Ankle Joint: The joint that is formed by the inferior articular and malleolar articular surfaces of the TIBIA; the malleolar articular surface of the FIBULA; and the medial malleolar, lateral malleolar, and superior surfaces of the TALUS.Ankle: The region of the lower limb between the FOOT and the LEG.Ankle Injuries: Harm or hurt to the ankle or ankle joint usually inflicted by an external source.Lateral Ligament, Ankle: LATERAL LIGAMENTS of the ANKLE JOINT. It includes inferior tibiofibular ligaments.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Talus: The second largest of the TARSAL BONES. It articulates with the TIBIA and FIBULA to form the ANKLE JOINT.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Joint Instability: Lack of stability of a joint or joint prosthesis. Factors involved are intra-articular disease and integrity of extra-articular structures such as joint capsule, ligaments, and muscles.Arthrodesis: The surgical fixation of a joint by a procedure designed to accomplish fusion of the joint surfaces by promoting the proliferation of bone cells. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ankle Brachial Index: Comparison of the BLOOD PRESSURE between the BRACHIAL ARTERY and the POSTERIOR TIBIAL ARTERY. It is a predictor of PERIPHERAL ARTERIAL DISEASE.Range of Motion, Articular: The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.Orthotic Devices: Apparatus used to support, align, prevent, or correct deformities or to improve the function of movable parts of the body.Ligaments, Articular: Fibrous cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE that attach bones to each other and hold together the many types of joints in the body. Articular ligaments are strong, elastic, and allow movement in only specific directions, depending on the individual joint.Braces: Orthopedic appliances used to support, align, or hold parts of the body in correct position. (Dorland, 28th ed)Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Fibula: The bone of the lower leg lateral to and smaller than the tibia. In proportion to its length, it is the most slender of the long bones.Subtalar Joint: Formed by the articulation of the talus with the calcaneus.Foot Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the foot.Gait: Manner or style of walking.Tarsus, Animal: The region in the hindlimb of a quadruped, corresponding to the human ANKLE.Athletic Injuries: Injuries incurred during participation in competitive or non-competitive sports.Ankle FracturesProprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.Torque: The rotational force about an axis that is equal to the product of a force times the distance from the axis where the force is applied.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Walking: An activity in which the body advances at a slow to moderate pace by moving the feet in a coordinated fashion. This includes recreational walking, walking for fitness, and competitive race-walking.Leg: The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.Equinus Deformity: Plantar declination of the foot.Muscle, Skeletal: A subtype of striated muscle, attached by TENDONS to the SKELETON. Skeletal muscles are innervated and their movement can be consciously controlled. They are also called voluntary muscles.Casts, Surgical: Dressings made of fiberglass, plastic, or bandage impregnated with plaster of paris used for immobilization of various parts of the body in cases of fractures, dislocations, and infected wounds. In comparison with plaster casts, casts made of fiberglass or plastic are lightweight, radiolucent, able to withstand moisture, and less rigid.Joint Prosthesis: Prostheses used to partially or totally replace a human or animal joint. (from UMDNS, 1999)Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Foot Diseases: Anatomical and functional disorders affecting the foot.Gait Disorders, Neurologic: Gait abnormalities that are a manifestation of nervous system dysfunction. These conditions may be caused by a wide variety of disorders which affect motor control, sensory feedback, and muscle strength including: CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES; or MUSCULAR DISEASES.Basketball: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.ShoesAchilles Tendon: A fibrous cord that connects the muscles in the back of the calf to the HEEL BONE.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Bandages: Material used for wrapping or binding any part of the body.Reflex, Stretch: Reflex contraction of a muscle in response to stretching, which stimulates muscle proprioceptors.Peroneal Nerve: The lateral of the two terminal branches of the sciatic nerve. The peroneal (or fibular) nerve provides motor and sensory innervation to parts of the leg and foot.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Foot Deformities: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot.Weight-Bearing: The physical state of supporting an applied load. This often refers to the weight-bearing bones or joints that support the body's weight, especially those in the spine, hip, knee, and foot.Osteoarthritis: A progressive, degenerative joint disease, the most common form of arthritis, especially in older persons. The disease is thought to result not from the aging process but from biochemical changes and biomechanical stresses affecting articular cartilage. In the foreign literature it is often called osteoarthrosis deformans.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Toes: Any one of five terminal digits of the vertebrate FOOT.Joints: Also known as articulations, these are points of connection between the ends of certain separate bones, or where the borders of other bones are juxtaposed.Arthroplasty, Replacement: Partial or total replacement of a joint.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Locomotion: Movement or the ability to move from one place or another. It can refer to humans, vertebrate or invertebrate animals, and microorganisms.Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Flatfoot: A condition in which one or more of the arches of the foot have flattened out.Foot Deformities, Acquired: Distortion or disfigurement of the foot, or a part of the foot, acquired through disease or injury after birth.Sports Equipment: Equipment required for engaging in a sport (such as balls, bats, rackets, skis, skates, ropes, weights) and devices for the protection of athletes during their performance (such as masks, gloves, mouth pieces).Joint DiseasesLower Extremity: The region of the lower limb in animals, extending from the gluteal region to the FOOT, and including the BUTTOCKS; HIP; and LEG.Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Knee: A region of the lower extremity immediately surrounding and including the KNEE JOINT.Tendons: Fibrous bands or cords of CONNECTIVE TISSUE at the ends of SKELETAL MUSCLE FIBERS that serve to attach the MUSCLES to bones and other structures.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Hip: The projecting part on each side of the body, formed by the side of the pelvis and the top portion of the femur.Arthroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Foot Joints: The articulations extending from the ANKLE distally to the TOES. These include the ANKLE JOINT; TARSAL JOINTS; METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT; and TOE JOINT.Tibial FracturesHip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Toe Joint: The articulation between the head of one phalanx and the base of the one distal to it, in each toe.Clubfoot: A deformed foot in which the foot is plantarflexed, inverted and adducted.Foot Bones: The TARSAL BONES; METATARSAL BONES; and PHALANGES OF TOES. The tarsal bones consists of seven bones: CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid; navicular; internal; middle; and external cuneiform bones. The five metatarsal bones are numbered one through five, running medial to lateral. There are 14 phalanges in each foot, the great toe has two while the other toes have three each.Soccer: A game in which a round inflated ball is advanced by kicking or propelling with any part of the body except the hands or arms. The object of the game is to place the ball in opposite goals.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Fractures, Closed: Fractures in which the break in bone is not accompanied by an external wound.Fracture Fixation: The use of metallic devices inserted into or through bone to hold a fracture in a set position and alignment while it heals.Arthropathy, Neurogenic: Chronic progressive degeneration of the stress-bearing portion of a joint, with bizarre hypertrophic changes at the periphery. It is probably a complication of a variety of neurologic disorders, particularly TABES DORSALIS, involving loss of sensation, which leads to relaxation of supporting structures and chronic instability of the joint. (Dorland, 27th ed)Joint Deformities, Acquired: Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.Muscle Spasticity: A form of muscle hypertonia associated with upper MOTOR NEURON DISEASE. Resistance to passive stretch of a spastic muscle results in minimal initial resistance (a "free interval") followed by an incremental increase in muscle tone. Tone increases in proportion to the velocity of stretch. Spasticity is usually accompanied by HYPERREFLEXIA and variable degrees of MUSCLE WEAKNESS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p54)Peripheral Vascular Diseases: Pathological processes involving any one of the BLOOD VESSELS in the vasculature outside the HEART.Isometric Contraction: Muscular contractions characterized by increase in tension without change in length.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.ArthritisH-Reflex: A monosynaptic reflex elicited by stimulating a nerve, particularly the tibial nerve, with an electric shock.Fracture Fixation, Internal: The use of internal devices (metal plates, nails, rods, etc.) to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment.Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Robotics: The application of electronic, computerized control systems to mechanical devices designed to perform human functions. Formerly restricted to industry, but nowadays applied to artificial organs controlled by bionic (bioelectronic) devices, like automated insulin pumps and other prostheses.Foot Orthoses: Devices used to support or align the foot structure, or to prevent or correct foot deformities.Immobilization: The restriction of the MOVEMENT of whole or part of the body by physical means (RESTRAINT, PHYSICAL) or chemically by ANALGESIA, or the use of TRANQUILIZING AGENTS or NEUROMUSCULAR NONDEPOLARIZING AGENTS. It includes experimental protocols used to evaluate the physiologic effects of immobility.Forefoot, Human: The forepart of the foot including the metatarsals and the TOES.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Peripheral Arterial Disease: Lack of perfusion in the EXTREMITIES resulting from atherosclerosis. It is characterized by INTERMITTENT CLAUDICATION, and an ANKLE BRACHIAL INDEX of 0.9 or less.Hemiplegia: Severe or complete loss of motor function on one side of the body. This condition is usually caused by BRAIN DISEASES that are localized to the cerebral hemisphere opposite to the side of weakness. Less frequently, BRAIN STEM lesions; cervical SPINAL CORD DISEASES; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and other conditions may manifest as hemiplegia. The term hemiparesis (see PARESIS) refers to mild to moderate weakness involving one side of the body.Artificial Limbs: Prosthetic replacements for arms, legs, and parts thereof.Cryotherapy: A form of therapy consisting in the local or general use of cold. The selective destruction of tissue by extreme cold or freezing is CRYOSURGERY. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Paresis: A general term referring to a mild to moderate degree of muscular weakness, occasionally used as a synonym for PARALYSIS (severe or complete loss of motor function). In the older literature, paresis often referred specifically to paretic neurosyphilis (see NEUROSYPHILIS). "General paresis" and "general paralysis" may still carry that connotation. Bilateral lower extremity paresis is referred to as PARAPARESIS.Muscle Strength: The amount of force generated by MUSCLE CONTRACTION. Muscle strength can be measured during isometric, isotonic, or isokinetic contraction, either manually or using a device such as a MUSCLE STRENGTH DYNAMOMETER.Ilizarov Technique: A bone fixation technique using an external fixator (FIXATORS, EXTERNAL) for lengthening limbs, correcting pseudarthroses and other deformities, and assisting the healing of otherwise hopeless traumatic or pathological fractures and infections, such as chronic osteomyelitis. The method was devised by the Russian orthopedic surgeon Gavriil Abramovich Ilizarov (1921-1992). (From Bull Hosp Jt Dis 1992 Summer;52(1):1)Leg Injuries: General or unspecified injuries involving the leg.Reflex, Abnormal: An abnormal response to a stimulus applied to the sensory components of the nervous system. This may take the form of increased, decreased, or absent reflexes.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Physical Therapy Modalities: Therapeutic modalities frequently used in PHYSICAL THERAPY SPECIALTY by PHYSICAL THERAPISTS or physiotherapists to promote, maintain, or restore the physical and physiological well-being of an individual.Arthralgia: Pain in the joint.Supination: Applies to movements of the forearm in turning the palm forward or upward. When referring to the foot, a combination of adduction and inversion movements of the foot.Osteotomy: The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Kinesthesis: Sense of movement of a part of the body, such as movement of fingers, elbows, knees, limbs, or weights.Hallux Valgus: Lateral displacement of the great toe (HALLUX), producing deformity of the first METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT with callous, bursa, or bunion formation over the bony prominence.Fasciitis, Plantar: Inflammation of the thick tissue on the bottom of the foot (plantar fascia) causing HEEL pain. The plantar fascia (also called plantar aponeurosis) are bands of fibrous tissue extending from the calcaneal tuberosity to the TOES. The etiology of plantar fasciitis remains controversial but is likely to involve a biomechanical imbalance. Though often presenting along with HEEL SPUR, they do not appear to be causally related.Athletic Tape: Adhesive tape with the mechanical strength to resist stretching. It is applied to the skin to support, stabilize, and restrict movement to aid healing and/or prevent injuries of MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.Brachial Artery: The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.Collateral Ligaments: A number of ligaments on either side of, and serving as a radius of movement of, a joint having a hingelike movement. They occur at the elbow, knee, wrist, metacarpo- and metatarsophalangeal, proximal interphalangeal, and distal interphalangeal joints of the hands and feet. (Stedman, 25th ed)External Fixators: External devices which hold wires or pins that are placed through one or both cortices of bone in order to hold the position of a fracture in proper alignment. These devices allow easy access to wounds, adjustment during the course of healing, and more functional use of the limbs involved.Metatarsus: The part of the foot between the tarsa and the TOES.Decerebrate State: A condition characterized by abnormal posturing of the limbs that is associated with injury to the brainstem. This may occur as a clinical manifestation or induced experimentally in animals. The extensor reflexes are exaggerated leading to rigid extension of the limbs accompanied by hyperreflexia and opisthotonus. This condition is usually caused by lesions which occur in the region of the brainstem that lies between the red nuclei and the vestibular nuclei. In contrast, decorticate rigidity is characterized by flexion of the elbows and wrists with extension of the legs and feet. The causative lesion for this condition is located above the red nuclei and usually consists of diffuse cerebral damage. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p358)Intermittent Claudication: A symptom complex characterized by pain and weakness in SKELETAL MUSCLE group associated with exercise, such as leg pain and weakness brought on by walking. Such muscle limpness disappears after a brief rest and is often relates to arterial STENOSIS; muscle ISCHEMIA; and accumulation of LACTATE.Exercise Therapy: A regimen or plan of physical activities designed and prescribed for specific therapeutic goals. Its purpose is to restore normal musculoskeletal function or to reduce pain caused by diseases or injuries.Osteochondritis: Inflammation of a bone and its overlaying CARTILAGE.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Intra-Articular Fractures: Fractures of the articular surface of a bone.Cerebral Palsy: A heterogeneous group of nonprogressive motor disorders caused by chronic brain injuries that originate in the prenatal period, perinatal period, or first few years of life. The four major subtypes are spastic, athetoid, ataxic, and mixed cerebral palsy, with spastic forms being the most common. The motor disorder may range from difficulties with fine motor control to severe spasticity (see MUSCLE SPASTICITY) in all limbs. Spastic diplegia (Little disease) is the most common subtype, and is characterized by spasticity that is more prominent in the legs than in the arms. Pathologically, this condition may be associated with LEUKOMALACIA, PERIVENTRICULAR. (From Dev Med Child Neurol 1998 Aug;40(8):520-7)Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Amputation: The removal of a limb or other appendage or outgrowth of the body. (Dorland, 28th ed)Reconstructive Surgical Procedures: Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.Sports Medicine: The field of medicine concerned with physical fitness and the diagnosis and treatment of injuries sustained in exercise and sports activities.Cadaver: A dead body, usually a human body.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Muscle Weakness: A vague complaint of debility, fatigue, or exhaustion attributable to weakness of various muscles. The weakness can be characterized as subacute or chronic, often progressive, and is a manifestation of many muscle and neuromuscular diseases. (From Wyngaarden et al., Cecil Textbook of Medicine, 19th ed, p2251)Contracture: Prolonged shortening of the muscle or other soft tissue around a joint, preventing movement of the joint.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Diabetic Neuropathies: Peripheral, autonomic, and cranial nerve disorders that are associated with DIABETES MELLITUS. These conditions usually result from diabetic microvascular injury involving small blood vessels that supply nerves (VASA NERVORUM). Relatively common conditions which may be associated with diabetic neuropathy include third nerve palsy (see OCULOMOTOR NERVE DISEASES); MONONEUROPATHY; mononeuropathy multiplex; diabetic amyotrophy; a painful POLYNEUROPATHY; autonomic neuropathy; and thoracoabdominal neuropathy. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1325)AmputeesRupture: Forcible or traumatic tear or break of an organ or other soft part of the body.

Isolated femoropopliteal bypass graft for limb salvage after failed tibial reconstruction: a viable alternative to amputation. (1/775)

PURPOSE: Femoropopliteal bypass grafting procedures performed to isolated popliteal arteries after failure of a previous tibial reconstruction were studied. The results were compared with those of a study of primary isolated femoropopliteal bypass grafts (IFPBs). METHODS: IFPBs were only constructed if the uninvolved or patent popliteal segment measured at least 7 cm in length and had at least one major collateral supplying the calf. When IFPB was performed for ischemic lesions, these lesions were usually limited to the digits or small portions of the foot. Forty-seven polytetrafluoroethylene grafts and three autogenous reversed saphenous vein grafts were used. RESULTS: Ankle brachial pressure index (ABI) increased after bypass grafting by a mean of 0.46. Three-year primary life table patency and limb-salvage rates for primary IFPBs were 73% and 86%, respectively. All eight IFPBs performed after failed tibial bypass grafts remained patent for 2 to 44 months, with patients having viable, healed feet. CONCLUSION: In the presence of a suitable popliteal artery and limited tissue necrosis, IFPB can have acceptable patency and limb-salvage rates, even when a polytetrafluoroethylene graft is used. Secondary IFPB can be used to achieve limb salvage after failed tibial bypass grafting.  (+info)

Surgical transluminal iliac angioplasty with selective stenting: long-term results assessed by means of duplex scanning. (2/775)

PURPOSE: The safety of iliac angioplasty and selective stenting performed in the operating room by vascular surgeons was evaluated, and the short- and long-term results were assessed by means of serial duplex scanning. METHODS: Between 1989 and 1996, 281 iliac stenotic or occlusive lesions in 235 consecutive patients with chronic limb ischemia were treated by means of percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) alone (n = 214) or PTA with stent (n = 67, 23.8%). There were 260 primary lesions and 21 restenosis after a first PTA, which were analyzed separately. Stents were implanted in selected cases, either primarily in totally occluded arteries or after suboptimum results of PTA (ie, residual stenosis or a dissection). Data were collected prospectively and analyzed retrospectively. Results were reported in an intention-to-treat basis. Clinical results and patency were evaluated by means of symptom assessment, ankle brachial pressure index, and duplex scanning at discharge and 1, 3, 6, and every 12 months after angioplasty. To identify factors that may affect outcome, 12 clinical and radiological variables, including the four categories of lesions defined by the Standards of Practice Committee of the Society of Cardiovascular and Interventional Radiology, were analyzed separately. The statistical significances of life-table analysis of patency were determined by means of the log-rank test. RESULTS: There were no postoperative deaths or amputations. Local, general, and vascular complications occurred in 2.1%, 1.3% and 4.7% of cases, respectively (total, 8.1%). The mean follow-up period was 29.6 months. The cumulative patency rates +/- SE of the 260 PTAs (including 55 PTAs plus stents) were 92.9% +/- 1.5% at 1 month, 86. 5% +/- 1.7% at 1 year, 81.2% +/- 2.3% at 2 years, 78.8% +/- 2.9% at 3 years, and 75.4% +/- 3.5% at 5 and 6 years. The two-year patency rate of 21 redo PTAs (including 11 PTAs plus stents) was 79.1% +/- 18.2%. Of 12 predictable variables studied in the first PTA group, only the category of the lesion was predictive of long-term patency. The two-year patency rate was 84% +/- 3% for 199 category 1 lesions and 69.7% +/- 6.5% for 61 category 2, 3, and 4 lesions together (P =. 02). There was no difference of patency in the stented and nonstented group. CONCLUSION: Iliac PTA alone or with the use of a stent (in cases of occlusion and/or suboptimal results of PTA) offers an excellent long-term patency rate. Categorization of lesions remains useful in predicting long-term outcome. PTA can be performed safely by vascular surgeons in the operating room and should be considered to be the primary treatment for localized iliac occlusive disease.  (+info)

Ankle-arm index as a predictor of cardiovascular disease and mortality in the Cardiovascular Health Study. The Cardiovascular Health Study Group. (3/775)

Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in the legs, measured noninvasively by the ankle-arm index (AAI) is associated with clinically manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its risk factors. To determine risk of total mortality, coronary heart disease, or stroke mortality and incident versus recurrent CVD associated with a low AAI, we examined the relationship of the AAI to subsequent CVD events in 5888 older adults with and without CVD. The AAI was measured in 5888 participants >/=65 years old at the baseline examination of the Cardiovascular Health Study. All participants had a detailed assessment of prevalent CVD and were contacted every 6 months for total mortality and CVD events (including CVD mortality, fatal and nonfatal myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, angina, stroke, and hospitalized PAD). The crude mortality rate at 6 years was highest (32.3%) in those participants with prevalent CVD and a low AAI (P<0.9), and it was lowest in those with neither of these findings (8.7%, P<0.01). Similar patterns emerged from analysis of recurrent CVD and incident CVD. The risk for incident congestive heart failure (relative risk [RR]=1.61) and for total mortality (RR=1.62) in those without CVD at baseline but with a low AAI remained significantly elevated after adjustment for cardiovascular risk factors. Hospitalized PAD events occurred months to years after the AAI was measured, with an adjusted RR of 5.55 (95% CI, 3.08 to 9.98) in those at risk for incident events. A statistically significant decline in survival was seen at each 0.1 decrement in the AAI. An AAI of <0.9 is an independent risk factor for incident CVD, recurrent CVD, and mortality in this group of older adults in the Cardiovascular Health Study.  (+info)

Ropivacaine or 2% mepivacaine for lower limb peripheral nerve blocks. Study Group on Orthopedic Anesthesia of the Italian Society of Anesthesia, Analgesia, and Intensive Care. (4/775)

BACKGROUND: Intra- and postoperative clinical properties of sciatic-femoral nerve block performed with either ropivacaine at different concentrations or mepivacaine have been evaluated in a multicenter, randomized, blinded study. METHODS: Adult patients scheduled for foot and ankle surgery were randomized to receive combined sciatic-femoral nerve block with 225 mg of either 0.5% (n = 83), 0.75% (n = 87), or 1% (n = 86) ropivacaine, or with 500 mg of 2% mepivacaine (n = 84). A thigh tourniquet was used in all patients. Onset time, adequacy of surgical anesthesia, time to offset of nerve block, and time until first postoperative requirement for pain medication were evaluated by a blinded observer. RESULTS: The adequacy of nerve block was similar in the four treatment groups (the ratios between adequate:inadequate: failed blocks were 74:9:0 with 0.5% ropivacaine, 74:13:0 with 0.75% ropivacaine, 78:8:0 with 1% ropivacaine, and 72:12:0 with 2% mepivacaine). The onset of the block was slower with 0.5% ropivacaine than with other anesthetic solutions (P < 0.001). Regardless of the concentration, ropivacaine produced a longer motor blockade (10.5+/-3.8 h, 10.3+/-4.3 h, and 10.2+/-5.1 h with 0.5%, 0.75%, and 1% ropivacaine, respectively) than with mepivacaine (4.3+/-2.6 h; P < 0.001). The duration of postoperative analgesia was shorter after mepivacaine (5.1+/-2.7 h) than after ropivacaine (12.2+/-4.1 h, 14.3+/-5 h, and 14.5+/-3.4 h, with 0.5%, 0.75%, or 1% ropivacaine, respectively; P < 0.001). Pain relief after 0.5% ropivacaine was 14% shorter than 0.75% or 1% ropivacaine (P < 0.05). During the first 24 h after surgery, 30-37% of patients receiving ropivacaine required no analgesics compared with 10% of those receiving mepivacaine (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that 0.75% ropivacaine is the most suitable choice of local anesthetic for combined sciatic-femoral nerve block, providing an onset similar to mepivacaine and prolonged postoperative analgesia.  (+info)

Volume of ankle dorsiflexors and plantar flexors determined with stereological techniques. (5/775)

The validity of the methods used for determination of muscle mass has not been evaluated previously. We determined muscle mass by estimating muscle volume with assumption-free stereological techniques applied to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in 18 healthy untrained subjects (6 women, 12 men) aged 41 yr (29-64 yr; median, range). Muscle mass was also estimated by measuring leg circumference and cross-sectional muscle areas (CSA) from MRIs at three predetermined levels. Power [peak torque (PT)] of the ankle dorsiflexors and plantar flexors was estimated by using isokinetic dynamometry. Dorsiflexor volume (r2 = 0.76, P < 5 x 10(-6)) and CSA (r2 = 0.73, P < 5 x 10(-5)) were related to PT, whereas circumference was not (r2 = 0.17, not significant). Correspondingly, a relationship to plantar PT was established for plantar flexor volume (r2 = 0.69, P < 5 x 10(-5)) and CSA (r2 = 0.46, P < 5 x 10(-3)) but not leg circumference (r2 = 0.15, not significant). SDs of the residuals were smaller for the relationship between dorsiflexor PT and volume than between PT and CSA (0.42 vs. 0.45) for plantar flexors (1.5 vs. 2.0). By using the Cavalieri method, six MRI sections and 15 min of point counting are sufficient to obtain a valid estimate of the volume of the muscles of the lower leg.  (+info)

Lower limb deep venous flow in patients with peripheral vascular disease. (6/775)

PURPOSE: A prospective controlled study was undertaken to determine how peripheral vascular disease (PVD) influences flow in the deep veins of the leg. METHODS: Eighty-nine patients with peripheral vascular disease and 35 age-matched control subjects were studied. The popliteal vein diameter and flow velocity were measured at rest by means of color duplex ultrasound scanning, and these measurements were compared with the ankle-brachial pressure index. For 23 subjects, measurements were also performed during reactive hyperemia and then repeated after venous return from the foot was prevented by an ankle cuff. RESULTS: There was a significant correlation between the ankle-brachial pressure index and the popliteal vein diameter (r = 0.35, P <.001) but a negative correlation between the ankle-brachial pressure index and venous flow velocity among patients with PVD (r = -0.24, P =.002). In PVD patients the diameter decreased further in reactive hyperemia, whereas it increased in control subjects ( P <.001). Preventing venous return from the foot in PVD patients led to diameter increase at rest and abolished the reduction in diameter caused by reactive hyperemia. Despite the reduction in diameter during reactive hyperemia, flow velocity increased less in patients with PVD than it did in control subjects (P =.01). CONCLUSION: Chronic tissue ischemia results in constriction of the popliteal vein. This appears to be an active process related to the washout of humoral factors from ischemic tissues distally, which leads to an increase in flow velocity. The latter may confer some protection against the deep vein thrombosis that would otherwise tend to occur with low venous flow rates.  (+info)

Modulation of stretch reflexes during imposed walking movements of the human ankle. (7/775)

Our overall objectives were to examine the role of peripheral afferents from the ankle in modulating stretch reflexes during imposed walking movements and to assess the mechanical consequences of this reflex activity. Specifically we sought to define the changes in the electromyographic (EMG) and mechanical responses to a stretch as a function of the phase of the step cycle. We recorded the ankle position of a normal subject walking on a treadmill at 3 km/h and used a hydraulic actuator to impose the same movements on supine subjects generating a constant level of ankle torque. Small pulse displacements, superimposed on the simulated walking movement, evoked stretch reflexes at different phases of the cycle. Three major findings resulted: 1) soleus reflex EMG responses were influenced strongly by imposed walking movements. The response amplitude was substantially smaller than that observed during steady-state conditions and was modulated throughout the step cycle. This modulation was qualitatively similar to that observed during active walking. Because central factors were held constant during the imposed walking experiments, we conclude that peripheral mechanisms were capable of both reducing the amplitude of the reflex EMG and producing its modulation throughout the movement. 2) Pulse disturbances applied from early to midstance of the imposed walking cycle generated large reflex torques, suggesting that the stretch reflex could help to resist unexpected perturbations during this phase of walking. In contrast, pulses applied during late stance and swing phase generated little reflex torque. 3) Reflex EMG and reflex torque were modulated differently throughout the imposed walking cycle. In fact, at the time when the reflex EMG response was largest, the corresponding reflex torque was negligible. Thus movement not only changes the reflex EMG but greatly modifies the mechanical output that results.  (+info)

The influence of experience on the reproducibility of the ankle-brachial systolic pressure ratio in peripheral arterial occlusive disease. (8/775)

OBJECTIVES: to estimate the intra-observer variability of the measurement of the ankle-brachial systolic pressure index (ABPI) and to compare the reproducibility of the measurements by experienced vascular laboratory assistants and by less-experienced general practice personnel. DESIGN: repeated measurement of ABPI by general practitioners (GPs), GP-assistants and vascular laboratory assistants using a pocket Doppler device and a random-zero sphygmomanometer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: ABPI was measured in six patients with various degrees of PAOD by two experienced observers (vascular laboratory assistants) and by 24 less-experienced observers (18 practice assistants, six GPs). RESULTS: the total number of measurements was 354. The overall intra-observer variability estimate was 11.8% ABPI. The intra-observer variability was 7.3% in the experienced observers and 12.0% in the less-experienced observers. The difference of variability between experienced and less-experienced observers was significant. CONCLUSIONS: the ABPI is suitable in follow-up studies where repeated measurements are needed. Differences between measurements can be minimised by performing repeated measurements or by using more experienced observers.  (+info)

  • The ABPI is calculated by dividing the systolic blood pressure at the ankle by the systolic blood pressure in the arm. (
  • Deriving the ABPI, by dividing the systolic blood pressure at the ankle by the systolic blood pressures in the arm is relatively simple to perform and is widely used. (
  • Measurement of ankle blood pressures in a seated position will grossly overestimate the ABI (by approximately 0.3). (
  • The engineers tested a motorized exoskeleton rig that attaches around the ankle and foot and found that it made running 15 percent easier. (
  • That pulls the foot upward during the toe-off, extending the ankle at the end of every step. (
  • Ankle foot supports are the modern and comfortable alternative to classic plaster casts. (
  • The ankle foot supports from medi are particularly suitable for this. (
  • But with the innovative ankle foot supports from medi, both are now possible: they are simple to put on and take off again. (
  • ABPI is known to be unreliable on patients with arterial calcification ( hardening of the arteries ) which results in less or incompressible arteries, as the stiff arteries produce falsely elevated ankle pressure, giving false negatives ). (
  • Objectives: We aimed to investigate the association between arterial stiffness assessed as cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) and cardiovascular (CV) risk factors and CV events in the middle-aged metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. (
  • ABPI is known to be unreliable on patients with arterial calcification which results in less or incompressible arteries, as the stiff arteries produce falsely elevated ankle pressure. (
  • Potier L., Abi Khalil C., Mohammedi K., Roussel R. 2011 Use and Utility of Ankle Brachial Index in Patients with Diabetes. (
  • Background: The optimal cutoff values of the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV) for predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) were examined in patients with hypertension. (
  • In a normal subject the pressure at the ankle is slightly higher than at the elbow (there is reflection of the pulse pressure from the vascular bed of the feet, whereas at the elbow the artery continues on some distance to the wrist). (
  • USC quarterback Matt Leinart did not practice Monday, but he said he planned to play Saturday against Stanford despite a high ankle sprain and bruised right knee. (
  • Freshman Chauncey Washington, who missed Saturday's game because of a high ankle sprain, practiced and said he planned to play against Stanford. (
  • Tendons that attach the large muscles of the leg to the foot wrap around the ankle both from the front and behind. (
  • T-Flex is an ankle orthosis based on bioinspired tendons of variable stiffness, which is used to help and rehabilitate patients with gait disturbances. (
  • Rolling the ankle can also cause damage to the cartilage or tendons of your ankle. (
  • You may need to wear a splint, cast, or brace for a while to keep the ankle from moving. (
  • At this point, your doctor will give you a special shoe with a brace to hold your ankle steady. (
  • If the ankle brace is worn regularly, it can help in the healing process. (
  • Ankle Brace Support Stabilizer is great to wear throughout an entire basketball game. (
  • If the ankle proves to be a regular problem, it is recommended that the ankle brace be worn continuously throughout the day. (
  • Rest and ice cannot offer the same healing affects as a good ankle brace. (
  • This leads us into our next topic concerning what type of ankle brace to purchase. (
  • Click this site for more information on Ankle Brace Support Stabilizer . (
  • One of the effective, cost-efficient and non-invasive treatment plans available that can help treat your ankle pain is the utilization of a low profile ankle brace. (
  • When you go for a run, Best Ankle Brace To Prevent Rolling can provide the support you require to manage the pain. (
  • In addition, an ankle brace will remind you to avoid any unnecessary movement that could cause more pain or injury. (
  • So it is important to wear the proper brace to allow your ankle to heal properly. (
  • In fact, Redmayne just wrapped "The Aeronauts" with his "Theory of Everything" co-star Felicity Jones - "well, almost finished the film," he says ruefully, glancing down at his ankle, which is encased in a brace. (
  • This ankle brace features a wraparound style for ease of use, and the sleek construction fits comfortably with your footwear. (
  • Rated 5 out of 5 by Gyrlstout from Ankle relief Son had a sprained ankle and this ankle brace / sleeve worked beautiful. (
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  • It's a very good ankle brace! (
  • I am able to play Pickleball again with the brace on my ankle, with no pain in my ankle. (
  • Knicks rookie Frank Ntilikina hurt his ankle at practice Friday, Oct. 20, 2017. (
  • The restoration of range of motion is the key feature in favor of ankle replacement with respect to arthrodesis. (
  • A 2018 study of privately insured patients receiving care for an ankle sprain in the emergency department (ED) found that 25.1% received an opioid prescription, with a median total MME of 100 and an average days' supply of 3. (
  • Sconfienza L.M., Orlandi D. (2018) Ankle and Foot Extra-Articular Procedures. (
  • A total ankle replacement system, novel surgical method for total ankle replacement, and novel surgical tools for performing the surgical method are described. (
  • The total ankle replacement system includes the calcaneus in fixation of a lower prosthesis body, thereby significantly increasing the amount. (
  • The total ankle replacement system includes the calcaneus in fixation of a lower prosthesis body, thereby significantly increasing the amount of bone available for fixation of the lower prosthesis body and allowing the lower prosthesis body to be anchored with screws. (
  • The total ankle replacement system further includes a long tibial stem which can also be anchored into the tibia with, for example, screws, nails, anchors, or some other means of attachment. (
  • The Scandinavian Total Ankle Replacement (STAR) system, manufactured by Small Bone Innovations, is a mobile-bearing device consisting of two metal plates with bars that fit into the bone and a polyethylene spacer that moves between the plates like a ball bearing. (
  • Even sedentary people are vulnerable, since inactivity causes the muscles that support the ankle and protect the ligaments to lose strength and elasticity. (
  • You might feel the pain on the inside or outside of your ankle or along the Achilles tendon, which connects the muscles in your lower leg to your heel bone. (
  • A sudden force, like changing direction quickly, can turn the ankle farther than the muscles can support. (
  • The powerful muscles that move the ankle are located in the front and back portions of the leg. (
  • Fortunately, you can reduce your risk of an ankle sprain by doing balance training, stretching your ankle and surrounding muscles, doing ankle strengthening exercises , and making lifestyle changes. (
  • The best way to heal a broken ankle is by taking proper treatment and following a healthy diet. (
  • Let's have a look at the how a broken ankle heals through proper treatment. (
  • Rated 5 out of 5 by Eross from This is perfect as I recover from my broken ankle I received this ankle support free to test, but my opinion was not affected by that at all! (
  • If there is no tenderness over the bone along the inside or outside of the ankle and the patient is able to take 4 steps, then according to the Ottawa ankle rules, the patient does not require x-rays. (
  • Sometimes what appears to be an ankle sprain is really a fractured bone. (
  • Your surgeon will make a cut in the front and sides of your ankle and remove the damaged bone and cartilage. (
  • Johnson attempted to put his ankle back into place but the team medical staff believed he could not because the outside bone of his ankle had broken. (
  • Two simple pre-or post-run exercises should suffice for most runners in building and maintaining ankle flexibility. (
  • These exercises will return your range of motion and help exercise your ankle, lowering your risk of reinjury. (
  • If you love a delicate look that still gets the message across, then check out 50-plus adorable ankle tattoos that are small and chic. (
  • Spice up your style with chic, sexy ankle boots that add a bit of attitude to any outfit. (
  • Try a pair of ankle boots with a wedge heel for an ultra-chic look. (
  • Ankle boots with a strap at the ankle look chic and feminine, no matter if the strap is wide or thin or is only an accessory. (
  • The hard, bony knobs on each side of the ankle are called the malleoli. (
  • The bony arch formed by the tibial plafond and the two malleoli is referred to as the ankle "mortise" (or talar mortise). (
  • The Perry Black Suede Studded Ankle Booties look super cute paired with cropped jeans! (
  • Step up your style in these versatile ankle booties, which feature a faux-suede upper, contrasting faux-wood heel and buckle detail to complete the look. (
  • It occurs when the ankle rolls inward leading to tearing of some or all of the ligaments on the outside of the ankle. (
  • The typical injury occurs when the ankle is suddenly 'twisted' in a sports activity or by stepping off an uneven surface. (
  • At least the top surface of the platform includes indicia so that the foot can be placed in a proper position on the platform, whereby angular movement of the ankle on the device corresponds with the average maximum biomechanical function of the ankle structure. (
  • There are different types of ankle replacement surgeries. (
  • Researchers in Mayo Clinic's Motion Analysis laboratory study how different types of ankle problems and surgeries affect a person's gait. (
  • You'll switch from a splint to a boot that should allow you to start walking on the ankle. (
  • You can never go wrong with a classic black ankle boot. (
  • And because it's officially ankle-boot season, many designers are offering a variety of trends and colours like beige, brown, sandy, white and blue to choose from. (
  • Studded ankle boots have long been a wardrobe staple and the trend goes on. (