Anisotropy: A physical property showing different values in relation to the direction in or along which the measurement is made. The physical property may be with regard to thermal or electric conductivity or light refraction. In crystallography, it describes crystals whose index of refraction varies with the direction of the incident light. It is also called acolotropy and colotropy. The opposite of anisotropy is isotropy wherein the same values characterize the object when measured along axes in all directions.Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Diffusion Tensor Imaging: The use of diffusion ANISOTROPY data from diffusion magnetic resonance imaging results to construct images based on the direction of the faster diffusing molecules.Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging: A diagnostic technique that incorporates the measurement of molecular diffusion (such as water or metabolites) for tissue assessment by MRI. The degree of molecular movement can be measured by changes of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) with time, as reflected by tissue microstructure. Diffusion MRI has been used to study BRAIN ISCHEMIA and tumor response to treatment.Nerve Fibers, Myelinated: A class of nerve fibers as defined by their structure, specifically the nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the myelinated nerve fibers are completely encased in a MYELIN SHEATH. They are fibers of relatively large and varied diameters. Their NEURAL CONDUCTION rates are faster than those of the unmyelinated nerve fibers (NERVE FIBERS, UNMYELINATED). Myelinated nerve fibers are present in somatic and autonomic nerves.Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Internal Capsule: WHITE MATTER pathway, flanked by nuclear masses, consisting of both afferent and efferent fibers projecting between the WHITE MATTER and the BRAINSTEM. It consists of three distinct parts: an anterior limb, posterior limb, and genu.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Spectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Pyramidal Tracts: Fibers that arise from cells within the cerebral cortex, pass through the medullary pyramid, and descend in the spinal cord. Many authorities say the pyramidal tracts include both the corticospinal and corticobulbar tracts.Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Mathematics: The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Liquid Crystals: Materials in intermediate state between solid and liquid.Rotation: Motion of an object in which either one or more points on a line are fixed. It is also the motion of a particle about a fixed point. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Magnetics: The study of MAGNETIC PHENOMENA.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Fornix, Brain: Heavily myelinated fiber bundle of the TELENCEPHALON projecting from the hippocampal formation to the HYPOTHALAMUS. Some authorities consider the fornix part of the LIMBIC SYSTEM. The fimbria starts as a flattened band of axons arising from the subiculum and HIPPOCAMPUS, which then thickens to form the fornix.Cerebrum: Derived from TELENCEPHALON, cerebrum is composed of a right and a left hemisphere. Each contains an outer cerebral cortex and a subcortical basal ganglia. The cerebrum includes all parts within the skull except the MEDULLA OBLONGATA, the PONS, and the CEREBELLUM. Cerebral functions include sensorimotor, emotional, and intellectual activities.Eosine Yellowish-(YS): A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Viscosity: The resistance that a gaseous or liquid system offers to flow when it is subjected to shear stress. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Microscopy, Polarization: Microscopy using polarized light in which phenomena due to the preferential orientation of optical properties with respect to the vibration plane of the polarized light are made visible and correlated parameters are made measurable.Elasticity: Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Imaging, Three-Dimensional: The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Birefringence: The property of nonisotropic media, such as crystals, whereby a single incident beam of light traverses the medium as two beams, each plane-polarized, the planes being at right angles to each other. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Mechanical Processes: The behaviors of materials under force.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Fluorescence: The property of emitting radiation while being irradiated. The radiation emitted is usually of longer wavelength than that incident or absorbed, e.g., a substance can be irradiated with invisible radiation and emit visible light. X-ray fluorescence is used in diagnosis.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Decanoates: Salts and esters of the 10-carbon monocarboxylic acid-decanoic acid.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Erythrosine: A tetraiodofluorescein used as a red coloring in some foods (cherries, fish), as a disclosure of DENTAL PLAQUE, and as a stain of some cell types. It has structural similarity to THYROXINE.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Neuroimaging: Non-invasive methods of visualizing the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the brain, by various imaging modalities.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Diffuse Axonal Injury: A relatively common sequela of blunt head injury, characterized by a global disruption of axons throughout the brain. Associated clinical features may include NEUROBEHAVIORAL MANIFESTATIONS; PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE; DEMENTIA; and other disorders.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Tensile Strength: The maximum stress a material subjected to a stretching load can withstand without tearing. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed, p2001)

Referenceless interleaved echo-planar imaging. (1/2188)

Interleaved echo-planar imaging (EPI) is an ultrafast imaging technique important for applications that require high time resolution or short total acquisition times. Unfortunately, EPI is prone to significant ghosting artifacts, resulting primarily from system time delays that cause data matrix misregistration. In this work, it is shown mathematically and experimentally that system time delays are orientation dependent, resulting from anisotropic physical gradient delays. This analysis characterizes the behavior of time delays in oblique coordinates, and a new ghosting artifact caused by anisotropic delays is described. "Compensation blips" are proposed for time delay correction. These blips are shown to remove the effects of anisotropic gradient delays, eliminating the need for repeated reference scans and postprocessing corrections. Examples of phantom and in vivo images are shown.  (+info)

Adaptation of bulk constitutive equations to insoluble monolayer collapse at the air-water interface. (2/2188)

A constitutive equation based on stress-strain models of bulk solids was adapted to relate the surface pressure, compression rate, and temperature of an insoluble monolayer of monodendrons during collapse at the air-water interface. A power law relation between compression rate and surface pressure and an Arrhenius temperature dependence of the steady-state creep rate were observed in data from compression rate and creep experiments in the collapse region. These relations were combined into a single constitutive equation to calculate the temperature dependence of the collapse pressure with a maximum error of 5 percent for temperatures ranging from 10 degrees to 25 degrees C.  (+info)

Variation in echogenicity of the basal ganglia: anisotropic effect. (3/2188)

We observed that the fetal brain demonstrates relatively increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia compared with the thalami and cortical brain parenchyma, which we did not observe on neonatal sonograms. We hypothesized that the difference in relative echogenicity was due to differences in imaging techniques and anisotropic effects for prenatal and postnatal brain images. In 18 consecutive neonates, we obtained coronal images of the basal ganglia and thalami through the anterior fontanelle and axial images through the anterolateral fontanelle with both 5 and 7.5 MHz transducers. Two observers determined whether increased echogenicity or conspicuity of the basal ganglia was present, comparing the axial and coronal planes. We observed relatively increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia in the axial plane in 11 of the 16 examinations in this series. Of these 11, the increased echogenicity effect was manifest only in the axial plane in seven neonates. In the four instances in which the increased basal ganglia echogenicity was seen in both the coronal and axial planes, the effect was better shown in axial plane in all four. We did not observe any cases of increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia only in the coronal plane. The increased echogenicity was more conspicuous with the lower frequency transducer in 10 of the 11 examinations. We believe that the change in echogenicity of the basal ganglia is predominantly an anisotropic effect. Observing that increased echogenicity of the basal ganglia can disappear or decrease when comparing images in the axial to the coronal plane or be better demonstrated with lower frequency transducers might be a means by which to distinguish this phenomenon from true pathologic processes of the neonatal brain.  (+info)

GroEL-GroES cycling: ATP and nonnative polypeptide direct alternation of folding-active rings. (4/2188)

The double-ring chaperonin GroEL mediates protein folding in the central cavity of a ring bound by ATP and GroES, but it is unclear how GroEL cycles from one folding-active complex to the next. We observe that hydrolysis of ATP within the cis ring must occur before either nonnative polypeptide or GroES can bind to the trans ring, and this is associated with reorientation of the trans ring apical domains. Subsequently, formation of a new cis-ternary complex proceeds on the open trans ring with polypeptide binding first, which stimulates the ATP-dependent dissociation of the cis complex (by 20- to 50-fold), followed by GroES binding. These results indicate that, in the presence of nonnative protein, GroEL alternates its rings as folding-active cis complexes, expending only one round of seven ATPs per folding cycle.  (+info)

The influence of large scanning eye movements on stereoscopic slant estimation of large surfaces. (5/2188)

The results of several experiments demonstrate that the estimated magnitude of perceived slant of large stereoscopic surfaces increases with the duration of the presentation. In these experiments, subjects were free to make eye movements. A possible explanation for the increase is that the visual system needs to scan the stimulus with eye movements (which take time) before it can make a reliable estimate of slant. We investigated the influence of large scanning eye movements on stereoscopic slant estimation of large surfaces. Six subjects estimated the magnitude of slant about the vertical or horizontal axis induced by large-field stereograms of which one half-image was transformed by horizontal scale, horizontal shear, vertical scale, vertical shear, divergence or rotation relative to the other half-image. The experiment was blocked in three sessions. Each session was devoted to one of the following fixation strategies: central fixation, peripheral (20 deg) fixation and active scanning of the stimulus. The presentation duration in each of the sessions was 0.5, 2 or 8 s. Estimations were done with and without a visual reference. The magnitudes of estimated slant and the perceptual biases were not significantly influenced by the three fixation strategies. Thus, our results provide no support for the hypothesis that the time used for the execution of large scanning eye movements explains the build-up of estimated slant with the duration of the stimulus presentation.  (+info)

An orientation anisotropy in the effects of scaling vertical disparities. (6/2188)

Garding et al. (Vis Res 1995;35:703-722) proposed a two-stage theory of stereopsis. The first uses horizontal disparities for relief computations after they have been subjected to a process called disparity correction that utilises vertical disparities. The second stage, termed disparity normalisation, is concerned with computing metric representations from the output of stage one. It uses vertical disparities to a much lesser extent, if at all, for small field stimuli. We report two psychophysical experiments that tested whether human vision implements this two-stage theory. They tested the prediction that scaling vertical disparities to simulate different viewing distances to the fixation point should affect the perceived amplitudes of vertically but not horizontally oriented ridges. The first used elliptical half-cylinders and the 'apparently circular cylinder' judgement task of Johnston (Vis Res 1991;31:1351-1360). The second experiment used parabolic ridges and the amplitude judgement task of Buckley and Frisby (Vis Res 1993;33:919-934). Both studies broadly confirmed the anisotropy prediction by finding that large scalings of vertical disparities simulating near distances had a strong effect on the perceived amplitudes of the vertically oriented stimuli but little effect on the horizontal ones. When distances > 25 cm were simulated there were no significant differential effects and various methodological reasons are offered for this departure from expectations.  (+info)

Ultrafast primary processes in photosystem I of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. (7/2188)

Ultrafast primary processes in the trimeric photosystem I core antenna-reaction center complex of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 have been examined in pump-probe experiments with approximately 100 fs resolution. A global analysis of two-color profiles, excited at 660 nm and probed at 5 nm intervals from 650 to 730 nm, reveals 430 fs kinetics for spectral equilibration among bulk antenna chlorophylls. At least two lifetime components (2.0 and 6.5 ps in our analysis) are required to describe equilibration of bulk chlorophylls with far red-absorbing chlorophylls (>700 nm). Trapping at P700 occurs with 24-ps kinetics. The multiphasic bulk left arrow over right arrow red equilibration kinetics are intriguing, because prior steady-state spectral studies have suggested that the core antenna in Synechocystis sp. contains only one red-absorbing chlorophyll species (C708). The disperse kinetics may arise from inhomogeneous broadening in C708. The one-color optical anisotropy at 680 nm (near the red edge of the bulk antenna) decays with 590 fs kinetics; the corresponding anisotropy at 710 nm shows approximately 3.1 ps kinetics. The latter may signal equilibration among symmetry-equivalent red chlorophylls, bound to different monomers within trimeric photosystem I.  (+info)

The pentaene macrolide antibiotic filipin prefers more rigid DPPC bilayers: a fluorescence pressure dependence study. (8/2188)

Filipin is a pentaene macrolide antibiotic which was previously shown to incorporate more extensively into DPPC bilayers below the main phase transition temperature than above this temperature. This result was extremely unusual because drugs tend to be expelled from ordered gel phases. However, such results could not be safely attributed to the phase change of the bilayer itself because the temperature was changing concomitantly. In this work we changed the bilayer phase isothermally (53 degrees C) by hydrostatic pressure variation and discovered that filipin has a slightly more extensive incorporation in the pure DPPC gel phase (P>ca. 54.4 MPa): Kp,lc approximately 3x10(3) vs. Kp,gel approximately 6x10(3). The presence of sterols (45% molar ergosterol or cholesterol) caused an increase in the partition coefficients, regardless of pressure, ergosterol having a more pronounced effect (Kp approximately 2x10(4)-6x10(4)). Kp was pressure dependent in both cases, but mainly with cholesterol (Kp approximately 2x10(3)-2x10(4)). At variance with cholesterol, when ergosterol was used, no phase transition was detected. This difference cannot be due to a more extended uptake of filipin by cholesterol-containing membranes, and so must be due to specific interactions with cholesterol. In agreement with this finding, we discovered that filipin is more tightly packed (lower partial molar volume) in the cholesterol-rich phase than in the ergosterol-rich phase. Our results also point to a 2:1 DPPC:cholesterol stoichiometry in the cholesterol-rich phase (17% molar cholesterol). All partition coefficients were calculated from steady-state fluorescence anisotropy measurements.  (+info)

Background: Non-missile traumatic brain injury (nmTBI) without macroscopically detectable lesions often results in cognitive impairments that negatively affect daily life.. Aim: To identify abnormal white matter projections in patients with nmTBI with cognitive impairments using diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging (DTI).. Methods: DTI scans of healthy controls were compared with those of 23 patients with nmTBI who manifested cognitive impairments but no obvious neuroradiological lesions. DTI was comprised of fractional anisotropy analysis, which included voxel-based analysis and confirmatory study using regions of interest (ROI) techniques, and magnetic resonance tractography of the corpus callosum and fornix.. Results: A decline in fractional anisotropy around the genu, stem and splenium of the corpus callosum was shown by voxel-based analysis. Fractional anisotropy values of the genu (0.47), stem (0.48), and splenium of the corpus callosum (0.52), and the column of the fornix (0.51) ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Augmenting the anisotropic network model with torsional potentials improves PATH performance, enabling detailed comparison with experimental rate data. AU - Chandrasekaran,Srinivas Niranj. AU - Carter,Charles W.. PY - 2017/5/1. Y1 - 2017/5/1. N2 - PATH algorithms for identifying conformational transition states provide computational parameters-time to the transition state, conformational free energy differences, and transition state activation energies-for comparison to experimental data and can be carried out sufficiently rapidly to use in the "high throughput" mode.These advantages are especially useful for interpreting results from combinatorial mutagenesis experiments. This report updates the previously published algorithm with enhancements that improve correlations between PATH convergence parameters derived from virtual variant structures generated by RosettaBackrub and previously published kinetic data for a complete, four-way combinatorial mutagenesis of a conformational ...
Background: Diffusion-tensor fractional anisotropy (FA) is an index of neural-fiber damage in patients following stroke. To better characterize FA, tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) is frequently
A reduction of uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) by the presence of water has been ascertained in many sedimentary rocks and even some metamorphic rocks experimentally. This paper reports and discusses the influence of water content and anisotropy on the strength and deformability of two meta-sedimentary rocks by triaxial compressive tests. Before conducting the triaxial tests, the physical properties of meta-siltstone and meta-sandstone specimens have been carefully examined. The water contents of both tested rocks are very low, for instance, 0.17% for meta-siltstone and 0.10% for meta-sandstone. The porosities of the tested rocks are analyzed by the technique of mercury intrusion porosimetry (MIP). It shows that the meta-sedimentary rocks have very low porosity, 0.18% for meta-siltstone and 0.53% for meta-sandstone on average. The thin section analysis reveals that the meta-siltstone contains more hydrophilic substances such as clay minerals than the meta-sandstone, and both two ...
From the diffusion tensor imaging, diffusion anisotropy measures such as the fractional anisotropy (FA), can be computed. Moreover, the principal direction of the diffusion tensor can be used to infer the white matter connectivity of the brain (i.e. tractography; trying to see which part of the brain is connected to which other part). Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a scalar value between zero and one that describes the degree of anisotropy of a diffusion process. A value of zero means that diffusion is isotropic, i.e. it is unrestricted (or equally restricted) in all directions. A value of one means that diffusion occurs only along one axis and is fully restricted along all other directions. FA is a measure often used in diffusion imaging where it is thought to reflect fiber density, axonal diameter, and myelination in white matter. The FA is an extension of the concept of eccentricity of conic sections in 3 dimensions, normalized to the unit range. FA values of the gray matter, especially in the ...
In early Alzheimers disease (AD), the hippocampal region is the area most severely affected by cellular and structural alterations, yet glucose hypometabolism predominates in the posterior association cortex and posterior cingulate gyrus. One prevalent hypothesis to account for this discrepancy is that posterior cingulate hypometabolism results from disconnection from the hippocampus through disruption of the cingulum bundle. However, only partial and indirect evidence currently supports this hypothesis. Thus, using structural magnetic resonance imaging and 2-[(18)F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography in 18 patients with early AD, we assessed the relationships between hippocampal atrophy, white matter integrity, and gray matter metabolism by means of a whole-brain voxel-based correlative approach. We found that hippocampal atrophy is specifically related to cingulum bundle disruption, which is in turn highly correlated to hypometabolism of the posterior cingulate cortex but also of
We report on the synthesis, microstructure and mass transport properties of a colloidal hydrogel self-assembled from a mixture of colloidal silica and nontronite clay plates at different particle concentrations. The gel-structure had uniaxial long-range anisotropy caused by alignment of the clay particles in
Ketamine abuse has been shown to have a deleterious impact on brain function. However, the precise mechanisms of ketamine dependence-induced pathological change remain poorly understood. Although there is evidence for white matter changes in drug abuse, the presence of white matter abnormalities in chronic ketamine users has not been studied. White matter volumes were measured using in vivo diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data in 41 ketamine-dependent subjects and 44 drug-free healthy volunteers. White matter changes associated with chronic ketamine use were found in bilateral frontal and left temporoparietal cortices. There was also evidence that frontal white matter fractional anisotropy correlated with the severity of drug use (as measured by estimated total ketamine consumption). We provide direct evidence for dose-dependent abnormalities of white matter in bilateral frontal and left temporoparietal regions following chronic ketamine use. The findings suggest a microstructural ...
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious public health problem. Even injuries classified as mild, the most common, can result in persistent neurobehavioural impairment. Diffuse axonal injury is a common finding after TBI, and is presumed to contribute to outcomes, but may not always be apparent using standard neuroimaging. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a more recent method of assessing axonal integrity in vivo. The primary objective of the current investigation was to characterize white matter integrity utilizing DTI across the spectrum of chronic TBI of all severities. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between white matter integrity and cognition. Twenty mild, 17 moderate to severe TBI and 18 controls underwent DTI and neuropsychological testing. Fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity and radial diffusivity were calculated from the DTI data. Fractional anisotropy was the primary measure of white matter integrity. Region of interest analysis included anterior and ...
The article discusses the proposal for a "Charter of Digital Fundamental Rights of the European Union," whose central element is a binding effect of its fundamental rights not only to state authorities, but also to powerful private internet companies, which have a potential similar to that of the state to infringe on fundamental rights in the digital era. The article outlines the traditional German approach to fundamental rights and its underlying distinction between state and society, which makes it difficult for German scholars to handle a so-called horizontal effect of fundamental rights. Finally, the article discusses the main objections to such a horizontal effect and shows some practical problems it has the potential to cause in German and European constitutional law. ...
Results-The FA laterality index for the cerebral peduncle-regions of interest was a poor predictor of 3-month outcome (R2=0.044; P=0.137), whereas the slope over the FA laterality index of the nearest-5-slices showed a relatively weak but significant prediction (R2=0.11; P=0.022) with the affected side having lower FA values. Initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer (R2=0.69; P,0.001) and the weighted CST lesion load (R2=0.71; P,0.001) were strong predictors of 3-month outcome. In multivariate analyses, controlling for initial upper extremity Fugl-Meyer, weighted CST lesion load, and days-of-therapy, neither the FA laterality index of the cerebral peduncle nor the slope over the FA laterality index of the nearest-5-slices significantly contributed to the prediction of 86% of the variance in the upper extremity Fugl-Meyer at 3 months. ...
Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) have been inconsistent in demonstrating impairments in gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) structures in bipolar disorder (BD). This may be a consequence of significant confounding effects of medication, illness history and selection of controls in existing studies. Study of bipolar II or not-otherwise-specified (BD II/NOS) disorder provides a solution to these confounds and a bridge to unipolar cases across the affective spectrum. Thirty-eight euthymic, antipsychotic- and mood stabilizer-naïve young adults (mean age = 20.9 years) with BD II/NOS and 37 age-, cognitive ability- and gender-matched healthy controls (HCs) underwent MRI. Voxel-wise and regional gray matter volume comparisons were conducted using voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) were used to assess whole-brain WM, as indexed using fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity
To our knowledge, our study is the 1st systematic evaluation of the effect of voxel size/shape on measured FA. We have shown that measured FA may be affected by voxel size/shape in certain regions of the brain, but not in other regions. The areas in which measured FA did not depend on voxel size/shape included the corpus callosum and the CST. On the other hand, when using the nonisotropic voxel, statistically significant lower FA values were found in locations such as the SLF, the red nucleus, and the thalamus. For example, FA values from the 2 × 2 × 6 mm3 voxel at the SLF were lower by approximately 6% compared with those of the 2 × 2 × 2 mm3 voxel.. The difference between the regions with and without FA diversity appears to be related to the degree that crossing fibers were contained within the voxel of the DTI. For example, callosal fibers and the CST are both characterized by tightly packed fiber bundles that run in a similar direction. These areas did not have a lower FA for the ...
To achieve a deeper understanding of the brain, scientists, and clinicians use electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG) inverse methods to reconstruct sources in the cortical sheet of the human brain. The influence of structural and electrical anisotropy in both the skull and th …
We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to study 2 patients with traumatic brain injury. The first patient recovered reliable expressive language after 19 years in a minimally conscious state (MCS); the second had remained in MCS for 6 years. Comparison of white matter integrity in the patients and 20 normal subjects using histograms of apparent diffusion constants and diffusion anisotropy identified widespread altered diffusivity and decreased anisotropy in the damaged white matter. These findings remained unchanged over an 18-month interval between 2 studies in the first patient. In addition, in this patient, we identified large, bilateral regions of posterior white matter with significantly increased anisotropy that reduced over 18 months. In contrast, notable increases in anisotropy within the midline cerebellar white matter in the second study correlated with marked clinical improvements in motor functions. This finding was further correlated with an increase in resting metabolism measured ...
An anisotropically conductive adhesive composition (10) for use in electrically connecting at least one conductive area (14) on one substrate (12) with at least one conductive area (20) on a second substrate (18) is disclosed. The composition (10) is comprised of a mixture of conductive particles and a nonconductive adhesive binder (26). The conductive particles are dispersed throughout the binder in a plurality of noncontiguous conductive units (24) such that, upon applying a layer (30) of the composition (10) over both the conductive and insulating areas (14, 16) on one substrate (12) and positioning in a conducting relationship and adhering said at least one conductive area (20) on the second substrate (18) with said at least one conductive area (14) on the first substrate (12), the units (24) establish electrical connection between the adhered conductive areas (14, 20) on the two substrates (12, 18). The units (24) are sufficiently spaced apart, however, to preclude electrical conductivity
We present evolution equations for a family of paths that results from anisotropically weighting curve energies in non-linear statistics of manifold valued data. This situation arises when performing inference on data that have non-trivial covariance and are anisotropic distributed. The family can be interpreted as most probable paths for a driving semi-martingale that through stochastic development is mapped to the manifold. We discuss how the paths are projections of geodesics for a sub-Riemannian metric on the frame bundle of the manifold, and how the curvature of the underlying connection appears in the sub-Riemannian Hamilton-Jacobi equations. Evolution equations for both metric and cometric formulations of the sub-Riemannian metric are derived. We furthermore show how rank-deficient metrics can be mixed with an underlying Riemannian metric, and we relate the paths to geodesics and polynomials in Riemannian geometry. Examples from the family of paths are visualized on embedded surfaces, and we
Distributed anisotropic diffusion provides a wrapper program around ITKs anisotropic diffusion filters that allows an input image to be spread across
Distributed anisotropic diffusion provides a wrapper program around ITKs anisotropic diffusion filters that allows an input image to be spread across
We apply the full-wave electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering by a small cylindrical particle with radial anisotropy for normally incident light with transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. The scattering coefficients are derived, when the radial anisotropies in both the permittivity and permeability tensors are taken into account. It is shown that the surface and volume plasmon resonances can be identified by the sign of dεt/dq, in which εt is the permittivity element in a direction tangential to the local r-axis, and q is the size parameter. The near field distributions for surface and volume modes are illustrated by finite element method. It is found that small changes of anisotropy can affect the scattering efficiencies significantly. Moreover, the quadrupole and octupole resonant peaks may be much higher and sharper than those of dipole resonance in the scattering efficiency spectra ...
The influence of scattering anisotropy on polarized light transport in microsphere solutions was studied experimentally an with Monte Carlo programs. Anisotropy is an important parameter in the depolarization of light traveling through a scattering media.. © Optical Society of America. PDF Article ...
swarm, towards the hydrodynamical modeling of ebullated bed reactors Soutenance de thèse Clément Toupoint. Jeudi 29 novembre - Amphithéâtre Nougaro. Abstract : The origin of this PhD. thesis lies in the study of Ebullated Bed Reactors (EBRs). These chemical reactors are very active research topics in chemical processes, notably thanks to their many usages in heavy oil processing. Many complex phenomena take place within EBRs, and make their design and optimization difficult. In fluid mechanics, a lot of physical mechanisms present in EBRs are active fields of study (three-phase flow, fluid-body interaction...). Hence, in the present work, a study of mechanisms participating in the hydrodynamics of an EBR with cylindrical catalysts is performed.. In a first part, the impact of the catalyst anisotropy on its fall is investigated. In order to gain insight on the effect of the body anisotropy on its fall dynamics, we investigate experimentally the free fall of a solid cylinder in a fluid at ...
Y. Shimotsuma, M. Nakabayasi, K. Miura, K. Hirao, and P. G. Kazansky, "Optical anisotropy of self-assembled nanostructure in glass," in Advanced Photonics Congress, OSA Technical Digest (online) (Optical Society of America, 2012), paper BW1D.1 ...
Immune responses to exercise generally consist of induced lymphocyte populations (mainly T-cells, B-cells and natural killer cells) in the blood under exercise and immune suppression during regeneration (29). The inflicted damages of the CNS structures lead to dysregulations of the inflammatory balance in favour of a pro-inflammatory state that may be targeted and modulated via exercise (12). MS research has more and more focused on the role of cytokines and neurotrophic factors linking the beneficial effects of exercise found in elder adults and animal studies also with MS pathogenesis. Data from cross-sectional studies in pwMS show positive associations between the levels of cardiorespiratory fitness and measures of grey matter atrophy and white matter integrity: in 21 pwMS (EDSS 1.0-6.0) high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness were positively correlated with grey matter volume and higher focal fractional anisotropy values (33).However, training interventions studies in pwMS show mixed ...
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the sensitivity of a recently developed whole-brain magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) sequence to cerebral pathology and disability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and compare with measures derived from diffusion tensor imaging. METHODS: Whole-brain MRSI and diffusion tensor imaging were undertaken in 13 patients and 14 age-similar healthy controls. Mean N-acetylaspartate (NAA), fractional anisotropy, and mean diffusivity were extracted from the corticospinal tract, compared between groups, and then in relation to disability in the patient group. RESULTS: Significant reductions in NAA were found along the course of the corticospinal tracts on whole-brain MRSI. There were also significant changes in fractional anisotropy (decreased) and mean diffusivity (increased) in the patient group, but only NAA showed a significant relationship with disability (r = 0.65, p = 0.01). CONCLUSION: Whole-brain MRSI has potential as a quantifiable neuroimaging marker of
Elastic Network Models (ENM) have been successful in reproducing fluctuations for proteins of native conformations. ENM is a coarse-grained method for modeling protein dynamics, meaning in generally in ENM each residue is represented by one bead in its Alpha Carbon position. These beads are then connected by elastic springs if the distance between two beads fall under a cutoff value (usually within the range of 7 to 15 angstroms). For more details please read here. PyANM is developed as a cross-platform Pymol Plugin to allow its users to build and visualize Anisotropic Network Models, a member of the ENM family. This plugin allows its users to draw arrows or make movies based on calculated mode motions, to draw all springs used to build the ANM within the protein, to color the protein based on its Mean Square Fluctuations (MSF) calculated from ANM and to export data from ANM for future processing. PyANM also allows its users to change the colors and scales (sizes) for movies or arrows generated ...
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) can be used to examine white matter structures in the living human brain. A common approach to dMRI analysis involves calculating a sc
Host: Core B, Dr. Ivet Bahar. Place: Victoria Building, Room 228. Date and Time: Wednesday, Oct. 5, 2016, 3:00 - 4:40 pm. 3:00 - 3:10 pm General Business for CDAR 3:10 - 4:20 pm Core B Monthly Report Update Presenters: Dr. Hongchun Li (Postdoctoral Associate, Bahar lab) gave an update on his work describing γ-secretase as an attractive target for treatment of Alzheimers disease and presented potential figures for a manuscript. G-secretase is a membrane protein and its function is related to many diseases. Recently, its 3-dimensional intact structure was determined, and we studied the intact structure with anisotropic network model (ANM) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Our ANM model showed interesting motions related with modulator binding in a cavity, and our MD simulations found that the cavity is druggable. We also provided atomistic details of potential modulators in the cavity.. Title of presentation: "Dynamic Modulation of Binding Affinity as a Mechanism to Regulate Interferon ...
Critical white matter structures in the brains of babies who are born so prematurely that they weigh less than 1,500 grams develop more robustly when their mothers breast-feed them, compared with preemie peers who are fed formula.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anisotropic properties of directed energy deposition (DED)-processed Ti-6Al-4V. AU - Wolff, Sarah. AU - Lee, Taekyung. AU - Faierson, Eric. AU - Ehmann, Kornel. AU - Cao, Jian. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. N2 - Directed energy deposited (DED) Ti-6Al-4V components and prototypes are quickly growing in prevalence in aerospace and biomedical industries for their increased strength and fast processing time. However, one of the remaining challenges in DED processes, particularly laser engineered net shaping (LENS), is the characterization of the inherent anisotropy in material properties. Anisotropy in microstructure, porosity and mechanical behavior arises due to unique material thermal histories during processing. Understanding anisotropy in additive manufacturing can lead to refined process parameters, characterization methods, material and thermal modeling as well as improved mechanical properties. This paper investigates the anisotropic mechanical properties, specifically ...
High-resolution, 3D reconstructions of the ONH were generated for four clinically confirmed normal and two clinically confirmed glaucomatous human donor eyes from six donors. Eyes were immersion fixed at 10 mmHg and reconstructed using a custom automated microtome-based system that serially images the embedded tissue block face at 1.5 µm resolution in the fluorescent domain after each 1.5 µm section is cut. The images are then aligned and stacked into a digital 3D ONH reconstruction with 1.5x1.5x1.5 µm voxel resolution. The lamina cribrosa (LC) architecture was delineated and segmented and the laminar microarchitecture was sampled on a discrete grid to compute the connective tissue volume fraction (CTVF), the degree of anisotropy and the predominant laminar beam orientation within each sampling volume. CTVF, LC beam orientation, and LC beam anisotropy were mapped for each eye and compared.. ...
Anisotropy at the nanoscale is a critical factor in the mechanical, optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of nanoparticles. Indeed, many unusual properties of colloidal materials arise due to heterogeneous spatial confinement of electrons, plasmons and electric fields around the particles. As the field of nanoparticle synthesis and application matures, there is an increasing need for the design of novel and more complex nanosized objects. In particular, the incorporation of multiple functionalities, the directionality of such functions, and the incorporation of lower or higher dimensional order have great relevance and interest for biomolecule detection, diagnosis and therapeutic medical applications ...
We have analyzed the effect of microstructural changes on the initiation and growth of shear bands. These have been studied by developing an adaptive mesh refinement technique to decipher adiabatic shear bands in two-dimensional problems, formulating a three-dimensional finite-deformation theory for dipolar thermoviscoplastic materials and using it to examine the initiation and growth of shear bands in plane strain thermomechanical deformations of dipolar materials, employing an internal variable theory of Brown, Kim and Anand to study the shear band problem, investigating the possibility of phase transformations during the development of adiabatic shear bands in a steel specimen, ascertaining the speed of propagation of a shear band in a steel tube, assessing the effect of frictional forces between the loading device and the cylinder ends, and, analyzing the development of a shear band in a FCC single crystal. Principal results obtained during these investigations are summarized in the
We review results of recent combined theoretical and experimental studies of Ti1−xAlxN, an archetypical alloy system material for hard-coating applications. Theoretical simulations of lattice parameters, mixing enthalpies, and elastic properties are presented. Calculated phase diagrams at ambient pressure, as well as at pressure of 10 GPa, show a wide miscibility gap and broad region of compositions and temperatures where the spinodal decomposition takes place. The strong dependence of the elastic properties and sound wave anisotropy on the Al-content offers detailed understanding of the spinodal decomposition and age hardening in Ti1−xAlxN alloy films and multilayers. TiAlN/TiN multilayers can further improve the hardness and thermal stability compared to TiAlN since they offer means to influence the kinetics of the favorable spinodal decomposition and suppress the detrimental transformation to w-AlN. Here, we show that a 100 degree improvement in terms of w-AlN suppression can be achieved, which
The Atomistic Materials Modeling group of Prof. Erik Bitzek is inviting applications for a fully funded PhD position at the Institute for General Materials Properties within the Department of Materials Science of the Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg in Erlangen, Germany. The objective of the PhD project is to use atomistic simulation methods to study the influence of topological anisotropy on the mechanical properties of inorganic glasses.. ...
Early stages of vertebrate embryogenesis are characterized by a remarkable series of shape changes. The resulting morphological complexity is driven by molecular, cellular, and tissue-scale biophysical alterations. Operating at the cellular level, extracellular matrix (ECM) networks facilitate cell motility. At the tissue level, ECM networks provide material properties required to accommodate the large-scale deformations and forces that shape amniote embryos. In other words, the primordial biomaterial from which reptilian, avian, and mammalian embryos are molded is a dynamic composite comprised of cells and ECM. Despite its central importance during early morphogenesis we know little about the intrinsic micrometer-scale surface properties of primordial ECM networks. Here we computed, using avian embryos, five textural properties of fluorescently tagged ECM networks - (a) inertia, (b) correlation, (c) uniformity, (d) homogeneity, and (e) entropy. We analyzed fibronectin and fibrillin-2 as ...
Author(s): Griesel, A; Mcclean, JL; Gille, ST; Sprintall, J; Eden, C | Abstract: Lagrangian isopycnal diffusivities quantify the along-isopycnal mixing of any tracer with mean gradients along isopycnal surfaces. They are studied in the Southern Ocean of the 1/10° Parallel Ocean Program (POP) model using more than 50 000 float trajectories. Concurrent Eulerian isopycnal diffusivities are estimated directly from the eddy fluxes and mean tracer gradients. Consistency, spatial variation, and relation to mean jets are evaluated. The diffusivities are calculated in bins large enough to reduce contributions from the rotational components that do not lead to net tracer mixing. Because the mean jets are nonzonal and nonparallel, meridional dispersion includes standing eddies and is significantly different from cross-stream dispersion. With the subtraction of the local Eulerianmean, the full Lagrangian diffusivity tensor can be estimated. Along-stream diffusivities are about 6 times larger than cross-stream
Figure S4. 6-hydroxyindole transition bandshapes, 1La and 1Lb, calculated from eqns. (6) and (7), using limiting anisotropy values derived from the fluorescence excitation anisotropy measurement at 77 K, given in Fig. 4b: fa(λ), dashed line and fb(λ), solid line ...
Abstract , References , Additional Information Abstract: In a previous paper [7] it was shown that for waves propagating in certain linear anisotropic mechanical systems there exist universal connections between the phase speeds of harmonic plane waves. Here the results are shown to hold in a wider context ...
The effects of orientation ratio (OR) on longitudinal thin film media recording performance are studied via micromagnetic modeling. The OR of the media is controlled by the anisotropy axes distribution. Along the preferred anisotropy direction, the coercivity and the remanence increases with decreasing standard deviation of anisotropy distribution σ and gives rise to an OR as high as 90. Highly oriented media show an ultra low transition noise and high effective track width. However, it is observed that highly oriented media exhibits a large track edge bending which increases the track edge noise. Effect of saturation magnetization (Ms) on the recording pattern for highly oriented media (OR = 22.5) is investigated. Low magnetization is found to induce even lower transition noise and slightly higher effective track width. Edge percolation is observed when Ms increases up to 800 emu/cm3. However, the noise magnitude at this edge does not change much when Ms is decreased to 200 emu/cm3 ...
GOCEs highly sensitive gradiometer instrument has been switched on and is producing data. Forming the heart of GOCE, the gradiometer is specifically designed to measure Earths gravity field with unprecedented accuracy.. "We are very pleased with what we have seen from the gradiometer from the moment it was switched on. All accelerometer sensor heads are working in very good health and provide meaningful data," GOCE Project Manager Danilo Muzi said.. The gradiometer consists of three pairs of identical ultra-sensitive accelerometers, each mounted to point in orthogonal directions to allow the simultaneous measurement of the spatial variations of the gravity field.. With the switching on of the gradiometer, all systems on the satellite have now been activated. The satellites sophisticated electric ion propulsion system was switched on last week and continues to operate normally. In order to get the maximum performance from the gradiometer, GOCE was designed to provide a highly stable and ...
The material structure in Maxwells equations is determined by the relative permittivity ε(x) and the relative permeability μ(x). However, ε is not only a function of position. In general, it also depends on frequency (material dispersion) and on the electric field E itself (nonlinearity). It may also depend on the orientation of the field (anisotropy). Material dispersion, in turn, is generally associated with absorption loss in the material, or possibly gain. All of these effects can be simulated in Meep, with certain restrictions. Similarly for the relative permeability μ(x), for which dispersion, nonlinearity, and anisotropy are all supported as well. In this section, we describe the form of the equations and material properties that Meep can simulate. The actual interface with which you specify these properties is described in the Meep reference. ...
Diffusion, Tissue, Magnetic, Water, Work, Brain, Anisotropy, Displacement, Magnetic Field, Magnetic Resonance, Scales, Rat, Measure, Motion, Time, Pulse, Pathologies, Distance, Human, Diffusion Mri
The magnetic susceptibility along the c axis (xc) and in the basal plane (xb) has been measured on a single crystal of Gd in the reduced temperature range 410-4t1.310-2. Uniaxial anisotropy is observed. Magnetic dipole-dipole ...
Cell, Chromatography, Electronic, Ligands, Parent, Reagents, Absorption, Anisotropy, Charge, Diffusion, Dmso, Fluorescence, Homo, Nature, Relaxation, Scales, Time, Transfer, Transient
The wide range of tests for determining the composition of samples, as well as their thermal, rheological and thermomechanical properties.
Background The tectorial membrane (TM) in the mammalian cochlea displays anisotropy, where mechanical or structural properties differ along varying directions. The anisotropy arises from the presence of collagen fibrils organized in fibers of ∼1 µm diameter that run radially across the TM. Mechanical coupling between the TM and the sensory epithelia is required for normal hearing. However, the lack of a suitable technique to measure mechanical anisotropy at the microscale level has hindered understanding of the TMs precise role. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we report values of the three elastic moduli that characterize the anisotropic mechanical properties of the TM. Our novel technique combined Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), modeling, and optical tracking of microspheres to determine the elastic moduli. We found that the TMs large mechanical anisotropy results in a marked transmission of deformations along the direction that maximizes sensory cell excitation, whereas in the perpendicular
TY - JOUR. T1 - The usefulness of fractional anisotropy maps in localization of lacunar infarctions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. AU - Jeong, Hyun Kyung. AU - Lee, Seung Koo. AU - Kim, Dong Ik. AU - Heo, Ji Hoe. PY - 2005/4/1. Y1 - 2005/4/1. N2 - We aimed in this study to assess the clinical usefulness of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps in the evaluation of lacunar infarctions in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus. We retrospectively reviewed 28 patients (18 men, 10 women; mean age 63 years) who had acute lacunar infarction in striatum, internal capsule and thalamus on diffusion weighted MR imaging (DWI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) maps were generated in addition to conventional T2 weighted images (T2WI) and trace maps of DWI. Two radiologists reviewed the location of infarcts in combination with and without FA maps. Exact location of infarction was determined by FA maps, i.e. on the white band of internal capsule or outside the internal capsule. Accuracy and inter-observer ...
Six men performed ankle plantar flexion exercises with eccentric contraction. The fractional anisotropy (FA), λ1, λ2, λ3, mean diffusivity (MD), and T2 values in the triceps surae muscles were measured by magnetic resonance diffusion tensor and spin-echo imaging. Passive torque of plantar flexors, maximal voluntary isometric plantar flexion torques (MVIP), and Achilles tendon stiffness during MVIP were measured by combined ultrasonography and dynamometry. Plasma creatine kinase and muscle soreness were also assessed. These parameters were measured before and 1-8 days postexercise. ...
The analysis of DTI images showed that injured nerves have lower FA values as compared to the naïve nerves. It suggests that in area distally to coaptation site of injured nerves water diffuses in various directions indicating low structural integrity whereas most of the water inside of the naïve nerve diffuses in the same direction. FA has increased or did not change in the proximal and transection segment of injured nerve across groups from 2 to 5 weeks post-surgery. In the distal segment, FA value has increased by a noticeable margin in IGF-1 group and to a lesser degree, in FK506 treated group. This correlated strongly with changes in GAP43 expression, neurofilament M and myelin expressions in the distal nerve fragment ...
Single-ion anisotropy[edit]. In crystals, spin-orbit coupling is responsible for single-ion magnetocrystalline anisotropy which ... Thus, single-ion anisotropy can couple an external electric field to spins of magnetically ordered compounds. ... An external electric field may change the local symmetry seen by magnetic ions and affect both the strength of the anisotropy ...
Primary anisotropy[edit]. The power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature anisotropy in terms of ... The anisotropy, or directional dependency, of the cosmic microwave background is divided into two types: primary anisotropy, ... White, M. (1999). "Anisotropies in the CMB". Proceedings of the Los Angeles Meeting, DPF 99. UCLA. arXiv:astro-ph/9903232 . ... CMBR dipole anisotropy[edit]. From the CMB data it is seen that the earth appears to be moving at 7005368000000000000♠368±2 km/ ...
An additional anisotropy measure can used to describe the deviation from the spherical case: C. a. =. C. l. +. C. p. =. 1. −. C ... There are other metrics of anisotropy used, including the relative anisotropy (RA): ... diffusion anisotropy measures such as the fractional anisotropy (FA), can be computed. Moreover, the principal direction of the ... The brightness is weighted by the fractional anisotropy which is a scalar measure of the degree of anisotropy in a given voxel ...
CMBR dipole anisotropy (ℓ = 1)[edit]. CMB dipole represents the largest anisotropy, which is in the first spherical harmonic (ℓ ... Primary anisotropy[edit]. The power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background radiation temperature anisotropy in terms of ... CMBR monopole anisotropy (ℓ = 0)[edit]. When ℓ = 0, the Y. (. θ. ,. φ. ). {\displaystyle Y(\theta ,\varphi )}. term reduced to ... The anisotropy, or directional dependency, of the cosmic microwave background is divided into two types: primary anisotropy, ...
"Magnetic Anisotropy". Hitchhiker's Guide to Magnetism. Retrieved 2 March 2014. Boysen, Earl; Muir, Nancy C. (2011). ... most important is that the tetragonal Nd2Fe14B crystal structure has exceptionally high uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy ...
CMB anisotropies and structure formation[edit]. The presence of the CνB affects the evolution of CMB anisotropies as well as ... 2.2 CMB anisotropies and structure formation. *2.3 Indirect evidence from phase changes to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB ... 2011). "Seven-Year Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) Observations: Cosmological Interpretation". The Astrophysical ... and from anisotropies in the cosmic microwave background. One of these predictions is that neutrinos will have left a subtle ...
"Cosmic-Ray Anisotropy". NASA. Retrieved 24 May 2012. ...
This magnetic anisotropy pushed authors to define two independent longitudinal magnetostrictions λ 100 {\displaystyle \lambda ...
"Balloon-Borne Anisotropy Measurement (BAM)". Brown University. 2002. Retrieved 22 July 2015. Polenta, G.; P. A. R., Ade; J., ... Some notable experiments in the list are COBE, which first detected the temperature anisotropies of the CMB, and showed that it ... There have been a variety of experiments to measure the CMB anisotropies and polarization since its first observation in 1964 ... This list is a compilation of experiments measuring the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation anisotropies and ...
Chaudhuri, Avi (1991). "Metastable motion anisotropy". Visual Neuroscience. 7 (5): 397-407. doi:10.1017/s0952523800009706. PMID ...
Exceptions, or inequalities, are frequently indicated by the prefix an, hence anisotropy. Anisotropy is also used to describe ... "Anisotropy and Isotropy". Landman L. "The Epidermal Permeability Barrier." Anat Embryol (Berl) 1988; 178:1-13 [1] Gregoriadis G ... An example of anisotropy is in flows with a background density as gravity works in only one direction. The apparent surface ...
Anisotropy induced drift. Boundary induced drift (see also). Interaction of spirals. High frequency induced drift. Note that ...
Magnetostriction Magnetocrystalline anisotropy. ...
These optical properties are described by the absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs, and anisotropy factor g. In ... scattering anisotropy = ; μt = extinction coefficient = μa + μs Where Na is the number of absorbers in a medium, 𝜎a is the ...
"Weak Elastic Anisotropy". In geophysics the anisotropy in elastic properties is usually weak, in which case δ , γ , ϵ ≪ 1 {\ ... These expressions are also useful in some contexts where the anisotropy is not weak. Orthotropic material Linear elasticity ... Backus, G. E. (1962), Long-Wave Elastic Anisotropy Produced by Horizontal Layering, J. Geophys. Res., 67(11), 4427-4440 Ikelle ... Cambridge University Press 2003 (paperback). ISBN 0-521-54344-4 Thomsen, Leon (1986). "Weak Elastic Anisotropy". Geophysics. 51 ...
His studies have been detailed in a book, Anisotropy in Geoelectromagnetism, as chapters in books by others, and as several ... J. G. Negi; P. D. Saraf (1989). Anisotropy in geoelectromagnetism. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-87495-5. S. Böhme; U. Esser; H. ... J. G. Negi; P. D. Saraf (1989). Anisotropy in geoelectromagnetism. Elsevier. ISBN 978-0-444-87495-5. S. Böhme; U. Esser; H. ...
Special properties from anisotropy. See also: Crystal optics. Crystals can have certain special electrical, optical, and ... These properties are related to the anisotropy of the crystal, i.e. the lack of rotational symmetry in its atomic arrangement. ...
Cosmic microwave background anisotropies and baryon acoustic oscillations only serve to demonstrate that distances to a given ... Measurements of cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies indicate that the universe is close to flat. For the shape of ... These difficulties became stronger after the discovery of anisotropy in the cosmic microwave background by the COBE spacecraft ... March 2006). "Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) three year results: implications for cosmology". Durrer, R. (2011). " ...
D. Tarling; F. Hrouda (31 May 1993). Magnetic Anisotropy of Rocks. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-412- ...
"Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe". NASA. Retrieved 3 Jan 2014. Kravtsov, Andrey V.; Klypin, Anatoly A.; Khokhlov, Alexei M ... "Code for Anisotropies in the Microwave Background". Antony Lewis. Retrieved 3 Jan 2014. "CAMB Web Interface". National ... model of the universe and the WMAP five-year and seven-year cosmological parameters from NASA's Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy ...
... exponentially decreases anisotropies in the CMB on a scale (the Silk scale) much smaller than a degree, or ... On the larger scale, anisotropies are decreased more slowly, with significant degradation happening within one unit of Hubble ... Scientists study photon diffusion damping (and CMB anisotropies in general) because of the insight the subject provides into ... Hu, Wayne (1994-06-28). "The Nature versus Nurture of Anisotropies". arXiv:astro-ph/9406071 [astro-ph]. Hu, Wayne (1995-08-26 ...
doi:10.1016/S0304-8853(98)00266-2. Berkowitz, A.E.; Takano, Kentaro (October 1999). "Exchange anisotropy - a review". Journal ...
When anisotropy is present, the direction of heat flow may not be exactly the same as the direction of the thermal gradient. In ... See Thermal anisotropy below. In SI units, thermal conductivity is measured in watts per meter-kelvin (W/(m⋅K)). The dimension ...
Magnetostriction Magnetocrystalline anisotropy. ...
... but contains very small temperature anisotropies of a few parts in 100,000. A sky map of anisotropies can be decomposed into an ... The CMB anisotropy was first discovered by COBE in 1992, though this had too coarse resolution to detect the acoustic peaks. ... Later, small anisotropies gradually grew and condensed the homogeneous universe into stars, galaxies and larger structures. ... ISBN 978-0-8050-7256-3. Vittorio, N.; J. Silk (1984). "Fine-scale anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background in a universe ...
Large magnetic anisotropy energy (MAE) over 50 meV in magnetic nanostructure is desired for practical applications. Here we ... Our strategy can be generalized to design other magnetic molecules or clusters to obtain giant magnetic anisotropy. Strong ... The authors theoretically investigate a method to increase the magnetic anisotropy of iridium molecules by attaching a halogen ... Exploring giant magnetic anisotropy in small magnetic nanostructures is of technological merit for information storage. ...
Anisotropy. Ataxia* / etiology, pathology. Cerebellum / pathology*. Diffuse Axonal Injury* / complications, pathology. ... We defined a lesion as a fractional anisotropy value two standard deviations below that of normal controls. All six patients ... In each cerebellar peduncle, fractional anisotropy was estimated using the regions of interest method. ...
The ability to monitor the structural anisotropy of the myocardium would be useful through fiber optic devices in assessing ... Polarimetry may thus be a useful approach to quantify these microstructural tissue anisotropies, and in particular to monitor ... Birefringence is a measure of structural anisotropy, and causes light polarized along the different refractive indices in the ... the retardance can be used as a measure of tissue anisotropy if the propagation distance is constant between measurements, as ...
Dual-frequency liquid crystal exhibits a unique feature that its dielectric anisotropy changes from positive to negative when ... Dual-frequency liquid crystal exhibits a unique feature that its dielectric anisotropy changes from positive to negative when ... Liquid Crystal, High Birefringence, Low Viscosity, Dual-Frequency, Negative Dielectric Anisotropy, High Contrast Ratio ...
Models of anisotropy patterns are useful for understanding phenomena like the coordinated motions of heart tissue or wave flows ... "Complex-anisotropy-induced pattern formation in bistable media," Phys. Rev. E 79, 026105 (2009). All APS Physics Images ...
Seismic anisotropy is the variation of seismic wavespeed with direction. Seismic anisotropy is an indicator of long range order ... Physicists use the term anisotropy to describe direction-dependent properties of materials. Magnetic anisotropy, for example, ... An "axis of anisotropy" is defined as the axis along which isotropy is broken (or an axis of symmetry, such as normal to ... Anisotropy in minerals is most reliably seen in their optical properties. An example of an isotropic mineral is garnet. ...
It is a special case of magnetic anisotropy. The spin-orbit interaction is the primary source of magnetocrystalline anisotropy ... The anisotropy of such crystals is called uniaxial anisotropy. If the z axis is taken to be the main symmetry axis of the ... while that for uniaxial anisotropy is second order. The magnetocrystalline anisotropy parameters have a strong dependence on ... The magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy is generally represented as an expansion in powers of the direction cosines of the ...
Optical anisotropy and sign reversal in layer-by-layer assembled films from chiral nanoparticles. Nicholas Kotov. University of ... Anisotropy at the nanoscale is a critical factor in the mechanical, optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of ... Faraday Discussion 191: Nanoparticles with Morphological and Functional Anisotropy The e-issue is now available online ... Abstract Submission for Nanoparticles with Morphological and Functional Anisotropy is now open. Submit your oral/paper abstract ...
Sapora O., Parasassi T., Padovani L.M., Conti F. (1985) Membrane Fluorescence Anisotropy Behavior during Cell Cycle. In: Conti ... Chronic Myeloid Leukemia K562 Cell Fluorescence Anisotropy Rous Sarcoma Virus Inhibitor Removal ...
... F. Barlat, D. J. Lege, J. C. Brem, and C. J. Warren ...
Single quantum dot controls a plasmonic cavitys scattering and anisotropy Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Single quantum dot controls a plasmonic cavitys scattering and anisotropy. Thomas Hartsfield, Wei-Shun Chang, Seung-Cheol Yang ... can be used to control the scattering spectrum and anisotropy of the latter. The scattering spectrum of the hybrid structure ...
magnetic-anisotropy definition: Noun (uncountable) 1. (physics) The dependence of any magnetic property of a material on the ... magnetic-anisotropy. Noun (uncountable). *(physics) The dependence of any magnetic property of a material on the direction in ...
Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) - denumită și Explorer 80 - este o navă spațială ce măsoară diferențele de ... Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe: Overview". Legacy Archive for Background Data Analysis (LAMBDA). Greenbelt, Maryland: ... În 2003, misiunea, denumită inițial Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) a primit numele WMAP în cinstea lui David Todd Wilkinson ( ... The WMAP (Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe) mission is designed to determine the geometry, content, and evolution of the ...
High anisotropy of flow-aligned bicellar membrane systems.. Kogan M1, Nordén B, Beke-Somfai T. ...
Diffusion MRI (dMRI) can be used to examine white matter structures in the living human brain. A common approach to dMRI analysis involves calculating a sc
... T. Oyama1 and J. Wadsworth2 ... T. Oyama and J. Wadsworth, "Anisotropy of Microstructure and Strength in Fiber Textured Molybdenum Alloys," Textures and ...
Single Object Zernike Moment Anisotropy Measure Shape Component Shape Orientation These keywords were added by machine and not ... We also show how the anisotropy measure of multi-component shapes, as a quantity which indicates how consistently the shape ... Saha, P.K., Wehrli, F.W.: A robust method for measuring trabecular bone orientation anisotropy at in vivo resolution using ... Žunić J., Rosin P.L. (2013) Orientation and Anisotropy of Multi-component Shapes. In: Breuß M., Bruckstein A., Maragos P. (eds ...
2008 by Chapman and Hall/CRC One of the Top Selling Physics Books according to YBP Library Services Magnetic Anisotropies ... Magnetic Anisotropies in Nanostructured Matter presents a compact summary of all the theoretical means to describe magnetic ... It then focuses on magnetic anisotropy energies, exchange and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, temperature-dependent effects ... this book examines the theory and modeling of magnetic anisotropies in nanostructured materials. It shows how these materials ...
Finally, the magnetic anisotropy of the particles is utilized to demonstrate control of the particles positions using an ... To provide multifunctional anisotropy within one particle, two optically and chemically distinctive inorganic nanocrystals [a ...
Dominant slip planes define the lattice preferred orientation and elastic anisotropy of the texture. The {110} slip planes in ... its topography8 and seismic anisotropy within the layer9. Here we use a novel simulation technique, first-principles ... require a much smaller degree of lattice preferred orientation to explain geophysical observations of shear-wave anisotropy in ... Anisotropy of Earths D″ layer and stacking faults in the MgSiO3 post-perovskite phase. *Artem R. Oganov. 1. , ...
... and the anisotropy of the dynamics to be assessed, which turned out to be completely confined at the air/water interface plane ...
By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, ... Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments. Ottorino Ori 1,* , Franco Cataldo 1. ... Ori, O.; Cataldo, F.; Putz, M.V. Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12 ... "Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments." Int. J. Mol. Sci. 12, no. 11: 7934-7949. ...
... opportunity to collect long-term climatic data in characterizing aerosol properties and various types of surface anisotropy. ... research to deploy a newly developed sun-sky-surface photometer for studying aerosol extinction and surface anisotropy at the ... Tsay, S. Applications of Sunphotometry to Aerosol Extinction and Surface Anisotropy, report, September 30, 2002; United States ... opportunity to collect long-term climatic data in characterizing aerosol properties and various types of surface anisotropy. ...
Acoustical Model of Anisotropy. The anisotropic character of materials relates to those properties that have different values ...
... their anisotropy at the plasma membrane was sufficient to explain the anisotropy of subsequent growth. ... Cell-wall structure and anisotropy in procuste, a cellulose synthase mutant of Arabidopsis thaliana Planta. 2006 Jul;224(2):438 ...
  • Accordingly, changes in myocardial structure associated with infarction and treatment-induced remodeling will alter the anisotropy exhibited by the tissue. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • These results demonstrate the ability of optical polarimetry to characterize the micro-organizational state of the myocardium via its measured anisotropy, and the potential of this approach for monitoring regenerative treatments of myocardial infarction. (spiedigitallibrary.org)
  • Nevertheless, this low fractional polarization observed in ERS may constitute a problem for the detection of primordial polarization in the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), since ERS are the dominant polarized foreground at small angular scales and the CMB polarized signal is only a few percent of CMB temperature anisotropy. (hindawi.com)
  • The thickness of the brain's cortical gray matter (GM) and the fractional anisotropy (FA) of the cerebral white matter (WM) each follow an inverted U-shape trajectory with age. (frontiersin.org)
  • To quantify the anisotropy characterized by our approach, we further introduce a method to compute a quantitative measure motivated by a technique utilized in MR diffusion tensor imaging, namely fractional anisotropy. (spie.org)
  • Fractional anisotropy was then used to quantify the local anisotropy of the trabecular structures found in these ROIs and to compare its distribution in different anatomical regions. (spie.org)
  • Fractional anisotropy (FA) is a useful measure of connectivity in the brain that can be derived from the diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) dataset. (ajnr.org)
  • The fractional anisotropy (FA) metric provides a simple and robust means to assess the degree of anisotropic diffusion occurring within a region. (ajnr.org)
  • We identified subject-specific regions of abnormally high and low fractional anisotropy and calculated mean fractional anisotropy, axial diffusivity, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity across all white matter voxels brain-wide and each of several white matter regions. (ajnr.org)
  • and mean fractional anisotropy, radial diffusivity, and mean diffusivity with health-related quality of life. (ajnr.org)
  • Significant differences in outcomes were found between subjects with and without abnormally high fractional anisotropy for the following white matter regions and outcome measures: left frontal lobe and left temporal lobe with attention at 1 year, left and right cerebelli with somatic postconcussion symptoms at 1 year, and right thalamus with emotional postconcussion symptoms at 1 year. (ajnr.org)
  • Fractional anisotropy value by diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging as a predictor of cell density and proliferation activity of glioblastomas. (virtualtrials.com)
  • Fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured in the posterior limb of internal capsules (IC) in the affected side and in the corresponding contralateral normal side before and after 6 week motor training. (scientific.net)
  • Background and Purpose- A decrease in fractional anisotropy (FA) of the ipsilesional corticospinal tract (CST) distal to stroke lesions in the subacute (eg, 30 days) and chronic phase has been correlated with poor motor outcomes, but it is unclear whether FA values obtained within the acute stroke phase (here defined as 80 hours after onset) can predict later outcome. (ahajournals.org)
  • The anisotropy of such crystals is called uniaxial anisotropy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The energy density is, to fourth order, E / V = K 1 sin 2 ⁡ θ + K 2 sin 4 ⁡ θ + K 3 sin 6 ⁡ θ cos ⁡ 6 ϕ , {\displaystyle E/V=K_{1}\sin ^{2}\theta +K_{2}\sin ^{4}\theta +K_{3}\sin ^{6}\theta \cos 6\phi ,} The uniaxial anisotropy is mainly determined by the first two terms. (wikipedia.org)
  • Recently we sintered by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) technique the epitaxial Fe-deficient yttrium iron garnet (YIG) films with ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) linewidth as narrow as 0.9 Oe, the uniaxial anisotropy as high as H-u=-880 Oe, and demonstrated them feasible for magnetostatic waves band pass filter application [Manuilov , J. Appl. (diva-portal.org)
  • Using the angular resolved FMR spectroscopy we found that in addition to strong uniaxial anisotropy, cubic magnetic anisotropy experienced almost fivefold reduction compared to standard YIG grown by liquid phase epitaxy. (diva-portal.org)
  • Molecular field theory was employed to calculate saturation magnetization 4 pi M-s, cubic magnetocrystalline K-1, and uniaxial anisotropy K-u in garnets with Fe vacancies. (diva-portal.org)
  • Consistent single ion anisotropy crystal field theory perfectly fits experimentally observed high saturation magnetization, reduction in cubic, and appearance of strong uniaxial anisotropy in PLD-grown Fe-deficient YIG films. (diva-portal.org)
  • In contrary, films grown from stoichiometric targets posses surprisingly high values of uniaxial anisotropy, meanwhile cubic anisotropy is reduced several times. (diva-portal.org)
  • A phenomenological model taking into account uniaxial anisotropy agree well with the data, and provides a simple method for determinating the anisotropy strength. (ebscohost.com)
  • For example, the high anisotropy of rare-earth metals is mainly responsible for the strength of rare-earth magnets. (wikipedia.org)
  • High anisotropy of flow-aligned bicellar membrane systems. (nih.gov)
  • Finally, large reductions in the coercivity of high anisotropy, epitaxially grown L1 0 FePt islands are achieved in an exchange-coupled composite system by adding an exchange coupled layer of FePt:SiO 2 with moderate anisotropy. (unl.edu)
  • Interaction of protein and oligonucleotide results in high anisotropy. (bmglabtech.com)
  • Ganesh, V.V., Chawla, N.: Effect of particle orientation anisotropy on the tensile behavior of metal matrix composites: experiments and microstructure-based simulation. (springer.com)
  • Our results are relevant concerning applications in biomedicine, since the SiO2 coating renders 5 and 14 nm hydrophilic particles with very limited agglomeration, low anisotropy, and superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature. (csic.es)
  • Below are some room-temperature anisotropy constants for hexagonal ferromagnets. (wikipedia.org)
  • It then focuses on magnetic anisotropy energies, exchange and Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, temperature-dependent effects, spin dynamics, and related properties of systems nanostructured in one and two dimensions. (routledge.com)
  • Anisotropy and temperature dependence of structural, thermodynamic and elastic properties of crystalline cellulose I β were computed with first-principles density functional theory (DFT) and a semi-empirical correction for van der Waals interactions. (usda.gov)
  • The extent to which anisotropy of Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio is temperature-dependent was explored in terms of the variations of each with respect to crystallographic directions and preferred planes containing specific bonding characteristics (as revealed quantitatively from phonon force constants for each atomic pair, and qualitatively from charge density difference contours). (usda.gov)
  • The theory of collisional cross field diffusion and transport of a fully ionised singly charged plasma particles is analysed theoretically at the onset of an induced anisotropy (T╻╻≠T⊥) in plasma temperatures where T╻╻ and T⊥ represent the components of temperature along the magnetic field direction and the direction perpendicular to it, respectively. (niscair.res.in)
  • On the other hand, the magnetic anisotropy field at low temperature is lower than 1 kOe in all cases and independent of the coating used. (csic.es)
  • The lattice parameter, Curie temperature and magnetic anisotropy constant K1 decreased with increasing Ho concentration. (scientific.net)
  • This review presents various models for the space-time structure and anisotropy of the turbulent fields in space plasmas, or equivalently the energy spectra in the wavenumber-frequency domain for the space-time structures and that in the wavevector domain for the anisotropies. (deepdyve.com)
  • abstract = "We report for the first time the inducing of large circular anisotropy in previously unoriented films of side-chain azobenzene polyesters on illumination with circularly polarized light at a wavelength of 488 nm. (dtu.dk)
  • 2 - 6 Accordingly, there is a notable spatial anisotropy in the radial (laminar) arrangement of cortical cell bodies and their projections. (dovepress.com)
  • Anisotropy at the nanoscale is a critical factor in the mechanical, optical, electronic, and magnetic properties of nanoparticles. (rsc.org)
  • In this work, we use interfaces formed between coexisting isotropic and liquid crystal (LC) phases to provide insight into how mechanical anisotropy and defects in LC ordering influence fundamental bacterial behaviors. (wisc.edu)
  • High water diffusion anisotropy occurs in regions where cellular processes (axons, dendrites, glial processes) are locally ordered on a millimeter scale and reflects greater water displacement parallel to the longitudinal axis of cellular processes than transverse to them. (jneurosci.org)
  • Anisotropy /ˌænɪˈsɒtrəpi/, /ˌænaɪˈsɒtrəpi/ is the property of being directionally dependent, which implies different properties in different directions, as opposed to isotropy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using data from 77 broadband stations in SW China, we invert Rayleigh wave phase velocity dispersion curves from ambient noise interferometry (T = 10-40 s) and teleseismic surface waves (T = 20-150 s) for 3-D heterogeneity and azimuthal anisotropy in the lithosphere to similar to 150 km depth. (ipgp.fr)
  • Our surface wave array tomography reveals (1) deep crustal zones of anomalously low shear wave speed and (2) substantial variations with depth of the pattern of azimuthal anisotropy. (ipgp.fr)
  • Upper crustal azimuthal anisotropy reveals a curvilinear pattern around the eastern Himalayan syntaxis, with fast directions generally parallel to the main strike slip faults. (ipgp.fr)
  • The mantle pattern of azimuthal anisotropy is different from that in the crust and varies from north to south. (ipgp.fr)
  • The tomographically inferred 3-D variation in azimuthal anisotropy helps constrain the source region of shear wave splitting. (ipgp.fr)
  • On long wavelengths, the pattern of azimuthal anisotropy in the crust differs from that in the mantle. (ipgp.fr)
  • The objective of this study was thus to estimate the influence of modeling patellar trabecular anisotropy on prediction of patellar strain in TKA models. (epfl.ch)
  • Therefore, the aim of this study was to express the permeability of cartilage accounting for the microstructural anisotropy and inhomogeneity caused by the collagen fibres. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A lack of permeability anisotropy was observed in the early part of compression or at the initial void ratio, e = 3.1, but as the compression proceeds, development of permeability anisotropy was observed to reach a value of up to 2.1 which correspond to a void ratio of 1.30, where the corresponding vertical effective stress was 530kPa. (gla.ac.uk)
  • For samples sheared to vertical strains of 7.9 to 11.5%, an initial permeability anisotropy of 1.3 at a void ratio of 1.66 was observed to decrease with compression and developed into isotropic condition at a void ratio of 1.50, where the corresponding vertical effective stress was 120kPa. (gla.ac.uk)
  • Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe ( WMAP ) - denumită și Explorer 80 - este o navă spațială ce măsoară diferențele de temperatură ale radiațiilor remanente ale Big Bangului - radiația cosmică de fond - pe tot cerul. (wikipedia.org)
  • În 2003, misiunea, denumită inițial Microwave Anisotropy Probe (MAP) a primit numele WMAP în cinstea lui David Todd Wilkinson (1935-2002), membru al echipei științifice a misiunii. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two papers on arxiv today, http://arxiv.org/abs/1312.0025 and http://arxiv.org/abs/1312.0275 , propose to resolve a large part of the CMB anisotropies suggested by WMAP and Planck based on the Integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. (physicsforums.com)
  • The results reveal the existence of frictional anisotropy for both metals. (arxiv.org)
  • This "diamagnetic anisotropy" is commonly used to rationalize the unusual chemical shifts of protons in acetylene and in aromatic and antiaromatic compounds. (yale.edu)
  • So the chemical shift, which involves diamagnetic anisotropy, the word that you will impress your friends with. (yale.edu)
  • So first the chemical shift, which is due to this electron orbiting and involves diamagnetic anisotropy. (yale.edu)
  • We also show how the anisotropy measure of multi-component shapes, as a quantity which indicates how consistently the shape components are oriented, can be obtained as a by-product of the approach used. (springer.com)
  • The aim of this study was to measure diffusion anisotropy and to correlate with upper-limb motor recovery in four chronic hemiparetic patients with thalamic hemorrhage. (scientific.net)
  • The instrument can measure four emission colors in the intensity domain and two in the anisotropy domain and is capable of sub-micron resolution with optics designed to interrogate the binding state and microenvironment of fluorescent probes. (moleculardevices.com)
  • By minimization, the Wiener index topological invariant evidences a marked anisotropy of the Stone-Wales defects that, topologically, are in fact preferably generated and propagated along the diagonal of the graphenic fragments, including carbon nanotubes and graphene nanoribbons. (mdpi.com)
  • Ori O, Cataldo F, Putz MV. Topological Anisotropy of Stone-Wales Waves in Graphenic Fragments. (mdpi.com)
  • We experimentally demonstrate that a single semiconductor quantum dot placed in close proximity to a plasmonic cavity (i.e., a spherical metallic nanoparticle) can be used to control the scattering spectrum and anisotropy of the latter. (pnas.org)
  • The experimentally determined anisotropy r0 was about 0.2, altered by about 5% in the presence of the cognate disaccharide lactose. (uni-muenchen.de)
  • Space-time structure and wavevector anisotropy in space plasma turbulence Narita, Yasuhito 2018-02-21 00:00:00 Space and astrophysical plasmas often develop into a turbulent state and exhibit nearly random and stochastic motions. (deepdyve.com)
  • Particular attention is paid to characterizing the material symmetries associated with the anisotropy that arises in soft tissue from its fibrous constituents (collagens) that endow the material with preferred directions. (springer.com)