Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Rivers: Large natural streams of FRESH WATER formed by converging tributaries and which empty into a body of water (lake or ocean).Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Computing Methodologies: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.Hospital-Physician Joint Ventures: A formal financial agreement made between one or more physicians and a hospital to provide ambulatory alternative services to those patients who do not require hospitalization.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Porifera: The phylum of sponges which are sessile, suspension-feeding, multicellular animals that utilize flagellated cells called choanocytes to circulate water. Most are hermaphroditic. They are probably an early evolutionary side branch that gave rise to no other group of animals. Except for about 150 freshwater species, sponges are marine animals. They are a source of ALKALOIDS; STEROLS; and other complex molecules useful in medicine and biological research.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling Information Systems: Computer-based systems for use in personnel management in a facility, e.g., distribution of caregivers with relation to patient needs.Students: Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.Teaching: The educational process of instructing.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Decapoda (Crustacea): The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.North AmericaDental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Chromobacterium: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring in soil and water. Its organisms are generally nonpathogenic, but some species do cause infections of mammals, including humans.Photography: Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.Cedrus: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. It is the source of cedarwood oil. Cedar ordinarily refers to this but also forms part of the name of plants in other genera.Cercaria: The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Eukaryota: One of the three domains of life (the others being BACTERIA and ARCHAEA), also called Eukarya. These are organisms whose cells are enclosed in membranes and possess a nucleus. They comprise almost all multicellular and many unicellular organisms, and are traditionally divided into groups (sometimes called kingdoms) including ANIMALS; PLANTS; FUNGI; and various algae and other taxa that were previously part of the old kingdom Protista.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.Gambling: An activity distinguished primarily by an element of risk in trying to obtain a desired goal, e.g., playing a game of chance for money.Phosphorous Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)BooksEditorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Self-Incompatibility in Flowering Plants: One of many different processes which occur in ANGIOSPERMS by which genetic diversity is maintained while INBREEDING is prevented.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.

Evidence for conservation of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily in Annelida. (1/224)

Annetocin is a structurally and functionally oxytocin-related peptide isolated from the earthworm Eisenia foetida. We present the characterization of the annetocin cDNA. Sequence analyses of the deduced precursor polypeptide revealed that the annetocin precursor is composed of three segments: a signal peptide, an annetocin sequence flanked by a Gly C-terminal amidation signal and a Lys-Arg dibasic processing site, and a neurophysin domain, similar to other oxytocin family precursors. The proannetocin showed 37.4-45.8% amino acid homology to other prohormones. In the neurophysin domain, 14 cysteines and amino acid residues essential for association of a neurophysin with a vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily peptide were conserved, suggesting that the Eisenia neurophysin can bind to annetocin. Furthermore, in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that the annetocin gene is expressed exclusively in neurons of the central nervous system predicted to be involved in regulation of reproductive behavior. These findings confirm that annetocin is a member of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily. This is the first identification of the cDNA encoding the precursor of an invertebrate oxytocin-related peptide and also the first report of the identification of an annelid vasopressin/oxytocin-related precursor.  (+info)

Cytoskeletal mechanisms of ooplasmic segregation in annelid eggs. (2/224)

Annelid embryos are comprised of yolk-deficient animal and yolk-filled vegetal blastomeres. This "unipolar" organization along the animal-vegetal axis (in terms of ooplasmic distribution) is generated via selective segregation of yolk-free, clear cytoplasm to the animal blastomeres. The pathway that leads to the unipolar organization is different between polychaetes and clitellates (i.e., oligochaetes and hirudinidans). In polychaetes, the clear cytoplasm domain, which is established through ooplasmic segregation at the animal side of the egg, is simply cut up by unequal equatorial cleavage. In clitellates, localization of clear cytoplasm to animal blastomeres is preceded by unification of the initially separated polar domains of clear cytoplasm, which result from bipolar ooplasmic segregation. In this article, I have reviewed recent studies on cytoskeletal mechanisms for ooplasmic localization during early annelid development. Annelid eggs accomplish ooplasmic rearrangements through various combinations of three cytoskeletal mechanisms, which are mediated by actin microfilaments, microtubules and mitotic asters, respectively. One of the unique features of annelid eggs isthat a homologous process is driven by distinct cytoskeletal elements. Annelid eggs may provide an intriguing system to investigate not only mechanical aspects of ooplasmic segregation but also evolutionary divergence of cytoskeletal mechanisms that operate in a homologous process.  (+info)

Cell lineage analysis of pattern formation in the Tubifex embryo. I. Segmentation in the mesoderm. (3/224)

Annelids are strongly segmented animals that display a high degree of metamerism in their body plan. The embryonic origin of metameric segmentation was examined in an oligochaete annelid Tubifex using lineage tracers. Segmental organization arises sequentially in the anterior-to-posterior direction along the longitudinal axis of the mesodermal germ band, a coherent column of primary blast cells that are produced from the mesodermal teloblast. Shortly after its birth, each primary blast cell undergoes a spatiotemporally stereotyped sequence of cell divisions to generate three classes of cells (in terms of cell size), which together give rise to a distinct cell cluster. Each cluster is composed of descendants of a single primary blast cell; there is no intermingling of cells between adjacent clusters. Relatively small-sized cells in each cluster become localized at its periphery, and they form coelomic walls including an intersegmental septum to establish individuality of segments. A set of cell ablation experiments showed that these features of mesodermal segmentation are not affected by the absence of the overlying ectodermal germ band. These results suggest that each primary blast cell serves as a founder cell of each mesodermal segment and that the boundary between segments is determined autonomously. It is concluded that the metameric body plan of Tubifex arises from an initially simple organization (i.e., a linear series) of segmental founder cells.  (+info)

Characterization of a new variant DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase unable to methylate double stranded DNA isolated from the marine annelid worm Chaetopterus variopedatus. (4/224)

The enzyme S-adenosylmethionine-DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase has been identified, first time for invertebrates, in embryos of the marine polychaete annelid worm Chaetopterus variopedatus. The molecule has been isolated from embryos at 15 h of development. It is a single peptide of about 200 kDa molecular weight, cross-reacting with antibodies against sea urchin DNA methyltransferase. The enzymatic properties of the molecule are similar to those of Dnmt1 methyltransferases isolated from other organisms, but with the peculiarity to be unable to make 'de novo' methylation on double stranded DNA.  (+info)

MAP kinase, meiosis, and sperm centrosome suppression in Urechis caupo. (5/224)

Although MAP kinase is an important regulatory enzyme in many somatic cells, almost nothing is known about its functions during meiosis, except in frog and mouse oocytes. We investigated MAPK activation and function in oocytes of the marine worm Urechis caupo that are fertilized at meiotic prophase. Activity was first detected at 4-6 min after fertilization in immunoblots with anti-active MAPK, prior to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). MAPK activation did not require new protein synthesis and was dependent on the increases in both intracellular pH and intracellular Ca(2+) that normally occur during activation. When MAPK activation was inhibited with PD98059 or U0126, GVBD still occurred, but meiosis was abnormal and there was a dramatic premature enlargement of sperm asters, which normally do not appear until second polar body formation. Failure of polar body formation and premature sperm aster enlargement also occurred when MAPK activation was inhibited by an entirely different treatment which involved lowering the pH of external seawater to interrupt the normal cytoplasmic pH increase. Thus, in Urechis, active MAPK appears to be required for (1) normal meiotic divisions and (2) suppressing the paternal centrosome until after the egg completes meiosis, a general phenomenon whose mechanism has been unknown.  (+info)

Structure of the iron complex in methemerythrin. (6/224)

The coordination of the ligands about the iron atoms in methemerythrin from Themiste dyscritum has been deduced from a 2.8 A resolution electron density map. The complex can be described in terms of two trigonal antiprisms about the pair of iron atoms in each subunit, the antiprisms having one face in common. Ligands at eight of the nine coordination positions are protein side chains, the ninth presumably being water. Comparison of the electron density map for T. dyscritum methemerythrin with the sequence of Phascolopsis gouldii hemerythrin suggests six aromatic side chain ligands (five histidine and one tyrosine) and two nonaromatic side chain ligands. The latter provide atoms at two of the three vertices of the face shared by the two antiprisms, and these along with the presumed water at the third vertex form bridges between the iron atoms of each pair.  (+info)

Mitochondrial genomes of Galathealinum, Helobdella, and Platynereis: sequence and gene arrangement comparisons indicate that Pogonophora is not a phylum and Annelida and Arthropoda are not sister taxa. (7/224)

We report a contiguous region of more than half (> 7,500 nt) of the mitochondrial genomes for Platynereis dumerii (Annelida: Polychaeta), Helobdella robusta (Annelida: Hirudinida), and Galathealinum brachiosum (Pogonophora: Perviata). The relative arrangements of all 22 genes identified for Helobdella and Galathealinum are identical to one another and to their arrangements in the mtDNA of the previously studied oligochaete annelid Lumbricus. In contrast, Platynereis differs from these taxa in the positions of several tRNA genes and in having two additional tRNA genes (trnC and trnM) and a large noncoding sequence in this region. Comparisons of relative gene arrangements and of the nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences among these and other published taxa provide strong support for an annelid-mollusk clade that excludes arthropods, and for the inclusion of pogonophorans within Annelida, rather than giving them separate phylum status. Gene arrangement comparisons include the first use of a recently described method on previously unpublished data. Although a variety of alternative initiation codons are typically used by mitochondrial protein-encoding genes, ATG appears to be the initiator for all but one reported here. The large noncoding region (1,091 nt) identified in Platynereis has no significant sequence similarity to the noncoding region of Lumbricus, although each contains runs of TA dinucleotides and of homopolymers, which could potentially serve as signaling elements. There is strong bias for synonymous codon usage in Helobdella and especially in Galathealinum. In this latter taxon, 5 codons are completely unused, 13 are used three or fewer times, and G appears at third codon positions in only 26 of the 2,236 codons. Nucleotide composition bias appears to influence amino acid composition of the proteins.  (+info)

Bilaterian origins: significance of new experimental observations. (8/224)

Several recent laboratory observations that bear on the origin of the Bilateria are reviewed and interpreted in light of our set-aside cell theory for bilaterian origins. We first discuss new data concerning the phylogeny of bilaterian phyla. Next, we use systematic, molecular, and paleontological lines of evidence to argue that the latest common ancestor of echinoderms plus hemichordates used a maximal indirect mode of development. Furthermore, the latest common ancestor of molluscs and annelids was also indirectly developing. Finally, we discuss new data on Hox gene expression patterns which suggest that both sea urchins and polychaete annelids use Hox genes in a very similar fashion. Neither utilizes the complete Hox complex in the development of the larva per se, while the Hox complex is expressed in the set-aside cells from which the adult body plan is formed. Our current views on the ancestry of the bilaterians are summarized in phylogenetic terms, incorporating the characters discussed in this paper.  (+info)

*Radiole

Edward E. Ruppert; Richard S. Fox (1988). "Annelida: Segmented Worms". Seashore animals of the Southeast: a guide to common ... Jean Hanson (1949). "Observations on the Branchial Crown of the Serpulidae (Annelida, Polychaeta)". Quarterly Journal of ...

*List of Annelida of Ireland

This is a list of the Annelida recorded from Ireland. In Ireland the number of species is - Class Polychaeta 404 species Class ... The marine Polychaeta are ranked as a Class.These groups (and the Annelida) may be monophyletic, paraphyletic or polyphyletic ...

*IUCN Red List data deficient species (Annelida)

On 29 January 2010, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species identified 1 data deficient species in the Annelida phylum ( ...

*Annelid

doi:10.1111/j.1463-6409.1997.tb00412.x. Rouse, G.W.; Pleijel, F.; McHugh, D. (August 2002). "Annelida. Annelida. Segmented ... The annelids (Annelida, from Latin anellus, "little ring"), also known as the ringed worms or segmented worms, are a large ... ISBN 0-19-551368-1. Siddall, M.E.; Borda, E.; Rouse, G.W. (2004). "Towards a tree of life for Annelida". In Cracraft, J.; ... Ruppert, E.E.; Fox, R.S. & Barnes, R.D. (2004). "Annelida". Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 414-420. ISBN 0-03 ...

*Asexual reproduction

Ruppert, E.E.; Fox, R.S. & Barnes, R.D. (2004). "Annelida". Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 434-441. ISBN 0-03 ... 7. Ruppert, E.E.; Fox, R.S. & Barnes, R.D. (2004). "Annelida". Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 466-469. ISBN 0 ...

*Osedax roseus

Siboglinidae; Annelida)". Biol Bull. Biol Bull. 214: 67-82. doi:10.2307/25066661. PMID 18258777. "Zombie Worms Eating Whale ...

*Erpobdella

Douglas Grant Smith (2001). "Annelida". Pennak's freshwater invertebrates of the United States: Porifera to Crustacea (4th ed ...

*Siboglinidae

CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) Ana Hilário and Marina R. Cunha, On some frenulate species (Annelida: Polychaeta ... and annelida revealed by the amino acid sequence of elongation factor-lα". Journal of Molecular Evolution. 37 (1): 66-70. doi: ... Annelida)". BMC Biol. 7: 74. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-74. PMC 2780999 . PMID 19903327. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list ( ... Annelida): formerly the phyla Pogonophora and Vestimentifera". Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society. 132 (1): 55-80. doi: ...

*Osedax

Siboglinidae; Annelida)". Biological Bulletin. 214: 67-82. doi:10.2307/25066661. PMID 18258777. Vrijenhoek, R. C.; Johnson, S ... Annelida)". Marine Biology. 156 (3): 395-405. doi:10.1007/s00227-008-1091-z. Goffredi, S. K.; Orphan, V. J.; Rouse, G. W.; ... Annelida)". BMC Biology. 7: 74. doi:10.1186/1741-7007-7-74. PMC 2780999 . PMID 19903327. Glover et al. 2005; Dahlgren et al. ...

*Serpula

Rouse GW (2002). "Annelida (Segmented Worms)". Encyclopedia of Life Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. doi:10.1038/npg.els. ... Edward E. Ruppert; Richard S. Fox (1988). "Annelida: Segmented Worms". Seashore animals of the Southeast: a guide to common ... Ruppert EE; Fox RS; Barnes RD (2004). "Annelida". Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks/Cole. pp. 414-420. ISBN 0-03-025982-7. ... ISBN 978-0-03-025982-1. Jean Hanson (1950). "The blood-system in the Serpulimorpha (Annelida, Polychaeta): I. The anatomy of ...

*Janua pagenstecheri

J. D. Fish, Susan Fish (1996). "Annelida". A student's guide to the seashore (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 160-212 ... Vernon A. Harris (1990). "Tube-dwelling worms (Annelida: Polychaeta)". Sessile animals of the sea shore. Springer. pp. 112-122 ...

*Bryozoa

Ruppert, E.E.; Fox, R.S. & Barnes, R.D. (2004). "Annelida". Invertebrate Zoology (7 ed.). Brooks / Cole. pp. 414-420. ISBN 0-03 ...

*Earthworm

An earthworm is a tube-shaped, segmented worm found in the phylum Annelida. Earthworms are commonly found living in soil, ... annelida.net. Retrieved May 15, 2012. "Earthworm species name database". Blakemore, Robert J. (2012). Cosmopolitan Earthworms ... annelida, oligochaeta, hormogastridae)". Mol. Biol. Evol. 30 (7): 1614-29. doi:10.1093/molbev/mst074. PMID 23596327. Bernstein ...

*Taxonomy (biology)

"Zoological nomenclature: a basic guide for non-taxonomist authors". Annelida.net. "Classification". North Carolina State ...

*Acetabulum (morphology)

Annelida, Oligochaeta) suckers". J Morphol. 170 (2): 195-205. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051700206. PMID 7299828. Skírnisson K, Kolářová ...

*Samuel Wooster James

Since January 2011, James has been working on phylogenomic investigation of the evolutionary history of Annelida, as part of ... Annelida: Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae)". Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 110: 337-353. doi:10.2307/3226771 ... James S.W. (1994). "New species of Diplocardia and Argilophilus (Annelida: Oligochaeta: Megascolecidae) from southern ... James, S W (1988). "Diplocardia halbert And Diplocardia rugosa, New Earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta, Megascolecidae) From ...

*Sucker (zoology)

Annelida, Oligochaeta) suckers". J Morphol. 170 (2): 195-205. doi:10.1002/jmor.1051700206. PMID 7299828. Boumis R (2013). " ...

*Sonatsa

"The Annelida Polychaeta". Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 48: 415-418. ...

*Ralph Vary Chamberlin

"The Annelida Polychaeta". Memoirs of the Museum of Comparative Zoology at Harvard College. 31: 1-514, 80 plates. 1919. "The ...

*Tecticornia

distributions as given by Australian Plant Census (2008). Tecticornia annelida K.A.Sheph. & M. Lyons - in Western Australia. ...

*Eulalia clavigera

ISBN 978-1-84797-805-9. Viéitez, José Manuel (2004). Annelida polychaeta I. CSIC Press. pp. 0193-194. ISBN 978-84-00-08294-9. ...

*Worm

This phylum is called Annelida. Among these are the earthworms and the bristle worms of the sea. In earlier taxonomic ... Familiar worms include the earthworms, members of phylum Annelida. Other invertebrate groups may be called worms, especially ...

*MirGeneDB

Annelida • Polychaete worm (Capitella teleta) • Common brandling worm (Eisenia fetida) Fromm, Bastian; Billip, Tyler; Peck, ...

*Marine invertebrates

Annelida, (polychaetes and sea leeches); Brachiopoda, marine animals that have hard "valves" (shells) on the upper and lower ... so they are found in several different phyla such as the Annelida (segmented worms), Chaetognatha (arrow worms), Hemichordata, ...

*Phytobdella catenifera

Annelida: Clitellata, Hirudinea, Euhirudinea. In: Yule, C.M. and H.S. Yong (eds.). Freshwater Invertebrates of the Malaysian ...
The original message was received at Thu, 14 Apr 2011 11:55:43 +0800 from [121.145.152.83] ----- The following addresses had permanent fatal errors ----- ,annelida from net.bio.net, ----- Transcript of session follows ----- ... while talking to net.bio.net.: ,,, RCPT To:,annelida from net.bio.net, ,,, 550 MAILBOX NOT FOUND -------------- next part -------------- A non-text attachment was scrubbed... Name: transcript.zip Type: application/octet-stream Size: 39715 bytes Desc: not available Url : http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/annelida/attachments/20110414/f55ae1b0/transcript.exe ...
University of Vienna. The Impact of Light on Nervous System Function. Recommended Readings:. Empirical Papers. Backfisch, B., Veedin Rajan, V. B., Fischer, R. M., Lohs, C., Arboleda, E., Tessmar-Raible, K., & Raible, F. (2013). Stable transgenesis in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii sheds new light on photoreceptor evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(1), 193-198. doi:10.1073/pnas.1209657109. Fischer, R. M., Fontinha, B. M., Kirchmaier, S., Steger, J., Bloch, S., Inoue, D., … Tessmar-Raible, K. (2013). Co-expression of VAL- and TMT-opsins uncovers ancient photosensory interneurons and motorneurons in the vertebrate brain. PLoS Biology, 11(6), e1001585. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001585. Zantke, J., Ishikawa-Fujiwara, T., Arboleda, E., Lohs, C., Schipany, K., Hallay, N., … Tessmar-Raible, K. (2013). Circadian and circalunar clock interactions in a marine annelid. Cell Reports, 5(1), 99-113. ...
The main way that Annelida, segmented worms, are recognized is by their segmented bodies. They look like little rings put together which is actually the definition of Annelida, "little ring." Annelids have a three-region body consisting of the head, many segments, and the pygidium. The head is located at the anterior end of the body, and is made up of two components, the prostomium, and the peristomonium. The second part of the body, the one that takes up most of the body cavity, is the segments, which are recurring pieces. Each segment resembles a ring, and has a coelom, which is a fluid-filled area. Additionally, each segment contains its own locomotory, respiratory, and excretory structures. The last body region, the pygidium, is located at the posterior end of the body, and is composed of an area in which new segments are created throughout development (AK). The worms range in shape, size, and color they can be as tiny as 1mm to as large as 3m. They live in mostly the sea and in damp soil. A ...
... - Phylum Annelida In: Atkinson LJ and Sink KJ (eds). Field Guide to the Ofshore Marine Invertebrates of South Africa,.
Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida by Barrie G M Jamieson (Editor), Greg Rouse (Editor), Fredrik Pleijel (Editor) starting at $146.75. Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida has 1 available editions to buy at Alibris
These pictures were taking of a silk from the continuous plankton recorder at the MBA - can anyone help with what it is? Is it could be a cast from a polychete? Probably not but I am clueless! Size of the mesh - holes inside are 280 microns, one picture you can see the mesh, the other is zoomed in so the mesh is a frame round the edges. Thanks -------------- next part -------------- A non-text attachment was scrubbed... Name: unknownsilk 1resized.jpg Type: image/jpeg Size: 24462 bytes Desc: not available Url : http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/annelida/attachments/20090416/bf6083c9/unknownsilk1resized.jpg -------------- next part -------------- A non-text attachment was scrubbed... Name: unknownsilk 2resized.jpg Type: image/jpeg Size: 28671 bytes Desc: not available Url : http://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/annelida/attachments/20090416/bf6083c9/unknownsilk2resized.jpg -------------- next part -------------- A non-text attachment was scrubbed... Name: unknownsilk 3 resized.jpg Type: image/jpeg Size: 33510 ...
University of Vienna. The Impact of Light on Nervous System Function. Recommended Readings:. Empirical Papers. Backfisch, B., Veedin Rajan, V. B., Fischer, R. M., Lohs, C., Arboleda, E., Tessmar-Raible, K., & Raible, F. (2013). Stable transgenesis in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii sheds new light on photoreceptor evolution. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 110(1), 193-198. doi:10.1073/pnas.1209657109. Fischer, R. M., Fontinha, B. M., Kirchmaier, S., Steger, J., Bloch, S., Inoue, D., … Tessmar-Raible, K. (2013). Co-expression of VAL- and TMT-opsins uncovers ancient photosensory interneurons and motorneurons in the vertebrate brain. PLoS Biology, 11(6), e1001585. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001585. Zantke, J., Ishikawa-Fujiwara, T., Arboleda, E., Lohs, C., Schipany, K., Hallay, N., … Tessmar-Raible, K. (2013). Circadian and circalunar clock interactions in a marine annelid. Cell Reports, 5(1), 99-113. ...
Cutler, E. B. 1994. The Sipuncula, their systematics, biology, and evolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.. Cutler, E. B. and P. E. Gibbs. 1985. A phylogenetic analysis of higher taxa in the phylum Sipuncula. Systematic Zoology 34:162-173.. Edmonds, S. J. 2000. Phylum Sipuncula. Pages 375-400 in: Polychaetes & Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia, vol. 4A, Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula. P. L. Beesley, G.J.B. Ross, and C.J. Glasby, eds. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.. Ferrier, D. and P. W. H. Holland. 2001. Sipunculan ParaHox genes. Evol. Dev. 3:263-70 Huang, D. Y., J.-Y. Chen, J. Vannier, and J. I. Saiz Salinas. 2004. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 271(1549):1671-1676.. KennetLundin, K. and C.Schander. 2003. Epidermal ciliary ultrastructure of adult and larval sipunculids (Sipunculida). Acta Zoologica 84(2):113-119.. Maxmena, A. B., B. F. King, E. B. Cutler and G. Giribet. ...
Cutler, E. B. 1994. The Sipuncula, their systematics, biology, and evolution. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, NY.. Cutler, E. B. and P. E. Gibbs. 1985. A phylogenetic analysis of higher taxa in the phylum Sipuncula. Systematic Zoology 34:162-173.. Edmonds, S. J. 2000. Phylum Sipuncula. Pages 375-400 in: Polychaetes & Allies: The Southern Synthesis. Fauna of Australia, vol. 4A, Polychaeta, Myzostomida, Pogonophora, Echiura, Sipuncula. P. L. Beesley, G.J.B. Ross, and C.J. Glasby, eds. CSIRO Publishing, Melbourne.. Ferrier, D. and P. W. H. Holland. 2001. Sipunculan ParaHox genes. Evol. Dev. 3:263-70 Huang, D. Y., J.-Y. Chen, J. Vannier, and J. I. Saiz Salinas. 2004. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Series B 271(1549):1671-1676.. KennetLundin, K. and C.Schander. 2003. Epidermal ciliary ultrastructure of adult and larval sipunculids (Sipunculida). Acta Zoologica 84(2):113-119.. Maxmena, A. B., B. F. King, E. B. Cutler and G. Giribet. ...
This dataset contains the digitized treatments in Plazi based on the original journal article Biseswar, Ramlall (2012): Zoogeography of the echiuran fauna of the East Pacific Ocean (Phylum: Echiura). Zootaxa 3479: 69-76, DOI: 10.5281/zenodo.282351 ...
Techniques used by researchers from the Department of Energys Oak Ridge National Laboratory to analyze a simple marine worm and its resident bacteria could accelerate efforts to understand more complex microbial communities such as those found in humans.. In a paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, a multi-institutional research team analyzed the proteins found in a marine worm known as Olavius algarvensis. The worm lacks a digestive system and relies on microbes that live in its body to process its waste and provide energy. Previous research, however, had not untangled the metabolic details of this mutually beneficial, or symbiotic, relationship.. "This community is like the simplest form of the human gut," said coauthor Nathan VerBerkmoes of ORNL. "It is a model system to understand symbiosis.". While some complex microbial communities such as the human gastrointestinal system contain hundreds of thousands of microbes, the marine worm relies on only four to ...
Sub-Class 1: Errantia : Free swimming forms are included. Segments are many and similar. Head shows a prostomium with sensory appendages. Parapodia are well developed with acicula. Ex: Neanthes, Aphrodite, Eunice. Sub-class 2; Sedentaria : Body includes 2 or more regions, which are dissimilar. Prostomium is small. Parapodia are small, without acicula. Pharynx is non-protrusible. Jaws and teeth are also seen. They live in burrows or tubes. Ex: Chaetpterus, Terebella. CLASS II: ARCHIANNEUDA (Gr, Archi, first) It is a minor group including few genera. They are marine worms. They do not show seate or parapodia. Segmentation is internal. They are unisexual or hermaphrodite. Their larval form is a trochophore. Some zoologists consider Archiannelida is a class of Annelida. Ex : Polygardius, Dinophilus. ClASS III: OLIGOCHAETA - U.C Fresh water and terrestrial worms are included. They do not show parapodia. Head is not distinct. Setae are in each segment. Clitellum is present. All are bisexual animals. ...
Background: Annelida is one of the major protostome phyla, whose deep phylogeny is very poorly understood. Recent molecular phylogenies show that Annelida may include groups once considered separate phyla (Pogonophora, Echiurida, and Sipunculida) and that Clitellata are derived polychaetes. The "total-evidence" analyses combining morphological and molecular characters have been published for a few annelid taxa. No attempt has yet been made to analyse simultaneously morphological and molecular information concerning the Annelida as a whole. Results: Phylogenetic relationships within Annelida were analysed on the basis of 93 morphological characters and sequences of six genes (18S, 28S, and 16S rRNA, EF1 alpha, H3, COI), altogether, 87 terminals of all annelid "families" and 3,903 informative characters, by Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods. The analysis of the combined dataset yields the following scheme of relationships: Phyllodocida and Eunicida are monophyletic groups, together probably ...
This complete teaching unit plan contains 8 separate products. It includes everything you need to teach a unit on the Phylum Annelida to your life science or biology students. Included are: 1. A 33 slide powerpoint presentation 2. Notes for the teacher 3.
... are worm like animals. The body segments are rings externally. Internally the segments are seperated by septa. Externally the body is prote
Fauna Europaea provides a public web-service with an index of scientific names (including important synonyms) of all living European land and freshwater animals, their geographical distribution at country level (up to the Urals, excluding the Caucasus region), and some additional information. The Fauna Europaea project covers about 230,000 taxonomic names, including 130,000 accepted species and 14,000 accepted subspecies, which is much more than the originally projected number of 100,000 species. This represents a huge effort by more than 400 contributing specialists throughout Europe and is a unique (standard) reference suitable for many users in science, government, industry, nature conservation and education. Hirudinea is a fairly small group of Annelida, with about 680 described species, most of which live in freshwater habitats, but several species are (sub)terrestrial or marine. In the Fauna Europaea database the taxon is represented by 87 species in 6 families. Two closely related groups,
Lineage tracing at single-cell resolution reveals the presence of mesoteloblasts, the embryonic origin of mesodermal growth zone cells, and diverse cell cycling patterns of these lineages in the Polychaete annelid Platynereis.
Mono- and Stereopictres of 5.0 Angstrom coordination sphere of Mercury atom in PDB 2d2n: Structure Of An Extracellular Giant Hemoglobin of the Gutless Beard Worm Oligobrachia Mashikoi
While the likelihood that molluscs and phoronids lie within the Annelida appears small, a consensus has emerged that at least some of the unsegmented protostome phyla lie near or within the modern diversity of annelids (Halanych et al. 2002; Rouse & Pleijel 2007). In particular, virtually every recent molecular phylogenetic study, including studies using data as diverse as ribosomal DNA, complete mitochondrial genomes and expressed sequence tags, finds Sipuncula nested within what are traditionally considered annelids (Colgan et al. 2006; Hausdorf et al. 2007; Rousset et al. 2007; Struck et al. 2007; Dunn et al. 2008; Xin et al. 2009)-only Mwinyi et al. (2009) found sipunculans outside of what are traditionally considered annelids. But interpreting these results is problematic as no study shows a statistically robust signal-indeed as lamented by Rousset et al. (2007), … resolution remains discouraging: rarely so many taxa have been sequenced for so many nucleotides with such sparing ...
Immunocytochemical data on polychaete neurogenesis remain scarce and are mostly restricted to isolated developmental stages. At present, there are only few studies that document the neuronal differentiation for complete developmental series and they focus on polychaetes with an indirect mode of development [28-31]. The two classical TEM-based studies on species of the Capitellida likewise offer only limited insights. The first is restricted to the 3-setiger larva of Arenicola cristata (Arenicolidae), whereas the second one describes different developmental stages up to metamorphosis in Capitella capitata (Capitellidae) [32, 33]. In both studies the presented ultrastructural data are only superficially interpreted with respect to gross morphology.. One of the most prominent features of trochozoan larvae is the ciliated prototroch and its underlying serotonergic nerve ring. The latter was most likely already present in the last common ancestor of the lophotrochozoans [34, 35]. Although ...
Onuphid polychaetes are tubicolous marine worms commonly reported worldwide from intertidal areas to hadal depths. They often dominate in benthic communities and have economic importance in aquaculture and recreational fishing. Here we report the phylogeny of the family Onuphidae based on the combined analyses of nuclear (18S rDNA) and mitochondrial (16S rDNA) genes. Results of Bayesian and Maximum Likelihood analyses supported the monophyly of Onuphidae and its traditional subdivision into two monophyletic subfamilies: Onuphinae and Hyalinoeciinae. Ten of 22 recognized genera were monophyletic with strong node support; four more genera included in this study were either monotypic or represented by a single species. None of the genera appeared para- or polyphyletic and this indicates a strong congruence between the traditional morphology-based systematics of the family and the newly obtained molecular-based phylogenetic reconstructions. Intergeneric relationships within Hyalinoeciinae were not ...
The central nervous system of annelids typically includes serotonin immunoreactive (SIR) cells, which are putatively associated with motor neurons [17,26-31]. The distribution patterns of these cells vary among species and body regions, and have been suggested to be potentially useful taxonomic traits [17]. Our data on 12 species of naidid annelids show that SIR perikarya distribution patterns in the brain and ventral nerve cord can vary considerably across species and even within individuals, both along the antero-posterior body axis and potentially between developmental stages. Despite this variability, the positions of serotonin-positive perikarya in the ventral nerve cord ganglia show consistent enough patterns to suggest putative homologies both within naidids and between naidids and other clitellate groups.. We found that the number of paired serotonin immunoreactive (SIR) perikarya in the brain varies across naidids. While a single pair of SIR perikarya is the most common arrangement for ...
You dont like worms? Thats a narrow-minded attitude-especially in light of these beautiful marine worms, photographed by Alexander Semenov, posted on Colossal, and called to my attention by several readers (how do you people find these things?). Ive chosen a few for your delectation, but go look at them all. I have no idea what the…
A team of scientists from the University of Tsukuba in Japan found the yellowish primitive marine worm, scientifically known as Xenoturbella, on the seafloor of the western Pacific Ocean.
Rousset, V. et al. 2004: The phylogenetic position of Siboglinidae (Annelida) inferred from 18S rRNA, 28S rRNA and morphological data. Cladistics, 20 (6): 518-533. doi: 10.1111/j.1096-0031.2004.00039.x ...
They have a highly vascularized, red "plume" at the tip of their free end, which is an organ for exchanging compounds with the environment. The tube worm does not have many predators because few creatures live on the sea bottom at such depths. If threatened, the plume may be retracted into the worms protective tube. The plume provides essential nutrients to bacteria living inside a specialized organ within its body as part of a symbiotic relationship. They are remarkable in ...
Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Composting worm (Perionyx excavatus), mouth and prostomium region. Note the setae (chatae) on the segments. Perionyx excavatus is a composting worm in the earthworm family Megascolecidae. It is a commercially produced earthworm used for everyday composting. This species is promoted for its ability to create fine worm castings quickly. It is very popular in North America for composting food product waste. This species belongs to the Perionyx genus which may have its origins in the Himalayan mountains. This species is suited for vermicomposting in tropical and subtropical regions. Magnification x24 when shortest axis printed at 25 millimetres. - Stock Image C037/0484
The immune system of the Nematode worm and how it can help us to manage dangerous infections. Not many people would confess to an admiration for the worm species, and yet a recent study backed by the Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council (BBSRC) has shown that worms are the ultimate gamblers; a type of worm known as a Nematode plays a high-risk game with disease resistance.
Earthworms increase the fertility of soil by physically over turning it. They ingest the soil, break it down and deposit it in the form of casts. The over turned soil is relatively in proportions of total nitrogen, organic carbon, calcium, magnesium and phosphorus ...
Forward and reverse sequences were assembled in Geneious (Biomatters Ltd.), checked for contamination using BLAST [39] and have been deposited in GenBank (see Additional file 2 for accession numbers). Additional sequences of Ampharetidae were downloaded from GenBank and included in the analyses (see Additional file 2). Three sets of alignments were made, one with the complete dataset, and two with subsets of taxa corresponding to clades identified in initial analyses (Clade A and Clade C, see Results) and with Melinna cristata as outgroup. The alignments of Clade A and C were made to reduce the proportion of ambiguously aligned regions, allowing a higher number of positions to be included, and also to save computation time for species tree reconstruction with STACEY (see below).. COI sequences were aligned in Geneious using MUSCLE [40], and 16S, 18S and 28S sequences were aligned using the MAFFT online server [41] and the option for automatic selection of alignment algorithm [42, 43]. The ...
We described a new species, Mesochaetopterus tingkokensis, based on 14 specimens collected from an intertidal area in Hong Kong. This species is large (body length of complete specimens 17.9-24.1 cm), with 9, 2 and 36-41 chaetigers in region A, B and C, respectively. It belongs to a small group of Mesochaetopterus species with an expanded wing-shaped notopodia in chaetiger B2. The new species can be distinguished from other Mesochaetopterus species in this group by having a pair of palps with two longitudinal stripes formed by suture-like discontinuous orange bands, more teeth in the uncini of region B and C neuropodia, and presence of a bundle of simple chaetae in region C notopodia. Comparison with other chaetopterids based on partial cytochrome oxidase I (COI), 18S and 28S rRNA gene sequences confirmed the placement of M. tingkokensis n. sp.within Mesochaetopterus and its distinction from other members of this genus with the available DNA sequences. The phylogenetic tree base on COI showed that
The Biodiversity Heritage Library works collaboratively to make biodiversity literature openly available to the world as part of a global biodiversity community.
The calcareous operculum of Pyrgopolon ctenactis is composed of spherulitic prismatic structures. The opercular cup consists of regular spherulitic prismatic crystals; the talon has two layers, an inner with an irregular spherulitic prismatic structure (150 μm thick) and an outer with a regular spherulitic prismatic structure (110 μm thick). The outer regular structure has thick (1 μm) organic interprismatic sheets unique in biomineralization of this group, but similar to that of Bivalvia. We infer that control over biomineralization is stronger during the formation of the outer regular layer, with its thick organic interprismatic sheets, than during the formation of the inner irregular spherulitic prismatic structure, without such sheets. In Spirobranchus giganteus, opercular formation differs from that of P. ctenactis. S. giganteus has numerous pores in its opercular plate, and calcification starts with the formation of an outer irregularly oriented prismatic structure followed by an ...
Dutch: gelede wormen; ringwormen sources: Eneman, E. (1984). Uit het Natuurhistorisch Archief [From the Natural History Archive]. De Strandvlo 4(1): 4-17;Hayward, P.; Nelson-Smith, A.; Shields, C. (1999). Gids van kust en strand: flora en fauna [Coast and beach guide: flora and fauna]. Tirion: Baarn, Netherlands. ISBN 90-5210-327-5. 352, ill. pp. ...
Gephyrea. 1. History of British Starfishes and other Animals of the Class Echinodermata. Edward Forbes. 1841. 2. Memoire sur lEchiure. Quatrefages. Annales Sci. Nat. 1847. 3. Ueber Thalasse...
Scientist Kristin Tessmar-Raible provided the crucial evidence to support Arendts hypothesis. With the help of EMBL researcher Heidi Snyman, she determined the molecular fingerprint of the cells in the worms brain. She found an opsin, a light-sensitive molecule, in the worm that strikingly resembled the opsin in the vertebrate rods and cones. "When I saw this vertebrate-type molecule active in the cells of the Playtnereis brain - it was clear that these cells and the vertebrate rods and cones shared a molecular fingerprint. This was concrete evidence of common evolutionary origin. We had finally solved one of the big mysteries in human eye evolution ...
additional source Glasby, C.J.; Read, G.B.; Lee, K.E.; Blakemore, R.J.; Fraser, P.M.; Pinder, A.M.; Erséus, C.; Moser, W.E.; Burreson, E.M.; Govedich, F.R.; Davies, R.W.; Dawson, E.W. (2009). Phylum Annelida: bristleworms, earthworms, leeches, in: Gordon, D.P. (Ed.) (2009). New Zealand inventory of biodiversity: 1. Kingdom Animalia: Radiata, Lophotrochozoa, Deuterostomia. pp. 312-358. [details] ...
œsophageal cerebral ganglions, and completeness of the circulation, it has established its claims as a Gasteropod. There are also traces of alliance with some of the inferior classes. The red blood and vermiform configuration of the posterior part of the animal show some of the characters of the Annelida.". Two species of the genus are recognised as British, D. entalis, the Smooth Tusk, and D. Tarentinum, the Grooved Tusk. Of these the former is common around the shores of Scotland and the north of England; the latter on our southern coasts. Though possessing much resemblance to each other, they may be distinguished by the small end of the latter being finely grooved lengthwise, while the former is quite smooth and shining.. ...
noun: any of numerous relatively small elongated soft-bodied animals especially of the phyla Annelida and Chaetognatha and Nematoda and Nemertea and Platyhelminthes; also many insect larvae ...
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CrossRefGoogle ScholarBiggs, B. CrossRefGoogle ScholarBiggs, B. The download Elasticity: Theory, Applications, and Numerics of capture, cycle atmosphere and stock to the sequence study of chruscikach in cccDNA features. longitudinal business Annelida: Clitellata: Tubificidae) from phylogenetic 2008Advances belief. The rate of Brazilian engagement on bromine and pub: A possible service.
no. 3 hartman: polychaetous annelids 185 St. 558-36. Mar. 9, 1936. Off Isla Partida to the south. Dredged, in 20 fms. Gravel and shell. Chloeia viridis Schmarda St. 559-36. Mar. 9, 1936. Off Isla Partida to the south. Dredged, in 45 fms. Sand. Euphrosyne bicirrata Moore Nephthys magellanica Augener Glycera tesselata Grube St. 561-36. Mar. 9, 1936. South of Isla Partida to the south. Dredged, in 40 fms. Coral, sand. Chloeia viridis Schmarda Glycera tesselata Grube St. 563-36. Mar. 10, 1936. South end of Tiburon Island, Gulf of California. Dredged, in 40-55 fms. Muddy sand. Chloeia viridis Schmarda Uncinereis agassizi (Ehlers) St. 567-36. Mar. 11, 1936. Bay, south end of Tiburon Island. Dredged, in 4 fms. Ulva and sand. ?Uncinereis agassizi (Ehlers) St. 576-36. Mar. 13, 1936. Between anchorage and Tortuga Island, south end, Gulf of California. Dredged, in 21 fms. Volcanic sand. Chloeia viridis Schmarda Hesione intertexta Grube St. 577-36. Mar. 13, 1936. Off south end of Tortuga Island. Dredged, in ...
Grygier, M. 2000. Class Myzostomida. Pp. 297-329 in: Beesley, P.L., Ross, G.J.B., and Glasby, C.J. (eds) Polychaetes and Allies: the Southern Synthesis. CSIRO Publishing: Melbourne ...
Protostomia: Protostomia, group of animals-including the arthropods (e.g., insects, crabs), mollusks (clams, snails), annelid worms, and some other groups-classified together largely on the basis of embryological development. The mouth of the Protostomia (proto,
Its occasionally speculated just why life took so long to move out of the blob phase and into multicellularity. Spending over three billion years as blobs seems a little odd considering that the last billion years involved the branching out of multicellular organisms in a a whole myriad of forms and features, from velociraptors to cockroaches to annelid worms to highly specialised bacteria capable of forming complex networks of bacterial hunting packs. My personal opinion is that all that time was needed simply to get the metabolic background necessary for more complex cellular arrangements. Without the biochemical pathways necessary to generate reasonable amounts of energy, cells have severe limitations placed on their abilities. And biochemically, most organisms are remarkably similar. Differences between the eukaryotes, bacteria and archaea maybe, and plants and fungi have a few different bits of metabolic pathways, but otherwise the internal cellular reactions are remarkably conserved. Not ...
Looking for Capitellidae? Find out information about Capitellidae. A family of mud-swallowing annelid worms, sometimes called bloodworms, belonging to the Sedentaria Explanation of Capitellidae
The ability of dramatically altering the material properties, by changing its hierarchical structure starting at the chemical level, offers exciting new opportunities to tune the material, and to build upon the natural material design towards new engineering applications," wrote Markus J. Buehler, the McAfee Professor of Engineering, head of CEE, and senior author of the paper.. The research, recently published in ACS Nano, shows that depending on the ions and pH levels in the environment, the protein material expands and contracts into different geometric patterns. When the conditions change again, the material reverts back to its original shape. This makes it particularly useful for smart composite materials with tunable mechanics and self-powered roboticists that use pH value and ion condition to change the material stiffness or generate functional deformations.. Finding inspiration in the strong, stable jaw of a marine worm. In order to create bio-inspired materials that can be used for soft ...
The ability of dramatically altering the material properties, by changing its hierarchical structure starting at the chemical level, offers exciting new opportunities to tune the material, and to build upon the natural material design towards new engineering applications," wrote Markus J. Buehler, the McAfee Professor of Engineering, head of CEE, and senior author of the paper.. The research, recently published in ACS Nano, shows that depending on the ions and pH levels in the environment, the protein material expands and contracts into different geometric patterns. When the conditions change again, the material reverts back to its original shape. This makes it particularly useful for smart composite materials with tunable mechanics and self-powered roboticists that use pH value and ion condition to change the material stiffness or generate functional deformations.. Finding inspiration in the strong, stable jaw of a marine worm. In order to create bio-inspired materials that can be used for soft ...
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I want to add that these things make it impossible to change what is happening in our K-8 schools. These are the assumptions. To argue against them requires you to say that these people are fundamentally wrong about education. However, they know about Core Knowledge. They just feel perfectly willing to prevent that sort of discussion from reaching the table. These are the same people who want to prevent any of our students from going off to any charter school ...
Life-cycle transitions connecting larval and juvenile stages in metazoans are orchestrated by neuroendocrine signals including neuropeptides and hormones. In marine invertebrate life cycles, which often consist of planktonic larval and benthic adult stages, settlement of the free-swimming larva to the sea floor in response to environmental cues is a key life cycle transition. Settlement is regulated by a specialized sensory-neurosecretory system, the larval apical organ. The neuroendocrine mechanisms through which the apical organ transduces environmental cues into behavioral responses during settlement are not yet understood. Here we show that myoinhibitory peptide (MIP)/allatostatin-B, a pleiotropic neuropeptide widespread among protostomes, regulates larval settlement in the marine annelid Platynereis dumerilii. MIP is expressed in chemosensory-neurosecretory cells in the annelid larval apical organ and signals to its receptor, an orthologue of the Drosophila sex peptide receptor, expressed ...
Annelids are segmented worms that are found worldwide in most habitats, except the aerial and the most arid ones. Earthworms and leeches are the most familiar members of this group; however, most annelid diversity lies within the largely marine polychaetes. Until recently, Annelida was split into three major groups, each given class rank: Polychaeta (bristleworms), Oligochaeta (earthworms, etc.) and Hirudinea (leeches).
Phylum Annelida : True Worms. Class Polychaeta : Bristle worms. Order Phyllodocida. Order Capitellida. Worms are the most important of bait species collected in the UK, by digging on sediment shores. Their exploitation is also completely unregulated, since they are not classified as seafish and do not fall under the scope of fisheries legislation. Class Polychaeta : Bristle worms. This Class is the largest group of worms. All are aquatic and the great majority is marine. A few polychaetes are commensal or parasitic, but most are free-living and include pelagic swimmers, crawling and actively burrowing species, and tube-dwelling species. However, only a very small number of the over 1,000 species which occur in UK waters are sufficiently large, robust, common and easily obtained to be target bait species. Order Phyllodocida. Superfamily Nereidoidea, Family Nereidae : Ragworms. Ragworms are very common errant (free-living) polychaetes all around the British Isles. Nineteen species have been ...
Find the fascicles article Phylogeny of the Megascolecidae and Crassiclitellata (Annelida, Oligochaeta): combined versus artitioned analysis using nuclear (28S) and mitochondrial (12S, 16S) rDNA on the website of Scientific Publications of the Muséum national dHistoire naturelle, Paris
2002 Tzetlin, A. B., Dahlgren, T. G., & G. Purschke. Ultrastructure of the body wall, body cavity, nephridia and spermatozoa in four species of the Chrysopetalidae (Annelida). Zoologischer Anzeiger 241, 37-55. 2000 Dahlgren, T. G., Lundberg, J., Pleijel, F. & P. Sundberg. Morphological and molecular evidence of the phylogeny of Nereidiform polychaetes (Annelida). Journal of Zoological Systematics and Evolutionary Research 38(4): 249-254.. 1998 Pleijel, F. & T. G. Dahlgren. Phylogeny of Phyllodocida and Nereidiformia (Polychaeta, Annelida). Cladistics 14: 129-150.. 1996 Dahlgren, T. G. Two new species of Dysponetus (Polychaeta: Chrysopetalidae) from Italy and Papua New Guinea. Proceedings of the Biological Society of Washington 109 (3): 575-585.. 1995 Dahlgren, T. G. & F. Pleijel. On the generic allocation of Chrysopetalum caecum (Polychaeta: Chrysopetalidae). Mitteilungen aus dem Hamburgischen zoologischen Museum und Institut 92:159-173. ...
Background Vestimentiferan tubeworms are some of the most recognizable fauna found at deep-sea cold seeps, isolated environments where hydrocarbon rich fluids fuel biological communities. Several studies have investigated tubeworm population structure; however, much is still unknown about larval dispersal patterns at Gulf of Mexico (GoM) seeps. As such, researchers have applied microsatellite markers as a measure for documenting the transport of vestimentiferan individuals. In the present study, we investigate the utility of microsatellites to be cross-amplified within the escarpiid clade of seep vestimentiferans, by determining if loci originally developed for Escarpia spp. could be amplified in the GoM seep tubeworm, Seepiophila jonesi. Additionally, we determine if cross-amplified loci can reliably uncover the same signatures of high gene flow seen in a previous investigation of S. jonesi. Methods Seventy-seven S. jonesi individuals were collected from eight seep sites across the upper Louisiana
12$==(two+ clades)=== odd tube-building worms (Chaetopteridae, Oweniidae) , , =====3= Errantia (active, highly mobile marine worms) <<=1=, , , =2=Polychaeta==, =5= bone boring & parasitic Sedentaria (whalebone worms, myzostomids) , , =4=, ==, =6= typical Sedentaria $$ (tube dwelling or burrowing worms) , , =====8============ Oligochaeta (earthworms & relatives) , , =7==, ==10===== Acanthobdellida (primitive leech-like annelids) =====9===, ==11===== Hirudinea (true leeches ...
Ixodes hexagonus Nom binominal Ixodes hexagonus Leach, 1815 Synonymes Pholeoixodes hexagonus (Leach, 1815) Ixodes autumnalis Leach, 1815 Ixodes erinacei Audouin, 1832 Ixodes auricularis Robineau-Desvoidy, 1836 Ixodes sexpunctatus Koch, 1844 Ixodes vulpis Pagenstecher, 1861 Ixodes hexagonus pacata Schulze, 1937 Ixodes hexagonus hungaricus Babos, 1964 Ixodes hexagonus pacata Doss & Anastos, 1977 Ixodes hexagonus rarus Morel & Pérez, 1973 Ixodes hexagonus, la Tique du hérisson, est une espèce de tiques de la famille des Ixodidae. Cette espèce se rencontre en Europe. Cette espèce parasite les Erinaceinae, les Canidae et les Mustelidae et notamment le hérisson commun. Elle est un vecteur de lencéphalite à tiques. Cette espèce a également été trouvée sur le castor fiber (en Pologne), espèce dont le mode de vie est semi-aquatique. Leach, 1815 : A tabular view of the external characters of four classes of animals, which Linné arranged under Insecta; with the distribution of the genera ...
The nightcrawler (Lumbricus terrestris), also known as the lob worm or the common earthworm in Britain and the dew worm in Canada, is a species of earthworm that is classified within the Annelida phylum. It is native to Europe, but has been introduced into other areas around the world. Although the species is not as abundant as other worms in its range, it is a widely known species in gardens of temperate habitats, where it moves about on the surface of the soil.. The nightcrawler can reach an average body length between 7.8 and 9.8 inches and is typically red in color. It burrows under the soil in temporary homes, resurfacing to reproduce and feed, which is an unusual trait for earthworms. This worm will pull leaves into its burrow and wait for them to decay before consuming them. It also consumes feces and dead insects. The average lifespan of this species is unknown, but it is thought to live about eight years in the wild.. The nightcrawler is thought to be a pest in some areas of its ...
1. The blood-system in sabellids of the following genera is described: Sabella, Potamilla, Branchiomma, Dasychone, Amphiglena, Fabricia, Jasmineira, Dialychone, and Myxicola.. 2. The central blood-system of Sabella is typical of the family, but the peripheral blood-system is variable.. 3. The dorsal vessel lacks the valve and muscular sphincter found in some serpulids.. 4. Lateral vessels are present only in Sabella and Dasychone.. 5. The differences and similarities between sabellid and serpulid blood-systems are discussed. Special attention is given to the functions of sub-epidermal and coelomic capillaries and the blood-supply of the body-wall musculature.. ...
The ventral nerve cord in C. teleta has many features characteristic of a ladder-like nerve cord, with segmentally-iterated ganglia, longitudinal connectives between ganglia in adjacent segments, and commissures between each hemiganglion within one segment. Initially the ventral nerve cord in C. teleta has 5 longitudinal connectives (Fig. 11). These appear to fuse into two main bundles in the juvenile, although in the abdominal segments, a thin medial connective (aTUB-LIR) and four outer connectives (5HT-LIR) can still be seen. Thus, C. teleta has the ancestral pattern of five connectives. The exact number of commissures within each ganglion is difficult to discern. There are two pairs of peripheral nerves in the thoracic segments and three pairs of peripheral nerves in the abdominal segments. The numbers of nerves in C. teleta fall within the range seen in other annelids, and this study highlights the advantage of characterizing nervous system architecture during development since the number ...
Background: Members of Family Nereididae have complex neural morphology exemplary of errant polychaetes and are leading research models in the investigation of annelid nervous systems. However, few studies focus on the development of their nervous system morphology. Such data are particularly relevant today, as nereidids are the subjects of a growing body of "evo-devo" work concerning bilaterian nervous systems, and detailed knowledge of their developing neuroanatomy facilitates the interpretation of gene expression analyses. In addition, new data are needed to resolve discrepancies between classic studies of nereidid neuroanatomy. We present a neuroanatomical overview based on acetylated α-tubulin labeling and confocal microscopy for post-embryonic stages of Neanthes arenaceodentata, a direct-developing nereidid. Results: At hatching (2-3 chaetigers), the nervous system has developed much of the complexity of the adult (large brain, circumesophageal connectives, nerve cords, segmental nerves), ...
Journal of Marine Biology is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles as well as review articles in all areas of marine biology.
oligochaete: Any worm of the subclass Oligochaeta (class Clitellata, phylum Annelida). About 3,500 living species are known, the most familiar of which is the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris....
Gel filtration and velocity of sedimentation analyses on native and on lysine- and arginine- modified forms of the annelid worm Chaetopterus variopedatus sperm H1 histone indicate that anion-mediated lysine - arginine interactions play a relevant role in the stabilization of the oligomeric states of the molecule. CD spectroscopy shows that phosphate anions are at least an order of magnitude more efficient than chloride as negatively charged groups connecting H1 lysines and arginines. Acetylation of lysines, although not altering grossly the H1 properties, causes a tenfold decrease of the structuring efficiency of phosphates. This suggests that DNA phosphates may be sandwiched between lysine and arginine groups of H1 histone when this molecule binds to chromatin, constituting a relevant parameter for the reciprocal stabilization of the protein and of the chromatin higher order structures ...
Light micrograph of the planktonic larva of the bristle worm, Eulalia viridis. The spherical body of the larva, known as a trochophore, is encircled by two or three bands of cilia used for feeding and locomotion. The bristle worms (polychaeta) are free-swimming, marine worms of the phylum Annelida (the segmented worms). Each segment of the adult bristle worm has a pair of limb-like outgrowths called parapodia, which are covered with tufts of chitinous bristles or chaetae. Magnification: x160 at 35mm size. - Stock Image Z195/0025
Pinnixa chaetopterana, the tube pea crab, is a small decapod crustacean that lives harmlessly within the tube of the polychaete worm, Chaetopterus variopedatus. P. chaetopterana is a tiny, soft-bodied crab. The bodies of all species of Pinnixa are much wider than they are long. The adults are difficult to distinguish from each other and all live in the tubes or burrows of other invertebrates. The larvae are quite dissimilar to the adults. They spends some time drifting in the zooplankton and there are five zoeal stages. The carapace is caltrop-shaped and has dorsal, rostral and lateral spines. The antennae are limited to a spinous process and a single seta. The length of the dorsal spine is less than 1.5 times the length of the rostral spine. The second and third abdominal somites have dorso-lateral knobs and the fifth somite has lateral knobs that project wing-like over the telson which has a median notch. This crab is found on the western side of the Atlantic Ocean, including Brazil, the Gulf ...
Neural circuitry of a polycystin-mediated hydrodynamic startle response in Platynereis: from genes to ecology. Abstract: Startle responses are widespread in animals and require neural circuitry to control fast whole-body responses. To dissect the genetic and circuit bases of such coordinated whole-body responses we study a startle response to water-born vibrations in a marine larva. We found that upon water vibrations larvae of the annelid Platynereis arrest locomotor cilia, and simultaneously contract the body and elevate all segmental parapodia. The startle response is mediated by collar receptor neurons expressing the polycystin channels PKD1 and PKD2. CRISPR-generated PKD1 and PKD2 mutant larvae do not startle and fall prey to a copepod predator at a higher rate. Reconstruction of the whole-body connectome of collar receptor circuitry revealed parallel feed-forward circuits to ciliary bands and muscles. The wiring diagram suggests circuit mechanisms for the intersegmental and left-right ...
Brinkhurst, R. O. and S. R. Gelder (1991) Annelida: Oligochaeta and Branchiobdellida, In Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates (T. H. Thorp and A. P. Covich, Eds.), Academic Press, New York.. ● Drewes, C. D. (1999) Helical swimming and body reversal behaviors in Lumbriculus variegatus (Family Lumbriculidae). Hydrobiologia 406:263-269.. ● Drewes, C. D. and R. O. Brinkhurst (1990) Giant fibers and rapid escape reflexes in newly hatched aquatic oligochaetes, Lumbriculus variegatus (Family Lumbriculida). Invertebrate Reproduction and Development 17:91-95.. ● Drewes, C. D. (1997) Sublethal effects of environmental toxicants on oligochaete escape reflexes. American Zoologist. 37:346-353.. ● Drewes, C. and K. Cain (1999) As the worm turns: Locomotion in a freshwater oligochaete worm. American Biology Teacher 61:438-442.. ● Drewes, C. D. and C. R. Fourtner (1989) Hindsight and rapid escape in a freshwater oligochaete. Biological Bulletin (Woods Hole) ...
Domain: Eukaryota • Regnum: Animalia • Subregnum: Eumetazoa • Cladus: Bilateria • Superphylum: Protostomia • Phylum: Annelida • Classis: Polychaeta • Subclassis: Canalipalpata • Subordo: Sabellida • Familia: Serpulidae Johnston, 1865 ...
There are about 35 phyla of animals that are classified by scientist. The ten well known phyla are Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterata, Platyhelminths, Nemathelminths, Annelida, Echinodermata, Mollusk, Arthropoda and Chordata.
KINGDOM ANIMALIA. Fun stuff!!. ANIMALIA : 9 MAIN PHYLA. Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminths Nematoda Annelida Mollusca Arthropoda Echinodermata Chordata. 3 GERM OR CELL LAYERS. Ectoderm - outer layer cover Mesoderm - Muscle & organ layer Endoderm - Digestive tract....
PRESENTATIONS. "A new look at an old medical tool: Leech diversity, bacteriology and anticoagulants" - Columbia University New York/Presbyterian Hospital - May 16th 2006. "Phylogeny of Glossiphoniid leeches, their endosymbiotic bacteria and implications for understanding the history of bloodfeeding-related bacterial symbionts" Hennig Meeting Paris July 2004. "A Tree of Life for the Annelida" International Meeting on Evolution, Development and Neurobiology of the Leech Lille October 2004. "Glossiphoniidae and their Endosymbionts" International Meeting on Evolution, Development and Neurobiology of the Leech Lille October 2004. "Symbioses bact riennes des sangsues" Mus um national dHistoire Naturelle, Paris (March 25, 2004). "Phylogeny of Leeches and Historical Insights on Bacterial Symbioses" North Eastern Association of Parasitologists, Connecticut, (November 22, 2003). "Leeches and the evolution of anticoagulants" CUNY, New York (September 22, 2003). "Assessment of coevolution in the context of ...
Again there is no shortage of candidates; among animals, Ive knowingly eaten from eight phyla (Cnidaria, Uniramia, Chelicerata, Crustacea, Mollusca, Annelida, Echinodermata, & Chordata). Unknowingly, who knows... Id have to guess at least half of the phyla. The most recent unusual organism was a jellyfish. How was it? Kind of like chewy noodles ...
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Dorsal spines (total): 2; Dorsal soft rays (total): 34-39; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 28 - 35. Greyish brown to yellowish brown with about 12 vertical dark brown bars; lips whitish; male adults with orange peduncle spines; soft dorsal, anal and pectoral fins pale yellowish; caudal fin orange with dusky rays (Ref. 4421). Sexually dimorphic with males having longer and deeper orange peduncular spines and deeper orange tail and eyes (Ref. 37816). ...
Protostomes are often considered a paraphyletic assemblage of worm-like animals characterized by the presence of a dorsal (or circumoesophageal) brain connected to a ventral longitudinal nerve cord often paired. Developmental characters such as the fate of the blastopore-which often becomes at least the adult mouth-and the mode of mesoderm formation are typical but not enough for diagnosing the clade (Nielsen 2001). The proposal of acoels and nemertodermatids as basal bilaterian members (Ruiz-Trillo et al. 1999, 2002; Jondelius et al. 2002; but see Philippe et al. 2007), preceding the split of protostomes and deuterostomes, renders protostomes paraphyletic. However, neither nemertodermatids nor acoels have a ventral nerve cord (e.g. Raikova et al. 2004a,b). The mode of mesoderm formation known in acoels (e.g. Henry et al. 2000; not known in nemertodermatids) differs from that of other bilaterians. Finally, the fate of the blastopore has not been described in either acoels (Boyer 1971; Henry et ...
Looking for Australian Eunicid? Find out information about Australian Eunicid. A family of polychaete annelids in the superfamily Eunicea having characteristic pharyngeal armature consisting of maxillae and mandibles Explanation of Australian Eunicid
Im interested in the functional morphology and evolution of embryos and larvae of marine invertebrates, especially annelids. Annelid larvae are unusually diverse in form and function (relative to members of most of most other phyla), and provide an interesting comparative system for exploring hypotheses on the evolution of larval traits. Recent work on annelid larvae in my lab has involved describing vestigial feeding structures in the nonfeeding larvae of some sabellids, describing the unusual feeding mechanism of the larvae of pectinariids, and clarifying the nutritional biology and development of larvae of the poecilogonous spionid Streblospio benedicti (recently-released larvae of S. benedicti that developed from small [left] or large eggs [right] are shown above). Some students in my lab work on annelid larvae, but others use a variety of tools to address diverse topics in invertebrate biology, including such things as variation in maternal provisioning and larval chemical defenses in ...
Siveter et al. [1] recently described a new putative megacheiran arthropod, Enalikter aphson, from the Silurian Herefordshire Lagerstätte and discussed its impact on arthropod phylogeny and the survival of megacheirans beyond the Cambrian Period.. In this comment, we should like to suggest an alternative interpretation of the new fossil. We think that the evidence for arthropod affinities of E. aphson is not compelling, and we argue that all features of this species are more compatible with an annelid affinity of E. aphson. Accordingly, the supposed impact of E. aphson on arthropod phylogeny and longevity of early megacheirans is questioned.. The body of E. aphson is composed of segments that bear appendages, some of which are interpreted as biramous or multiramous. The segments lack a well-delineated tergite on the dorsal side; as pointed out by Siveter et al. [1] tergo-pleurae are also not visible in the material. Siveter et al. [1] identify a dome-like tergite on the dorsal side of the ...
NO. 3 HARTMAN I POLYCHAETOUS ANNELIDS 327 californica (p. 349) and Sabellaria cementarium (p. 340), agree on the whole with those of S. alveolata described by Wilson (1929, pp. 221-270). The eggs of P. californica are purple in mass and measure about 70 /a in diameter; those of S. cementarium are deep pink in mass and somewhat smaller. They are covered by a thin membrane, hardly visible even after fertilization. In P. californica swimming larvae develop about 12 hours after fertilization, and in 24 hours the typical parts of the trochophore are visible. The prototroch is well developed, but incomplete middorsally; the telotroch is weak, and apical cilia are few. After 2 days the larva has acquired about 5 pairs of long, spinose, natatory setae, and the alimentary tract is clearly visible because of its long, beating cilia and the large, humped, gastric portion. After 2 or 3 days a characteristic color pattern appears, consists of widely spaced, yellow-brown, epithelial cells (pi. 29, fig. 15), ...
A new material that naturally adapts to changing environments was inspired by the strength, stability, and mechanical performance of the jaw of a marine worm. The protein material, which was designed and modeled by researchers ...
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Assessment of polychaete phylogeny based on combined morphological and molecular data. Polychaete phylogeny is currently in a state of flux, but we are (hopefully) on our way to resolve the relationships among the major clades of polychaetes and annelids. My work is concentrated on the relationships within aciculate ("errant") polychaetes, a group that includes around 5.000 species worldwide, together with more detailed studies and revisions of aciculate subgroups, mainly Hesionidae (see http://tolweb.org/Hesionidae/22789) and Phyllodocidae. Other interests include biological nomenclature and the PhyloCode (an alternative taxonomic naming system to the current, Linnaean one; see http://www.ohiou.edu/phylocode/) and to develop identification literature. "Worms" in general does not appeal much to layman (except possibly as bait), at least not from an aestethical point of view, but by means of photography of live animals and electron microscopy I attempt to document the underestimated beauty of ...
Considerable knowledge of the ontogeny of the endocrine pancreas has been gained in recent years, mainly through the use of two complementary genetic approaches in transgenic mice: gene inactivation...
Use the "Printable HTML" button to get a clean page, in either HTML or PDF, that you can use your browsers print button to print. This page wont have buttons or ads, just your puzzle. The PDF format allows the web site to know how large a printer page is, and the fonts are scaled to fill the page. The PDF takes awhile to generate. Dont panic! ...
Animal Development: Were Just Tubes - Crash Course Biology #16, Biology Protostomes vs Deuterostome, Biology 2, Lecture 11: Protostomes, Protostomes vs Deuterostomes| Animal Body Plans-Cell Agregate,Blind Sac,Tube within Tube|
Linnaeus, C. 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturæ, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis, Tomus I. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiæ: impensis direct. Laurentii Salvii. i-ii, 1-824 pp doi: 10.5962/bhl.title.542: page 212. ...
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During mating, two earthworms exchange sperm. Earthworms are hermaphrodites, meaning they have both male and female sex organs, and they produce both sperm and...
The earthworm model will be part of the lab practical. There are specific parts to its anatomy that must be studied. I am able to show you the labels in the pictures of the earthworm model. It is recommended that you view the earthworm model before seeing the pictures, just so that you will get an idea of what you are looking at. Also study your drawings in the lab manual. It might come in handy ...
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Based on published and unpublished material the present study is the first comprehensive work covering all scale worms (Aphroditoidea) currently known to occur in the Mediterranean Sea. In total 66 species representing 38 genera are confirmed, described, shown in detail and taxonomical problems discussed. The aphroditoidean fauna of the Mediterranean Sea comprises the following confirmed number of species: 41 Polynoidae, 11 Sigalionidae, 5 Aphroditidae, 5 Acoetidae, 2 Eulepethidae, and 2 Pholoidae. Identification keys to all species occurring in the Mediterranean and to those of the East Atlantic and the northern part of the Read Sea are provided. In the course of this study three new species, i. e. Harmothoe bellani Barnich & Fiege, 200, Malmgreniella polypapillata Barnich & Fiege, 2001, Eunoe tuerkayi n. sp., and a new genus, Neolagisca Barnich & Fiege, 200 are described and 17 new records of species formerly known from the Atlantic and the Red Sea are reported. Together these two groups ...
Annelid erythrocruorins are highly cooperative extracellular respiratory proteins with molecular masses on the order of 3.6 million Daltons. We report here the 3.5 A crystal structure of erythrocruorin from the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris. This structure reveals details of symmetrical and quasi-symmetrical interactions that dictate the self-limited assembly of 144 hemoglobin and 36 linker subunits. The linker subunits assemble into a core complex with D(6) symmetry onto which 12 hemoglobin dodecamers bind to form the entire complex. Although the three unique linker subunits share structural similarity, their interactions with each other and the hemoglobin subunits display striking diversity. The observed diversity includes design features that have been incorporated into the linker subunits and may be critical for efficient assembly of large quantities of this complex respiratory protein.
Hediste diversicolor and other important characterizing species are adapted to living within the intertidal zone where temperatures fluctuate. Some resistance to temperature fluctuations is achieved by burying within the sediment, which buffers against acute temperature changes over the tidal cycle.. The geographic range of Hediste diversicolor (throughout north-west Europe on the Baltic Sea, North Sea and along Atlantic coasts to the Mediterranean) suggests that it is tolerant of a range of temperatures and a temperature increase at benchmark levels is unlikely to have an adverse effect on UK populations. Hediste diversicolor can tolerate temperatures from below zero under Baltic ice to high summer temperatures in Black Sea lagoons (>25°C) (Smith, 1977).. Hediste diversicolor were not strongly affected by heat waves in an estuary in north western Portugal, where temperatures reached 40°C in intertidal pools (higher temperatures than experienced around UK and Irish coasts) (Dolbeth et al., ...
The Fox genes encode a group of transcription factors that contain a forkhead domain, which forms a structure known as a winged helix. These transcription factors play a crucial role in several key biological processes, including development. High-degree identity in the canonical forkhead domain has been used to divide Fox proteins into 23 families (FoxA to FoxS). We surveyed the genome of three spiralians, the oyster Crassostrea gigas, the limpet Lottia gigantea, and the annelid Capitella teleta. We identified 25 C. gigas fox genes, 21 L. gigantea fox genes, and 25 C. teleta fox genes. The C. gigas fox and L. gigantea fox genes represented 19 of the 23 families, whereas FoxI, Q1, R, and S were missing. The majority of the Fox families were observed within the C. teleta fox genes, with the exception of FoxR and S. In addition, the foxAB-like gene, foxY-like gene, and foxH gene were also present in the three genomes. The conserved FoxC-FoxL1 cluster, observed in mammals, was also found in C. ...
Acanthodii (8) Acanthomorpha (17) Acanthomorphata (7) Acaromorpha (17) Acoela (2) Actinopteri (15) Actinopterygii (13) Aculeata (15) Adephaga (3) Aequorlitornithes (1) Aetogate (2) Alismatanae (4) Alveolata (13) Ammonoidea (2) Amoebozoa (9) Amorphea (4) Anabantiformes (1) Angiospermae (32) Anguilliformes (1) Angusteradulata (2) Animalia (102) Annelida (11) Anomalogonatae (16) Antliophora (14) Anystides (1) Anystina (1) Apo-Tracheophyta (1) Apocrita (26) Apoditrysia (1) Apoidea (4) Apotracheophyta (7) Arachnida (76) Araneae (18) Araneomorphae (17) Archaea (3) Archaeobranchia (1) Archaeognatha (1) Archosauria (10) Archosauromorpha (9) Archostemata (2) Arthropoda (50) Ascomycota (11) Asioryctitheria (39) Asparagales (6) Assamioidea (1) Asteiidae (1) Asteridae (14) Astigmata (1) Australosphenida (1) Austrochiloidea (1) Autolamellibranchia (2) Aves (27) Avialae (13) Bacteria (3) Basidiomycota (7) Bibionomorpha (2) Bilateria (122) Bivalvia (7) Blastozoa (2) book review (1) Boreoeutheria (2) ...
1. Tuliskan klasifikasi dari: a. Planaria sp b. Fasciola hepatica c. Taenia solium d. Taenia Saginata e. Ascaris lumbricoides f. Lumbricus teretris g. Hirudo medicinalis 2. Buatlah skema siklus hidup dari Taenia saginata 3. Apa perbedaan dari filum Platyhelminthes, nemathelmintes, dan annelida dari morfologinya 4. Gambarkan morfologi dari ascaris lumbricoides jantan dan betina serta perbedaannya…
Preface Section 1The Single-celled Animal Parasites 1 Subkingdom Protozoa/Phylum Sarcomastigophora/Phylum Apicomplexa/Phylum Myxozoa/Phylum Microspora/Phylum Ciliophora Section 2Helminths 2 Phylum Platyhelminthes/Turbellaria/Monogenea/Trematoda 3 Class Cestoidea (Cestodaria and Eucestoda) 4 Phylum Acanthocephala 5 Phylum Nematoda/Enoplida/Rhabditida/Strongylida/Ascaridida/Oxyurida/Spirurida 6 Phylum Nematomorpha 7 Phylum Annelida Section 3Phylum Arthropoda 8 Subphylum Crustacea 9 Order Acari 10 Class Insecta 11 Lice (Anoplura and Mallophaga) 12 Order Diptera 13 Order Hemiptera 14 Phylum Pentastomida Section 4Laboratory Techniques 15 Technique Procedures Appendixes 1: Reagents and Solutions 2: Some Vertebrate Diseases and Infections, together with the Arthropods Important in Their Transmission 3: Life Cycle Laboratory Exercises IndexMurray Dailey is the author of Meyer, Olsen & Schmidts Essentials of Parasitology, published 1996 under ISBN 9780697159830 and ISBN 0697159833. [read more] ...
Apex Biotech Ltd. je jedna z popredných Čína tribulus terrestris extrakt výrobcu vybavený profesionálny továreň, Vitajte na veľkoobchodná Tribulus Terrestris extrakt tribulus terrestris saponíny, tribulus terrestris prášok, gmp tribulus terrestris extrakt, extrakt Tribulus prášok, tribulus terrestris extrakt gnc od nás.

Lumbriculus variegatusLumbriculus variegatus

Brinkhurst, R. O. and S. R. Gelder (1991) Annelida: Oligochaeta and Branchiobdellida, In Ecology and Classification of North ...
more infohttp://www.eeob.iastate.edu/faculty/DrewesC/htdocs/Lvgen4.htm

AnnelidaAnnelida

Until recently, Annelida was split into three major groups, each given class rank: Polychaeta (bristleworms), Oligochaeta ( ... Until recently, Annelida was split into three major groups, each given class rank: Polychaeta (bristleworms), Oligochaeta ( ...
more infohttps://www.amnh.org/our-research/invertebrate-zoology/collections/annelida

List of Annelida of Ireland - WikipediaList of Annelida of Ireland - Wikipedia

This is a list of the Annelida recorded from Ireland. In Ireland the number of species is - Class Polychaeta 404 species Class ... The marine Polychaeta are ranked as a Class.These groups (and the Annelida) may be monophyletic, paraphyletic or polyphyletic ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Annelida_of_Ireland

AnnelidaAnnelida

Synapomorphies of Annelida. The monophyly of Annelida is not well supported and only two morphological features are worthy of ... Introduction to the Annelida: Everybodys favorite, worms. . . UCMP Berkeley. *Center for Annelida Resources. Mark J. Wetzel, ... of Annelida comprises features meaning that the root of the Annelida tree would be placed with taxa from Aciculata. This would ... Annelida is a group commonly referred to as segmented worms, and they are found worldwide from the deepest marine sediments to ...
more infohttp://www.tolweb.org/Annelida

AnnelidaAnnelida

Synapomorphies of Annelida. The monophyly of Annelida is not well supported and only two morphological features are worthy of ... Introduction to the Annelida: Everybodys favorite, worms. . . UCMP Berkeley. *Center for Annelida Resources. Mark J. Wetzel, ... of Annelida comprises features meaning that the root of the Annelida tree would be placed with taxa from Aciculata. This would ... Annelida is a group commonly referred to as segmented worms, and they are found worldwide from the deepest marine sediments to ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Spionida

AnnelidaAnnelida

Synapomorphies of Annelida. The monophyly of Annelida is not well supported and only two morphological features are worthy of ... Introduction to the Annelida: Everybodys favorite, worms. . . UCMP Berkeley. *Center for Annelida Resources. Mark J. Wetzel, ... of Annelida comprises features meaning that the root of the Annelida tree would be placed with taxa from Aciculata. This would ... Annelida is a group commonly referred to as segmented worms, and they are found worldwide from the deepest marine sediments to ...
more infohttp://tolweb.org/Scolecida

IUCN Red List data deficient species (Annelida) - WikipediaIUCN Red List data deficient species (Annelida) - Wikipedia

On 29 January 2010, the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species identified 1 data deficient species in the Annelida phylum ( ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IUCN_Red_List_data_deficient_species_(Annelida)

Annelida] ParadoneisAnnelida] Paradoneis

Annelida mailing list , Post: Annelida from net.bio.net , Help/archive: http://www.bio.net/biomail/listinfo/annelida , ... Annelida] Paradoneis. eduardo.lopez from uam.es via annelida%40net.bio.net (by eduardo.lopez from uam.es). Thu Sep 10 03:12:12 ... More information about the Annelida mailing list. ... Next message: [Annelida] Paradoneis * Messages sorted by: [ ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/annelida/2009-September/003274.html

Annelida] devonian spirorbidsAnnelida] devonian 'spirorbids

Annelida] devonian spirorbids. H.A. ten Hove via annelida%40net.bio.net (by hove At science.uva.nl). Sat Nov 4 06:11:25 EST ... More information about the Annelida mailing list. Send comments to us at biosci-help [At] net.bio.net ... Annelida) inferred from molecular and morphological data. Zoologica Scripta, 35, 5, September 2006, pp.421 439), making a ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/hypermail/annelida/2006-November/002637.html

Annelida - WikispeciesAnnelida - Wikispecies

Annelida Lamarck, 1809 References[edit]. *Chipman, A.D. 2008. Annelids step forward. Evolution & development 10(2): 141-142. ... Annelida. Pp. 245-264 in: Zhang, Z.-Q. & Shear, W.A. (eds.) Linnaeus tercentenary: progress in invertebrate taxonomy. Zootaxa ... Phylum: Annelida. Classes (3): Clitellata - Polychaeta - ?Archiannelida. Name[edit]. ... Muir, A.I.; Petersen, M.E. 2013: Authorship of some polychaete (Annelida) names derived from the works of Renier and Savigny. ...
more infohttps://species.wikimedia.org/wiki/Annelida

Z250 - Annelida Clade (2017)Z250 - Annelida Clade (2017)

PHYLUM ANNELIDA* (The segmented worms; traits from: Nielson 2012 p. 143-4, Ruppert et al. 2004 p. 420, 459, 482 and Brusca and ... 1= ANNELIDA:. a) many similar body segments each bearing a separate coelom** b) simple prostomium & pygidium** c) peristomium: ...
more infohttp://www.biology.ualberta.ca/courses.hp/zool250/Clades/clade09-Annelida.htm

Segmented Worms - Annelida - Overview - Encyclopedia of LifeSegmented Worms - Annelida - Overview - Encyclopedia of Life

Annelida is a group commonly referred to as segmented worms, and they are found worldwide from the deepest marine sediments to ... Through most of the 20th century Annelida was split into three major groups; Polychaeta, Oligochaeta (earthworms etc.) and ... but polychaetes comprise the bulk of the diversity of Annelida and are found in nearly every marine habitat, from intertidal ... has been excluded from Annelida for many years (Newby, 1940). Evidence now suggests they are in fact annelids (Hessling and ...
more infohttp://eol.org/pages/36/overview

Annelida Nematoda Details Rapid Fire | Diarrhea | Circulatory SystemAnnelida Nematoda Details Rapid Fire | Diarrhea | Circulatory System

Annelida Nematoda Details Rapid Fire - Download as Word Doc (.doc / .docx), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or read online. ... Into which classes is the phylum Annelida divided? The phylum Annelida is divided into three classes: oligochaetes (for example ... Which morphological features differentiate the members of the phylum Annelida from nematodes and platyhelminthes? ... Annelida Nematoda Details Rapid Fire. Uploaded by. Harimohan Thakuriya Jaipur. test paper made by aadhar institute for true ...
more infohttps://www.scribd.com/document/357470430/Annelida-Nematoda-Details-Rapid-Fire

Worms: Phyla Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, and Annelida | manoa.hawaii.edu/ExploringOurFluidEarthWorms: Phyla Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, and Annelida | manoa.hawaii.edu/ExploringOurFluidEarth

Segmented Worms: Phylum Annelida. The worms in the phylum Annelida (from the Latin root word annelus meaning ring) typically ... Worms: Phyla Platyhelmintes, Nematoda, and Annelida NGSS Performance Expectations:. * MS-LS1-3 Use argument supported by ... Segmented worms (phylum Annelida) are the most complex animals with worm-like body plans. A study of worms can illuminate a ... The polychaete worms or "bristleworms" (class Polychaeta) are the largest group in the phylum Annelida. They occur mostly in ...
more infohttps://manoa.hawaii.edu/exploringourfluidearth/biological/invertebrates/worms-phyla-platyhelmintes-nematoda-and-annelida

Earthworm Phylum Annelida Bundle by Amy Brown Science | TpTEarthworm Phylum Annelida Bundle by Amy Brown Science | TpT

It includes everything you need to teach a unit on the Phylum Annelida to your life science or biology students. Included are: ... It includes everything you need to teach a unit on the Phylum Annelida to your life science or biology students. Included are: ... Annelida Jeopardy Review Game. Phylum Annelida Quiz or Homework. Test: Segmented Worms - Phylum Annelida. Phylum Annelida ... It includes everything you need to teach a unit on the Phylum Annelida to your life science or biology students. Included are: ...
more infohttps://www.teacherspayteachers.com/Product/Earthworm-Phylum-Annelida-Bundle-162283

Annelida - target species for bait collectionAnnelida - target species for bait collection

Phylum Annelida : True Worms. Class Polychaeta : Bristle worms. Order Phyllodocida. Order Capitellida. Worms are the most important of bait species collected in the UK, by digging on sediment shores. Their exploitation is also completely unregulated, since they are not classified as seafish and do not fall under the scope of fisheries legislation. Class Polychaeta : Bristle worms. This Class is the largest group of worms. All are aquatic and the great majority is marine. A few polychaetes are commensal or parasitic, but most are free-living and include pelagic swimmers, crawling and actively burrowing species, and tube-dwelling species. However, only a very small number of the over 1,000 species which occur in UK waters are sufficiently large, robust, common and easily obtained to be target bait species. Order Phyllodocida. Superfamily Nereidoidea, Family Nereidae : Ragworms. Ragworms are very common errant (free-living) polychaetes all around the British Isles. Nineteen species have been ...
more infohttp://www.ukmarinesac.org.uk/activities/bait-collection/bc9_1.htm

PHYLUM ANNELIDA PDFPHYLUM ANNELIDA PDF

Phylum Annelida In: Atkinson LJ and Sink KJ (eds). Field Guide to the Ofshore Marine Invertebrates of South Africa,. ... Phylum Annelida Phylum Annelida contains the class Polychaeta the polychaetes and the class Oligochaeta the earthworms, leeches ... Approximately 16, species have been described in phylum Annelida.. Phylum Annelida: General Characteristics and Classification ... Phylum Annelida In: Atkinson LJ and Sink KJ (eds). Field Guide to the Ofshore Marine Invertebrates of South Africa,. Malachite ...
more infohttp://cittadelmonte.info/politics/phylum-annelida-pdf-4612.php

Detritus worm (Class Annelida), SEM - Stock Image C037/0484 - Science Photo LibraryDetritus worm (Class Annelida), SEM - Stock Image C037/0484 - Science Photo Library

Keywords: 98139a, annelid, annelida, annelids, black and white, blue, chatae, clitellata, composing, composting, decomposer, ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/874346/view

Illinois Natural History Survey Annelida of the Colorado RiverIllinois Natural History Survey Annelida of the Colorado River

THE AQUATIC ANNELIDA (CLITELLATA) OF THE COLORADO RIVER AND ITS TRIBUTARIES, GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARK, ARIZONA. This web site ... Annelida: Oligochaeta and Branchiobdellida. Pp. 401-435, In: J.H. Thorp and A.P. Covich, eds. Ecology and classification of ... The Aquatic Annelida of the Colorado River and its tributaries, Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona. World Wide Web URL: [ http ... Aquatic Annelida occurring in the Colorado River and its tributaries. Grand Canyon National Park, Arizona (GCNP)Introduction to ...
more infohttps://www.inhs.illinois.edu/people/mjwetzel/gcnp/

Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida | NHBS Academic & Professional BooksReproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida | NHBS Academic & Professional Books

Buy Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida (9781578083138): NHBS - Edited By: Greg Rouse and Fredrik Pleijel, Science ... Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny of Annelida Series: Reproductive Biology and Phylogeny Volume: 4 ... and overview to the current systematics of annelids and provides reviews to broad aspects of reproduction across Annelida. The ...
more infohttps://www.nhbs.com/reproductive-biology-and-phylogeny-of-annelida-book?bkfno=155229

An Updated Multilocus Phylogeny of the Lumbricidae (Annelida: Clitellata:
Oligochaeta) Earthworms | OMICS InternationalAn Updated Multilocus Phylogeny of the Lumbricidae (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta) Earthworms | OMICS International

An Updated Multilocus Phylogeny of the Lumbricidae (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta) Earthworms Marcos Pérez-Losada1-3*, ... Citation: Pérez-Losada M, Breinholt JW, Aira M, Domínguez J (2015) An Updated Multilocus Phylogeny of the Lumbricidae (Annelida ... Novo M, Almodovar A, Diaz-Cosin DJ (2009) High genetic divergence of hormogastrid earthworms (Annelida, Oligochaeta) in the ...
more infohttps://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/an-updated-multilocus-phylogeny-of-the-lumbricidae-annelida-clitellata-oligochaeta-earthworms-2329-9002-3-140.php?aid=35923

Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics & You - Olympus MIC-D: Pond Life Digital Movie Gallery - Aquatic Earthworm (Annelida)...Molecular Expressions: Science, Optics & You - Olympus MIC-D: Pond Life Digital Movie Gallery - Aquatic Earthworm (Annelida)...

As aquatic members of the class Oligochaeta in the phylum Annelida, aquatic earthworms are not an oxymoron, but rather ... As aquatic members of the class Oligochaeta in the phylum Annelida, aquatic earthworms are not an oxymoron, but rather ...
more infohttp://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/optics/olympusmicd/galleries/moviegallery/pondscum/annelida/aquaticearthworm/t1/aquaticearthworm02.html
  • Petersen, M.E. 2013: Authorship of some polychaete (Annelida) names derived from the works of Renier and Savigny. (wikimedia.org)
  • Type material of Acanthocephala, Nematoda and other non-helminths phyla (Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016. (wikimedia.org)
  • A recent cladistic analysis of Annelida and other groups has resulted in a new classification of polychaetes (Rouse and Fauchald, 1997), with the group split into two main clades Scolecida and Palpata. (tolweb.org)
  • I especially welcome any specimens that you may have collected from aquatic habitats within the GCNP, and your published records of aquatic and terrestrial Annelida from this region. (illinois.edu)
  • This is a list of the Annelida recorded from Ireland. (wikipedia.org)
  • Phylogenetic relationships within Serpulidae (Sabellida, Annelida) inferred from molecular and morphological data. (bio.net)