A member of the annexin family that is a substrate for a tyrosine kinase, ONCOGENE PROTEIN PP60(V-SRC). Annexin A2 occurs as a 36-KDa monomer and in a 90-KDa complex containing two subunits of annexin A2 and two subunits of S100 FAMILY PROTEIN P11. The monomeric form of annexin A2 was formerly referred to as calpactin I heavy chain.
Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility.
A protein of the annexin family isolated from human PLACENTA and other tissues. It inhibits cytosolic PHOSPHOLIPASE A2, and displays anticoagulant activity.
Protein of the annexin family with a probable role in exocytotic and endocytotic membrane events.
Protein of the annexin family originally isolated from the electric organ of the electric ray Torpedo marmorata. It has been found in a wide range of mammalian tissue where it is localized to the apical membrane of polarized EPITHELIAL CELLS.
An annexin family member that plays a role in MEMBRANE FUSION and signaling via VOLTAGE-DEPENDENT CALCIUM CHANNELS.
A protein of the annexin family that catalyzes the conversion of 1-D-inositol 1,2-cyclic phosphate and water to 1-D-myo-inositol 1-phosphate.
Family of calcium- and phospholipid-binding proteins which are structurally related and exhibit immunological cross-reactivity. Each member contains four homologous 70-kDa repeats. The annexins are differentially distributed in vertebrate tissues (and lower eukaryotes) and appear to be involved in MEMBRANE FUSION and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
A family of highly acidic calcium-binding proteins found in large concentration in the brain and believed to be glial in origin. They are also found in other organs in the body. They have in common the EF-hand motif (EF HAND MOTIFS) found on a number of calcium binding proteins. The name of this family derives from the property of being soluble in a 100% saturated ammonium sulfate solution.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.
One of the mechanisms by which CELL DEATH occurs (compare with NECROSIS and AUTOPHAGOCYTOSIS). Apoptosis is the mechanism responsible for the physiological deletion of cells and appears to be intrinsically programmed. It is characterized by distinctive morphologic changes in the nucleus and cytoplasm, chromatin cleavage at regularly spaced sites, and the endonucleolytic cleavage of genomic DNA; (DNA FRAGMENTATION); at internucleosomal sites. This mode of cell death serves as a balance to mitosis in regulating the size of animal tissues and in mediating pathologic processes associated with tumor growth.
Quaternary ammonium analog of ethidium; an intercalating dye with a specific affinity to certain forms of DNA and, used as diiodide, to separate them in density gradients; also forms fluorescent complexes with cholinesterase which it inhibits.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
Proteins to which calcium ions are bound. They can act as transport proteins, regulator proteins, or activator proteins. They typically contain EF HAND MOTIFS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Extracellular vesicles generated by the shedding of CELL MEMBRANE blebs.
A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that was originally identified by its ability to bind N-formyl peptides such as N-FORMYLMETHIONINE LEUCYL-PHENYLALANINE. Since N-formyl peptides are found in MITOCHONDRIA and BACTERIA, this class of receptors is believed to play a role in mediating cellular responses to cellular damage and bacterial invasion. However, non-formylated peptide ligands have also been found for this receptor class.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A short pro-domain caspase that plays an effector role in APOPTOSIS. It is activated by INITIATOR CASPASES such as CASPASE 9. Isoforms of this protein exist due to multiple alternative splicing of its MESSENGER RNA.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Organic compounds that contain technetium as an integral part of the molecule. These compounds are often used as radionuclide imaging agents.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A family of intracellular CYSTEINE ENDOPEPTIDASES that play a role in regulating INFLAMMATION and APOPTOSIS. They specifically cleave peptides at a CYSTEINE amino acid that follows an ASPARTIC ACID residue. Caspases are activated by proteolytic cleavage of a precursor form to yield large and small subunits that form the enzyme. Since the cleavage site within precursors matches the specificity of caspases, sequential activation of precursors by activated caspases can occur.
Fluorescent probe capable of being conjugated to tissue and proteins. It is used as a label in fluorescent antibody staining procedures as well as protein- and amino acid-binding techniques.
An in situ method for detecting areas of DNA which are nicked during APOPTOSIS. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase is used to add labeled dUTP, in a template-independent manner, to the 3 prime OH ends of either single- or double-stranded DNA. The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling, or TUNEL, assay labels apoptosis on a single-cell level, making it more sensitive than agarose gel electrophoresis for analysis of DNA FRAGMENTATION.
A product of the lysis of plasminogen (profibrinolysin) by PLASMINOGEN activators. It is composed of two polypeptide chains, light (B) and heavy (A), with a molecular weight of 75,000. It is the major proteolytic enzyme involved in blood clot retraction or the lysis of fibrin and quickly inactivated by antiplasmins.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Conditions in which the production of adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS falls below the requirement of the body. Adrenal insufficiency can be caused by defects in the ADRENAL GLANDS, the PITUITARY GLAND, or the HYPOTHALAMUS.

Down-regulation of microglial cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression by lipocortin 1. (1/385)

1. Activated microglial cells are believed to play an active role in most brain pathologies, during which they can contribute to host defence and repair but also to the establishment of tissue damage. These actions are largely mediated by microglial secretory products, among which are prostaglandins (PGs) and nitric oxide (NO). 2. The anti-inflammatory protein, lipocortin 1 (LC1) was reported to have neuroprotective action and to be induced by glucocorticoids in several brain structures, with a preferential expression in microglia. In this paper we tested whether the neuroprotective effect of LC1 could be explained by an inhibitory effect on microglial activation. 3. We have previously shown that bacterial endotoxin (LPS) strongly stimulates PGE2 and NO production in rat primary microglial cultures, by inducing the expression of the key enzymes cyclo-oxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), respectively. 4. Dexamethasone (DEX, 1-100 nM) and LC1-derived N-terminus peptide (peptide Ac2-26, 1-100 microg ml(-1)) dose-dependently inhibited the production of both PGE2 and NO from LPS-stimulated microglia. The inhibitory effects of DEX on NO and of the peptide on NO and PGE2 synthesis were partially abrogated by a specific antiserum, raised against the N-terminus of human LC1. The peptide Ac2-26 did not affect arachidonic acid release from control and LPS-stimulated microglial cultures. 5. Western blot experiments showed that the LPS-induced expression of COX-2 and iNOS was effectively down-regulated by DEX (100 nM) and peptide Ac2-26 (100 microg ml(-1)). 6. In conclusion, our findings support the hypothesis that LC1 may foster neuroprotection by limiting microglial activation, through autocrine and paracrine mechanisms.  (+info)

Modulation of cellular annexin I in human leukocytes infiltrating DTH skin reactions. (2/385)

Based on our previous studies showing endogenous annexin I being depleted from migrated neutrophils (PMN) in vitro, we have tested whether the levels of this glucocorticoid-regulated protein in PMN and mononuclear cells (PBMC) were modified after adhesion to endothelial monolayers in vitro and extravasation into skin blisters in vivo. In vitro, annexin I levels were depleted more significantly (-70%) in post-adherent PMNs than in monocytes (-25%) and lymphocytes (-50%, only in the positive fraction). In vivo, a significant time-dependent increase (approximately threefold, P < 0.05) in cell-associated annexin I was measured in PBMCs recovered from the blisters, whereas no significant changes were detected in extravasated PMNs. This was associated with annexin I release in the blister fluids (approximately 35 ng/mL), whereas no detectable protein was found in matched-paired plasmas. In conclusion, we report for the first time an activation of the annexin I pathway during an ongoing experimental inflammatory response in humans, which is differently regulated between PMNs and PBMCs.  (+info)

Inhibitory effect of annexin I on synovial inflammation in rat adjuvant arthritis. (3/385)

OBJECTIVE: Annexin I is an endogenous antiinflammatory mediator, expressed in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovium, the contribution of which to autoregulation of the synovial inflammatory response has not been examined in models of RA. We investigated the antiinflammatory role of annexin I in rat adjuvant arthritis. METHODS: Rats with adjuvant-induced arthritis (AIA) were treated with a specific anti-annexin I monoclonal antibody (mAb), isotype control IgG, and/or dexamethasone. Clinical outcomes and synovial synthesis of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and nitric oxide were examined, and annexin I expression was assessed by flow cytometry and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. RESULTS: Anti-annexin I mAb reversed the effects of dexamethasone on the clinical features of AIA and exacerbated AIA in the absence of exogenous glucocorticoid. Clinical exacerbation of AIA by anti-annexin I mAb was accompanied by significantly increased synovial TNFalpha and PGE2, suggesting that annexin I tonically inhibits the production of these mediators. Anti-annexin I mAb treatment was associated with significantly reduced leukocyte intracellular annexin I, despite increased annexin I messenger RNA expression, consistent with a depletion effect of extracellular mAb via the cell surface. CONCLUSION: Annexin I is a key endogenous inhibitory mediator of arthritis via mechanisms that include inhibition of cytokine and effector molecule production. Moreover, a synthesis-independent depletion of intracellular annexin I by extracellular antibody supports the hypothesis that externalization of annexin I is involved in its mode of action.  (+info)

Annexin I modulates cell functions by controlling intracellular calcium release. (4/385)

Annexin I is an intracellular protein in search of a function. Ex vivo it has calcium- and phospholipid-binding properties. To evaluate its role in vivo, MCF-7 cells were stably transfected with annexin I in sense or antisense orientations. In cells overexpressing annexin I, calcium release was abrogated on stimulation of purinergic or bradykinin receptors, whereas non-transfected cells or cells with down-regulated annexin I released calcium within seconds. Basal calcium and calcium stores were not affected. The impaired calcium release was paralleled by a down-regulation of the activities of phospholipase C, group II phospholipase A2, and E-cadherin with altered adhesion and enhanced tumor growth on soft agar. Significantly smaller tumors, with the histologically most differentiated cells, were observed in nude mice inoculated with cells transfected with the antisense rather than with the sense plasmid. These observations indicate that annexin I modulates cell functions by controlling intracellular calcium release. Frey, B. M., Reber, B. F. X., Vishwanath, B. S., Escher, G., Frey, F. J. Annexin I modulates cell functions by controlling intracellular calcium release.  (+info)

The inhibitory effect of dexamethasone on lymphocyte adhesion molecule expression and intercellular aggregation is not mediated by lipocortin 1. (5/385)

Glucocorticoids exert their anti-inflammatory activity through multiple pathways which include the inhibition of cell adhesion events. The glucocorticoid-induced protein lipocortin 1 (LC1) has reported anti-inflammatory properties and has been proposed as a putative mediator of the anti-inflammatory effects of glucocorticoids. The role of LC1 in mediating the glucocorticoid inhibition of lymphocyte adhesion and cell adhesion molecule (CAM) expression was investigated in vitro using a microaggregation assay, flow cytometry and confocal microscopy. Lymphocytes stimulated for 96 h with plastic-bound OKT3 antibody showed significant increases in LFA-1 and CD2 expression. Dexamethasone (DEX; 10(-6) M) inhibited this increase but the neutralizing anti-LC1 MoAb 1A (5 microg/ml) failed to reverse the DEX effect; neither was purified human LC1 (50 x 10(-9) M) able to inhibit CAM expression. The biological activity of the LC1 was confirmed by its ability to suppress monocyte phagocytosis and respiratory burst in response to bovine serum albumin (BSA)-anti-BSA complexes. OKT3 stimulation of cultured mononuclear cells resulted in intercellular aggregation, scored microscopically using a visual index. This aggregation was completely reversed by 10-6 M DEX but unaffected by LC1 (50 x 10(-9) M). Significant intracellular expression of lymphocyte LC1 was observed using the anti-LC1 MoAb 1B in saponin-permeabilized cells. Distribution of LC1 had a diffuse, cytoplasmic pattern. LC1 expression was reduced following 3 h treatment with 10(-6) M DEX. These findings indicate that the DEX effects on lymphocyte adhesion and CAM expression are not mediated by LC1. Thus the reported in vivo effects of LC1 on leucocyte adhesion and transmigration probably occur through functional/conformation changes of surface CAM, rather than by alteration in expression.  (+info)

The annexin protein lipocortin 1 regulates the MAPK/ERK pathway. (6/385)

Lipocortin 1 (annexin 1) is a calcium- and phospholipid-binding protein that modulates anti-inflammatory responses including those induced by lipopolysaccharide. To investigate the precise role of lipocortin 1 in regulating the lipopolysaccharide-induced signal transduction pathways, we generated stable RAW 264.7 macrophage cell lines expressing decreased and increased lipocortin 1 protein. Several RAW 264.7 clones with increased lipocortin 1 protein levels showed constitutive activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase, which was down-regulated following lipopolysaccharide treatment. Conversely, clones with decreased lipocortin 1 protein expression showed prolonged extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity, following lipopolysaccharide activation. Lipocortin 1 specifically regulates the components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway, since changes in lipocortin 1 protein expression had no affect on the related mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. Lipocortin 1 modulated upstream components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway and associated with the adaptor protein growth factor binding protein. The downstream consequences of altered extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity were independent of the proinflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa B. These data indicate that lipocortin 1 specifically regulates proximal signaling components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase signal transduction pathway, resulting in the modulation of biochemical functions in RAW macrophages.  (+info)

Structural basis of the Ca(2+)-dependent association between S100C (S100A11) and its target, the N-terminal part of annexin I. (7/385)

BACKGROUND: S100C (S100A11) is a member of the S100 calcium-binding protein family, the function of which is not yet entirely clear, but may include cytoskeleton assembly and dynamics. S100 proteins consist of two EF-hand calcium-binding motifs, connected by a flexible loop. Like several other members of the family, S100C forms a homodimer. A number of S100 proteins form complexes with annexins, another family of calcium-binding proteins that also bind to phospholipids. Structural studies have been undertaken to understand the basis of these interactions. RESULTS: We have solved the crystal structure of a complex of calcium-loaded S100C with a synthetic peptide that corresponds to the first 14 residues of the annexin I N terminus at 2.3 A resolution. We find a stoichiometry of one peptide per S100C monomer, the entire complex structure consisting of two peptides per S100C dimer. Each peptide, however, interacts with both monomers of the S100C dimer. The two S100C molecules of the dimer are linked by a disulphide bridge. The structure is surprisingly close to that of the p11-annexin II N-terminal peptide complex solved previously. We have performed competition experiments to try to understand the specificity of the S100-annexin interaction. CONCLUSIONS: By solving the structure of a second annexin N terminus-S100 protein complex, we confirmed a novel mode of interaction of S100 proteins with their target peptides; there is a one-to-one stoichiometry, where the dimeric structure of the S100 protein is, nevertheless, essential for complex formation. Our structure can provide a model for a Ca(2+)-regulated annexin I-S100C heterotetramer, possibly involved in crosslinking membrane surfaces or organising membranes during certain fusion events.  (+info)

Detection of annexins I and IV in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids from calves inoculated with bovine herpes virus-1. (8/385)

Annexins are phospholipid-binding proteins and are abundant in the lung. Annexins I and IV, but not II and VI, have been detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids from calves inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica, the pathogen for calf pneumonia. In this study, BAL fluids from calves with experimental pneumonia induced by inoculation to right lung lobes of bovine herpes virus-1 (BHV-1), the major viral pathogen for pneumonia, were examined for detection of annexins I and IV. Of 6 calves inoculated with BHV-1, annexins I and IV were coincidentally detected in BAL fluids from right lung lobes of 4 calves, but not in BAL fluids from left lung lobes of 6 inoculated calves or those from left and right lung lobes of 3 control calves. Annexin II and VI were not found in any BAL fluids examined. These results, together with previous findings on calves inoculated with Pasteurella haemolytica, suggest that the release of annexins I and IV onto the alveolar surface is an essential event occurring in response to pulmonary infections of BHIV-1 and Pasteurella haemolytica.  (+info)

Annexin A2 is a protein found in various types of cells, including those that line the inside of blood vessels. It is a member of the annexin family of proteins, which are characterized by their ability to bind to calcium ions and membranes. Annexin A2 is involved in several cellular processes, including the regulation of ion channels, the modulation of enzyme activity, and the promotion of cell adhesion and migration. It also plays a role in the coagulation of blood, and has been implicated in the development and progression of various diseases, including cancer and cardiovascular disease.

Annexin A1 is a protein that belongs to the annexin family, which are calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins. This protein is found in various tissues, including the human body, and has multiple functions, such as anti-inflammatory, anti-proliferative, and pro-resolving activities. It plays a crucial role in regulating cellular processes like apoptosis (programmed cell death), membrane organization, and signal transduction.

Annexin A1 is also known to interact with other proteins and receptors, such as the formyl peptide receptor 2 (FPR2), which contributes to its immunomodulatory functions. In addition, it has been implicated in several pathophysiological conditions, including cancer, inflammation, and autoimmune diseases.

Modulating Annexin A1 levels or activity may provide therapeutic benefits for various medical conditions; however, further research is required to fully understand its potential as a drug target.

Annexin A5 is a protein that belongs to the annexin family, which are calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins. Annexin A5 has high affinity for phosphatidylserine, a type of phospholipid that is usually located on the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane in healthy cells. However, when cells undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death), phosphatidylserine is exposed on the outer leaflet of the plasma membrane.

Annexin A5 can bind to exposed phosphatidylserine on the surface of apoptotic cells and is commonly used as a marker for detecting apoptosis in various experimental settings, including flow cytometry, immunohistochemistry, and imaging techniques. Annexin A5-based assays are widely used in research and clinical settings to study the mechanisms of apoptosis and to develop diagnostic tools for various diseases, such as cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases.

Annexin A6 is a protein that belongs to the annexin family, which are calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins. Annexin A6 is involved in various cellular processes such as exocytosis, endocytosis, and membrane trafficking. It has been shown to play a role in regulating ion channels, modulating the actin cytoskeleton, and interacting with other proteins to form multimolecular complexes. Annexin A6 is expressed in various tissues, including the heart, lung, kidney, and pancreas. Mutations in the ANXA6 gene have been associated with certain diseases, such as kidney stones and cataracts.

Annexin A4 is a type of protein that belongs to the annexin family, which are characterized by their ability to bind to calcium ions and membranes. Specifically, Annexin A4 is known to play roles in various cellular processes such as exocytosis, endocytosis, and regulation of ion channels. It has also been implicated in the development and progression of certain diseases, including cancer and neurological disorders.

In the medical field, the study of Annexin A4 is important for understanding its functions and potential therapeutic applications. For example, research has suggested that targeting Annexin A4 may be a useful strategy for developing new treatments for cancer or other diseases. However, more studies are needed to fully elucidate the role of this protein in various biological processes and disease states.

Annexin A7 is a type of protein that belongs to the annexin family, which are characterized by their ability to bind to cell membranes in a calcium-dependent manner. Specifically, Annexin A7 (also known as Syntaxin-binding protein 1 or SBP1) is involved in various cellular processes such as exocytosis, endocytosis, and signal transduction. It has been shown to interact with other proteins, including syntaxins, which are important for vesicle trafficking and fusion. Additionally, Annexin A7 may have a role in regulating apoptosis (programmed cell death) and has been implicated in several diseases, including cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. However, more research is needed to fully understand the functions and regulatory mechanisms of this protein.

Annexin A3 is a type of protein that belongs to the annexin family, which are characterized by their ability to bind to calcium ions and membranes. Specifically, annexin A3 is involved in various cellular processes such as exocytosis, endocytosis, and signal transduction. It has been found to play a role in the regulation of blood clotting, inflammation, and cancer metastasis. Annexin A3 can be found on the surface of various cells, including platelets, neutrophils, and tumor cells. In addition, annexin A3 has been identified as a potential biomarker for certain types of cancer, such as ovarian and prostate cancer.

Annexins are a family of calcium-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins that are found in various organisms, including humans. They are involved in several cellular processes, such as membrane organization, signal transduction, and regulation of ion channels. Some annexins also have roles in inflammation, blood coagulation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Annexins have a conserved structure, consisting of a core domain that binds to calcium ions and a variable number of domains that bind to phospholipids. This allows annexins to interact with membranes in a calcium-dependent manner, which is important for their functions.

There are several different annexin proteins, each with its own specific functions and expression patterns. For example, annexin A1 is involved in the regulation of inflammation and has been studied as a potential target for anti-inflammatory therapies. Annexin A2 is involved in the regulation of coagulation and has been studied as a potential target for anticoagulant therapies. Other annexins have roles in cell division, differentiation, and survival.

Overall, annexins are important regulators of various cellular processes and have potential as targets for therapeutic intervention in a variety of diseases.

S100 proteins are a family of calcium-binding proteins that are involved in the regulation of various cellular processes, including cell growth and differentiation, intracellular signaling, and inflammation. They are found in high concentrations in certain types of cells, such as nerve cells (neurons), glial cells (supporting cells in the nervous system), and skin cells (keratinocytes).

The S100 protein family consists of more than 20 members, which are divided into several subfamilies based on their structural similarities. Some of the well-known members of this family include S100A1, S100B, S100 calcium-binding protein A8 (S100A8), and S100 calcium-binding protein A9 (S100A9).

Abnormal expression or regulation of S100 proteins has been implicated in various pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and inflammatory disorders. For example, increased levels of S100B have been found in the brains of patients with Alzheimer's disease, while overexpression of S100A8 and S100A9 has been associated with the development and progression of certain types of cancer.

Therefore, understanding the functions and regulation of S100 proteins is important for developing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies for various diseases.

Phosphatidylserines are a type of phospholipids that are essential components of the cell membrane, particularly in the brain. They play a crucial role in maintaining the fluidity and permeability of the cell membrane, and are involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, protein anchorage, and apoptosis (programmed cell death). Phosphatidylserines contain a polar head group made up of serine amino acids and two non-polar fatty acid tails. They are abundant in the inner layer of the cell membrane but can be externalized to the outer layer during apoptosis, where they serve as signals for recognition and removal of dying cells by the immune system. Phosphatidylserines have been studied for their potential benefits in various medical conditions, including cognitive decline, Alzheimer's disease, and depression.

Apoptosis is a programmed and controlled cell death process that occurs in multicellular organisms. It is a natural process that helps maintain tissue homeostasis by eliminating damaged, infected, or unwanted cells. During apoptosis, the cell undergoes a series of morphological changes, including cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, and fragmentation into membrane-bound vesicles called apoptotic bodies. These bodies are then recognized and engulfed by neighboring cells or phagocytic cells, preventing an inflammatory response. Apoptosis is regulated by a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways that involve proteins such as caspases, Bcl-2 family members, and inhibitors of apoptosis (IAPs).

Propidium is not a medical condition or diagnosis, but rather it is a fluorescent dye that is used in medical and scientific research. It is often used in procedures such as flow cytometry and microscopy to stain and label cells or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA). Propidium iodide is the most commonly used form of propidium, which binds to DNA by intercalating between the bases.

Once stained with propidium iodide, cells with damaged membranes will take up the dye and can be detected and analyzed based on their fluorescence intensity. This makes it possible to identify and quantify dead or damaged cells in a population, as well as to analyze DNA content and cell cycle status.

Overall, propidium is an important tool in medical research and diagnostics, providing valuable information about cell health, viability, and genetic material.

Calcium is an essential mineral that is vital for various physiological processes in the human body. The medical definition of calcium is as follows:

Calcium (Ca2+) is a crucial cation and the most abundant mineral in the human body, with approximately 99% of it found in bones and teeth. It plays a vital role in maintaining structural integrity, nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, hormonal secretion, blood coagulation, and enzyme activation.

Calcium homeostasis is tightly regulated through the interplay of several hormones, including parathyroid hormone (PTH), calcitonin, and vitamin D. Dietary calcium intake, absorption, and excretion are also critical factors in maintaining optimal calcium levels in the body.

Hypocalcemia refers to low serum calcium levels, while hypercalcemia indicates high serum calcium levels. Both conditions can have detrimental effects on various organ systems and require medical intervention to correct.

Phospholipids are a major class of lipids that consist of a hydrophilic (water-attracting) head and two hydrophobic (water-repelling) tails. The head is composed of a phosphate group, which is often bound to an organic molecule such as choline, ethanolamine, serine or inositol. The tails are made up of two fatty acid chains.

Phospholipids are a key component of cell membranes and play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity and function of the cell. They form a lipid bilayer, with the hydrophilic heads facing outwards and the hydrophobic tails facing inwards, creating a barrier that separates the interior of the cell from the outside environment.

Phospholipids are also involved in various cellular processes such as signal transduction, intracellular trafficking, and protein function regulation. Additionally, they serve as emulsifiers in the digestive system, helping to break down fats in the diet.

Calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are a diverse group of proteins that have the ability to bind calcium ions (Ca^2+^) with high affinity and specificity. They play crucial roles in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and protection against oxidative stress.

The binding of calcium ions to these proteins induces conformational changes that can either activate or inhibit their functions. Some well-known CaBPs include calmodulin, troponin C, S100 proteins, and parvalbumins. These proteins are essential for maintaining calcium homeostasis within cells and for mediating the effects of calcium as a second messenger in various cellular signaling pathways.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

A cell line that is derived from tumor cells and has been adapted to grow in culture. These cell lines are often used in research to study the characteristics of cancer cells, including their growth patterns, genetic changes, and responses to various treatments. They can be established from many different types of tumors, such as carcinomas, sarcomas, and leukemias. Once established, these cell lines can be grown and maintained indefinitely in the laboratory, allowing researchers to conduct experiments and studies that would not be feasible using primary tumor cells. It is important to note that tumor cell lines may not always accurately represent the behavior of the original tumor, as they can undergo genetic changes during their time in culture.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Flow cytometry is a medical and research technique used to measure physical and chemical characteristics of cells or particles, one cell at a time, as they flow in a fluid stream through a beam of light. The properties measured include:

* Cell size (light scatter)
* Cell internal complexity (granularity, also light scatter)
* Presence or absence of specific proteins or other molecules on the cell surface or inside the cell (using fluorescent antibodies or other fluorescent probes)

The technique is widely used in cell counting, cell sorting, protein engineering, biomarker discovery and monitoring disease progression, particularly in hematology, immunology, and cancer research.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Cell-derived microparticles (CDMs), also known as microvesicles or microparticles, are small membrane-bound particles that are released from the cell surface upon activation or apoptosis of various cell types, including platelets, leukocytes, endothelial cells, and red blood cells. CDMs range in size from 0.1 to 1.0 micrometers in diameter and contain a variety of bioactive molecules, such as lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids, which can be transferred to neighboring or distant cells, thereby modulating their function.

CDMs have been implicated in various physiological and pathological processes, including coagulation, inflammation, immune response, angiogenesis, and cancer progression. They have also emerged as potential biomarkers for various diseases, such as cardiovascular disease, sepsis, and cancer, due to their distinct molecular signature and abundance in body fluids, such as blood, urine, and cerebrospinal fluid.

The mechanisms of CDM formation and release are complex and involve several cellular processes, including cytoskeletal rearrangement, membrane budding, and vesicle shedding. The molecular composition of CDMs reflects their cellular origin and activation state, and can be analyzed by various techniques, such as flow cytometry, proteomics, and transcriptomics, to gain insights into their biological functions and clinical relevance.

Formyl peptide receptors (FPRs) are a type of G protein-coupled receptors that play a crucial role in the innate immune system. They are expressed on various cells including neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages. FPRs recognize and respond to formylated peptides derived from bacteria, mitochondria, and host proteins during cell damage or stress. Activation of FPRs triggers a variety of cellular responses, such as chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and release of inflammatory mediators, which help to eliminate invading pathogens and promote tissue repair. There are three subtypes of human FPRs (FPR1, FPR2, and FPR3) that have distinct ligand specificities and functions in the immune response.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Caspase-3 is a type of protease enzyme that plays a central role in the execution-phase of cell apoptosis, or programmed cell death. It's also known as CPP32 (CPP for ced-3 protease precursor) or apopain. Caspase-3 is produced as an inactive protein that is activated when cleaved by other caspases during the early stages of apoptosis. Once activated, it cleaves a variety of cellular proteins, including structural proteins, enzymes, and signal transduction proteins, leading to the characteristic morphological and biochemical changes associated with apoptotic cell death. Caspase-3 is often referred to as the "death protease" because of its crucial role in executing the cell death program.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Organotechnetium compounds are chemical substances that contain carbon-technetium bonds, where technetium is an element with the symbol Tc and atomic number 43. These types of compounds are primarily used in medical imaging as radioactive tracers due to the ability of technetium-99m to emit gamma rays. The organotechnetium compounds help in localizing specific organs, tissues, or functions within the body, making them useful for diagnostic purposes in nuclear medicine.

It is important to note that most organotechnetium compounds are synthesized from technetium-99m, which is generated from the decay of molybdenum-99. The use of these compounds requires proper handling and administration by trained medical professionals due to their radioactive nature.

Cell survival refers to the ability of a cell to continue living and functioning normally, despite being exposed to potentially harmful conditions or treatments. This can include exposure to toxins, radiation, chemotherapeutic drugs, or other stressors that can damage cells or interfere with their normal processes.

In scientific research, measures of cell survival are often used to evaluate the effectiveness of various therapies or treatments. For example, researchers may expose cells to a particular drug or treatment and then measure the percentage of cells that survive to assess its potential therapeutic value. Similarly, in toxicology studies, measures of cell survival can help to determine the safety of various chemicals or substances.

It's important to note that cell survival is not the same as cell proliferation, which refers to the ability of cells to divide and multiply. While some treatments may promote cell survival, they may also inhibit cell proliferation, making them useful for treating diseases such as cancer. Conversely, other treatments may be designed to specifically target and kill cancer cells, even if it means sacrificing some healthy cells in the process.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Caspases are a family of protease enzymes that play essential roles in programmed cell death, also known as apoptosis. These enzymes are produced as inactive precursors and are activated when cells receive signals to undergo apoptosis. Once activated, caspases cleave specific protein substrates, leading to the characteristic morphological changes and DNA fragmentation associated with apoptotic cell death. Caspases also play roles in other cellular processes, including inflammation and differentiation. There are two types of caspases: initiator caspases (caspase-2, -8, -9, and -10) and effector caspases (caspase-3, -6, and -7). Initiator caspases are activated in response to various apoptotic signals and then activate the effector caspases, which carry out the proteolytic cleavage of cellular proteins. Dysregulation of caspase activity has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, ischemic injury, and cancer.

Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) is not a medical term per se, but a chemical compound commonly used in biomedical research and clinical diagnostics. Therefore, I will provide a general definition of this term:

Fluorescein-5-isothiocyanate (FITC) is a fluorescent dye with an absorption maximum at approximately 492-495 nm and an emission maximum at around 518-525 nm. It is widely used as a labeling reagent for various biological molecules, such as antibodies, proteins, and nucleic acids, to study their structure, function, and interactions in techniques like flow cytometry, immunofluorescence microscopy, and western blotting. The isothiocyanate group (-N=C=S) in the FITC molecule reacts with primary amines (-NH2) present in biological molecules to form a stable thiourea bond, enabling specific labeling of target molecules for detection and analysis.

In situ nick-end labeling (ISEL, also known as TUNEL) is a technique used in pathology and molecular biology to detect DNA fragmentation, which is a characteristic of apoptotic cells (cells undergoing programmed cell death). The method involves labeling the 3'-hydroxyl termini of double or single stranded DNA breaks in situ (within tissue sections or individual cells) using modified nucleotides that are coupled to a detectable marker, such as a fluorophore or an enzyme. This technique allows for the direct visualization and quantification of apoptotic cells within complex tissues or cell populations.

Fibrinolysin is defined as a proteolytic enzyme that dissolves or breaks down fibrin, a protein involved in the clotting of blood. This enzyme is produced by certain cells, such as endothelial cells that line the interior surface of blood vessels, and is an important component of the body's natural mechanism for preventing excessive blood clotting and maintaining blood flow.

Fibrinolysin works by cleaving specific bonds in the fibrin molecule, converting it into soluble degradation products that can be safely removed from the body. This process is known as fibrinolysis, and it helps to maintain the balance between clotting and bleeding in the body.

In medical contexts, fibrinolysin may be used as a therapeutic agent to dissolve blood clots that have formed in the blood vessels, such as those that can occur in deep vein thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. It is often administered in combination with other medications that help to enhance its activity and specificity for fibrin.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

An encyclopedia is a comprehensive reference work containing articles on various topics, usually arranged in alphabetical order. In the context of medicine, a medical encyclopedia is a collection of articles that provide information about a wide range of medical topics, including diseases and conditions, treatments, tests, procedures, and anatomy and physiology. Medical encyclopedias may be published in print or electronic formats and are often used as a starting point for researching medical topics. They can provide reliable and accurate information on medical subjects, making them useful resources for healthcare professionals, students, and patients alike. Some well-known examples of medical encyclopedias include the Merck Manual and the Stedman's Medical Dictionary.

Adrenal insufficiency is a condition in which the adrenal glands do not produce adequate amounts of certain hormones, primarily cortisol and aldosterone. Cortisol helps regulate metabolism, respond to stress, and suppress inflammation, while aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium levels in the body to maintain blood pressure.

Primary adrenal insufficiency, also known as Addison's disease, occurs when there is damage to the adrenal glands themselves, often due to autoimmune disorders, infections, or certain medications. Secondary adrenal insufficiency occurs when the pituitary gland fails to produce enough adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), which stimulates the adrenal glands to produce cortisol.

Symptoms of adrenal insufficiency may include fatigue, weakness, weight loss, decreased appetite, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, low blood pressure, dizziness, and darkening of the skin. Treatment typically involves replacing the missing hormones with medications taken orally or by injection.

... , also known as lipocortin I, is a protein that is encoded by the ANXA1 gene in humans. Annexin A1 belongs to the ... Annexin A1 has also been shown to be associated with treatment resistance. ARID1A loss activates annexin A1 expression, which ... annexin A1 is promptly mobilized to the cell surface and secreted. Annexin A1 promotes neutrophil detachment and apoptosis, and ... anti-inflammatory effects is to increase the synthesis and function of annexin A1. Annexin A1 both suppresses phospholipase A2 ...
... interleukin 5 and annexin A1). DRESS syndrome: Key elements promoting tissue injury in the DRESS syndrome are: Th2 cells and ...
Yazid, Samia; Norling, Lucy V.; Flower, Rod J. (2012-08-01). "Anti-inflammatory drugs, eicosanoids and the annexin A1/FPR2 anti ...
2006). "In vitro and in vivo studies on CCR10 regulation by Annexin A1". FEBS Lett. 580 (5): 1431-8. doi:10.1016/j.febslet. ...
"MicroRNA-196a targets annexin A1: a microRNA-mediated mechanism of annexin A1 downregulation in cancers". Oncogene. 27 (52): ...
Lennon NJ, Kho A, Bacskai BJ, Perlmutter SL, Hyman BT, Brown RH (2003). "Dysferlin interacts with annexins A1 and A2 and ... June 2016). "Enhanced Muscular Dystrophy from Loss of Dysferlin Is Accompanied by Impaired Annexin A6 Translocation after ... including annexin and MG53. Exactly how dysferlin contributes to membrane resealing is not clear, but biochemical evidence ...
Nadkarni S, Cooper D, Brancaleone V, Bena S, Perretti M (November 2011). "Activation of the annexin A1 pathway underlies the ...
However some annexins (Annexin A1, Annexin A2, and Annexin A5) can be secreted from the cytoplasm to outside cellular ... Annexin, type I InterPro: IPR002388 Annexin, type II InterPro: IPR002389 Annexin, type III InterPro: IPR002390 Annexin, type IV ... In addition to annexin A-II, annexin A-XI has also been shown to organize cell membrane properties. Annexin A-XI is believed to ... The 310 amino acid annexin core has four annexin repeats, each composed of 5 alpha-helices. The exception is annexin A-VI that ...
Biaoxue R, Xiling J, Shuanying Y, Wei Z, Xiguang C, Jinsui W, Min Z (Aug 2012). "Upregulation of Hsp90-beta and annexin A1 ...
Annexin A1 (also termed ANXA1 and lipocortin 1) and its N-terminal peptides (Ac2-26 and Ac9-25). At low concentrations, these ...
1992). "Annexin II inhibits calcium-dependent phospholipase A1 and lysophospholipase but not triacyl glycerol lipase activities ...
For example, this combination led to demonstrate the calcium-dependent heparin binding of Annexin A1 that is involved in ... "Characterization of annexin A1 glycan binding reveals binding to highly sulfated glycans with preference for highly sulfated ...
The protein Annexin A1 (ANXA1), found in high quantities in the anterior pituitary gland, is located specifically in the ...
Bohn E, Gerke V, Kresse H, Löffler BM, Kunze H (January 1992). "Annexin II inhibits calcium-dependent phospholipase A1 and ... Annexin A2 also known as annexin II is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ANXA2 gene. Annexin 2 is involved in diverse ... Kwon M, MacLeod TJ, Zhang Y, Waisman DM (January 2005). "S100A10, annexin A2, and annexin a2 heterotetramer as candidate ... Annexin II is a pleiotropic protein meaning that its function is dependent on place and time in the body. The ANXA2 gene, ...
Calreticulin, annexin A1, histones, pentraxin-3 and DNA may be released by (and onto the surface of) dying cells to encourage ... annexin A1, histones and pentraxin-3 (PTX3). The most well characterised eat-me signal is the phospholipid phosphatidylserine. ...
Examples of glucocorticoid-responsive genes include those that encode annexin A1, TSC22D3 (also known as GILZ), angiotensin- ...
... and annexin A1−. These cells, similar to the monoclonal cells in Hairy cell leukemia, may have the V600E mutation in the BRAF ...
... annexin A1 (an inhibitor of formation of pro-inflammatory metabolites of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and the gaseous resolvins ...
... annexin A1, oxidised LDL and altered glycans. These molecules are recognised by receptors on the cell surface of the macrophage ...
... annexin a1 MeSH D12.776. - annexin a2 MeSH D12.776. - Annexin A3 MeSH D12.776. - ... annexin a4 MeSH D12.776. - annexin a5 MeSH D12.776. - annexin a6 MeSH D12.776. - ... annexin a7 MeSH D12.776.157.125.412.249 - calmodulin MeSH D12.776.157.125.412.311 - calnexin MeSH D12.776.157.125.412.374 - ...
Ac2-26 and Ac9-25 of Annexin A1 (ANXA1 or lipocortin 1), which at high concentrations fully stimulate neutrophil functions but ...
Garbuglia M, Verzini M, Donato R (September 1998). "Annexin VI binds S100A1 and S100B and blocks the ability of S100A1 and ... Protein S100-A1, also known as S100 calcium-binding protein A1 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the S100A1 gene. ... Overview of all the structural information available in the PDB for UniProt: P23297 (Protein S100-A1) at the PDBe-KB. (CS1: ... "Entrez Gene: S100A1 S100 calcium binding protein A1". Morii K, Tanaka R, Takahashi Y, Minoshima S, Fukuyama R, Shimizu N, ...
... a genetic disorder Annexin A1, a human protein Outer membrane phospholipase A1, a bacterial protein receptors α-1-Adrenoceptor ... member A1 Replication protein A1 S100 calcium binding protein A1 Sec61 alpha 1 Serum amyloid A1 Solute carrier family 35 (CMP- ... member A1 UDP glucuronosyltransferase 1 family, polypeptide A1 Urea Transporter A1 a gene found in the maize encoding for the ... member A1 Aldo-keto reductase family 1, member A1 Alpha-1-microglobulin/bikunin precursor Apolipoprotein A1 and ApoA-1 Milano ...
... by competing for phosphatidylserine binding sites with prothrombin and also to inhibit the activity of phospholipase A1. These ... Annexin A5 (or annexin V) is a cellular protein in the annexin group. In flow cytometry, annexin V is commonly used to detect ... The annexin A5 affinity assay typically uses a conjugate of annexin V and a fluorescent or enzymatic label, biotin or other ... Annexin A5 showed upregulation in papillary thyroid carcinoma. Annexin A5 is used as a non-quantitative probe to detect cells ...
... apolipoprotein A-1 (APOA1), peroxiredoxin (PRDX2) and annexin A (ANXA)". Comparative proteomic analyses of 11 cell lines ...
Annexin) CHO1 Cortactin CamKinase II Calponin Chondramide Cortexillin CAP Caltropin CH-ILKBP CPb3 Cap100 Calvasculin Ciboulot ... Myosin light chain kinase MAL Mip-90 Myosin Light Chain A1 MARKS MIM MAYP Mycalolide (a macroglide drug) Mayven Myelin basic ... Afadin AFAP-110 Affixin Aginactin AIP1 Aldolase Angiogenin Anillin Annexins Aplyronine Archvillin Arginine kinase Arp2/3 ...
... a human gene Annexin A3, a human gene ATC code A03 Drugs for functional gastrointestinal disorders, a subgroup of the ... a document given to employees of A-1 and A-2 Visa Holders who are representing a foreign government inside the U.S. A3, the ... a compact car LNER Gresley Classes A1 and A3, a Pacific locomotive class designed by Sir Nigel Gresley Prussian A 3, a 1910 ...
In addition, the tumor cells may also express adenosine A1 and A3 receptors associated with Gαi proteins, promoting both the ... Babiychuk EB, Draeger A (June 2006). "Regulation of ecto-5'-nucleotidase activity via Ca2+-dependent, annexin 2-mediated ...
... cytochromes a1 MeSH D08.244.175.600 - cytochromes a3 MeSH D08.244.187.249 - cytochromes b MeSH D08.244.187.500 - cytochromes b5 ... annexin A3 MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.125 - 3',5'-cyclic-GMP phosphodiesterase MeSH D08.811.277.352.640.150 - 3',5'-cyclic- ...
Family 2.B.8 The Bafilomycin A1 (Bafilomycin) Family 2.B.9 The Cell Penetrating Peptide (CPP) Functional Family 2.B.10 The ... or Na+-translocating bacterial MotAB flagellar motor/ExbBD outer-membrane transport energizer superfamily 1.A.31 Annexin family ...
Annexin A1, also known as lipocortin I, is a protein that is encoded by the ANXA1 gene in humans. Annexin A1 belongs to the ... Annexin A1 has also been shown to be associated with treatment resistance. ARID1A loss activates annexin A1 expression, which ... annexin A1 is promptly mobilized to the cell surface and secreted. Annexin A1 promotes neutrophil detachment and apoptosis, and ... anti-inflammatory effects is to increase the synthesis and function of annexin A1. Annexin A1 both suppresses phospholipase A2 ...
2022) Targeting the Annexin A1-FPR2/ALX pathway for host-directed therapy in dengue disease. eLife, 11, e73853. (doi: 10.7554/ ... Targeting the Annexin A1-FPR2/ALX pathway for host-directed therapy in dengue disease ... The pro-resolving protein Annexin A1 (AnxA1) is known to counterbalance overexuberant inflammation and mast cell (MC) ...
... Silva, Helen Aguiar ... Annexin A1 was expressed more abundantly in CD163+ macrophages in infected skin (p , 0.0001) than in uninfected skin. In ... Expression of annexin A1 in Leishmania-infected skin and its correlation with histopathological features. Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. ... Conclusions: Annexin A1 is differentially expressed in CD163+ macrophages and T cells depending on the histopathological ...
Learn more about the Annexin-A1 pathology testing offered by Pathline Labs. ... Annexin-A1. Alias/Synonym: Hairy Cell Leukemia. CPT Code: 88342. Includes:. Specimen Type, Preferred:. Formalin fixed paraffin ... some epithelial cells and some sarcomas may also stain positive for Annexin A1.. Limitations:. Turnaround Time:. 1 day(s). ...
... * QMRO Home ... Annexin-A1 restricts Th17 cells and attenuates the severity of autoimmune disease. ... Annexin-A1 restricts Th17 cells and attenuates the severity of autoimmune disease ...
Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a calcium/phospholipid-binding protein which promotes membrane fusion and is involved in exocytosis. It ... Annexin A1 (ANXA1). Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a calcium/phospholipid-binding protein which promotes membrane fusion and is involved ...
Annexin A1 in the brain: undiscovered roles?. Solito, E., McArthur, S., Christian, H.C., Gavins, F.N.E., Buckingham, J.C. and ... Annexin A1: a central player in the anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective role of microglia. Journal of Immunology. 185 (10), ... Annexin A1 N-terminal derived Peptide ac2-26 exerts chemokinetic effects on human neutrophils. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 3 28 ... Endogenous annexin A1 is a novel protective determinant in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice. Hepatology. 60 (2), pp. 531- ...
This highly specific Annexin A1 antibody is suitable for use in IHC-P and is guaranteed to work as stated on the product data ... Recombinant full-length human Annexin A1 protein was used as the immunogen for the Annexin A1 antibody. ... The ANXA1 gene belongs to the annexin family, and contains 4 annexin repeats. A pair of annexin repeats may form one binding ... Annexin A1 has also been found to be protective against DNA damage induced by heat in breast cancer cells, suggesting it is ...
Annexin A1 Antibody (aa1-346), Polyclonal по выгодным ценам ...
Human ANXA1(Annexin A1) ELISA Kit. Human ANXA1(Annexin A1) ELISA Kit ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Annexin A1 from Rat in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture fluid ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Annexin A1 from Human in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture ... Description: A sandwich ELISA kit for detection of Annexin A1 from Mouse in samples from blood, serum, plasma, cell culture ...
Annexin A1 expression in a pooled breast cancer series: Association with tumor subtypes and prognosis. ... Dive into the research topics of Annexin A1 expression in a pooled breast cancer series: Association with tumor subtypes and ...
Annexin A1 and A2 * Alpha Actinin * Alpha-enolase * Interleukin-6 (IL-6) ...
Key Points â ¢ Lupus erythematosus is an autoimmune disease in which a panoply of factors are implicated â ¢ Annexin A1 ... Annexin A1 and its receptor gene polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus in the Tunisian population. ... Anexina A1; Lúpus Eritematoso Sistêmico; Anexina A1/genética; Estudos de Casos e Controles; Feminino; Frequência do Gene; ... Annexin A1 and its receptor gene polymorphisms in systemic lupus erythematosus in the Tuni ...
Endogenous annexin-A1 is a protective determinant in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and diabetic nephropathy ... Endogenous annexin-A1 is a protective determinant in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance and diabetic nephropathy ...
... the glucocorticoid-mediated protein annexin A1 modulates PPAR gamma expression and that PPAR gamma is important for annexin A1- ... the glucocorticoid-mediated protein annexin A1 modulates PPAR gamma expression and that PPAR gamma is important for annexin A1- ... the glucocorticoid-mediated protein annexin A1 modulates PPAR gamma expression and that PPAR gamma is important for annexin A1- ... the glucocorticoid-mediated protein annexin A1 modulates PPAR gamma expression and that PPAR gamma is important for annexin A1- ...
Effects on annexin A1. We have studied CM and EV effects on the expression of annexin A1. This protein is over-represented in ... Annexin A1 expression (A) and IL-6 production after annexin A1 blockade (B) in OA chondrocytes. A: Protein expression was ... Annexin A1 expression (A) and IL-6 production after annexin A1 blockade (B) in OA chondrocytes. A: Protein expression was ... In this regard, annexin A1 is secreted, at least in part, in EV by different cell types such as neutrophils [50] or human bone ...
Annexin-A1: The culprit or the solution? Kelly L, McGrath S, Rodgers L, McCall K, Tulunay Virlan A, Dempsey F, Crichton S, ...
Annexin A1; AP-1, activator protein-1; APC, allophycocyanine; CCL, CC-chemokine ligand; COX2, cyclooxygenase-2; CXCL, C-X-C ...
Marshall, S. A. et al. The novel small-molecule annexin-a1 mimetic, compound 17b, Elicits Vasoprotective actions in ... Marshall, S. A. et al. The novel small-molecule annexin-a1 mimetic compound elicits vasoprotective actions in streptozotocin- ...
Annexin A1 is a polarity cue that directs mitotic spindle orientation during mammalian epithelial morphogenesis ...
Expression of macrophages (CD68+ cells) iNOS, COX-2 and pro-resolving proteins FPR2/ALX, ChemR23 and Annexin A1 was determined ... Annexin A1 protein was significantly increased in tendinopathic supraspinatus compared to normals (p , 0.01) with predominant ... FPR2/ALX and Annexin A1. Low-level expression of these proteins on Mϕ and the absence of co-expression of iNOS and COX-2 ...
Journal Article] An annexin A1-FPR1 interaction contributes to necroptosis of keratinocytes in severe cutaneous adverse drug ...
... up-regulation of Annexin A1 and 14-3-3 protein E, down- regulation of Peroxiredoxin 1 were found in experimental group. ... the up-regulation of Annexin A1 and 14-3-3 protein E may be due to the result of reaction of organism, these three proteins may ... Expressions of annexina1, 14-3-3 protein ε and peroxiredoxin 1 giant cell tumor of bone. *Article ...
Annexin A1 expression in a pooled breast cancer series: association with tumor subtypes and prognosis.. BMC Med. 2015; 13:156 [ ... BACKGROUND: Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a protein related with the carcinogenesis process and metastasis formation in many tumors. ...
Immunostaining for annexin-A1 is also negative. Flow cytometric analysis of the bone marrow aspirate detects an abnormal cell ...
PPARgamma Ligand-induced Annexin A1 Expression Determines Chemotherapy Response via Deubiquitination of Death Domain Kinase RIP ...
ANXA1; annexin A1; ANX1, LPC1; p35; annexin-1; calpactin-2; calpactin II; lipocortin I; chromobindin-9; annexin I (lipocortin I ... Annexin A1 (ANXA1), also known as lipocortin I, belongs to the annexin family of Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins ... Annexin A1 protein has an apparent relative molecular mass of 40kDa with phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity. Besides, S100 ...
The novel small-molecule annexin-a1 mimetic, compound 17b, elicits vasoprotective actions in streptozotocin-induced diabetic ...
Efficacy of Annexin A1 Immunostaining in Bone Marrow for the Diagnosis of Hairy Cell Leukemia Park CH, Kim HY, Shin SY, Kim HJ ...
Neuroprotective effects of annexin A1 tripeptide after deep hypothermic circulatory arrest in rats. Front Immunol. 2017; 8: ... Reduced microglia activation, reduced cell death, and improved neurological motor scores after treatment with Annexin A1. ...
  • Western Blot: Annexin A2 Antibody (1G7) [H00000302-M02] - MDA-MB-231 subclones whole cell lysates were loaded with 30 ug/lane. (novusbio.com)
  • Western Blot: Annexin A2 Antibody (1G7) [H00000302-M02] - ANXA2 monoclonal antibody (M02), clone 1G7 Analysis of ANXA2 expression in HepG2. (novusbio.com)
  • Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence: Annexin A2 Antibody (1G7) [H00000302-M02] - Analysis of monoclonal antibody to ANXA2 on HeLa cell. (novusbio.com)
  • Annexin A1 (ANXA1), the first member of the annexin superfamily, is a Ca 2+ -dependent phospholipid-binding protein with two distinct regions: a variable N-terminal domain and a conserved C-terminal domain [ 10 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This gene encodes a member of the annexin family. (novusbio.com)
  • Annexin A1 belongs to the annexin family of Ca2+-dependent phospholipid-binding proteins that have a molecular weight of approximately 35,000 to 40,000 Dalton and are preferentially located on the cytosolic face of the plasma membrane. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annexins constitute a family of calcium-dependent membrane-binding proteins and can be classified into two groups, depending on the length of the N-terminal domain unique for each individual annexin. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Steroid treatment increased gene expression of two proteins involved in membrane repair, annexins A1 and A6. (nih.gov)
  • Identification of UT-A1- and AQP2-interacting proteins in rat inner medullary collecting duct. (nih.gov)
  • Annexin A1, also known as lipocortin I, is a protein that is encoded by the ANXA1 gene in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annexin A1 protein has an apparent relative molecular mass of 40 kDa with phospholipase A2 inhibitory activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Higher expression of annexin A1 during pathological conditions could increase the strength of TCR signalling through the mitogen-activated protein kinase signalling pathway, thereby causing a state of hyperactivation of T cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The N-terminal domain of annexin A1 can adopt an alpha-helical conformation and has been implicated in mediating the membrane aggregation behavior of this protein. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a membrane protein that plays a role in innate and adaptive immunity by controlling the biosynthesis of inflammation, prostaglandins, and leukotriene mediators. (assaysolution.com)
  • Annexin A1 (ANXA1), a Ca 2+ -regulated phospholipid-binding protein, has been demonstrated to be implicated in the progression and prognosis of many cancers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Protein annexin A1 (ANXA1) and peroxisome proliferated-activated receptors (PPAR) control inflammation, as both inhibit development of inflammation and accelerate its resolution. (usp.br)
  • Protein of the annexin family exhibiting lipid interaction and steroid-inducibility. (nih.gov)
  • In a second experiment, we will perform the transplantation of scaffolds, with or without the treatment with the annexin A1 (AnxA1) protein and the immunosuppressant, cyclosporin. (fapesp.br)
  • Low density lipoprotein related protein 1 (LPR-1), thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1), voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) 1-2 and annexin A1 were considered to be of special interest and were analysed further by western blotting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The binding of peptides to membranes was confirmed by surface pressure (Langmuir film balance) measurements using phosphatidylcholine/phosphatidylserine monolayers, which show a significant increase after injection of rat annexin A1 N-terminal peptides. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Lamellar neutron diffraction with human and rat annexin A1 N-terminal peptides reveals an intercalation of the helical peptides with the phospholipid bilayer, with the helix axis lying parallel to the surface of membrane. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Anti-Inflammatory and Pro-Resolving Actions of the N-Terminal Peptides Ac2-26, Ac2-12, and Ac9-25 of Annexin A1 on Conjunctival Goblet Cell Function. (harvard.edu)
  • The main mechanism of glucocorticoids' anti-inflammatory effects is to increase the synthesis and function of annexin A1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Since phospholipase A2 is required for the biosynthesis of the potent mediators of inflammation, prostaglandins, and leukotrienes, annexin A1 may have potential anti-inflammatory activity. (wikipedia.org)
  • Upon induction by modified NSAIDS and other potent anti-inflammatory drugs, annexin A1 inhibits the NF-κB signal transduction pathway, which is exploited by cancerous cells to proliferate and avoid apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dysregulation of anti-inflammatory annexin A1 expression in progressive Crohns Disease. (ucdavis.edu)
  • Although the calcium-independent interaction of the annexin A1 N-terminal domain has been known for some time, there was no structural information about the membrane interaction of this secondary membrane-binding site of annexin A1. (ed.ac.uk)
  • The results are consistent with the hypothesis that the N-terminal domain of annexin A1 can serve as a secondary membrane binding site in the process of membrane aggregation by providing a peripheral membrane anchor. (ed.ac.uk)
  • In contrast, HCL variant is typically negative for CD25, CD123, and annexin A1, as well as negative for BRAF V600E. (medscape.com)
  • In addition, RWP restores Annexin A1 levels, thus involving activation of proresolutive pathways. (nih.gov)
  • Exposure of MCF-7 breast cancer cells to high physiological levels (up to 100 nM) of estrogen lead to an up-regulation of annexin A1 expression partially through the activation of CREB, and dependent on activation of the estrogen receptor alpha. (wikipedia.org)
  • The gene for annexin A1 (ANXA1) is upregulated in hairy cell leukemia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annexin A1 alleviates kidney injury by promoting the resolution of inflammation in diabetic nephropathy. (nih.gov)
  • Annexin A1 promotes neutrophil detachment and apoptosis, and phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils by macrophages. (wikipedia.org)
  • Influence of annexin A1 upon phagocytosis and expression of peroxissome proliferator activated receptor gamma in microglial cells. (usp.br)
  • Altered annexin A1 expression levels through modulation of the immune system effects the initiation and spread of breast cancer, but the association is complex and conclusions of published studies often conflict. (wikipedia.org)
  • Many studies have emphasized a well-established function of Annexin-A1 (ANXA1) in the immune system, including the regulation of microglial activation. (thno.org)
  • Influência da anexina A1 sobre a fagocitose e a expressão de receptor ativado por. (usp.br)
  • A proteína anexina A1 (ANXA1) e os receptores ativados por proliferadores de peroxissomo (PPAR) controlam a inflamação, pois ambos inibem o desenvolvimento da inflamação e aceleram sua resolução. (usp.br)
  • Annexin A1 has important opposing properties during innate and adaptive immune responses: it inhibits innate immune cells and promotes T-cell activation. (wikipedia.org)
  • In resting conditions, human and mouse immune cells such as neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages contain high levels of annexin A1 in their cytoplasm. (wikipedia.org)
  • Annexin I in the cytosol of resting neutrophils was translocated to the plasma membranes upon addition of opsonized zymosan (OZ). Maximum translocation could be detected 1 min after stimulation with OZ, and decreased thereafter. (bgu.ac.il)
  • The mechanism regulating the translocation of annexin I is not clear. (bgu.ac.il)
  • The activation of T cells results in the release of annexin A1 and the expression of its receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • The marked translocation of annexin I was unique to OZ, since formyl-Met-Leu-Phe induced only slight translocation of annexin I to the plasma membranes, and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate had no effect at all. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Following cell activation (for example, by neutrophil adhesion to endothelial-cell monolayers), annexin A1 is promptly mobilized to the cell surface and secreted. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro and in vivo analyses show that exogenous and endogenous annexin A1 counter-regulate the activities of innate immune cells, particularly extravasation and the generation of proinflammatory mediators, which ensures that a sufficient level of activation is reached but not exceeded. (wikipedia.org)
  • Subcellular fractionation studies demonstrated that annexin I could not be detected in the granule fractions in either resting or activated cells, but was found in association with the phagosome fraction. (bgu.ac.il)
  • Annexin I is not phosphorylated in resting or stimulated cells. (bgu.ac.il)
  • This study used circular dichroism spectroscopy to show that a rat annexin A1 N-terminal peptide possesses random coil structure in aqueous buffer but an alpha-helical structure in the presence of small unilamellar vesicles. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Annexin A1 has been of interest for use as a potential anticancer drug. (wikipedia.org)