Annexin A2: A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.Annexin A1: Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.Annexin A5: A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.Annexin A6: Protein of the annexin family with a probable role in exocytotic and endocytotic membrane events.Annexin A4: Protein of the annexin family originally isolated from the electric organ of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata. It has been found in a wide range of mammalian tissue where it is localized to the apical membrane of polarized EPITHELIAL CELLS.Annexin A7: An annexin family member that plays a role in MEMBRANE FUSION and signaling via VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT CALCIUM CHANNELS.Annexin A3: A protein of the annexin family that catalyzes the conversion of 1-D-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and water to 1-D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate.Annexins: Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.S100 Proteins: A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Apoptosis: One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.Propidium: Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Calcium-Binding Proteins: Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Flow Cytometry: Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell-Derived Microparticles: Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.Receptors, Formyl Peptide: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Caspase 3: A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Organotechnetium Compounds: Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.Cell Survival: The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Caspases: A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.Sexual Abstinence: Refraining from SEXUAL INTERCOURSE.In Situ Nick-End Labeling: An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.Fibrinolysin: A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Cell Compartmentation: A partitioning within cells due to the selectively permeable membranes which enclose each of the separate parts, e.g., mitochondria, lysosomes, etc.Cell Transformation, Neoplastic: Cell changes manifested by escape from control mechanisms, increased growth potential, alterations in the cell surface, karyotypic abnormalities, morphological and biochemical deviations from the norm, and other attributes conferring the ability to invade, metastasize, and kill.Pheochromocytoma: A usually benign, well-encapsulated, lobular, vascular tumor of chromaffin tissue of the ADRENAL MEDULLA or sympathetic paraganglia. The cardinal symptom, reflecting the increased secretion of EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE, is HYPERTENSION, which may be persistent or intermittent. During severe attacks, there may be HEADACHE; SWEATING, palpitation, apprehension, TREMOR; PALLOR or FLUSHING of the face, NAUSEA and VOMITING, pain in the CHEST and ABDOMEN, and paresthesias of the extremities. The incidence of malignancy is as low as 5% but the pathologic distinction between benign and malignant pheochromocytomas is not clear. (Dorland, 27th ed; DeVita Jr et al., Cancer: Principles & Practice of Oncology, 3d ed, p1298)Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Surface Plasmon Resonance: A biosensing technique in which biomolecules capable of binding to specific analytes or ligands are first immobilized on one side of a metallic film. Light is then focused on the opposite side of the film to excite the surface plasmons, that is, the oscillations of free electrons propagating along the film's surface. The refractive index of light reflecting off this surface is measured. When the immobilized biomolecules are bound by their ligands, an alteration in surface plasmons on the opposite side of the film is created which is directly proportional to the change in bound, or adsorbed, mass. Binding is measured by changes in the refractive index. The technique is used to study biomolecular interactions, such as antigen-antibody binding.Biosensing Techniques: Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Interleukin-5 Receptor alpha Subunit: A low affinity interleukin-5 receptor subunit that combines with the CYTOKINE RECEPTOR COMMON BETA SUBUNIT to form a high affinity receptor for INTERLEUKIN-5. Several isoforms of the interleukin-5 receptor alpha subunit exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Portal Vein: A short thick vein formed by union of the superior mesenteric vein and the splenic vein.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

The Npc1 mutation causes an altered expression of caveolin-1, annexin II and protein kinases and phosphorylation of caveolin-1 and annexin II in murine livers. (1/431)

We have previously demonstrated (1) an increased expression of caveolin-1 in murine heterozygous and homozygous Niemann-Pick type C (NPC) livers, and (2) an increased concentration of unesterified cholesterol in a detergent insoluble caveolae-enriched fraction from homozygous livers. To define further the relationship between caveolin-1 function and the cholesterol trafficking defect in NPC, we examined the expression and distribution of additional caveolar and signal transduction proteins. The expression of annexin II was significantly increased in homozygous liver homogenates and the Triton X-100 insoluble floating fraction (TIFF). Phosphoamino acid analysis of caveolin-1 and annexin II from the homozygous TIFF demonstrated an increase in serine and tyrosine phosphorylation, respectively. To determine the basis for increased phosphorylation of these proteins, the expression and distribution of several protein kinases was examined. The expression of PKCalpha, PKCzeta and pp60-src (protein kinases) were significantly increased in both heterozygous and homozygous liver homogenates, while PKCdelta was increased only in homozygous livers. Of the protein kinases analyzed, only CK IIalpha was significantly enriched in the heterozygous TIFF. Finally, the concentration of diacylglycerol in the homozygous TIFF was significantly increased and this elevation may modulate PKC distribution and function. These results provide additional evidence for involvement of a caveolin-1 containing cellular fraction in the pathophysiology of NPC and also suggest that the Npc1 gene product may directly or indirectly, regulate the expression and distribution of signaling molecules.  (+info)

Tissue plasminogen activator and its receptor in the human amnion, chorion, and decidua at preterm and term. (2/431)

The plasminogen activator system consists of two proteins: tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) and urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA), which act upon their specific receptors to generate plasmin from plasminogen located on the cell surface. Plasmin then acts directly and indirectly to degrade the components of the extracellular matrix (ECM). This process is likely to be important in the normal turnover of the ECM of fetal membranes and in its premature weakening in preterm premature rupture of the fetal membranes. Quantitative Northern analysis and in situ hybridization have shown that the decidua expresses mRNA for tPA. However, the immunolocalized tPA protein was most strongly associated with the amnion and chorion, as was its receptor annexin II, suggesting that the amnion and chorion are the targets for decidual tPA. At term, decidual tPA expression was unaffected by labor, and the tPA receptor was elevated both before and after labor. At preterm, the converse was found: decidual tPA expression was significantly (p < 0. 05) up-regulated by labor, but the tPA receptor was not. The results suggest that the generation of plasmin at term would be controlled by an increased concentration of the tPA receptor in the amnion and chorion, whereas at preterm a pathological increase in plasmin would be generated by an overexpression of tPA, initiated by labor.  (+info)

Annexin II and bleeding in acute promyelocytic leukemia. (3/431)

BACKGROUND: Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is associated with a hemorrhagic disorder of unknown cause that responds to treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid. METHODS: We studied a newly described receptor for fibrinolytic proteins, annexin II, in cells from patients with APL or other leukemias. We examined initial rates of in vitro generation of plasmin by tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) in the presence of APL cells that did or did not have the characteristic translocation of APL, t(15;17). We also determined the effect of all-trans-retinoic acid on the expression of annexin II and the generation of cell-surface plasmin. RESULTS: The expression of annexin II, as detected by a fluorescein-tagged antibody, was greater on leukemic cells from patients with APL than on other types of leukemic cells (mean fluorescence intensity, 6.9 and 2.9, respectively; P<0.01). The t(15;17)-positive APL cells stimulated the generation of cell-surface, t-PA-dependent plasmin twice as efficiently as the t(15;17)-negative cells. This increase in plasmin was blocked by an anti-annexin II antibody and was induced by transfection of t(15;17)-negative cells with annexin II complementary DNA. The t(15;17)-positive APL cells contained abundant messenger RNA for annexin II, which disappeared through a transcriptional mechanism after treatment with all-trans-retinoic acid. CONCLUSIONS: Abnormally high levels of expression of annexin II on APL cells increase the production of plasmin, a fibrinolytic protein. Overexpression of annexin II may be a mechanism for the hemorrhagic complications of APL.  (+info)

Localization and quantitation of cardiac annexins II, V, and VI in hypertensive guinea pigs. (4/431)

Annexins are characterized by Ca2+-dependent binding to phospholipids. Annexin II mainly participates in cell-cell adhesion and signal transduction, whereas annexins V and VI also seem to regulate intracellular calcium cycling. Their abundance and localization were determined in left ventricle (LV) and right ventricle (RV) from hypertensive guinea pigs, during the transition from compensatory hypertrophy to heart failure. Immunoblot analysis of annexins II, V, and VI revealed an increased accumulation (2.6-, 1.45-, and 2.3-fold, respectively) in LV from hypertensive guinea pigs and no modification in RV. Immunofluorescent labeling of annexins II, V, and VI; of Na+-K+-ATPase; and of sarcomeric alpha-actinin showed that in control LV and RV, 1) annexin II is present in nonmuscle cells; 2) annexins V and VI are mainly observed in the sarcolemma and intercalated disks of myocytes; 3) annexins II, V, and VI strongly label endothelial cells and adventitia of coronary arteries; and 4) annexin VI is present in the media. At the onset of heart failure, the most striking changes are the increased protein accumulation in LV and the very strong labeling of annexins II, V, and VI in interstitial tissue, suggesting a role in fibrosis development and cardiac remodeling.  (+info)

The biological effects induced in mice by p36, a proteinaceous factor of virulence produced by African swine fever virus, are mediated by interleukin-4 and also to a lesser extent by interleukin-10. (5/431)

We have previously presented indirect evidence that both specific immunosuppression and lymphocyte mitogenicity induced in mice by p36, a proteinaceous factor of virulence produced by porcine monocytes infected by African swine fever virus, were consistent with a Th2-driven response. Here we show: (1) Interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) mRNA expression in the spleen and thymus of C57BL/6 mice were displayed early after p36 inoculation. The expression of thymic IL-10 mRNA occurred, however, later than that of IL-4 mRNA. (2) Increased serum levels of these two cytokines were also soon detected after the protein inoculation. (3) Both immunosuppressive and mitogenic effects of p36 were absent in IL-4 gene-targeted mice and partially abrogated in mice depleted of IL-4 by neutralizing monoclonal antibodies. (4) IL-10 depletion abrogated the immunosuppressive but not the p36 lymphocyte mitogenic biological effects. (5) The increase in the serum concentrations of both IL-4 and IL-10 were lower in thymectomized than in non-thymectomized mice. (6) The expression of interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) mRNA was weakly or not at all induced in p36-treated mice. Taken together, these results are in agreement with the promotion of a Th2 immune response induced by p36.  (+info)

Dexamethasone alters arachidonate release from human epithelial cells by induction of p11 protein synthesis and inhibition of phospholipase A2 activity. (6/431)

The effect of the glucocorticosteroid, dexamethasone, on arachidonic acid (AA) release and on protein levels of p11 and cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) was studied in two epithelial cell lines, HeLa cells and BEAS-2B cells. Dexamethasone treatment of HeLa cells and BEAS-2B cells increased cellular p11 protein and mRNA levels in a time- and dose-dependent manner. It had little effect on levels of cPLA2 protein. In order to determine if increased p11 protein expression resulted in increased interaction between p11 and cPLA2, anti-cPLA2 antibodies were used to immunoprecipitate p11.cPLA2 complexes and Western blots of the immunoprecipitate were used to detect p11. In cells treated with dexamethasone, more p11 was detected in the anti-cPLA2 immunoprecipitate compared with control cells. Dexamethasone treatment of HeLa cells prelabeled with [3H]AA decreased the release of [3H]AA under basal conditions and after stimulation with the calcium ionophore A23187 (10(-6) M). In order to determine if altering the p11 protein levels in HeLa cells independent of glucocorticosteroid treatment could also produce an effect on [3H]AA release, cells were stably transfected with plasmids expressing either p11 antisense mRNA or p11 mRNA. Cloned HeLa cells expressing p11 antisense mRNA exhibited less cellular p11 protein compared with control cells and greater [3H]AA release compared with cells transfected with a control vector. Cloned HeLa cells stably transfected with a p11 expression vector exhibited increased p11 cellular protein and diminished [3H]AA release under basal conditions and in response to A23187. Therefore, dexamethasone alteration of epithelial cell AA release may be due in part to induction of p11 protein expression.  (+info)

Annexin II increases osteoclast formation by stimulating the proliferation of osteoclast precursors in human marrow cultures. (7/431)

Annexin II (AXII), a calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding protein, has been recently found to be an osteoclast (OCL) stimulatory factor that is also secreted by OCLs. In vitro studies showed that AXII induced OCL formation and bone resorption. However, the mechanism of action by which AXII acts as a soluble extracellular protein to induce OCL formation is unknown. In this paper, we demonstrate that AXII gene expression is upregulated by 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 [1, 25-(OH)2D3] and that addition of AXII significantly increased OCL-like multinucleated cell formation. Time-course studies suggested that AXII acted on the proliferative stage of OCL precursors and that AXII increased thymidine incorporation in OCL precursors. Moreover, AXII enhanced the growth of CFU-GM, the earliest identifiable OCL precursor, when bone marrow cultures were treated with low concentrations of GM-CSF. This capacity of AXII to induce OCL precursor proliferation was due to induction of GM-CSF expression, because the addition of neutralizing antibodies to GM-CSF blocked the stimulatory effect of AXII on OCL formation. RT-PCR analysis using RNA from highly purified subpopulations of marrow cells demonstrated that T cells, especially CD4(+) T cells, produced GM-CSF in response to AXII. Furthermore, FACS(R) analysis of T-cell subpopulations treated with fluorescein-labeled AXII suggested that the CD4(+), but not CD8(+), subpopulation of T cells express an AXII receptor. Taken together, these data suggest that AXII stimulates OCL formation by activating T cells through a putative receptor to secrete GM-CSF. GM-CSF then expands the OCL precursor pool to enhance OCL formation.  (+info)

Interference with annexin II has no effect on entry of human cytomegalovirus into fibroblast cells. (8/431)

Annexin II has been identified as a human cytomegalovirus (HCMV)-binding protein, shown to be a component of purified virions and proposed as a cellular receptor for the virus. In addition, annexin II is capable of associating with the major HCMV envelope glycoprotein, gB (gpUL55). As one approach to examine the role of annexin II in virus entry, a high-titre polyclonal annexin II-specific antibody was produced and its effects in virus entry and cell-to-cell spread assays were tested. This anti-annexin II serum recognized virion and cell surface annexin II and annexin II-derived peptides. Recombinant annexin II, with characteristic calcium- and phospholipid-binding activities, was also examined. Pretreatment of cells, virions or both with polyclonal anti-annexin II serum, affinity-purified anti-annexin II antibodies or recombinant annexin II protein prior to infection was inconsequential to the entry of HCMV into fibroblasts. HCMV was also able to dose-dependently penetrate annexin II-deficient 293 cells. Furthermore, the spread of HCMV from cell to cell was not inhibited in the presence of polyclonal anti-annexin II antibodies or exogenous annexin II protein. These experiments do not support a direct role of annexin II in virus entry or spread. Alternative roles for the gB-annexin II interaction are proposed.  (+info)

  • This antibody detects a 36 kDa* protein corresponding to the molecular mass of Annexin A2 on SDS-PAGE immunoblots of rat PC12 cells. (
  • The antibody has been shown to label Annexin A2 in immunocytochemical analysis of PC12 cells and immunohistochemical analysis of mouse diaphragm. (
  • The blot was probed with mouse monoclonal anti-Annexin A2 antibody at 1:250 (lane 1) or 1:1000 (lane 2). (
  • Immunocytochemical labeling of Annexin A2 in NGF-differentiated rat PC12 cells. (
  • We have now identified and characterized interactions between ceramide 1-phosphate and the annexin a2-p11 heterotetramer constituents. (
  • Background and Purpose- Tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in combination with recombinant annexin A2 (rA2) is known to reduce acute brain damage after focal ischemia. (
  • Clone (M298) was generated from a recombinant sequence that included amino acids in the C-terminal region of rat Annexin A2. (
  • Recombinant human annexin is the core targeting component of Theseus Imaging Corporation's Apomate(TM) imaging agent now under development for the noninvasive assessment of early response to anti-cancer treatment and for evaluation of myocardial damage in acute myocardial infarction and cardiac transplant rejection. (
  • This gene encodes a member of the annexin family. (
  • This study was purposed to investigate the apoptosis-inducing effect of Annexin A2 gene (AnxA2) on multiple myeloma (MM) cells and its mechanisms. (
  • Ferret Annexin A2/ANXA2 Gene ORF cDNA clone expression plasmid, C-GFPSpark tag (FG60086-ACG) - available for purchase from ABclonal - allows for easy subcloning of the ORF (pCMV3-C-GFPSpark Vector) to other plasmid vectors. (
  • it is likely that nuclear annexin A1 is involved in DNA replication, especially DNA damage induced gene mutation, since DNA damage induced mutagenesis plays an important role in tumorigenesis. (
  • An important gene associated with Papillary Hidradenoma is ANXA11 (Annexin A11), and among its related pathways/superpathways are Tyrosine Kinases / Adaptors and Signaling by ERBB4 . (
  • Among them, the annexin A2 (AnxA2)-S100A10 complex has been shown to participate in the tethering/docking of secretion-competent WPB at the plasma membrane, and interference with AnxA2/S100A10 expression or complex formation significantly reduces acute WPB exocytosis and VWF release. (
  • The Annexin family has been implicated as regulators of such diverse processes as ion-flux, endocytosis and exocytosis, and cellular adhesion. (
  • Western blotting analysis and immunohistochemistry of tumor tissues and normal tissues from patients with UTUC were carried out to further verify five possible UTUC biomarkers, including zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein, calreticulin, annexin A2, annexin A3 and haptoglobin. (
  • Annexin A2 has been implicated in a number of biochemical processes, including cell proliferation, foetal immune tolerance, ion-channel activation, cell-cell interactions and the bridging of membranes. (
  • This core domain enables Ca 2+ -bound annexins to peripherally dock onto membranes that contain negatively charged phospholipids. (
  • Figure 2: Annexin assemblies on membranes. (
  • The name annexin is derived from the Greek annex, which means bring/hold together, and was chosen to describe the principal property of all, or at least nearly all, annexins the binding to and possibly holding together of certain biological structures, in particular membranes . (
  • Ca(2+)-dependent binding of endonexin (annexin IV) to membranes: analysis of the effects of membrane lipid composition and development of a predictive model for the binding interaction. (
  • Annexin A2 is reported to be a powerful activator of plasminogen and, therefore, is implicated in many normal and pathological processes such as haemostasis and metastasis. (
  • This group had previously reported that homocysteine impairs endothelial cell surface plasminogen activation by posttranslationally modifying annexin A2, the coreceptor for plasminogen and tissue plasminogen activator. (
  • Together, these new findings suggest that manipulation of the annexin A2/S100A10 system may offer promising new avenues for treatment of a spectrum of human disorders. (
  • Annexin A2 forms heterotetrameric complex containing the S100A10 dimer and two annexin A2 chains significantly alters the properties of this annexin in vitro and also within cells. (
  • Importantly, the annexin A2-S100A10 complex can aggregate membrane vesicles at micromolar Ca2+ levels, a property not shared with monomeric annexin A2 or, as a matter of fact, any other annexin. (
  • Positive expression of annexin A2 was observed in tumor cells surrounding dilated vessels in 25/30 human glioblastoma specimens. (
  • Tc-99m-hynic annexin is an experimental radiopharmaceutical in phase II studies for imaging cell death in vivo to provide non-invasive molecular characterization of tumors and early evaluation of tumor response to anti-cancer treatment. (
  • Annexin A2 is up-regulated in various tumor types, including glioma. (
  • In response to endothelial cell activation, A2 is phosphorylated by src-kinase, and translocated to the cell surface in a highly regulated manner. (
  • thirdly, we were also able to detect annexin VI interaction with PKC β by overlay of skeletal muscle cytosol, but not with PKC ϴ, the major novel PKC in this tissue, suggesting sequences specific to calcium-dependent PKC isoenzymes are involved. (
  • Interfering with intracellular annexin function, by overexpressing mutants or by using RNA-interference-mediated downregulation, has different effects depending on the annexin being targeted. (
  • HE4 and annexin II binding interaction promoted ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (
  • The binding interaction between HE4 and annexin II activates the MAPK and FOCAL adhesion signaling pathways, promoting ovarian cancer cell invasion and metastasis. (
  • While other annexin isoforms may be PKC substrates or inhibitors, annexin VI phosphorylation by PKC α could not be detected after co-purification, while phosphorylation of subsequently-added histone IIIS was readily observed. (
  • Annexin A2 expression in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma]. (
  • Among mammalian species for which A2 has been sequenced, identity is approximately 98% at the amino acid level. (
  • There are at least ten different annexins in mammalian species. (
  • 2017. "Annexin A2 is critical for blood-testis barrier integrity and spermatid disengagement in the mammalian testis," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research 1864(3): 527-545. (
  • abstract = "We have established a pair of animal models (J3T-1 and J3T-2) with different invasive and angiogenic phenotypes, and demonstrated that annexin A2 is expressed at higher levels in J3T-1 than J3T-2 cells. (
  • The results demonstrated that annexin A2 expression was affected when the cells were induced to differentiate by stimulation with all- trans -retinoic acid. (
  • Annexin A2 (ANXA2) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple malignancies particularly HCCs and its expression strongly also affects the outcomes of HCC patients. (
  • Thirty human glioblastoma samples were evaluated for expression of annexin A2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF). (
  • Immunohistochemical and quantitative reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction analyses revealed higher expression of annexin A2, VEGF and PDGF in J3T-1 and J3T-2A cells. (
  • Here, we show a co-regulated upregulation in the expression of Annexin A2 (AnxA2), a known substrate of Src and one of the regulators of EGFR receptor endocytosis, in Herceptin resistant and Her-2 negative breast cancer. (
  • Therefore, our goal was to examine the expression and function of exosomal-annexin A2 (exo-AnxA2) derived from the serum samples of breast cancer patients. (
  • HE4 and annexin II expression levels were significantly higher in malignant epithelial ovarian tissues than in benign and normal epithelial ovarian tissues, and they were higher in tissues with lymph node metastases than in those without. (
  • T. Harder, R. Kellner, R. G. Parton, and J. Gruenberg, "Specific release of membrane-bound annexin II and cortical cytoskeletal elements by sequestration of membrane cholesterol," Molecular Biology of the Cell , vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 533-545, 1997. (
Anti-Annexin II antibody  | GeneTex
Anti-Annexin II antibody | GeneTex (
Tyrosine 23 Phosphorylation-Dependent Cell-Surface Localization of Annexin A2 Is Required for Invasion and Metastases of...
Tyrosine 23 Phosphorylation-Dependent Cell-Surface Localization of Annexin A2 Is Required for Invasion and Metastases of... (
Multiple environmental stressors induce complex transcriptomic responses indicative of phenotypic outcomes in Western fence...
Multiple environmental stressors induce complex transcriptomic responses indicative of phenotypic outcomes in Western fence... (
LDL receptor-related protein-1 regulates NFκB and microRNA-155 in macrophages to control the inflammatory response | PNAS
LDL receptor-related protein-1 regulates NFκB and microRNA-155 in macrophages to control the inflammatory response | PNAS (
Listeria monocytogenes exploits efferocytosis to promote cell-to-cell spread | Nature
Listeria monocytogenes exploits efferocytosis to promote cell-to-cell spread | Nature (
Annexins: linking Ca 2+ signalling to membrane dynamics | Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology
Annexins: linking Ca 2+ signalling to membrane dynamics | Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology (
Epithelial CD47 is critical for mucosal repair in the murine intestine in vivo | Nature Communications
Epithelial CD47 is critical for mucosal repair in the murine intestine in vivo | Nature Communications (
GO Gene List
GO Gene List (
Blog of Signaling Pathways
Blog of Signaling Pathways (
Human papillomavirus infection - Wikipedia
Human papillomavirus infection - Wikipedia (
G-substrate Antibody (OTI2A8) - Azide and BSA Free (NBP2-71645): Novus Biologicals
G-substrate Antibody (OTI2A8) - Azide and BSA Free (NBP2-71645): Novus Biologicals (
Infection-derived lipids elicit an immune deficiency circuit in arthropods | Nature Communications
Infection-derived lipids elicit an immune deficiency circuit in arthropods | Nature Communications (
Human Annexin A2 ELISA Kit (ab264612) | Abcam
Human Annexin A2 ELISA Kit (ab264612) | Abcam (
Phospho Annexin A2 (S26) antibody (ab192593) | Abcam
Phospho Annexin A2 (S26) antibody (ab192593) | Abcam (
Camilla Krakstad | University of Bergen
Camilla Krakstad | University of Bergen (
Volume 119, Issue 11
JCI - Volume 119, Issue 11 (
Sortilin mediates vascular calcification via its recruitment into extracellular vesicles
JCI - Sortilin mediates vascular calcification via its recruitment into extracellular vesicles (
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Regulation of von-Willebrand Factor Secretion from Endothelial Cells by the Annexin A2-S100A10 Complex
IJMS | Free Full-Text | Regulation of von-Willebrand Factor Secretion from Endothelial Cells by the Annexin A2-S100A10 Complex (
Plus it
Plus it (
Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals That Proteins Differentially Expressed in Chronic Pancreatitis Are Also Frequently...
Quantitative Proteomics Analysis Reveals That Proteins Differentially Expressed in Chronic Pancreatitis Are Also Frequently... (
Tissue type Plasminogen Activator Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric, Human) (ab108905)
Tissue type Plasminogen Activator Activity Assay Kit (Colorimetric, Human) (ab108905) (
Human Tissue type Plasminogen Activator ELISA Kit (ab108914)
Human Tissue type Plasminogen Activator ELISA Kit (ab108914) (
The Tick Protein Sialostatin L2 Binds to Annexin A2 and Inhibits NLRC4-Mediated Inflammasome Activation | Infection and Immunity
The Tick Protein Sialostatin L2 Binds to Annexin A2 and Inhibits NLRC4-Mediated Inflammasome Activation | Infection and Immunity (
Browsing Department of Biomedicine by Title
Browsing Department of Biomedicine by Title (
Biomedicines  | Free Full-Text | Development of Phosphorothioate DNA and DNA Thioaptamers | HTML
Biomedicines | Free Full-Text | Development of Phosphorothioate DNA and DNA Thioaptamers | HTML (
Tissue-type plasminogen activator regulates macrophage activation and innate immunity | Blood Journal
Tissue-type plasminogen activator regulates macrophage activation and innate immunity | Blood Journal (
Toronto Research Chemicals | Page 5
Toronto Research Chemicals | Page 5 (
Frontiers | Exosome-Based Cell-Cell Communication in the Tumor Microenvironment | Cell and Developmental Biology
Frontiers | Exosome-Based Cell-Cell Communication in the Tumor Microenvironment | Cell and Developmental Biology (
Temporal and Spatial Regulation of Gene Expression During Asexual Development of Neurospora crassa | Genetics
Temporal and Spatial Regulation of Gene Expression During Asexual Development of Neurospora crassa | Genetics (