A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) that are known vectors of MALARIA.
A species of mosquito in the genus Anopheles and the principle vector of MALARIA in Africa.
Insects that transmit infective organisms from one host to another or from an inanimate reservoir to an animate host.
The development by insects of resistance to insecticides.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
The reduction or regulation of the population of mosquitoes through chemical, biological, or other means.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
The active insecticidal constituent of CHRYSANTHEMUM CINERARIIFOLIUM flowers. Pyrethrin I is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemummonocarboxylic acid and pyrethrin II is the pyretholone ester of chrysanthemumdicarboxylic acid monomethyl ester.
A discipline or occupation concerned with the study of INSECTS, including the biology and the control of insects.
Bites and stings inflicted by insects.
Invertebrates or non-human vertebrates which transmit infective organisms from one host to another.
A medical specialty concerned with the hypersensitivity of the individual to foreign substances and protection from the resultant infection or disorder.
Proteins found in any species of insect.
A family of the order DIPTERA that comprises the mosquitoes. The larval stages are aquatic, and the adults can be recognized by the characteristic WINGS, ANIMAL venation, the scales along the wing veins, and the long proboscis. Many species are of particular medical importance.
Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.
A genus of protozoa that comprise the malaria parasites of mammals. Four species infect humans (although occasional infections with primate malarias may occur). These are PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; PLASMODIUM OVALE, and PLASMODIUM VIVAX. Species causing infection in vertebrates other than man include: PLASMODIUM BERGHEI; PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI; P. vinckei, and PLASMODIUM YOELII in rodents; P. brasilianum, PLASMODIUM CYNOMOLGI; and PLASMODIUM KNOWLESI in monkeys; and PLASMODIUM GALLINACEUM in chickens.
A pyrethroid insecticide commonly used in the treatment of LICE INFESTATIONS and SCABIES.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) commonly found in tropical regions. Species of this genus are vectors for ST. LOUIS ENCEPHALITIS as well as many other diseases of man and domestic and wild animals.
Substances causing insects to turn away from them or reject them as food.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER and between TOGO and NIGERIA. Its capital is Porto-Novo. It was formerly called Dahomey. In the 17th century it was a kingdom in the southern area of Africa. Coastal footholds were established by the French who deposed the ruler by 1892. It was made a French colony in 1894 and gained independence in 1960. Benin comes from the name of the indigenous inhabitants, the Bini, now more closely linked with southern Nigeria (Benin City, a town there). Bini may be related to the Arabic bani, sons. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p136, 310 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p60)
Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.
The product of meiotic division of zygotes in parasitic protozoa comprising haploid cells. These infective cells invade the host and undergo asexual reproduction producing MEROZOITES (or other forms) and ultimately gametocytes.
A protozoan parasite of rodents transmitted by the mosquito Anopheles dureni.
Zygote-containing cysts of sporozoan protozoa. Further development in an oocyst produces small individual infective organisms called SPOROZOITES. Then, depending on the genus, the entire oocyst is called a sporocyst or the oocyst contains multiple sporocysts encapsulating the sporozoites.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.
A protozoan parasite that causes vivax malaria (MALARIA, VIVAX). This species is found almost everywhere malaria is endemic and is the only one that has a range extending into the temperate regions.
A republic in western Africa, southwest of MAURITANIA and east of MALI. Its capital is Dakar.
The genetic complement of an insect (INSECTS) as represented in its DNA.
Lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester, nylon (polyamides), or other material impregnated with insecticide, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby offering protection against insect bite and insect-borne diseases.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
A country in western Africa, east of MAURITANIA and south of ALGERIA. Its capital is Bamako. From 1904-1920 it was known as Upper Senegal-Niger; prior to 1958, as French Sudan; 1958-1960 as the Sudanese Republic and 1959-1960 it joined Senegal in the Mali Federation. It became an independent republic in 1960.
An organochlorine insecticide whose use has been cancelled or suspended in the United States. It has been used to control locusts, tropical disease vectors, in termite control by direct soil injection, and non-food seed and plant treatment. (From HSDB)
The process of laying or shedding fully developed eggs (OVA) from the female body. The term is usually used for certain INSECTS or FISHES with an organ called ovipositor where eggs are stored or deposited before expulsion from the body.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
A genus of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) frequently found in tropical and subtropical regions. YELLOW FEVER and DENGUE are two of the diseases that can be transmitted by species of this genus.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide.
Glands that secrete SALIVA in the MOUTH. There are three pairs of salivary glands (PAROTID GLAND; SUBLINGUAL GLAND; SUBMANDIBULAR GLAND).
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.
Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM VIVAX. This form of malaria is less severe than MALARIA, FALCIPARUM, but there is a higher probability for relapses to occur. Febrile paroxysms often occur every other day.
A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.
Functional proteins that do not have unique, stable, folded, three-dimensional native structures or that possess non-ordered regions under physiological conditions. They are characterized by extraordinary structural flexibility and plasticity, which enable them to adopt different conformations in response to different stimuli or different interactions.
The geographical area of Africa comprising BENIN; BURKINA FASO; COTE D'IVOIRE; GAMBIA; GHANA; GUINEA; GUINEA-BISSAU; LIBERIA; MALI; MAURITANIA; NIGER; NIGERIA; SENEGAL; SIERRA LEONE; and TOGO.
Phenyl esters of carbamic acid or of N-substituted carbamic acids. Structures are similar to PHENYLUREA COMPOUNDS with a carbamate in place of the urea.
Use of naturally-occuring or genetically-engineered organisms to reduce or eliminate populations of pests.
A mitosporic fungal genus. Teleomorphs are found in the family Clavicipitaceae and include Cordyceps bassiana. The species Beauveria bassiana is a common pathogen of ARTHROPODS and is used in PEST CONTROL.
A compound used as a topical insect repellent that may cause irritation to eyes and mucous membranes, but not to the skin.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
A carbamate insecticide.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A group of organs stretching from the MOUTH to the ANUS, serving to breakdown foods, assimilate nutrients, and eliminate waste. In humans, the digestive system includes the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT and the accessory glands (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An aberration in which a chromosomal segment is deleted and reinserted in the same place but turned 180 degrees from its original orientation, so that the gene sequence for the segment is reversed with respect to that of the rest of the chromosome.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The reduction or regulation of the population of noxious, destructive, or dangerous insects through chemical, biological, or other means.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Structures within the CELL NUCLEUS of insect cells containing DNA.
Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
Living facilities for humans.
The continuous sequence of changes undergone by living organisms during the post-embryonic developmental process, such as metamorphosis in insects and amphibians. This includes the developmental stages of apicomplexans such as the malarial parasite, PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM.
Rare congenital lymphoid disorder due to mutations in certain Fas-Fas ligand pathway genes. Known causes include mutations in FAS, TNFSF6, NRAS, CASP8, and CASP10 proteins. Clinical features include LYMPHADENOPATHY; SPLENOMEGALY; and AUTOIMMUNITY.
A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.
The collective name for the islands of the Pacific Ocean northeast of Australia, including NEW CALEDONIA; VANUATU; New Hebrides, Solomon Islands, Admiralty Islands, Bismarck Archipelago, FIJI, etc. Melanesia (from the Greek melas, black + nesos, island) is so called from the black color of the natives who are generally considered to be descended originally from the Negroid Papuans and the Polynesians or Malays. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p748 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p344)
A wide spectrum aliphatic organophosphate insecticide widely used for both domestic and commercial agricultural purposes.
Extra large CHROMOSOMES, each consisting of many identical copies of a chromosome lying next to each other in parallel.
A mitosporic fungal genus in the family Clavicipitaceae. It has teleomorphs in the family Nectriaceae. Metarhizium anisopliae is used in PESTICIDES.
Proteins, usually projecting from the cilia of olfactory receptor neurons, that specifically bind odorant molecules and trigger responses in the neurons. The large number of different odorant receptors appears to arise from several gene families or subfamilies rather than from DNA rearrangement.
A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.
A protozoan parasite that occurs primarily in subtropical and temperate areas. It is the causal agent of quartan malaria. As the parasite grows it exhibits little ameboid activity.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)
Change in the surface ANTIGEN of a microorganism. There are two different types. One is a phenomenon, especially associated with INFLUENZA VIRUSES, where they undergo spontaneous variation both as slow antigenic drift and sudden emergence of new strains (antigenic shift). The second type is when certain PARASITES, especially trypanosomes, PLASMODIUM, and BORRELIA, survive the immune response of the host by changing the surface coat (antigen switching). (From Herbert et al., The Dictionary of Immunology, 4th ed)
Communications using an active or passive satellite to extend the range of radio, television, or other electronic transmission by returning signals to earth from an orbiting satellite.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A republic in western Africa, south of SENEGAL and MALI, east of GUINEA-BISSAU. Its capital is Conakry.
A superfamily of nematodes of the order ENOPLIDA. Characteristics include a reduced alimentary tract and the presence of a trophosome. Its organisms can be present in the human intestine through ingestion of unwashed or contaminated raw vegetables.
The blood/lymphlike nutrient fluid of some invertebrates.
An inactive stage between the larval and adult stages in the life cycle of insects.
Free-standing or supported lightweight meshwork fabric made of cotton, silk, polyester or other material, having openings too small to allow entry of mosquitoes or other insects, thereby protecting against INSECT BITES; INSECT STINGS, and insect-borne diseases.
A French overseas department on the northeast coast of South America. Its capital is Cayenne. It was first settled by the French in 1604. Early development was hindered because of the presence of a penal colony. The name of the country and the capital are variants of Guyana, possibly from the native Indian Guarani guai (born) + ana (kin), implying a united and interrelated race of people. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p418 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p195)

Can anything be done to maintain the effectiveness of pyrethroid-impregnated bednets against malaria vectors? (1/1919)

Pyrethroid-treated bednets are the most promising available method of controlling malaria in the tropical world. Every effort should be made to find methods of responding to, or preventing, the emergence of pyrethroid resistance in the Anopheles vectors. Some cases of such resistance are known, notably in An. gambiae in West Africa where the kdr type of resistance has been selected, probably because of the use of pyrethroids on cotton. Because pyrethroids are irritant to mosquitoes, laboratory studies on the impact of, and selection for, resistance need to be conducted with free-flying mosquitoes in conditions that are as realistic as possible. Such studies are beginning to suggest that, although there is cross-resistance to all pyrethroids, some treatments are less likely to select for resistance than others are. Organophosphate, carbamate and phenyl pyrazole insecticides have been tested as alternative treatments for nets or curtains. Attempts have been made to mix an insect growth regulator and a pyrethroid on netting to sterilize pyrethroid-resistant mosquitoes that are not killed after contact with the netting. There seems to be no easy solution to the problem of pyrethroid resistance management, but further research is urgently needed.  (+info)

Anopheles gambiae Ag-STAT, a new insect member of the STAT family, is activated in response to bacterial infection. (2/1919)

A new insect member of the STAT family of transcription factors (Ag-STAT) has been cloned from the human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae. The domain involved in DNA interaction and the SH2 domain are well conserved. Ag-STAT is most similar to Drosophila D-STAT and to vertebrate STATs 5 and 6, constituting a proposed ancient class A of the STAT family. The mRNA is expressed at all developmental stages, and the protein is present in hemocytes, pericardial cells, midgut, skeletal muscle and fat body cells. There is no evidence of transcriptional activation following bacterial challenge. However, bacterial challenge results in nuclear translocation of Ag-STAT protein in fat body cells and induction of DNA-binding activity that recognizes a STAT target site. In vitro treatment with pervanadate (vanadate and H2O2) translocates Ag-STAT to the nucleus in midgut epithelial cells. This is the first evidence of direct participation of the STAT pathway in immune responses in insects.  (+info)

Purification and cloning of the salivary peroxidase/catechol oxidase of the mosquito Anopheles albimanus. (3/1919)

Salivary homogenates of the adult female mosquito Anopheles albimanus have been shown previously to contain a vasodilatory activity associated with a catechol oxidase/peroxidase activity. We have now purified the salivary peroxidase using high-performance liquid chromatography. The pure enzyme is able to relax rabbit aortic rings pre-constricted with norepinephrine. The peroxidase has a relative molecular mass of 66 907 as estimated by mass spectrometry. Amino-terminal sequencing allowed us to design oligonucleotide probes for isolation of cDNA clones derived from the salivary gland mRNA from female mosquitoes. The full sequence of the cDNA demonstrated homology between A. albimanus salivary peroxidase and several members of the myeloperoxidase gene family. A close comparison of A. albimanus salivary peroxidase with canine myeloperoxidase, for which the crystal structure is known, showed that all six disulfide bridges were conserved and demonstrated identity for all five residues associated with a Ca2+-binding site. In addition, 16 of 26 residues shown to be in close proximity to the heme moiety in the canine myeloperoxidase were identical. We conclude that the salivary peroxidase of A. albimanus belongs to the myeloperoxidase gene family. Other possible functions for this molecule in blood feeding are discussed.  (+info)

Can vector control play a useful supplementary role against bancroftian filariasis? (4/1919)

A single campaign of mass treatment for bancroftian filariasis with diethylcarbamazine (DEC) in Makunduchi, a town in Zanzibar, United Republic of Tanzania, combined with elimination of mosquito breeding in pit latrines with polystyrene beads was followed by a progressive decline over a 5-year period in the microfilarial rate from 49% to 3%. Evidence that vector control had contributed to this long-term decline was obtained by comparison with another town, Moga, where a DEC campaign was used without vector control and where resurgence of microfilariae could be observed 3-6 years after the campaign. In Zanzibar town, treatment of 3844 wet pit latrines and cesspits with polystyrene beads reduced the adult mosquito population in houses by about 65%. Supplementary treatment of open drains and marshes with Bacillus sphaericus produced little or no additional reduction compared to a sector of the town where only pit treatment with polystyrene was carried out. The cost and effort of achieving the 65% reduction in mosquito population could hardly be justified for its impact on filariasis alone, but its noticeable impact on biting nuisance might help to gain community support for an integrated programme.  (+info)

Bancroftian filariasis in an irrigation project community in southern Ghana. (5/1919)

An epidemiological study to document the endemicity and transmission characteristics of bancroftian filariasis was conducted in an irrigation project community in southern Ghana. In a 50% random sample of the population, the prevalence of microfilaraemia was 26.4% and the geometric mean microfilarial intensity among positives was 819 microfilariae/ml of blood. Hydrocoele was found in 13.8% of the males aged > or =18 years, and 1.4% of the residents examined, all females, had tymphoedema/elephantiasis. Detailed monitoring of the microfilarial intensity in 8 individuals over a 24-h period confirmed its nocturnal periodicity with a peak at approximately 0100 hours. The most important vector was Anopheles gambiae s.l., followed by An. funestus. The abundance of these mosquitoes and their relative importance as vectors varied considerably between the wet and the dry season. Opening of the irrigation canals late in the dry season resulted in a remarkable increase in the population of An. gambiae (8.3% of which carried infective filarial larvae) to levels comparable to those seen during the wet season, suggesting that the irrigation project is responsible for increased transmission of lymphatic filariasis in the community.  (+info)

Host haematological factors influencing the transmission of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes to Anopheles gambiae s.s. mosquitoes. (6/1919)

We investigated the relationship between selected host haematological and parasitological parameters and the density and infectivity of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes. 143 individuals (age range 1-62 years) attending an outpatient clinic in Farafenni, The Gambia, who had peripheral blood gametocytaemia were recruited (mean gametocyte density 123.7/microl, range 5-17,000/microl). Of the parameters measured, packed cell volume (PCV), reticulocyte count (RetC) and lymphocyte count (LyC) were significantly associated with gametocyte density (r = - 0.17, P < 0.05; r = 0.21, P < 0.01; r = 0.18, P < 0.05, respectively). Data from membrane feeding experiments in which 15 or more mosquitoes were dissected showed that 60.7% (53/87) of gametocyte carriers infected one or more mosquitoes. Gametocyte density was strongly correlated with transmission success (TS) (r = 0.3, P < 0.005) and, in successful infections, with both mosquito prevalence (MP) (r = 0.36, P < 0.005) and mean oocyst burden (MOB) (r = 0.65, P < 0.0001). None of the other factors measured were significantly associated with any of these indices in bivariate analysis. Regression modelling showed that both gametocyte density and PCV were positively associated with gametocyte carrier infectivity to mosquitoes (LRchi2 = 100.7 and 47.2, respectively) and, in successful infections, with MOB (beta = 0.16, t = 4.9, P < 0.001; beta = 0.02, t = 2.3, P < 0.05, respectively). The positive association with PCV suggests that blood meal quality influences infection probably as a nutritional requirement, however, as this effect was most apparent at high gametocyte densities, its epidemiological significance is questionable. Though the haematological parameters associated with gametocyte density are a direct consequence of asexual infection, they may also represent an adaptive mechanism for optimization of sexual stage development.  (+info)

Control of malaria vectors: cost analysis in a province of northern Vietnam. (7/1919)

The cost of permethrin-treated bednets (50% EC; 0.2 g/m2, 2 rounds per year) was compared to the cost of residual spraying with lambdacyhalothrin 10% WP (0.03 g/m2, once yearly) in Hoa Binh, a mountainous province in northern Vietnam. Calculations of the amounts of insecticides needed were based on national guidelines, on data from a cross-sectional survey and on district activity reports. The actual cost of insecticide required per person per year was lower for impregnation (US$ 0.26) than for spraying (US$ 0.36), but the difference was smaller than expected. The total cost for impregnated bednets per person per year amounted to US$ 0.90 compared to USS 0.47 for spraying. The determining factor was the cost of the net, amounting to US$ 0.58 per person per year, assuming a 5-year life of the net. Other material (excluding nets), labour and transport combined, accounted for only 17% of the impregnation cost and 23% of spraying expenses. However, for the National Malaria Control Programme of Vietnam, the cost per person per year for impregnated bednets amounted to US$ 0.32 only, because the vast majority of nets are bought by the population. For spraying, the programme had to bear the entire cost.  (+info)

A hemocyte-like cell line established from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae expresses six prophenoloxidase genes. (8/1919)

Cell lines from the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae have been established as a tool for the study of the mosquito innate immune system in vitro. Here, we describe the first continuous insect cell line that produces prophenoloxidase (PPO). This cell line (4a-3B) expresses constitutively six PPO genes, three of which are novel (PPO4, PPO5, and PPO6). The PPO genes show distinct temporal expression profiles in the intact mosquito, spanning stages from the embryo to the adult in an overlapping manner. Transient induction of larva-specific PPO genes in blood-fed adult females suggests that the developmental hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone may be involved in PPO gene regulation. Indeed, exposure of 4a-3B cells to 20-hydroxyecdysone in culture results in induction of those PPO genes that are mainly expressed in early developmental stages, and repression of PPO5, which is preferentially expressed at the adult stage. The cell line shows bacteria-induced immune transcripts that encode defensin and Gram-negative bacteria-binding protein, but no induction of PPO transcripts. This cell line most likely derives from a hemocyte lineage, and represents an appropriate in vitro model for the study of the humoral and cellular immune defenses of A. gambiae.  (+info)

Introduction. Malaria vector control in southern Africa relies mainly on indoor residual house spraying (IRS) with insecticides. Synthetic pyrethroids and DDT (dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethane) are used in IRS applications, while permethrin-treated bed-nets are used for personal protection in some households. DDT was introduced for malaria control in 1946 in South Africa and remained in use until 1996 when the choice of insecticide was changed to the pyrethroid deltamethrin.1 Following a major upsurge of malaria cases in 1999/2000 and the detection of pyrethroid resistance in the major malaria vector Anopheles funestus,2 DDT was re-introduced in 2001 and a marked reduction in malaria morbidity and mortality was recorded.3,4 Deltamethrin is currently used in modern-style houses with painted walls while DDT is used in traditional houses.. Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in southern Africa, second only to Anopheles funestus. Historically, it has been considered to be susceptible to ...
Mosquito control remains a central pillar of efforts to reduce malaria burden in sub-Saharan Africa. However, insecticide resistance is entrenched in malaria vector populations, and countries with a high malaria burden face a daunting challenge to sustain malaria control with a limited set of surveillance and intervention tools. Here we report on the second phase of a project to build an open resource of high-quality data on genome variation among natural populations of the major African malaria vector species |i|Anopheles gambiae|/i| and |i|Anopheles coluzzii|/i| We analyzed whole genomes of 1142 individual mosquitoes sampled from the wild in 13 African countries, as well as a further 234 individuals comprising parents and progeny of 11 laboratory crosses. The data resource includes high-confidence single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) calls at 57 million variable sites, genome-wide copy number variation (CNV) calls, and haplotypes phased at biallelic SNPs. We use these data to analyze genetic
Anopheles funestus Giles is a major malaria vector in Africa belonging to a group of species with morphologically similar characteristics. Morphological identification of members of the A. funestus group is difficult because of overlap of distinguishing characteristics in adult or immature stages as well as the necessity to rear isofemale lines to examine larval and egg characters. A rapid rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method has been developed to accurately identify five members of the A. funestus group. This PCR is based on species-specific primers in the ITS2 region on the rDNA to identify A. funestus (approximately 505bp), Anopheles vaneedeni Gillies and Coetzee (approximately 587bp), Anopheles rivulorum Leeson (approximately 411bp), Anopheles leesoni Evans (approximately 146bp), and Anopheles parensis Gillies (approximately 252bp).
Pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles funestus populations has led to an increase in malaria transmission in southern Africa. Resistance has been attributed to elevated activities of cytochrome P450s but the molecular basis underlying this metabolic resistance is unknown. Microsatellite and SNP markers were used to construct a linkage map and to detect a quantitative trait locus (QTL) associated with pyrethroid resistance in the FUMOZ-R strain of An. funestus from Mozambique. By genotyping 349 F2 individuals from 11 independent families, a single major QTL, rp1, at the telomeric end of chromosome 2R was identified. The rp1 QTL appears to present a major effect since it accounts for more than 60% of the variance in susceptibility to permethrin. This QTL has a strong additive genetic effect with respect to susceptibility. Candidate genes associated with pyrethroid resistance in other species were physically mapped to An. funestus polytene chromosomes. This showed that rp1 is genetically linked to a cluster
Experimental studies for understanding the relationship between Plasmodium vivax and its vector hosts are difficult, because of to the lack of a long-term, in vitro continuous culture system unavailability of infected blood samples, seasonality of the disease, and the concentration of most cases in remote areas. This study evaluates the duration of the infectivity of P. vivax to Anopheles aquasalis after collecting blood from malaria-infected patients. Blood was collected from patients and stored at 4 ºC and 37 ºC. Every day, for 4 days, the blood was fed to An. aquasalis adult females, and a Giemsa-stained thick blood smear was mounted to account for sexual (gametocytes) and asexual (trophozoites and schizonts) stages and calculate parasitemia. ...
Anopheles arabiensis is a major malaria vector in Africa. Adult females are likely to imbibe multiple blood meals during their lifetime. This results in regular exposure to potential toxins and blood-meal induced oxidative stress. Defence responses to these stressors may affect other factors of epidemiological significance, such as insecticide resistance and longevity. The aims of this study were to examine the effect of multiple blood-feeding on insecticide tolerance/resistance with increasing age, to assess the underlying biochemical mechanisms for the responses recorded, and to assess the effect of multiple blood-feeding on the life histories of adult females drawn from insecticide resistant and susceptible laboratory reared An. arabiensis. Laboratory reared An. arabiensis females from an insecticide resistant and an insecticide susceptible colony were offered either a single blood meal or multiple blood meals at 3-day intervals. Their tolerance or resistance to insecticide was then monitored by WHO
Susceptibility of principal Anopheles malaria vectors to common insecticides was monitored over a 5-year period across Malawi to inform and guide the national malaria control programme. Adult blood-fed Anopheles spp. and larvae were collected from multiple sites in sixteen districts across the country between 2011 and 2015. First generation (F1) progeny aged 2-5 days old were tested for susceptibility, using standard WHO procedures, against pyrethroids (permethrin and deltamethrin), carbamates (bendiocarb and propoxur), organophosphates (malathion and pirimiphos-methyl) and an organochlorine (DDT). Mortality of Anopheles funestus to deltamethrin, permethrin, bendiocarb and propoxur declined significantly over the 5-year (2011-2015) monitoring period. There was wide variation in susceptibility to DDT but it was not associated with time. In contrast, An. funestus exhibited 100% mortality to the organophosphates (malathion and pirimiphos-methyl) at all sites tested. There was reduced mortality of Anopheles
A. stephensi is a predominant malaria vector in urban parts of the Indian subcontinent. In spite of its importance as a malaria vector, no in-depth transcriptomic information is available on the midgut tissue of A. stephensi during sugar feeding and parasite infection. We herein report generation, annotation, and analysis of ESTs from sugar-fed and P. yoelii infected adult female A. stephensi midgut tissues.. 7061 high quality ESTs were obtained from the sugar-fed cDNA library and 8306 ESTs from the 24 h post blood-fed infected cDNA library. With 15367 ESTs, our study represents the first intensive effort in complementing gene sequence information for this mosquito. Although the genome of the closely related anopheline species, A. gambiae is available, discovery of novel transcripts (1513) in A. stephensi suggests a significant interspecies variation. In addition, mapping of novel transcripts (189) to the A. gambiae genome testifies the usefulness of our data in gene discovery process.. Like ...
In a single village in South Halmahera, Indonesia, Anopheles mosquitoes captured in human, goat, and cow-baited tents were compared to determine species-specific host attraction and feeding behaviour. Nine Anopheles species were molecularly identified in these collections: An. kochi, An. farauti s.s., An. hackeri, An. hinesorum, An. indefinitus, An. punctulatus, An. tessellatus, An. vagus, and An. vanus (Table 1). Additionally, bloodmeals of fed mosquitoes were typed and mosquitoes were analysed for the presence of Plasmodium spp. sporozoites. Frequent multiple host-feeding within a single night and flexibility in host choice within Anopheles species were observed.. There was a large discrepancy between morphological and molecular Anopheles species identifications, with 35% of specimens showing discordance between morphological and molecular identifications (Table 1). This could likely be the result of the presence of many cryptic species complexes and high Anopheles diversity in the country. ...
Bubaque is the most populous island of the Bijagos archipelago, a group of malaria-endemic islands situated off the coast of Guinea-Bissau, West Africa. Malaria vector control on Bubaque relies almost exclusively on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). However, there is little information on local vector bionomics and insecticide resistance. A survey of mosquito species composition was performed at the onset of the wet season (June/July) and the beginning of the dry season (November/December). Sampling was performed using indoor adult light-traps and larval dipping. Anopheles mosquitoes were identified to species level and assessed for kdr allele frequency by TaqMan PCR. Females were analysed for sporozoite positivity by CSP-ELISA. Resistance to permethrin and α-cypermethrin was measured using the CDC-bottle bioassay incorporating the synergist piperonyl-butoxide. Several Anopheles species were found on the island, all belonging to the Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) complex,
Although the An. funestus group conceals one of the major malaria vectors in Africa, little is known about the dynamics of members of this group across the continent. Here, we investigated the species composition, infection rate and susceptibility to insecticides of this species group in Uganda. Indoor resting blood-fed Anopheles adult female mosquitoes were collected from 3 districts in Uganda. Mosquitoes morphologically belonging to the An. funestus group were identified to species by PCR. The sporozoite infection rates were determined by TaqMan and a nested PCR. Susceptibility to major insecticides was assessed using WHO bioassays. The potential role of four candidate resistance genes was assessed using qRT-PCR. An. funestus s.s. and An. parensis, were the only members of the An. funestus group identified. Both species were sympatric in Masindi (North-West), whereas only An. parensis was present in Mityana (Central) and Ntungamo (South-West). The Plasmodium falciparum infection detected in An.
Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Anopheles stephensi, female mosquito vector carrier of malaria. Anopheles is a genus of mosquito from the family Culicidae. There are approximately 400 species of the Anopheles mosquito, 30 to 40 transmit four different species of the parasite, Plasmodium, that causes malaria. Anopheles stephensiis the main urban mosquito vector of malaria in the Indian subcontinent. Malaria is one of the most common infectious diseases and an enormous public-health problem. The most serious forms of the disease are caused by P. falciparum and P. vivax. The parasites, transmitted by the female mosquito when she sucks blood, multiply within red blood cells, causing symptoms that include symptoms of anaemia, as well as other general symptoms such as fever, chills, nausea, flu-like illness, coma and death. Magnification: x4. 5 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C032/3659
Background: Metabolic resistance to insecticides is the biggest threat to the continued effectiveness of malariavector control. However, its underlying molecular basis, crucial for successful resistance management, remainspoorly characterized.Results: Here, we demonstrate that the single amino acid change L119F in an upregulated glutathione S-transferasegene, GSTe2, confers high levels of metabolic resistance to DDT in the malaria vector Anopheles funestus. Genome-widetranscription analysis revealed that GSTe2 was the most over-expressed detoxification gene in DDT and permethrinresistantmosquitoes from Benin. Transgenic expression of GSTe2 in Drosophila melanogaster demonstrated thatover-transcription of this gene alone confers DDT resistance and cross-resistance to pyrethroids. Analysis of GSTe2polymorphism established that the point mutation is tightly associated with metabolic resistance to DDT and itsgeographical distribution strongly correlates with DDT resistance patterns across Africa. ...
In total, 2456 female anopheline mosquitoes representing 21 species were collected from the study area. Anopheles vagus Doenitz (35.71%) was the dominant species followed by An. philippinensis Ludlow (26.67%) and An. minimus s.l. Theobald (5.78%). All species were collected by LTs set indoors (n = 1094), 19 species were from outdoors (n = 784), whereas, six by PS (n = 549) and four species by HB (n = 29). Anopheline species composition significantly differed between every possible combination of the three collection methods (χ2 test, P , 0.001). Host blood meals were successfully detected from 1318 (53.66%) Anopheles samples belonging to 17 species. Values of the human blood index (HBI) of anophelines collected from indoors and outdoors were 6.96% and 11.73%, respectively. The highest values of HBI were found in An. baimai Baimaii (80%), followed by An. minimus s.l. (43.64%) and An. annularis Van den Wulp (37.50%). Anopheles baimai (Bi = 0.63) and An. minimus s.l. (Bi = 0.24) showed strong ...
Eles aquasalis Immune ResponseFigure 1. Characterization of Catalase cDNA. A: Schematic representation of A. aquasalis catalase (AqCAT) deduced protein. Red - clade 3 of the heme-binding catalase domain. B: Phylogenetic tree for catalase constructed based on the neighbor-joining method. C: Multiple aminoacid sequence alignment of insect catalase related proteins. Accession numbers of catalase sequences from: A. aquasalis (Aq) (HQ659100), A. gambiae (Ag) (XP_314995.4), A. aegypti (Aa) (XP_001663600.1), Culex quinquefasciatus (Cq) (XP_001848573.1) and D. melanogaster (Dm) (NP_536731.1). doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0057014.gROS in Anopheles aquasalis Immune ResponseFigure 2. Characterization of SOD3A and SOD3B cDNA. A: Schematic representation of SOD3A (A) and 3B (B) protein from A. aquasalis (AqSOD3A and SOD3B). Green: iron/manganese superoxide dismutases alpha-hairpin domain; blue: iron/manganese superoxide dismutases Cterminal domain; red: Cu-Zn_superoxide_dismutase domain. B: Phylogenetic tree for ...
A. quadriannulatus mosquito feeding. Lateral view of a female Anopheles quadriannulatus mosquito feeding on human skin. It has used its sharp, needle-like labrum to extract blood that is seen in its abdomen, forming a blood meal. As a member of the A. gambiae species complex, A. quadriannulatus is a known vector for the parasitic disease malaria. Malaria is caused by the Plasmodium falciparum parasite, which is transmitted into the bloodstream by mosquito bites. Malaria results in cyclic fevers and can kill. It affects millions of people in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. - Stock Image C024/8532
TY - JOUR. T1 - Genome-wide QTL mapping of saltwater tolerance in sibling species of Anopheles (malaria vector) mosquitoes. AU - Smith, H. A.. AU - White, B. J.. AU - Kundert, P.. AU - Cheng, C.. AU - Romero-Severson, J.. AU - Andolfatto, P.. AU - Besansky, N. J.. PY - 2015/11/1. Y1 - 2015/11/1. N2 - Although freshwater (FW) is the ancestral habitat for larval mosquitoes, multiple species independently evolved the ability to survive in saltwater (SW). Here, we use quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping to investigate the genetic architecture of osmoregulation in Anopheles mosquitoes, vectors of human malaria. We analyzed 1134 backcross progeny from a cross between the obligate FW species An. coluzzii, and its closely related euryhaline sibling species An. merus. Tests of 2387 markers with Bayesian interval mapping and machine learning (random forests) yielded six genomic regions associated with SW tolerance. Overlap in QTL regions from both approaches enhances confidence in QTL identification. ...
The naturally acquired microbiota of Anopheles can influence vectors susceptibility to Plasmodium and its capacity to transmit them. Microbiota modification is a new challenge to limit disease transmission but it still needs advanced knowledges on bacterial community in Anopheles, especially in wild and infected specimens from diverse origin and species. Bacterial culture and 16S rRNA gene-PCR associated to Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis (TTGE) were applied to explore the bacterial diversity in the abdomen of 100 wild specimens (8 Anopheles species) collected in the Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam. Culture and PCR-TTGE were complementary. The bacterial richness of the mosquito collection encompassed 105 genera belonging to 7 phyla, mostly Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Actinobacteria. Staphylococcus, Clostridium and Bacillus in Firmicutes were the most prevalent genera. However, Proteobacteria represented by 57 genera was the most diversified phylum in Anopheles microbiota. The high overall
Abstract Remote sensing is particularly helpful for assessing the location and extent of vegetation formations, such as herbaceous wetlands, that are difficult to examine on the ground. Marshes that are sparsely populated with emergent macrophytes and dense cyanobacterial mats have previously been identified as very productive Anopheles albimanus larval habitats. This type of habitat was detectable on a classified multispectral Systeme Probatoire d'Observation de la Terre image of northern Belize as a mixture of two isoclasses. A similar spectral signature is characteristic for vegetation of river margins consisting of aquatic grasses and water hyacinth, which constitutes another productive larval habitat. Based on the distance between human settlements (sites) of various sizes and the nearest marsh/river exhibiting this particular class combination, we selected two groups of sites: those located closer than 500 m and those located more than 1,500 m from such habitats. Based on previous adult
Kurscheid, S., Lew-Tabor, A.E., Rodriguez Valle, M., Bruyeres, A.G., Doogan, V.J., Munderloh, U.G. et al. (2009) Evidence of a tick RNAi pathway by comparative genomics and reverse genetics screen of targets with known loss-of-function phenotypes in Drosophila. BMC Mol Biol 10: 26 ...
BACKGROUND: Molecular markers of insecticide resistance can provide sensitive indicators of resistance development in malaria vector populations. Monitoring of insecticide resistance in vector populations is an important component of current malaria control programmes. Knockdown resistance (kdr) confers resistance to the pyrethroid class of insecticides with cross-resistance to DDT through single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the voltage-gated sodium channel gene. METHODS: To enable detection of kdr mutations at low frequency a method was developed that uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)-based technology, allowing rapid, reliable and cost-effective testing of large numbers of individual mosquitoes. This was used to assay mosquitoes from sites in lower Moshi, Tanzania. RESULTS: Sequence-specific oligonucleotide probes (SSOP) were used for simultaneous detection of both East and West African kdr mutations with high specificity and sensitivity. ...
A longitudinal survey of mosquito larval habitats was carried out in Asembo Bay, western Kenya, during the rainy season of 1998. All pools of standing water along a 700-m transect were sampled twice per week. For each habitat, eight environmental variables were recorded and a sample of anopheline larvae was collected for identification. In total, 1,751 Anopheles gambiae s.l. and 2,784 Anopheles funestus Giles were identified. Identification of An. gambiae s.l. by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) indicated that 240 (14.7%) were An. gambiae Giles and 858 (52.4%) were An. arabiensis Patton; PCR failed to identify 539 (32.9%) specimens. Repeated measures logistic regression analysis indicated that An. gambiae and An. arabiensis larvae were associated with small, temporary habitats with algae and little or no aquatic vegetation. Anopheles funestus larvae were associated with larger, semipermanent bodies of water containing aquatic vegetation and algae. Direct comparison of habitat characteristics ...
Prevalence of febrile illness with P. falciparum was highest among the 5 to 17 year olds (62.4%) while malaria attack rate was highest among the two to 4 year olds (5.2/1,000/day). Infected individuals were spatially concentrated in three of the 11 residential zones of the camp. The indoor densities of Anopheles arabiensis, the sole malaria vector, were similar during the wet and dry seasons, but were distributed in an aggregated fashion and predominantly in the same zones where malaria attack rates were high. Larval habitats and larval populations were also concentrated in these zones. Larval habitats were man-made pits of water associated with tap-stands installed as the water delivery system to residents with year round availability in the camp. Three percent of A. arabiensis adult females were infected with P. falciparum sporozoites in the rainy season ...
Model composition best online myambutol and sequences are listed in S2 Table. A microsporidian impairs Plasmodium falciparum transmission in Anopheles arabiensis mosquitoes. All atomic coordinates were randomly displaced by 0. The Fourier shell correlation coefficient of the SSU-head and tRNA site. Global and local resolution for the automated data collection Sample quality and homogeneity were analyzed by cryo-EM.. Zheng SQ, best online myambutol Palovcak E, Armache JP, Verba KA, Cheng Y, Agard DA. Staying alive: metabolic adaptations to quiescence. A comparative analysis of the microsporidian ribosome. Class 1 and S2D), acting as a hibernation factor in microsporidia suggests that microsporidia either encode a separate means to ensure complete coverage of all particles resulted in a cryo-EM map with the yeast counterpart, whereas the short es6D and the 3 larger segments es6A, es6B, and es6E have been truncated.. A microsporidian best online myambutol impairs Plasmodium falciparum transmission ...
Download full project about Anopheles Mosquito Comparative Genomics . Your business software is ready for download . You can use it for your own company / Office / home without any cost. We provide free business software for our visitor. The software is develop by using different model such as waterfall life-cycle ,traditional ,classic etc Anopheles Mosquito Comparative Genomics is a large and time consuming project. So, Our aim is to help all business vendors by sharing our best. We want your help by joining our community. You will get your project as you desire ...
The major vectors of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa belong to subgenus Cellia. Yet, phylogenetic relationships and temporal diversification among African mosquito species have not been unambiguously determined. Knowledge about vector evolutionary history is crucial for correct interpretation of genetic changes identified through comparative genomics analyses. In this study, we estimated a molecular phylogeny using 49 gene sequences for the African malaria vectors An. gambiae, An. funestus, An. nili, the Asian malaria mosquito An. stephensi, and the outgroup species Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. To infer the phylogeny, we identified orthologous sequences uniformly distributed approximately every 5 Mb in the five chromosomal arms. The sequences were aligned and the phylogenetic trees were inferred using maximum likelihood and neighbor-joining methods. Bayesian molecular dating using a relaxed log normal model was used to infer divergence times. Trees from individual genes agreed with ...
From 1987 to 1995, NASAs Ames Research Center, in collaboration with university and health agency scientists, conducted research on the ecology of the Anopheles albimanus mosquito, a key vector of human malaria in the coastal areas of southern Chiapas, Mexico. The field research focused on the relationship of An. albimanus to environmental variables associated with regional landscape elements, including larval habitats, bloodmeal sources, and resting sites. The results indicated the importance of flooded pastures and transitional wetlands for larval habitat, cattle in pastures for bloodmeal sources, and trees for potential resting sites. The remote sensing research involved identifying and mapping these landscape elements, along with seven others, using multitemporal Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data. NASA ER-2 aircraft imagery was used to create a map of human settlements, from which 40 villages were randomly selected. These villages were the focus of a study to examine the relationship ...
Sporozoite of Plasmodium gets into human blood through the bite of female Anopheles mosquito,sporozoites reproduce asexually in liver cells,then they get into red blood cells, there they reproduce asexually and infect mo…
The understanding of the roles of gut bacteria in the fitness and vectorial capacity of mosquitoes that transmit malaria, is improving; however, the factors shaping the composition and structure of such bacterial communities remain elusive. In this study, a high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing was conducted to understand the effect of developmental stage, feeding status, species, and geography on the composition of the gut bacterial microbiota of two main Colombian malaria vectors, Anopheles nuneztovari and Anopheles darlingi. The results revealed that mosquito developmental stage, followed by geographical location, are more important determinants of the gut bacterial composition than mosquito species or adult feeding status. Further, they showed that mosquito gut is a major filter for environmental bacteria colonization. The sampling design and analytical approach of this study allowed to untangle the influence of factors that are simultaneously shaping the microbiota composition of two Latin
Members of the Anopheles hyrcanus group have been incriminated as important malaria vectors. This study aims to identify the species and explore the insecticide susceptibility profile within the Anopheles hyrcanus group in Ubon Ratchathani Province, northeastern Thailand where increasing numbers of malaria cases were reported in 2014.. ...
Espesye sa langaw ang Anopheles minutus[1]. Una ning gihulagway ni Macquart ni adtong 1834. Ang Anopheles minutus sakop sa kahenera nga Anopheles sa kabanay nga Culicidae.[1][2]. Kini nga matang hayop na sabwag sa Senegal.[1] Pagka karon wala pay siak nga nalista ubos niini niya.[1]. ...
Pronunciation guide: Learn how to pronounce anopheles in English with native pronunciation. anopheles translation and audio pronunciation
CURRENT SYNONYMS. None. CURRENT SUBSPECIES. None. CITED REFERENCES. Bailly-Choumara, H., & Adam, J.P. (1959). Anopheles maliensis n. sp. (Diptera Culicidae), une espèce nouvelle danophélinés du Fouta-Djalon, République de Guinée. Academie des Sciences (Paris), 248(26), 3741-3743.. Bailly-Choumara, H., & Adam, J.P. (1960). Notes complémentaires sur la morphologie, la position systematique et la biologie dAnopheles (Neomyzomyia) maliensis Bailly-Choumara et Adam, 1959. Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique, 52, 110-119.. Kyalo, D., Amratia, P., Mundia, C.W., Mbogo, C.M., Coetzee, M., & Snow, R.W. (2017). A geo-coded inventory of anophelines in the Afrotropical Region south of the Sahara: 1898-2016. Wellcome Open Research, 2, 57.. Irish, S.R., Kyalo, D., Snow, R.W., & Coetzee, M. (2020). Updated list of Anopheles species (Diptera: Culicidae) by country in the Afrotropical Region and associated islands. Zootaxa, 4747(3), 401-449.. CITE THIS PAGE. Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit ...
A peek behind the paper: Digital droplet PCR and IDAA for the detection of CRISPR indel edits in the malaria species Anopheles stephensi
290. vector in the western half of the country and Anopheles quadrimaculatus in the eastern half. Introduced malaria has, however, been uncommon in the United States, apparently because of improvements in standards of land use and housing, together with increased urbanization and a concomitant decline in the rural population, all factors which tend to separate man from mosquitoes and, in many instances, promote an adverse environment for the anopheline vector (Barrett 1968, p.431). Nonetheless, introduced malaria has been documented in this country. In 1952, 35 cases occurred among a group of Camp Fire Girls in California. The probable source was a recently returned Korean veteran (Brunetti, Fritz, and Hollister 1954). At Fort Benning, Ga., two cases of introduced vivax malaria were observed in 1964 and 1965, the probable source again being a serviceman who had been stationed in Korea (Luby et al. 1967). There is evidence of at least one instance of introduced vivax malaria resulting from ...
Sunday 25 April is World Malaria Day. The malaria mosquito Anopheles stephensi, originally found in South Asian cities, is making its way to cities in the Horn of Africa.
An Anopheles mosquito takes a blood meal through the skin. If this blood carries sexual-stage stage parasites, they will develop in the mosquito and be passed on to others who are bit by this mosquito days later.
The authors demonstrate that these marked symbionts can then be transmitted to their progeny through mating and to non-sibling larvae by horizontal transmission via the water in which the animals are living.. The authors created a number of strains of AS1 containing a collection of anti Plasmodium effectors either singly or in combination and show that these have significant impacts on the intensity of midgut infections.. This is a very interesting paper that seems to bring the promise of paratransgenic approaches closer to fruition as tools for combating vector borne diseases.. An interesting feature of this approach is that it can be used to simultaneously reduce the vectoral capacity of multiple anopheles species in an environment whereas transgenic approaches would require solving the problems of creating transgenics from these other species. Not necessarily and easy task.. The widespread presence of these genetically modified bacteria in water sources will elicit questions related to risk ...
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Malaria is a disease that has been around for many years and it is said to have originated in Africa. This disease is caused by plasmodium, a parasite transmitted through bites of a female Anopheles mosquito. Only the Anopheles mosquito carries this parasite and they become infected if they have sucked the blood of an already infected person. Once the parasite enters the human body, it will multiply in the liver, infecting the red blood cells in the process. Since the parasite is found in the individuals red blood cells, this disease can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, or by sharing needles contaminated with infected blood. Thankfully, an anti-malarial drug was developed and has been available for more than 50 years. In recent years, the scientists from Britain and United States have cracked the code of the parasite genome which takes a huge step towards boosting the campaign against this disease. Read More ». ...
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evolutionary models such as Drosophila.. Although vector status was of prime importance in the selection of sequencing targets, choice was constrained by availability of colonies housed by the Malaria Research and Reference Reagent Resource Center (MR4), which will be a project and community resource for DNA, RNA and live mosquitoes from colonies. Since the initial whitepaper was approved, two additional species have been added to the project following the acquisition of available sequencing template: An. melas and An. christyi.. In addition to the approved goals of (1) high quality reference genome assemblies of each species and (2) transcriptome sequencing in support of gene annotation, a limited amount of SNP discovery based on wild specimens will augment these genome projects. Illumina-based genome sequencing and assembly, RNAseq and SNP discovery will be managed by the Broad Institute (under the direction of Daniel Neafsey). Genome annotation will be based on contributions by the Broad ...
Studies on the roles of Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus complexes in the transmission of Wuchereria bancrofti in Makurdi, Nigeria across four localities: High-level, Wurukum, North- bank and Wadata were undertaken from July, 2011 to June, 2012. 1,681 adult female mosquitoes were identified and dissected with the aid of standard keys and procedures to determine their incrimination rates with microfilariae of Wuchereria bancrofti. 1,040 (61.87%) of these were Anopheles gambiae sensu lato while 641 (38.13%) were Anopheles funestus. The results showed a significant difference ( between the mosquito species and their abundance. The overall microfilarial incrimination rate was 5.77% (97/1,681); Anopheles gambiae s.l. was more incriminated (3.57%) than Anopheles funestus (2.20%). The incrimination rates differed significantly ( between the two mosquito species surveyed. ANOVA also showed significant variations (P < 0.05) in the microfilarial incrimination rates across the localities and ...
The work included in this thesis arose from a long-standing interest in the possible use of genetic control for one of the most important malaria vectors in Africa, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. It was hoped that the genes involved in animal biting in the sibling species Anopheles quadriannulatus could be exploited by crossing with An. gambiae s. s. and using the fertile female hybrids for successive backcrosses to An. gambiae s. s.. It was envisaged that this method could be used in an attempt to produce a mosquito stock that is harmless to humans because it is zoophilic but with the genetic background of An. gambiae s. s. so that there would be no barriers to cross-mating in the wild. The innate host preference of mosquitoes can be determined in the laboratory using an olfactometer, or in the field using baits. Host-selection patterns in nature are often affected by external factors, which may or may not mask the host preference of the mosquito species in question (discussed in section ...
Kabbale, F., Akol, A., Kaddu, J., & Onapa, A. (2013). Biting patterns and seasonality of Anopheles gambiae sensu lato and Anopheles funestus mosquirtoes in Kamuli District, Uganda. Parasites and Vectors, 12, 1 - 20 ...
Background: The non-random distribution of anopheline larvae in natural habitats suggests that gravid females discriminate between habitats of different quality. Whilst physical and chemical cues used by Culex and Aedes vector mosquitoes for selecting an oviposition site have been extensively studied, those for Anopheles remain poorly explored. Here the habitat selection by Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.), the principal African malaria vector, was investigated when presented with a choice of two infusions made from rabbit food pellets, or soil. Methods: Natural colonization and larval survival was evaluated in artificial ponds filled randomly with either infusion. Dual-choice, egg-count bioassays evaluated the responses of caged gravid females to (1) two- to six-day old infusions versus lake water; (2) autoclaved versus non-autoclaved soil infusions; and assessed (3) the olfactory memory of gravid females conditioned in pellet infusion as larvae. Results: Wild Anopheles exclusively colonized ...
This site is managed by Public Health England and the Natural History Museum on behalf of the contributors, who retain copyright. Content can be used in accordance with a CC License. More information on the site contributors can be found here.. This site uses Drupal and is based on a set of templates and modules defined by the EDIT team at the Natural History Museum, London.. ...
BACKGROUND: The strategy for malaria vector control in the context of reducing malaria morbidity and mortality has been the scale-up of long-lasting insecticidal nets to universal coverage and indoor residual spraying. This has led to significant decline in malaria transmission. However, these vector control strategies rely on insecticides which are threatened by insecticide resistance. In this study the status of pyrethroid resistance in malaria vectors and its implication in malaria transmission at the Kenyan Coast was investigated. RESULTS: Using World Health Organization diagnostic bioassay, levels of phenotypic resistance to permethrin and deltamethrin was determined. Anopheles arabiensis showed high resistance to pyrethroids while Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) and Anopheles funestus showed low resistance and susceptibility, respectively. Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) mosquitoes were further genotyped for L1014S and L1014F kdr mutation by real time PCR. An allele frequency ...
A large scale microarray (20k MMC1) from the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae was used to monitor gene expression in insecticide resistant and susceptible strains of the Asian mosquito Anopheles stephensi. Heterologous hybridization at slightly reduced stringency yielded approximately 7000 s …
Anopheles gambiae sensu lato (s.l.) consists of several morphologically cryptic species throughout sub-Saharan Africa. In the Sahel region of Mali, this complex includes Anopheles arabiensis (Patton 1905) and A. gambiae sensu stricto (s.s.) (Giles 1902), which is further divided into the M and S molecular forms; all are important malaria vectors (Coluzzi et al., 1979; Collins et al., 2001; della Torre et al., 2001; Coluzzi et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2002). Although they are morphologically indistinguishable and can occur in sympatry (Lindsay et al., 1998; Coluzzi et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2002; della Torre et al., 2005; Simard et al., 2009), these cryptic species often differ in abundance according to season, local rainfall, latitude and larval site characteristics (Gimnig et al., 2001; Edillo et al., 2002; Koenraadt et al., 2004; Diabaté et al., 2005; Edillo et al., 2006; Diabaté et al., 2008; Costantini et al., 2009), and thus local differentiation may occur between these ...
Elucidating the genetic basis of metabolic resistance to insecticides in malaria vectors is crucial to prolonging the effectiveness of insecticide-based control tools including long lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs). Here, we show that cis-regulatory variants of the cytochrome P450 gene, CYP6P9b, are associated with pyrethroid resistance in the African malaria vector Anopheles funestus. A DNA-based assay is designed to track this resistance that occurs near fixation in southern Africa but not in West/Central Africa. Applying this assay we demonstrate, using semi-field experimental huts, that CYP6P9b-mediated resistance associates with reduced effectiveness of LLINs. Furthermore, we establish that CYP6P9b combines with another P450, CYP6P9a, to additively exacerbate the reduced efficacy of insecticide-treated nets. Double homozygote resistant mosquitoes (RR/RR) significantly survive exposure to insecticide-treated nets and successfully blood feed more than other genotypes. This study provides ...
1. Takken W, Knols BG. Odor-mediated behavior of Afrotropical malaria mosquitoes. Annu Rev Entomol. 1999;44:131-157 2. Zwiebel LJ, Takken W. Olfactory regulation of mosquito-host interactions. Insect Biochem Mol Biol. 2004;34:645-652 3. Himeidan YE, Temu EA, El rayah EA. et al. Chemical cues for malaria vectors oviposition site selection: Challenges and opportunities. Journal of Insects. 2013 Article ID685182: 1-9 4. Meijerink J, Braks MA, van Loon JJ. Olfactory receptors on the antennae of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae are sensitive to ammonia and other sweat-borne components. J Insect Physiol. 2001;47:455-464 5. Lu T, Qiu YT, Wang G. et al. Odor coding in the maxillary palp of the malaria vector mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Curr Biol. 2007;17:1533-1544 6. Qiu YT, van Loon JJ, Takken W. et al. Olfactory coding in antennal neurons of the malaria mosquito, Anopheles gambiae. Chem Senses. 2006;31:845-863 7. McIver SB. Sensilla of mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae). J Med Entomol. ...
Malaria remains a major public health problem that is made worse by poor implementation of control measures, and by the spread of drug- and insecticide-resistant parasites and vectors, respectively. Availability of the Anopheles gambiae genome sequence will accelerate identification and exploitation of new target genes in this insect vector. This provides unique opportunities to improve on existing vector control tools and to generate new tools within a global partnership. However, significant capacity needs to be built for investigators in disease-endemic countries to exploit the genome data. When integrated with existing strategies, the new tools will form an effective package for selective vector control in an effort to prevent mortality and morbidity due to malaria. ...
In Brazil, malaria transmission is mostly confined to the Amazon, where substantial progress has been achieved towards disease control in the past decade. Vector control has been historically considered a fundamental part of the main malaria control programs implemented in Brazil. However, the conventional vector-control tools have been insufficient to eliminate local vector populations due to the complexity of the Amazonian rainforest environment and ecological features of malaria vector species in the Amazon, especially Anopheles darlingi. Malaria elimination in Brazil and worldwide eradication will require a combination of conventional and new approaches that takes into account the regional specificities of vector populations and malaria transmission dynamics. Here we present an overview on both conventional and novel promising vector-focused tools to curb malaria transmission in the Brazilian Amazon. If well designed and employed, these new vector-based approaches may improve the implementation of
Several cases of malaria are frequently recorded during the dry period in Ouagadougou town (Burkina Faso). This has led to the design of a series of studies focusing on both parasitological and entomological investigations intended to provide relevant health data on the risk of local malaria transmission according to the way of urbanisation. A cross-sectional entomological survey was carried out in various districts of Ouagadougou in April and October 2006. Adult malaria vectors were collected using CDC traps and indoor insecticide spraying performed in four houses during four consecutive days/nights. Intensive larval sampling was also done in available water ponds throughout the study sites. In April, the anopheline breeding sites consisted only of semi-permanent or permanent swamps located mainly in the two peripheral districts. Despite the presence of anopheline larvae in these breeding sites, less than five Anopheles gambiae s.l. adults were caught by CDC traps and indoor insecticide spraying. In
Author Summary Malaria causes more than one million deaths every year, mostly among children in Sub-Saharan Africa. Anopheles mosquitoes are exclusive vectors of human malaria. Many malaria vectors belong to species complexes, and members within these complexes can vary significantly in their ecological adaptations and ability to transmit the parasite. To better understand evolution of epidemiologically important traits, we studied relationships among nonvector and vector species of the African Anopheles gambiae complex. We analyzed gene orders at genomic regions where evolutionary breaks of chromosomal inversions occurred in members of the complex and compared them with gene orders in species outside the complex. This approach allowed us to identify ancient and recent gene orders for three chromosomal inversions. Surprisingly, the more ancestral chromosomal arrangements were found in mosquito species that are vectors of human malaria, while the more derived arrangements were found in both nonvectors
When taking a blood meal on a person infected with malaria, female Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes, the major vector of human malaria, acquire nutrients that will activate egg development (oogenesis) in their ovaries. Simultaneously, they infect themselves with the malaria parasite. On traversing the mosquito midgut epithelium, invading Plasmodium ookinetes are met with a potent innate immune response predominantly controlled by mosquito blood cells. Whether the concomitant processes of mosquito reproduction and immunity affect each other remains controversial. Here, we show that proteins that deliver nutrients to maturing mosquito oocytes interfere with the antiparasitic response. Lipophorin (Lp) and vitellogenin (Vg), two nutrient transport proteins, reduce the parasite-killing efficiency of the antiparasitic factor TEP1. In the absence of either nutrient transport protein, TEP1 binding to the ookinete surface becomes more efficient. We also show that Lp is required for the normal expression of Vg, and
Author(s): Wang, Ying; Zhong, Daibin; Cui, Liwang; Lee, Ming-Chieh; Yang, Zhaoqing; Yan, Guiyun; Zhou, Guofa | Abstract: Understanding the ecology of malaria vectors such as species composition and population dynamics is essential for developing cost-effective strategies to control mosquito vector populations.Adult mosquitoes (n = 79,567) were collected in five villages along the China-Myanmar border from April 2012 to September 2014 using the CDC light trap without bait method. Mosquito community structure, Anopheles species composition and diversity were analyzed.Twenty species of Anopheles mosquitoes were identified, with An. minimus s.l. accounting for 85% of the total collections. Mosquito densities varied from 0.05 females per trap per night (f/t/n) to 3.00 f/t/n, with strong seasonality in all sites and densities peaked from June to August. An. minimus s.l. was predominant (accounting for 54-91% of total captures) in four villages, An. maculatus s.l. was predominant (71%) in the high elevation
Anopheles gambiae AGER protein: AGER - EGFR ortholog from Anopheles; from the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae: orthologs from Drosophila, human, mouse & chicken; Genbank, AJ301655 and AJ304406
Synthetic versions of human derived kairomones can be used as baits when trapping host seeking mosquitoes. The effectiveness of these lures depends not only on their attractiveness to the mosquitoes but also on the medium from which they are dispensed.We report on the development and evaluation of nylon strips as a method of dispensing odorants attractive to the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiaes.s. (Giles).When a synthetic blend of attractants was dispensed using this method, signiÞcantly more mosquitoes were trapped than when two previous methods, open glass vials or low density polyethylene sachets were used. We conclude that the nylon strips are suitable for dispensing odorants in mosquito trapping operations and can be adopted for use in rural and remote areas. The nylon material required is cheap and widely available and the strips can be prepared without specialized equipment or ...
Here, we show that an alpha-proteobacterium of the genus Asaia is stably associated with larvae and adults of Anopheles stephensi, an important mosquito vector of Plasmodium vivax, a main malaria agent in Asia. Asaia bacteria dominate mosquito-associated microbiota, as shown by 16S rRNA gene abundance, quantitative PCR, transmission electron microscopy and in situ-hybridization of 165 rRNA genes. In adult mosquitoes, Asaia sp. is present in high population density in the female gut and in the male reproductive tract. Asaia sp. from An. stephensi has been cultured in cell-free media and then transformed with foreign DNA. A green fluorescent protein-tagged Asaia sp. strain effectively lodged in the female gut and salivary glands, sites that are crucial for Plasmodium sp. development and transmission. The larval gut and the male reproductive system were also colonized by the transformed Asaia sp. strain. As an efficient inducible colonizer of mosquitoes that transmit Plasmodium sp., Asaia sp. may ...
Malaria is a serious threat to human life in sub-Saharan Africa, claiming many lives and causing the greatest morbidity as compared to other infectious diseases. Female Anopheles gambiae mosquito acts as the definitive host of Plasmodium protozoa, and allows sexual reproduction to take place in its gut. Infection rates may vary seasonally due to temperature changes, but this occurrence is not well studied in the Kenyan highlands. This study therefore aimed at investigating the seasonal variations in infection of Anopheles gambiae by Plasmodium oocysts and its implications on malaria prevalence in human beings. The study was conducted in three estates namely, Daraja mbili, Mwembe, and Maili Mbili which surround Kisii town in Nyanza province. Three villages in Keumbu location which is in the outskirts of Kisii town were also sampled to represent the rural population. Bi-weekly collection of mosquitoes during both wet and dry seasons was done for a period of 2 months in each season. Data were ...
CURRENT SYNONYMS. None. CURRENT SUBSPECIES. None. CITED REFERENCES. De Meillon, B. (1947b). The Anophelini of the Ethiopian geographical region. Publications of the South African Institute for Medical Research, 10(49), 1-272.. Irish, S.R., Kyalo, D., Snow, R.W., & Coetzee, M. (2020). Updated list of Anopheles species (Diptera: Culicidae) by country in the Afrotropical Region and associated islands. Zootaxa, 4747(3), 401-449.. Koekemoer, L.L., Misiani, E.A., Hunt, R.H., Kent, R.J., Norris, D.E., & Coetzee, M. (2009). Cryptic species within Anopheles longipalpis from southern Africa and phylogenetic comparison with members of the An. funestus group. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 99(1), 41-49.. Kyalo, D., Amratia, P., Mundia, C.W., Mbogo, C.M., Coetzee, M., & Snow, R.W. (2017). A geo-coded inventory of anophelines in the Afrotropical Region south of the Sahara: 1898-2016. Wellcome Open Research, 2, 57.. Ribeiro, H., & da Cunha Ramos, H. (1975). Research on the mosquitoes of Angola. VI. The ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu lato IS a major vector of malaria in western Kenya where environmental conditions are highly conducive for its survival and reproduction. Breeding mostly occurs in newly formed small and transient water bodies but as the habitats age they may become unattractive for breeding of the species. The aim of this study was to deduce some of the ecological implications of this strategy of early colonization of breeding sites by Anopheles gambiae s.l. Ten semi-natural habitats (5 small and 5 large) were studied longitudinally (sampled same population over time) for a period of 12 weeks with daily sampling of all larval and pupal stages and quantification of all other identifiable aquatic fauna. This was followed by a final census and retrieval of all inhabitants of each habitat. A new set of 10 habitats was investigated together with the old habitats using the same procedures for an additional period of 9 weeks. Larval cohorts lasting on average twelve days were easily noticeable ...
ABSTRACT Objective: Previous mosquito surveys performed in the Federation of St Kitts and Nevis identified Anopheles albimanus in Nevis but there is no recorded occurrence of this mosquito in St Kitts. To determine the presence of this and other species in St Kitts and Nevis, a mosquito survey was conducted. Methods: Surveys were performed in two phases - the dry season (March
Anopheles gambiae Gene finding parameters for FGENESH the program with parameters for major model organisms is available for on line usage at: http://www.softberry.com/berry.phtml?topic=gfind Method description: A new parameter set for gene prediction Anopheles gambiae is developed for FGENESH program. Accuracy of prediction of Plasmodium falciparum protein coding genes is about 98% on the nucleotide level. The FGENESH algorithm is based on pattern recognition of different types of signals and Markov chain models of coding regions. Optimal combination of these features is then found by dynamic programming and a set of gene models is constructed along given sequence. FGENESH is the fastest and most accurate ab initio gene prediction program available. Fgenesh output: fgenesh Tue Nov 5 16:23:15 EST 2002 FGENESH 1.1 Prediction of potential genes in Anopheles_gambiae genomic DNA Time : Tue Nov 5 16:23:16 2002 Seq name: Softberry SERVER PAST Sequence Length of sequence: 1542 Number of predicted genes ...
AB - After being ingested by a female Anopheles mosquito during a bloodmeal on an infected host, and before they can reach the mosquito salivary glands to be transmitted to a new host, Plasmodium parasites must establish an infection of the mosquito midgut in the form of oocysts. To achieve this, they must first survive a series of robust innate immune responses that take place prior to, during, and immediately after ookinete traversal of the midgut epithelium. Understanding how parasites may evade these responses could highlight new ways to block malaria transmission. We show that an ookinete and sporozoite surface protein designated as PIMMS43 (Plasmodium Infection of the Mosquito Midgut Screen 43) is required for parasite evasion of the Anopheles coluzzii complement-like response. Disruption of PIMMS43 in the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium berghei triggers robust complement activation and ookinete elimination upon mosquito midgut traversal. Silencing components of the complement-like ...
2015) Efficacy, Persistence and Vector Susceptibility to Pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic® 300CS) Insecticide for Indoor Residual Spraying in Zanzibar. Parasites & vectors, 8 (1). p. 628. ISSN 1756-3305 (2014) Islands and Stepping-Stones: Comparative Population Structure of Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto and Anopheles arabiensis in Tanzania and Implications for the Spread of Insecticide Resistance. PloS one, 9 (10). e110910. ISSN 1932-6203 (2013) Challenges for Malaria Elimination in Zanzibar: Pyrethroid Resistance in Malaria Vectors and Poor Performance of Long-Lasting Insecticide Nets. Parasites & vectors, 6 (1). p. 82. ISSN 1756-3305 (2013) The Dynamics of Pyrethroid Nesistance in Anopheles Arabiensis from Zanzibar and an Assessment of the Underlying Genetic Basis. Parasites & vectors, 6. p. 343. ISSN 1756-3305 ...
Adisak Bhumiratana abstract presented on Adaptation of Anopheles vectors to Anthropogenic Malaria-associated rubber plantations and indoor residual spraying: establishing population dynamics and insecticide susceptibility at Parasitology 2018 | Conferenceseries Ltd
Hydropower plants provide more than 78 % of Brazils electricity generation, but the countrys reservoirs are potential new habitats for main vectors of malaria. In a case study in the surroundings of the Manso hydropower plant in Mato Grosso state, Central Brazil, habitat suitability of Anopheles darlingi was studied. Habitat profile was characterized by collecting environmental data. Remote sensing and GIS techniques were applied to extract additional spatial layers of land use, distance maps, and relief characteristics for spatial model building. Logistic regression analysis and ROC curves indicate significant relationships between the environment and presence of An. darlingi. Probabilities of presence strongly vary as a function of land cover and distance from the lake shoreline. Vector presence was associated with spatial proximity to reservoir and semi-deciduous forests followed by Cerrado woodland. Vector absence was associated with open vegetation formations such as grasslands and agricultural
Background:Despite recent successes at controlling malaria, progress has stalled with an estimated 219 million cases and 435,000 deaths in 2017 alone. Combined with emerging resistance to front line antimalarial therapies in Southeast Asia, there is an urgent need for new treatment options and novel approaches to halt the spread of malaria. Plasmodium, the parasite responsible for malaria propagates through mosquito transmission. This imposes an acute bottleneck on the parasite population and transmission-blocking interventions exploiting this vulnerability are recognized as vital for malaria elimination. Methods:13,533 small molecules with known activity against Plasmodium falciparum asexual parasites were screened for additional transmission-blocking activity in an ex vivo Plasmodium berghei ookinete development assay. Active molecules were then counterscreened in dose response against HepG2 cells to determine their activity/cytotoxicity window and selected non-toxic representative molecules were
a) Female Anopheles Mosquito: As the sexual phase of the malarial parasite occurs in the mosquito it is considered the definitive (= primary) host of malarial parasite.. (b) Human beings: As the asexual phase of the malarial parasite occurs in man, it is considered the intermediate (= secondary) host. As the female Anopheles mosquitoes feed on blood, only they can serve as vector hosts (= carrier) of malarial parasites. The parasite does not harm the mosquito.. Historical Aspects: Lancisi (1717) first suspected a relationship between swamp, ma-laria and mosquito. Laveran (1880) discovered that malaria is caused by protozoan parasite. In fact he discovered Plasmodium. He got Nobel Prize in 1907. His topic of discovery was Role of Protozoans in Causing Disease.. Golgi (1885) confirmed Laverans discovery by observing stages of Plasmodium malariae in human RBCs. In 1897 Sir Ronald Ross, a doctor who was born at Almora in India and he was in Indian Army, established that malarial parasite is ...
Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto was recently reclassified as two species, An. coluzzii and An. gambiae s.s., in wild-caught mosquitoes, on the basis of the molecular form, denoted M or S, of a marker on the X chromosome. The An. gambiae Keele line is an outbred laboratory colony strain that was developed around 12 years ago by crosses between mosquitoes from 4 existing An. gambiae colonies. Laboratory colonies of mosquitoes often have limited genetic diversity because of small starting populations (founder effect) and subsequent fluctuations in colony size. Here we describe the characterisation of the chromosomal form(s) present in the Keele line, and investigate the diversity present in the colony using microsatellite markers on chromosome 3. We also characterise the large 2La inversion on chromosome 2. The results indicate that only the M-form of the chromosome X marker is present in the Keele colony, which was unexpected given that 3 of the 4 parent colonies were probably S-form. Levels of diversity
Renal function is essential to maintain homeostasis. This is particularly significant for insects that undergo complete metamorphosis; larval mosquitoes must survive a freshwater habitat whereas adults are terrestrial, and mature females must maintain ion and fluid homeostasis after blood feeding. To investigate the physiological adaptations required for successful development to adulthood, we studied the Malpighian tubule transcriptome of Anopheles gambiae using Affymetrix arrays. We assessed transcription under several conditions; as third instar larvae, as adult males fed on sugar, as adult females fed on sugar, and adult females after a blood meal. In addition to providing the most detailed transcriptomic data to date on the Anopheles Malpighian tubules, the data provide unique information on the renal adaptations required for the switch from freshwater to terrestrial habitats, on gender differences, and on the contrast between nectar-feeding and haematophagy. We found clear differences ...
Status of Anopheles gambiae Resistance to Carbamates and Organophosphates Insecticides and Implication on Malaria Vector Control in Cote Dâ  ivoire, Toure Mahama, Djogbeno
The events between the ingestion of Plasmodium berghei-infected mouse blood and the establishment of the ookinetes in the epithelium of the midgut in refractory (R) and susceptible (S)Anopheles...
BackgroundSince insecticides are commonly used in agriculture/cultivation and in vector control, they are frequently found in agricultural water bodies, where mosquito larvae are exposed. Although their concentration is often so low as not to kill the larvae, they affec...
Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium falciparum and is transmitted by Anopheles mosquitoes (pictured above). When an Anopheles mosquito bites a person infected with the malaria parasite, the mosquito becomes a carrier of the disease. When that mosquito bites another person, that person becomes infected with the parasite too. Malaria causes the infected person to develop a fever and flu-like symptoms. While most infected individuals recover from malaria, it can cause death, especially in children. Each year there are between 350 million and 500 million cases of malaria worldwide. Over one million of those people die from the disease. Most of the people who die from malaria are children in Sub-Saharan Africa.. The geographic distribution of malaria depends on climate. Regions where the climate is ideal for the Anopheles mosquitoes that transmit malaria parasites, are more prone to the disease. Anopheles mosquitoes thrive in regions with warm temperatures, humid conditions, and high ...
QUESTION. What are the causes of malaria?. ANSWER. Malaria is caused by a parasite called Plasmodium, which is transmitted via the bites of infected mosquitoes. In the human body, the parasites multiply in the liver, and then infect red blood cells. Usually, people get malaria by being bitten by an infective female Anopheles mosquito. Only Anopheles mosquitoes can transmit malaria and they must have been infected through a previous blood meal taken on an infected person. When a mosquito bites an infected person, a small amount of blood is taken in which contains microscopic malaria parasites. About 1 week later, when the mosquito takes its next blood meal, these parasites mix with the mosquitos saliva and are injected into the person being bitten.. Because the malaria parasite is found in red blood cells of an infected person, malaria can also be transmitted through blood transfusion, organ transplant, or the shared use of needles or syringes contaminated with blood. Malaria may also be ...
FHV has been shown to infect medically important genera of insects: mosquitos, e.g. Anopheles gambiae; the tsetse fly; and the ...
"Anopheles Male Vs. Female". animals.mom.me. Retrieved 17 April 2016. Singer, Michael S.; Bernays, Elizabeth A. (2003). " ... such as those of Anopheles, Aedes and Culex) also eat blood to reproduce effectively. Although cases exist of herbivores eating ...
According to CDC, such methods are not practical in Africa because "Anopheles gambiae, one of the primary vectors of malaria in ... Hargreaves K, Hunt RH, Brooke BD, Mthembu J, Weeto MM, Awolola TS, Coetzee M (December 2003). "Anopheles arabiensis and An. ... Killeen GF, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna LC, Knols BG (October 2002). "Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: lessons ... However, pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles mosquitoes is on the rise with resistant mosquitoes found in multiple countries. ...
Anopheles gambiae Strain: PEST, mosquito (vector of malaria) (2002[120]). *Anopheles gambiae Strain: M, mosquito (vector of ... Anopheles gambiae Strain: S, mosquito (vector of malaria) (2010)[121]). *Anopheles sinensis, mosquito (vector of vivax malaria ... Highly evolvable malaria vectors: the genomes of 16 Anopheles mosquitoes". Science. 347 (6217): 1258522. doi:10.1126/science. ... October 2002). "The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Science. 298 (5591): 129-49. Bibcode:2002Sci... ...
Anopheles mosquito Rhinosporidiosis Rhinosporidium seeberi nose, nasopharynx biopsy India and Sri Lanka nasal mucosa came into ...
2003). "Anopheles arabiensis and An. quadriannulatus resistance to DDT in South Africa". Med. Vet. Entomol. 17 (4): 417-22. doi ...
Species of genera Aedes, Anopheles and Psorophora transmit equine encephalitis viruses to horses. Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles ... 1: Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Mansonia and Psorophora. Journal of Medical Entomology, 8: 687-695. doi: 10.1093/jmedent/ ... Typical genera are Culex, Aedes, and Anopheles The basic structure of dipteran flies is illustrated in the diagram. Veterinary ... ISBN 0-8138-2053-7. Anopheles gambiae female mosquito feeding. Stomxys calcitrans adult stable-fly. Tabanus bovinus adult ...
He described several species of mosquitoes in the genus Anopheles and took an interest in the ticks. His collection of ... Insekten-Börse 18:36-38 (1901) Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Anopheles. Z. Hyg. Infektkr. 41 15-88, 2 pls. (1902) English ... Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Anopheles. II. Mittheilung. Z. hyg. Infektkr. 43:215-238, illus. (1903) Sakai, Tatsuo (2010). " ...
The larva of Anopheles turkhudi. Indian J. Med. Res., 17:1189-1192, 1930 Filariasis in North Travancore. Indian J. Med. Res., ... Iyengar, M. O. T.; Rook, H. De; Dijk, W. J. O. M. Van (1959). "Interruption of transmission of Anopheles-borne filariasis by ... Iyengar, M. O. P.; Iyengar, M. O. T. (1932). "On a Characium Growing on Anopheles Larvae". The New Phytologist. 31 (1): 66-69. ... Naturalistic control of the breeding of Anopheles sundaicus by means of Eichomia cover. J. Malar. Inst. India, 6:309-310,1946. ...
Anopheles stephensi and Aedes aegypti. IJMR 74,1981,18-22. P.K.RAJAGOPALAN. Vector control operations in rural areas and ... Breeding habitats of Anopheles culiclfacles in Rameswaram Island. IJMR 84,1986,44-52. P.JAMBULINGAM, S.SABESAN, K. ... Das.P.K. and Rajagopaian.P.K. Laboratory studies on the biology of Anopheles culicifacies (Giles). Indian J, MEd, Res. 70 : 424 ... Laboratory studies on the biology of Anopheles sub-pjclUSGrassi 1899. IJMR 80,1984,57-59. K.N.PANICKER AND P.K.RAJAGOPALAN. ...
". "AGAP007948-PA, partial [Anopheles gambiae STR. PEST] - Protein - NCBI". ...
El Anopheles albitarsis F Lch. A., La semana médica, XXIII, nº 1151, 1915. 95. La avispa contra la mosca (Prospalangia ... Contribución para el conocimiento de los Anopheles Argentinos, C. N. M. (3º) 7, págs. 666-667, 1928. 249. Hyménoptères Sud- ...
... the female Anopheles mosquito carries malaria. The threats to the wildlife of Mali are on account of deforestation (in 1997, ...
"Anopheles gambiae (ID 46) - Genome - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-11-30. "Index of /genomes/refseq/invertebrate/ ... "Index of /genomes/refseq/invertebrate/Anopheles_gambiae/latest_assembly_versions/GCF_000005575.2_AgamP3". ftp.ncbi.nih.gov. ...
Kligler, I.J.; Mer, G. (1937). "Studies on the effect of various factors on the infection rate of Anopheles elutus with ... Seasonal variations in the food preference of Anopheles elutus". Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. Oxford University Press. 26 (3 ... doi:10.1016/S0035-9203(32)90211-9. Kligler, I.J.; Mer, G. (1936). "Anopheles in Syria and their distribution". Rivista di ... Long-range dispersion of Anopheles during the prehibernating period". Rivista di Malariologia. 9 (4): 363-374. Kligler, I.J.; ...
Kligler, I.J.; Mer, G. (1937). "Studies on the effect of various factors on the infection rate of Anopheles elutus with ... Seasonal variations in the food preference of Anopheles elutus". Trans. R. Soc. Trop. Med. Hyg. 26 (3): 283-287. doi:10.1016/ ... He studied the prevalence of various Anopheles species, their biology and nesting grounds, tested different methods of ... Long-range dispersion of Anopheles during the prehibernating period". Rivista di Malariologia. 9 (4): 363-374. Kligler, I.J.; ...
... is a subgenus of the mosquito genus Anopheles. The type species is Anopheles nimbus. There are five species in this ... Of the seven extant subgenera of Anopheles, Stethomyia appears to be the earliest diverging clade. This branching order is ...
Anopheles, Aedes, Culex larvae Antinociception, antihyperalgesic. S. acmella. Flowers. CWE. Formalin test of nociception and ...
ISBN 978-88-900622-7-8. Turner, T.L. (2005). "Genomic Islands of Speciation in Anopheles gambiae". PLOS Biology. 3 (9): e285. ...
"Malaria and the Anopheles mosquitoes of Tajikistan. Journal of Vector Ecology, 37 (2), 419-427. Lavigne, R. and McAlister, E. ... "Systematics of Anopheles barbirostris van der Wulp and a sibling species of the Barbirostris Complex (Diptera: Culicidae) in ... "Malaria and the Anopheles mosquitoes of Tajikistan". Journal of Vector Ecology. 37 (2): 419-427. doi:10.1111/j.1948-7134.2012. ...
Smaller juvenile spiders have adopted an Anopheles-specific prey-capture behavior, using the posture of Anopheles mosquitoes as ... the Anopheles was consumed by both adults and juveniles. Juveniles would choose the Anopheles over all other prey regardless of ... Anopheles has a distinctive resting posture with its abdomen angled up. In this case, the spider takes a detour and approaches ... E. culicivora has been observed to time its predation to the early morning hours since this is when Anopheles mosquitoes are ...
Mackerras, M. J., & Lemerle, T. H. (1949). Laboratory Breeding of Anopheles Punctulatus Punctulatus, Dönitz. Bulletin of ...
I. Aedes, Anopheles, Coquillettidia, Mansonia and Psorophora". Journal of Medical Entomology. 8 (6): 687-695. doi:10.1093/ ... These include Aedes sollicitans (eastern salt marsh mosquito), Anopheles bradleyi, and A. atropos. According to observational ...
It was isolated from the midgut of the malaria mosquito Anopheles arabiensis from Kenya. This new bacterium was given its name ... Thorsellia has besides in Anopheles also been found to dominate the gut flora in the mosquito species Culex tarsalis, which is ... However, T. anophelis has also been found in the reproductive tissues of male and female Anopheles gambiae and An. coluzzii ... nov., isolated from the larvae of Anopheles arabiensis as members of the family Thorselliaceae fam. nov". Int J Syst Evol ...
isolated from larvae of Anopheles darlingi". International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology. 66 (12): 5211- ...
Pittendrigh, Colin (March 1948). "The Bromeliad-Anopheles-Malaria Complex in Trinidad. I-The Bromeliad Flora". Evolution. 2 (1 ...
Females of the mosquito genus Anopheles prefer to feed at night. They usually start searching for a meal at dusk, and continue ... With the sequencing of P. falciparum, one of its vectors Anopheles gambiae, and the human genome, the genetics of all three ... Killeen G, Fillinger U, Kiche I, Gouagna L, Knols B (2002). "Eradication of Anopheles gambiae from Brazil: Lessons for malaria ... The disease is most commonly spread by an infected female Anopheles mosquito. The mosquito bite introduces the parasites from ...
He also participated in the sequencing of the genome of the mosquito Anopheles gambiae completed in 2002. He was Assistant ... Dimopoulos, G.; Müller, H. M.; Kafatos, F. C. (1999). "How does Anopheles gambiae kill malaria parasites?". Parassitologia. 41 ... 2002). "The genome sequence of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Science. 298 (5591): 129-149. Bibcode:2002Sci...298.. ... "Low-resolution genome map of the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the ...
The size of the gene family for Anopheles albimanus is one and there is only one isoform. Table 1. Identified orthologs of Homo ... The most distantly related homolog of TMEM169 is Anopheles albimanus. The gene is located on human chromosome 2(2q35) and spans ... "transmembrane protein 169-like [Anopheles albimanus] - Protein - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 2020-10-22. "TimeTree ... The most distantly related organism with TMEM169 ortholog is Anopheles albimanus, within the taxonomic group Arthropoda. ...
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Taxonomy of Anopheles Tropical disease "Anopheles - Define Anopheles at Dictionary.com". Dictionary.com. Meigen, J. W. (1818). ... The Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus clades diverged between 80 million years ago and 36 million years ago. A molecular ... Two main groupings within the genus Anopheles are used: one formed by the Celia and Anopheles subgenera and a second by ... Malaria Atlas Project Anopheles gambiae taxonomy, facts and life cycle Anopheles quadrimaculatus, common malaria mosquito on ...
Anopheles Eradication in Cyprus. Br Med J 1949; 2 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.2.4619.176-a (Published 16 July 1949) Cite ...
Anopheles gambiae és una de les més conegudes a causa del seu paper important en la transmissió del Plasmodium falciparum. ... Anopheles és un gènere de dípters nematòcers de la família Cuculidae. Nhi ha aproximadament 400 espècies, de les quals 30-40 ... Com tots els mosquits, els Anopheles travessen quatre fases: ou, larva, pupa i adult. Les primeres 3 etapes transcorren en medi ... Mapa del món mostrant la distribució de diversos mosquits Anopheles. *Walter Reed Biosystematics Unit. - Enllaços a catàleg en ...
Anopheles (Celia) varuna is a species complex of zoophilic mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. It is found in India, Sri ... Confirmation of Anopheles varuna in Vietnam, previously misidentified and mistargeted as the malaria vector Anopheles minimus ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Food of larval Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna in a stream habitat in Sri ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Physico-chemical characteristics of Anopheles culicifacies and Anopheles varuna ...
Definition of Anopheles aztecus. Provided by Stedmans medical dictionary and Drugs.com. Includes medical terms and definitions ...
Now the entire repertoire of odorant receptor proteins in the Anopheles gambiae mosquito, the major malaria vector in sub- ... Our analysis of the Anopheles gambiae repertoire identifies receptors that may be useful targets for controlling the ... Here we functionally characterize the Anopheles gambiae odorant receptor (AgOr) repertoire. We identify receptors that respond ... This analysis of the Anopheles gambiae receptors permits a comparison with the corresponding Drosophila melanogaster odorant ...
Your basket is currently empty. i ,p>When browsing through different UniProt proteins, you can use the basket to save them, so that you can back to find or analyse them later.,p>,a href=/help/basket target=_top>More...,/a>,/p> ...
... the Anopheles genus is likely the deadliest. This is because Anopheles carry and spread malaria. ... Among the 3,000 mosquito species, the Anopheles genus is likely the deadliest. This is because Anopheles carry and spread ... All about Moustique Anopheles. FACTS: There are some 3,000 mosquito species living all over the world. Perhaps the deadliest of ... Like all mosquitoes, Anopheles are attracted to your body heat and the carbon dioxide you exhale, which they can detect 75 feet ...
... the Anopheles genus is likely the deadliest. This is because it spreads malaria.,br,,br,,a href=https://www.malarianomore.org ... All about Anopheles Mosquito. FACTS: There are some 3,000 mosquito species living all over the world. Perhaps the deadliest of ... Like all mosquitoes, Anopheles are attracted to your body heat and the carbon dioxide you exhale, which they can detect 75 feet ... Like all mosquitoes, Anopheles are attracted to your body heat and the carbon dioxide you exhale, which they can detect 75 feet ...
Characterization of swarming and mating behaviour between Anopheles coluzzii and Anopheles melas in a sympatry area of Benin ... Evidence for late Pleistocene population expansion of the malarial mosquitoes, Anopheles arabiensis and Anopheles gambiae in ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ... Centromere-proximal differentiation and speciation in Anopheles gambiae. Aram D. Stump, Meagan C. Fitzpatrick, Neil F. Lobo, ...
Anopheles darlingi, whole genome shotgun sequencing project Anopheles darlingi, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. gi, ... Anopheles darlingi, whole genome shotgun sequencing project. GenBank: ADMH00000000.2. * This entry is the master record for a ...
... Softberry Team softberry at softberry.com Tue Nov 5 16:33:34 EST 2002 *Previous ... Anopheles gambiae Gene finding parameters for FGENESH the program with parameters for major model organisms is available for on ... Fgenesh output: fgenesh Tue Nov 5 16:23:15 EST 2002 FGENESH 1.1 Prediction of potential genes in Anopheles_gambiae genomic DNA ... A new parameter set for gene prediction Anopheles gambiae is developed for FGENESH program. Accuracy of prediction of ...
Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anopheles_concolor&oldid=7680882" ... Genus: Anopheles. Subgenus: A. (Anopheles). Species: Anopheles concolor Name[edit]. Anopheles concolor Edwards, 1938 ...
Genus: Anopheles. Subgenus: A. (Anopheles). Species: Anopheles albotaeniatus Name[edit]. Anopheles albotaeniatus (Theobald, ... Retrieved from "https://species.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?title=Anopheles_albotaeniatus&oldid=7680797" ...
Anopheles minimus. Anopheles moucheti. Anopheles nili. Anopheles ovengensis. Anopheles pampanae. Anopheles peytoni. Anopheles ... Anopheles beklemishevi. Anopheles coustani. Anopheles crypticus. Anopheles farauti. Anopheles forattinii. Anopheles funestus. ... Anopheles gambiae. Anopheles grabhamii. Anopheles hailarensis. Anopheles halophylus. Anopheles hyrcanus. Anopheles kosiensis. ... Anopheles (nyamuk malaria) merupakan salah satu genus nyamuk. Terdapat 400 spesies nyamuk Anopheles, namun hanya 30-40 ...
Kasap, H., Kasap, M., Alptekin, D., Lüleyap, U. & Herath, P. R. (‎2000)‎. Insecticide resistance in Anopheles sacharovi Favre ...
Anopheles farautiImported. ,p>Information which has been imported from another database using automatic procedures.,/p> ,p>,a ... tr,A0A182QD30,A0A182QD30_9DIPT Arrestin_C domain-containing protein OS=Anopheles farauti OX=69004 PE=4 SV=1 ...
Learn how to pronounce anopheles in English with native pronunciation. anopheles translation and audio pronunciation ... anopheles pronunciation Pronunciation by carsonpowers (Male from United States) 0 votes Good Bad ... Can you pronounce it better? Or with a different accent? Pronounce anopheles in English ...
... on WN Network delivers the latest Videos and Editable pages for News & Events, including Entertainment, Music, Sports ... Anopheles. Anopheles /əˈnɒfᵻliːz/ (Greek anofelís: "useless") is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen ... Anopheles. Anopheles /əˈnɒfᵻliːz/ (Greek anofelís: "useless") is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen ... Latest News for: anopheles. Edit A new malaria vector in Africa: Predicting the expansion range of Anopheles stephensi and ...
Systems genetic analysis of inversion polymorphisms in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae. Changde Cheng, John C. Tan, ... Here we take a systems genetics approach, analyzing two inversion systems implicated in climatic adaption by Anopheles gambiae ... Inversion polymorphisms in the African malaria vector Anopheles gambiae segregate along climatic gradients of aridity. Despite ... Systems genetic analysis of inversion polymorphisms in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae ...
T. V. Pascini, J. M. Ramalho-Ortigäo, and G. F. Martins "The Fine Structure of the Spermatheca in Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera ... The Fine Structure of the Spermatheca in Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: Culicidae). T. V. Pascini, J. M. Ramalho-Ortigäo, G. F. ... Anopheles lindesayi japonicus Yamada (Diptera Culicidae) in Korea ... Susceptibility of Adult Mosquitoes to Insecticides in ... T. V. Pascini, J. M. Ramalho-Ortigäo, G. F. Martins "The Fine Structure of the Spermatheca in Anopheles aquasalis (Diptera: ...
Genetic structure and gene flow of Anopheles minimus and Anopheles... Trophic behavior and biting activity of the two sibling ... Pradya Somboon, Damrongpan Thongwat, Wej Choochote, Catherine Walton, and Masahiro Takagi "CROSSING EXPERIMENTS OF ANOPHELES ... In the Anopheles minimus complex, 2 sibling species (A and C) are generally accepted. Recently, a 3rd species, provisionally ... Diversity of Anopheles Species and Trophic Behavior of Putative Malaria... Evidence of the Specific Status ofAnopheles ...
Digital droplet PCR and IDAA for the detection of CRISPR indel edits in the malaria species Anopheles stephensi ... I am currently working on a next-generation gene drive for the African malaria vector Anopheles gambie that shows low frequency ... Digital droplet PCR and IDAA for the detection of CRISPR indel edits in the malaria species Anopheles stephensi?. Mosquito- ... Rebeca Carballar-Lejarazú on digital droplet PCR and IDAA for the detection of CRISPR indel edits in Anopheles stephensi. 29 ...
Results: Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant malaria specie in the country, accounting for 52% of the sibling species ... Molecular assay were used to determine distribution of Anopheles gambiae sub-species. A microplate assay approach was used for ... Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania. A major concern for malaria vector control ... Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania: A major concern for malaria vector control. Malaria Journal ...
Despite their importance as malaria vectors, little is known of the bionomic of Anopheles nili and Anopheles moucheti. Larval ... Read more about Distribution and larval habitat characterization of Anopheles moucheti, Anopheles nili, and other malaria ... Distribution and larval habitat characterization of Anopheles moucheti, Anopheles nili, and other malaria vectors in river ... Molecular organization of heterochromatin in malaria mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis subgroup. October 31, 2009 - 10: ...
But a new study suggests that Anopheles species, including some found in the United States, also are capable of carrying and ... Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are well known as primary vectors of malaria. ... Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are well known as primary vectors of malaria. But a new study suggests that Anopheles species ... The four Anopheles species were selected to cover different geographical regions: North America (An. freeborni and An. ...
Characterizing the insecticide resistance of Anopheles gambiae in Mali. Malar J. 2015;14:327.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle ... Anopheles Malaria vector Insecticide resistance Adaptive introgression kdr P450 Carboxylesterase Abbreviations. WHO. World ... Characterization of inhibitors and substrates of Anopheles gambiae CYP6Z2. Insect Mol Biol. 2008;17:125-35.CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... coluzzii: the primary mosquito vectors of malaria in Mali [2, 3, 4]. Anopheles coluzzii has been increasing in relative ...
In the Czech Republic, we found Anopheles maculipennis (with a prevalence rate of 1.4%), Anopheles messeae (49.0%) and ... Anophelinae Maculipennis complex Anopheles daciae Mosquitoes Cryptic species Vector-borne diseases This is a preview of ... Blazquez J, de Zulueta J (1980) The disappearance of Anopheles labranchiae from Spain. Parassitologia 22:161-163PubMedGoogle ... Halgoš J, Benková I (2004) First record of Anopheles hyrcanus (Diptera:Culicidae) from Slovakia. Biologia 59:68Google Scholar ...
  • The culicine and Anopheles clades of mosquitoes diverged between 120 million years ago and 150 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • Like all mosquitoes, Anopheles are attracted to your body heat and the carbon dioxide you exhale, which they can detect 75 feet away - so you might try holding your breath. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Anopheles mosquitoes are most active just before dawn and at dusk. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Percentage of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes from the total collected mosquito samples per each study site. (cdc.gov)
  • Types of breeding sites from which larvae of Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes were collected. (cdc.gov)
  • Anopheles mosquitoes kill about 440,000 people each year because of malaria. (wn.com)
  • Mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles are well known as primary vectors of malaria. (eurekalert.org)
  • In addition, the researchers noted, Anopheles mosquitoes tend to take multiple blood meals between egg-laying events, and this bite frequency increases their capacity to transmit viruses. (eurekalert.org)
  • Despite the fact that Anopheles mosquitoes are widely dispersed worldwide, they currently are neglected as potential vectors of arboviruses," Rasgon said. (eurekalert.org)
  • We report the distribution of mosquitoes of the maculipennis complex in two distinct areas of the Czech Republic (Bohemia and South Moravia) and in one locality of neighbouring Slovakia with emphasis on the detection of the newly described cryptic species Anopheles daciae (Linton, Nicolescu & Harbach, 2004). (springer.com)
  • Bates M (1940) The nomenclature and taxonomic status of the mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis complex. (springer.com)
  • Danabalan R, Monaghan MT, Ponsonby DJ, Linton YM (2013) Occurrence and host preferences of Anopheles maculipennis group mosquitoes in England and Wales. (springer.com)
  • The objective was to determine IG2 efficacy under controlled household-like conditions for personal protection and control of wild, pyrethroid-resistant Anopheles funestus mosquitoes. (malariaworld.org)
  • Metabolomic and ecdysteroid variations in Anopheles gambiae s.l. mosquitoes exposed to the stressful conditions of the dry season in Burkina Faso, West Africa," Physiological and Biochemical Zoology , vol. 87, no. 3, pp. 486-497, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • The recently developed CRISPR/Cas9-based genome editing tools for Anopheles mosquitoes provide new and promising opportunities for the study of agonist function and for developing malaria control strategies through gene deletion to achieve complete agonist inactivation. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure of Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes to Plasmodium infection enhances the ability of their immune system to respond to subsequent infections. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Anopheles quadrimaculatus mosquitoes are primarily seen in eastern North America. (ufl.edu)
  • not determine which sibling species of the complex are present in those provinces, Mosquitoes of the Anopheles maculipennis and since then no further studies have been complex have been incriminated as some of carried out to determine current distribu- the main malaria vectors in Europe and the tion. (who.int)
  • Salivary gland homogenates from adult female Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes relaxed aortic rings preconstricted with noradrenaline (NA). (biologists.org)
  • It is suggested that adult female Anopheles albimanus mosquitoes contain a salivary heme peroxidase that functions during blood finding and blood feeding by destroying hemostatically active biogenic amines released by the vertebrate host during tissue destruction. (biologists.org)
  • Collections of Anopheles gambiae Giles complex, A. funestus Giles group and other mosquitoes were made by spray-catch from twelve catching stations indoors and by hand-catch from pit shelters at two catching stations at Segera, Tanzania, between January 1970 and June 1971. (cambridge.org)
  • Here, we report a compilation of the transgenesis tools that we have designed for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae , including new docking strains, convenient transgenesis plasmids, a puromycin resistance selection marker, mosquitoes expressing cre recombinase, and various reporter lines defining the activity of cloned promoters. (g3journal.org)
  • To investigate the genetic basis of olfactory modulation in mosquitoes, we assayed changes in CO 2 detection from receptor gene expression through physiological function to behaviour, associated with the onset of host seeking in the malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae . (biologists.org)
  • Whilst physical and chemical cues used by Culex and Aedes vector mosquitoes for selecting an oviposition site have been extensively studied, those for Anopheles remain poorly explored. (diva-portal.org)
  • Anopheles gambiae mosquitoes were collected from four sites across Benin and identified to species/molecular form. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The development of insecticide resistance in anopheles mosquitoes is a major threat for malaria vector control. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human Malaria is transmitted by mosquitoes of the genus Anopheles . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recent advancements in DNA sequencing technology make the prospects of wholegenome sequencing-based population genomic studies likely for Anopheles mosquitoes in the near future, but this so-called ʻnext-generation sequencing' (NGS) is complicated by relatively high sequencing error rates and subsequent uncertainty in genotype inference. (cornell.edu)
  • In several contexts, the estimation of the fitness of Anopheles mosquitoes is required. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anopheles mosquitoes are responsible for transmitting human malaria parasites that cause an estimated 200 million cases and more than 600 thousand deaths each year. (unige.ch)
  • Two articles published on November 27th in the journal Science describe detailed genomic comparisons of these mosquitoes and the deadliest of them all, Anopheles gambiae . (unige.ch)
  • Malaria parasites are transmitted to humans by only a few dozen of the many hundreds of species of Anopheles mosquitoes, and of these, only a handful are highly efficient disease-vectors. (unige.ch)
  • Red indicates sites of Anopheles stephensi mosquito collection. (cdc.gov)
  • Collection information and species proportions detected using a combination of standard PCR diagnostics and mitochondrial DNA sequencing Estimated percentages of Anopheles stephensi (with associated binomial confidence intervals) are. (cdc.gov)
  • Please can you give us a short summary of the recent reports article, 'Digital droplet PCR and IDAA for the detection of CRISPR indel edits in the malaria species Anopheles stephensi' ? (biotechniques.com)
  • Simultaneous microarray-based transcription analysis of 4987 Anopheles stephensi midgut and Plasmodium berghei infection stage specific cDNAs was done at seven successive time points: 6, 20 and 40h, and 4, 8, 14 and 20 days after ingestion of malaria infected blood. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Quando Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say e Anopheles stephensi Liston foram incluídas como grupos externos, os dados combinados dos genes White e COI recuperaram o monofiletismo de An. (usp.br)
  • When Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say and Anopheles stephensi Liston were included as outgroups, combined white and COI data resolved An. (usp.br)
  • Anopheles stephensi p38 MAPK signaling regulates innate immunity and bioenergetics during Plasmodium falciparum infection," Parasites and Vectors , vol. 8, article 424, 2015. (hindawi.com)
  • Coloured scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Anopheles stephensi, female mosquito vector carrier of malaria. (sciencephoto.com)
  • Here we report on the development of transgenic sexing lines for the mosquito Anopheles stephensi, the principal vector of human malaria in Asia. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The energetic budget of Anopheles stephensi infected with Plasmodium chabaudi: is energy depletion a mechanism for virulence? (royalsocietypublishing.org)
  • Anopheles stephensi is the key vector of malaria throughout the Indian subcontinent and Middle East and an emerging model for molecular and genetic studies of mosquito-parasite interactions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb, Dos, Cecilia L. S., Wilkerson, Richard C. (2009): Studies on Anopheles (Kerteszia) homunculus Komp (Diptera: Culicidae). (gbif.org)
  • Anopheles is a genus of mosquito from the family Culicidae. (sciencephoto.com)
  • E. E. Frances , Survivorship and distribution of immature Anopheles gambiae sl (Diptera: Culicidae) in Banambani village, Mali, Journal of Medical Entomology , 41 (2004), 333-339. (aimsciences.org)
  • Larvicidal potential of some plants from west Africa against Culex quinquefasciatus (Say) and anopheles gambiae giles (Diptera: Culicidae). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Harbach, Ralph E., Rattanarithikul, Rampa, Harrison, Bruce A. (2017): Anopheles prachongae, a new species of the Gigas Complex of subgenus Anopheles (Diptera: Culicidae) in Thailand, contrasted with known forms of the complex. (gbif.org)
  • Anopheles (/əˈnɒfɪliːz/) is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818. (wikipedia.org)
  • The only known fossils of this genus are those of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) dominicanus Zavortink & Poinar contained in Dominican amber from the Late Eocene (40.4 million years ago to 33.9 million years ago) and Anopheles rottensis Statz contained in German amber from the Late Oligocene (28.4 million years ago to 23 million years ago). (wikipedia.org)
  • The genus Anopheles Meigen (nearly worldwide distribution) belongs to the subfamily Anophelinae together with another two genera: Bironella Theobald (Australia only) and Chagasia Cruz (Neotropics). (wikipedia.org)
  • The same phylogeny also argues that, based on genetic similarity, Anopheles implexus is actually divergent from the common ancestor to the Anopheles genus, raising new questions regarding taxonomy and classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two main groupings within the genus Anopheles are used: one formed by the Celia and Anopheles subgenera and a second by Kerteszia, Lophopodomyia and Nyssorhynchus. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anopheles (Celia) varuna is a species complex of zoophilic mosquito belonging to the genus Anopheles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Among the 3,000 mosquito species, the Anopheles genus is likely the deadliest. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Perhaps the deadliest of all is the genus Anopheles, some species of which spread malaria. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Unlike the Culex genus of mosquito which is prevalent throughout the USA, Anopheles live predominantly in warm, moist and tropical climates. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Anopheles ( nyamuk malaria) merupakan salah satu genus nyamuk. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anopheles / ə ˈ n ɒ f ᵻ l iː z / (Greek anofelís: "useless") is a genus of mosquito first described and named by J. W. Meigen in 1818. (wn.com)
  • Genus Anopheles is a serious mosquito group of curiosity in Sri Lanka because it contains vectors of malaria and its members exist as species complexes. (anobase.org)
  • 2005). Species in the genus Anopheles have long palps approximately equal in length to the proboscis. (ufl.edu)
  • The internal classification of genus Anopheles is updated to reflect taxonomic actions published since the classification was last reviewed in 1994. (cambridge.org)
  • This is the first report on the diversity of the salivary protein repertoire among species from the Anopheles genus at the protein level. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The involvement of these proteins as antigenic candidates for genus-, subgenus- or species-specific immunological evaluation of individual exposure to Anopheles bites is discussed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Several mosquito species of the Anopheles genus are vectors of Plasmodium parasites, the causal agents of malaria. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Human malaria parasites are vectored primarily by three mosquito species of the genus Anopheles, and new technologies and strategies to control disease transmission by targeting the mosquito vector have been proposed or are in development. (cornell.edu)
  • N'hi ha aproximadament 400 espècies , de les quals 30-40 transmeten cinc espècies diferents de paràsits del gènere Plasmodium , que causen la malària que afecta els humans en àrees endèmiques. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anopheles gambiae és una de les més conegudes a causa del seu paper important en la transmissió del Plasmodium falciparum . (wikipedia.org)
  • Anopheles gambiae is one of the best known, because of its predominant role in the transmission of the most dangerous malaria parasite species (to humans) - Plasmodium falciparum. (wikipedia.org)
  • Malaria is caused by the plasmodium parasite living inside Anopheles. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Plasmodium falciparum ) dalam kawasan endemik di Afrika, sedangkan Anopheles sundaicus adalah penyebar malaria di Asia. (wikipedia.org)
  • The study reveals the molecular components of several Anopheles processes relating to blood digestion, midgut expansion and response to Plasmodium-infected blood such as digestive enzymes, transporters, cytoskeletal and structural components and stress and immune responsive factors. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Temporal correlation between transcription profiles of both organisms identifies putative gene clusters of interacting processes, such as Plasmodium invasion of the midgut epithelium, Anopheles immune responses to Plasmodium infection, and apoptosis and expulsion of invaded midgut cells from the epithelium. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • Here we have established a modified CRISPR/Cas9 gene editing procedure for the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae, and studied the effect of inactivating the fibrinogen-related protein 1 (FREP1) gene on the mosquito's susceptibility to Plasmodium and on mosquito fitness. (nih.gov)
  • The naturally acquired microbiota of Anopheles can influence vector's susceptibility to Plasmodium and its capacity to transmit them. (frontiersin.org)
  • There are approximately 400 species of the Anopheles mosquito, 30 to 40 transmit four different species of the parasite, Plasmodium, that causes malaria. (sciencephoto.com)
  • The Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus clades diverged between 80 million years ago and 36 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • The malaria vector Anopheles funestus is increasingly recognized as a dominant vector of residual transmission in many African settings. (malariaworld.org)
  • Understanding the molecular basis of insecticide resistance in mosquito, such as Anopheles funestus, is an important step in developing strategies to mitigate the resistance problem. (malariaworld.org)
  • Increased levels of insecticide resistance in major malaria vectors such as Anopheles funestus threaten the effectiveness of insecticide-based control programmes. (malariaworld.org)
  • Previous mosquito surveys performed in the Federation of St Kitts and Nevis identified Anopheles albimanus in Nevis but there is no recorded occurrence of this mosquito in St Kitts. (uwi.edu)
  • A new record for St Kitts was Anopheles albimanus which was trapped during the rainy season near a mangrove site. (uwi.edu)
  • Germ-line transformation of the South American malaria vector, Anopheles albimanus, with a piggyBac/EGFP transposon vector is routine and highly efficient. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The micro-geographic structure of Anopheles albimanus was studied in southern Central America using partial sequences of the mtDNA cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI). (dp.la)
  • Anopheles albimanus (subgenus Nyssorhynchus ) is an important malaria vector in the Americas. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The analyses included 12 species within Anopheles and 4 within the Myzorhynchus Series of the subgenus Anopheles , 8 within Neocellia, 6 within Myzomyia, 3 within Paramyzomyia, and 1 within the Pyretophorus Series of the subgenus Cellia . (go.jp)
  • Effect of predation on Anopheles larvae by five sympatic insect families in coastal Kenya. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Studying predation pressure on Anopheles mosquito larvae is made more complicated by having at least two distinct guilds of predators (12). (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The Anopheles mosquito larvae, filter feeding at the surface of the water, must contend with potential attacks from both surface and submerged predators. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Insecticide Exposure Triggers a Modulated Expression of ABC Transporter Genes in Larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s. (mdpi.com)
  • In this study, we have investigated if ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a major component of the defensome machinery, are involved in defence against the insecticide permethrin, in susceptible larvae of the malaria vector Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto. (mdpi.com)
  • The plant species studied were selected on the basis of criteria (Table 1), such as lack of information on activity against Anopheles and Culex larvae, botanical families (Euphorbiaceae, Verbenaceae, and Meliaceae) from which number of larvicidal plant were reported and large distribution in West Africa. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Anopheles darlingi diverged from the African and Asian malaria vectors ∼100 million years ago. (wikipedia.org)
  • I used population genetic approaches to study the historical demographic and selective events of multiple populations of one of the primary vectors, Anopheles gambiae. (cornell.edu)
  • The system of subgenera originated with the work of Christophers, who in 1915 described three subgenera: Anopheles (widely distributed), Myzomyia (later renamed Cellia) (Old World) and Nyssorhynchus (Neotropical). (wikipedia.org)
  • The number of species currently recognised within the subgenera is given here in parentheses: Anopheles (206 species), Baimaia (1), Cellia (216), Kerteszia (12), Lophopodomyia (6), Nyssorhynchus (34) and Stethomyia (5). (wikipedia.org)
  • The larger subgenera (Anopheles, Cellia and Nyssorhynchus) have been subdivided into sections and series which in turn have been divided into groups and subgroups. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anopheles albertoi Unti e Anopheles arthuri Unti são retiradas da sinonímia com Anopheles strodei Root, e uma forma morfologicamente distinta, adiante designada Anopheles CP, do Complexo Strodei de Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) é caracterizada. (usp.br)
  • Anopheles albertoi Unti and Anopheles arthuri Unti are revived from the synonymy with Anopheles strodei Root, and a distinct morphological form (herein designated Anopheles CP Form) from the Strodei complex of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) is characterized. (usp.br)
  • Subgenera Anopheles , Cellia and Nyssorhynchus are subdivided hierarchically into nested informal groups of morphologically similar species that are believed to represent monophyletic lineages based on morphological similarity. (cambridge.org)
  • ABSTRACT A diagnostic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay using species-specific primers and direct sequencing was used to identify members of the Anopheles maculipennis complex in the north-west and central regions of the Islamic Republic of Iran. (who.int)
  • Despite their importance as malaria vectors, little is known of the bionomic of Anopheles nili and Anopheles moucheti. (malariaworld.org)
  • Results: Anopheles arabiensis was the dominant malaria specie in the country, accounting for 52% of the sibling species identified, while An. (rti.org)
  • Insecticide resistance in Anopheles sacharovi Favre in southern Turkey. (who.int)
  • Multiple insecticide resistance in Anopheles gambiae from Tanzania: A major concern for malaria vector control. (rti.org)
  • A major threat to further reductions in malaria incidents is the emergence and spread of insecticide resistance (IR) in Anopheles ( An . (springer.com)
  • We examine the extent and impact of recent introgression of a strongly selected insecticide-resistance mutation ( Vgsc-1014F ) located within one of two exceptionally large genomic islands of divergence separating the Anopheles gambiae species pair. (nature.com)
  • Abdulla-Khan , R. , Coetzee , M. & Hunt , R.H. ( 1998 ) Description of Anopheles (Cellia) seretsei sp. (cambridge.org)
  • The congruent tree topologies of both molecular markers strongly supported monophyly of subgenera Anopheles and Cellia . (go.jp)
  • Here, we describe a metabolome analysis of the midgut of Anopheles coluzzii provided with a sugar-meal or a non-infectious blood-meal, under conventional or antibiotic-treated conditions. (nih.gov)
  • In depth annotation of the Anopheles gambiae mosquito midgut transcriptome," BMC Genomics , vol. 15, article no. 636, 2014. (hindawi.com)
  • We show that a peroxidase, secreted by the Anopheles gambiae midgut, and dual oxidase form a dityrosine network that decreases gut permeability to immune elicitors. (sciencemag.org)
  • 2012). Though not major malaria vectors in South America, Anopheles goeldii and Anopheles triannulatus are locally and regionally important (Rubio-Palis 1994, Póvoa et al. (scielo.br)
  • Populations of Anopheles (Kerteszia) were sampled fortnightly over a one-year period (August 1991 to July 1992) at Ribeira Valley, S. Paulo State, Brazil. (scielo.br)
  • Molecular assay were used to determine distribution of Anopheles gambiae sub-species. (rti.org)
  • Djadid D, Gholizadeh S, Tafsiri E, Romi R, Gordeev M, Zakeri S (2007) Molecular identification of Palearctic members of Anopheles maculipennis in northern Iran. (springer.com)
  • The main Afrotropical malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae sensu stricto, is undergoing a process of sympatric ecological diversification leading to at least two incipient species (the M and S molecular forms) showing heterogeneous levels of divergence across the genome. (diva-portal.org)
  • http://www.softberry.com/berry.phtml?topic=gfind Method description: A new parameter set for gene prediction Anopheles gambiae is developed for FGENESH program. (bio.net)
  • She is currently working on the development and optimization of a gene drive system based on CRISPR/Cas9 technology for population modification of the malaria African vector Anopheles gambiae to spread beneficial genes quickly through mosquito populations. (biotechniques.com)
  • Gene expression patterns associated with blood-feeding in the malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae ," BMC Genomics , vol. 6, article 5, 2005. (hindawi.com)
  • In this study, we characterized the serpin ( SRPN ) gene family in the mosquito Anopheles gambiae , the major malaria vector in Sub-Saharan Africa. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Bacterial culture and 16S rRNA gene-PCR associated to Temporal Temperature Gradient Electrophoresis (TTGE) were applied to explore the bacterial diversity in the abdomen of 100 wild specimens (eight Anopheles species) collected in the Binh Phuoc Province, Vietnam. (frontiersin.org)
  • OBP3 gene cDNA ORF clone, Anopheles gambiae str. (genscript.com)
  • Anopheles farauti sensu stricto (formerly A. farauti 1) is distributed in Papua New Guinea and Australia where it is and it was a malaria vector, respectively. (vectorbase.org)
  • However, the results, reported today (Nov. 7) in PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases , demonstrated that all four Anopheles species were competent laboratory vectors of the virus. (eurekalert.org)
  • There are over 400 species of the Anopheles mosquito, and about 40 of these species carry malaria. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • The Anopheles genome, at 230-284 million base pairs (Mbp), is comparable in size to that of Drosophila, but considerably smaller than those found in other culicine genomes (528 Mbp-1.9 Gbp). (wikipedia.org)
  • The Anopheles gambiae genome: an update. (genscript.com)
  • Much of our understanding of many such processes derives from the sequencing of the Anopheles gambiae genome in 2002, which has since facilitated many large-scale functional studies that have offered numerous insights into how this mosquito became highly specialized in order to live amongst and feed upon humans. (unige.ch)
  • Until now, the lack of such genomic resources for other Anopheles limited comparisons to small-scale studies of individual genes with no genome-wide data to investigate key attributes that impact the mosquito's ability to transmit parasites. (unige.ch)
  • In the Anopheles minimus complex, 2 sibling species (A and C) are generally accepted. (bioone.org)
  • Here, the morphology of the spermatheca in the saltwater-tolerant mosquito Anopheles aquasalis Curry was investigated for the first time using a combination of light, confocal, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy. (bioone.org)
  • Blazquez J, de Zulueta J (1980) The disappearance of Anopheles labranchiae from Spain. (springer.com)
  • The mosquito Anopheles gambiae is the major vector of malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. (nature.com)
  • So about half of the world's population is at risk since Anopheles lives throughout Africa, South and Southeast Asia and Latin America. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • The divergence time between Anopheles gambiae , the main malaria vector in Africa, and the Neotropical vectors has been estimated to be 100 My. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus although about half the world's human population is at risk of malaria, most fatalities occur in sub-Saharan Africa, home of the major vector species, Anopheles gambiae . (unige.ch)
  • We selected species from Africa, Asia, Europe, and Latin America," explained Prof. Besansky , "that represent a range of evolutionary distances from Anopheles gambiae , a variety of ecological conditions, and varying degrees of vectorial capacity. (unige.ch)
  • In Anopheles gambiae, the major malaria vector in Sub-Saharan Africa, 18 SRPN genes encoding 23 distinct proteins have been identified. (k-state.edu)
  • We performed an analysis of the electrophysiological responses of olfactory neurons in the antennae of the female malaria mosquito Anopheles gambiae s.s. and investigated the effect of blood feeding on responsiveness. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Their origin and the existence of Anopheles -specific bacterial taxa are discussed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The genera Culex, Aedes and Anopheles are the most important vectors involved in diseases transmission to humans. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • An association of brain tumor incidence and malaria suggests the Anopheles might transmit a virus or other agent that could cause a brain tumor. (wn.com)
  • The capacity of the two North American species of Anopheles to transmit Mayaro is particularly relevant to the United States, because the estimated geographic distribution of these species covers the entire country," Rasgon said. (eurekalert.org)
  • Variation in the ability of different Anopheles species to transmit malaria - known as "vectorial capacity" - is determined by many factors, including feeding and breeding preferences, as well as their immune responses to infections. (unige.ch)
  • In the taxonomy published by Harbach et al in 2016, it was shown that three species of Bironella: confusa, gracilis, and hollandi are phylogenetically similar Anopheles kyondawensis than other Bironella species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic trees constructed on the basis of ITS2 sequences could accurately categorize all of the series according to the classical taxonomy but could not distinguish Pyretophorus ( Anopheles subpictus ) from Paramyzomyia Series. (go.jp)
  • Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say is historically the most important vector of malaria in the eastern United States. (ufl.edu)
  • Adult female common malaria mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. (ufl.edu)
  • Known distribution of Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. (ufl.edu)
  • Anopheles quadrimaculatus has dark scales on the wings with patches of scales forming four darker spots on the wing (Carpenter and LaCasse 1955). (ufl.edu)
  • Egg of the common malaria mosquito, Anopheles quadrimaculatus Say. (ufl.edu)
  • Anopheles quadrimaculatus will feed on mammals including humans and domestic and wild animals (Carpenter and LaCasse 1955). (ufl.edu)
  • Malaria transmission has been eradicated from southern European Russia and Siberia but the main mosquito vector Anopheles messeae still flourishes. (europa.eu)
  • Anopheles farauti is a complex of seven species distributed in the Moluccas (Indonesia) and extend eastward through Papua New Guinea (the Admiralty Islands and the Bismarck Archipelago), the Solomon Islands, the New Hebrides (Vanuatu) and Australia. (vectorbase.org)
  • To evaluate whether environmental heterogeneity contributes to the genetic heterogeneity in Anopheles triannulatus , larval habitat characteristics across the Brazilian states of Roraima and Pará and genetic sequences were examined. (scielo.br)
  • Comparative studies on sibling species of the Anopheles gambiae Giles complex (Dipt. (cambridge.org)
  • In a study carried out by Service (5) on natural mortalities and predation of immature stages of Anopheles gambiae Giles, mortality was observed to be higher in the rice pools than in the small pools and ponds. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • However, the ability to target genes using RNAi during pre-adult stages is limited in the major human malaria vector Anopheles gambiae . (jove.com)
  • Scientists must understand the biology and behavior of Anopheles to develop malaria insecticides and other control strategies. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • However, many Anopheles species have become resistant to insecticides through years and years of pesticide use. (giantmicrobes.com)
  • Therefore, new and innovative approaches to control Anopheles vectors for reducing malaria transmission on a more durable and safer manner for human health are, hence, needed. (frontiersin.org)