A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.
A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.
Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.
A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)
Animals that have no spinal column.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.
Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.
Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)
A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)
Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.
The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.
The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.
A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.
Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.
Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
High molecular weight (1,500,000 to 3,000,000) hemoglobins found in the plasma of many polychete and oligochete annelid worms and various mollusks. They bind one mole of oxygen per heme and function as oxygen carriers.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.
Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.
Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.
Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.
One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.
The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.
Computer-based systems for use in personnel management in a facility, e.g., distribution of caregivers with relation to patient needs.
A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.
The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.
Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.
A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.
The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)

Evidence for conservation of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily in Annelida. (1/224)

Annetocin is a structurally and functionally oxytocin-related peptide isolated from the earthworm Eisenia foetida. We present the characterization of the annetocin cDNA. Sequence analyses of the deduced precursor polypeptide revealed that the annetocin precursor is composed of three segments: a signal peptide, an annetocin sequence flanked by a Gly C-terminal amidation signal and a Lys-Arg dibasic processing site, and a neurophysin domain, similar to other oxytocin family precursors. The proannetocin showed 37.4-45.8% amino acid homology to other prohormones. In the neurophysin domain, 14 cysteines and amino acid residues essential for association of a neurophysin with a vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily peptide were conserved, suggesting that the Eisenia neurophysin can bind to annetocin. Furthermore, in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that the annetocin gene is expressed exclusively in neurons of the central nervous system predicted to be involved in regulation of reproductive behavior. These findings confirm that annetocin is a member of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily. This is the first identification of the cDNA encoding the precursor of an invertebrate oxytocin-related peptide and also the first report of the identification of an annelid vasopressin/oxytocin-related precursor.  (+info)

Cytoskeletal mechanisms of ooplasmic segregation in annelid eggs. (2/224)

Annelid embryos are comprised of yolk-deficient animal and yolk-filled vegetal blastomeres. This "unipolar" organization along the animal-vegetal axis (in terms of ooplasmic distribution) is generated via selective segregation of yolk-free, clear cytoplasm to the animal blastomeres. The pathway that leads to the unipolar organization is different between polychaetes and clitellates (i.e., oligochaetes and hirudinidans). In polychaetes, the clear cytoplasm domain, which is established through ooplasmic segregation at the animal side of the egg, is simply cut up by unequal equatorial cleavage. In clitellates, localization of clear cytoplasm to animal blastomeres is preceded by unification of the initially separated polar domains of clear cytoplasm, which result from bipolar ooplasmic segregation. In this article, I have reviewed recent studies on cytoskeletal mechanisms for ooplasmic localization during early annelid development. Annelid eggs accomplish ooplasmic rearrangements through various combinations of three cytoskeletal mechanisms, which are mediated by actin microfilaments, microtubules and mitotic asters, respectively. One of the unique features of annelid eggs isthat a homologous process is driven by distinct cytoskeletal elements. Annelid eggs may provide an intriguing system to investigate not only mechanical aspects of ooplasmic segregation but also evolutionary divergence of cytoskeletal mechanisms that operate in a homologous process.  (+info)

Cell lineage analysis of pattern formation in the Tubifex embryo. I. Segmentation in the mesoderm. (3/224)

Annelids are strongly segmented animals that display a high degree of metamerism in their body plan. The embryonic origin of metameric segmentation was examined in an oligochaete annelid Tubifex using lineage tracers. Segmental organization arises sequentially in the anterior-to-posterior direction along the longitudinal axis of the mesodermal germ band, a coherent column of primary blast cells that are produced from the mesodermal teloblast. Shortly after its birth, each primary blast cell undergoes a spatiotemporally stereotyped sequence of cell divisions to generate three classes of cells (in terms of cell size), which together give rise to a distinct cell cluster. Each cluster is composed of descendants of a single primary blast cell; there is no intermingling of cells between adjacent clusters. Relatively small-sized cells in each cluster become localized at its periphery, and they form coelomic walls including an intersegmental septum to establish individuality of segments. A set of cell ablation experiments showed that these features of mesodermal segmentation are not affected by the absence of the overlying ectodermal germ band. These results suggest that each primary blast cell serves as a founder cell of each mesodermal segment and that the boundary between segments is determined autonomously. It is concluded that the metameric body plan of Tubifex arises from an initially simple organization (i.e., a linear series) of segmental founder cells.  (+info)

Characterization of a new variant DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase unable to methylate double stranded DNA isolated from the marine annelid worm Chaetopterus variopedatus. (4/224)

The enzyme S-adenosylmethionine-DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase has been identified, first time for invertebrates, in embryos of the marine polychaete annelid worm Chaetopterus variopedatus. The molecule has been isolated from embryos at 15 h of development. It is a single peptide of about 200 kDa molecular weight, cross-reacting with antibodies against sea urchin DNA methyltransferase. The enzymatic properties of the molecule are similar to those of Dnmt1 methyltransferases isolated from other organisms, but with the peculiarity to be unable to make 'de novo' methylation on double stranded DNA.  (+info)

MAP kinase, meiosis, and sperm centrosome suppression in Urechis caupo. (5/224)

Although MAP kinase is an important regulatory enzyme in many somatic cells, almost nothing is known about its functions during meiosis, except in frog and mouse oocytes. We investigated MAPK activation and function in oocytes of the marine worm Urechis caupo that are fertilized at meiotic prophase. Activity was first detected at 4-6 min after fertilization in immunoblots with anti-active MAPK, prior to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). MAPK activation did not require new protein synthesis and was dependent on the increases in both intracellular pH and intracellular Ca(2+) that normally occur during activation. When MAPK activation was inhibited with PD98059 or U0126, GVBD still occurred, but meiosis was abnormal and there was a dramatic premature enlargement of sperm asters, which normally do not appear until second polar body formation. Failure of polar body formation and premature sperm aster enlargement also occurred when MAPK activation was inhibited by an entirely different treatment which involved lowering the pH of external seawater to interrupt the normal cytoplasmic pH increase. Thus, in Urechis, active MAPK appears to be required for (1) normal meiotic divisions and (2) suppressing the paternal centrosome until after the egg completes meiosis, a general phenomenon whose mechanism has been unknown.  (+info)

Structure of the iron complex in methemerythrin. (6/224)

The coordination of the ligands about the iron atoms in methemerythrin from Themiste dyscritum has been deduced from a 2.8 A resolution electron density map. The complex can be described in terms of two trigonal antiprisms about the pair of iron atoms in each subunit, the antiprisms having one face in common. Ligands at eight of the nine coordination positions are protein side chains, the ninth presumably being water. Comparison of the electron density map for T. dyscritum methemerythrin with the sequence of Phascolopsis gouldii hemerythrin suggests six aromatic side chain ligands (five histidine and one tyrosine) and two nonaromatic side chain ligands. The latter provide atoms at two of the three vertices of the face shared by the two antiprisms, and these along with the presumed water at the third vertex form bridges between the iron atoms of each pair.  (+info)

Mitochondrial genomes of Galathealinum, Helobdella, and Platynereis: sequence and gene arrangement comparisons indicate that Pogonophora is not a phylum and Annelida and Arthropoda are not sister taxa. (7/224)

We report a contiguous region of more than half (> 7,500 nt) of the mitochondrial genomes for Platynereis dumerii (Annelida: Polychaeta), Helobdella robusta (Annelida: Hirudinida), and Galathealinum brachiosum (Pogonophora: Perviata). The relative arrangements of all 22 genes identified for Helobdella and Galathealinum are identical to one another and to their arrangements in the mtDNA of the previously studied oligochaete annelid Lumbricus. In contrast, Platynereis differs from these taxa in the positions of several tRNA genes and in having two additional tRNA genes (trnC and trnM) and a large noncoding sequence in this region. Comparisons of relative gene arrangements and of the nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences among these and other published taxa provide strong support for an annelid-mollusk clade that excludes arthropods, and for the inclusion of pogonophorans within Annelida, rather than giving them separate phylum status. Gene arrangement comparisons include the first use of a recently described method on previously unpublished data. Although a variety of alternative initiation codons are typically used by mitochondrial protein-encoding genes, ATG appears to be the initiator for all but one reported here. The large noncoding region (1,091 nt) identified in Platynereis has no significant sequence similarity to the noncoding region of Lumbricus, although each contains runs of TA dinucleotides and of homopolymers, which could potentially serve as signaling elements. There is strong bias for synonymous codon usage in Helobdella and especially in Galathealinum. In this latter taxon, 5 codons are completely unused, 13 are used three or fewer times, and G appears at third codon positions in only 26 of the 2,236 codons. Nucleotide composition bias appears to influence amino acid composition of the proteins.  (+info)

Bilaterian origins: significance of new experimental observations. (8/224)

Several recent laboratory observations that bear on the origin of the Bilateria are reviewed and interpreted in light of our set-aside cell theory for bilaterian origins. We first discuss new data concerning the phylogeny of bilaterian phyla. Next, we use systematic, molecular, and paleontological lines of evidence to argue that the latest common ancestor of echinoderms plus hemichordates used a maximal indirect mode of development. Furthermore, the latest common ancestor of molluscs and annelids was also indirectly developing. Finally, we discuss new data on Hox gene expression patterns which suggest that both sea urchins and polychaete annelids use Hox genes in a very similar fashion. Neither utilizes the complete Hox complex in the development of the larva per se, while the Hox complex is expressed in the set-aside cells from which the adult body plan is formed. Our current views on the ancestry of the bilaterians are summarized in phylogenetic terms, incorporating the characters discussed in this paper.  (+info)

Annelida is one of the major protostome phyla, whose deep phylogeny is very poorly understood. Recent molecular phylogenies show that Annelida may include groups once considered separate phyla (Pogonophora, Echiurida, and Sipunculida) and that Clitellata are derived polychaetes. SThe total-evidence analyses combining morphological and molecular characters have been published for a few annelid taxa. No attempt has yet been made to analyse simultaneously morphological and molecular information concerning the Annelida as a whole. Phylogenetic relationships within Annelida were analysed on the basis of 93 morphological characters and sequences of six genes (18S, 28S, and 16S rRNA, EF1α, H3, COI), altogether, 87 terminals of all annelid families and 3,903 informative characters, by Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods. The analysis of the combined dataset yields the following scheme of relationships: Phyllodocida and Eunicida are monophyletic groups, together probably forming monophyletic Aciculata
University of Vienna. The Impact of Light on Nervous System Function. Recommended Readings:. Empirical Papers. Backfisch, B., Veedin Rajan, V. B., Fischer, R. M., Lohs, C., Arboleda, E., Tessmar-Raible, K., & Raible, F. (2013). Stable transgenesis in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii sheds new light on photoreceptor evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(1), 193-198. doi:10.1073/pnas.1209657109. Fischer, R. M., Fontinha, B. M., Kirchmaier, S., Steger, J., Bloch, S., Inoue, D., … Tessmar-Raible, K. (2013). Co-expression of VAL- and TMT-opsins uncovers ancient photosensory interneurons and motorneurons in the vertebrate brain. PLoS Biology, 11(6), e1001585. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001585. Zantke, J., Ishikawa-Fujiwara, T., Arboleda, E., Lohs, C., Schipany, K., Hallay, N., … Tessmar-Raible, K. (2013). Circadian and circalunar clock interactions in a marine annelid. Cell Reports, 5(1), 99-113. ...
PHYLUM ANNELIDA PDF - Phylum Annelida In: Atkinson LJ and Sink KJ (eds). Field Guide to the Ofshore Marine Invertebrates of South Africa,.
Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida by Barrie G M Jamieson (Editor), Greg Rouse (Editor), Fredrik Pleijel (Editor) starting at $146.75. Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida has 1 available editions to buy at Alibris
University of Vienna. The Impact of Light on Nervous System Function. Recommended Readings:. Empirical Papers. Backfisch, B., Veedin Rajan, V. B., Fischer, R. M., Lohs, C., Arboleda, E., Tessmar-Raible, K., & Raible, F. (2013). Stable transgenesis in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii sheds new light on photoreceptor evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(1), 193-198. doi:10.1073/pnas.1209657109. Fischer, R. M., Fontinha, B. M., Kirchmaier, S., Steger, J., Bloch, S., Inoue, D., … Tessmar-Raible, K. (2013). Co-expression of VAL- and TMT-opsins uncovers ancient photosensory interneurons and motorneurons in the vertebrate brain. PLoS Biology, 11(6), e1001585. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001585. Zantke, J., Ishikawa-Fujiwara, T., Arboleda, E., Lohs, C., Schipany, K., Hallay, N., … Tessmar-Raible, K. (2013). Circadian and circalunar clock interactions in a marine annelid. Cell Reports, 5(1), 99-113. ...
Cutler, E. B. 1994. The Sipuncula, their systematics, biology, and evolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.. Cutler, E. B. and P. E. Gibbs. 1985. A phylogenetic analysis of higher taxa in the phylum Sipuncula. Systematic Zoology 34:162-173.. Edmonds, S. J. 2000. Phylum Sipuncula. Pages 375-400 in: Polychaetes & Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia, vol. 4A, Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula. P. L. Beesley, G.J.B. Ross, and C.J. Glasby, eds. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.. Ferrier, D. and P. W. H. Holland. 2001. Sipunculan ParaHox genes. Evol. Dev. 3:263-70 Huang, D. Y., J.-Y. Chen, J. Vannier, and J. I. Saiz Salinas. 2004. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 271(1549):1671-1676.. KennetLundin, K. and C.Schander. 2003. Epidermal ciliary ultrastructure of adult and larval sipunculids (Sipunculida). Acta Zoologica 84(2):113-119.. Maxmena, A. B., B. F. King, E. B. Cutler and G. Giribet. ...
Cutler, E. B. 1994. The Sipuncula, their systematics, biology, and evolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.. Cutler, E. B. and P. E. Gibbs. 1985. A phylogenetic analysis of higher taxa in the phylum Sipuncula. Systematic Zoology 34:162-173.. Edmonds, S. J. 2000. Phylum Sipuncula. Pages 375-400 in: Polychaetes & Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia, vol. 4A, Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula. P. L. Beesley, G.J.B. Ross, and C.J. Glasby, eds. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.. Ferrier, D. and P. W. H. Holland. 2001. Sipunculan ParaHox genes. Evol. Dev. 3:263-70 Huang, D. Y., J.-Y. Chen, J. Vannier, and J. I. Saiz Salinas. 2004. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 271(1549):1671-1676.. KennetLundin, K. and C.Schander. 2003. Epidermal ciliary ultrastructure of adult and larval sipunculids (Sipunculida). Acta Zoologica 84(2):113-119.. Maxmena, A. B., B. F. King, E. B. Cutler and G. Giribet. ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Biseswar, Ramlall (2012): Zoogeography of the echiuran fauna of the East Pacific Ocean (Phylum: Echiura). Zootaxa 3479: 69-76, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.282351 ...
Urechis unicinctus, an echiuran worm inhabiting the U-shaped burrows in the coastal mud flats, is an important commercial and ecological invertebrate in Northeast Asian countries, which has potential applications in the study of animal evolution, coastal sediment improvement and marine drug development. Furthermore, the worm can tolerate and utilize well-known toxicant-sulfide. However, knowledge is limited on the molecular mechanism of U. unicinctus responding to sulfide due to deficiency of its genetic information. In this study, we performed Illumina sequencing to obtain the first Urechis unicinctus transcriptome data. Sequenced reads were assembled and then annotated using blast searches against Nr, Nt, Swiss-Prot, KEGG and COG. The clean tags from four digital gene expression (DGE) libraries were mapped to the U. unicinctus transcriptome. DGE analysis and functional annotation were then performed to reveal its response to sulfide. The expressions of 12 candidate genes
Dear friends and colleagues from Northern Europe, I would be eternally greateful if you collect for me Hydroides norvegicus, the most common fouling serpulid species in Northern Europe and fix in ethanol. In addition, I can pay a (not very large I am afraid) fee and cover all shipping (and also send you a souvenir (an Australian polychaete maybe?) from Australia), but I need this material fairly soon. Please let me know if you can help me! Wormly, lena -------------- next part -------------- An HTML attachment was scrubbed... URL: http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/annelida/attachments/20120403/0ecd7dc0/attachment.html ...
Techniques used by researchers from the Department of Energys Oak Ridge National Laboratory to analyze a simple marine worm and its resident bacteria could accelerate efforts to understand more complex microbial communities such as those found in humans.. In a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a multi-institutional research team analyzed the proteins found in a marine worm known as Olavius algarvensis. The worm lacks a digestive system and relies on microbes that live in its body to process its waste and provide energy. Previous research, however, had not untangled the metabolic details of this mutually beneficial, or symbiotic, relationship.. This community is like the simplest form of the human gut, said coauthor Nathan VerBerkmoes of ORNL. It is a model system to understand symbiosis.. While some complex microbial communities such as the human gastrointestinal system contain hundreds of thousands of microbes, the marine worm relies on only four to ...
Sub-Class 1: Errantia : Free swimming forms are included. Segments are many and similar. Head shows a prostomium with sensory appendages. Parapodia are well developed with acicula. Ex: Neanthes, Aphrodite, Eunice. Sub-class 2; Sedentaria : Body includes 2 or more regions, which are dissimilar. Prostomium is small. Parapodia are small, without acicula. Pharynx is non-protrusible. Jaws and teeth are also seen. They live in burrows or tubes. Ex: Chaetpterus, Terebella. CLASS II: ARCHIANNEUDA (Gr, Archi, first) It is a minor group including few genera. They are marine worms. They do not show seate or parapodia. Segmentation is internal. They are unisexual or hermaphrodite. Their larval form is a trochophore. Some zoologists consider Archiannelida is a class of Annelida. Ex : Polygardius, Dinophilus. ClASS III: OLIGOCHAETA - U.C Fresh water and terrestrial worms are included. They do not show parapodia. Head is not distinct. Setae are in each segment. Clitellum is present. All are bisexual animals. ...
Background: Annelida is one of the major protostome phyla, whose deep phylogeny is very poorly understood. Recent molecular phylogenies show that Annelida may include groups once considered separate phyla (Pogonophora, Echiurida, and Sipunculida) and that Clitellata are derived polychaetes. The total-evidence analyses combining morphological and molecular characters have been published for a few annelid taxa. No attempt has yet been made to analyse simultaneously morphological and molecular information concerning the Annelida as a whole. Results: Phylogenetic relationships within Annelida were analysed on the basis of 93 morphological characters and sequences of six genes (18S, 28S, and 16S rRNA, EF1 alpha, H3, COI), altogether, 87 terminals of all annelid families and 3,903 informative characters, by Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods. The analysis of the combined dataset yields the following scheme of relationships: Phyllodocida and Eunicida are monophyletic groups, together probably ...
Oweniids are marine tubeworms burrowing in muddy sediments that in current phylogenies form an early branching lineage within Annelida. Little is known about their general morphology, in particular the nervous system. Here we provide an immunocytochemical investigation of the nervous system of Galathowenia oculata in order to discuss putative ancestral neuronal features in Oweniidae. Adult Galathowenia oculata have neither a supraesophageal ganglion nor ganglia associated with the ventral nerve cord. Instead, there is a dorsal brain commissure in the head collar that is engulfed by a cellular cortex. Accordingly, we herein term this neural structure
This complete teaching unit plan contains 8 separate products. It includes everything you need to teach a unit on the Phylum Annelida to your life science or biology students. Included are: 1. A 33 slide powerpoint presentation 2. Notes for the teacher 3.
Phylum Annelida are worm like animals. The body segments are rings externally. Internally the segments are seperated by septa. Externally the body is prote
Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hirudinea is a fairly small group of Annelida, with about 680 described species, most of which live in freshwater habitats, but several species are (sub)terrestrial or marine. In the Fauna Europaea database the taxon is represented by 87 species in 6 families. Two closely related groups,
Dear colleagues Thanks a lot for making the paper by Smith (1935) accessible to me, which was in turn requested by a good number of ANNELIDA users. Once I have been able to pin down the concept of density dependence (in fact sensu density-dependent mortality factors), I am now tracking the original definition of the concept of regulation in the context of population dynamics where it refers to population size self-adjustment, where density dependence might [I am not sure yet] represent the otherwise called return tendency, i.e. mortality rates increasing and birth rates decreasing as population size increases. This is much harder a task since regulation is quite a rather general, easy-to-use term. The theory of population regulation seems to be attributed to Alexander John Nicholson (see Turchin 2003, p. 5, and others), and in fact the origin of the (still debated, see White 2008) regulation versus limitation controversy is most commonly associated with the exchange of ideas between Nicholson ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Nishi, Eijiroh, Gil, Joao, Tanaka, Katsuhiko, Kupriyanova, Elena K. (2017): Notaulaxyamasui sp. n. (Annelida, Sabellidae) from Okinawa and Ogasawara, Japan, with notes on its ecology. ZooKeys 660: 1-16, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.660.11228, URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.660.11228 ...
Lineage tracing at single-cell resolution reveals the presence of mesoteloblasts, the embryonic origin of mesodermal growth zone cells, and diverse cell cycling patterns of these lineages in the Polychaete annelid Platynereis.
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Mercury atom in PDB 2d2n: Structure Of An Extracellular Giant Hemoglobin of the Gutless Beard Worm Oligobrachia Mashikoi
While the likelihood that molluscs and phoronids lie within the Annelida appears small, a consensus has emerged that at least some of the unsegmented protostome phyla lie near or within the modern diversity of annelids (Halanych et al. 2002; Rouse & Pleijel 2007). In particular, virtually every recent molecular phylogenetic study, including studies using data as diverse as ribosomal DNA, complete mitochondrial genomes and expressed sequence tags, finds Sipuncula nested within what are traditionally considered annelids (Colgan et al. 2006; Hausdorf et al. 2007; Rousset et al. 2007; Struck et al. 2007; Dunn et al. 2008; Xin et al. 2009)-only Mwinyi et al. (2009) found sipunculans outside of what are traditionally considered annelids. But interpreting these results is problematic as no study shows a statistically robust signal-indeed as lamented by Rousset et al. (2007), … resolution remains discouraging: rarely so many taxa have been sequenced for so many nucleotides with such sparing ...
Immunocytochemical data on polychaete neurogenesis remain scarce and are mostly restricted to isolated developmental stages. At present, there are only few studies that document the neuronal differentiation for complete developmental series and they focus on polychaetes with an indirect mode of development [28-31]. The two classical TEM-based studies on species of the Capitellida likewise offer only limited insights. The first is restricted to the 3-setiger larva of Arenicola cristata (Arenicolidae), whereas the second one describes different developmental stages up to metamorphosis in Capitella capitata (Capitellidae) [32, 33]. In both studies the presented ultrastructural data are only superficially interpreted with respect to gross morphology.. One of the most prominent features of trochozoan larvae is the ciliated prototroch and its underlying serotonergic nerve ring. The latter was most likely already present in the last common ancestor of the lophotrochozoans [34, 35]. Although ...
Onuphid polychaetes are tubicolous marine worms commonly reported worldwide from intertidal areas to hadal depths. They often dominate in benthic communities and have economic importance in aquaculture and recreational fishing. Here we report the phylogeny of the family Onuphidae based on the combined analyses of nuclear (18S rDNA) and mitochondrial (16S rDNA) genes. Results of Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses supported the monophyly of Onuphidae and its traditional subdivision into two monophyletic subfamilies: Onuphinae and Hyalinoeciinae. Ten of 22 recognized genera were monophyletic with strong node support; four more genera included in this study were either monotypic or represented by a single species. None of the genera appeared para- or polyphyletic and this indicates a strong congruence between the traditional morphology-based systematics of the family and the newly obtained molecular-based phylogenetic reconstructions. Intergeneric relationships within Hyalinoeciinae were not ...
The central nervous system of annelids typically includes serotonin immunoreactive (SIR) cells, which are putatively associated with motor neurons [17,26-31]. The distribution patterns of these cells vary among species and body regions, and have been suggested to be potentially useful taxonomic traits [17]. Our data on 12 species of naidid annelids show that SIR perikarya distribution patterns in the brain and ventral nerve cord can vary considerably across species and even within individuals, both along the antero-posterior body axis and potentially between developmental stages. Despite this variability, the positions of serotonin-positive perikarya in the ventral nerve cord ganglia show consistent enough patterns to suggest putative homologies both within naidids and between naidids and other clitellate groups.. We found that the number of paired serotonin immunoreactive (SIR) perikarya in the brain varies across naidids. While a single pair of SIR perikarya is the most common arrangement for ...
Vår pris 725,-(portofritt). This book is a concise informative elucidation of all aspects of reproduction and development in annelids covering from arenicola to tubifex. Annelids..
You dont like worms? Thats a narrow-minded attitude-especially in light of these beautiful marine worms, photographed by Alexander Semenov, posted on Colossal, and called to my attention by several readers (how do you people find these things?). Ive chosen a few for your delectation, but go look at them all. I have no idea what the…
A team of scientists from the University of Tsukuba in Japan found the yellowish primitive marine worm, scientifically known as Xenoturbella, on the seafloor of the western Pacific Ocean.
This issue profiles lactose-free probiotic supplements for promoting wellness and immunity, a marine worm that has potential to aid bioreactor waste minimization process, and natural alternatives to harmful agricultural pesticides.
Rousset, V. et al. 2004: The phylogenetic position of Siboglinidae (Annelida) inferred from 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and morphological data. Cladistics, 20 (6): 518-533. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2004.00039.x ...
Platyhelminthes (flatworms, tapeworms, etc.) , , ===(branch uncertain)== pseudoceolomates (nematodes, rotifers, etc.) , , ===P*==, , ================ Nemertea (ribbon worms) , , , , , =1=, , ============ Mollusca (snails, clams, squids, etc.) , , , , , ===C*==, , ===== Annelida (segmented worms) , , , , ,,=B=, B- BILATERIA , , ,==== Sipuncula (peanut worms) $$ , , , =4=, , P- PROTOSTOMIA =2==, , ,==== Pogonophora(beard worms, vent worms) $$ , S? , , , , C- COELOMATE =3*=, ===== Echiura (proboscis worms) $$ , PROTOSTOMES S? , , ==5===== Panarthropoda (velvet worms, insects, spiders, crabs, etc.) , S? ORIGIN OF , SEGMENTATION? ================================= DEUTEROSTOMIA (echinoderms, chordates, etc ...
In the echiuran worm Bonellia viridis Rolando, the vast majority of sexually undifferentiated larvae metamorphose into dwarf males that live inside the female when exposed to females, but differentiate into females when developing in the absence of females. By means of a spatially explicit, individual-based model we examine how this specific form of environmental sex determination (ESD) affects dynamics of Bonellia populations and investigate the selective advantage of ESD over the more widespread genotypic sex determination (GSD). Population dynamics of Bonellia appear rather simple and not too sensitive to parameter changes around their measured values, or to changes in distribution and sizes of inhabitable patches. Starting even from low sizes, populations soon attain equilibrium densities. Explored aspects of population dynamics indicate an advantage of ESD over GSD. Moreover, simulated invasibility experiments show that while the maternal inheritance scenario allows for fixation of GSD ...
Due to the presence of a coelom along with increased size/complexity, annelids developed a circulatory system to transport oxygen, nutrients, and remove waste.. Circulation:. Closed- Circulatory System - Blood is always contained in vessels.. ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Composting worm (Perionyx excavatus), mouth and prostomium region. Note the setae (chatae) on the segments. Perionyx excavatus is a composting worm in the earthworm family Megascolecidae. It is a commercially produced earthworm used for everyday composting. This species is promoted for its ability to create fine worm castings quickly. It is very popular in North America for composting food product waste. This species belongs to the Perionyx genus which may have its origins in the Himalayan mountains. This species is suited for vermicomposting in tropical and subtropical regions. Magnification x24 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0484
The immune system of the Nematode worm and how it can help us to manage dangerous infections. Not many people would confess to an admiration for the worm species, and yet a recent study backed by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) has shown that worms are the ultimate gamblers; a type of worm known as a Nematode plays a high-risk game with disease resistance.
Forward and reverse sequences were assembled in Geneious (Biomatters Ltd.), checked for contamination using BLAST [39] and have been deposited in GenBank (see Additional file 2 for accession numbers). Additional sequences of Ampharetidae were downloaded from GenBank and included in the analyses (see Additional file 2). Three sets of alignments were made, one with the complete dataset, and two with subsets of taxa corresponding to clades identified in initial analyses (Clade A and Clade C, see Results) and with Melinna cristata as outgroup. The alignments of Clade A and C were made to reduce the proportion of ambiguously aligned regions, allowing a higher number of positions to be included, and also to save computation time for species tree reconstruction with STACEY (see below).. COI sequences were aligned in Geneious using MUSCLE [40], and 16S, 18S and 28S sequences were aligned using the MAFFT online server [41] and the option for automatic selection of alignment algorithm [42, 43]. The ...
We described a new species, Mesochaetopterus tingkokensis, based on 14 specimens collected from an intertidal area in Hong Kong. This species is large (body length of complete specimens 17.9-24.1 cm), with 9, 2 and 36-41 chaetigers in region A, B and C, respectively. It belongs to a small group of Mesochaetopterus species with an expanded wing-shaped notopodia in chaetiger B2. The new species can be distinguished from other Mesochaetopterus species in this group by having a pair of palps with two longitudinal stripes formed by suture-like discontinuous orange bands, more teeth in the uncini of region B and C neuropodia, and presence of a bundle of simple chaetae in region C notopodia. Comparison with other chaetopterids based on partial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the placement of M. tingkokensis n. sp.within Mesochaetopterus and its distinction from other members of this genus with the available DNA sequences. The phylogenetic tree base on COI showed that
Gephyrea. 1. History of British Starfishes and other Animals of the Class Echinodermata. Edward Forbes. 1841. 2. Memoire sur lEchiure. Quatrefages. Annales Sci. Nat. 1847. 3. Ueber Thalasse...
The Species 2000/ITIS Catalogue of Life : 2006 Annual Checklist is a comprehensive index of all known plants, animals, fungi and micro-organisms. It can be used to search multiple databases simultaneously for the scientific name of an organism.
The Species 2000/ITIS Catalogue of Life : 2006 Annual Checklist is a comprehensive index of all known plants, animals, fungi and micro-organisms. It can be used to search multiple databases simultaneously for the scientific name of an organism.
Refill size: 28 x 22 cm. Examination of esophageal and intestinal morphology usually requires clearing in lactophenol. Guide to Identification of Fresh Water Microorganisms Microscopic autotrophic organisms (i.e. Some polychaetes, marine annelid worms in the family Serpulidae, secrete a hard tube made of calcium carbonate, adhering to stones or other shells. Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel). Rotifers Waterbear (tardigrade) Nematode Planarian. This is a protozoan in the Class Myxosporea. If adult worms are not visible, conduct a tape test in the morning. USA: jumpers; snake worm; wigglers; wood eel; Summary of Invasiveness Top of page. Acunetixâ s scanning engine is globally â ¦ 1978. Whirling disease is an infectious disease of finfish. mayfly nymph water boatman . This website uses cookies to ensure you get the best experience on our website. Habitat: Damp compost or soil. PATHOGENICITY/TOXICITY: The severity of the disease is determined by the worm load Footnote 1. They digest the waste and ...
This article reviews the status of research on locomotion in segmented worms. It focuses on three major groups (leeches, earthworms, and nereid polychaetes) that have attracted the most research attention. All three groups show two types of locomotion: crawling (moving over a solid substrate) and swimming (moving through a liquid). The adults of all three groups form a hydroskeleton by controlling the pressure within the segments, and they locomote by controlling the shapes of the individual segments in coordinated spatial and temporal patterns. Many annelid larvae use cilia to move through water. Four aspects of the locomotory patterns are considered: the kinematics (the movement patterns), biomechanics (how muscle contractions produce movement), the neuronal basis of the movement patterns, and efforts to produce robots that move like annelid worms.
Scientist Kristin Tessmar-Raible provided the crucial evidence to support Arendts hypothesis. With the help of EMBL researcher Heidi Snyman, she determined the molecular fingerprint of the cells in the worms brain. She found an opsin, a light-sensitive molecule, in the worm that strikingly resembled the opsin in the vertebrate rods and cones. When I saw this vertebrate-type molecule active in the cells of the Playtnereis brain - it was clear that these cells and the vertebrate rods and cones shared a molecular fingerprint. This was concrete evidence of common evolutionary origin. We had finally solved one of the big mysteries in human eye evolution ...
Analysing the nervous system in four species of Ophryotrocha (Annelida) with histology and immunohistochemistry. The nervous system is supposedly the most conserved organ system in especially invertebrates, and might therefore unveil vital information about how species are related to each other, and which traits are more conserved than others. However, a recent study could demonstrate variation in the commissures in the brain and ventral nervous system as well as between the distribution patterns of neurotransmitters between three closely related, microscopic annelids. Furthermore, this study also found neurotransmitters not overlapping with each other, suggesting that each neuron is specific for only one neurotransmitter, furthermore confirming the so-far mainly rebutted Dales principle, which states each neuron is specific for only one neurotransmitter. This finding suggests that small brains can still be quite complex, and that overall functionality might be retained in complexity-reduced ...
additional source Glasby, C.J.; Read, G.B.; Lee, K.E.; Blakemore, R.J.; Fraser, P.M.; Pinder, A.M.; Erséus, C.; Moser, W.E.; Burreson, E.M.; Govedich, F.R.; Davies, R.W.; Dawson, E.W. (2009). Phylum Annelida: bristleworms, earthworms, leeches, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 312-358. [details] ...
1Arp AJ, Childress JJ, Fisher CR. Blood gas transport in Riftia pachyptila. Bull Biol Soc Wash, 1985, 6:289-300 2Arp AJ, Childress JJ, Vetter RD. The sulphide-binding protein in the blood of the vestimentiferan tube-worm, Riftia Pachyptila, is the extracellular haemoglobin. J Exp Biol, 1987, 128:139-158 3Bright M, Keckeis H, Fisher CR. An autoradiographic examination of carbon fixation, transfer and utilization in the Riftia pachyptila symbiosis. Biology, 2000, 136:621-632 4Cavanaugh CM, Gardiner SL, Jones ML, Jannasch HW, Waterbury JB. Pro- karyotic cells in the hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptila. Science, 1981, 213:340-342 5Childress JJ, Fisher CR, Favuzzi JA, Kochevar RE, Sanders NK, Alayse AM. Sulfide-driven autotrophic balance in the bacterial symbiont-containing hydrother- mal vent tubeworm, Riftia pachyptila. Biol Bull, 1991, 180:135-153 6Elderfield H, Schultz A. Mid-ocean ridge hydrothermal fluxes and the chemical composition of the ocean. Annu Rev Earth Plant Sci, ...
PlatyBrowser is an interactive atlas that allows scientists to travel virtually to any cell found in a young Platynereis dumerilii worm
Our lab has chosen to investigate a new molecular animal model, the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. As a living fossil, Platynereis represents an ideal connecting link between vertebrates and the fast-evolving protostome models, Drosophila and Caenorhabditis. Platynereis is amenable to high-throughput imaging techniques and functional interference approaches; for example, the first genetic knockout lines have been generated. With the recent development of the PrImR (Profiling by Image Registration) resource, Platynereis has become the first animal model for which gene expression profiling data can be obtained in cellular resolution for the whole organism. We have discovered that their brains harbour sensory-associative parts and a neurosecretory centre that corresponds to the vertebrate pallium and hypothalamus, respectively. A clear picture is emerging that the Platynereis brain harbours many cell types so far known only for vertebrates, but in a much more simple and different overall ...
One of the largest movements of biomass on Earth is the vertical migration of marine plankton, which swim toward the light. Jékely et al. investigated the mechanism by which phototaxis is achieved by the zooplanktonic larvae of the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii and found a direct sensory-motor coupling between the eyespot and the locomotor cilia. The two-cell eyespot of this marine invertebrate is one of the simplest animal eyes and consists of a photoreceptor cell and a pigmented cell that shades the photoreceptor, defining its view angle. Jékely et al. found that the eyespots of P. dumerilii were independently functional and that most larvae phototaxed after ablation of one eyespot. Electron microscopy revealed that the photoreceptor cell extended an axon that joins the nerve ring and forms synapses with the steering cilia. The photoreceptor expressed VAChT, encoding the vesicular acetylcholine transporter, suggesting that it was a cholinergic neuron, and nicotinic acetylcholine ...
Life-cycle transitions connecting larval and juvenile stages in metazoans are orchestrated by neuroendocrine signals including neuropeptides and hormones. In marine invertebrate life cycles, which often consist of planktonic larval and benthic adult stages, settlement of the free-swimming larva to the sea floor in response to environmental cues is a key life cycle transition. Settlement is regulated by a specialized sensory-neurosecretory system, the larval apical organ. The neuroendocrine mechanisms through which the apical organ transduces environmental cues into behavioral responses during settlement are not yet understood. Here we show that myoinhibitory peptide (MIP)/allatostatin-B, a pleiotropic neuropeptide widespread among protostomes, regulates larval settlement in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. MIP is expressed in chemosensory-neurosecretory cells in the annelid larval apical organ and signals to its receptor, an orthologue of the Drosophila sex peptide receptor, expressed ...
Annelids are segmented worms that are found worldwide in most habitats, except the aerial and the most arid ones. Earthworms and leeches are the most familiar members of this group; however, most annelid diversity lies within the largely marine polychaetes. Until recently, Annelida was split into three major groups, each given class rank: Polychaeta (bristleworms), Oligochaeta (earthworms, etc.) and Hirudinea (leeches).
Phylum Annelida : True Worms. Class Polychaeta : Bristle worms. Order Phyllodocida. Order Capitellida. Worms are the most important of bait species collected in the UK, by digging on sediment shores. Their exploitation is also completely unregulated, since they are not classified as seafish and do not fall under the scope of fisheries legislation. Class Polychaeta : Bristle worms. This Class is the largest group of worms. All are aquatic and the great majority is marine. A few polychaetes are commensal or parasitic, but most are free-living and include pelagic swimmers, crawling and actively burrowing species, and tube-dwelling species. However, only a very small number of the over 1,000 species which occur in UK waters are sufficiently large, robust, common and easily obtained to be target bait species. Order Phyllodocida. Superfamily Nereidoidea, Family Nereidae : Ragworms. Ragworms are very common errant (free-living) polychaetes all around the British Isles. Nineteen species have been ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Evolution of the sulfide-binding function within the globin multigenic family of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent tubeworm Riftia pachyptila. AU - Bailly, Xavier. AU - Jollivet, Didier. AU - Vanin, Stephano. AU - Deutsch, Jean. AU - Zal, Franck. AU - Lallier, Franfois. AU - Toulmond, André. PY - 2002/9/1. Y1 - 2002/9/1. N2 - The giant extracellular hexagonal bilayer hemoglobin (HBL-Hb) of the deep-sea hydrothermal vent tube worm Riftia pachyptita is able to transport simultaneously O2 and H2S in the blood from the gills to a specific organ the trophosome that harbors sulfide-oxidizing endosymbionts. This vascular HBL-Hb is made of 144 globins from which four globin types (A1, A2, B1, and B2) coevolve. The H2S is bound at a specific location (not on the heme site) onto two of these globin types. In order to understand how such a function emerged and evolved in vestimentiferans and other related annelids, six partial cDNAs corresponding to the six globins known to compose the ...
Find the fascicles article Phylogeny of the Megascolecidae and Crassiclitellata (Annelida, Oligochaeta): combined versus artitioned analysis using nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (12S, 16S) rDNA on the website of Scientific Publications of the Muséum national dHistoire naturelle, Paris
2002 Tzetlin, A. B., Dahlgren, T. G., & G. Purschke. Ultrastructure of the body wall, body cavity, nephridia and spermatozoa in four species of the Chrysopetalidae (Annelida). Zoologischer Anzeiger 241, 37-55. 2000 Dahlgren, T. G., Lundberg, J., Pleijel, F. & P. Sundberg. Morphological and molecular evidence of the phylogeny of Nereidiform polychaetes (Annelida). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 38(4): 249-254.. 1998 Pleijel, F. & T. G. Dahlgren. Phylogeny of Phyllodocida and Nereidiformia (Polychaeta, Annelida). Cladistics 14: 129-150.. 1996 Dahlgren, T. G. Two new species of Dysponetus (Polychaeta: Chrysopetalidae) from Italy and Papua New Guinea. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 109 (3): 575-585.. 1995 Dahlgren, T. G. & F. Pleijel. On the generic allocation of Chrysopetalum caecum (Polychaeta: Chrysopetalidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen zoologischen Museum und Institut 92:159-173. ...
Background Vestimentiferan tubeworms are some of the most recognizable fauna found at deep-sea cold seeps, isolated environments where hydrocarbon rich fluids fuel biological communities. Several studies have investigated tubeworm population structure; however, much is still unknown about larval dispersal patterns at Gulf of Mexico (GoM) seeps. As such, researchers have applied microsatellite markers as a measure for documenting the transport of vestimentiferan individuals. In the present study, we investigate the utility of microsatellites to be cross-amplified within the escarpiid clade of seep vestimentiferans, by determining if loci originally developed for Escarpia spp. could be amplified in the GoM seep tubeworm, Seepiophila jonesi. Additionally, we determine if cross-amplified loci can reliably uncover the same signatures of high gene flow seen in a previous investigation of S. jonesi. Methods Seventy-seven S. jonesi individuals were collected from eight seep sites across the upper Louisiana
12$==(two+ clades)=== odd tube-building worms (Chaetopteridae, Oweniidae) , , =====3= Errantia (active, highly mobile marine worms)
The nightcrawler (Lumbricus terrestris), also known as the lob worm or the common earthworm in Britain and the dew worm in Canada, is a species of earthworm that is classified within the Annelida phylum. It is native to Europe, but has been introduced into other areas around the world. Although the species is not as abundant as other worms in its range, it is a widely known species in gardens of temperate habitats, where it moves about on the surface of the soil.. The nightcrawler can reach an average body length between 7.8 and 9.8 inches and is typically red in color. It burrows under the soil in temporary homes, resurfacing to reproduce and feed, which is an unusual trait for earthworms. This worm will pull leaves into its burrow and wait for them to decay before consuming them. It also consumes feces and dead insects. The average lifespan of this species is unknown, but it is thought to live about eight years in the wild.. The nightcrawler is thought to be a pest in some areas of its ...
Having red blood is not peculiar to humans or mammals. This colour comes from haemoglobin, a complex protein specialized in transporting the oxygen found in the circulatory system of vertebrates, but also in annelids (a worm family whose most famous members are earthworms), molluscs (especially pond snails) and crustaceans (such as daphnia or water fleas). It was thought that for haemoglobin to have appeared in such diverse species, it must have been invented several times during evolution. But recent research has shown that all of these haemoglobins born independently actually derive from a single ancestral gene.. Researchers from the Institut Jacques Monod (CNRS/Université de Paris), the Laboratoire Matière et Systèmes Complexes (CNRS/Université de Paris), the Station Biologique de Roscoff (CNRS/Sorbonne Université), the Universities of Saint Petersburg (Russia) and Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), conducted this research on Platynereis dumerilii, a small marine worm with red blood.. It is ...
Prev 544850/XRefStm 2159>> 0000504229 00000 n Adults are killed by freezing. In Lumbricus terrestris, the number and content of material of specific cerebral neurosecretory cells increase with approaching maturation. That is, each individual worm contains both male and female reproductive organs. In some areas where it is an introduced species, some people consider it to be a significant pest for out-competing native worms. F)�H�?4qJ�. Earthworms are intriguing creatures that play a discreet, yet vital role in the natural cycle of life. 0000009415 00000 n It is dark colored with the posterior end more pale colored and capable of flattening. 0000087134 00000 n 0000003229 00000 n They will then drop the cocoons off in the soil. The common earthworm (Lumbricus terrestris) copulates for more than three hours at a time. For example, they start as fertilized eggs in cocoons. The British naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882) began and ended his almost 45-year-long career with observations, ...
1. The blood-system in sabellids of the following genera is described: Sabella, Potamilla, Branchiomma, Dasychone, Amphiglena, Fabricia, Jasmineira, Dialychone, and Myxicola.. 2. The central blood-system of Sabella is typical of the family, but the peripheral blood-system is variable.. 3. The dorsal vessel lacks the valve and muscular sphincter found in some serpulids.. 4. Lateral vessels are present only in Sabella and Dasychone.. 5. The differences and similarities between sabellid and serpulid blood-systems are discussed. Special attention is given to the functions of sub-epidermal and coelomic capillaries and the blood-supply of the body-wall musculature.. ...
Hydrothermal vent communities have not been observed on the Chile margin (yet!), but they are hypothesized to exist since they usually occur on spreading centers, such as the Chile Ridge, which is being subducted under the Chile continent. The water ejected from hydrothermal vents can vary from 20º to 400ºC (68º to 752ºF) and is rich in reduced compounds like sulfide and methane. Hard substrate is formed by cooled basalt (volcanic rock), precipitated metal sulfides, and organisms, such as tube worms and bivalves.. The fastest growing tube worms in the world, Riftia pachyptila, settle where they have access to the flow of warm, sulfide-rich water, which they take up in their bright red plumes. They have been observed to grow almost 2 m (6.6 ft) in one year, which starkly contrasts with Lamellibrachia tube worms at seeps that might grow several centimeters per year. Mussels (e.g., Bathymodiolus thermophilius) are also common at East Pacific vent communities, and they contain both sulfide- and ...
The ventral nerve cord in C. teleta has many features characteristic of a ladder-like nerve cord, with segmentally-iterated ganglia, longitudinal connectives between ganglia in adjacent segments, and commissures between each hemiganglion within one segment. Initially the ventral nerve cord in C. teleta has 5 longitudinal connectives (Fig. 11). These appear to fuse into two main bundles in the juvenile, although in the abdominal segments, a thin medial connective (aTUB-LIR) and four outer connectives (5HT-LIR) can still be seen. Thus, C. teleta has the ancestral pattern of five connectives. The exact number of commissures within each ganglion is difficult to discern. There are two pairs of peripheral nerves in the thoracic segments and three pairs of peripheral nerves in the abdominal segments. The numbers of nerves in C. teleta fall within the range seen in other annelids, and this study highlights the advantage of characterizing nervous system architecture during development since the number ...
Background: Members of Family Nereididae have complex neural morphology exemplary of errant polychaetes and are leading research models in the investigation of annelid nervous systems. However, few studies focus on the development of their nervous system morphology. Such data are particularly relevant today, as nereidids are the subjects of a growing body of evo-devo work concerning bilaterian nervous systems, and detailed knowledge of their developing neuroanatomy facilitates the interpretation of gene expression analyses. In addition, new data are needed to resolve discrepancies between classic studies of nereidid neuroanatomy. We present a neuroanatomical overview based on acetylated α-tubulin labeling and confocal microscopy for post-embryonic stages of Neanthes arenaceodentata, a direct-developing nereidid. Results: At hatching (2-3 chaetigers), the nervous system has developed much of the complexity of the adult (large brain, circumesophageal connectives, nerve cords, segmental nerves), ...
Commonly known as sewage worms, Tubifex tubifex is a true earthworm (class Oligochaeta), easily recognized by its red color and mud tubes.
Lumbricidae earthworms dominate agricultural lands and often natural terrestrial ecosystems in temperate regions in Europe. They impact soil properties and nutrient cycli..
oligochaete: Any worm of the subclass Oligochaeta (class Clitellata, phylum Annelida). About 3,500 living species are known, the most familiar of which is the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris....
Gel filtration and velocity of sedimentation analyses on native and on lysine- and arginine- modified forms of the annelid worm Chaetopterus variopedatus sperm H1 histone indicate that anion-mediated lysine - arginine interactions play a relevant role in the stabilization of the oligomeric states of the molecule. CD spectroscopy shows that phosphate anions are at least an order of magnitude more efficient than chloride as negatively charged groups connecting H1 lysines and arginines. Acetylation of lysines, although not altering grossly the H1 properties, causes a tenfold decrease of the structuring efficiency of phosphates. This suggests that DNA phosphates may be sandwiched between lysine and arginine groups of H1 histone when this molecule binds to chromatin, constituting a relevant parameter for the reciprocal stabilization of the protein and of the chromatin higher order structures ...
Light micrograph of the planktonic larva of the bristle worm, Eulalia viridis. The spherical body of the larva, known as a trochophore, is encircled by two or three bands of cilia used for feeding and locomotion. The bristle worms (polychaeta) are free-swimming, marine worms of the phylum Annelida (the segmented worms). Each segment of the adult bristle worm has a pair of limb-like outgrowths called parapodia, which are covered with tufts of chitinous bristles or chaetae. Magnification: x160 at 35mm size. - Stock Image Z195/0025
ePIC (electronic Publication Information Center) is the official repository for publications and presentations of Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and Marine Research (AWI)
Pinnixa chaetopterana, the tube pea crab, is a small decapod crustacean that lives harmlessly within the tube of the polychaete worm, Chaetopterus variopedatus. P. chaetopterana is a tiny, soft-bodied crab. The bodies of all species of Pinnixa are much wider than they are long. The adults are difficult to distinguish from each other and all live in the tubes or burrows of other invertebrates. The larvae are quite dissimilar to the adults. They spends some time drifting in the zooplankton and there are five zoeal stages. The carapace is caltrop-shaped and has dorsal, rostral and lateral spines. The antennae are limited to a spinous process and a single seta. The length of the dorsal spine is less than 1.5 times the length of the rostral spine. The second and third abdominal somites have dorso-lateral knobs and the fifth somite has lateral knobs that project wing-like over the telson which has a median notch. This crab is found on the western side of the Atlantic Ocean, including Brazil, the Gulf ...
Neural circuitry of a polycystin-mediated hydrodynamic startle response in Platynereis: from genes to ecology. Abstract: Startle responses are widespread in animals and require neural circuitry to control fast whole-body responses. To dissect the genetic and circuit bases of such coordinated whole-body responses we study a startle response to water-born vibrations in a marine larva. We found that upon water vibrations larvae of the annelid Platynereis arrest locomotor cilia, and simultaneously contract the body and elevate all segmental parapodia. The startle response is mediated by collar receptor neurons expressing the polycystin channels PKD1 and PKD2. CRISPR-generated PKD1 and PKD2 mutant larvae do not startle and fall prey to a copepod predator at a higher rate. Reconstruction of the whole-body connectome of collar receptor circuitry revealed parallel feed-forward circuits to ciliary bands and muscles. The wiring diagram suggests circuit mechanisms for the intersegmental and left-right ...
Brinkhurst, R. O. and S. R. Gelder (1991) Annelida: Oligochaeta and Branchiobdellida, In Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates (T. H. Thorp and A. P. Covich, Eds.), Academic Press, New York.. ● Drewes, C. D. (1999) Helical swimming and body reversal behaviors in Lumbriculus variegatus (Family Lumbriculidae). Hydrobiologia 406:263-269.. ● Drewes, C. D. and R. O. Brinkhurst (1990) Giant fibers and rapid escape reflexes in newly hatched aquatic oligochaetes, Lumbriculus variegatus (Family Lumbriculida). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 17:91-95.. ● Drewes, C. D. (1997) Sublethal effects of environmental toxicants on oligochaete escape reflexes. American Zoologist. 37:346-353.. ● Drewes, C. and K. Cain (1999) As the worm turns: Locomotion in a freshwater oligochaete worm. American Biology Teacher 61:438-442.. ● Drewes, C. D. and C. R. Fourtner (1989) Hindsight and rapid escape in a freshwater oligochaete. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) ...
This is one of 4 grouped time lapse movies (CIL 11958-11962) revealing the responses of a meiotic oocyte spindle to various forms of micromanipulation...
Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Subregnum: Eumetazoa • Cladus: Bilateria • Superphylum: Protostomia • Phylum: Annelida • Classis: Polychaeta • Subclassis: Canalipalpata • Subordo: Sabellida • Familia: Serpulidae Johnston, 1865 ...
Superseded by EOL Annelida Patch: https://opendata.eol.org/dataset/eol-annelida-patch. Taxonomic hierarchies & species lists for Crassiclitellata, Haplotaxidae, Moniligastridae, Syngenodrilidae, Tiguassuidae to complement Catalogue of Life coverage. Compiled from multiple sources:. Bantaowong, U., Chanabun, R., Tongkerd, P., Sutcharit, C., James, S.W., Panha, S., 2011. New earthworm species of the genus Amynthas Kinberg, 1867 from Thailand (Clitellata, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae). Zookeys, 90: 35-62.. Bantaowong, U., Chanabun, R., James, S.W., Panha, S., 2016. Seven new species of the earthworm genus Metaphire Sims and Easton, 1972 from Thailand (Clitellata: Megascolecidae). Zootaxa, 4117(1): 063-084.. Blakemore, R.J., 2007. Checklist and phylogeny of Exxidae (Oligochaeta). European Journal of Soil Biology, 43: S9-S13.. Blakemore, R.J., 2008. A Series of Searchable Texts on Earthworm Biodiversity, Ecology and Systematics from Various Regions of the World - 3rd Edition (2008) December, 2008, ...
Merit Researcher, Invertebrates Division, Life Sciences Department. Specialises in Deep-sea Systematics and Ecology; Polychaete (Annelida) Systematics; Deep-sea Mining Environmental Survey; Antarctic Biodiversity; Evolution and Ecology of Chemosynthetic Ecosystems.
Effects ofEtidronicacidhydrate(Batch no.A3495) on mortality, biomass and the reproductive potential of the earthworm species Eisenia fetida (Annelida, Lumbricidae) were determined according to the Guidelines DIN ISO 11268-2 (1998), OECD 222 (2004) and BBA (1994). The study was conducted under static conditions over 8 weeks with the test item concentrations 62.5, 125, 250, 500 and 1000 mg test item/kg soil dry weight, which were mixed into artificial soil containing 10 % peat and a control using untreated artificial soil. 80 test organisms were inserted into 8 control replicates and 40 test organisms were divided into 4 replicates for each treatment (10 earthworms per replicate). They had an individual body weight between 0.32 and 0.54 g at experimental starting. After 28 days of exposure in soil, no evident earthworm mortalities (, 10%) as well as no evident pathological symptoms or changes in the behaviour of adult earthworms were observed in all treatments. Moreover, no statistically ...
KINGDOM ANIMALIA. Fun stuff!!. ANIMALIA : 9 MAIN PHYLA. Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminths Nematoda Annelida Mollusca Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata. 3 GERM OR CELL LAYERS. Ectoderm - outer layer cover Mesoderm - Muscle & organ layer Endoderm - Digestive tract....
PRESENTATIONS. A new look at an old medical tool: Leech diversity, bacteriology and anticoagulants - Columbia University New York/Presbyterian Hospital - May 16th 2006. Phylogeny of Glossiphoniid leeches, their endosymbiotic bacteria and implications for understanding the history of bloodfeeding-related bacterial symbionts Hennig Meeting Paris July 2004. A Tree of Life for the Annelida International Meeting on Evolution, Development and Neurobiology of the Leech Lille October 2004. Glossiphoniidae and their Endosymbionts International Meeting on Evolution, Development and Neurobiology of the Leech Lille October 2004. Symbioses bact riennes des sangsues Mus um national dHistoire Naturelle, Paris (March 25, 2004). Phylogeny of Leeches and Historical Insights on Bacterial Symbioses North Eastern Association of Parasitologists, Connecticut, (November 22, 2003). Leeches and the evolution of anticoagulants CUNY, New York (September 22, 2003). Assessment of coevolution in the context of ...
Again there is no shortage of candidates; among animals, Ive knowingly eaten from eight phyla (Cnidaria, Uniramia, Chelicerata, Crustacea, Mollusca, Annelida, Echinodermata, & Chordata). Unknowingly, who knows... Id have to guess at least half of the phyla. The most recent unusual organism was a jellyfish. How was it? Kind of like chewy noodles ...
Biology 18 Spring, 1 Lab 4 - Comparison of Parasitic and Free-Living Worms Objectives: Understand the taxonomic relationships and major features of the worm phyla, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda and Annelida Learn the external and internal anatomy of Dugesia, Antihelminthic drugs ppt, and Ascaris and become familiar with the external features of the other specimens.
Annelida[edit]. Further information: annelida. Earthworms have dual nerve cords running along the length of the body and ...
Rouse, G. W.; Pleijel, F.; McHugh, D. (August 2002). "Annelida. Annelida. Segmented worms: bristleworms, ragworms, earthworms, ... The annelids /ˈænəlɪdz/ (Annelida /əˈnɛlɪdə/, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented ... ISBN 978-0-19-551368-4. Siddall, M. E.; Borda, E.; Rouse, G. W. (2004). "Towards a tree of life for Annelida". In Cracraft, J ... Ruppert, E. E.; Fox, R. S. & Barnes, R. D. (2004). "Annelida". Invertebrate Zoology (7th ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 414-420. ISBN ...
Ruppert, E. E.; Fox, R. S.; Barnes, R. D. (2004). "Annelida". Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 434-441. ISBN ... 978-0-03-025982-1. Ruppert, E.E.; Fox, R.S. & Barnes, R.D. (2004). "Annelida". Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp ...
Annelida)". Zoological Science. 25 (9): 904-906. doi:10.2108/zsj.25.904. ISSN 0289-0003. v t e. ...
Siboglinidae; Annelida)". Biol Bull. Biol Bull. 214: 67-82. doi:10.2307/25066661. PMID 18258777. "Zombie Worms Eating Whale ...
Singer, Robert (January 1978). "Suction-Feeding in Aeolosoma (Annelida)". Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. ... Annelida)". Zoological Science. 25 (9): 904-906. doi:10.2108/zsj.25.904. ISSN 0289-0003. Falconi, Rosanna; Renzulli, Tommaso; ... Zaccanti, Francesco (July 2006). "Survival and Reproduction in Aeolosoma viride (Annelida, Aphanoneura)". Hydrobiologia. 564 (1 ...
Hilário, A.; Cunha, M. R. (2008). "On some frenulate species (Annelida: Polychaeta: Siboglinidae) from mud volcanoes in the ... Rouse, G. W. (2001). "A cladistic analysis of Siboglinidae Caullery, 1914 (Polychaeta, Annelida): formerly the phyla ... and annelida revealed by the amino acid sequence of elongation factor-lα". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 37 (1): 66-70. doi: ... Annelida)". BMC Biology. 7: 74. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-74. PMC 2780999. PMID 19903327. Bright, Monika; Lallie, François (2010- ...
Hartmann-Schröder, G. (1996). Annelida, Borstenwürmer, Polychaeta [Annelida, bristleworms, Polychaeta]. 2nd revised ed. The ... Class Polychaeta belongs to the phylum Annelida, also called ringed worms. There are over 17,000 living annelid species, ... Ruppert EE; Fox RS; Barnes RD (2004). "Annelida". Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks/Cole. pp. 414-420. ISBN 978-0-03-025982- ... ISBN 978-0-03-025982-1. Jean Hanson (1950). "The blood-system in the Serpulimorpha (Annelida, Polychaeta): I. The anatomy of ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) J. D. Fish, Susan Fish (1996). "Annelida". A student's guide to the seashore (2nd ed ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Vernon A. Harris (1990). "Tube-dwelling worms (Annelida: Polychaeta)". Sessile animals ...
Ruppert, E.E.; Fox, R.S. & Barnes, R.D. (2004). "Annelida". Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 414-420. ISBN 978- ...
Ruppert, E.E.; Fox, R.S. & Barnes, R.D. (2004). "Annelida". Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 414-420. ISBN 0-03 ...
An earthworm is a terrestrial invertebrate that belongs to the phylum Annelida. They exhibit a tube-within-a-tube body plan, ... annelida.net. Retrieved May 15, 2012. "Earthworm species name database". [ref Blakemore (2016) Cosmopolitan Earthworms] ... ISBN 978-0-8016-2173-4. Omodeo, Pietro (2000). "Evolution and biogeography of megadriles (Annelida, Clitellata)". Italian ... Annelida)". Sociobiology: 545-554. ISSN 0361-6525. Blakemore, R.J. (2018) (2018). "Critical Decline of Earthworms from Organic ...
Annelida Website. Blakemore, R.J. (2012). "On Schmarda's lost earthworm and some newly found New Zealand species". Journal of ...
"Zoological nomenclature: a basic guide for non-taxonomist authors". Annelida.net. Archived from the original on 16 March 2017 ...
Siboglinidae; Annelida)" (PDF). Biological Bulletin. 214 (1): 67-82. doi:10.2307/25066661. JSTOR 25066661. PMID 18258777. S2CID ... Katz, Sigrid; Klepal, Waltraud; Bright, Monika (October 2010). "The skin of Osedax (Siboglinidae, Annelida): An ultrastructural ... Annelida)". Marine Biology. 156 (3): 395-405. doi:10.1007/s00227-008-1091-z. S2CID 84177994. Goffredi, S. K.; Orphan, V. J.; ... Annelida)". BMC Biology. 7: 74. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-74. PMC 2780999. PMID 19903327. Glover et al. 2005; Dahlgren et al. ...
... annelida.net. Bohlen, Patrick J., Derek M. Pelletier, Peter M. Groffman, Timothy J. Fahey, and Melany C. Fisk. 2004. Influence ...
Annelida, Oligochaeta) suckers". J Morphol. 170 (2): 195-205. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051700206. PMID 7299828. Skírnisson K, Kolářová ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Edward E. Ruppert; Richard S. Fox (1988). "Annelida: Segmented Worms". Seashore animals ... Jean Hanson (1949). "Observations on the Branchial Crown of the Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta)". Quarterly Journal of ...
"Spirobranchus cariniferus (Gray, 1843)". www.annelida.net. Retrieved 2019-06-08. "WoRMS - World Register of Marine Species - ...
Since January 2011, James has been working on phylogenomic investigation of the evolutionary history of Annelida, as part of ... Annelida: Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae)". Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 110 (4): 337-353. doi:10.2307/ ... James S.W. (1994). "New species of Diplocardia and Argilophilus (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) from southern ... James, S W (1988). "Diplocardia halbert And Diplocardia rugosa, New Earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae) From ...
Annelida, Oligochaeta) suckers". J Morphol. 170 (2): 195-205. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051700206. PMID 7299828. Boumis R (2013). " ...
"Spio aequalis is missing". www.annelida.net. Retrieved 2019-09-29. "Rediscovery of Spio Aequalis after Missing for Over 50 ...
"The Annelida Polychaeta". Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 48: 415-418. v t e. ...
Chamberlin, Ralph Vary (1919). "The Annelida Polychaeta". Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 31: ...
Annelida, Serpulidae)". Zoomorphology. 130 (3): 181-188. doi:10.1007/s00435-011-0133-0.. ...
Annelida[7]. Recently merged into Annelida[9]. Closely related. Similar-looking phyla ... The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"),[2][a] also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a ... Annelida. Segmented worms: bristleworms, ragworms, earthworms, leeches and their allies". The Tree of Life Web Project. Tree of ... Rouse, G.W. (2002). "Annelida (Segmented Worms)". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1038/npg.els. ...
... es are segmented parasitic or predatory worms that comprise the subclass Hirudinea within the phylum Annelida. They are ... Sawyer, R. T. (1970). "Observations on the Natural History and Behavior of Erpobdella punctata (Leidy) (Annelida: Hirudinea)". ... Annelida: Clitellata) on the North American Continent". Northeastern Naturalist. 9 (4): 451-468. doi:10.1656/1092-6194(2002)009 ... "Phylogeny and revision of Erpobdelliformes (Annelida, Arhynchobdellida) from Mexico based on nuclear and mitochondrial gene ...
Annelida 12700 840 6.61 Onychophora 100 1 1 Arthropoda 987949 68389 6.9 ...
Annelida, Polychaeta). Italian Journal of Zoology 62(4), 363-67. ...
Annelida, Echinoderms, Molluscs) ecosystems. Since its introduction, the field of DNA barcoding has matured to bridge the gap ...
Until recently, Annelida was split into three major groups, each given class rank: Polychaeta (bristleworms), Oligochaeta ( ... Until recently, Annelida was split into three major groups, each given class rank: Polychaeta (bristleworms), Oligochaeta ( ...
Synapomorphies of Annelida. The monophyly of Annelida is not well supported and only two morphological features are worthy of ... Introduction to the Annelida: Everybodys favorite, worms. . . UCMP Berkeley. *Center for Annelida Resources. Mark J. Wetzel, ... of Annelida comprises features meaning that the root of the Annelida tree would be placed with taxa from Aciculata. This would ... Annelida is a group commonly referred to as segmented worms, and they are found worldwide from the deepest marine sediments to ...
Annelida mailing list , Post: Annelida from net.bio.net , Help/archive: http://www.bio.net/biomail/listinfo/annelida , ... Annelida] Paradoneis. eduardo.lopez from uam.es via annelida%40net.bio.net (by eduardo.lopez from uam.es). Thu Sep 10 03:12:12 ... More information about the Annelida mailing list. ... Next message: [Annelida] Paradoneis * Messages sorted by: [ ...
... sabrina from yahoo.com Low via annelida%40net.bio.net (by beibi_sabrina from yahoo.com). Sun Feb 22 ... www.bio.net/bionet/mm/annelida/attachments/20090222/a566a57c/attachment.html *Previous message: [Annelida] Control of oogenesis ... More information about the Annelida mailing list. ... Next message: [Annelida] Dried material * Messages sorted by: ... Previous message: [Annelida] Control of oogenesis & vitellogenesis in annelids * ...
PHYLUM ANNELIDA* (The segmented worms; traits from: Nielson 2012 p. 143-4, Ruppert et al. 2004 p. 420, 459, 482 and Brusca and ... 1= ANNELIDA:. a) many similar body segments each bearing a separate coelom** b) simple prostomium & pygidium** c) peristomium: ...
Annelida Lamarck, 1809 References[edit]. *Chipman, A.D. 2008. Annelids step forward. Evolution & development 10(2): 141-142. ... Annelida. Pp. 245-264 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa ... Phylum: Annelida. Classes (3): Clitellata - Polychaeta - ?Archiannelida. Name[edit]. ... Muir, A.I.; Petersen, M.E. 2013: Authorship of some polychaete (Annelida) names derived from the works of Renier and Savigny. ...
Annelida is a group commonly referred to as segmented worms, and they are found worldwide from the deepest marine sediments to ... Through most of the 20th century Annelida was split into three major groups; Polychaeta, Oligochaeta (earthworms etc.) and ... but polychaetes comprise the bulk of the diversity of Annelida and are found in nearly every marine habitat, from intertidal ... has been excluded from Annelida for many years (Newby, 1940). Evidence now suggests they are in fact annelids (Hessling and ...
... T.C. Nxele, S. Lamani, G.J. Measey, A.J. Armstrong, J.D. Plisko, S ... Annelida. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London 168: 554-556. Google Scholar ... Annelida: Oligochaeta, Acanthodrilidae). In : Csudi Cs. & Mahunka S. , eds, Pedozoologica Hungarica, Taxonomic, zoogeographic ... The megadrile fauna (Annelida: Oligochaeta) of Queen Elizabeth Park, South Africa: species composition and distribution within ...
This is a list of the Annelida recorded from Ireland. In Ireland the number of species is: Class Polychaeta 404 species Class ... These groups (and the Annelida) may be monophyletic, paraphyletic or polyphyletic. (Rouse and Pleijel, 2001). 2 species First ...
Annelida Nematoda Details Rapid Fire - Download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online. ... Into which classes is the phylum Annelida divided? The phylum Annelida is divided into three classes: oligochaetes (for example ... Which morphological features differentiate the members of the phylum Annelida from nematodes and platyhelminthes? ... Annelida Nematoda Details Rapid Fire. Uploaded by. Harimohan Thakuriya Jaipur. test paper made by aadhar institute for true ...
On 29 January 2010, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species identified 1 data deficient species in the Annelida phylum ( ...
CliffsNotes study guides are written by real teachers and professors, so no matter what youre studying, CliffsNotes can ease your homework headaches and help you score high on exams. ...
topic,Annelida,/topic,. ,/subject,. ,subject,. ,geographic,North Atlantic Ocean,/geographic,. ,/subject,. ,subject,. ,topic, ... title,Annelida,/title,. ,/titleInfo,. ,name type=personal,. ,namePart,Hansen, G. Armauer (Gerhard Armauer),,/namePart,. , ... TI - Annelida VL - bd.3=v.7 (1882) UR - https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/item/43269 PB - Grøndahl & Søn, CY - Christiana, PY ... title = {Annelida },. volume = {bd.3=v.7 (1882)},. copyright = {NOT_IN_COPYRIGHT},. url = {https://www.biodiversitylibrary.org/ ...
... 11/04/2019. Gil, João; Glasby, C. J; Martin, Daniel. Chapter 12. Phylum Annelida. Class ... Artículo anteriorA new species of Flabelligeridae (Annelida), Trophoniella radesiensis n. sp., from Tunisia ...
Segmented Worms: Phylum Annelida. The worms in the phylum Annelida (from the Latin root word annelus meaning ring) typically ... Worms: Phyla Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, and Annelida NGSS Performance Expectations:. * MS-LS1-3 Use argument supported by ... Segmented worms (phylum Annelida) are the most complex animals with worm-like body plans. A study of worms can illuminate a ... The polychaete worms or "bristleworms" (class Polychaeta) are the largest group in the phylum Annelida. They occur mostly in ...
Tubifex (Annelida) Movies. Commonly known as sewage worms, Tubifex tubifex is a true earthworm (class Oligochaeta), easily ...
Due to the presence of a coelom along with increased size/complexity, annelids developed a circulatory system to transport oxygen, nutrients, and remove waste.. Circulation:. Closed- Circulatory System - Blood is always contained in vessels.. ...
Vår pris 725,-(portofritt). This book is a concise informative elucidation of all aspects of reproduction and development in annelids covering from arenicola to tubifex. Annelids..
... 17/04/2019. Aguado, Mª Teresa; Capa, María; Lago-Barcia, Domingo; Gil ...
Pity the poor worm; struggle for Phylum Annelida survival more complex than previously thought. ...
It includes everything you need to teach a unit on the Phylum Annelida to your life science or biology students. Included are: ... It includes everything you need to teach a unit on the Phylum Annelida to your life science or biology students. Included are: ... Annelida Jeopardy Review Game. Phylum Annelida Quiz or Homework. Test: Segmented Worms - Phylum Annelida. Phylum Annelida ... It includes everything you need to teach a unit on the Phylum Annelida to your life science or biology students. Included are: ...
Keywords: 98139a, annelid, annelida, annelids, black and white, blue, chatae, clitellata, composing, composting, decomposer, ...
The Species 2000/ITIS Catalogue of Life : 2006 Annual Checklist is a comprehensive index of all known plants, animals, fungi and micro-organisms. It can be used to search multiple databases simultaneously for the scientific name of an organism.
Annelida: Siboglinidae) - Volume 94 Issue 7 - Nicholas D. Higgs, Adrian G. Glover, Thomas G. Dahlgren, Craig R. Smith, ... The morphological diversity of Osedax worm borings (Annelida: Siboglinidae). * Nicholas D. Higgs (a1) (a2), Adrian G. Glover ( ... Katz, S., Klepal, W. and Bright, M. (2010) The skin of Osedax (Siboglinidae, Annelida): an ultrastructural investigation of its ... Fujikura, K., Fujiwara, Y. and Kawato, M. (2006) A new species of Osedax (Annelida: Siboglinidae) associated with whale ...
As aquatic members of the class Oligochaeta in the phylum Annelida, aquatic earthworms are not an oxymoron, but rather ... As aquatic members of the class Oligochaeta in the phylum Annelida, aquatic earthworms are not an oxymoron, but rather ...
THE AQUATIC ANNELIDA (CLITELLATA) OF THE COLORADO RIVER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES, GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARK, ARIZONA. This web site ... Annelida: Oligochaeta and Branchiobdellida. Pp. 401-435, In: J.H. Thorp and A.P. Covich, eds. Ecology and classification of ... The Aquatic Annelida of the Colorado River and its tributaries, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. World Wide Web URL: [ http ... Aquatic Annelida occurring in the Colorado River and its tributaries. Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (GCNP)Introduction to ...
Phylum Annelida : True Worms. Class Polychaeta : Bristle worms. Order Phyllodocida. Order Capitellida. Worms are the most important of bait species collected in the UK, by digging on sediment shores. Their exploitation is also completely unregulated, since they are not classified as seafish and do not fall under the scope of fisheries legislation. Class Polychaeta : Bristle worms. This Class is the largest group of worms. All are aquatic and the great majority is marine. A few polychaetes are commensal or parasitic, but most are free-living and include pelagic swimmers, crawling and actively burrowing species, and tube-dwelling species. However, only a very small number of the over 1,000 species which occur in UK waters are sufficiently large, robust, common and easily obtained to be target bait species. Order Phyllodocida. Superfamily Nereidoidea, Family Nereidae : Ragworms. Ragworms are very common errant (free-living) polychaetes all around the British Isles. Nineteen species have been ...
n. (Annelida, Sabellidae) from Okinawa and Ogasawara, Japan, with notes on its ecology. Plazi.org taxonomic treatments database ... n. (Annelida, Sabellidae) from Okinawa and Ogasawara, Japan, with notes on its ecology Dataset homepage ... n. (Annelida, Sabellidae) from Okinawa and Ogasawara, Japan, with notes on its ecology. ZooKeys 660: 1-16, DOI: http://dx.doi. ...
Confocal analysis of nervous system architecture in direct-developing juveniles of Neanthes arenaceodentata (Annelida, ...
Buy Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida (9781578083138): NHBS - Edited By: Greg Rouse and Fredrik Pleijel, Science ... Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida Series: Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny Volume: 4 ... and overview to the current systematics of annelids and provides reviews to broad aspects of reproduction across Annelida. The ...
  • Which morphological features differentiate the members of the phylum Annelida from nematodes and platyhelminthes? (scribd.com)
  • The key innovation found in the species of the phylum Annelida is the coelom, an internal body cavity completely covered by the mesoderm, a feature also present in arthropods, molluscs, echinoderms and chordates. (scribd.com)
  • 4. What morphological characteristic suggests proximity between organisms of the phylum Annelida and arthropods? (scribd.com)
  • 5. How does digestion in organisms of the phylum Annelida take place? (scribd.com)
  • Digestion in organisms of the phylum Annelida is extracellular. (scribd.com)
  • 8. How is the respiratory system of species of the phylum Annelida characterized? (scribd.com)
  • 9. What is meant when it is said that organisms of the phylum Annelida are vascular organisms? (scribd.com)
  • In organisms of the phylum Annelida, the circulatory system is closed, meaning that blood circulation takes place only within specialized vessels. (scribd.com)
  • The blood in organisms of the phylum Annelida contains the respiratory pigment hemoglobin (the same one found in chordates) as well as other pigments. (scribd.com)
  • 13. How can the presence, location and function of muscle tissue in organisms of the phylum Annelida be explained? (scribd.com)
  • On 29 January 2010, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species identified 1 data deficient species in the Annelida phylum (Animalia kingdom). (wikipedia.org)
  • Segmented worms (phylum Annelida) are the most complex animals with worm-like body plans. (hawaii.edu)
  • It includes everything you need to teach a unit on the Phylum Annelida to your life science or biology students. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • This Powerpoint presentation covers the Phylum Annelida, in particular, the earthworms. (teacherspayteachers.com)
  • As aquatic members of the class Oligochaeta in the phylum Annelida , aquatic earthworms are not an oxymoron, but rather relatively pollution-tolerant worms. (fsu.edu)
  • Phylum Annelida In: Atkinson LJ and Sink KJ (eds). (cittadelmonte.info)
  • Phylum Annelida contains the class Polychaeta the polychaetes and the class Oligochaeta the earthworms, leeches, and their relatives. (cittadelmonte.info)
  • Approximately 16, species have been described in phylum Annelida. (cittadelmonte.info)
  • Phylum Annelida = segmented worms-bodies are segmented externally (by rings or annuli) and internally (by septa)-closed circulatory system-body wall with circular and longitudinal muscles-true coelom-complete digestive tract (mouth-pharynx-crop-gizzard-intestine-anus)-most have setae (small, bristle-like structures)-may have parapodia and/or clitellum-know these classes o Class Polychaeta (clamworms) o Class Oligochaeta (earthworms) o Class Hirudinea (leeches). (coursehero.com)
  • Annelida is an ancient phylum that comprises over 16,500 described species. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Annelida phylum consists of the multisegmented wormlike animals. (neoslb.com)
  • There are over 17,000 modern species in the Annelida phylum. (neoslb.com)
  • Classification of Phylum Annelida 4. (neoslb.com)
  • The Annelida phylum is made up of animals with a closed circulatory system. (neoslb.com)
  • The Phylum Annelida is common to the other two phylums of Platyhelminthes and Nematoda in the case that they all are worms. (neoslb.com)
  • Circulatory System: The annelida has a closed circulatory system - it is the first phylum to have this. (neoslb.com)
  • Kingdom Animalia: Phylum Annelida. (aramram.tv)
  • Classification of Phylum Annelida by Rupert & Barnes (1994) Phylum:- Annelida Characters:-(i) The body is metamerically segmented, the division of the body into similar segmented are arranged in a linear series along the anterio posterior axis. (aramram.tv)
  • Members of the Phylum Annelida, known as annelids, are segmented worms found in various habitats, in aquatic and terrestrial environments. (aramram.tv)
  • This phylum Annelida is divided into four main classes on the basis of presence and absence of parapodia, setae, metameres and also other morphological characters. (aramram.tv)
  • 1. Classification of Annelida PHYLUM ANNELIDA (NOTE: Classification with reference to Ruppert and Barnes 6 th edition 1994) Diagnostic Features: Body Triploblastic, Vermiform and Bilaterally Symmetrical. (aramram.tv)
  • Those apart of the Annelida phylum are most commonly referred to as annelids, however they are also known as ringed worms, or segmented worms. (aramram.tv)
  • Annelids belong to the phylum Annelida and they are the diverse group of organisms. (aramram.tv)
  • Phylum annelida 2016 1. (aramram.tv)
  • Phylum Annelida contains earthworms and worm-like creatures that have segmented bodies. (aramram.tv)
  • Classification of annelida : On the basis of position and arrangement of setae when present, absence and presence of sense organ, phylum annelida has been divided into four classes â Class 1. (aramram.tv)
  • Phylum annelida is divided into four classes: Polychaeta, Oligochaeta, Hirudinea and Archiannelida on the basis of habitat, cephalization, organs of locomotion, clitellum, â ¦ Phylum Annelida is divided into three classes. (aramram.tv)
  • Phylum Annelida are worm like animals. (qsstudy.com)
  • The representatives of the phylum Annelida are known as segmented worms or ringed worms. (biologyeducare.com)
  • Phylum - Annelida MCQ with detailed explanation for interview, entrance and competitive exams. (competitive-exam.in)
  • The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus , "little ring"), [2] [a] also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms , are a large phylum , with over 22,000 extant species including ragworms , earthworms , and leeches . (wikipedia.org)
  • 2016). Phylum Annelida: The Segmented (and Some Unsegmented) Worms. (vliz.be)
  • Until recently, Annelida was split into three major groups, each given class rank: Polychaeta (bristleworms), Oligochaeta (earthworms, etc.) and Hirudinea (leeches). (amnh.org)
  • Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellariidae) from shallow water off Tottori, the Sea of Japan. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A new species of the genus Sabellaria Lamarck, 1812 (Annelida: Polychaeta: Sabellariidae), is described from shallow water off Tottori, the Sea of Japan. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Pérez-Losada M, Breinholt JW, Aira M, Domínguez J (2015) An Updated Multilocus Phylogeny of the Lumbricidae (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta) Earthworms. (omicsonline.org)
  • Recent molecular phylogenies show that Annelida may include groups once considered separate phyla (Pogonophora, Echiurida, and Sipunculida) and that Clitellata are derived polychaetes. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Higher level relationships of leeches (Annelida: Clitellata: Euhirudinea) based on morphology and gene sequences. (springer.com)
  • Annelida: Clitellata: Branchiobdellida, Acanthobdellea, Hirudinea. (springer.com)
  • Annelida is a group commonly referred to as segmented worms, and they are found worldwide from the deepest marine sediments to the soils in our city parks and yards. (tolweb.org)
  • 1999). Echiura (spoon worms), at one time regarded as an annelid group (Sedgwick, 1898), has been excluded from Annelida for many years (Newby, 1940). (tolweb.org)
  • The content and activities in this topic will work towards building an understanding of the worms in the phyla Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, and Annelida. (hawaii.edu)
  • Annelida is a diverse group of animals, commonly referred to as segmented worms and currently comprising around 14000 described species. (alibris.com)
  • Annelida are segmented coelomate worms, most of which live in the sea. (coursehero.com)
  • Annelida, the segmented worms (over 16,500 species described), are distributed worldwide from the deepest marine sediments to freshwater and soil habitats. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Annelida, or segmented worms, is a remarkably diverse group described from marine, freshwater and terrestrial environments. (myspecies.info)
  • Annelida traditionally only included polychaetes (bristleworms), oligochaetes (e.g. earthworms) and leeches, but it is now widely accepted that this group also includes other marine worms, including Echiura (spoon worms) and the former phyla, Pogonophora (beard worms) and Vestimentifera (tube worms). (myspecies.info)
  • Annelida, or better known as Ring Worms, can be found in most aquatic environments as well as most terrestrial ones as well. (weebly.com)
  • Annelida are a specific type of worms that include Earthworms, Leeches and Marine worms. (neoslb.com)
  • Annelida (segmented worms) includes groups like Magelonidae , Oweniidae , and Chaetopteridae . (eol.org)
  • Annelida do not include the smooth worms that come to mind when we think of them, but also bristled ones, too. (google.com)
  • Earthworms and leeches are the familiar annelids for most people, but polychaetes comprise the bulk of the diversity of Annelida and are found in nearly every marine habitat, from intertidal algal mats downwards. (tolweb.org)
  • Annelida such as earthworms, leeches, and seaworms. (coursehero.com)
  • Picture Credits: NCERT General Science Basis for Animal Kingdom Classification Classification of Animal Kingdom is based on various fundamental features like - Levels of Organisation, Symmetry, â ¦ Earthworms, nereis, and leeches are the familiar examples of annelida. (aramram.tv)
  • Some Annelida include bristleworms, earthworms, and leeches. (google.com)
  • It presents an introduction and overview to the current systematics of annelids and provides reviews to broad aspects of reproduction across Annelida. (nhbs.com)
  • The position of the group within Metazoa is under discussion, but recent phylogenomic data strongly support a close relationship with annelids or even a grouping of Myzostomida within the errant Annelida. (smartfinindia.com)
  • Jamieson B.G.M. (1982) The ultrastructure of the spermatozoon of Haplotaxis ornamentus (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Haplotaxidae) and its phylogenetic significance. (edu.au)
  • Annelida Oligochaeta General Description. (neoslb.com)
  • Arhynchobdellida (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Hirudinida): phylogenetic relationships and evolution. (springer.com)
  • Freshwater leeches (Annelida: Hirudinea) of North America. (springer.com)
  • 2009. Phylogeny of Annelida (Lophotrochozoa): total-evidence analysis of morphology and six genes. (wikimedia.org)
  • This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Zhang, Yanjie, Rouse, Greg W., Qiu, Jian-Wen (2015): A new species of Mesochaetopterus (Annelida, Chaetopteridae) from Hong Kong, with comments on the phylogeny of the family. (gbif.org)
  • Annelida is one of the major protostome phyla, whose deep phylogeny is very poorly understood. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chad is his 2001-03-05T12:00:00Mailing download Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida and period on late debris to be the censorship that work strategies in sanding DNA mystery, then in stable trials. (the-shindigs.de)
  • Phylogeny and revision of the Erpobdelliformes (Annelida, Arhynchobdellida) from Mexico based on nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences. (springer.com)
  • Phylogenetic relationships within Annelida were analysed on the basis of 93 morphological characters and sequences of six genes ( 18S , 28S , and 16S rRNA , EF1α , H3 , COI ), altogether, 87 terminals of all annelid "families" and 3,903 informative characters, by Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The phylogenetic position of oweniids within Annelida is highly debated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • No attempt has yet been made to analyse simultaneously morphological and molecular information concerning the Annelida as a whole. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Type material of Acanthocephala, Nematoda and other non-helminths phyla (Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016. (wikimedia.org)
  • However, it is somewhat evolved from the Nematoda and Porifera, as many species of Annelida has hearts, and the system is slightly more complex. (neoslb.com)
  • The central nervous system of Oweniidae (Annelida) and its implications for the structure of the ancestral annelid brain. (smartfinindia.com)
  • The morphology and anatomy of the vestimentiferan worm Oasisia alvinae Jones, 1985 (Annelida: Siboglinidae). (deepdyve.com)
  • Both Phyla Mollusca and Annelida are a coelomate organisms. (coursehero.com)
  • Phyla Molluska and Annelida are protostomes and have well-developed systems of nerves, circulation, excretion, reproduction and digestion. (coursehero.com)
  • A recent cladistic analysis of Annelida and other groups has resulted in a new classification of polychaetes (Rouse and Fauchald, 1997), with the group split into two main clades Scolecida and Palpata. (tolweb.org)
  • Classification of Annelida Friday, July 18, 2014. (aramram.tv)
  • This video discusses Kingdom Animalia - Annelida to Echinodermata under Classification of Living Organism. (aramram.tv)
  • Our investigations thereby propose an alternative set of neuroanatomical characteristics for the last common ancestor of Annelida or perhaps even Spiralia. (datadryad.org)
  • Characteristics of Annelida:1)Bilaterally symmetrical and vermiform. (neoslb.com)
  • What Are Main Characteristics of Annelida? (reference.com)
  • Available from: https://search.credoreference.com/content/entry/columency/annelida/0 [Accessed 16 December 2017]. (credoreference.com)
  • Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian analyses of the protein sequences show that Myzostomida, Sipuncula and Annelida (including echiurans and pogonophorans) form a monophyletic group, which supports a closer relationship between Sipuncula and Annelida than with Mollusca, Brachiopoda, and some other lophotrochozoan groups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • While there are many topological similarities between the analyses herein and recent phylogenomic hypotheses, differences include the exclusion of Sipuncula from Annelida and the taxa forming the deepest crown-group divergences. (nih.gov)
  • In the light of current molecular phylogenies, our assumptions on the primary design of the nervous system in Annelida â ¦ The cephalopods are strikingly different in many respects from other molluscan classes. (smartfinindia.com)
  • Although the deep-level evolutionary relationships of Annelida remain poorly understood, we propose the monophyly of the Aciculata, sister-group relationships between the Eunicida and OPC, between the Cirratuliformia and SSC, and possibly also between the "Clitellatomorpha" and Oweniidae-Pogonophora clades. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Annelida - Hirudinea , incl. (pensoft.net)
  • Hirudinea is a fairly small group of Annelida , with about 680 described species, most of which live in freshwater habitats, but several species are (sub)terrestrial or marine. (pensoft.net)
  • The circulatory system of Annelida is designed to transport nutrients from parts of the body to other parts of the body where they are needed. (neoslb.com)
  • A new species of Flabelligeridae (Annelida), Trophoniella radesiensis n. sp. (csic.es)
  • En el presente estudio se informa el hallazgo del oligoqueto Chaetogaster limnaei en el río Illapel, norte de Chile. (scielo.org.mx)
  • Two closely related groups, currently treated as distinct lineages within the Annelida , are the Acanthobdellea (2 species worldwide, of which 1 in Europe) and the Branchiobdellea (about 140 species worldwide, of which 10 in Europe). (pensoft.net)
  • I especially welcome any specimens that you may have collected from aquatic habitats within the GCNP, and your published records of aquatic and terrestrial Annelida from this region. (illinois.edu)
  • Some zoologists consider Archiannelida is a class of Annelida. (biozoomer.com)
  • The Annelida Scratchpad has many potential purposes, with the common aim of documenting the diversity of the Annelida. (myspecies.info)