Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Internal Capsule: WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Fornix, Brain: Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Eosine Yellowish-(YS): A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Mechanical Processes: The behaviors of materials under force.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Erythrosine: A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)

Referenceless interleaved echo-planar imaging. (1/2188)

Interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) is an ultrafast imaging technique important for applications that require high time resolution or short total acquisition times. Unfortunately, EPI is prone to significant ghosting artifacts, resulting primarily from system time delays that cause data matrix misregistration. In this work, it is shown mathematically and experimentally that system time delays are orientation dependent, resulting from anisotropic physical gradient delays. This analysis characterizes the behavior of time delays in oblique coordinates, and a new ghosting artifact caused by anisotropic delays is described. "Compensation blips" are proposed for time delay correction. These blips are shown to remove the effects of anisotropic gradient delays, eliminating the need for repeated reference scans and postprocessing corrections. Examples of phantom and in vivo images are shown.  (+info)

Adaptation of bulk constitutive equations to insoluble monolayer collapse at the air-water interface. (2/2188)

A constitutive equation based on stress-strain models of bulk solids was adapted to relate the surface pressure, compression rate, and temperature of an insoluble monolayer of monodendrons during collapse at the air-water interface. A power law relation between compression rate and surface pressure and an Arrhenius temperature dependence of the steady-state creep rate were observed in data from compression rate and creep experiments in the collapse region. These relations were combined into a single constitutive equation to calculate the temperature dependence of the collapse pressure with a maximum error of 5 percent for temperatures ranging from 10 degrees to 25 degrees C.  (+info)

Variation in echogenicity of the basal ganglia: anisotropic effect. (3/2188)

We observed that the fetal brain demonstrates relatively increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia compared with the thalami and cortical brain parenchyma, which we did not observe on neonatal sonograms. We hypothesized that the difference in relative echogenicity was due to differences in imaging techniques and anisotropic effects for prenatal and postnatal brain images. In 18 consecutive neonates, we obtained coronal images of the basal ganglia and thalami through the anterior fontanelle and axial images through the anterolateral fontanelle with both 5 and 7.5 MHz transducers. Two observers determined whether increased echogenicity or conspicuity of the basal ganglia was present, comparing the axial and coronal planes. We observed relatively increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia in the axial plane in 11 of the 16 examinations in this series. Of these 11, the increased echogenicity effect was manifest only in the axial plane in seven neonates. In the four instances in which the increased basal ganglia echogenicity was seen in both the coronal and axial planes, the effect was better shown in axial plane in all four. We did not observe any cases of increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia only in the coronal plane. The increased echogenicity was more conspicuous with the lower frequency transducer in 10 of the 11 examinations. We believe that the change in echogenicity of the basal ganglia is predominantly an anisotropic effect. Observing that increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia can disappear or decrease when comparing images in the axial to the coronal plane or be better demonstrated with lower frequency transducers might be a means by which to distinguish this phenomenon from true pathologic processes of the neonatal brain.  (+info)

GroEL-GroES cycling: ATP and nonnative polypeptide direct alternation of folding-active rings. (4/2188)

The double-ring chaperonin GroEL mediates protein folding in the central cavity of a ring bound by ATP and GroES, but it is unclear how GroEL cycles from one folding-active complex to the next. We observe that hydrolysis of ATP within the cis ring must occur before either nonnative polypeptide or GroES can bind to the trans ring, and this is associated with reorientation of the trans ring apical domains. Subsequently, formation of a new cis-ternary complex proceeds on the open trans ring with polypeptide binding first, which stimulates the ATP-dependent dissociation of the cis complex (by 20- to 50-fold), followed by GroES binding. These results indicate that, in the presence of nonnative protein, GroEL alternates its rings as folding-active cis complexes, expending only one round of seven ATPs per folding cycle.  (+info)

The influence of large scanning eye movements on stereoscopic slant estimation of large surfaces. (5/2188)

The results of several experiments demonstrate that the estimated magnitude of perceived slant of large stereoscopic surfaces increases with the duration of the presentation. In these experiments, subjects were free to make eye movements. A possible explanation for the increase is that the visual system needs to scan the stimulus with eye movements (which take time) before it can make a reliable estimate of slant. We investigated the influence of large scanning eye movements on stereoscopic slant estimation of large surfaces. Six subjects estimated the magnitude of slant about the vertical or horizontal axis induced by large-field stereograms of which one half-image was transformed by horizontal scale, horizontal shear, vertical scale, vertical shear, divergence or rotation relative to the other half-image. The experiment was blocked in three sessions. Each session was devoted to one of the following fixation strategies: central fixation, peripheral (20 deg) fixation and active scanning of the stimulus. The presentation duration in each of the sessions was 0.5, 2 or 8 s. Estimations were done with and without a visual reference. The magnitudes of estimated slant and the perceptual biases were not significantly influenced by the three fixation strategies. Thus, our results provide no support for the hypothesis that the time used for the execution of large scanning eye movements explains the build-up of estimated slant with the duration of the stimulus presentation.  (+info)

An orientation anisotropy in the effects of scaling vertical disparities. (6/2188)

Garding et al. (Vis Res 1995;35:703-722) proposed a two-stage theory of stereopsis. The first uses horizontal disparities for relief computations after they have been subjected to a process called disparity correction that utilises vertical disparities. The second stage, termed disparity normalisation, is concerned with computing metric representations from the output of stage one. It uses vertical disparities to a much lesser extent, if at all, for small field stimuli. We report two psychophysical experiments that tested whether human vision implements this two-stage theory. They tested the prediction that scaling vertical disparities to simulate different viewing distances to the fixation point should affect the perceived amplitudes of vertically but not horizontally oriented ridges. The first used elliptical half-cylinders and the 'apparently circular cylinder' judgement task of Johnston (Vis Res 1991;31:1351-1360). The second experiment used parabolic ridges and the amplitude judgement task of Buckley and Frisby (Vis Res 1993;33:919-934). Both studies broadly confirmed the anisotropy prediction by finding that large scalings of vertical disparities simulating near distances had a strong effect on the perceived amplitudes of the vertically oriented stimuli but little effect on the horizontal ones. When distances > 25 cm were simulated there were no significant differential effects and various methodological reasons are offered for this departure from expectations.  (+info)

Ultrafast primary processes in photosystem I of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. (7/2188)

Ultrafast primary processes in the trimeric photosystem I core antenna-reaction center complex of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 have been examined in pump-probe experiments with approximately 100 fs resolution. A global analysis of two-color profiles, excited at 660 nm and probed at 5 nm intervals from 650 to 730 nm, reveals 430 fs kinetics for spectral equilibration among bulk antenna chlorophylls. At least two lifetime components (2.0 and 6.5 ps in our analysis) are required to describe equilibration of bulk chlorophylls with far red-absorbing chlorophylls (>700 nm). Trapping at P700 occurs with 24-ps kinetics. The multiphasic bulk left arrow over right arrow red equilibration kinetics are intriguing, because prior steady-state spectral studies have suggested that the core antenna in Synechocystis sp. contains only one red-absorbing chlorophyll species (C708). The disperse kinetics may arise from inhomogeneous broadening in C708. The one-color optical anisotropy at 680 nm (near the red edge of the bulk antenna) decays with 590 fs kinetics; the corresponding anisotropy at 710 nm shows approximately 3.1 ps kinetics. The latter may signal equilibration among symmetry-equivalent red chlorophylls, bound to different monomers within trimeric photosystem I.  (+info)

The pentaene macrolide antibiotic filipin prefers more rigid DPPC bilayers: a fluorescence pressure dependence study. (8/2188)

Filipin is a pentaene macrolide antibiotic which was previously shown to incorporate more extensively into DPPC bilayers below the main phase transition temperature than above this temperature. This result was extremely unusual because drugs tend to be expelled from ordered gel phases. However, such results could not be safely attributed to the phase change of the bilayer itself because the temperature was changing concomitantly. In this work we changed the bilayer phase isothermally (53 degrees C) by hydrostatic pressure variation and discovered that filipin has a slightly more extensive incorporation in the pure DPPC gel phase (P>ca. 54.4 MPa): Kp,lc approximately 3x10(3) vs. Kp,gel approximately 6x10(3). The presence of sterols (45% molar ergosterol or cholesterol) caused an increase in the partition coefficients, regardless of pressure, ergosterol having a more pronounced effect (Kp approximately 2x10(4)-6x10(4)). Kp was pressure dependent in both cases, but mainly with cholesterol (Kp approximately 2x10(3)-2x10(4)). At variance with cholesterol, when ergosterol was used, no phase transition was detected. This difference cannot be due to a more extended uptake of filipin by cholesterol-containing membranes, and so must be due to specific interactions with cholesterol. In agreement with this finding, we discovered that filipin is more tightly packed (lower partial molar volume) in the cholesterol-rich phase than in the ergosterol-rich phase. Our results also point to a 2:1 DPPC:cholesterol stoichiometry in the cholesterol-rich phase (17% molar cholesterol). All partition coefficients were calculated from steady-state fluorescence anisotropy measurements.  (+info)

*Brain mapping

... weighted by fractional anisotropy and strength of connection. Brain mapping techniques are constantly evolving, and rely on the ...

*Curie temperature

The anisotropy in the bulk is different from its surface anisotropy just above these phase changes as the magnetic moments will ... It is said to have a high anisotropy on the surface, that is it is highly directed in one orientation. It remains ferromagnetic ... The size of a particle also affects the anisotropy causing alignment to become less stable and thus lead to disorder in ...

*Anisotropy

Seismic anisotropy is the variation of seismic wavespeed with direction. Seismic anisotropy is an indicator of long range order ... Physicists use the term anisotropy to describe direction-dependent properties of materials. Magnetic anisotropy, for example, ... An "axis of anisotropy" is defined as the axis along which isotropy is broken (or an axis of symmetry, such as normal to ... Anisotropy in minerals is most reliably seen in their optical properties. An example of an isotropic mineral is garnet. ...

*Anisotropy energy

The word anisotropy means "directionally dependent", hence the definition. The most common form of anisotropic energy is ... In order to study magnetocrystalline anisotropy, energy (usually in the form of an electric current) is applied to the domain, ... Magnetic anisotropy Brune, Harald (November 2007). "Nanomagnetism: Probing magnetism at the nanoscale". Nature Nanotechnology. ... magnetocrystalline anisotropy, which is commonly studied in ferrimagnets. In ferrimagnets, there are islands or domains of ...

*Magnetocrystalline anisotropy

It is a special case of magnetic anisotropy. The spin-orbit interaction is the primary source of magnetocrystalline anisotropy ... The anisotropy of such crystals is called uniaxial anisotropy. If the z axis is taken to be the main symmetry axis of the ... while that for uniaxial anisotropy is second order. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy parameters have a strong dependence on ... The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy is generally represented as an expansion in powers of the direction cosines of the ...

*Seismic anisotropy

... prestack depth anisotropy migration, and fracture characterization based on anisotropy velocity models. The anisotropy ... In sedimentary rocks, anisotropy develops during and after deposition. For anisotropy to develop, there needs to be some degree ... Anisotropy differs from the rock property called heterogeneity in that anisotropy is the variation in vectorial values with ... Thus the anisotropy parameter obtained through core measurement technique only represent the anisotropy property of rock near ...

*Magnetic anisotropy

Magnetoelastic anisotropy Tension may alter magnetic behaviour, leading to magnetic anisotropy. Exchange anisotropy Occurs when ... A magnetic particle with cubic anisotropy has three or four easy axes, depending on the anisotropy parameters. The energy has ... There are several sources of magnetic anisotropy: Magnetocrystalline anisotropy The atomic structure of a crystal introduces ... the anisotropy is uniaxial. A magnetic particle with triaxial anisotropy still has a single easy axis, but it also has a hard ...

*Fractional anisotropy

... (FA) is a scalar value between zero and one that describes the degree of anisotropy of a diffusion ... called Generalized Fractional Anisotropy. GFA computations use samples of the ODF to evaluate the anisotropy in diffusion. They ... have been used to define newer and richer estimates of the anisotropy, ...

*Fluorescence anisotropy

Steady-state fluorescence anisotropy only give an "average" anisotropy. Much more information can be obtained with time- ... residual anisotropy and rotational correlation time can all be determined from fitting the anisotropy decay. Typically a ... Where r is the observed anisotropy, r0 is the intrinsic anisotropy of the molecule, τ {\displaystyle \tau } is the fluorescence ... The anisotropy (r) of a light source is defined as the ratio of the polarized component to the total intensity ( I T {\ ...

*Dipole anisotropy

... is a form of anisotropy and the progressive difference in the frequency of radiation from opposite directions ...

*Mobile Anisotropy Telescope

MAT is an experiment to measure the anisotropy of the Cosmic microwave background at angular scales of 50 < l < 400. Cosmic ...

*Cosmic Anisotropy Telescope

... (CAT) online The first detection of small-scale structure in the cosmic microwave background Press ... The Cosmic Anisotropy Telescope (CAT) was a three-element interferometer for cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB/R) ...

*Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe

The Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP), originally known as the Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP), was a spacecraft ... The anisotropies then were used to measure the universe's geometry, content, and evolution; and to test the Big Bang model, and ... 2003a). "The Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) Mission". Astrophysical Journal. 583 (1): 1-23. arXiv:astro-ph/0301158 . Bibcode: ... "Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe: Overview". Goddard Space Flight Center. August 4, 2009. Retrieved September 24, 2009. The ...

*Residual chemical shift anisotropy

... (RCSA) is the difference between the chemical shift anisotropy (CSA) of aligned and non- ... Lipsitz, Rebecca S.; Tjandra, Nico (2003). "15N chemical shift anisotropy in protein structure refinement and comparison with ... and Carbonyl Chemical Shielding Anisotropies in a Protein Dissolved in a Dilute Liquid Crystalline Phase". Journal of the ... "Determination of Relative Configuration from Residual Chemical Shift Anisotropy". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 138 ...

*Cosmic Anisotropy Polarization Mapper

CAPMAP is an experiment at Princeton university to measure the polarization of the Cosmic microwave background. Cosmic microwave background experiments Observational cosmology CAPMAP ...

*Millimeter Anisotropy eXperiment IMaging Array

The Millimeter Anisotropy eXperiment IMaging Array (MAXIMA) experiment was a balloon-borne experiment funded by the U.S. NSF, ...

*Neodymium magnet

"Magnetic Anisotropy". Hitchhiker's Guide to Magnetism. Retrieved 2 March 2014. Boysen, Earl; Muir, Nancy C. (2011). ... most important is that the tetragonal Nd2Fe14B crystal structure has exceptionally high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy ...

*Kenneth G. McCracken

"Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy". NASA. Retrieved 24 May 2012. ...

*Inverse magnetostrictive effect

This magnetic anisotropy pushed authors to define two independent longitudinal magnetostrictions λ 100 {\displaystyle \lambda ...

*List of cosmic microwave background experiments

"Balloon-Borne Anisotropy Measurement (BAM)". Brown University. 2002. Retrieved 22 July 2015. Polenta, G.; P. A. R., Ade; J., ... Some notable experiments in the list are COBE, which first detected the temperature anisotropies of the CMB, and showed that it ... There have been a variety of experiments to measure the CMB anisotropies and polarization since its first observation in 1964 ... This list is a compilation of experiments measuring the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation anisotropies and ...

*Interindividual differences in perception

Chaudhuri, Avi (1991). "Metastable motion anisotropy". Visual Neuroscience. 7 (5): 397-407. doi:10.1017/s0952523800009706. PMID ...

*Isotropy

Exceptions, or inequalities, are frequently indicated by the prefix an, hence anisotropy. Anisotropy is also used to describe ... "Anisotropy and Isotropy". Landman L. "The Epidermal Permeability Barrier." Anat Embryol (Berl) 1988; 178:1-13 [1] Gregoriadis G ... An example of anisotropy is in flows with a background density as gravity works in only one direction. The apparent surface ...

*Autowave reverberator

Anisotropy induced drift. Boundary induced drift (see also). Interaction of spirals. High frequency induced drift. Note that ...

*Magnetomechanical effects

Magnetostriction Magnetocrystalline anisotropy. ...

*Collimated transmission theory

These optical properties are described by the absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs, and anisotropy factor g. In ... scattering anisotropy = ; μt = extinction coefficient = μa + μs Where Na is the number of absorbers in a medium, 𝜎a is the ...
Background: Non-missile traumatic brain injury (nmTBI) without macroscopically detectable lesions often results in cognitive impairments that negatively affect daily life.. Aim: To identify abnormal white matter projections in patients with nmTBI with cognitive impairments using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI).. Methods: DTI scans of healthy controls were compared with those of 23 patients with nmTBI who manifested cognitive impairments but no obvious neuroradiological lesions. DTI was comprised of fractional anisotropy analysis, which included voxel-based analysis and confirmatory study using regions of interest (ROI) techniques, and magnetic resonance tractography of the corpus callosum and fornix.. Results: A decline in fractional anisotropy around the genu, stem and splenium of the corpus callosum was shown by voxel-based analysis. Fractional anisotropy values of the genu (0.47), stem (0.48), and splenium of the corpus callosum (0.52), and the column of the fornix (0.51) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Augmenting the anisotropic network model with torsional potentials improves PATH performance, enabling detailed comparison with experimental rate data. AU - Chandrasekaran,Srinivas Niranj. AU - Carter,Charles W.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - PATH algorithms for identifying conformational transition states provide computational parameters-time to the transition state, conformational free energy differences, and transition state activation energies-for comparison to experimental data and can be carried out sufficiently rapidly to use in the "high throughput" mode.These advantages are especially useful for interpreting results from combinatorial mutagenesis experiments. This report updates the previously published algorithm with enhancements that improve correlations between PATH convergence parameters derived from virtual variant structures generated by RosettaBackrub and previously published kinetic data for a complete, four-way combinatorial mutagenesis of a conformational ...
The simulation and calculation of the electromagnetic fields for a given head geometry and source distribution inside the brain is known as the forward problem or the forward solution. Localization of brain sources from measured bioelectromagnetic fields is carried out using an inverse procedure, which incorporates a forward solution, and is dependent on its accuracy. The primary question in volume conductor modeling is how accurate a description of the geometry and conductivities of the tissues inside the head is necessary for accurate forward solutions and as a result for accurate source localizations. In this paper, we address this issue primarily for the intracranial domain by comparing the intracranial forward solutions of progressively detailed realistic models to experimental data obtained with known source locations.. Experimental studies have been carried out in tank models of the head and in vivo. A tank model study (Henderson et al. 1975), using a skull filled with saline and an ...
From the diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion anisotropy measures such as the fractional anisotropy (FA), can be computed. Moreover, the principal direction of the diffusion tensor can be used to infer the white matter connectivity of the brain (i.e. tractography; trying to see which part of the brain is connected to which other part). Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a scalar value between zero and one that describes the degree of anisotropy of a diffusion process. A value of zero means that diffusion is isotropic, i.e. it is unrestricted (or equally restricted) in all directions. A value of one means that diffusion occurs only along one axis and is fully restricted along all other directions. FA is a measure often used in diffusion imaging where it is thought to reflect fiber density, axonal diameter, and myelination in white matter. The FA is an extension of the concept of eccentricity of conic sections in 3 dimensions, normalized to the unit range. FA values of the gray matter, especially in the ...
Humans differ substantially in their ability to implicitly extract structural regularities from experience, as required for learning the grammar of a language. The mechanisms underlying this fundamental inter-individual difference, which may determine initial success in language learning, are incompletely understood. Here, we use diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI) to determine white matter integrity around Brocas area, which is crucially involved in both natural and artificial language processing. Twelve young, right-handed individuals completed an artificial grammar learning task, and DTI of their brains were acquired. Inter-individual variability in performance correlated with white matter integrity (increasing fractional anisotropy (FA)) in fibres arising from Brocas area (left BA 44/45), but not from its right-hemispheric homologue. Variability in performance based on superficial familiarity did not show this association. Moreover, when Brocas area was used as a seed mask for
We report on the synthesis, microstructure and mass transport properties of a colloidal hydrogel self-assembled from a mixture of colloidal silica and nontronite clay plates at different particle concentrations. The gel-structure had uniaxial long-range anisotropy caused by alignment of the clay particles in
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem. Even injuries classified as mild, the most common, can result in persistent neurobehavioural impairment. Diffuse axonal injury is a common finding after TBI, and is presumed to contribute to outcomes, but may not always be apparent using standard neuroimaging. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a more recent method of assessing axonal integrity in vivo. The primary objective of the current investigation was to characterize white matter integrity utilizing DTI across the spectrum of chronic TBI of all severities. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between white matter integrity and cognition. Twenty mild, 17 moderate to severe TBI and 18 controls underwent DTI and neuropsychological testing. Fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity were calculated from the DTI data. Fractional anisotropy was the primary measure of white matter integrity. Region of interest analysis included anterior and ...
The article discusses the proposal for a "Charter of Digital Fundamental Rights of the European Union," whose central element is a binding effect of its fundamental rights not only to state authorities, but also to powerful private internet companies, which have a potential similar to that of the state to infringe on fundamental rights in the digital era. The article outlines the traditional German approach to fundamental rights and its underlying distinction between state and society, which makes it difficult for German scholars to handle a so-called horizontal effect of fundamental rights. Finally, the article discusses the main objections to such a horizontal effect and shows some practical problems it has the potential to cause in German and European constitutional law. ...
Results-The FA laterality index for the cerebral peduncle-regions of interest was a poor predictor of 3-month outcome (R2=0.044; P=0.137), whereas the slope over the FA laterality index of the nearest-5-slices showed a relatively weak but significant prediction (R2=0.11; P=0.022) with the affected side having lower FA values. Initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer (R2=0.69; P,0.001) and the weighted CST lesion load (R2=0.71; P,0.001) were strong predictors of 3-month outcome. In multivariate analyses, controlling for initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer, weighted CST lesion load, and days-of-therapy, neither the FA laterality index of the cerebral peduncle nor the slope over the FA laterality index of the nearest-5-slices significantly contributed to the prediction of 86% of the variance in the upper extremity Fugl-Meyer at 3 months. ...
The spinal cord is frequently involved in MS, and it is a clinically eloquent site of damage with a relevant contribution to the accumulation of irreversible physical disability.42 There is growing evidence indicating that MS tissue damage in both the brain and SC is not limited to WM but also involves the GM.13 Our DKI study in patients with MS showed extensive cervical spinal cord damage and particularly more severely at the lesional level than in normal-appearing tissue. This is in agreement with previous DTI studies that found decreased fractional anisotropy values and increased mean diffusivity values in the cervical SC of patients with MS in comparison with healthy controls.16,20 The pathologic substrate underlying the changes in DTI metrics is represented by demyelination and axonal loss occurring in spinal cord T2-visible lesions and in normal-appearing tissue.43,44 Both demyelination and axonal loss lead to an increase of the extracellular volume,8 which is reflected by reduced ...
We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study 2 patients with traumatic brain injury. The first patient recovered reliable expressive language after 19 years in a minimally conscious state (MCS); the second had remained in MCS for 6 years. Comparison of white matter integrity in the patients and 20 normal subjects using histograms of apparent diffusion constants and diffusion anisotropy identified widespread altered diffusivity and decreased anisotropy in the damaged white matter. These findings remained unchanged over an 18-month interval between 2 studies in the first patient. In addition, in this patient, we identified large, bilateral regions of posterior white matter with significantly increased anisotropy that reduced over 18 months. In contrast, notable increases in anisotropy within the midline cerebellar white matter in the second study correlated with marked clinical improvements in motor functions. This finding was further correlated with an increase in resting metabolism measured ...
We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study 2 patients with traumatic brain injury. The first patient recovered reliable expressive language after 19 years in a minimally conscious state (MCS); the second had remained in MCS for 6 years. Comparison of white matter integrity in the patients and 20 normal subjects using histograms of apparent diffusion constants and diffusion anisotropy identified widespread altered diffusivity and decreased anisotropy in the damaged white matter. These findings remained unchanged over an 18-month interval between 2 studies in the first patient. In addition, in this patient, we identified large, bilateral regions of posterior white matter with significantly increased anisotropy that reduced over 18 months. In contrast, notable increases in anisotropy within the midline cerebellar white matter in the second study correlated with marked clinical improvements in motor functions. This finding was further correlated with an increase in resting metabolism measured ...
We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study 2 patients with traumatic brain injury. The first patient recovered reliable expressive language after 19 years in a minimally conscious state (MCS); the second had remained in MCS for 6 years. Comparison of white matter integrity in the patients and 20 normal subjects using histograms of apparent diffusion constants and diffusion anisotropy identified widespread altered diffusivity and decreased anisotropy in the damaged white matter. These findings remained unchanged over an 18-month interval between 2 studies in the first patient. In addition, in this patient, we identified large, bilateral regions of posterior white matter with significantly increased anisotropy that reduced over 18 months. In contrast, notable increases in anisotropy within the midline cerebellar white matter in the second study correlated with marked clinical improvements in motor functions. This finding was further correlated with an increase in resting metabolism measured ...
We present evolution equations for a family of paths that results from anisotropically weighting curve energies in non-linear statistics of manifold valued data. This situation arises when performing inference on data that have non-trivial covariance and are anisotropic distributed. The family can be interpreted as most probable paths for a driving semi-martingale that through stochastic development is mapped to the manifold. We discuss how the paths are projections of geodesics for a sub-Riemannian metric on the frame bundle of the manifold, and how the curvature of the underlying connection appears in the sub-Riemannian Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Evolution equations for both metric and cometric formulations of the sub-Riemannian metric are derived. We furthermore show how rank-deficient metrics can be mixed with an underlying Riemannian metric, and we relate the paths to geodesics and polynomials in Riemannian geometry. Examples from the family of paths are visualized on embedded surfaces, and we
Distributed anisotropic diffusion provides a wrapper program around ITKs anisotropic diffusion filters that allows an input image to be spread across
Distributed anisotropic diffusion provides a wrapper program around ITKs anisotropic diffusion filters that allows an input image to be spread across
We apply the full-wave electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering by a small cylindrical particle with radial anisotropy for normally incident light with transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. The scattering coefficients are derived, when the radial anisotropies in both the permittivity and permeability tensors are taken into account. It is shown that the surface and volume plasmon resonances can be identified by the sign of dεt/dq, in which εt is the permittivity element in a direction tangential to the local r-axis, and q is the size parameter. The near field distributions for surface and volume modes are illustrated by finite element method. It is found that small changes of anisotropy can affect the scattering efficiencies significantly. Moreover, the quadrupole and octupole resonant peaks may be much higher and sharper than those of dipole resonance in the scattering efficiency spectra ...
Identifying the functional motions of membrane proteins is difficult because they range from large-scale collective dynamics to local small atomic fluctuations at different timescales that are difficult to measure experimentally due to the hydrophobic nature of these proteins. Elastic Network Models, and in particular their most widely used implementation, the Anisotropic Network Model (ANM), have proven to be useful computational methods in many recent applications to predict membrane protein dynamics. These models are based on the premise that biomolecules possess intrinsic mechanical characteristics uniquely defined by their particular architectures. In the ANM, interactions between residues in close proximity are represented by harmonic potentials with a uniform spring constant. The slow mode shapes generated by the ANM provide valuable information on the global dynamics of biomolecules that are relevant to their function. In its recent extension in the form of ANM-guided molecular dynamics ...
The influence of scattering anisotropy on polarized light transport in microsphere solutions was studied experimentally an with Monte Carlo programs. Anisotropy is an important parameter in the depolarization of light traveling through a scattering media.. © Optical Society of America. PDF Article ...
Y. Shimotsuma, M. Nakabayasi, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and P. G. Kazansky, "Optical anisotropy of self-assembled nanostructure in glass," in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper BW1D.1 ...
Immune responses to exercise generally consist of induced lymphocyte populations (mainly T-cells, B-cells and natural killer cells) in the blood under exercise and immune suppression during regeneration (29). The inflicted damages of the CNS structures lead to dysregulations of the inflammatory balance in favour of a pro-inflammatory state that may be targeted and modulated via exercise (12). MS research has more and more focused on the role of cytokines and neurotrophic factors linking the beneficial effects of exercise found in elder adults and animal studies also with MS pathogenesis. Data from cross-sectional studies in pwMS show positive associations between the levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of grey matter atrophy and white matter integrity: in 21 pwMS (EDSS 1.0-6.0) high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness were positively correlated with grey matter volume and higher focal fractional anisotropy values (33).However, training interventions studies in pwMS show mixed ...
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the sensitivity of a recently developed whole-brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) sequence to cerebral pathology and disability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and compare with measures derived from diffusion tensor imaging. METHODS: Whole-brain MRSI and diffusion tensor imaging were undertaken in 13 patients and 14 age-similar healthy controls. Mean N-acetylaspartate (NAA), fractional anisotropy, and mean diffusivity were extracted from the corticospinal tract, compared between groups, and then in relation to disability in the patient group. RESULTS: Significant reductions in NAA were found along the course of the corticospinal tracts on whole-brain MRSI. There were also significant changes in fractional anisotropy (decreased) and mean diffusivity (increased) in the patient group, but only NAA showed a significant relationship with disability (r = 0.65, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Whole-brain MRSI has potential as a quantifiable neuroimaging marker of
Host: Core B, Dr. Ivet Bahar. Place: Victoria Building, Room 228. Date and Time: Wednesday, Oct. 5, 2016, 3:00 - 4:40 pm. 3:00 - 3:10 pm General Business for CDAR 3:10 - 4:20 pm Core B Monthly Report Update Presenters: Dr. Hongchun Li (Postdoctoral Associate, Bahar lab) gave an update on his work describing γ-secretase as an attractive target for treatment of Alzheimers disease and presented potential figures for a manuscript. G-secretase is a membrane protein and its function is related to many diseases. Recently, its 3-dimensional intact structure was determined, and we studied the intact structure with anisotropic network model (ANM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our ANM model showed interesting motions related with modulator binding in a cavity, and our MD simulations found that the cavity is druggable. We also provided atomistic details of potential modulators in the cavity.. Title of presentation: "Dynamic Modulation of Binding Affinity as a Mechanism to Regulate Interferon ...
Critical white matter structures in the brains of babies who are born so prematurely that they weigh less than 1,500 grams develop more robustly when their mothers breast-feed them, compared with preemie peers who are fed formula.
High-resolution, 3D reconstructions of the ONH were generated for four clinically confirmed normal and two clinically confirmed glaucomatous human donor eyes from six donors. Eyes were immersion fixed at 10 mmHg and reconstructed using a custom automated microtome-based system that serially images the embedded tissue block face at 1.5 µm resolution in the fluorescent domain after each 1.5 µm section is cut. The images are then aligned and stacked into a digital 3D ONH reconstruction with 1.5x1.5x1.5 µm voxel resolution. The lamina cribrosa (LC) architecture was delineated and segmented and the laminar microarchitecture was sampled on a discrete grid to compute the connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF), the degree of anisotropy and the predominant laminar beam orientation within each sampling volume. CTVF, LC beam orientation, and LC beam anisotropy were mapped for each eye and compared.. ...
Anisotropy at the nanoscale is a critical factor in the mechanical, optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of nanoparticles. Indeed, many unusual properties of colloidal materials arise due to heterogeneous spatial confinement of electrons, plasmons and electric fields around the particles. As the field of nanoparticle synthesis and application matures, there is an increasing need for the design of novel and more complex nanosized objects. In particular, the incorporation of multiple functionalities, the directionality of such functions, and the incorporation of lower or higher dimensional order have great relevance and interest for biomolecule detection, diagnosis and therapeutic medical applications ...
We have analyzed the effect of microstructural changes on the initiation and growth of shear bands. These have been studied by developing an adaptive mesh refinement technique to decipher adiabatic shear bands in two-dimensional problems, formulating a three-dimensional finite-deformation theory for dipolar thermoviscoplastic materials and using it to examine the initiation and growth of shear bands in plane strain thermomechanical deformations of dipolar materials, employing an internal variable theory of Brown, Kim and Anand to study the shear band problem, investigating the possibility of phase transformations during the development of adiabatic shear bands in a steel specimen, ascertaining the speed of propagation of a shear band in a steel tube, assessing the effect of frictional forces between the loading device and the cylinder ends, and, analyzing the development of a shear band in a FCC single crystal. Principal results obtained during these investigations are summarized in the
We review results of recent combined theoretical and experimental studies of Ti1−xAlxN, an archetypical alloy system material for hard-coating applications. Theoretical simulations of lattice parameters, mixing enthalpies, and elastic properties are presented. Calculated phase diagrams at ambient pressure, as well as at pressure of 10 GPa, show a wide miscibility gap and broad region of compositions and temperatures where the spinodal decomposition takes place. The strong dependence of the elastic properties and sound wave anisotropy on the Al-content offers detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti1−xAlxN alloy films and multilayers. TiAlN/TiN multilayers can further improve the hardness and thermal stability compared to TiAlN since they offer means to influence the kinetics of the favorable spinodal decomposition and suppress the detrimental transformation to w-AlN. Here, we show that a 100 degree improvement in terms of w-AlN suppression can be achieved, which
Below are some images from our gallery. Please click for full view. Image A) Images of T1W, T2W, DTI Fiber Orientations, Fractional Anisotropy at various stages of development. Image B) Animation of a T1W image from 3 months to 11 months. C) Cortical thickness output ...
Author(s): Griesel, A; Mcclean, JL; Gille, ST; Sprintall, J; Eden, C | Abstract: Lagrangian isopycnal diffusivities quantify the along-isopycnal mixing of any tracer with mean gradients along isopycnal surfaces. They are studied in the Southern Ocean of the 1/10° Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model using more than 50 000 float trajectories. Concurrent Eulerian isopycnal diffusivities are estimated directly from the eddy fluxes and mean tracer gradients. Consistency, spatial variation, and relation to mean jets are evaluated. The diffusivities are calculated in bins large enough to reduce contributions from the rotational components that do not lead to net tracer mixing. Because the mean jets are nonzonal and nonparallel, meridional dispersion includes standing eddies and is significantly different from cross-stream dispersion. With the subtraction of the local Eulerianmean, the full Lagrangian diffusivity tensor can be estimated. Along-stream diffusivities are about 6 times larger than cross-stream
These results were obtained with the following driver settings: Anisotropy: 16x (High Quality for AMD/ATI cards; note that AF quality of GeForce 6xxx/7xxx series is lower than that of the RADEON family) Antialiasing: 4x ...
These results were obtained with the following driver settings: Anisotropy: 16x (High Quality for AMD/ATI cards; note that AF quality of GeForce 6xxx/7xxx series is lower than that of the RADEON family) Antialiasing: 4x ...
These results were obtained with the following driver settings: Anisotropy: 16x (High Quality for AMD/ATI cards; note that AF quality of GeForce 6xxx/7xxx series is lower than that of the RADEON family) Antialiasing: 4x ...
Figure S4. 6-hydroxyindole transition bandshapes, 1La and 1Lb, calculated from eqns. (6) and (7), using limiting anisotropy values derived from the fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurement at 77 K, given in Fig. 4b: fa(λ), dashed line and fb(λ), solid line ...
Abstract , References , Additional Information Abstract: In a previous paper [7] it was shown that for waves propagating in certain linear anisotropic mechanical systems there exist universal connections between the phase speeds of harmonic plane waves. Here the results are shown to hold in a wider context ...
GOCEs highly sensitive gradiometer instrument has been switched on and is producing data. Forming the heart of GOCE, the gradiometer is specifically designed to measure Earths gravity field with unprecedented accuracy.. "We are very pleased with what we have seen from the gradiometer from the moment it was switched on. All accelerometer sensor heads are working in very good health and provide meaningful data," GOCE Project Manager Danilo Muzi said.. The gradiometer consists of three pairs of identical ultra-sensitive accelerometers, each mounted to point in orthogonal directions to allow the simultaneous measurement of the spatial variations of the gravity field.. With the switching on of the gradiometer, all systems on the satellite have now been activated. The satellites sophisticated electric ion propulsion system was switched on last week and continues to operate normally. In order to get the maximum performance from the gradiometer, GOCE was designed to provide a highly stable and ...
We present results from direct numerical simulations of the Boussinesq equations in the presence of rotation and/or stratification, both in the vertical direction. The runs are forced isotropically and randomly at small scales and have spatial resolutions of up to $1024^3$ grid points and Reynolds numbers of $$\approx 1000$$. We first show that solutions with negative energy flux and inverse cascades develop in rotating turbulence, whether or not stratification is present. However, the purely stratified case is characterized instead by an early-time, highly anisotropic transfer to large scales with almost zero net isotropic energy flux. This is consistent with previous studies that observed the development of vertically sheared horizontal winds, although only at substantially later times. However, and unlike previous works, when sufficient scale separation is allowed between the forcing scale and the domain size, the total energy displays a perpendicular (horizontal) spectrum with power law ...
The material structure in Maxwells equations is determined by the relative permittivity ε(x) and the relative permeability μ(x). However, ε is not only a function of position. In general, it also depends on frequency (material dispersion) and on the electric field E itself (nonlinearity). It may also depend on the orientation of the field (anisotropy). Material dispersion, in turn, is generally associated with absorption loss in the material, or possibly gain. All of these effects can be simulated in Meep, with certain restrictions. Similarly for the relative permeability μ(x), for which dispersion, nonlinearity, and anisotropy are all supported as well. In this section, we describe the form of the equations and material properties that Meep can simulate. The actual interface with which you specify these properties is described in the Meep reference. ...
R.F. Magnetron sputtered CoCr films (79/21 at%) with various thicknesses are magnetically characterized. The domain structure is observed by digitally enha
Diffusion, Tissue, Magnetic, Water, Work, Brain, Anisotropy, Displacement, Magnetic Field, Magnetic Resonance, Scales, Rat, Measure, Motion, Time, Pulse, Pathologies, Distance, Human, Diffusion Mri
The magnetic susceptibility along the c axis (xc) and in the basal plane (xb) has been measured on a single crystal of Gd in the reduced temperature range 410-4t1.310-2. Uniaxial anisotropy is observed. Magnetic dipole-dipole ...
Cell, Chromatography, Electronic, Ligands, Parent, Reagents, Absorption, Anisotropy, Charge, Diffusion, Dmso, Fluorescence, Homo, Nature, Relaxation, Scales, Time, Transfer, Transient
Background The tectorial membrane (TM) in the mammalian cochlea displays anisotropy, where mechanical or structural properties differ along varying directions. The anisotropy arises from the presence of collagen fibrils organized in fibers of ∼1 µm diameter that run radially across the TM. Mechanical coupling between the TM and the sensory epithelia is required for normal hearing. However, the lack of a suitable technique to measure mechanical anisotropy at the microscale level has hindered understanding of the TMs precise role. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report values of the three elastic moduli that characterize the anisotropic mechanical properties of the TM. Our novel technique combined Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), modeling, and optical tracking of microspheres to determine the elastic moduli. We found that the TMs large mechanical anisotropy results in a marked transmission of deformations along the direction that maximizes sensory cell excitation, whereas in the perpendicular
Six men performed ankle plantar flexion exercises with eccentric contraction. The fractional anisotropy (FA), λ1, λ2, λ3, mean diffusivity (MD), and T2 values in the triceps surae muscles were measured by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor and spin-echo imaging. Passive torque of plantar flexors, maximal voluntary isometric plantar flexion torques (MVIP), and Achilles tendon stiffness during MVIP were measured by combined ultrasonography and dynamometry. Plasma creatine kinase and muscle soreness were also assessed. These parameters were measured before and 1-8 days postexercise. ...
The analysis of DTI images showed that injured nerves have lower FA values as compared to the naïve nerves. It suggests that in area distally to coaptation site of injured nerves water diffuses in various directions indicating low structural integrity whereas most of the water inside of the naïve nerve diffuses in the same direction. FA has increased or did not change in the proximal and transection segment of injured nerve across groups from 2 to 5 weeks post-surgery. In the distal segment, FA value has increased by a noticeable margin in IGF-1 group and to a lesser degree, in FK506 treated group. This correlated strongly with changes in GAP43 expression, neurofilament M and myelin expressions in the distal nerve fragment ...
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques have made it possible to investigate white matter plasticity in humans. Changes in DTI measures, principally increases in fractional anisotropy (FA), have been observed following training programs as diverse as juggling, meditation, and working memory. Here, we sought to test whether three months of reasoning training could alter white matter microstructure. We recruited participants (n=23) who were enrolled in a course to prepare for the Law School Admission Test (LSAT), a test that places strong demands on reasoning skills, as well as age- and IQ-matched controls planning to take the LSAT in the future (n=22). DTI data were collected at two scan sessions scheduled three months apart. In trained participants but not controls, we observed decreases in radial diffusivity (RD) in white matter connecting frontal cortices, and in mean diffusivity (MD) within frontal and parietal lobe white matter. Further, participants exhibiting larger gains on the LSAT exhibited
OBJECTIVES: To compare diffusion tensor-magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) of human calf muscles at 1.5 T and 3.0 T, and to measure a number of quantitative parameters to characterize diffusion anisotropy in organized muscle tissue using similar imaging parameters. METHODS AND MATERIALS: After Institutional Review Board approval and informed consent, five healthy volunteers were studied. Imaging was performed on both 1.5 T and 3.0 T MR systems using the similar imaging protocol. Diffusion-sensitized single-shot spin-echo echo planar imaging pulse sequences were used to collect 2-dimensional images through the calf. Imaging was performed using b-values of 0, 300, 500, and 700 s/mm. Image analyses and tensor calculations were performed offline using DT imaging studio (Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD). The eigenvalues (lambda1, lambda2, lambda3), trace of the diffusion tensor (TrD), fractional anisotropy, relative anisotropy, and volume ratio were calculated in 3 different calf muscles ...
UNLABELLED: Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy involve significant interpersonal and behavioural impairments. However, little is known about their underlying neurobiology and in particular, abnormalities in white matter (WM) microstructure. A preliminary diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) study of adult psychopaths employing tractography revealed abnormalities in the right uncinate fasciculus (UF) (Craig et al., 2009), indicating fronto-limbic disconnectivity. However, it is not clear whether WM abnormalities are restricted to this tract or are or more widespread, including other tracts which are involved in connectivity with the frontal lobe. We performed whole brain voxel-based analyses on WM fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps acquired with DT-MRI to compare 15 adults with ASPD and healthy age, handedness and IQ-matched controls. Also, within ASPD subjects we related differences in FA and MD to measures of psychopathy. Significant WM FA
UNLABELLED: Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy involve significant interpersonal and behavioural impairments. However, little is known about their underlying neurobiology and in particular, abnormalities in white matter (WM) microstructure. A preliminary diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DT-MRI) study of adult psychopaths employing tractography revealed abnormalities in the right uncinate fasciculus (UF) (Craig et al., 2009), indicating fronto-limbic disconnectivity. However, it is not clear whether WM abnormalities are restricted to this tract or are or more widespread, including other tracts which are involved in connectivity with the frontal lobe. We performed whole brain voxel-based analyses on WM fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) maps acquired with DT-MRI to compare 15 adults with ASPD and healthy age, handedness and IQ-matched controls. Also, within ASPD subjects we related differences in FA and MD to measures of psychopathy. Significant WM FA
An ovine model can cast great insight in translational neuroscientific research due to its large brain volume and distinct regional neuroanatomical structures. The present study examined the applicability of brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to sheep using a clinical MR scanner (3 tesla) with a head coil. The blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) fMRI was performed on anesthetized sheep during the block-based presentation of external tactile and visual stimuli using gradient echo-planar-imaging (EPI) sequence. The individual as well as group-based data processing subsequently showed activation in the eloquent sensorimotor and visual areas. DTI was acquired using 26 differential magnetic gradient directions to derive directional fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values from the brain. White matter tractography was also applied to reveal the macrostructure of the corticospinal tracts and optic radiations. Utilization
Ultra-short laser pulse induced optical anisotropy of LaMnO3 thin films grown on SrTiO3 substrates were observed by irradiation with a femto-second laser pulse with the fluence of less than 0.1 mJ/cm2 at room temperature. The transmittance and reflectance showed different intensities for different polarization states of the probe pulse after pump pulse irradiation. The theoretical optical transmittance and re ectance that assumed an orbital ordering of the 3d eg electrons in Mn3+ ions resulted in an anisotropic time dependent changes similar to those obtained from the experimental results, suggesting that the photo-induced optical anisotropy of LaMnO3 is a result of photo-induced symmetry breaking of the orbital ordering for an optically excited state. ...
We describe the use of the fast Fourier transform (FFT) in the measurement of anisotropy in electrospun scaffolds of gelatin as a function of the starting conditions. In electrospinning, fiber alignment and overall scaffold anisotropy can be manipulated by controlling the motion of the collecting mandrel with respect to the source electrospinning solution. By using FFT to assign relative alignment values to an electrospun matrix it is possible to systematically evaluate how different processing variables impact the structure and material properties of a scaffold. Gelatin was suspended at varying concentrations (80, 100, 130, 150 mg/ml) and electrospun from 2,2,2 trifluoroethanol onto rotating mandrels (200-7000 RPM). At each starting concentration, fiber diameter remained constant over a wide range of mandrel RPM. Scaffold anisotropy developed as a function of fiber diameter and mandrel RPM. The induction of varying degrees of anisotropy imparted distinctive material properties to the electrospun
Researchers report that magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) allowed them to estimate three months in advance the chronic effects of inflammation of the optic nerve.
Introduction - The infarct border zone (BZ) consists of a mixture of fibrotic scar and viable myocardium and is important in ventricular arrhythmogenesis. Late gadolinium enhanced (LGE) MRI can be used to identify infarct and BZ, but the magnitude of microstructural remodeling within the BZ is incompletely characterized. Diffusion tensor MRI (DT-MRI) evaluates microstructural remodeling by quantifying cellularity (increases with decreasing tensor trace), fibrosis (increases with decreasing fractional anisotropy, FA), and tissue mode (increase in fiber disarray with decreasing mode). Our objective was to quantify microstructural remodeling in the BZ using DT-MRI.. Methods - Porcine infarcts were made by balloon occlusion of the LCx (N1=4) or RCA (N2=1); or microbead obstruction of the LAD (N3=3). Gd-DTPA was injected (0.1mmol/kg) on week 8 and circulated for 15 minutes before sacrifice. Normal pigs (N=5) served as controls. Excised hearts were imaged with LGE MRI (0.33×0.33×0.33-0.50mm) and ...
To our knowledge, this is the first study to examine cognitive function and white matter integrity in subjects with a history of heavy psychostimulant use and comorbid HIV infection, compared to healthy, matched control subjects. The main findings of the present study are that the patient group exhibited significantly lower white matter integrity, indicated by decreased FA values, in the four important white matter tracts of the anterior commissure, left and right anterior limb of the internal capsule, and the genu of the corpus callosum. With the exception of the anterior commissure, all tracts also showed a significant increase in MD and RD, suggesting that increases in axonal membrane permeability, for example by processes such as demyelination, may underlie the observed decrease in FA values. The patient group also displayed widespread neurocognitive impairment, which was significant in tasks that assess cognitive set-shifting, fine motor speed and verbal memory.. All subjects were recruited ...
OBJECTIVE: To use a combination of magnetic resonance diffusion-tensor imaging (MR-DTI) and MR imaging of voxel-based morphometry (MR-VBM) in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) to determine microstructural and volume changes in the central neuronal networks involved in the sensory-discriminative and affective-motivational characteristics of pain, anxiety, memory, and regulation of the stress response. METHODS: Thirty female patients with FMS and 30 healthy female control subjects were studied. Predefined areas of the brain were measured for volume of gray matter by MR-VBM and for diffusivity and fractional anisotropy (FA) by MR-DTI. Higher FA values and reduced diffusivity are thought to reflect increased complexity of brain-tissue microstructure. RESULTS: MR-VBM and MR-DTI demonstrated a striking pattern of changes in brain morphology in patients with FMS. Both thalami, the thalamocortical tracts, and both insular regions showed significant decreases in FA. In contrast, increases in FA ...
In this study, we reviewed relevant studies on prediction of upper limb motor recovery outcome in sub-acute IS patients to determine whether the integrity of the CST, as determined by DTI parameter FA obtained during the early stage of IS, can predicts the upper limb motor recovery. The present meta-analysis showed a significant correlation between DTI parameter FA and upper limb motor recovery in IS patients. A method to reliably predict upper limb recovery would help to optimize rehabilitation, to inform patients about prognosis and to design clinical trials to identify appropriate interventions.. By virtue of its capacity for visualization of water diffusion characteristics, DTI allows for determination of the orientation and integrity of white matter tracts [27]. In normal white matter, water molecules have relative freedom of movement in a direction parallel to that of the nerve fiber tracts; however, their movements are restricted across the tracts, which causes diffusion anisotropy of ...
Definition of cingulum bundle in the Financial Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is cingulum bundle? Meaning of cingulum bundle as a finance term. What does cingulum bundle mean in finance?
In this cohort of community-dwelling older adults, greater arterial stiffness was associated with greater volume of WMH localized within the left superior longitudinal fasciculus as measured 10 years later. Our results suggest selective spatial vulnerability of the white matter to long-term cerebrovascular consequences of central arterial stiffness in aging.. Our study extends previous cross-sectional findings in racially homogeneous cohorts of adults ranging in age from late 50s to mid-70s in 2 ways.13-17 First, we examined longitudinal associations in a racially diverse cohort of older adults living in the community, and second, we examined the spatial distribution of objective measures of white matter abnormalities, including hyperintensities and FA. Most neuroimaging studies have relied on semiquantitative ratings of hyperintensities combined across 2 large brain areas: periventricular and deep. Among the reports of a spatial distribution of brain abnormalities in relationship with arterial ...
According to the disclosed method, there is provided a structure consisting of a silicon substrate coated with a bottom thin SiO2 layer, a doped polysilicon layer, a refractory metal layer and a top Si3N4 capping layer. Said refractory metal and doped polysilicon layers will form a polycide layer under subsequent thermal treatments. First, a sacrificial layer of a dielectric material such as oxynitride is deposited onto the structure. Oxynitride is impervious to UV radiation and has excellent conformal properties. Then, a layer of a photoresist material is deposited onto the structure and patterned to form a mask. Now the dielectric and top Si3N4 layers are anisotropically etched using the photoresist mask. The mask is stripped and the refractory metal and doped polysilicon layers are anisotropically dry etched down to the SiO2 layer using the patterned dielectric layer as an in-situ hard mask. A conformal layer of Si3N4 is deposited onto the structure, then anisotropically dry etched until the thin
It has been established that ADC values of normal developing brain decrease with increasing age.25-27 The absolute ADC value, rather than ADC ratio, may therefore be the preferred method of differentiating pediatric brain tumors because diffusion properties of brain change with age, in addition to white matter anisotropy and partial volume averaging effects, which also affect the ADC ratio measurements. However, ADC ratios have been used in previously reported studies,2-24 and we wanted to test these ratios because they correspond to qualitative estimate of relative tumor intensity on visual inspection. If the tumor type could be determined based on qualitative subjective evaluation of ADC maps, without measurements, the method would be more practical and easier to implement in clinical practice.. In our study, JPA and medulloblastoma could be differentiated on the basis of ADC values and ADC ratios in all patients, and there was no overlap in obtained measurements between these 2 tumor types. ...
in PLoS ONE (2014). Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a promising extension of diffusion tensor imaging, giving new insights into the white matter microstructure and providing new biomarkers. Given the rapidly increasing ... [more ▼]. Diffusion kurtosis imaging (DKI) is a promising extension of diffusion tensor imaging, giving new insights into the white matter microstructure and providing new biomarkers. Given the rapidly increasing number of studies, DKI has a potential to establish itself as a valuable tool in brain diagnostics. However, to become a routine procedure, DKI still needs to be improved in terms of robustness, reliability, and reproducibility. As it requires acquisitions at higher diffusion31 weightings, results are more affected by noise than in diffusion tensor imaging. The lack of standard procedures for post-processing, especially for noise correction, might become a significant obstacle for the use of DKI in clinical routine limiting its application. We considered two ...
Background Although diffusion tensor imaging has been a major research focus for Alzheimers disease in recent years, it remains unclear whether it has sufficient stability to have biomarker potential. To date, frequently inconsistent results have been reported, though lack of standardisation in acquisition and analysis make such discrepancies difficult to interpret. There is also, at present, little knowledge of how the biometric properties of diffusion tensor imaging might evolve in the course of Alzheimers disease. Methods The biomarker question was addressed in this study by adopting a standardised protocol both for the whole brain (tract-based spatial statistics), and for a region of interest: the midline corpus callosum. In order to study the evolution of tensor changes, cross-sectional data from very mild (N = 21) and mild (N = 22) Alzheimers disease patients were examined as well as a longitudinal cohort (N = 16) that had been rescanned at 12 months. Findings and Significance The results
Beamformers are a widely-used tool in brain analysis with magnetoencephalography (MEG)and electroencephalography (EEG). For the construction of the beamformer filters realistichead volume conductor modeling is necessary for accurately computing the EEG and MEGleadfields, i.e., for solving the EEG and MEG forward problem. In this work, we investigate theinfluence of including realistic head tissue compartments into a finite element method (FEM)model on the beamformers localization ability. Specifically, we investigate the effect of includingcerebrospinal fluid, gray matter and white matter distinction, as well as segmenting the skull boneinto compacta and spongiosa, and modeling white matter anisotropy. We simulate an interictalepileptic measurement with white sensor noise. Beamformer filters are constructed with unit gain,unit array gain, and unit noise gain constraint. Beamformer source positions are determined byevaluating power and excess sample kurtosis (g 2 ) of the source-waveforms at all source
Background: The purpose of this study was to determine whether DTI changes in the brain induced by a thoracic spinal cord injury are sensitive to varying severity of spinal contusion in rats. Methods: A control, mild, moderate, or severe contusion injury was administered over the eighth thoracic vertebral level in 32 Sprague-Dawley rats. At 11 weeks postinjury, ex vivo DTI of the brain was performed on a 9.4T Bruker scanner using a pulsed gradient spin-echo sequence. Results: Mean water diffusion in the internal capsule regions of the brain and pyramid locations of the brainstem were correlated with motor function (r2 = 0.55). Additionally, there were significant differences between injury severity groups for mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy at regions associated with the corticospinal tract (P = 0.05). Conclusion: These results indicate that DTI is sensitive to changes in brain tissue as a consequence of thoracic SCI.
0017]In-plane anisotropy of a soft layer of FeCo or the like can be easily realized by oblique sputtering. Particularly, in a sputtering process having a high incidence angle to normal of a film formation face, in-plane anisotropy occurs even in a relatively thin film (about 10 nm) by the self shadow effect. The self shadow effect denotes that a shadow is created by nucleus generated on the surface of an oblique incidence deposition film and, since sputter particles do no fly in the shadow portion, the film grows in an oblique column shape. In our experience, in a CoPt layer having an optimum thickness (about 20 nm), dependency of in-plane anisotropy on the incident angle is low, so that a seed layer or an underlayer has to be thickened. However, a seed layer has to be thin (6 nm or less), and it makes very difficult to form a hard bias stack film according to a result of study of Larson et al. and San Ho et al. San Ho et al. suggests that a magnetic layer has a (11-20) lattice plane to show OR ...
Mechanical Engineering and Green Manufacturing: The Comparison of Isotropic and Anisotropic Diffusion Techniques for Image Denoising
In this work we explore the formation of enhanced multiferroic interfaces in bismuth ferrite crystalline fibers grown by laser floating zone technique. An underlying mechanism of self-segregation during the fibers growth process enables to establish a textured microstructure of a dominant BiFeO3 phase bordered by the presence of Bi25FeO40 secondary phase. The crystallites c axis of the BiFeO3 phase shows a preferential orientation along the longitudinal axis of the fibers, together with grain boundaries that also present a significant alignment with the same direction. These features induce a systematic disturbance of the antiferromagnetic structure of the BiFeO3 phase at the interfaces with the Bi25FeO40 diamagnetic phase. The structural anisotropy confirmed by High Resolution X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy images is also manifested in the magnetic properties of the fibers, which reveal an enhanced susceptibility response in comparison to the conventional BiFeO3 phase diagram. (C)
Recent tract-based analyses provided evidence for the exploitability of 3D-SHORE microstructural descriptors derived from diffusion MRI (dMRI) in revealing white matter (WM) plasticity. In this work, we focused on the main open issues left: 1) the comparative analysis with respect to classical tensor-derived indices, i.e. Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD); and 2) the ability to detect plasticity processes in grey matter (GM). Although signal modelling in GM is still largely unexplored, we investigated their sensibility to stroke-induced microstructural modifications occurring in the contralateral hemisphere. A more complete picture could provide hints for investigating the interplay of GM and WM modulations.Ten stroke patients and ten age/gender-matched healthy controls were enrolled in the study and underwent diffusion spectrum imaging (DSI). Acquisitions at three and two time points (tp) were performed on patients and controls, respectively. For all subjects and acquisitions, FA and
Arm-amputation involves two powerful drivers for brain plasticity-sensory deprivation and altered use. However, research has largely focused on sensory deprivation and maladaptive change. Here we show that adaptive patterns of limb usage after amputation drive cortical plasticity. We report that individuals with congenital or acquired limb-absence vary in whether they preferentially use their intact hand or residual arm in daily activities. Using fMRI, we show that the deprived sensorimotor cortex is employed by whichever limb individuals are over-using. Individuals from either group that rely more on their intact hands (and report less frequent residual arm usage) showed increased intact hand representation in the deprived cortex, and increased white matter fractional anisotropy underlying the deprived cortex, irrespective of the age at which deprivation occurred. Our results demonstrate how experience-driven plasticity in the human brain can transcend boundaries that have been thought to limit
In lateral quantum dots, the combined effect of both Dresselhaus and Bychkov-Rashba spin-orbit coupling is equivalent to an effective magnetic field ±BSO which has the opposite sign for sz=±1/2 spin electrons. When the external magnetic field is perpendicular to the planar structure, the field BSO generates an additional splitting for electron states as compared to the spin splitting in the in-plane field orientation. The anisotropy of spin splitting has been measured and then analyzed in terms of spin-orbit coupling in several AlGaAs/GaAs quantum dots by means of resonant tunneling spectroscopy. From the measured values and sign of the anisotropy we are able to determine the dominating spin-orbit coupling mechanism.. ...
We performed a meta-analysis to explore the validity and consensus in the utility of mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy for distinguishing tumor grade in gliomas. Pooled analysis was restricted to studies that internally compared low-grade and high-grade lesions, thus providing internal controls. Significant effects were observed, adding support to generalizations regarding tumor biology, though the raw effect sizes were small and significant heterogeneity was present in some of the cohorts of studies. In the identifiable tumor core, high-grade gliomas had decreased MD and increased FA values compared with low-grade gliomas. In the peripheral region of signal abnormality, high-grade gliomas had increased MD and decreased FA values. These observations suggest that high-grade gliomas have a more destructive effect on white matter tracts than low-grade gliomas in the peripheral region. In the tumor core, high-grade gliomas are expected to have increased extracellular-space volume and ...
Tapert and her colleagues used diffusion tensor imaging an MRI technique sensitive to the random movement of water in cells of a target tissue to examine fractional anisotropy, a measure of directional coherence of white matter tracts, among 28 teens. Of the 28, 14 (12 males, 2 females) had and 14 (12 males, 2 females) did not have histories of binge drinking. No participants had a history of an alcohol use disorder; drinkers were matched to non-drinkers on age, gender and education ...
Electric field control of magnetization is one of the promising avenues for achieving high-density energy-efficient magnetic data storage. Ferroelectric materials can be especially useful for that purpose as a source of very large switchable electric
We review mechanisms for producing temperature and polarization anisotropies in the microwave background radiation, and summarize their relation to the large-scale distribution of matter and to theories of galaxy formation. We also review possible sources of ambiguity in interpreting data, in particular the unknown opacity of the pregalactic gas and the possible contribution of discrete sources of radiation. Strategies for removing these ambiguities are discussed. ...
Methadone is used for medication-assisted treatment of heroin addiction during pregnancy. The neurodevelopmental outcome of children with prenatal methadone exposure can be sub-optimal. We tested the hypothesis that brain development is altered among newborn infants whose mothers were prescribed methadone. 20 methadone-exposed neonates born after 37 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) and 20 non-exposed controls underwent diffusion MRI at mean PMA of 39+ 2 and 41+ 1 weeks, respectively. An age-optimized Tract-based Spatial Statistics (TBSS) pipeline was used to perform voxel-wise statistical comparison of fractional anisotropy (FA) data between exposed and non-exposed neonates ...
Diffusion anisotropy has been used to characterize white matter neuronal pathways in the human brain, and infer global connectivity in the central nervous system. The package implements algorithms to estimate and visualize the orientation of neuronal pathways in model-free methods (q-space imaging methods). For estimating fibre orientations two methods have been implemented. One method implements fibre orientation detection through local maxima extraction. A second more robust method is based on directional statistical clustering of ODF voxel data. Fibre orientations in multiple fibre voxels are estimated using a mixture of von Mises-Fisher (vMF) distributions. This statistical estimation procedure is used to resolve crossing fibre configurations. Reconstruction of orientation distribution function (ODF) profiles may be performed using the standard generalized q-sampling imaging (GQI) approach, Garyfallidis GQI (GQI2) approach, or Aganjs variant of the Q-ball imaging (CSA-QBI)
In the Tenerife results, the rms amplitude of the structure is 54 micro K. Measurement of the 1.4-GHz absolute temperature of the CMB with a ground-based radiometer has yielded a value of 2.65 K. observations of a low-background region of sky at high galactic latitude has revealed significant anisotropy on degree angular scales ...
Abstract: Many complex mesoscopic systems, ranging from synthetic colloids to active biological cells, exhibit a rich variety of pattern-forming behavior. In this talk, I will show you how anisotropy in two model systems, anisotropic shaped colloids and bacterial communities, affect complex pattern formation. During the directed self-assembly of colloidal systems, shape anisotropy can greatly influence resulting structures. We have developed a technique called roughness controlled depletion attraction which allows us to probe the phase space of 2D Brownian systems for a variety of anisotropic shapes such as triangles, squares, and other polygons. We have discovered several unanticipated effects, such as local chiral symmetry breaking in a triatic liquid crystal phase of uniform triangles. Anisotropy also plays a large role in the formation of bacterial communities called biofilms. Biofilms are a major human health hazard as well as being an impediment in many industrial and medical settings. By ...
Diffusion tensor imaging allows for visualization of white matter tracts by tractography. Methodology in this new magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) varies to match the desired use. In this study, methods of creating three-dimensional (3D) tracts were tested to analyze the corticospinal tract (CST) and somatosensory tract in post-stroke patients both before and after neurorehabilitation. Using an imaging software called FSL, I was able to superimpose the fractional anisotropy brain image with the T1 MRI image and create mask where the tracts have a higher probability of being found. The software then connected the tracts, producing a 3D visualizations of the tract which I then superimposed onto a 3D brain to show the tract in space. I found that the CST had the most reliable and reproducible results. However, the somatosensory tract results varied and I could not get a concrete methodology for this tract.
ORIGINAL ARTICLES Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences 2012 June;56(2):137-43. Predictive value of inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFO) DTI-fiber tracking for determining the extent of resection for surgery of frontal and temporal gliomas preoperatively. Bertani G., Carrabba G., Raneri F., Fava E., Castellano A., Falini A., Casarotti A., Gaini S. M., Bello L. ...
A clear understanding of the temperature evolution of the longitudinal spin Seebeck effect (LSSE) in the classic Pt/yttrium iron garnet (YIG) system and its association with magnetic anisotropy is essential towards optimization of its spin-caloric functionality for spintronics applications. We report here for the first time the temperature dependences of LSSE voltage (V LSSE), magnetocrystalline anisotropy field (H K) and surface perpendicular magnetic anisotropy field (H KS) in the same Pt/YIG system. We show that on lowering temperature, the sharp drop in V LSSE and the sudden increases in H K and H KS at ~175 K are associated with the spin reorientation due to single ion anisotropy of Fe(2+) ions ...
In a major study that uses cutting-edge imaging, researchers show that people with depression have alterations in the white matter part of the brain.
An example was studied by us of 75 Chinese language, 73 Malay, and 29 Indian healthy neonates getting involved in a cohort research to examine potential differences in neonatal mind morphology and white matter microstructure like a function of ethnicity using both structural T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Although many anatomical parts of the brain had been similar among Chinese language, Malay, and Indian neonates, there have been anatomical variants in the spinal-cerebellar and cortical-striatal-thalamic neural circuits among the three populations. The population-related mind regions highlighted inside our research are fundamental anatomical substrates connected with sensorimotor features. Introduction Study into early advancement has yet to totally examine the effect of human population and population-related affects on mind morphology and microstructure, despite research demonstrating population variations in the brains of adults. Creating ...
A new definition of scale-space is suggested, and a class of algorithms used to realize a diffusion process is introduced. The diffusion coefficient is cho
A method for synthesizing crossing ADC distributions via reassembly of multiple k-spaces is disclosed. The method includes the steps of scanning a test object having a plurality of anisotropic structures to acquire a first set of DTI data using gradient directions; rotating the gradient directions by an angle α; repeating the step of scanning the test object to acquire a second set of DTI data; creating a composite data set from the first and second sets of data; and applying an inverse Fourier transform to the composite data set.
A team has found that external stimulation has an impact on the postnatal development of a specific region of the brain. The team is from the Childrens National Medical Center.
This thesis deals with a study of structural and lattice dynamical properties of some non-centrosymmetric borates with outstanding non-linear optical properties. The focus was on the compound bismuth triborate (BiB3O6). The structure of the tetraborates MB4O7 (M = Pb, Sr, Ba) was also investigated. The structural investigations in bismuth triborate include powder and single crystal diffraction experiments on X-ray and neutron sources. The crystal structure was under examination in the temperature range from 100 K to room temperature and the lattice constants in the temperature range from 20 K to 800 K. The lattice constants show a nearly linear dependency from temperature. Our observations are in good agreement with investigations of the thermal expansion, which shows a strong anisotropy within the layer-like structure of bismuth triborate. Within the borate layers, along the polar axis a strong positive and in the orthogonal direction a negative thermal expansion is observed. This effect can be ...
Given an order-d tensor $\tensor A \in \R^{n \times n \times...\times n}$, we present a simple, element-wise sparsification algorithm that zeroes out all sufficiently small elements of $\tensor A$, keeps all sufficiently large elements of $\tensor A$, and retains some of the remaining elements with probabilities proportional to the square of their magnitudes. We analyze the approximation accuracy of the proposed algorithm using a powerful inequality that we derive. This inequality bounds the spectral norm of a random tensor and is of independent interest. As a result, we obtain novel bounds for the tensor sparsification problem. ...
An semiconductor assembly includes at least one die having substantially planar first and second engagement surfaces and external edges which define a die shape. A base having an opening formed therein receives the die. The base opening has peripheral edges which define an opening shape and size which is complementary to the die external shape. The opening edges engage the die edges to spatially fix the die in a selected orientation in a plane parallel to the die first planar engagement surface. An interconnecting plate has at least one substantially planar engagement surface facing the first planar engagement surface of the die received within the base opening. At least one conductive pad on the plate planar engagement surface is spatially aligned or registered with a corresponding conductive pad on the first engagement surface of the die. A sheet of anisotropically conductive elastomeric material is interposed between the base and interconnecting plate between the first engagement surface of the die
An apparatus and method according to the invention combine more than one optical modality (spectroscopic method), including but not limited to fluorescence, absorption, reflectance, polarization anisotropy, and phase modulation, to decouple morphological and biochemical changes associated with tissue changes due to disease, and thus to provide an accurate diagnosis of the tissue condition.
Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001. The path of American Philosophy: Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1860-1930. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1977.
The analysis yielded three noteworthy results, the researchers said. First, an MRI showed that overall white-matter content of CFS patients brains, compared with that of healthy subjects brains, was reduced. The term "white matter" largely denotes the long, cablelike nerve tracts carrying signals among broadly dispersed concentrations of "gray matter." The latter areas specialize in processing information, and the former in conveying the information from one part of the brain to another.. That finding wasnt entirely unexpected, Zeineh said. CFS is thought to involve chronic inflammation, quite possibly as a protracted immunological response to an as-yet unspecified viral infection. Inflammation, meanwhile, is known to take a particular toll on white matter.. But a second finding was entirely unexpected. Using an advanced imaging technique - diffusion-tensor imaging, which is especially suited to assessing the integrity of white matter - Zeineh and his colleagues identified a consistent ...
H. SANTOVAIA, P. NOGUEIRA, J. CARRILHO LOPES, C. GOMES, M.A. RIBEIRO, H.C.B. MARTINS, A. DÓRIA, C. CRUZ, L. LOPES, R. SARDINHA, A. ROCHA, F. NORONHA ...
the momentum of the absorbed photon or recoil momentum, where k=2π/λ is the wavevector for a laser with wavelength λ. Because the absorption of a photon transfers the atom from a ground to an excited state, before absorbing another photon, the atom must first emit a photon and return to the ground state. During the emission process, the atom will again receive a recoil kick; however, as the emitted photon is in a random direction, the velocity kicks associated with emission average to zero. In free space, the use of three pairs of counter-propagating beams, one in each orthogonal direction, ensures that the cooling process works, regardless of the direction of atomic motion. In a trap, a single beam with components along all principle axes is sufficient. Experimental demonstrations of Doppler cooling quickly followed the initial proposals, with demonstrations in 1978 by two groups, Wineland et al. [7] and Neuhauser et al. [8]. Both of these initial demonstrations of laser cooling were for ...
In an improved NMR imaging method for forming images of a subject by determining the relative densities of nuclei within the subject, three orthogonal gradient fields are generated by digitally storing three gradient waveforms for each orthogonal direction, with each waveform being individually compensated and calibrated with respect to an axis with which it is associated. Nine associated matrix multiplying functions which determine the coordinates of a desired slice in its rotated plane are also stored by an external input (by computer or by the clinician operating the system.) Then, in a sequential fashion, digital words for each gradient waveform are read out, multiplied by pairs with the appropriate multiplying function and the three terms are added to form a digital word. These words are converted to an analog value and applied to the respective gradient coils.
We discuss the diffusive dynamics of semi-flexible granular rods as a function of their concentration in a vertically vibrated container. These rods are composed of short beaded chains and are tracked with a camera, and their trajectories used to analyze the rotational and translational displacement as a function of area fraction $\phi$. We observe that the diffusion in the parallel and perpendicular direction in the body frame of reference deviate from those calculated for thermally excited elastic polymer rods. In particular we find that the diffusion perpendicular to the major axis in dilute regime is observed to be greater than that in the parallel direction due to rotation about the major axis of the rod. The motion is observed to become sub-linear above $\phi = 0.48$ and $0.54$ in the perpendicular and parallel directions, respectively, both lower than for spherical particles. Rotational diffusion is also investigated and found to deviate systematically from exponential decays with ...
This interactive Java tutorial explores the properties of matter that have different values when measurements are made in different directions.
Buy A Quick Guide to Computing Eigenvalues and Eigenvectors by Bruce Cooperstein (eBook) online at Lulu. Visit the Lulu Marketplace for product details, ratings, and reviews.
Prader-Willi Syndrome (PWS) is a genetic disorder characterized by infantile hypotonia, hyperphagia, hypogonadism, growth hormone deficiency, intellectual disability, and severe emotional and behavioral problems. The brain mechanisms that underpin these disturbances are unknown. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enables in vivo investigation of the microstructural integrity of white matter pathways. To date, only one study has used DTI to examine white matter alterations in PWS. However, that study used selected regions of interest, rather than a whole brain analysis. In the present study, we used diffusion tensor and magnetic resonance (T 1-weighted) imaging to examine microstructural white matter changes in 15 individuals with PWS (17-30 years) and 15 age-and-gender-matched controls. Whole-brain voxel-wise statistical analysis of FA was carried out using tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS). Significantly decreased fractional anisotropy was found localized to the left hemisphere in individuals ...
Friedreichs ataxia (FRDA) is the most common hereditary ataxia and thinning of the cervical spinal cord is a consistent observation in Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), although neuropathological examination in FRDA reveals neuronal loss in gray matter (GM) nuclei and degeneration of white matter (WM) tracts in the spinal cord, brainstem and cerebellum. Using diffusion-tensor (DTI) imaging and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) we tested the hypothesis that WM damage in FRDA is more extensive than previously described and probably involves normal-appearing WM.. Read More: Diffusion tensor imaging and tract-based spatial statistics analysis in Friedreichs ataxia patients. ...
Bio: Dr. Olvet received her doctorate at Stony Brook University in 2009. She has been performing her postdoctoral research at North Shore Long Island Jewish Health System.. Research Category: Brain imaging. Abstract: The fibers in the brains white matter serve as information networks for sending messages throughout the brain. Their structure and functioning may relate to impulsiveness, as well as to suicide intent and lethality in people who have made a suicide attempt. Dr. Olvet will use an imaging technique called Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) to discover how the structural integrity of white matter cells in the brain differs among three groups of participants: depressed individuals who have made a suicide attempt, depressed individuals who have not attempted suicide, and individuals with no psychiatric history. Dr. Olvet expects to find that individuals with a history of suicide attempts will have less white matter integrity than those who have not attempted suicide. She will also attempt ...
Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has revealed white matter abnormalities in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Stimulant treatment may affect such abnormalities. The current study investigated associations between long-term stimulant treatment and white matter integrity within the frontal-striatal and mesolimbic pathways, in a large sample of children, adolescents and young adults with ADHD. Participants with ADHD (N=172; mean age 17, range 9-26) underwent diffusion-weighted MRI scanning, along with an age- and gendermatched group of 96 control participants. Five study-specific white matter tract masks (orbitofrontal-striatal, orbitofrontal-amygdalar, amygdalar-striatal, dorsolateral-prefrontal-striatal and medialprefrontal- striatal) were created. First we analyzed case-control differences in fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) within each tract. Second, FA and MD in each tract was predicted from cumulative stimulant intake within the ADHD group. ...
BACKGROUND: Diffuse axonal injury is a common consequence of traumatic brain injury that frequently involves the parasagittal white matter, corpus callosum, and brainstem.,br /,,br /, OBJECTIVE: To examine the potential of diffusion tensor tractography in detecting diffuse axonal injury at the acute stage of injury and predicting long-term functional outcome.,br /,,br /, DESIGN: Tract-derived fiber variables were analyzed to distinguish patients from control subjects and to determine their relationship to outcome.,br /,,br /, SETTING: Inpatient traumatic brain injury unit.,br /,,br /, PATIENTS: From 2005 to 2006, magnetic resonance images were acquired in 12 patients approximately 7 days after injury and in 12 age- and sex-matched controls.,br /,,br /, MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Six fiber variables of the corpus callosum, fornix, and peduncular projections were obtained. Glasgow Outcome Scale-Extended scores were assessed approximately 9 months after injury in 11 of the 12 patients.,br /,,br /, ...
Purpose Magnetic resonance neurography (MRN) with diffuse tensor imaging (DTI) allows precise peripheral nerve anatomy with a detailed assessment of fiber tracts. Additional use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in these studies permits exquisite anatomic detail of the peripheral nerve fiber tracts. MRN-DTI is rarely applied following traumatic peripheral nerve injury. We are unaware of any studies that use MRN-DTI to evaluate the nerve injuries after surgical repair. Here, we characterize surgically repaired peripheral nerves in patients with post-operative functional recovery with MRN-DTI imaging and correlate with pre- and post surgical exam and electrophysiological (EP) findings. Materials & Methods Among available case records, we identified patients with traumatic peripheral nerve injury who underwent 3 Tesla MRN at our institution. Preoperative DTI was performed with 28 directions, and tractography was performed by placing seed points along the peripheral nerve proximal and distal to the ...
Background Tourette syndrome (TS) is a chronic neurodevelopmental disorder characterised by the presence of multiple motor and phonic tics. Recent brain imaging investigations with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) techniques found reduced measures of connectivity in the corpus callosum of children with TS compared with healthy controls, thus raising the hypothesis that the reduced interhemispherical connectivity in TS reflects neural plasticity processes.. Methods We assessed corpus callosum white-matter connectivity with fractional anisotropy (FA) index from magnetic resonance-DTI in two monozygotic twins (male sex; age 20) discordant for the diagnosis of TS.. Results Both conventional morphological magnetic resonance images and fibre-tracking reconstruction failed to show any difference between the two twins. On the other hand, mean corpus callosum FA values were significantly lower in the affected twin than in the unaffected twin (p,0.01). The differences in FA values were highest in the ...
Neurosurgery 74:1-8, 2014. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) provides a measure of the directional diffusion of water molecules in tissues. The measurement of DTI indexes within the spinal cord provides a quantitative assessment of neural damage in various spinal cord pathologies.. DTI studies in animal models of spinal cord injury indicate that DTI is a reliable imaging technique with important histological and functional correlates. These studies demonstrate that DTI is a noninvasive marker of microstructural change within the spinal cord.. In human studies, spinal cord DTI shows definite changes in subjects with acute and chronic spinal cord injury, as well as cervical spondylotic myelopathy. Interestingly, changes in DTI indexes are visualized in regions of the cord, which appear normal on conventional magnetic resonance imaging and are remote from the site of cord compression.. Spinal cord DTI provides data that can help us understand underlying microstructural changes within the cord and ...

Physics Image: Anisotropy PatternsPhysics Image: Anisotropy Patterns

Models of anisotropy patterns are useful for understanding phenomena like the coordinated motions of heart tissue or wave flows ... "Complex-anisotropy-induced pattern formation in bistable media," Phys. Rev. E 79, 026105 (2009). All APS Physics Images ...
more infohttps://www.aps.org/about/physics-images/archive/anisotropy.cfm

Nanoparticles with Morphological and Functional Anisotropy: Faraday DiscussionNanoparticles with Morphological and Functional Anisotropy: Faraday Discussion

Optical anisotropy and sign reversal in layer-by-layer assembled films from chiral nanoparticles. Nicholas Kotov. University of ... Anisotropy at the nanoscale is a critical factor in the mechanical, optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of ... Faraday Discussion 191: Nanoparticles with Morphological and Functional Anisotropy The e-issue is now available online ... Abstract Submission for Nanoparticles with Morphological and Functional Anisotropy is now open. Submit your oral/paper abstract ...
more infohttp://www.rsc.org/events/detail/16842/nanoparticles-with-morphological-and-functional-anisotropy-faraday-discussion/programme

Nanoparticles with Morphological and Functional Anisotropy: Faraday DiscussionNanoparticles with Morphological and Functional Anisotropy: Faraday Discussion

Optical anisotropy and sign reversal in layer-by-layer assembled films from chiral nanoparticles. Nicholas Kotov. University of ... Anisotropy at the nanoscale is a critical factor in the mechanical, optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of ... Faraday Discussion 191: Nanoparticles with Morphological and Functional Anisotropy The e-issue is now available online ... Abstract Submission for Nanoparticles with Morphological and Functional Anisotropy is now open. Submit your oral/paper abstract ...
more infohttp://www.rsc.org/events/detail/16842/nanoparticles-with-morphological-and-functional-anisotropy-faraday-discussion/contacts

Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe - WikipediaWilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe - Wikipedia

Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) - denumită și Explorer 80 - este o navă spațială ce măsoară diferențele de ... Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe: Overview". Legacy Archive for Background Data Analysis (LAMBDA). Greenbelt, Maryland: ... În 2003, misiunea, denumită inițial Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) a primit numele WMAP în cinstea lui David Todd Wilkinson ( ... The WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) mission is designed to determine the geometry, content, and evolution of the ...
more infohttps://ro.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wilkinson_Microwave_Anisotropy_Probe

Magnetic-anisotropy dictionary definition | magnetic-anisotropy definedMagnetic-anisotropy dictionary definition | magnetic-anisotropy defined

magnetic-anisotropy definition: Noun (uncountable) 1. (physics) The dependence of any magnetic property of a material on the ... magnetic-anisotropy. Noun (uncountable). *(physics) The dependence of any magnetic property of a material on the direction in ...
more infohttp://www.yourdictionary.com/magnetic-anisotropy

Membrane Fluorescence Anisotropy Behavior during Cell Cycle | SpringerLinkMembrane Fluorescence Anisotropy Behavior during Cell Cycle | SpringerLink

Sapora O., Parasassi T., Padovani L.M., Conti F. (1985) Membrane Fluorescence Anisotropy Behavior during Cell Cycle. In: Conti ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia K562 Cell Fluorescence Anisotropy Rous Sarcoma Virus Inhibitor Removal ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-7538-8_21

Orientation and Anisotropy of Multi-component Shapes | SpringerLinkOrientation and Anisotropy of Multi-component Shapes | SpringerLink

Single Object Zernike Moment Anisotropy Measure Shape Component Shape Orientation These keywords were added by machine and not ... We also show how the anisotropy measure of multi-component shapes, as a quantity which indicates how consistently the shape ... Saha, P.K., Wehrli, F.W.: A robust method for measuring trabecular bone orientation anisotropy at in vivo resolution using ... Žunić J., Rosin P.L. (2013) Orientation and Anisotropy of Multi-component Shapes. In: Breuß M., Bruckstein A., Maragos P. (eds ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-34141-0_7

Single quantum dot controls a plasmonic cavitys scattering and anisotropy | PNASSingle quantum dot controls a plasmonic cavity's scattering and anisotropy | PNAS

Single quantum dot controls a plasmonic cavitys scattering and anisotropy Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Single quantum dot controls a plasmonic cavitys scattering and anisotropy. Thomas Hartsfield, Wei-Shun Chang, Seung-Cheol Yang ... can be used to control the scattering spectrum and anisotropy of the latter. The scattering spectrum of the hybrid structure ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/112/40/12288.short

Anisotropy of Microstructure and Strength in Fiber Textured Molybdenum AlloysAnisotropy of Microstructure and Strength in Fiber Textured Molybdenum Alloys

... T. Oyama1 and J. Wadsworth2 ... T. Oyama and J. Wadsworth, "Anisotropy of Microstructure and Strength in Fiber Textured Molybdenum Alloys," Textures and ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/tsm/1987/628152/cta/

fractional anisotropy Research Articles - Neuroscience Newsfractional anisotropy Research Articles - Neuroscience News

A new study reveals our brains undergo microstructural changes from early to mid adulthood. Researchers say they can accurately estimate a persons age by looking at their brain structure.... Read More... ...
more infohttps://neurosciencenews.com/neuroscience-terms/fractional-anisotropy/

Applications of Sunphotometry to Aerosol Extinction and Surface Anisotropy - Digital LibraryApplications of Sunphotometry to Aerosol Extinction and Surface Anisotropy - Digital Library

... opportunity to collect long-term climatic data in characterizing aerosol properties and various types of surface anisotropy. ... research to deploy a newly developed sun-sky-surface photometer for studying aerosol extinction and surface anisotropy at the ... Tsay, S. Applications of Sunphotometry to Aerosol Extinction and Surface Anisotropy, report, September 30, 2002; United States ... opportunity to collect long-term climatic data in characterizing aerosol properties and various types of surface anisotropy. ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc782122/

Anisotropy | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.orgAnisotropy | Radiology Reference Article | Radiopaedia.org

Anisotropy is an artefact encountered in ultrasound, notably in muscles and tendons during a musculoskeletal ultrasound. In ... In some situations, anisotropy may be useful in diagnosis. If a tendon is surrounded by other brightly hyperechoic structures ( ... Anisotropy is an artefact encountered in ultrasound, notably in muscles and tendons during a musculoskeletal ultrasound. In ...
more infohttps://radiopaedia.org/articles/anisotropy?lang=us

On the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of permeability in articular cartilage.On the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of permeability in articular cartilage.

Anisotropy. Cartilage, Articular / cytology*, metabolism*. Chondrocytes / metabolism*. Collagen / chemistry. Elasticity. Humans ... They neglected tissue anisotropy caused by the collagen network. However, magnetic resonance studies suggest that fluid flow is ... Looking at the local anisotropy of permeability, we may infer that the arrangement of the collagen fibre network plays an ... Therefore, the aim of this study was to express the permeability of cartilage accounting for the microstructural anisotropy and ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/anisotropy-inhomogeneity-permeability-in-articular/17619089.html

OSA | Circular anisotropy of a rotating Fabry-Perot cavityOSA | Circular anisotropy of a rotating Fabry-Perot cavity

Dmitri L. Boiko, "Circular anisotropy of a rotating Fabry-Perot cavity," Opt. Express 2, 397-403 (1998) ...
more infohttps://www.osapublishing.org/oe/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-2-9-397

IJMS | Free Full-Text | Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic FragmentsIJMS | Free Full-Text | Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments

By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, ... Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments. Ottorino Ori 1,* , Franco Cataldo 1. ... Ori, O.; Cataldo, F.; Putz, M.V. Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12 ... "Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 11: 7934-7949. ...
more infohttps://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/12/11/7934

Triso Pyrocarbon Anisotropy - Hinds InstrumentsTriso Pyrocarbon Anisotropy - Hinds Instruments

Hinds Instruments has worked with Oak Ridge National Labs scientists to produce the 2-MGEM optical anisotropy measurement ... 2-MGEM Optical Anisotropy Factor Measurement System. FURTHER READING:. J. Pearce, "Rethinking nuclear fuel design", Oak Ridge ... Hinds Instruments has worked with ORNL scientists to produce the 2-MGEM Optical Anisotropy Factor Measurement System, a ... Contact us for more information on Hinds 2-MGEM Optical Anisotropy Factor Measurement System. ...
more infohttp://www.hindsinstruments.com/applications/triso-pyrocarbon-anisotropy/

Molecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Light and Color - Acoustical Model of Anisotropy - Interactive Java TutorialMolecular Expressions Microscopy Primer: Light and Color - Acoustical Model of Anisotropy - Interactive Java Tutorial

Acoustical Model of Anisotropy. The anisotropic character of materials relates to those properties that have different values ...
more infohttps://micro.magnet.fsu.edu/primer/java/polarizedlight/acoustics/index.html

OSA | Polarization anisotropy in fiber-optic second harmonic generation microscopyOSA | Polarization anisotropy in fiber-optic second harmonic generation microscopy

5. SHG polarization anisotropy measurement with (a) a fish scale and (b) a rat tail tendon in a SHG microscope using a double- ... 3 SHG polarization anisotropy measurement with a fish scale in a SHG microscope using a single-mode fiber coupler. (a),(b) SHG ... c) Image of the anisotropy parameter derived from (a) and (b). Color scale varies from blue for -0.5 to red for 1.0. ... Polarization anisotropy in fiber-optic second harmonic generation microscopy Ling Fu and Min Gu ...
more infohttps://www.osapublishing.org/vjbo/abstract.cfm?uri=oe-16-7-5000

Anisotropy - WikipediaAnisotropy - Wikipedia

Seismic anisotropy is the variation of seismic wavespeed with direction. Seismic anisotropy is an indicator of long range order ... Physicists use the term anisotropy to describe direction-dependent properties of materials. Magnetic anisotropy, for example, ... An "axis of anisotropy" is defined as the axis along which isotropy is broken (or an axis of symmetry, such as normal to ... Anisotropy in minerals is most reliably seen in their optical properties. An example of an isotropic mineral is garnet. ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anisotropy

Rotational Doppler Effect : A Probe for Molecular Orbitals AnisotropyRotational Doppler Effect : A Probe for Molecular Orbitals Anisotropy

Rotational Doppler Effect: A Probe for Molecular Orbitals Anisotropy. Miao, Quan KTH, School of Biotechnology (BIO), ... molecular orbitals anisotropy, rotational Doppler effect, translational Doppler effect, X-ray, Youngs double slit interference ... the rotational Doppler broadening is sensitive to the photoelectron emission anisotropy. On the basis of theoretical modeling, ...
more infohttp://kth.diva-portal.org/smash/record.jsf?pid=diva2:822087

CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY AND GROWTH OF LOW MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY CRYSTALS.CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY AND GROWTH OF LOW MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY CRYSTALS.

Title : CRYSTAL CHEMISTRY AND GROWTH OF LOW MAGNETIC ANISOTROPY CRYSTALS.. Descriptive Note : Final scientific rept. 1 Nov 66- ...
more infohttp://oai.dtic.mil/oai/oai?verb=getRecord&metadataPrefix=html&identifier=AD0685214

High-throughput protein-DNA measurement using fluorescence anisotropyHigh-throughput protein-DNA measurement using fluorescence anisotropy

... Dmitry B. Veprintsev MRC Laboratory of Molecular Biology ... Interaction of protein and oligonucleotide results in high anisotropy. If a modified oligonucleotide displaces the reference ... provides a powerful multiplexing platform for high throughput determination of binding affinities using fluorescence anisotropy ... molecule, the free fluorescent labeled reference is tumbling faster leading to a lower anisotropy. ...
more infohttps://www.bmglabtech.com/high-throughput-protein-dna-measurement-using-fluorescence-anisotropy/

Catalytic Anisotropy of MoO3 in the Oxidative Ammonolysis of TolueneCatalytic Anisotropy of MoO3 in the Oxidative Ammonolysis of Toluene

... Andersson, Arne LU and Hansen, Staffan LU (1988) In ... Catalytic Anisotropy of MoO3 in the Oxidative Ammonolysis of Toluene}, url = {http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0021-9517(88)90037-1}, ...
more infohttps://lup.lub.lu.se/search/publication/3914635

Anisotropy studies around the Galactic Center at EeV energies with Auger data - Digital LibraryAnisotropy studies around the Galactic Center at EeV energies with Auger data - Digital Library

Letessier-Selvon, Antoine & /Paris U., VI-VII. Anisotropy studies around the Galactic Center at EeV energies with Auger data, ... Anisotropy studies around the Galactic Center at EeV energies with Auger data ...
more infohttps://digital.library.unt.edu/ark:/67531/metadc875846/
  • Seismic anisotropy is an indicator of long range order in a material, where features smaller than the seismic wavelength (e.g., crystals, cracks, pores, layers or inclusions) have a dominant alignment. (wikipedia.org)
  • In order to study magnetocrystalline anisotropy, energy (usually in the form of an electric current) is applied to the domain, which causes the crystals to deflect from the "easy" to "hard" positions. (wikipedia.org)
  • The results reveal the existence of frictional anisotropy for both metals. (arxiv.org)
  • Therefore, the CART sites provide an excellent, albeit unique, opportunity to collect long-term climatic data in characterizing aerosol properties and various types of surface anisotropy. (unt.edu)
  • Physicists use the term anisotropy to describe direction-dependent properties of materials. (wikipedia.org)
  • We experimentally demonstrate that a single semiconductor quantum dot placed in close proximity to a plasmonic cavity (i.e., a spherical metallic nanoparticle) can be used to control the scattering spectrum and anisotropy of the latter. (pnas.org)
  • Voltage control of magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) in magnetic heterostructures is a key technology for achieving energy-efficiency electronic devices with ultralow power consumption. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Achieving a sufficient voltage control of magnetic anisotropy (VCMA) in magnetic heterostructures is of particular importance for realizing energy-efficiency electronic devices with ultralow power consumption, such as voltage-torque magnetoresistive random access memories (MRAMs) 1 , 2 and low power logic LSIs 3 , 4 . (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • indeed, significant seismic anisotropy has been detected in the Earth's crust, mantle and inner core. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interaction of protein and oligonucleotide results in high anisotropy. (bmglabtech.com)
  • An example of anisotropy is the light coming through a polarizer. (wikipedia.org)