Annelida: A phylum of metazoan invertebrates comprising the segmented worms, and including marine annelids (POLYCHAETA), freshwater annelids, earthworms (OLIGOCHAETA), and LEECHES. Only the leeches are of medical interest. (Dorland, 27th ed)Polychaeta: A class of marine annelids including sandworms, tube worms, clamworms, and fire worms. It includes also the genus Myxicola infundibulum.Oligochaeta: A class of annelid worms with few setae per segment. It includes the earthworms such as Lumbricus and Eisenia.Leeches: Annelids of the class Hirudinea. Some species, the bloodsuckers, may become temporarily parasitic upon animals, including man. Medicinal leeches (HIRUDO MEDICINALIS) have been used therapeutically for drawing blood since ancient times.Bryozoa: A phylum of small sessile aquatic animals living as small tufted colonies. Some appear like hydroids or corals, but their internal structure is more advanced. Most bryozoans are matlike, forming thin encrustations on rocks, shells, or kelp. (Storer & Stebbins, General Zoology, 6th ed, p443)Invertebrates: Animals that have no spinal column.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gene Order: The sequential location of genes on a chromosome.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Cestoda: A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)New Zealand: A group of islands in the southwest Pacific. Its capital is Wellington. It was discovered by the Dutch explorer Abel Tasman in 1642 and circumnavigated by Cook in 1769. Colonized in 1840 by the New Zealand Company, it became a British crown colony in 1840 until 1907 when colonial status was terminated. New Zealand is a partly anglicized form of the original Dutch name Nieuw Zeeland, new sea land, possibly with reference to the Dutch province of Zeeland. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p842 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p378)Computing Methodologies: Computer-assisted analysis and processing of problems in a particular area.Water Movements: The flow of water in enviromental bodies of water such as rivers, oceans, water supplies, aquariums, etc. It includes currents, tides, and waves.Cercaria: The free-swimming larval forms of parasites found in an intermediate host.Spores, Protozoan: A vegetative stage in the life cycle of sporozoan protozoa. It is characteristic of members of the phyla APICOMPLEXA and MICROSPORIDIA.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Ponds: Inland bodies of standing FRESHWATER usually smaller than LAKES. They can be man-made or natural but there is no universal agreement as to their exact size. Some consider a pond to be a small body of water that is shallow enough for sunlight to reach the bottom.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Biological Science Disciplines: All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Social Sciences: Disciplines concerned with the interrelationships of individuals in a social environment including social organizations and institutions. Includes Sociology and Anthropology.Biology: One of the BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE DISCIPLINES concerned with the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of animals, plants, and microorganisms.Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.Personnel Staffing and Scheduling Information Systems: Computer-based systems for use in personnel management in a facility, e.g., distribution of caregivers with relation to patient needs.Ice Cover: A thick mass of ICE formed over large regions of land; RIVERS; LAKES; ponds; or SEAWATER.North AmericaDental Casting Technique: The process of producing a form or impression made of metal or plaster using a mold.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Geologic Sediments: A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)Decapoda (Crustacea): The largest order of CRUSTACEA, comprising over 10,000 species. They are characterized by three pairs of thoracic appendages modified as maxillipeds, and five pairs of thoracic legs. The order includes the familiar shrimps, crayfish (ASTACOIDEA), true crabs (BRACHYURA), and lobsters (NEPHROPIDAE and PALINURIDAE), among others.JapanAngiostrongylus cantonensis: A species of parasitic nematodes distributed throughout the Pacific islands that infests the lungs of domestic rats. Human infection, caused by consumption of raw slugs and land snails, results in eosinophilic meningitis.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)BooksEditorial Policies: The guidelines and policy statements set forth by the editor(s) or editorial board of a publication.Phosphorous Acids: Inorganic derivatives of phosphorus trihydroxide (P(OH)3) and its tautomeric form dihydroxyphosphine oxide (HP=O(OH)2). Note that organic derivatives of phosphonic acids are listed under are ORGANOPHOSPHONATES.Ranunculaceae: The buttercup plant family of the order Ranunculales, subclass Magnoliidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves are usually alternate and stalkless. The flowers usually have two to five free sepals and may be radially symmetrical or irregular.Ericaceae: The heath plant family of the order Ericales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida that are generally shrubs or small trees. Leaves are alternate, simple, and leathery; flowers are symmetrical with a 4- or 5-parted corolla of partly fused petals.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Stem Cell Research: Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Intubation: Introduction of a tube into a hollow organ to restore or maintain patency if obstructed. It is differentiated from CATHETERIZATION in that the insertion of a catheter is usually performed for the introducing or withdrawing of fluids from the body.Blattellidae: A family of insects in the order Dictyoptera (COCKROACHES), including genera Blattella, Parcoblatta, and Symploce.Asterina: A genus of STARFISH in the family Asterinidae. They externally hold developing embryos (EMBRYO, NON-MAMMALIAN) among the spines below the oral surface.Larva: Wormlike or grublike stage, following the egg in the life cycle of insects, worms, and other metamorphosing animals.Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Operations Research: A group of techniques developed to apply scientific methods and tools to solve the problems of DECISION MAKING in complex organizations and systems. Operations research searches for optimal solutions in situations of conflicting GOALS and makes use of mathematical models from which solutions for actual problems may be derived. (From Psychiatric Dictionary, 6th ed)

Evidence for conservation of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily in Annelida. (1/224)

Annetocin is a structurally and functionally oxytocin-related peptide isolated from the earthworm Eisenia foetida. We present the characterization of the annetocin cDNA. Sequence analyses of the deduced precursor polypeptide revealed that the annetocin precursor is composed of three segments: a signal peptide, an annetocin sequence flanked by a Gly C-terminal amidation signal and a Lys-Arg dibasic processing site, and a neurophysin domain, similar to other oxytocin family precursors. The proannetocin showed 37.4-45.8% amino acid homology to other prohormones. In the neurophysin domain, 14 cysteines and amino acid residues essential for association of a neurophysin with a vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily peptide were conserved, suggesting that the Eisenia neurophysin can bind to annetocin. Furthermore, in situ hybridization experiments demonstrated that the annetocin gene is expressed exclusively in neurons of the central nervous system predicted to be involved in regulation of reproductive behavior. These findings confirm that annetocin is a member of the vasopressin/oxytocin superfamily. This is the first identification of the cDNA encoding the precursor of an invertebrate oxytocin-related peptide and also the first report of the identification of an annelid vasopressin/oxytocin-related precursor.  (+info)

Cytoskeletal mechanisms of ooplasmic segregation in annelid eggs. (2/224)

Annelid embryos are comprised of yolk-deficient animal and yolk-filled vegetal blastomeres. This "unipolar" organization along the animal-vegetal axis (in terms of ooplasmic distribution) is generated via selective segregation of yolk-free, clear cytoplasm to the animal blastomeres. The pathway that leads to the unipolar organization is different between polychaetes and clitellates (i.e., oligochaetes and hirudinidans). In polychaetes, the clear cytoplasm domain, which is established through ooplasmic segregation at the animal side of the egg, is simply cut up by unequal equatorial cleavage. In clitellates, localization of clear cytoplasm to animal blastomeres is preceded by unification of the initially separated polar domains of clear cytoplasm, which result from bipolar ooplasmic segregation. In this article, I have reviewed recent studies on cytoskeletal mechanisms for ooplasmic localization during early annelid development. Annelid eggs accomplish ooplasmic rearrangements through various combinations of three cytoskeletal mechanisms, which are mediated by actin microfilaments, microtubules and mitotic asters, respectively. One of the unique features of annelid eggs isthat a homologous process is driven by distinct cytoskeletal elements. Annelid eggs may provide an intriguing system to investigate not only mechanical aspects of ooplasmic segregation but also evolutionary divergence of cytoskeletal mechanisms that operate in a homologous process.  (+info)

Cell lineage analysis of pattern formation in the Tubifex embryo. I. Segmentation in the mesoderm. (3/224)

Annelids are strongly segmented animals that display a high degree of metamerism in their body plan. The embryonic origin of metameric segmentation was examined in an oligochaete annelid Tubifex using lineage tracers. Segmental organization arises sequentially in the anterior-to-posterior direction along the longitudinal axis of the mesodermal germ band, a coherent column of primary blast cells that are produced from the mesodermal teloblast. Shortly after its birth, each primary blast cell undergoes a spatiotemporally stereotyped sequence of cell divisions to generate three classes of cells (in terms of cell size), which together give rise to a distinct cell cluster. Each cluster is composed of descendants of a single primary blast cell; there is no intermingling of cells between adjacent clusters. Relatively small-sized cells in each cluster become localized at its periphery, and they form coelomic walls including an intersegmental septum to establish individuality of segments. A set of cell ablation experiments showed that these features of mesodermal segmentation are not affected by the absence of the overlying ectodermal germ band. These results suggest that each primary blast cell serves as a founder cell of each mesodermal segment and that the boundary between segments is determined autonomously. It is concluded that the metameric body plan of Tubifex arises from an initially simple organization (i.e., a linear series) of segmental founder cells.  (+info)

Characterization of a new variant DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase unable to methylate double stranded DNA isolated from the marine annelid worm Chaetopterus variopedatus. (4/224)

The enzyme S-adenosylmethionine-DNA (cytosine-5)-methyltransferase has been identified, first time for invertebrates, in embryos of the marine polychaete annelid worm Chaetopterus variopedatus. The molecule has been isolated from embryos at 15 h of development. It is a single peptide of about 200 kDa molecular weight, cross-reacting with antibodies against sea urchin DNA methyltransferase. The enzymatic properties of the molecule are similar to those of Dnmt1 methyltransferases isolated from other organisms, but with the peculiarity to be unable to make 'de novo' methylation on double stranded DNA.  (+info)

MAP kinase, meiosis, and sperm centrosome suppression in Urechis caupo. (5/224)

Although MAP kinase is an important regulatory enzyme in many somatic cells, almost nothing is known about its functions during meiosis, except in frog and mouse oocytes. We investigated MAPK activation and function in oocytes of the marine worm Urechis caupo that are fertilized at meiotic prophase. Activity was first detected at 4-6 min after fertilization in immunoblots with anti-active MAPK, prior to germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). MAPK activation did not require new protein synthesis and was dependent on the increases in both intracellular pH and intracellular Ca(2+) that normally occur during activation. When MAPK activation was inhibited with PD98059 or U0126, GVBD still occurred, but meiosis was abnormal and there was a dramatic premature enlargement of sperm asters, which normally do not appear until second polar body formation. Failure of polar body formation and premature sperm aster enlargement also occurred when MAPK activation was inhibited by an entirely different treatment which involved lowering the pH of external seawater to interrupt the normal cytoplasmic pH increase. Thus, in Urechis, active MAPK appears to be required for (1) normal meiotic divisions and (2) suppressing the paternal centrosome until after the egg completes meiosis, a general phenomenon whose mechanism has been unknown.  (+info)

Structure of the iron complex in methemerythrin. (6/224)

The coordination of the ligands about the iron atoms in methemerythrin from Themiste dyscritum has been deduced from a 2.8 A resolution electron density map. The complex can be described in terms of two trigonal antiprisms about the pair of iron atoms in each subunit, the antiprisms having one face in common. Ligands at eight of the nine coordination positions are protein side chains, the ninth presumably being water. Comparison of the electron density map for T. dyscritum methemerythrin with the sequence of Phascolopsis gouldii hemerythrin suggests six aromatic side chain ligands (five histidine and one tyrosine) and two nonaromatic side chain ligands. The latter provide atoms at two of the three vertices of the face shared by the two antiprisms, and these along with the presumed water at the third vertex form bridges between the iron atoms of each pair.  (+info)

Mitochondrial genomes of Galathealinum, Helobdella, and Platynereis: sequence and gene arrangement comparisons indicate that Pogonophora is not a phylum and Annelida and Arthropoda are not sister taxa. (7/224)

We report a contiguous region of more than half (> 7,500 nt) of the mitochondrial genomes for Platynereis dumerii (Annelida: Polychaeta), Helobdella robusta (Annelida: Hirudinida), and Galathealinum brachiosum (Pogonophora: Perviata). The relative arrangements of all 22 genes identified for Helobdella and Galathealinum are identical to one another and to their arrangements in the mtDNA of the previously studied oligochaete annelid Lumbricus. In contrast, Platynereis differs from these taxa in the positions of several tRNA genes and in having two additional tRNA genes (trnC and trnM) and a large noncoding sequence in this region. Comparisons of relative gene arrangements and of the nucleotide and inferred amino acid sequences among these and other published taxa provide strong support for an annelid-mollusk clade that excludes arthropods, and for the inclusion of pogonophorans within Annelida, rather than giving them separate phylum status. Gene arrangement comparisons include the first use of a recently described method on previously unpublished data. Although a variety of alternative initiation codons are typically used by mitochondrial protein-encoding genes, ATG appears to be the initiator for all but one reported here. The large noncoding region (1,091 nt) identified in Platynereis has no significant sequence similarity to the noncoding region of Lumbricus, although each contains runs of TA dinucleotides and of homopolymers, which could potentially serve as signaling elements. There is strong bias for synonymous codon usage in Helobdella and especially in Galathealinum. In this latter taxon, 5 codons are completely unused, 13 are used three or fewer times, and G appears at third codon positions in only 26 of the 2,236 codons. Nucleotide composition bias appears to influence amino acid composition of the proteins.  (+info)

Bilaterian origins: significance of new experimental observations. (8/224)

Several recent laboratory observations that bear on the origin of the Bilateria are reviewed and interpreted in light of our set-aside cell theory for bilaterian origins. We first discuss new data concerning the phylogeny of bilaterian phyla. Next, we use systematic, molecular, and paleontological lines of evidence to argue that the latest common ancestor of echinoderms plus hemichordates used a maximal indirect mode of development. Furthermore, the latest common ancestor of molluscs and annelids was also indirectly developing. Finally, we discuss new data on Hox gene expression patterns which suggest that both sea urchins and polychaete annelids use Hox genes in a very similar fashion. Neither utilizes the complete Hox complex in the development of the larva per se, while the Hox complex is expressed in the set-aside cells from which the adult body plan is formed. Our current views on the ancestry of the bilaterians are summarized in phylogenetic terms, incorporating the characters discussed in this paper.  (+info)

  • Annelida is a diverse group of animals, commonly referred to as segmented worms and currently comprising around 14000 described species. (
  • Annelida, the segmented worms (over 16,500 species described), are distributed worldwide from the deepest marine sediments to freshwater and soil habitats. (
  • Hirudinea is a fairly small group of Annelida , with about 680 described species, most of which live in freshwater habitats, but several species are (sub)terrestrial or marine. (
  • Two closely related groups, currently treated as distinct lineages within the Annelida , are the Acanthobdellea (2 species worldwide, of which 1 in Europe) and the Branchiobdellea (about 140 species worldwide, of which 10 in Europe). (
  • A new species of Mesochaetopterus (Annelida, Chaetopteridae) from Hong" by Yanjie Zhang, Greg W. Rouse et al. (
  • Phylogenetic relationships within Annelida were analysed on the basis of 93 morphological characters and sequences of six genes ( 18S , 28S , and 16S rRNA , EF1α , H3 , COI ), altogether, 87 terminals of all annelid "families" and 3,903 informative characters, by Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods. (
  • The phylogenetic position of oweniids within Annelida is highly debated. (
  • Recent molecular phylogenies show that Annelida may include groups once considered separate phyla (Pogonophora, Echiurida, and Sipunculida) and that Clitellata are derived polychaetes. (
  • No attempt has yet been made to analyse simultaneously morphological and molecular information concerning the Annelida as a whole. (
  • Several more groups have been hypothesized to belong into the Annelida [ 6 ], and there is a growing consensus that the Echiurida, Pogonophora (incl. (
  • Although the deep-level evolutionary relationships of Annelida remain poorly understood, we propose the monophyly of the Aciculata, sister-group relationships between the Eunicida and OPC, between the Cirratuliformia and SSC, and possibly also between the "Clitellatomorpha" and Oweniidae-Pogonophora clades. (
  • Oweniids are marine tubeworms burrowing in muddy sediments that in current phylogenies form an early branching lineage within Annelida. (
  • The red blood and vermiform configuration of the posterior part of the animal show some of the characters of the Annelida. (
  • Type material of Acanthocephala, Nematoda and other non-helminths phyla (Cnidaria, Annelida, and Arthropoda) housed in the Helminthological Collection of the Oswaldo Cruz Institute/ FIOCRUZ (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from 1979 to 2016. (
  • Phylogenetic relationships within Annelida were analysed on the basis of 93 morphological characters and sequences of six genes ( 18S , 28S , and 16S rRNA , EF1α , H3 , COI ), altogether, 87 terminals of all annelid "families" and 3,903 informative characters, by Bayesian and maximum-parsimony methods. (
  • The morphology and anatomy of the vestimentiferan worm Oasisia alvinae Jones, 1985 (Annelida: Siboglinidae). (
  • While there are many topological similarities between the analyses herein and recent phylogenomic hypotheses, differences include the exclusion of Sipuncula from Annelida and the taxa forming the deepest crown-group divergences. (
  • Available from: [Accessed 16 December (
  • En el presente estudio se informa el hallazgo del oligoqueto Chaetogaster limnaei en el río Illapel, norte de Chile. (
  • Oweniids are marine tubeworms burrowing in muddy sediments that in current phylogenies form an early branching lineage within Annelida. (
Earthworm Phylum Annelida Bundle by Amy Brown Science | TpT
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