A condition in which the ocular image of an object as seen by one eye differs in size and shape from that seen by the other.
A series of tests used to assess various functions of the eyes.
Pieces of glass or other transparent materials used for magnification or increased visual acuity.
A membrane on the vitreal surface of the retina resulting from the proliferation of one or more of three retinal elements: (1) fibrous astrocytes; (2) fibrocytes; and (3) retinal pigment epithelial cells. Localized epiretinal membranes may occur at the posterior pole of the eye without clinical signs or may cause marked loss of vision as a result of covering, distorting, or detaching the fovea centralis. Epiretinal membranes may cause vascular leakage and secondary retinal edema. In younger individuals some membranes appear to be developmental in origin and occur in otherwise normal eyes. The majority occur in association with retinal holes, ocular concussions, retinal inflammation, or after ocular surgery. (Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p291)
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.
Artificial implanted lenses.

Saccade amplitude disconjugacy induced by aniseikonia: role of monocular depth cues. (1/16)

The conjugacy of saccades is rapidly modified if the images are made unequal for the two eyes. Disconjugacy persists even in the absence of disparity which indicates learning. Binocular visual disparity is a major cue to depth and is believed to drive the disconjugacy of saccades to aniseikonic images. The goal of the present study was to test whether monocular depth cues can also influence the disconjugacy of saccades. Three experiments were performed in which subjects were exposed for 15-20 min to a 10% image size inequality. Three different images were used: a grid that contained a single monocular depth cue strongly indicating a frontoparallel plane; a random-dot pattern that contained a less prominent monocular depth cue (absence of texture gradient) which also indicates the frontoparallel plane; and a complex image with several overlapping geometric forms that contained a variety of monocular depth cues. Saccades became disconjugate in all three experiments. The disconjugacy was larger and more persistent for the experiment using the random-dot pattern that had the least prominent monocular depth cues. The complex image which had a large variety of monocular depth cues produced the most variable and less persistent disconjugacy. We conclude that the monocular depth cues modulate the disconjugacy of saccades stimulated by the disparity of aniseikonic images.  (+info)

Disconjugate oculomotor learning caused by feeble image-size inequality: differences between secondary and tertiary positions. (2/16)

In order to examine the minimum value of image-size inequality capable of inducing lasting disconjugacy of the amplitude of saccades, six normal emmetropic subjects were exposed for 16 min to 2% image size inequality. Subjects were seated at 1 m in front of a screen where a random-dot pattern was projected and made saccades of 7.5 and 15 deg along the horizontal and vertical principal meridians and to tertiary positions in the upper and lower field. During the training period, compensatory disconjugacy of the amplitude of the saccades occurred for the principal horizontal and vertical meridians; such increased disconjugacy persisted after training, suggesting learning. In contrast, for horizontal saccades to or from tertiary positions made in the upper and lower field, no consistent changes in the disconjugacy occurred, either during training or after the training condition. In an additional experiment, three subjects read sequences of words with the 2% magnifier in front of their dominant eye: in such a task, horizontal saccades to or from tertiary positions at the upper or lower field showed appropriate and lasting disconjugacy for two of the three subjects. We conclude that even a 2% image size inequality stimulates oculomotor learning, leading to persistent disconjugacy of saccades. The small disparity created by the image-size inequality is thus compensated by the oculomotor system rather than tolerated by the sensory system (e.g. by enlarging the Panum's area).  (+info)

Differences in tests of aniseikonia. (3/16)

The New Aniseikonia Test (NAT), a hand-held direct-comparison test using red/green anaglyphs, has several potential advantages as a screener. We compared the validity of the NAT to that of the Space Eikonometer in three experiments: (1) aniseikonia was induced by calibrated size lenses in a double-blind study of 15 normal subjects; (2) habitual aniseikonia was measured with both instruments in four patients; and (3) eight of the normal subjects were retested with a computer-video simulation of the NAT. The NAT underestimated induced aniseikonia by a factor of 3 in the normal subjects and underestimated habitual aniseikonia in four patients. The Space Eikonometer correctly measured the magnitude of induced aniseikonia in the normal subjects. The simulation test did not show underestimation in the eight normal subjects. We could not attribute the NAT's underestimation of aniseikonia to the red/green anaglyph method, printing error, psychophysical method, or the direct-comparison test format. We speculate that the NAT induces a different sensory fusion response to aniseikonia than do the other tests, and that this altered sensory fusion response diminishes measured aniseikonia. We conclude that the NAT is not a valid measure of aniseikonia.  (+info)

Aniseikonia associated with epiretinal membranes. (4/16)

AIMS: To determine whether the computerised version of the new aniseikonia test (NAT) is a valid, reliable method to measure aniseikonia and establish whether aniseikonia occurs in patients with epiretinal membranes (ERM) with preserved good visual acuity. METHODS: With a computerised version of the NAT, horizontal and vertical aniseikonia was measured in 16 individuals (mean 47 (SD 16.46) years) with no ocular history and 14 patients (mean 67.7 (14.36) years) with ERM. Test validity was evaluated by inducing aniseikonia with size lenses. Test reliability was assessed by the test-retest method. RESULTS: In normal individuals, the mean percentage (SD) aniseikonia was -0.24% (0.71) horizontal and 0% (0.59) vertical. Validity studies revealed mean (SD) 0.990 (0.005) horizontal and 0.991 (0.004) vertical correlation coefficients, 0.985 (0.111) horizontal and 0.989 (0.102) vertical slope. Repeatability coefficients were 1.04 horizontal and 0.88 vertical. Aniseikonia in patients with ERM ranged from 4% to 14%. Eight patients showed 2% or more size difference between horizontal and vertical meridians. CONCLUSIONS: The aniseikonia test used in this study can be considered a simple, fast, valid and reliable method to measure the difference in image size perceived by each eye. Aniseikonia does occur in symptomatic patients with ERM. The effect of ERM on image size is heterogeneous across the retinal area affected.  (+info)

Validity and repeatability of a new test for aniseikonia. (5/16)

PURPOSE: The Aniseikonia Inspector 1.1 (AI) is a new software product to measure aniseikonia using red-green anaglyphs. The purpose of this study was to test whether the AI is a valid and reliable test. METHODS: There were two groups of sample subjects: one at risk of aniseikonia, with anisometropia greater than or equal to 1.00 D (n= 29), and a control group (n= 45). The validity was studied by comparing the measured aniseikonia with the aniseikonia simulated with size lenses. The reliability was estimated by the Bland-Altman statistical method. RESULTS: The results showed that the AI underestimated aniseikonia and that the underestimation was greater in the horizontal than in the vertical direction. The reliability was low, with biases that were clinically insignificant, but the 95% limits of agreement were around +/-2%. The behavior of the test was similar in both groups of subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The reliability of the AI is only moderate, and professionals are therefore warned to use the results of this test with caution.  (+info)

Effect of aniseikonia on fusion. (6/16)

Physiological aniseikonia is the basis of stereopsis but beyond certain limits it becomes an obstacle to fusion. It is not well established as to how much aniseikonia can be tolerated by the fusional mechanism. Different tests under different testing conditions have given a wide range of variation. On the synoptophore we had observed tolerance upto 35% aniseikonia in some cases. Under more physiological conditions on a polaroid dissociation stereoprojector we observed lesser baseline fusional vergences but tolerance in about 70% of the cases upto 30% aniseikonia while 25% could tolerate even 35% aniseikonia. However we realise that these indicate the maximal potential and not the symptom free tolerable limits.  (+info)

Magnifications of single and dual element accommodative intraocular lenses: paraxial optics analysis. (7/16)


The effect of lens-induced anisometropia on accommodation and vergence during human visual development. (8/16)


Aniseikonia is a medical term that refers to a condition where there is a significant difference in the size or shape of the images perceived by each eye. This occurs when there is a disproportionate amount of magnification or minification between the two eyes, leading to a mismatch in the visual perception of objects' size and shape.

Aniseikonia can result from various factors, including anisometropia (a significant difference in the refractive power between the two eyes), cataract surgery, corneal irregularities, or retinal diseases. It can cause symptoms such as eyestrain, headaches, and difficulty with depth perception, reading, and overall visual comfort.

Treatment for aniseikonia typically involves correcting the underlying refractive error with prescription lenses, prisms, or contact lenses. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to address any structural issues causing the condition.

Vision tests are a series of procedures used to assess various aspects of the visual system, including visual acuity, accommodation, convergence, divergence, stereopsis, color vision, and peripheral vision. These tests help healthcare professionals diagnose and manage vision disorders, such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, astigmatism, amblyopia, strabismus, and eye diseases like glaucoma, cataracts, and macular degeneration. Common vision tests include:

1. Visual acuity test (Snellen chart or letter chart): Measures the sharpness of a person's vision at different distances.
2. Refraction test: Determines the correct lens prescription for glasses or contact lenses by assessing how light is bent as it passes through the eye.
3. Color vision test: Evaluates the ability to distinguish between different colors and color combinations, often using pseudoisochromatic plates or Ishihara tests.
4. Stereopsis test: Assesses depth perception and binocular vision by presenting separate images to each eye that, when combined, create a three-dimensional effect.
5. Cover test: Examines eye alignment and the presence of strabismus (crossed eyes or turned eyes) by covering and uncovering each eye while observing eye movements.
6. Ocular motility test: Assesses the ability to move the eyes in various directions and coordinate both eyes during tracking and convergence/divergence movements.
7. Accommodation test: Evaluates the ability to focus on objects at different distances by using lenses, prisms, or dynamic retinoscopy.
8. Pupillary response test: Examines the size and reaction of the pupils to light and near objects.
9. Visual field test: Measures the peripheral (side) vision using automated perimetry or manual confrontation techniques.
10. Slit-lamp examination: Inspects the structures of the front part of the eye, such as the cornea, iris, lens, and anterior chamber, using a specialized microscope.

These tests are typically performed by optometrists, ophthalmologists, or other vision care professionals during routine eye examinations or when visual symptoms are present.

In the context of medical terminology, "lenses" generally refers to optical lenses used in various medical devices and instruments. These lenses are typically made of glass or plastic and are designed to refract (bend) light in specific ways to help magnify, focus, or redirect images. Here are some examples:

1. In ophthalmology and optometry, lenses are used in eyeglasses, contact lenses, and ophthalmic instruments to correct vision problems like myopia (nearsightedness), hypermetropia (farsightedness), astigmatism, or presbyopia.
2. In surgical microscopes, lenses are used to provide a magnified and clear view of the operating field during microsurgical procedures like ophthalmic, neurosurgical, or ENT (Ear, Nose, Throat) surgeries.
3. In endoscopes and laparoscopes, lenses are used to transmit light and images from inside the body during minimally invasive surgical procedures.
4. In ophthalmic diagnostic instruments like slit lamps, lenses are used to examine various structures of the eye in detail.

In summary, "lenses" in medical terminology refer to optical components that help manipulate light to aid in diagnosis, treatment, or visual correction.

An epiretinal membrane, also known as a macular pucker or cellophane maculopathy, is a thin and transparent layer of tissue that forms over the macula (the central part of the retina responsible for sharp, detailed vision) in the eye. This membrane can contract and wrinkle the macula, distorting central vision.

Epiretinal membranes are typically caused by the migration and proliferation of glial cells or other cell types onto the surface of the retina following retinal injury, inflammation, or aging. In some cases, they may be associated with other eye conditions such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal vein occlusion, or age-related macular degeneration.

Mild epiretinal membranes may not require treatment, but if the distortion of vision is significant, a vitrectomy surgery may be recommended to remove the membrane and improve visual acuity.

"Ocular physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some examples of ocular physiological phenomena, which refer to various normal functions and processes that occur in the eye. Here are a few examples:

1. Accommodation: The ability of the eye to change optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. This is primarily achieved by changing the curvature of the lens through the action of the ciliary muscles.
2. Pupillary reflex: The automatic adjustment of the pupil's size in response to changes in light intensity. In bright light, the pupil constricts (miosis), while in dim light, it dilates (mydriasis). This reflex helps regulate the amount of light that enters the eye.
3. Tear production: The continuous secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands to keep the eyes moist and protected from dust, microorganisms, and other foreign particles.
4. Extraocular muscle function: The coordinated movement of the six extraocular muscles that control eyeball rotation and enable various gaze directions.
5. Color vision: The ability to perceive and distinguish different colors based on the sensitivity of photoreceptor cells (cones) in the retina to specific wavelengths of light.
6. Dark adaptation: The process by which the eyes adjust to low-light conditions, improving visual sensitivity primarily through changes in the rod photoreceptors' sensitivity and pupil dilation.
7. Light adaptation: The ability of the eye to adjust to different levels of illumination, mainly through alterations in pupil size and photoreceptor cell response.

These are just a few examples of ocular physiological phenomena. There are many more processes and functions that occur within the eye, contributing to our visual perception and overall eye health.

Computer-assisted diagnosis (CAD) is the use of computer systems to aid in the diagnostic process. It involves the use of advanced algorithms and data analysis techniques to analyze medical images, laboratory results, and other patient data to help healthcare professionals make more accurate and timely diagnoses. CAD systems can help identify patterns and anomalies that may be difficult for humans to detect, and they can provide second opinions and flag potential errors or uncertainties in the diagnostic process.

CAD systems are often used in conjunction with traditional diagnostic methods, such as physical examinations and patient interviews, to provide a more comprehensive assessment of a patient's health. They are commonly used in radiology, pathology, cardiology, and other medical specialties where imaging or laboratory tests play a key role in the diagnostic process.

While CAD systems can be very helpful in the diagnostic process, they are not infallible and should always be used as a tool to support, rather than replace, the expertise of trained healthcare professionals. It's important for medical professionals to use their clinical judgment and experience when interpreting CAD results and making final diagnoses.

Binocular vision refers to the ability to use both eyes together to create a single, three-dimensional image of our surroundings. This is achieved through a process called binocular fusion, where the images from each eye are aligned and combined in the brain to form a unified perception.

The term "binocular vision" specifically refers to the way that our visual system integrates information from both eyes to create depth perception and enhance visual clarity. When we view an object with both eyes, they focus on the same point in space and send slightly different images to the brain due to their slightly different positions. The brain then combines these images to create a single, three-dimensional image that allows us to perceive depth and distance.

Binocular vision is important for many everyday activities, such as driving, reading, and playing sports. Disorders of binocular vision can lead to symptoms such as double vision, eye strain, and difficulty with depth perception.

Intraocular lenses (IOLs) are artificial lens implants that are placed inside the eye during ophthalmic surgery, such as cataract removal. These lenses are designed to replace the natural lens of the eye that has become clouded or damaged, thereby restoring vision impairment caused by cataracts or other conditions.

There are several types of intraocular lenses available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodative lenses. Monofocal IOLs provide clear vision at a single fixed distance, while multifocal IOLs offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric IOLs are designed to correct astigmatism, and accommodative IOLs can change shape and position within the eye to allow for a range of vision.

The selection of the appropriate type of intraocular lens depends on various factors, including the patient's individual visual needs, lifestyle, and ocular health. The implantation procedure is typically performed on an outpatient basis and involves minimal discomfort or recovery time. Overall, intraocular lenses have become a safe and effective treatment option for patients with vision impairment due to cataracts or other eye conditions.

Retinal aniseikonia occur due to forward displacement, stretching or edema of retina. A way to demonstrate aniseikonia is to ... 288 Aniseikonia Calculator, Chadwick Optical (U.S.A.) - a magnification calculator for iseikonic prescriptions or aniseikonia ... Aniseikonia is an ocular condition where there is a significant difference in the perceived size of images. It can occur as an ... Similarly retinal aniseikonia is corrected by treating causative retinal disease. Note however that before the optics can be ...
Brandenburg KC (September 1935). "Aniseikonia". California and Western Medicine. 43 (3): 188-92. PMC 1753774. PMID 18743367. ( ... condition was present years after surgical correction of strabismus acquired during childhood and co-existed with aniseikonia. ...
"Aniseikonia - EyeWiki". eyewiki.aao.org. Retrieved 10 February 2020. Millodot M. In: Dictionary of Optometry and Vision Science ... Other terminology include anisometropia, when the two eyes have unequal refractive power, and aniseikonia which is when the ...
de Wit GC (2007). "Retinally-induced aniseikonia". Binocul Vis Strabismus Q. 22 (2): 96-101. PMID 17688418. Benson WE, Brown GC ... creating a localized or field-dependent aniseikonia that cannot be fully corrected optically with glasses. Partial correction ...
This is a common adaptation to strabismus, amblyopia and aniseikonia. The W4LT can be performed by the examiner at two ...
He conducted important research into aspects of binocular vision, including cyclophoria and aniseikonia. Ames is perhaps best ... and aniseikonia (in which each eye has a differently sized retinal image of the same object). This latter defect could be ...
Heczko, Joshua; Sierpina, David (2018-03-01). "Rapid neuroadaptation to surgically-induced aniseikonia in a 17-year-old patient ...
Additionally, there are conditions such as keratoconus and aniseikonia that are typically corrected better with contact lenses ...
Abscess Aniseikonia Anisometropia Antipsychotics (haloperidol, fluphenazine, chlorpromazine etc.) Atypical parkinsonisms, ...
... in particular if conventional approaches have failed due to aniseikonia or lack of compliance or both. Frequently, amblyopia is ...
... and hence a moderately thick spectacle lens-if the aniseikonia is ignored. In order to avoid the aniseikonia (so that both ... aniseikonia) which could also prevent the development of good binocular vision. This can make it very difficult to wear glasses ...
... aniseikonia) which is otherwise caused by spectacles in which the refractive power is very different for the two eyes. In a few ...
... of refraction and accommodation 367.0 Hypermetropia 367.1 Myopia 367.2 Astigmatism 367.3 Anisometropia and aniseikonia 367.4 ...
... convergence insufficiency and aniseikonia Appetite suppression Bone marrow suppression, the decrease in cells responsible for ...
... aniseikonia MeSH C11.744.126 - anisometropia MeSH C11.744.212 - astigmatism MeSH C11.744.479 - hyperopia MeSH C11.744.636 - ...

No data available that match "aniseikonia"

  • Some conditions such as keratoconus and aniseikonia are typically corrected better with contact lenses than with glasses. (eyecareportal.com)
  • citation needed] Aniseikonia can occur naturally or be induced by the correction of a refractive error, usually anisometropia (having significantly different refractive errors between each eye) or antimetropia (being myopic (nearsighted) in one eye and hyperopic (farsighted) in the other. (wikipedia.org)
  • One cause of significant anisometropia and subsequent aniseikonia has been aphakia. (wikipedia.org)
  • For some patients the removal was only performed on one eye, resulting in the anisometropia / aniseikonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] Optical aniseikonia due to anisometropia can be corrected by spectacles, contact lenses or refractive corneal surgeries. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aniseikonia and anisometropia: implications for suppression and amblyopia. (nih.gov)
  • This can occur in conjunction with anisometropia (unequal refractive power in the two eyes) and aniseikonia (unequal reti- nal image size). (brainkart.com)
  • Aniseikonia due to uniocular aphakia is best corrected surgically by intraocular lens implantation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Rarely, fusion cannot occur because of dissimilar image size, which can occur after changes in the optical function of the eye after refractive surgery (eg, LASIK) or after a cataract is replaced by an intraocular lens or because of aniseikonia, which represents a discrepancy in image size perceived by the two eyes. (medscape.com)
  • Lens-induced aniseikonia and social issues can lead to noncompliance with spectacles, while contact lenses for a child may be difficult to fit or poorly tolerated and predispose to complications such as keratitis. (entokey.com)
  • Meridional aniseikonia occurs when these refractive differences only occur in one meridian (see astigmatism). (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] For reducing aniseikonia, similar to contact lens correction, optical image size difference will be reduced in refractive surgeries also. (wikipedia.org)
  • The SHAW patented enhancement eliminates the aniseikonia and anisophoria typically experienced by glasses wearers using ordinary freeform, aspheric or conventional lens therapies. (caledonianoptical.com)
  • Magnification size matched lenses that are used to correct aniseikonia are known as iseikonic lenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • When the disparity appears to vary across the visual field (field-dependent aniseikonia), as may be the case with an epiretinal membrane or retinal detachment, the aniseikonia cannot fully be corrected with traditional optical techniques like standard corrective lenses. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abbreviated patching times, computer based vision therapy, video game treatment, electronic eyeglasses and lenses that correct for aniseikonia are altogether developing as effective medications which are driving the general amblyopia treatment market. (uberant.com)
  • citation needed] Retinal aniseikonia occur due to forward displacement, stretching or edema of retina. (wikipedia.org)
  • When this object is viewed with both eyes, it is seen with a small amount of aniseikonia. (wikipedia.org)
  • Aniseikonia is an ocular condition where there is a significant difference in the perceived size of images. (wikipedia.org)
  • Abbreviated patching times, computer based vision therapy, video game treatment, electronic eyeglasses and lenses that correct for aniseikonia are altogether developing as effective medications which are driving the general amblyopia treatment market. (marketresearchblog.org)
  • Rarely, fusion cannot occur because of dissimilar image size, which can occur after changes in the optical function of the eye following refractive surgery (eg, LASIK) or after a cataract is replaced by an intraocular lens or because of aniseikonia, which represents a discrepancy in image size perceived by the two eyes. (medscape.com)