Anisakis: A genus of nematodes of the superfamily ASCARIDOIDEA. Its organisms are found in the stomachs of marine animals and birds. Human infection occurs by ingestion of raw fish that contain larvae.Anisakiasis: Infection with roundworms of the genus ANISAKIS. Human infection results from the consumption of fish harboring roundworm larvae. The worms may cause acute NAUSEA; VOMITING; or penetrate into the wall of the DIGESTIVE TRACT where they give rise to EOSINOPHILIC GRANULOMA in the STOMACH; INTESTINES; or the OMENTUM.Antibodies, Helminth: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.Antigens, Helminth: Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.Food Parasitology: The presence of parasites in food and food products. For the presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food, FOOD MICROBIOLOGY is available.Nematode Infections: Infections by nematodes, general or unspecified.Oncorhynchus: A genus of the family SALMONIDAE (salmons and trouts). They are named for their hooked (onco) nose (rhynchus). They are usually anadromous and occasionally inhabit freshwater. They can be found in North Pacific coastal areas from Japan to California and adjacent parts of the Arctic Ocean. Salmon and trout are popular game and food fish. Various species figure heavily in genetic, metabolism, and hormone research.Urticaria: A vascular reaction of the skin characterized by erythema and wheal formation due to localized increase of vascular permeability. The causative mechanism may be allergy, infection, or stress.Dictionaries, MedicalDictionaries as Topic: Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.Dictionaries, ChemicalTerminology as Topic: The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.Gadus morhua: A species of fish in the cod family GADIDAE, known as the Atlantic cod. It is one of the most important commercial FISHES.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Granuloma: A relatively small nodular inflammatory lesion containing grouped mononuclear phagocytes, caused by infectious and noninfectious agents.Ascaridoidea: A superfamily of polymyarian nematode worms. An important characteristic of this group is the presence of three prominent lips around the mouth of the organism.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Parasites: Invertebrate organisms that live on or in another organism (the host), and benefit at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Pseudohypoparathyroidism: A hereditary syndrome clinically similar to HYPOPARATHYROIDISM. It is characterized by HYPOCALCEMIA; HYPERPHOSPHATEMIA; and associated skeletal development impairment and caused by failure of response to PARATHYROID HORMONE rather than deficiencies. A severe form with resistance to multiple hormones is referred to as Type 1a and is associated with maternal mutant allele of the ALPHA CHAIN OF STIMULATORY G PROTEIN.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.PhilippinesTrinidad and Tobago: An independent state in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies, north of Venezuela, comprising the islands of Trinidad and Tobago. Its capital is Port of Spain. Both islands were discovered by Columbus in 1498. The Spanish, English, Dutch, and French figure in their history over four centuries. Trinidad and Tobago united in 1898 and were made part of the British colony of Trinidad and Tobago in 1899. The colony became an independent state in 1962. Trinidad was so named by Columbus either because he arrived on Trinity Sunday or because three mountain peaks suggested the Holy Trinity. Tobago was given the name by Columbus from the Haitian tambaku, pipe, from the natives' habit of smoking tobacco leaves. (Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1228, 1216 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p555, 547)Asia, Central: The geographical area of Asia comprising KAZAKHSTAN; KYRGYZSTAN; TAJIKISTAN; TURKMENISTAN; and UZBEKISTAN. The desert region of Kara Kum (Qara Qum) is largely in Turkmenistan and the desert region of Kyzyl Kum (Kizil Kum or Qizil Qum), is in Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p233, 590, 636)Gardening: Cultivation of PLANTS; (FRUIT; VEGETABLES; MEDICINAL HERBS) on small plots of ground or in containers.Goldfish: Common name for Carassius auratus, a type of carp (CARPS).Camallanina: A suborder of nematodes characterized by larvae lacking cephalic hooks and a tail that is generally long and pointed.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Electrochemistry: The study of chemical changes resulting from electrical action and electrical activity resulting from chemical changes.2,2'-Dipyridyl: A reagent used for the determination of iron.Solar Energy: Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.Electrochemical Techniques: The utilization of an electrical current to measure, analyze, or alter chemicals or chemical reactions in solution, cells, or tissues.Luminescent Measurements: Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.Ruthenium: A hard, brittle, grayish-white rare earth metal with an atomic symbol Ru, atomic number 44, and atomic weight 101.07. It is used as a catalyst and hardener for PLATINUM and PALLADIUM.Laboratories: Facilities equipped to carry out investigative procedures.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Reference Standards: A basis of value established for the measure of quantity, weight, extent or quality, e.g. weight standards, standard solutions, methods, techniques, and procedures used in diagnosis and therapy.Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.France: A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.ItalyParasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Dioctophymatoidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the order ENOPLIDA. Characteristics include a well developed cylindrical esophagus.

Acute intestinal anisakiasis in Spain: a fourth-stage Anisakis simplex larva. (1/62)

A case of acute intestinal anisakiasis has been reported; a nematode larva being found in the submucosa of the ileum of a woman in Jaen (Spain). The source of infection was the ingestion of raw Engraulis encrasicholus. On the basis of its morphology, the worm has been identified as a fourth-stage larva of Anisakis simplex. In Spain, this is the ninth report of human anisakiasis and also probably the first case of anisakiasis caused by a fourth-stage larva of A. simplex.  (+info)

Purification and cloning of an apoptosis-inducing protein derived from fish infected with Anisakis simplex, a causative nematode of human anisakiasis. (2/62)

While investigating the effect of marine products on cell growth, we found that visceral extracts of Chub mackerel, an ocean fish, had a powerful and dose-dependent apoptosis-inducing effect on a variety of mammalian tumor cells. This activity was strikingly dependent on infection of the C. mackerel with the larval nematode, Anisakis simplex. After purification of the protein responsible for the apoptosis-inducing activity, we cloned the corresponding gene and found it to be a flavoprotein. This protein, termed apoptosis-inducing protein (AIP), was also found to possess an endoplasmic reticulum retention signal (C-terminal KDEL sequence) and H2O2-producing activity, indicating that we had isolated a novel reticuloplasimin with potent apoptosis-inducing activity. AIP was induced in fish only after infection with larval nematode and was localized to capsules that formed around larvae to prevent their migration to host tissues. Our results suggest that AIP may function to impede nematode infection.  (+info)

Apoptosis-inducing protein, AIP, from parasite-infected fish induces apoptosis in mammalian cells by two different molecular mechanisms. (3/62)

AIP (apoptosis-inducing protein) is a protein purified and cloned from Chub mackerel infected with the larval nematode, Anisakis simplex, which induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells including human tumor cell lines. AIP has shown structural and functional homology to L-amino acid oxidase (LAO) which oxidizes several L-amino acids including L-lysine and AIP-induced apoptosis has been suggested to be mediated by H2O2 generated by LAO activity of AIP. In this study, we confirmed that recombinant AIP generated enough H2O2 in culture medium to induce rapid apoptosis in cells and this apoptosis was clearly inhibited by co-cultivation with antioxidants such as catalase and N-acetyl-cysteine. Surprisingly, however, we found that AIP still could induce H2O2-independent apoptosis more slowly than H2O2-dependent one in HL-60 cells even in the presence of antioxidants. In addition, the HL-60-derived cell line HP100-1, which is a H2O2-resistant variant, underwent apoptosis on treatment with AIP with a similar delayed time course. The latter apoptosis was completely blocked by addition of L-lysine to the culture medium, which is the best substrate of AIP as LAO, indicating that decreased concentration of L-lysine in the culture medium by AIP-treatment induced apoptosis. We also showed that the both apoptosis by AIP were associated with the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and activation of caspase-9, and overexpressed Bcl-2 could inhibit both of the AIP-induced apoptosis. These results indicate that AIP induces apoptosis in cells by two distinct mechanisms; one rapid and mediated by H2O2, the other delayed and mediated by deprivation of L-lysine, both of which utilize caspase-9/cytochrome c system.  (+info)

Ascaris suum-derived products induce human neutrophil activation via a G protein-coupled receptor that interacts with the interleukin-8 receptor pathway. (4/62)

Infection with tissue-migrating helminths is frequently associated with intense granulocyte infiltrations. Several host-derived factors are known to mediate granulocyte recruitment to the tissues, but less attention has been paid to how parasite-derived products trigger this process. Parasite-derived chemotactic factors which selectively recruit granulocytes have been described, but nothing is known about which cellular receptors respond to these agents. The effect of products from the nematodes Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis, and Anisakis simplex on human neutrophils were studied. We monitored four parameters of activation: chemotaxis, cell polarization, intracellular Ca(2+) transients, and priming of superoxide anion production. Body fluids of A. suum (ABF) and T. canis (TcBF) induced strong directional migration, shape change, and intracellular Ca(2+) transients. ABF also primed neutrophils for production of superoxide anions. Calcium mobilization in response to A. suum-derived products was completely abrogated by pretreatment with pertussis toxin, implicating a classical G protein-coupled receptor mechanism in the response to ABF. Moreover, pretreatment with interleukin-8 (IL-8) completely abrogated the response to ABF, demonstrating desensitization of a common pathway. However, ABF was unable to fully desensitize the response to IL-8, and binding to CXCR1 or CXCR2 was excluded in experiments using RBL-2H3 cells transfected with the two human IL-8 receptors. Our results provide the first evidence for a direct interaction between a parasite-derived chemotactic factor and the host's chemotactic network, via a novel G protein-coupled receptor which interacts with the IL-8 receptor pathway.  (+info)

Fitness of the marine parasitic nematode Anisakis simplex s. str. in temperate waters of the NE Atlantic. (5/62)

In temperate waters of the NE Atlantic, third-stage larvae of Anisakis simplex sensu stricto collected from 3 paratenic host species were identified by restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The condition of wild larval infrapopulations was assessed by examining morphometric and growth characteristics. The differentiation patterns and the excretory/secretory products of larvae grown in vitro were also examined. An extensive morphometric, growth and differentiation variability was found between parasite larvae collected from different paratenic host sources. Nematode infrapopulation larvae from the squid comprise those smaller individuals with the lowest values of survival rates and moult success. It may be then concluded that the fitness of A. simplex s. str. larvae is not the best possible in the squid, which impaired the competitiveness of the parasite and its chances of developing into an adult. This suggests that the microenvironments impaired by the paratenic host may provide larval infrapopulations with unique ecological factors probably influencing its recruitment to the final host populations.  (+info)

Interleukin-4 production in BALB/c mice immunized with Anisakis simplex. (6/62)

We investigated the interleukin (IL-4) levels in BALB/c mice immunized with Anisakis extract in single or multiple doses and in mice orally infected with a larva. From animals immunized maximum responses were obtained with the multiple doses with an only IL-4 peak. Conversely, in the mice inoculated with a larva per os, the IL-4 levels showed two peaks of different rates.  (+info)

Evaluation by ELISA of anisakis simplex larval antigen purified by affinity chromatography. (7/62)

In order to improve the specificity and sensitivity of the techniques for the human anisakidosis diagnosis, a method of affinity chromatography for the purification of species-specific antigens from Anisakis simplex third-stage larvae (L3) has been developed. New Zealand rabbits were immunized with A. simplex or Ascaris suum antigens or inoculated with Toxocara canis embryonated eggs. The IgG specific antibodies were isolated by means of protein A-Sepharose CL-4B beads columns. IgG anti-A. simplex and -A. suum were coupled to CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B. For the purification of the larval A. simplex antigens, these were loaded into the anti-A. simplex column and bound antigens eluted. For the elimination of the epitopes responsible for the cross-reactions, the A. simplex specific proteins were loaded into the anti-A. suum column. To prove the specificity of the isolated proteins, immunochemical analyses by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis were carried out. Further, we studied the different responses by ELISA to the different antigenic preparations of A. simplex used, observing their capability of discriminating among the different antisera raised in rabbits (anti-A. simplex, anti-A. suum, anti-T. canis). The discriminatory capability with the anti-T. canis antisera was good using the larval A. simplex crude extract (CE) antigen. When larval A. simplex CE antigen was loaded into a CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B coupled to IgG from rabbits immunized with A. simplex CE antigen, its capability for discriminate between A. simplex and A. suum was improved, increasing in the case of T. canis. The best results were obtained using larval A. simplex CE antigen loaded into a CNBr-activated Sepharose 4B coupled to IgG from rabbits immunized with adult A. suum CE antigen. When we compared the different serum dilution and antigenic concentration, we selected the working serum dilution of (1/4)00 and 1 microg/ml of antigenic concentration.  (+info)

A case of acute gastric anisakiasis provoking severe clinical problems by multiple infection. (8/62)

Acute gastric anisakiasis with multiple anisakid larvae infection is reported. A 68-year-old woman residing in Busan, Korea, had epigastric pain with severe vomiting about 5 hours after eating raw anchovies. Four nematode larvae penetrating the gastric mucosae in the great curvature of the middle body and fundus were found and removed during gastro-endoscopic examination. Another one thread-like moving larva was found in the great curvature of upper body on the following day. On the basis of their morphology, the worms were identified as the 3rd stage larvae of Anisakis simplex. This case is acute gastric anisakiasis provoking severe clinical problems by the multiple infection and the greatest number of anisakid larvae found in a patient in Korea.  (+info)

  • By western blot analysis, IR162 detected bands in crude extracts of Anisakis simplex larvae, Clonorchis sinensis, Paragonimus westermani, plerocercoids of Spirometra mansoni, and Toxocara canis. (
  • Jun Kyong Cho, KC & Cho, S-W 2000, ' Shared epitope for monoclonal IR162 between Anisakis simplex larvae and Clonorchis sinensis and cross-reactivity between antigens ', Journal of Parasitology , vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 1145-1149. (
  • This technology shows the manufacture of new brines that finish with the vitality and infectious power of the Anisakis sp. (
  • One of the four cases was reported previously as Ascaris larva but corrected in this paper as Anisakis -like larva. (
  • larva (Luzon) Anisakis sp. (
  • Objective: The purpose of this study was to demonstrate the structures of the third stage larva of Anisakis simplex in marine fish by using light microscope (LM) and transmission and transmission electron microscope (TEM). (
  • Takahashi S., Yagihashi A., Sato N., Kikuchi K. (1990) Development of Monoclonal Antibodies Reacting with Anisakis simplex Larvae. (
  • Jun Kyong Cho, KC & Cho, S-W 2000, ' Shared epitope for monoclonal IR162 between Anisakis simplex larvae and Clonorchis sinensis and cross-reactivity between antigens ', Journal of Parasitology , vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 1145-1149. (
  • Unlike anisakis, tapeworms don't always manifest themselves with clear symptoms and can live in humans for decades if untreated, resulting in weight loss, Vitamin B12 deficiency, and potential anemia. (
  • After the removal of the L3 larvae of Anisakis, the inflammation symptoms disappeared. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between prior Anisakis infections and upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB), and its interaction with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) intake. (
  • We hereby investigated the parasite fauna of a 43 cm long M. mola specimen from the Mediterranean Sea, whose identification was confirmed by molecular tool, and provided the first evidence of the occurrence of the nematode Anisakis simplex (s.s.) and of the cestode Gymnorhynchus isuri in Mola species anywhere. (
  • There are many species of anisakid nematode and recently a new species, Anisakis nascettii , was found in an Andrews' Beak Whale ( Mesoplodon bowdoini ) stranded off the east coast of South Island, New Zealand. (
  • This article reports the gene sequencing, cloning, expression and preliminary biochemical and bioinformatically-based structural characterization of a new Anisakis serpin (ANISERP). (
  • Prior Anisakis infections (OR 1.74 [95% CI: 1.10 to 2. and the intake of NSAIDs (OR 6.63 [95% CI: 4.21 to 10. increased the risk of bleeding. (
  • However, the effect of past unnoticed Anisakis infections as a risk factor for UGIB, and a possible synergism with other risk factors such as NSAIDs intake, have never been investigated. (
  • In this case-control study we observed that: i) prior Anisakis infections and NSAIDs intake are two independent risk factors for UGIB, and ii) that both risk factors act synergistically to the extent that their joint effect is 3 times higher than the sum of their individual effects. (
  • We concluded that, in countries where Anisakis infections are frequent, it would be wise to determine parasite-specific IgE antibodies and to conduct a closer follow-up of patients who consume raw or lightly cooked fish and who are prescribed NSAIDs for long periods. (
  • In countries where Anisakis infections are frequent, acute infections by this parasite may also provoke UGIB . (
  • Thirty fish (42.9%) of the total were parasitized by nematode larvae which were morphologically identified as Anisakis spp. (
  • Tanaka J, Torisu M (1978) Anisakis and eosinophil: I. Detection of a soluble factor selectively chemotactic for eosinophils in the extract from Anisakis larvae. (
  • I. Detection of a soluble factor selectively chemotactic for eosinophils in the extract from Anisakis larvae. (
  • Microscopic histopathological examination of the appendectomy specimen revealing the presence of intense inflammatory infiltrate composed of neutrophils and leukocytes accompanied by abundant eosinophils, suggestive of Anisakis appendicitis . (