Anisomycin: An antibiotic isolated from various Streptomyces species. It interferes with protein and DNA synthesis by inhibiting peptidyl transferase or the 80S ribosome system.Protein Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds which inhibit the synthesis of proteins. They are usually ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS or toxins. Mechanism of the action of inhibition includes the interruption of peptide-chain elongation, the blocking the A site of ribosomes, the misreading of the genetic code or the prevention of the attachment of oligosaccharide side chains to glycoproteins.p38 Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A mitogen-activated protein kinase subfamily that regulates a variety of cellular processes including CELL GROWTH PROCESSES; CELL DIFFERENTIATION; APOPTOSIS; and cellular responses to INFLAMMATION. The P38 MAP kinases are regulated by CYTOKINE RECEPTORS and can be activated in response to bacterial pathogens.Emetine: The principal alkaloid of ipecac, from the ground roots of Uragoga (or Cephaelis) ipecacuanha or U. acuminata, of the Rubiaceae. It is used as an amebicide in many different preparations and may cause serious cardiac, hepatic, or renal damage and violent diarrhea and vomiting. Emetine inhibits protein synthesis in EUKARYOTIC CELLS but not PROKARYOTIC CELLS.Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A superfamily of PROTEIN-SERINE-THREONINE KINASES that are activated by diverse stimuli via protein kinase cascades. They are the final components of the cascades, activated by phosphorylation by MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASE KINASES, which in turn are activated by mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES).Nucleic Acid Synthesis Inhibitors: Compounds that inhibit cell production of DNA or RNA.Enzyme Activators: Compounds or factors that act on a specific enzyme to increase its activity.JNK Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases: A subgroup of mitogen-activated protein kinases that activate TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR AP-1 via the phosphorylation of C-JUN PROTEINS. They are components of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate CELL PROLIFERATION; APOPTOSIS; and CELL DIFFERENTIATION.Cycloheximide: Antibiotic substance isolated from streptomycin-producing strains of Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting elongation during protein synthesis.PyrrolidinesSparsomycin: An antitumor antibiotic produced by Streptomyces sparsogenes. It inhibits protein synthesis in 70S and 80S ribosomal systems.Puromycin: A cinnamamido ADENOSINE found in STREPTOMYCES alboniger. It inhibits protein synthesis by binding to RNA. It is an antineoplastic and antitrypanosomal agent and is used in research as an inhibitor of protein synthesis.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Trichodermin: Antifungal metabolite from several fungi, mainly Trichoderma viride; inhibits protein synthesis by binding to ribosomes; proposed as antifungal and antineoplastic; used as tool in cellular biochemistry.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Hypothalamus, Middle: Middle portion of the hypothalamus containing the arcuate, dorsomedial, ventromedial nuclei, the TUBER CINEREUM and the PITUITARY GLAND.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Pactamycin: Antibiotic produced by Streptomyces pactum used as an antineoplastic agent. It is also used as a tool in biochemistry because it inhibits certain steps in protein synthesis.Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinases: A CALMODULIN-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the phosphorylation of proteins. This enzyme is also sometimes dependent on CALCIUM. A wide range of proteins can act as acceptor, including VIMENTIN; SYNAPSINS; GLYCOGEN SYNTHASE; MYOSIN LIGHT CHAINS; and the MICROTUBULE-ASSOCIATED PROTEINS. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p277)Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Kinases: A serine-threonine protein kinase family whose members are components in protein kinase cascades activated by diverse stimuli. These MAPK kinases phosphorylate MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and are themselves phosphorylated by MAP KINASE KINASE KINASES. JNK kinases (also known as SAPK kinases) are a subfamily.MAP Kinase Kinase 4: A mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase with specificity for JNK MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES; P38 MITOGEN-ACTIVATED PROTEIN KINASES and the RETINOID X RECEPTORS. It takes part in a SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION pathway that is activated in response to cellular stress.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Amnesia: Pathologic partial or complete loss of the ability to recall past experiences (AMNESIA, RETROGRADE) or to form new memories (AMNESIA, ANTEROGRADE). This condition may be of organic or psychologic origin. Organic forms of amnesia are usually associated with dysfunction of the DIENCEPHALON or HIPPOCAMPUS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp426-7)Arsenites: Inorganic salts or organic esters of arsenious acid.Medical Missions, Official: Travel by a group of physicians for the purpose of making a special study or undertaking a special project of short-term duration.Receptors, Histamine H3: A class of histamine receptors discriminated by their pharmacology and mode of action. Histamine H3 receptors were first recognized as inhibitory autoreceptors on histamine-containing nerve terminals and have since been shown to regulate the release of several neurotransmitters in the central and peripheral nervous systems. (From Biochem Soc Trans 1992 Feb;20(1):122-5)Databases, Chemical: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific chemicals.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Thiocarbamates: Carbamates in which the -CO- group has been replaced by a -CS- group.Medicare Assignment: Concept referring to the standardized fees for services rendered by health care providers, e.g., laboratories and physicians, and reimbursement for those services under Medicare Part B. It includes acceptance by the physician.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing: Techniques of nucleotide sequence analysis that increase the range, complexity, sensitivity, and accuracy of results by greatly increasing the scale of operations and thus the number of nucleotides, and the number of copies of each nucleotide sequenced. The sequencing may be done by analysis of the synthesis or ligation products, hybridization to preexisting sequences, etc.Pharmacogenetics: A branch of genetics which deals with the genetic variability in individual responses to drugs and drug metabolism (BIOTRANSFORMATION).Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.New YorkMassachusettsKentuckyDizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.BostonHospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.New England: The geographic area of New England in general and when the specific state or states are not indicated. States usually included in this region are Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Prescription Fees: The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.Philately: Study of stamps or postal markings. It usually refers to the design and commemorative aspects of the stamp.Great BritainGermanyMedicine, Arabic: Traditional Arabic methods used in medicine in the ARAB WORLD.

SHIP is a negative regulator of growth factor receptor-mediated PKB/Akt activation and myeloid cell survival. (1/511)

SHIP is an inositol 5' phosphatase that hydrolyzes the PI3'K product PI(3,4,5)P3. We show that SHIP-deficient mice exhibit dramatic chronic hyperplasia of myeloid cells resulting in splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy, and myeloid infiltration of vital organs. Neutrophils and bone marrow-derived mast cells from SHIP-/- mice are less susceptible to programmed cell death induced by various apoptotic stimuli or by growth factor withdrawal. Engagement of IL3-R and GM-CSF-R in these cells leads to increased and prolonged PI3'K-dependent PI(3,4,5)P3 accumulation and PKB activation. These data indicate that SHIP is a negative regulator of growth factor-mediated PKB activation and myeloid cell survival.  (+info)

Ischemic preconditioning depends on interaction between mitochondrial KATP channels and actin cytoskeleton. (2/511)

Both mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels and the actin cytoskeleton have been proposed to be end-effectors in ischemic preconditioning (PC). For evaluation of the participation of these proposed end effectors, rabbits underwent 30 min of regional ischemia and 3 h of reperfusion. PC by 5-min ischemia + 10-min reperfusion reduced infarct size by 60%. Diazoxide, a mitochondrial KATP-channel opener, administered before ischemia was protective. Protection was lost when diazoxide was given after onset of ischemia. Anisomycin, a p38/JNK activator, reduced infarct size, but protection from both diazoxide and anisomycin was abolished by 5-hydroxydecanoate (5-HD), an inhibitor of mitochondrial KATP channels. Isolated adult rabbit cardiomyocytes were subjected to simulated ischemia by centrifuging the cells into an oxygen-free pellet for 3 h. PC was induced by prior pelleting for 10 min followed by resuspension for 15 min. Osmotic fragility was assessed by adding cells to hypotonic (85 mosmol) Trypan blue. PC delayed the progressive increase in fragility seen in non-PC cells. Incubation with diazoxide or pinacidil was as protective as PC. Anisomycin reduced osmotic fragility, and this was reversed by 5-HD. Interestingly, protection by PC, diazoxide, and pinacidil could be abolished by disruption of the cytoskeleton by cytochalasin D. These data support a role for both mitochondrial KATP channels and cytoskeletal actin in protection by PC.  (+info)

On the complexities of ceramide changes in cells undergoing apoptosis: lack of evidence for a second messenger function in apoptotic induction. (3/511)

The generation of cellular ceramides as a second messenger has been implicated as a regulatory and required step for the induction of apoptosis. In this study, we have applied a recently developed mass spectrometric technique to the determination of changes in physiological ceramide levels during apoptosis induced by tumor necrosis factor plus cycloheximide in U937 cells and the chemical agents anisomycin or geranylgeraniol in HL-60 cells. The mass spectrometric method has significant advantages over traditional methods for ceramide quantitation in that it determines the relative abundance of all ceramide species present in complex biological lipid mixtures individually and simultaneously. We quantitiated ceramides ranging from C14 to C26, finding that their basal levels and relative distribution varied significantly, both within and between different cell types. However, we were not able to detect any significant changes in either total ceramide content or species distribution until 1 h or more post-stimulation with any of these treatments, by which time the cells were in an advanced stage of apoptosis. Differences were also seen between all three treatments in the ceramide species distribution observed in these late stages of apoptosis. These data indicate that in vivo ceramide generation occurs as a consequence of apoptosis rather than as an essential second messenger involved in its induction. They also pose new questions about the potential roles that certain ceramide species may play in the late stages of apoptosis, and demonstrate a clear need to utilize the resolving power of mass spectrometry-based assays in any future investigations into the biological function of ceramides.  (+info)

Trichothecene mycotoxins trigger a ribotoxic stress response that activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase and induces apoptosis. (4/511)

The trichothecene family of mycotoxins inhibit protein synthesis by binding to the ribosomal peptidyltransferase site. Inhibitors of the peptidyltransferase reaction (e.g. anisomycin) can trigger a ribotoxic stress response that activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases, components of a signaling cascade that regulates cell survival in response to stress. We have found that selected trichothecenes strongly activate JNK/p38 kinases and induce rapid apoptosis in Jurkat T cells. Although the ability of individual trichothecenes to inhibit protein synthesis and activate JNK/p38 kinases are dissociable, both effects contribute to the induction of apoptosis. Among trichothecenes that strongly activate JNK/p38 kinases, induction of apoptosis increases linearly with inhibition of protein synthesis. Among trichothecenes that strongly inhibit protein synthesis, induction of apoptosis increases linearly with activation of JNK/p38 kinases. Trichothecenes that inhibit protein synthesis without activating JNK/p38 kinases inhibit the function (i.e. activation of JNK/p38 kinases and induction of apoptosis) of apoptotic trichothecenes and anisomycin. Harringtonine, a structurally unrelated protein synthesis inhibitor that competes with trichothecenes (and anisomycin) for ribosome binding, also inhibits the activation of JNK/p38 kinases and induction of apoptosis by trichothecenes and anisomycin. Taken together, these results implicate the peptidyltransferase site as a regulator of both JNK/p38 kinase activation and apoptosis.  (+info)

Translational homeostasis: eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E control of 4E-binding protein 1 and p70 S6 kinase activities. (5/511)

Eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is the mRNA 5' cap binding protein, which plays an important role in the control of translation. The activity of eIF4E is regulated by a family of repressor proteins, the 4E-binding proteins (4E-BPs), whose binding to eIF4E is determined by their phosphorylation state. When hyperphosphorylated, 4E-BPs do not bind to eIF4E. Phosphorylation of the 4E-BPs is effected by the phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase signal transduction pathway and is inhibited by rapamycin through its binding to FRAP/mTOR (FK506 binding protein-rapamycin-associated protein or mammalian target of rapamycin). Phosphorylation of 4E-BPs can also be induced by protein synthesis inhibitors. These observations led to the proposal that FRAP/mTOR functions as a "sensor" of the translational apparatus (E. J. Brown and S. L. Schreiber, Cell 86:517-520, 1996). To test this model, we have employed the tetracycline-inducible system to increase eIF4E expression. Removal of tetracycline induced eIF4E expression up to fivefold over endogenous levels. Strikingly, upon induction of eIF4E, 4E-BP1 became dephosphorylated and the extent of dephosphorylation was proportional to the expression level of eIF4E. Dephosphorylation of p70(S6k) also occurred upon eIF4E induction. In contrast, the phosphorylation of Akt, an upstream effector of both p70(S6k) and 4E-BP phosphorylation, was not affected by eIF4E induction. We conclude that eIF4E engenders a negative feedback loop that targets a component of the PI 3-kinase signalling pathway which lies downstream of PI 3-kinase.  (+info)

Tri-iodothyronine increases insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 expression in cultured hepatocytes from hypothyroid rats. (6/511)

Previous evidence suggests the existence of a thyroid hormone-IGF axis in the liver and changes in hepatic insulin-like growth factor binding protein (IGFBP) expression in rats with altered thyroid status have been previously reported. The aim of this study was to check if the higher IGFBP-2 mRNA levels observed in liver of hypothyroid rats could be due to a direct effect of thyroid hormone on the IGFBP-2 gene. In our experiments, cultured hepatocytes isolated from normal and hypothyroid adult rats were used. Northern blot analysis revealed barely detectable IGFBP-2 mRNA in normal rat hepatocytes, but easily detectable signal in hypothyroid rat cells. Therefore, the effect of tri-iodothyronine (T3) was investigated using cultured hepatocytes from hypothyroid rats as an in vitro model. The IGFBP-2 message was increased in a dose-dependent manner in hepatocytes cultured for 12-24 h in the presence of T3. A similar increase occurred in accumulation of IGFBP-2 in the culture medium, as measured by RIA. The effect of T3 on IGFBP-2 transcript levels appeared to consist of enhanced gene transcription and was independent of ongoing protein synthesis, but it was completely abolished by the incubation of hepatocytes with insulin. The latter result confirmed the dominant role of insulin in regulating IGFBP-2 expression by cultured hepatocytes. In vivo experiments confirmed an increase in hepatic IGFBP-2 mRNA and serum IGFBP-2 levels in hypothyroid rats and demonstrated, in addition, a significant increase in these measures in T3-treated rats. Taken together, our in vitro and in vivo results support a role for a thyroid hormone-IGF axis in the liver and suggest that other factors, such as insulin, interact in vivo with thryoid hormone in regulating hepatic IGFBP-2 expression.  (+info)

MEK kinase 3 directly activates MKK6 and MKK7, specific activators of the p38 and c-Jun NH2-terminal kinases. (7/511)

Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase kinase 3 (MEKK3) activates the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway, although no substrates for MEKK3 have been identified. We have examined the regulation by MEKK3 of MAPK kinase 7 (MKK7) and MKK6, two novel MAPK kinases specific for JNK and p38, respectively. Coexpression of MKK7 with MEKK3 in COS-7 cells enhanced MKK7 autophosphorylation and its ability to activate recombinant JNK1 in vitro. MKK6 autophosphorylation and in vitro activation of p38alpha were also observed following coexpression of MKK6 with MEKK3. MEKK2, a closely related homologue of MEKK3, also activated MKK7 and MKK6 in COS-7 cells. Importantly, immunoprecipitates of either MEKK3 or MEKK2 directly activated recombinant MKK7 and MKK6 in vitro. These data identify MEKK3 as a MAPK kinase kinase specific for MKK7 and MKK6 in the JNK and p38 pathways. We have also examined whether MEKK3 or MEKK2 activates p38 in intact cells using MAPK-activated protein kinase-2 (MAPKAPK2) as an affinity ligand and substrate. Anisomycin, sorbitol, or the expression of MEKK3 in HEK293 cells enhanced MAPKAPK2 phosphorylation, whereas MEKK2 was less effective. Furthermore, MAPKAPK2 phosphorylation induced by MEKK3 or cellular stress was abolished by the p38 inhibitor SB-203580, suggesting that MEKK3 is coupled to p38 activation in intact cells.  (+info)

Use of a drug-resistant mutant of stress-activated protein kinase 2a/p38 to validate the in vivo specificity of SB 203580. (8/511)

Stress-activated protein kinase 2a, also called p38, is inhibited by SB 203580 and this drug has been used widely to implicate this enzyme in the regulation of many physiological processes. Here, we introduce a novel method of general application, which can be used to establish whether the effects of SB 203580 are mediated via inhibition of stress-activated protein kinase 2a/p38 or whether they result from 'non-specific' effects. Four events thought to occur upon activation of stress-activated protein kinase 2a/p38 have been established unequivocally. These are the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase-activated protein kinase-2 and mitogen- and stress-activated protein kinase-1 and the phosphorylation of their presumed substrates, heat shock protein 27 and the transcription factor cyclic AMP response element binding protein, respectively. In contrast, the SB 203580-induced activation of c-Raf is independent of stress-activated protein kinase 2a/p38 inhibition.  (+info)

  • Finally, appropriately timed administration of the beta-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and the beta-adrenergic agonist clenbuterol attenuated (but did not eliminate) the anisomycin-induced amnesia. (blogspot.com)
  • p38α is activated by diverse stimuli including TLR ligands, cytokines, and physicochemical stress signals such as UV irradiation, heat or osmotic shock, arsenite, or anisomycin ( 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • INDUCTION: Strongly activated by UV, anisomycin, and osmotic shock CC but not by phorbol esters, NGF or EGF. (univ-lyon1.fr)
  • Eleven mutations that make Haloarcula marismortui resistant to anisomycin, an antibiotic that competes with the amino acid side chains of aminoacyl tRNAs for binding to the A-site cleft of the large ribosomal unit, have been identified in 23S rRNA. (rcsb.org)
  • Target: antibiotic in vitro: Anisomycin inhibits EAC cell proliferation in concentration-dependent manner. (medchemexpress.com)
  • Anisomycin might be performed to reduce blood pressure by blocking MAPK signaling pathway. (ovid.com)
  • In contrast, heat treatment had no effect on p38 MAPK, a MAPK strongly activated with anisomycin. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Anisomycin can activate stress-activated protein kinases, MAP kinase and other signal transduction pathways. (wikipedia.org)
  • Anisomycin-activated protein kinases p45 and p55 but not mitogen-activated protein kinases ERK-1 and -2 are implicated in the induction of c-fos and c-jun. (abcam.com)
  • The first goal of the present study was to provide final proof for these mode of actions by comparing the effects of 6 h exposure to DON and TBTO on mRNA expression to those of positive controls of ribotoxic stress (anisomycin), ER stress (thapsigargin) and T cell activation (ionomycin). (wur.nl)
  • DON did not affect other genes than anisomycin indicating the effect of DON to be restricted to ribotoxic stress. (wur.nl)
  • Anisomycin is known to inhibit protein synthesis and induce ribotoxic stress. (dsmc.or.kr)
  • Anisomycin activates p38 MAP kinase to induce LTD in mouse primary visual cortex. (abcam.com)
  • i ) the mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase MEKK1, and ( ii ) treatment with anisomycin or heat shock. (pnas.org)
  • This effect of anisomycin was significantly inhibited in the presence of the p38 MAP kinase antagonist SB 203580. (ahajournals.org)
  • MEKK1 −/− embryonic stem cells from mice had lost or altered responses of the c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) to microtubule disruption and cold stress but activated JNK normally in response to heat shock, anisomycin, and ultraviolet irradiation. (sciencemag.org)
  • The correlation observed between the sensitivity of H. marismortui to anisomycin and the affinity of its large ribosomal subunits for the drug indicates that its response to anisomycin is determined primarily by the binding of the drug to its large ribosomal subunit. (rcsb.org)
  • Similarly, activation of beta2-adrenergic receptors during the time of amine depletion also attenuates anisomycin-induced amnesia assessed at 48 h after training. (blogspot.com)
  • To define the role of MEKK1 in activation of the JNK pathway by different extracellular inputs, we exposed MEKK1 −/− and MEKK1 +/+ cells to several different stress stimuli, including microtubule disruption by nocodazole, cold shock, hyperosmolarity, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, anisomycin, and heat shock ( Fig. 2 , A to D) ( 14 ). (sciencemag.org)
  • In vitro heat treatment applied to young (3-mo-old) and aged (24-mo-old) soleus muscles increased expression of HSP72 and inhibited anisomycin-induced activation of JNK. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The findings described in the present article indicate that intraamygdala anisomycin injections result initially in extraordinarily large increases in release of biogenic amines near the site of injection, followed later by extensive and prolonged decreases in release of the amines. (blogspot.com)
  • First, the level of PSI after an intracortical injection of anisomycin (ANI) was assessed at three different time points in motor cortex and at one time point in parietal cortex and cerebellum ( n = 3 in each group). (jneurosci.org)
  • The protein expressions of p38 and P-p38 were upregulated by 4 α -PDD and anisomycin injection but reduced by RR and SB203580. (hindawi.com)
  • Dexamethasone also blocks the sorbitol but not anisomycin stimulation of JNK/SAPK activity. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, blockade of amygdala beta-adrenergic receptors at the time of anisomycin injections, i.e., at the time of high release of biogenic amines, attenuates the amnesia produced by anisomycin as tested 48 h after training. (blogspot.com)
  • Although its pyrrolidine-based structure suggests that it is derived from proline, the results from the experiments indicated that tyrosine, glycine, methionine, and acetate are the primary precursors for the biosynthesis of anisomycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • The cells were incubated at 37°C for 6h in media containing different concentrations of ab120495 (anisomycin) in DMSO, fixed with 4% formaldehyde for 10 minutes at room temperature and blocked with PBS containing 10% goat serum, 0.3 M glycine, 1% BSA and 0.1% tween for 2h at room temperature. (abcam.com)
  • Anisomycin is used as a component of Martin Lewis agar, an in vitro diagnostic product which is used extensively in the United States for the selective isolation of Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Neisseria meningitidis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In vitro and in vivo evaluation of anisomycin against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma. (medchemexpress.com)
  • These findings are consistent with other evidence that anisomycin blocks both the consolidation of original learning and extinction. (pnas.org)
  • Insertional mutagenesis (IM) employing retroviruses or transposons has been one of the main tools for inducing tumors in mice Anisomycin C. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • Materials Anisomycin and Methods Mouse models used for MMTV infection Newborn BALB/c/He/A (denoted BALB/c) mice were infected with MMTV by foster nursing on C3H/A females harboring the milk transmitted MMTV . (johnstoncassel.com)
  • The mice were then injected with a chemical called anisomycin, which prevents memory consolidation. (rt.com)
  • Insertional mutations near and genes mark the Anisomycin earliest initiating events in MMTV induced tumorigenesis, whereas genes are targeted later on during tumor progression. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • Following the guarantee of the early research, the Anisomycin increasing recognition of MMTV like a testing system led to the finding of several extra genes implicated in tumor advancement C. (johnstoncassel.com)
  • 1C) in 50-week-old primary WT tumor cells treated with anisomycin, we tested AR and p38 effects on cell anoikis. (cellbasedassayblog.com)
  • Genes affected by anisomycin and the majority of genes affected by thapsigargin were affected in the same direction by DON and TBTO, respectively, confirming the expected modes of action. (wur.nl)
  • This suggests that UV-mediated TNFα release may occur via different p38 pathway intermediates compared to those stimulated by anisomycin. (mdpi.com)
  • Together, these findings suggest that intraamygdala injections of anisomycin interfere with memory formation by inducing extraordinary changes in the release profiles of NE, DA, and 5-HT. (blogspot.com)
  • Anisomycin is also mentioned as a potential psychiatric drug , as it may erase "short-range memory" . (wikidoc.org)
  • Anisomycin is also mentioned as a potential psychiatric drug, as it may inhibit the consolidation of new context-specific long-term memories, as well as long time consolidated memories rendered labile through reactivation. (wikipedia.org)
  • It was noted that deacetylanisomycin was a prominent product in the first few days of fermentation, suggesting that acetylation of the C-3 hydroxyl group by acetyl Co-A is the final step in the biosynthesis of anisomycin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Increase in tubulin expression correlates with increased concentration of anisomycin as described in literature. (abcam.com)