culicine genomes (528 Mbp-1.9 Gbp). (wikipedia.org)
  • http://www.softberry.com/berry.phtml?topic=gfind Method description: A new parameter set for gene prediction Anopheles gambiae is developed for FGENESH program. (bio.net)
  • This analysis of the Anopheles gambiae receptors permits a comparison with the corresponding Drosophila melanogaster odorant receptor repertoire. (nature.com)
  • An association of brain tumor incidence and malaria suggests the Anopheles might transmit a virus or other agent that could cause a brain tumor. (wikipedia.org)
  • Identification of olfactory stimulants for Anopheles gambiae from human sweat samples. (nature.com)
  • Identification of Anopheles CP Form was based on morphological characters of the male genitalia, here characterized and illustrated. (usp.br)
  • This work provides first time evidence of Anopheles diversity in several areas of Botswana. (malariaworld.org)
  • 1998). Lake Vera revisited: parity and survival rates of Anopheles punctipennis at the site of a malaria outbreak in the Sierra Nevada foothills of California. (wikipedia.org)
  • The single sequence of Anopheles CP Form was recovered well separated from other groups in all analyses. (usp.br)
  • arthuri and Anopheles CP Form. (usp.br)
  • A survey of Anopheles pseudopunctipennis larval habitats was performed throughout most of its known geographic range. (dtic.mil)