Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1: Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2: Voltage-dependent anion channel 2 is a low abundance mammalian isoform of VDAC that interacts with the inactive form of BAK PROTEIN.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid: A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.SLC4A Proteins: Bicarbonate transporters that move BICARBONATE IONS in exchange of CHLORIDE IONS or SODIUM IONS across membranes. They regulate acid-base HOMEOSTASIS, cell volume and intracellular pH. Members include CHLORIDE-BICARBONATE ANTIPORTERS (SLC4A1, 2, 3, and 9); SODIUM-COUPLED BICARBONATE TRANSPORTERS (SLC4A4 and 5, 7, 8 and 10); and a sodium borate cotransporter (SLC4A11 protein).Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Organic Anion Transport Polypeptide C: An organic anion transporter found in human liver. It is capable of transporting a variety organic anions and mediates sodium-independent uptake of bile in the liver.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Calixarenes: Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Nitrates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.Acid-Base Imbalance: Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Ions: An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Carbonates: Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Hypotonic Solutions: Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Perchlorates: Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Xanthine Oxidase: An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.Free Radical Scavengers: Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.Uricosuric Agents: Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Hydroxides: Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.Tetraphenylborate: An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Neutrophils: Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Hydrogen Peroxide: A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Dependent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Phenolsulfonphthalein: Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).

The stimulatory effects of Hofmeister ions on the activities of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase. Apparent substrate inhibition by l-arginine is overcome in the presence of protein-destabilizing agents. (1/2355)

A variety of monovalent anions and cations were effective in stimulating both calcium ion/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM)-independent NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity of, and Ca2+/CaM-dependent nitric oxide (NO.) synthesis by, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The efficacy of the ions in stimulating both activities could be correlated, in general, with their efficacy in precipitating or stabilizing certain proteins, an order referred to as the Hofmeister ion series. In the hemoglobin capture assay, used for measurement of NO. production, apparent substrate inhibition by L-arginine was almost completely reversed by the addition of sodium perchlorate (NaClO4), one of the more effective protein-destabilizing agents tested. Examination of this phenomenon by the assay of L-arginine conversion to L-citrulline revealed that the stimulatory effect of NaClO4 on the reaction was observed only in the presence of oxyhemoglobin or superoxide anion (generated by xanthine and xanthine oxidase), both scavengers of NO. Spectrophotometric examination of nNOS revealed that the addition of NaClO4 and a superoxide-generating system, but neither alone, prevented the increase of heme absorption at 436 nm, which has been attributed to the nitrosyl complex. The data are consistent with the release of autoinhibitory NO. coordinated to the prosthetic group of nNOS, which, in conjunction with an NO. scavenger, causes stimulation of the reaction.  (+info)

Reactivity of cyanate with valine-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin. A probe of conformational change and anion binding. (2/2355)

The 3-fold increase in the carbamylation rate of Val-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin upon deoxygenation described earlier is now shown to be a sensitive probe of conformational change. Thus, whereas this residue in methemoglobin A is carbamylated at the same rate as in liganded hemoglobin, upon addition of inositol hexaphosphate its carbamylation rate is enhanced 30% as much as the total change in the rate between the CO and deoxy states. For CO-hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of the organic phosphate, the relative increase in the carbamylation rate of this residue is about 50%. These results indicate that methemoglobin A and hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of inositol hexaphosphate do not assume a conformation identical with deoxyhemoglobin but rather form either a mixture of R and T states or an intermediate conformation in the region around Val-1 (alpha). Studies on the mechanism for the rate enhancement in deoxyhemoglobin suggest that the cyanate anion binds to groups in the vicinity of Val-1 (alpha) prior to proton transfer and carbamylation of this NH2-terminal residue. Thus, specific removal with carboxypeptidase B of Arg-141 (alpha), which is close to Val-1 (alpha) in deoxyhemoglobin, abolishes the enhancement in carbamylation. Chloride, which has the same valency as cyanate, is a better competitive inhibitor of the carbamylation of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 50 mM) compared with liganded hemoglobin. Nitrate and iodide are also effective inhibitors of the carbamylation of Val-1 (alpha) of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 35 mM); inorganic phosphate, sulfate, and fluoride are poor competitive inhibitors. The change in pKa of Val-1 (alpha) upon deoxygenation may be due to its differential interaction with chloride.  (+info)

Distinct sensitivities of OmpF and PhoE porins to charged modulators. (3/2355)

The inhibition of the anion-selective PhoE porin by ATP and of the cation-selective OmpF porin by polyamines has been previously documented. In the present study, we have extended the comparison of the inhibitor-porin pairs by investigating the effect of anions (ATP and aspartate) and positively charged polyamines (spermine and cadaverine) on both OmpF and PhoE with the patch-clamp technique, and by comparing directly the gating kinetics of the channels modulated by their respective substrates. The novel findings reported here are (1) that the activity of PhoE is completely unaffected by polyamines, and (2) that the kinetic changes induced by ATP on PhoE or polyamines on OmpF suggest different mechanisms of inhibition. ATP induces a high degree of flickering in the PhoE-mediated current and appears to behave as a blocker of ion flow during its presumed transport through PhoE. Polyamines modulate the kinetics of openings and closings of OmpF, in addition to promoting a blocker-like flickering activity. The strong correlation between sensitivity to inhibitors and ion selectivity suggests that some common molecular determinants are involved in these two properties and is in agreement with the hypothesis that polyamines bind inside the pore of cationic porins.  (+info)

Regulation of a volume-sensitive anion channel in rat pancreatic beta-cells by intracellular adenine nucleotides. (4/2355)

1. The patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration was used to measure the effects of intracellular adenine nucleotides on activity of the volume-sensitive anion channel in single, isolated rat pancreatic beta-cells. 2. In the absence of intracellular nucleotides, swelling of cells with a hypertonic pipette solution failed to activate the conductance. Addition of ATP over the range 2-10 mM maintaining the same degree of hypertonicity caused a progressive activation of the conductance. An increase in ATP produced a similar activation of the conductance in non-swollen cells, albeit with reduced current amplitudes. 3. Activation of the conductance was also observed in the presence of ATPgammaS, adenylyl imidophosphate (AMP-PNP), ADP, diadenosine tetraphosphate and GTPgammaS. Neither ADP nor GDPbetaS inhibited activation of the conductance by ATP. 4. It is concluded that activity of the beta-cell volume-sensitive anion channel can be modulated by changes in intracellular concentrations of ATP within the physiological concentration range by a mechanism that does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Activity of the channel does not appear to be modulated by a G protein-coupled mechanism.  (+info)

Phospholipid-subclass-specific partitioning of lipophilic ions in membrane-water systems. (5/2355)

Herein, we systematically investigate phospholipid-subclass-specific alterations in the partitioning of both cationic and anionic amphiphiles to identify the importance of ester, ether and vinyl ether linkages at the sn-1 position of phospholipids in the partitioning of charged amphiphiles. The results demonstrated that the membrane-water partition coefficient of a prototypic cationic amphiphile (i.e. 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide) was approximately 2.5 times higher in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine in comparison with membranes comprised of either phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. In striking contrast, the membrane-water partition coefficient of a prototypic anionic amphiphile [i.e. bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol] in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine was approximately 2.5 times lower than that manifest in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. Utilizing theseexperimentally determined partition coefficients,the relative membrane dipole potential of membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine was calculated and found to be approximately 25 mV lower than in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. This lower membrane dipole potential in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine is equivalent to the membrane potential induced by incorporation of approximately 25 mol% of anionic phospholipids in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine. Collectively, these results demonstrate that phospholipid-subclass-specific differences in the membrane dipole potential contribute to alterations in the partitioning of lipophilic ions in membrane bilayers comprised of distinct phospholipid subclasses. Moreover, they suggest that these physicochemical differences can be exploited to facilitate the targeting of charged lipophilic drugs to specific cells and subcellular membrane compartments.  (+info)

Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum. (6/2355)

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

Anion efflux from cytotrophoblast cells derived from normal term human placenta is stimulated by hyposmotic challenge and extracellular A23187 but not by membrane-soluble cAMP. (7/2355)

The regulation of placental anion transport influences fetal accretion and placental homeostasis. We investigated whether efflux of 125I- or 36Cl- from multinucleated cytotrophoblast cells derived from human term placenta is regulated by one of three stimuli: (a) the calcium ionophore A23187, (b) a 'cocktail' of agents designed to raise intracellular levels of cAMP, (c) a hyposmotic solution. After loading with the appropriate isotope for 2 h and thorough washing, cells were exposed to sequential aliquots of buffer applied and removed each minute. Following an equilibration period of 5 min one of the stimuli was applied at room temperature At the end of the experiment the cells were lysed to give a lysate count which was used to express the count obtained from each aliquot as percentage efflux of that possible for that minute. The cAMP 'cocktail' and A23187 were applied for 5 min; the hyposmotic solution was applied for 10 min. The results for 125I- at 7 min showed that the mean efflux in the presence of hyposmotic shock was greater than control (5.7 +/- 1.0% min-1 versus 2.2 +/- 0.1% min-1, respectively; mean +/- S.E.M., n = 4 placentas). Similarly mean efflux at 6 min in the presence of A23187 was also significantly greater than control (6.5 +/- 1.9% min-1 versus 2.6 +/- 1.0% min-1, respectively, n = 3 placentas). The mean efflux in the presence of the cAMP cocktail was not different from control at any time point. The results were qualitatively the same if 36Cl- was used in the place of 125I- and when the experiment was performed with 36Cl- in a HCO3- buffer gassed with CO2. Mean 125I- efflux at 6 min in response to hyposmotic challenge was 33% less (P < 0.01) in the presence of 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and 37% less (P < 0.005) in the presence of 10 microM tamoxifen but no different if the hyposmotic solution was nominally calcium free. We conclude that there are differential effects of second messengers on anion efflux from the differentiated cytotrophoblast cells.  (+info)

Thermodynamic studies on anion binding to apotransferrin and to recombinant transferrin N-lobe half molecules. (8/2355)

Equilibrium constants for the binding of anions to apotransferrin, to the recombinant N-lobe half transferrin molecule (Tf/2N), and to a series of mutants of Tf/2N have been determined by difference UV titrations of samples in 0.1 M Hepes buffer at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C. The anions included in this study are phosphate, sulfate, bicarbonate, pyrophosphate, methylenediphosphonic acid, and ethylenediphosphonic acid. There are no significant differences between anion binding to Tf/2N and anion binding to the N-lobe of apotransferrin. The binding of simple anions like phosphate appears to be essentially equivalent for the two apotransferrin binding sites. The binding of pyrophosphate and the diphosphonates is inequivalent, and the studies on the recombinant Tf/2N show that the stronger binding is associated with the N-terminal site. Anion binding constants for phosphate, pyrophosphate, and the diphosphonates with the N-lobe mutants K206A, K296A, and R124A have been determined. Anion binding tends to be weakest for the K296A mutant, but the variation in log K values among the three mutants is surprisingly small. It appears that the side chains of K206, K296, and R124 all make comparable contributions to anion binding. There are significant variations in the intensities of the peaks in the difference UV spectra that are generated by the titrations of the mutant apoproteins with these anions. These differences appear to be related more to variations in the molar extinction coefficients of the anion-protein complexes rather than to differences in binding constants.  (+info)

*Chloride channel

These halves come together to form the anion pore. The pore has a filter through which chloride and other anions can pass, but ... These water-filled pores filter anions via three binding sites-Sint, Scen, and Sext-which bind chloride and other anions. The ... These channels conduct Cl− as well as other anions such as HCO− 3, I−, SCN−, and NO− 3. The structure of these channels are not ... The Scen acts as the primary selectivity filter for most CLC proteins, allowing the following anions to pass through, from most ...

*Ionic radius

Similarly, when an electron is added to an atom, forming an anion, the added electron increases the size of the electron cloud ... Landé estimated ionic radii by considering crystals in which the anion and cation have a large difference in size, such as LiI ... they are sometimes treated as if they were hard spheres with radii such that the sum of ionic radii of the cation and anion ...

*Reactions of nitrile anions

Although nitrile anions are functionally similar to enolates, the extra pi bond in nitrile anions provides them with a unique ... Nitrile anions are most often generated through the action of an appropriate base. However, the pKas of nitriles span a wide ... Nitrile anions can also be involved in Michael-type additions to activated double bonds and vinylation reactions with a limited ... Nitrile anions are the conjugate bases of alkyl nitriles. They undergo nucleophilic addition and substitution reactions with ...

*Nitrile anion

Although nitrile anions are functionally similar to enolates, the extra multiple bond in nitrile anions provides them with a ... Nitrile anions are most often generated through the action of an appropriate base. However, the pKas of nitriles span a wide ... Nitrile anions are nitriles lacking a proton at the position α to the nitrile group. They undergo nucleophilic addition and ... Nitrile anions can also be involved in Michael-type additions to activated double bonds and vinylation reactions with a limited ...

*Organic anion

Organic anions are conjugate bases of organic acids. The following table lists some of the organic anions and their conjugate ... Organic anions are chemically heterogeneous substances possessing a carbon backbone and a net negative charge. ... Sekine T, Cha SH, Endou H (July 2000). "The multispecific organic anion transporter (OAT) family". Pflugers Arch. 440 (3): 337- ...

*Phosphite anion

A phosphite anion or 'phosphite in inorganic chemistry usually refers to [HPO3]2− but includes [H2PO3]− ([HPO2(OH)]−). These ... Hydrogen bonding between anions leads to polymeric anionic structures. Recently some others, RbHPHO3, CsHPHO3, TlHPHO3 have ... These compounds contain a layer polymeric anion consisting of HPO3 tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonds. These layers are ... anions are the conjugate bases of phosphorous acid (H3PO3). The corresponding salts, e.g. sodium phosphite (Na2HPO3) are ...

*Cyclooctatetraenide anion

In chemistry, the cyclooctatetraenide anion or cyclooctatetraenide is an aromatic species with a formula of [C8H8]2− and ... Salts of the cyclooctatetraenide anion can be stable, e.g., Dipotassium cyclooctatetraenide or Disodium cyclooctatetraenide. ...

*Anion gap

The term "anion gap" usually implies "serum anion gap", but the urine anion gap is also a clinically useful measure. The anion ... we can conclude that the anion gap calculation represents the concentration of unmeasured anions. The anion gap varies in ... The anion gap is the difference between the measured cations (positively charged ions) and the measured anions (negatively ... These "unmeasured" ions are mostly anions, which is why the value is called the "anion gap." By definition, only the cations ...

*Oxocarbon anion

Stable oxocarbon anions form salts with a large variety of cations. Unstable anions may persist in very rarefied gaseous state ... Conversely, some oxocarbon anions can be reduced to yield other anions with the same structural formula but greater negative ... These resonances are believed to contribute to the stability of the anions. An oxocarbon anion C xOn− y can be seen as the ... 1 partially hydrogenated anions with formulas H kC xO(n−k)− y, where k ranges from 1 to n−1. These anions are generally ...

*Hydrogen anion

An example of a hydride is the borohydride anion (BH− 4). Hydron (hydrogen cation) Electride, another very simple anion ... The hydrogen anion is an important species in the photosphere of the Sun. It absorbs energies in the range 0.75-4.0 eV, which ... The hydrogen anion, H−, is a negative ion of hydrogen, that is, a hydrogen atom that has captured an extra electron. The ... the hydride anion is hydrogen that has the formal oxidation state −1. The term hydride is probably most often used to describe ...

*Anion exchanger family

Several possibilities (uniport, anion:anion exchange and anion:cation exchange) can account for the data. The physiologically ... AE1 in human red blood cells has been shown to transport a variety of inorganic and organic anions. Divalent anions may be ... AE1 preferentially catalyzes anion exchange (antiport) reactions. Specific point mutations in human anion exchanger 1 (AE1) ... The anion exchanger family (TC# 2.A.31) is a member of the large APC superfamily of secondary carriers. Members of the AE ...

*Anion-conducting channelrhodopsin

As the main anion of extracellular fluid is chloride (Cl−), anion-conducting channelrhodopsins are also known as "chloride- ... Anion-conducting channelrhodopsins are light-gated ion channels that open in response to light and let negatively charged ions ... Anion-conducting channelrhodopsins are used as tools to manipulate brain activity in mice and fruit flies (Optogenetics). ... Anion-conducting channelrhodopsins have been used as optogenetic tools to inhibit neuronal activation. When expressed in nerve ...

*Pseudo-oxocarbon anion

... the term pseudo-oxocarbon anion is used to refer to a negative ion that is conceptually derived from an oxocarbon anion through ... derived from the croconate anion C 5O2− 5 by replacing one, two, or three oxygen atoms by dicyanomethylene groups: These anions ... Similar anions can be obtained from squarate C 4O2− 4. 1,2-bis(dicyanomethylene)squarate 1,3-bis(dicyanomethylene)squarate ... Typical examples are the anions 2-(Dicyanomethylene)croconate, croconate violet, and croconate blue, ...

*Anion-exchange chromatography

If it is stable at pH values above the pI then the anion exchange column can be used. Lee, Y.C. (1990). "High-performance Anion ... Anion exchange resins will bind to negatively charged molecules, displacing the counter-ion. Anion exchange chromatography is ... If the pH is above the pI, the protein will have a negative charge and bind to the matrix in an anion exchange column. The ... Anion-exchange chromatography is a process that separates substances based on their charges using an ion-exchange resin ...

*Non-coordinating anion

Another large class of non-coordinating anions are derived from carborane anion CB11H12−. Using this anion, the first example ... Related anions are derived from tris(pentafluorophenyl)boron B(C6F5)3. Another advantage of these anions is that their salts ... Anions that interact weakly with cations are termed non-coordinating anions, although a more accurate term is weakly ... the use of a noncoordinating anion is pointless. Salts of the anion B[3,5-(CF3)2C6H3]4− were first reported by Kobayashi and co ...

*Urine anion gap

The term "anion gap" without qualification usually implies serum anion gap. The "urine anion gap" is a different measure, ... A negative urine anion gap can be used as evidence of increased NH4+ excretion. In a metabolic acidosis without a serum anion ... Urine anion gap is calculated by subtracting the urine concentration of chloride (anions) from the concentrations of sodium ... The urine anion gap is calculated using measured ions found in the urine. It is used to aid in the differential diagnosis of ...

*Lithium monoxide anion

The methyl anion CH3− was the strongest known base before lithium monoxide anion was discovered. This base is reportedly the ... The Lithium oxalate anion is isolated. Step 4: The Lithium oxalate anion is subjected to a process known as Collision Induced ... Lithium monoxide anion (LiO−) is a superbase existing in the solution state in an aprotic solvent. It was the world's strongest ... This results in the formation of the Lithium monoxide anion (LiO−) and a Carbon dioxide molecule. The above method to ...

*Organic anion-transporting polypeptide

An organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) is a membrane transport protein or 'transporter' that mediates the transport ... The 'SLCO' stands for their gene name; 'solute carrier organic anion.' Previous nomenclature using letters and numbers (e.g. ... OATPs belong to the Solute Carrier Family (SLC), more specifically the Solute Carrier Organic Anion (SLCO) gene subfamily ... Along with the organic anion transporters, organic cation transporters and the ATP-binding cassette transporters, the OATPs ...

*Volume-regulated anion channel

... s (VRACs) are crucial to the regulation of cell size by transporting chloride ions and various ... Nilius B, Eggermont J, Voets T, Buyse G, Manolopoulos V, Droogmans G (1997). "Properties of volume-regulated anion channels in ... Eggermont J, Trouet D, Carton I, Nilius B (December 2001). "Cellular function and control of volume-regulated anion channels". ... Mongin AA (March 2016). "Volume-regulated anion channel--a frenemy within the brain". Pflugers Archiv. 468 (3): 421-41. doi: ...

*Voltage-dependent anion channel

... s are a class of porin ion channel located on the outer mitochondrial membrane. There is debate ... Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ... Although both states allow passage of simple salts, VDAC is much more stringent with organic anions, a category into which most ... De Pinto, V.; Messina, A.; Lane, D. J. R.; Lawen, A. (2010). "Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) in the plasma ...

*Organic anion transporter 1

OAT1 functions as organic anion exchanger. When the uptake of one molecule of an organic anion is transported into a cell by an ... The organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) also known as solute carrier family 22 member 6 (SLC22A6) is a protein that in humans is ... The renal organic anion transporters OAT1, OAT3, OATP4C1, MDR1, MRP2, MRP4 and URAT1 are expressed in the S2 segment of the ... These organic anions are then excreted in the urine. Known substrates of OAT1 include para-aminohippurate (PAH), dicarboxylates ...

*Normal anion gap acidosis

In renal physiology, normal anion gap acidosis, and less precisely non-anion gap acidosis, is an acidosis that is not ... The most common cause of normal anion gap acidosis is diarrhea with a renal tubular acidosis being a distant second. The ... High anion gap metabolic acidosis "Metabolic Acidosis: Acid-Base Regulation and Disorders: Merck Manual Professional". ... This is compensated by an increase in chloride concentration, thus leading to a normal anion gap, or hyperchloremic, metabolic ...

*Organo anion transporter family

Members of the Organo Anion Transporter (OAT) Family (TC# 2.A.60) catalyze electrogenic anion uniport or more frequently, anion ... The generalized transport reactions catalyzed by members of the OAT family are: Anion (in) → Anion (out) Anion1 (in) + Anion2 ( ... As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.60 The Organo Anion Transporter (OAT) Family", which is licensed in a way ... One family member, OATP2B1, has been shown to use cytoplasmic glutamate as the exchanging anion. Among the well characterized ...

*Divalent anion-sodium symporter

Divalent anion:Na+ symporters (TC# 2.A.47) were found in bacteria, archaea, plant chloroplasts and animals. They vary in size ... The Na+:anion coupling ratio is 3:1, indicative of electrogenic properties. They have a substrate preference for divalent ... Proteins of the DASS family are divided into two groups of transporters with distinct anion specificities: the Na+-sulfate (NaS ... anions, which include tetra-oxyanions for the NaS cotransporters or Krebs cycle intermediates (including mono-, di- and ...

*Alkaline anion exchange membrane

... separation of reactants and transport of anions. The advantage of the alkali anion exchange membrane in the fuel cell is the ... An alkaline anion exchange membrane (AAEM) is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct ... Anion Exchange Membrane and Ionomer for Alkaline Membrane Fuel Cells Archived December 7, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.. ... Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells Alkaline fuel cell Artificial membrane Gas diffusion electrode Glossary of fuel ...
Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: inorganic anion A(out) + inorganic anion B(in) = inorganic anion A(in) + inorganic anion B(out).
Find all books from Novartis Foundation - Epithelial Anion Transport in Health and Disease. At find-more-books.com you can find used, antique and new books, COMPARE results and immediately PURCHASE your selection at the best price. 9780470029565
The conformational preorganization and anion-induced conformational changes of indole-based receptors functionalized with an amide group at the 2-position and a variety of amide, urea and thiourea moieties at the 7-position have been studied by the means of NMR spectroscopy. NOE experiments showed that anti-anti orientation across C2-C2 and C7-N7 bonds is preferred for receptors 1-4 in acetone solution in the absence of anions. Anion-receptor interactions have been evaluated through 1H and 15N chemical shift changes. In 2,7-bis-carboxamido functionalized indoles the interaction with chloride and bromide anions primarily occurs at the indole H1 proton. The introduction of urea and thiourea moieties increases the number of hydrogen bond donor sites which manifests itself in a distribution of halide-receptor interactions among the H1, H7 and H7 protons. Acetate anions also interact strongly with indole and urea NH donor groups, whereas nitrate anions interact solely with H7 and H7 urea/thiourea ...
Anion Gap is of 2 types, plasma Anion gap and urinary anion gap Plasma Anion Gap Plasma Anion Gap refers to the amount of unmeasured anions present in the
1 Oktober 2010 : Pemisahan anion Tujuan : Siswa mampu memahami prosedur identifikasi anion dengan baik dan benar Siswa mampu melaksanakn setiap proses yang terjadi pada analisis kualitatif anion Dapat melaksanakan prosedur analisis dan membuat kesimpulan dari hasil analisis yang diperoleh Siswa dapat mengidentifikasi sampel apakah terdapat anion Dasar teori : Analisa anion adalah analisa yang bertujuan untuk menganalisa adanya ion dalam sampel. Sedangkan analisa kualitatif dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis unsur atau ion yang terdapat dalam suatu sampel. Jadi, analisa anion secara kualitatif merupakan analisa yang dilakukan untuk mengetahui adanya anion serta jenis anion apa saja yang terdapat dalam suatu sampel. Anion merupakan ion bermuatan negtif. Dalam analisa anion dikenal adanya analisa pendahuluan yang meliputi analisa kering dan analisa basah. Analisa kering meliputi pemeriksaan organoleptis (warna, bau, rasa) dan pemanasan. Analisa basah adalah analisa dengan melarutkan zat-zat dalam ...
It says in the textbook that anionic ligands that end in -ide, -ate, -ite change their endings to -ido, -ato, ito respectively. I dont think this was covered in class; is this something different? When do we use this for ...
Except cations, any electrolyte consists of anions. So, the analysis of salts, acids, natural waters and industrial solutions will be incomplete, without identification of anions. Anions are divided into three (3) analytical groups (as it is shown in the table 7.1). First group contains such anions that form insoluble barium salts. Second group contains anions, that form precipitates with
3,822,216 ACID OR MINERAL ANION STABILIZATION OF SILICA SOLS David P. Schaefer, Hinsdale, Ill., assignor to Nalco Chemical Company, Chicago, Ill. No Drawing. Filed Sept. 29, 1972, Ser. No. 293,691 Int. Cl. B01j 13/00; C01b 33/14 US. Cl. 252-313 S 5 Claims ABSTRACT OF THE DISCLOSURE In the stabilization of highly concentrated sols of the silica type ranging from 35-50% concentration, which have been subjected to sequential double deionization through cationic and anionic beds, the addition to the sol of a small amount of an anion of an inorganic acid amounting to 0.01 to 0.15 weight percent of the anion based upon a 50% silica sol product. The specific anion is selected from sulfuric, phosphoric, hydrochloric, and nitric and is added directly or obtained by utilization of impurities in the silica sol and omission of anion bed treatment. The stabilization effectively prevents gelation during subsequent alkalization as in the preferred ammoniation. In modern technology of silica sol preparation the ...
D4327 - 17 Standard Test Method for Anions in Water by Suppressed Ion Chromatography , anions, drinking water, ion chromatography, reagent water, wastewater,,
Definition of anion exchange in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is anion exchange? Meaning of anion exchange as a legal term. What does anion exchange mean in law?
Keplerates are a family of anionic metal oxide spherical capsules containing up to 132 metal atoms and some hundreds of oxygen atoms. These capsules holding a high negative charge of −12 coordinate both mono-anionic and di-anionic ligands thus increasing their charge up to −42, even up to −72, which is compensated by the corresponding counter-cations in the X-ray structures. We present an analysis of the relative importance of several energy terms of the coordinate bond between the capsule and ligands like carbonate, sulphate, sulphite, phosphinate, selenate, and a variety of carboxylates, of which the overriding component is contributed by solvation/de-solvation effects.. ...
Tetrachlorodecaoxygen anion is used in the treatment of infections.get complete information about tetrachlorodecaoxygen anion including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with tetrachlorodecaoxygen anion at 1mg.com
Jianmingxi Anion Therapy Machine, Jianmingxi provides price consultation for anion therapist, high quality anion therapy machine manufacturer / wholesale manufacturer-Guangzhou Jianmingxi Medical Instrument Co., Ltd. Anion Therapy Consultation Hotline 400-716-2350
Current work is focused on applications of LDP to catalyst optimization in a variety of different areas. Selected references on this topic from our group:. Weakly Coordinating yet Ion Paired: Anion Effects on an Internal Rearrangement, Billow, B. S.; McDaniel, T. J.; Odom, A. L.; Nat. Chem., 2017, 9, 837. Link. Weakly Coordinating yet Ion Paired: Anion Effects on an Internal Rearrangement, Aldrich, K. E.; Billow, B. S.; Holmes, D.; Bemowski, R. D.; Odom, A. L.; Organometallics, 2017, 36 1227. Link. A Complex with Nitrogen Single, Double, and Triple Bonds to the Same Chromium Atom: Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity, Beaumier, E. P.; Billow, B. S.; Singh, A. K.; Biros, S. M.; Odom, A. L.; Chem. Sci., 2016, 7, 2532. Link. Synthesis and Structure of Chromium(VI) Nitrido Cyclopentadienyl Complexes, Billow, B. S.; Bemowski, R. D.;DiFranco, S. A.; Staples, R. J.; Odom, A. L.; Organometallics, 2015, 34, 4567. Link. Effective donor abilities of E-t-Bu and EPh (E = O, S, Se, Te) to a high ...
Cation and Anion are inverse terms in science and represent the two primary sorts of particles framed. A particle is a condition of issue upon the misfortune or increase of electron contrasted with its real state. You will get here the difference between Cation and Anion. Here Also available Cation VS Anion table, definition and […]. ...
An electroplating apparatus and method reduces oxidation of thermodynamically unstable and oxidizable ionic species in an electroplating solution to deposit complex magnetic alloy onto substrates. The electroplating apparatus comprises an electroplating cell (30) in which oxidation of oxidizable anions and cations is reduced. The cell comprises an anode compartment (110) with anolyte solution in contact with the anode (55), a cathode compartment (105) with catholyte solution containing oxidizable plating anions in contact with the cathode (50). A cation selective membrane (100) separates the electrode compartments. Upon application of a voltage or power supply (90) across the anode and cathode, the transport of oxidizable plating anions and to a lesser degree cations, to the anode is substantially blocked by the cation-selective semi-permeable membrane, thereby reducing oxidation of the oxidizable anions and cations at the anode. The concentration of the anolyte and catholyte solutions can be
Electrons get pulled in when there is a higher positive charge (there are more protons) which is why they get smaller. This explains why cations are smaller than anions. Cations have lost some amount of electrons but still have the same number of protons as the neutral atom (this is why its still the same element as the neutral atom) so less electrons means that the nucleus has less electrons to hold on to, which causes the remaining electrons to be pulled in further by the protons and decreasing the atomic radius. Anions are bigger for the opposite reason, they gain electrons so the protons have more electrons to hold on to than they would in the neutral atom which causes the electrons to be more spread out creating a larger atomic radius ...
Positively charged cations and negatively charged anions attract one another. Conversely, cations repel one another as do anions.. Electrostatic attraction is indiscriminate. That is a cation can attract more than one anion and visa versa. The result is that cation-anions attractions form a large array that we call an ionic compound or salt. The bonds holding these ions together are called ionic bonds. However, this array has a very specific composition completely dictated by the charges on the cations and anions.. Formulas of ionic compounds:. The composition of ionic compounds is determined by the requirement that the compounds must be electrically neutral. That is that the charges of the cations and anions must balance or cancel out one another. For example consider sodium cations (Na+) and Chlorine anions (Cl ). Sodium has a positive 1 charge and chloride has a negative 1 charge. Thus one sodium cation cancels one chloride anion (+1 + 1 = 0) resulting in the formula Na1Cl1 or NaCl. ...
What type of coordination would you expect when (1)all the tetrahedral holes in an fcc structure of anions are occupied by cations, (2) half of the tetrahedral holes in an fcc structure of anions are occupied by cations and (3) all the octahedral holes of an fcc ...
I accidentally erased your post on the hydrolysis of various anions. The answer is Kb(for the anion) = (Kw/Ka for the Ka for the acid) where Ka will be Ka for monoprotic acids, k2 for diprotic acids, or k3 for triprotic acids So to ...
Enantiopure A4L4 tetrahedral cages (either ΔΔΔΔ or ΛΛΛΛ) were obtained through the anion-coordination-driven assembly (ACDA) of phosphate anions with C3-symmetric tris-bis(urea) ligands bearing chiral groups.
Machtens, J. P.; Kortzak, D.; Lansche, C.; Leinenweber, A.; Kilian, P.; Begemann, B.; Zachariae, U.; Ewers, D.; de Groot, B. L.; Briones, R. et al.; Fahlke, C.: Mechanisms of anion conduction by coupled glutamate transporters. Cell 160 (3), pp. 542 - 553 (2015 ...
A compound of formula: ##STR1## in which X1 is a reactive group that can react to form a covalent bond with a reactive group on the surface of a material to be rendered biocompatible, X2 is a group -0.sup.⊖ or a precursor of such a group, n is 2, 3 or 4, Y is a group --N.sup.⊕ R3 A.sup.⊖ wherein each R, which may be the same or different, is a C1 -C4 alkyl group and A.sup.⊖ is an anion present when X2 is an electrically neutral group or Y is ##STR2## wherein R1 together with X2 forms a direct bond between the nitrogen and the phosphorus atoms.
Some anions (sulphate) may be determined by their reaction with a slightly dissociated or slightly soluble compound (barium chloranilate), another anion (chloranilate ion) being liberated and its extinction measured. An equation is given in this paper for the relationship between the concentration of sulphate and the extinction. For low concentrations ... read more the equation is non-linear. A calibration curve, prepared under standardised conditions, agrees well with theory. It shows a precision of about 5 % at 20 μg of sulphate. At higher levels the precision is slightly better. It is proved that many interferences of foreign ions may be explained quantitatively by consideration of the activity coefficients. The scope of this method is discussed. show less ...
Cations are positively charged ions and anions are negatively charged ions. Metals act as cations and willingly give up or donate electrons to nonmetals. Nonmetals act as anions and accept donated...
The Synchropak AX300 column has been used to separate a wide range of anions. A standard solution containing F−, Cl−, NO2−, NO3−, HPO42−, SO42−ions can be analysed in 8-14 minutes using a phthalate...
Waters offers an array of products for ion chromatography . IC-Pak resin based columns allow you to analyze a full range of ions from numerous sample matrices, both simple and complex. They offer an exceptional linear loading range of less than 1.0 ppb to greater than 400 ppm without dilution and without pH limitation on eluent or sample. The flexibility exists for accurate and reproducible anion and cation analyses at all concentration levels.
Waters offers an array of products for ion chromatography . IC-Pak resin based columns allow you to analyze a full range of ions from numerous sample matrices, both simple and complex. They offer an exceptional linear loading range of less than 1.0 ppb to greater than 400 ppm without dilution and without pH limitation on eluent or sample. The flexibility exists for accurate and reproducible anion and cation analyses at all concentration levels.
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsCations and iron carrying compoundstransporter, divalent anion:Na+ symporter (DASS) family (TIGR00785; HMM-score: 257) ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsCations and iron carrying compoundstransporter, divalent anion:Na+ symporter (DASS) family (TIGR00785; HMM-score: 432.9) ...
Use this resin for chromatographic desalting, or to deacidify nonionic molecules. Separate inorganic anions and cations from ionic organic compounds.
File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome) using Scamax Scan+ V.1.0.32.10766 on a Scanmax 412CD by InoTec in PDF format. LuraDocument PDF Compressor V.5.8.71.50 used for pdf compression and textual OCR ...
Here is just a handy charts of Common Polyatomic Ions, cations and anions. Its good thing for students to have in their notebooks but in truth most of these should be committed to memory. If however, ones memory is lacking, this will help
Hello!. >I have a problem with convergence. Id like to geometry optimize the 1,4-diaminobenzene anion, using DFT/B3LYP. I had no problems with the cation, though. For the initial guess orbitals I used the ones from the ground state calculation. Could you give me any hints regarding how-to try to improve convergence? Due to computational cost I am using only a cc-pVTZ basis, although I know that the augmented one should be used for ions.... >Thank You for your help/ideas!. >Best regards ...
AbeBooks.com: Cation and anion chemistry (9780800500122) by James H Krueger and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Eesti Teadusinfosüsteem koondab informatsiooni teadus- ja arendusasutuste, teadlaste, teadusprojektide ning erinevate teadustegevuste tulemuste kohta.
Chromatografické standardyCombined Seven Anion Standard ICombined Seven Anion Standard IICombined Five Anion StandardFluoride StandardChloride StandardSulfate StandardCombined Six Cation Standard-ICombined Six Cation Standard-IIStandard for Mass Calibrati
I could very well be a bit traditional, but I think a girl shouldnt have to mastermind some contrived plan to convince her boyfriend to marry her.
well im studied C3 further science, and these have really got to me? not a clue what they are on about on the revision booklet i have, or on any of the revision notes i have come across on here? i dont know what are example and what i need to remember for my exam? any help?. ...
வேதியியலில் உப்பு (salt) என்பது ஒரு காடியும், காரமும் சேர்ந்து வேதியியல் வினைப்படும் பொழுது நடுமை அடைகையில் உருவாகும் பொருள். உப்புகள் மின்ம முனைப்படும் சேர்மங்கள் ஆகும். உப்புகளில் நேர்மின்மம் கொண்ட நேர்முனையி அல்லது கேட்டயான் (cation) பகுதியும், எதிர்மின்மம் கொண்ட எதிர்முனையி அல்லது ஆனையான் (anion) பகுதியும் கொண்ட ஆனால் மொத்தமாக மின்மம் ஏதுமற்ற, மின்மநடுநிலை கொண்ட ஒரு பொருள். ...
Sintetiniai, nelaidūs orui, o jei dar ir kvepiantys kasdieniai įklotai, gali sukelti nepageidaujamą odos reakciją, išbalansuoti makšties pH ir sukelti makšties infekciją ar kandidozę.
Ar kada pagalvojote, kad sudirgusi oda, tempimas ir skausmai per menstruacijas gali būti susiję su higienos priemonėmis?Makšties išskyros ir menstruacinis kraujas šiltoje, orui nelaidžioje aplinkoje greičiau irsta ir jau po 20 minučių pradeda dauginti
America is on a verge now. How will be, what will be, when will be…The investments and the "so called Advisers…" went bad because for them Read More » ...
America is on a verge now. How will be, what will be, when will be…The investments and the "so called Advisers…" went bad because for them Read More » ...
Jika seseorang wanita mula mendapat jangkitan faraj pada usia 20 tahun, beliau akan menghabiskan masa selama 6 tahun dalam seumur hidupnya untuk mendapatkan rawatan.. Bagaimana jangkitan faraj yang boleh membawa kepada kanser pangkal rahim dan penyakit yang sewaktu dengannya boleh berlaku ...
Acid and alkaline balance - is a state where the relation between specific cations and anions in constitutional fluids is maintained, it determines...
We developed molecular models for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel based on the prokaryotic ABC transporter, Sav1866. Here we analyze predicted pore geometry and side-chain orientations for TM3, TM6, TM9, and TM12, with particular attention being paid to the location of the rate-limiting barrier for anion conduction. Side-chain orientations assayed by cysteine scanning were found to be from 77 to 90% in accord with model predictions. The predicted geometry of the anion conduction path was defined by a space-filling model of the pore and confirmed by visualizing the distribution of water molecules from a molecular dynamics simulation. The pore shape is that of an asymmetric hourglass, comprising a shallow outward-facing vestibule that tapers rapidly toward a narrow bottleneck linking the outer vestibule to a large inner cavity extending toward the cytoplasmic extent of the lipid bilayer. The junction between the outer vestibule and the bottleneck features an
TY - CHAP. T1 - Determination of lead, cations, and anions concentration in indoor and outdoor air at the primary schools in Kuala Lumpur. AU - Awang, Normah. AU - Jamaluddin, Farhana. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g-7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations.The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca2+ (39.51 ± 5.01mg/g-65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 - and SO4 2- were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of ...
Milk fever occurs in dairy cattle after calving because of low blood calcium levels as a result of calcium moving into milk. When the demand for calcium is greater than the supply in the blood, this can cause the problems of milk fever, unless the cow can rapidly mobilize stored calcium in her body (e.g. in bones) to offset the situation. A nutritional approach to managing milk fever involves monitoring specific elements in the diet.
Read "Tonoplast Anion Channel Activity Modulation by pH in Chara corallina, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Optical activity is directly related to molecular conformation through the anisotropic polarizabilities of molecules and the refractive index of materials. L-amino acids and D-sugars are characteristic essential bioactive molecules. Since molecular recognition and enzyme activity are related to the conformation of substrates, the relevance of optical activity to biological processes is evident. Specific ion, or Hofmeister, effects that occur with electrolytes at moderately high concentrations modify the behavior of interfaces, molecular forces between membranes, of bulk solutions, of enzymes, and even of DNA. Such effects are universal. Here we report a study on the change in optical rotation induced by some sodium salts for the enantiomers of serine and glucose in water solution. The optical rotation is shown to depend on the kind of anion and on the salt concentration. To obtain further insights into the mechanism behind the phenomenon, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral studies of ...
Aeroallergens produced by can elicit life-threatening exacerbations of asthma in patients sensitized to this fungus. In this study, the effect of on ion transport mechanisms underlying mucociliary clearance and airway epithelial barrier function was investigated in human airway epithelial cells. Apical exposure to induced an increase in anion secretion that was inhibited by blockers of CFTR and Ca-activated Cl channels. Stimulation of anion secretion was dependent on Ca uptake from the apical solution. exposure also produced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was blocked by pretreatment with the oxidant scavenger glutathione (GSH). GSH and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor/complex 1 electron transport inhibitor diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) blocked ATP release and the increase in intracellular [Ca] evoked by also decreased transepithelial resistance, and a portion of this effect was dependent on the increase in ROS. However, the -induced increase in unidirectional dextran ...
A new method is described for the elution of inorganic anions in open-tubular capillary electrochromatography (in which an anion-exchange stationary phase is adsorbed to the capillary wall) after preconcentration via ion-exchange interactions. The method utilises a transient isotachophoretic gradient, established using two electrolytes. The first contains a low mobility, weak ion-exchange competing anion, with the second containing a higher mobility strong ion-exchange competing anion. Analytes are adsorbed onto the stationary phase in the weakly eluting electrolyte, but are efficiently desorbed in the stronger eluting electrolyte. By selecting the appropriate mobilities and concentrations of the competing anions, it is possible to obtain highly efficient elution of the analytes from the concentrator column, resulting in a peak compression/focusing effect. The principle of this method for peak compression and elution from the column was demonstrated for iodide, which could be eluted as a peak of ...
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Ion channels in the plasma membrane of guard cells provide key mechanisms in signal perception and volume regulation during stomatal movement. Recent studies have suggested that the strongly voltage-dependent, inactivating guard cell anion channel (GCAC1) acts as a sensor of the ambient extracellular CO2 concentration and as a target of modulation by nucleotides and Ca2+ ions. Applying the patch-clamp technique it is demonstrated here that GCAC1 is activated by cytoplasmic ATP in a pH-dependent manner.. When the apoplastic pH was buffered to 5.6 and the cytosolic pH dropped step-wise from 7.8 to 5.6, the single-channel activity increased as a function of proton concentration. This pH-sensitivity is characterized by a titratable site with an apparent pK value around 6.9. While the steepness and direction of the transmembrane pH gradient did not affect the kinetics of activation, deactivation and fast inactivation of the whole-cell anion current, the kinetics of slow inactivation and reactivation ...
In this mini-review type of article, a brief summary of the anionic group approximation as it relates to the borate nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals, an idea firstly proposed by Professor Chen, is presented.The basic idea, calculation method, tabulated coefficients of various common borate, as well as nitrate or carbonate groups, in their ideal geometries will be presented. New practices reveal that those parameters can still give very accurate predicted NLO coefficients for recently found NLO crystals without any adjustment of parameters.
View Notes - Lab_3_-_TESTS_for_ANIONS_and_CATIONS from CHEM 111 at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College. Lab Experiment 3: Tests for Anions and Cations Table 1 Tests for Anions Anion Symbol Test
The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 Å resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic ...
Introduction. Investigation 1.1A Investigating for Cations and Anions In this experiment I will investigate what cations and anions are present in various compounds. This will include carrying out a qualitative analysis, because I need to find out what type of cations and anions are there and not quantitative analysis, which includes finding out how much of each element there is. Safety Points: * Wear glasses * Wear gloves * Do not mix more than two solutions * Only mix the solutions listed by the teacher * Handle the chemicals with extreme care * Put the chemical solutions into a test-tube which is resting on a test-tube holder * Follow school lab safety procedures. Materials: * Various chemicals. * Test tubes. * Boiling tubes. * Pipettes. * Test tube holder. * Bench mat. Method * I first copied the chemical solutions listed. * I put on some gloves and safety glasses. * I got a test-tube holder and placed five test-tubes in it. Cations * I added the test solutions Copper Chloride to the ...
Synonyms for anion in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for anion. 5 words related to anion: ion, hydroxide ion, hydroxyl ion, superoxide anion, superoxide. What are synonyms for anion?
Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Ailsa Craig) were grown in water culture in nutrient solution in a series of 10 increasing levels of nitrate nutrition. Using whole plant data derived from analytical and yield data of individual plant parts, the fate of anion charge arising from increased NO3 assimilation was followed in its distribution between organic anion accumulation in the plant and OH− efflux into the nutrient solution as calculated by excess anion over cation uptake. With increasing NO3 nutrition the bulk of the anion charge appeared as organic anion accumulation in the plants. OH− efflux at a maximum accounted for only 20% of the anion charge shift. The major organic anion accumulated in response to nitrate assimilation was malate. The increase in organic anion accumulation was paralleled by an increase in cation concentration (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+). Total inorganic anion levels (NO3−, SO42−, H2PO4−, Cl−) were relatively constant. The effect of increasing NO3 ...
To investigate the cellular mechanism responsible for the apical membrane Cl conductance in airway epithelia, we used the patch-clamp technique to study single ion channels in primary cultures of...
Mutagenesis of a number of different amino acid residues in the TM6 region of the CFTR pore alters permeation properties such as unitary conductance and anion binding (Anderson et al. 1991; Sheppard et al. 1993; Tabcharani et al. 1993; McDonough et al. 1994; Linsdell & Hanrahan, 1996; Linsdell et al. 1997b; Mansoura et al. 1998). In addition, the finding that amino acid side chains throughout and flanking TM6 line the aqueous lumen of the pore (Cheung & Akabas, 1996) supports a key role for this region in forming the permeation pathway for anions. Other membrane-spanning regions presumably also contribute to the pore (e.g. McDonough et al. 1994; Mansoura et al. 1998), although so far these regions have received less attention than TM6. We have shown that mutation of TM6 residue T338, the side chain of which does not appear to line the pore (Cheung & Akabas, 1996; see below), strongly affects the conductance and selectivity of the CFTR Cl− channel.. All amino acid substitutions carried out for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Folding and anion-binding properties of fluorescent oligoindole foldamers. AU - Kim, Uk Il. AU - Suk, Jae Min. AU - Naidu, Veluru Ramesh. AU - Jeong, Kyu-Sung. PY - 2008/12/19. Y1 - 2008/12/19. N2 - A series of oligoindole foldamers 1a-d that are highly fluorescent were prepared by using a biindole derivative as the repeating unit, and their folding and anion-binding properties were revealed by 1H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. The oligoindoles exist in an extended conformation, but adopt a compact helical structure in the presence of an anion. The anion is entrapped inside the tubular cavity of the helical strand, comprising four aryl units per turn, by multiple hydrogen bonds with the indole NHs. These structural features were confirmed by 1H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. When folded by anion binding, 1b-d show characteristic downfield shifts of the NH signals and upfield shifts of the aromatic CH signals by Δδ = 0.1-1.0 ppm. The average chemical shift for all the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metal-controlled reactivity of a pincer-type, σ-coordinated naphthyl radical anion. AU - Frech, Christian M.. AU - Ben-David, Yehoshoa. AU - Weiner, Lev. AU - Milstein, David. PY - 2006/6/7. Y1 - 2006/6/7. N2 - Reduction of the new, naphthalene-based pincer complex [(C10H5(CH2PiPr2)2)Rh(η1-N2)] with potassium metal gave the corresponding σ-coordinated naphthyl radical anion complex, with a ring-centered radical and no change in the formal metal oxidation state. This paramagnetic complex can be reoxidized to the diamagnetic one with [Cp2Fe][BF4], the structural integrity being retained. Unexpectedly, treatment of a THF solution of the reduced complex with water leads to the immediate evolution of dihydrogen, with reoxidation to the starting complex. This is in striking contrast with the well-known reactivity of the naphthide radical anion, which undergoes ring protonation by water to form 1,4-dihydronaphthalene and naphthalene in a 1:1 ratio.. AB - Reduction of the new, ...
We introduce bis-aryl croconamides as a new member in the family of dual hydrogen bonding anion receptors. In this study a series of croconamides are synthesised, and the selectivity for anion binding is investigated (Cl− | Br− | I− in CH2Cl2). The croconamides exhibit different structures in the crystal pha
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Method and apparatus for analysis, by ion chromatography, of anions, in a sample solution, wherein accurate analysis of anions in the sample solution is obtained by passing carbonic acid, through a prescribed membrane, into the sample solution, thereby completely eliminating or sharply lessening the so-called water dip effect. The method and apparatus are further directed to enabling anions in the sample solution to be accurately analyzed by passing prescribed cations, through a prescribed membrane, into the sample solution, thereby depriving the sample solution of interfering anions otherwise abundantly present therein.
We investigate the ionic conductivities, phase behaviors, conformational states, and interactions of three ionic liquids based on imidazolium cations and phosphonate anions with varying alkyl chain lengths. All three ionic liquids show high conductivities, with 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methyl-phosphonate [DiMIm(MeO)(H)- PO2] being the most conductive (7.3 x 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 298 K). The high ionic conductivities are a result of the low glass-transition temperatures, T-g, which do not change significantly upon changing the cation and/or anion size. However, there is a slight dependence of the temperature behavior of the conductivity on the size of the ions, as seen from the fragility parameter (D) obtained from fits, to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. The molecular-level structure and interactions of the phosphonate anions were examined by Raman spectroscopy and first-principles calculations: The calculations identify two stable conformations for the methyl- and ethyl-phosphonate anions by rotation
well water specialist - We carry to complete line of Purolite Anion resin Anion ion resins trade hydroxl or chloride for stronger anions in water such as bicarbonate tannnins and Sulfates Anion resin in the Chloride cl- form is used to balance pH by removing bicarbonate in
1FCJ: Identification of an allosteric anion-binding site on O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase: structure of the enzyme with chloride bound.
1FCJ: Identification of an allosteric anion-binding site on O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase: structure of the enzyme with chloride bound.
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Anion Exchange Buffers - posted in Protein Expression and Purification: Hello all, I am about to use our Anion Exchange Column to further purify my protein. We purified our protein using the His column, so it has 150mM NaCl, 150mM Immidizole and 20mM Tris. There are a few contaminating bands along with our eluted protein, so we are going to run it over our MonoQ column. My question is, I know that our protein will bind to the anion exchange column and...
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Magnesium-aluminum, hydrotalcite-type clay compositions containing large, pillaring organic, inorganic, and mixed organic/inorganic anions have been made and shown to demonstrate catalytic properties. Heating of the mixed large organic/inorganic anion hydrotalcite-type clays can lead to substantially complete removal of the organic anions and a route to making large, inorganic-anion, hydrotalcite-type clays with more open galleries.
A method of detecting lead contamination of a surface is disclosed. A handwipe issued to collect any lead contamination on the surface. The lead is solubilized with an aqueous acid solution and treated with rhodizonate or sulfide anions. A change in color from pink to red, where rhodizonate anions are used, or brown to black, where sulfide anions are used, is indicative of the presence of lead. Th
This is the general way to approach an acid-base disturbance. Theyre not really as bad as they seem at first. You just need to remember that CO2 is acidic and HCO3- is basic. So an increase in CO2 makes the body acidotic and an increase in HCO3- makes the body alkalotic.. Its also good to remember to calculate the anion gap when doing these calculations.. AG = Na - (Cl- + HCO3-) its just the cations minus the anions. If this gap between the cations and anions is large, it means that the anions are stacking their team and have an extra anion helping out. The classic mnemonic is MUDPILES. ...
Anionic liposomes and apolipoprotein B-100 targeted immunoliposomes as therapeutic agents for dyslipidemia and related diseases, and compositions and methods for preparing same.
A new distilbene compound, 4,4-dichloromercuric-2,2,2,2-bistilbene tetrasulfonic acid (DCMBT), has been synthesized for use in studies of anion and water transport in the human red cell. DCMBT combines features of both the specific stilbene anion transport inhibitor, DIDS, and the mercurial water transport inhibitor, pCMBS. This new compound inhibits anion transport almost completely with a Ki of 15 microM. DCMBT also inhibits water transport by about 15-20% with a Ki of about 8 microM. Treatment of red cells with DIDS inhibits the effect of DCMBT on water transport, suggesting that anion transport and water transport are mediated by the same protein ...
As Nate mentioned in a previous post, the urinary anion gap is helpful in differentiating whether a non-gap acidosis is of renal or extra-renal origin.. Urinary Anion Gap = Na + K - Cl. Because the major cation in the urine is NH4, this gives you a rough estimate of the NH4 level. In the setting of a distal RTA, the urine NH4 should be low and therefore there should be a positive anion gap. The problem with this test is that if there is some other unmeasured anion (e.g. ketoacids or hippurate following glue-sniffing) or even if the patients diet leads to significant changes in PO4 or SO4 excretion, it can be very inaccurate. One alternative suggested by Mitch Halperin is to measure the urinary osmolar gap. This is more useful because it detects the NH4 excretion regardless of the anion that is excreted along with it. Urine Osmolar Gap = measured Uosm - calculated Uosm. Calculated Uosm = 2(Na + K) + Urea (mmol) + Glucose (mmol). Because the other major cation in the urine is NH4 and this must be ...
Abstract: Reactions of the BH4- anion with equimolar amounts of HN(NO2)2 or of BH3*THF with K+[N(NO2)2]- produced a mono-substituted [BH3N(NO2)2]- anion which contains a B-N connected dinitramido ligand. The reaction of BH4- with two equivalents of HN(NO2)2 afforded the di-substituted borate anion consisting of two isomers, one with both nitramido ligands attached to B through N and the other one with one ligand attached through N and the other one through O. The disubstituted dinitramidoborates are marginally stable under ambient conditions, and the isomer with two N-connected ligands was characterized by its crystal structure. A tri-substituted borate was tentatively identified by NMR in the reaction of BH4- with a large excess of HN(NO2)2. All anions are highly energetic. Theoretical calculations show that the energy differences between the B-N and B-O tautomers are small, explaining the observed ease of ligand exchange.
Looking for the definition of ANION? Find out what is the full meaning of ANION on Abbreviations.com! The Webs largest and most authoritative acronyms and abbreviations resource.
... , as a new type of non-covalent interactions, have emerged since the beginning of this century. However, its existence was disputed in the supramolecular society due to lack of direct experimental evidence. To address this challenge, our research group has taken the unique electron-deficient macrocyclic hosts, tetraoxacalix[2]arene[2]triazines, as a probe and detailedly investigated their interactions with various anions. The success of this system provides the first experimental evidence for sole anion-π interactions with neutral organic receptors, both in solid states and in solution. Further studies have revealed the generality, binding strength and structure of such interactions, and built the basis for their applications in supramolecular assembly and catalysis. With this regard, our current interests are devoted to further disclosing the nature of anion-π interactions, the design and synthesis of novel electron-deficient π systems, the anion-π interactions driven ...
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An investigation of rat jejunal and distal colonic electrolyte transport in-vitro was undertaken using an Ussing chamber prepartion. Selective α2-adrenoceptor stimualtion in the jejunum was found to depress theo-phylline elevated anion secretion, as evidenced by decreases in short- circuit current (SCC). or α1 -Adrenoceptor stimulation, after α2 -adrenoceptor antagonism in the jejunum, evoked transient increases in basal anion secretion, as reflected by transient increases in basal SCC. The use of the neurotoxin tetrodotoxin indicated that this was a direct epithelial secretory effect. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) on the jejunum elicited transient increases in basal anion secretion, as demonstrated by transient increases in basal SCC. The use of tetrodotoxin, reserpine and α1 -adrenoceptor antagonists, indicated that a major component of this epithelial secretory effect by 5-HT, was associated with activation of intramural nervous pathways of the sympathetic nervous system, ultimately ...
A measure of the ability of a clay to adsorb or exchange anions; usually expressed in milliequivalents or anions per 100 g of dry clay. ACSG, 2 Source: Dictionary of Mining, Mineral, and Related Terms
Abstract: Standard flavors of density-functional theory (DFT) calculations are known to fail in describing anions, due to large self-interaction errors. The problem may be circumvented by using localized basis sets of reduced size, leaving no variational flexibility for the extra electron to delocalize. Alternatively, a recent approach exploiting DFT evaluations of total energies on electronic densities optimized at the Hartree-Fock (HF) level has been reported, showing that the self-interaction-free HF densities are able to lead to an improved description of the additional electron, returning affinities in close agreement with the experiments. Nonetheless, such an approach can fail when the HF densities are too inaccurate. Here, an alternative approach is presented, in which an embedding environment is used to stabilize the anion in a bound configuration. Similarly to the HF case, when computing total energies at the DFT level on these corrected densities, electron affinities in very good ...
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September 24th, 2015 - presented by the Bayliss lab. Furlow PW, Zhang S, Soong TD, Halberg N, Goodarzi H, Mangrum C, Wu YG, Elemento O, Tavazoie SF. 2015. Mechanosensitive pannexin-1 channels mediate microvascular metastatic cell survival. Nat Cell Biol. 17(7):943-52. (PMID: 26098574). April 30th, 2015 - presented by the Desai lab. Qiu Z, Dubin AE, Mathur J, Tu B, Reddy K, Miraglia LJ, Reinhardt J, Orth AP, Patapoutian A. 2014. SWELL1, a plasma membrane protein, is an essential component of volume-regulated anion channel. Cell. 157(2):447-58. (PMCID: PMC4023864). March 26th, 2015 - presented by the Leitinger lab. Multiple paper review. January 29th, 2015 - presented by the Isakson lab. Negoro H, Urban-Maidonado M, Liou LS, Spray DC, Thi MM, Suadicani SO. 2014. Pannexin 1 channels play essential roles in urothelial mechanotransduction and intercellular signaling. PLoS One. 9(8):e106269. (PMCID: PMC4149561). October 30th, 2014 - presented by the Ravichandran lab. Yamaguchi H, Maruyama T, Urade Y, ...
dThe synthesis and structural characterization of a novel series of deep-red mixed-valence (Mo-VI/Mo-V) compounds with nano-sized spherically shaped cluster anions containing 18, 40, or 54 Mo atoms, respectively, is reported: Na-10-[H4Mo18O56(CH3COO)(2)] x ca. 36 H2O x 3 CH3COOH (1), (NH4)(12)Na-12[Mo40O128] x ca. 70 H2O (2), (NH4)(12)Na-20[H-4-Mo54O168(CH3COO)(4)] x ca. 64 H2O (3), Na-32[H4Mo54O168(CH3COO)(4)] x ca. 128 H2O (4), and Na-32[H4Mo54O168(CH3COO)(4)] x ca. 98 H2O (S). Clusters 3, 4, and 5 differ in the packing of the rings in the lattice. The anions are easily formed by reduction of an acidified aqueous molybdate solution while the deliberately generated (MO2O42+)-O-V group - abundant in all clusters - has a directing influence on the formation of the preliminary building blocks. Furthermore, it is possible to control the ratio of the {Mo-2(V)} units to the Mo-VI centres by adjusting the specific concentration of the employed reducing agent ...
... provided by the Guangzhou Lubex Science Instrument Co. Ltd.,The Product Intro:This hydroxide-selective anion-exchange column is specifically designed for the determination of pho...
Macroporous weak base anion resins from Purolite have excellent mechanical, osmotic, and chemical stability, combined with the capability of very fast rates of ion exchange, making them particularly suitable for the removal of high molecular weight organic materials from aqeous solutions. The particle size range can also be specially designed to suit continuous process operation, or for operation at higher than average flow rates.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effects of inorganic anions on Fenton oxidation of organic species in landfill leachate. AU - Deng, Yang. AU - Rosario-Muniz, Edualberto. AU - Ma, Xingmao. PY - 2012/1/1. Y1 - 2012/1/1. N2 - Fenton oxidation typically achieves only a moderate removal efficiency of chemical oxidation demand (COD) in treatment of a landfill leachate, incomparable to some other chemical oxidation processes (e.g. electrochemical oxidation). A traditional viewpoint is that the remaining highly oxidized organic species become recalcitrant to hydroxyl radical (OH·)-induced oxidation at a higher degree of Fenton oxidation. Although this may, at least partially, be true, the effects of inorganic anions, which are abundant in leachate, on Fenton oxidation have been largely ignored. The objective of this study is to assess the roles of three inorganic anions (nitrate, sulfate, and chloride) originally present in or externally added to leachate during Fenton oxidation of refractory organic species in ...
Read "Interactions between Impermeant Blocking Ions in the Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Chloride Channel Pore: Evidence for Anion-Induced Conformational Changes, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The synthesis and anion binding properties of novel halogen-bonding (XB) bis-iodotriazole-pyridinium-containing acyclic and {[}2]catenane anion host systems are described. The XB acyclic receptor displays selectivity for acetate over halides with enhanced anion recognition properties compared to the analogous hydrogen-bonding (HB) acyclic receptor. A reversal in halide selectivity is observed in the XB {[}2]catenane, in comparison to the acyclic XB receptor, due to the interlocked hosts unique three-dimensional binding cavity, and no binding is observed for oxoanions. Notable halide anion association constant values determined for the {[}2]catenane in competitive organicaqueous solvent mixtures demonstrate considerable enhancement of anion recognition as compared to the HB catenane analogue. X-ray crystallographic analysis of a series of halide catenane complexes reveal strong XB interactions in the solid state. These interactions were studied using Cl and Br K-edge X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy ...
As essential media currently used in several technological applications, the accurate molecular level description of ionic liquids (ILs) at the gas-liquid interface is of utmost importance. The inherently surface-sensitive technique, sum frequency generation (SFG) spectroscopy, in combination with bulk-sensitive vibrational spectroscopic techniques such as FTIR and Raman, have been used in this report to characterize the surface of cyano-containing ILs, such as [BMIM][SCN], [BMIM][DCA], [BMIM][TCM], and [EMIM][TCB] at the gas-liquid interface. By structural variation of the anion while keeping the cation constant, emphasis on the molecular arrangement of the anion at the gas-liquid interface was reported. Vibrational modes seen in the C-H stretching region revealed the presence of the cation with an orientation independent of the type of anion. A similar arrangement at the surface as reported in previous studies was found. All three anions of varying symmetry, namely, [DCA]- (C2v), [TCM]-(D3h), ...
Looking for online definition of solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 in the Medical Dictionary? solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 explanation free. What is solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1? Meaning of solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 medical term. What does solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 2A1 mean?
When acidosis is present on blood tests, the first step in determining the cause is determining the anion gap. If the anion gap is high (>12 mEq/L), there are several potential causes. High anion gap metabolic acidosis is a form of metabolic acidosis characterized by a high anion gap (a medical value based on the concentrations of ions in a patients serum). An anion gap is usually considered to be high if it is over 12 mEq/L. High anion gap metabolic acidosis is caused generally by acid produced by the body,. More rarely, high anion gap metabolic acidosis may be caused by ingesting methanol or overdosing on aspirin. The Delta Ratio is a formula that can be used to assess elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis and to evaluate whether mixed acid base disorder (metabolic acidosis) is present. The list of agents that cause high anion gap metabolic acidosis is similar to but broader than the list of agents that cause a serum osmolal gap. Causes include: The newest mnemonic was proposed in The Lancet ...
Looking for online definition of solute carrier family 21 (organic anion transporter), member 9 in the Medical Dictionary? solute carrier family 21 (organic anion transporter), member 9 explanation free. What is solute carrier family 21 (organic anion transporter), member 9? Meaning of solute carrier family 21 (organic anion transporter), member 9 medical term. What does solute carrier family 21 (organic anion transporter), member 9 mean?
The structural proximity and functional coupling between the SR (sarcoplasmic reticulum) and mitochondria have been suggested to occur in the heart. However, themolecular architecture involved in the SR–mitochondrial coupling remains unclear. In the present study, we performed various genetic and Ca2+ -probing studies to resolve the proteins involved in the coupling process. By using the bacterial 2-hybrid, glutathione transferase pull-down, co-immunoprecipitation and immunocytochemistry assays, we found that RyR2 (ryanodine receptor type 2), which is physically associated with VDAC2 (voltage-dependent anion channel 2), was co-localized in SR–mitochondrial junctions. Furthermore, a fractionation study revealed that VDAC2 was co-localized with RyR2 only in the subsarcolemmal region. VDAC2 knockdown by targeted short hairpin RNA led to an increased diastolic [Ca2+ ] (calcium concentration) and abolishment of mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake. Collectively, the present study suggests that the ...

QIAGEN Anion-Exchange ResinQIAGEN Anion-Exchange Resin

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Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3 - DrugBankSolute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B3 - DrugBank

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UNOsphere Anion Exchange Resin | Life Science Research | Bio-RadUNOsphere Anion Exchange Resin | Life Science Research | Bio-Rad

Use UNOsphere strong anion exchange resin for efficient biopharmaceutical molecule capture from crude feedstreams. Polymer with ... Home>Life Science Research>Products>Chromatography>Chromatography Resins>Anion Exchange Resin,UNOsphere Anion Exchange Resin ... UNOsphere™ Q Anion Exchange Resin Product Information Sheet, Ver E. Click to download [ Add to Cart (Free) ] Check Out ... UNOsphere Q support is used for strong anion exchange chromatography. UNOsphere ion exchange resins are designed to meet the ...
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QIAGEN Anion-Exchange ResinQIAGEN Anion-Exchange Resin

... resource-center/qiagen anion-exchange resin/images/separation-of-nucleic-acids-at-neutral-ph-on-qiagen-anion-exchange-resin/, ... resource-center/qiagen anion-exchange resin/images/separation-of-nucleic-acids-at-neutral-ph-on-qiagen-anion-exchange-resin/, ... In contrast, conventional anion-exchangers, based on cellulose, dextran, or agarose, have separation ranges only up to 0.4 M ... The key advantage of QIAGEN anion-exchange resin arises from its exceptionally high charge density. The resin consists of ...
more infohttps://origin-www.qiagen.com/hu/service-and-support/learning-hub/technologies-and-research-topics/plasmid-resource-center/qiagen-anion-exchange-resin/

Voltage-dependent anion channels are dispensable for mitochondrial-dependent cell death. | MRC Mitochondrial Biology UnitVoltage-dependent anion channels are dispensable for mitochondrial-dependent cell death. | MRC Mitochondrial Biology Unit

Voltage-dependent anion channels are dispensable for mitochondrial-dependent cell death.. Title. Voltage-dependent anion ... Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1, Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2, Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels. ... Home Voltage-dependent anion channels are dispensable for mitochondrial-dependent cell death. ... is considered the mediator of this event and has been hypothesized to minimally consist of the voltage-dependent anion channel ...
more infohttp://www.mrc-mbu.cam.ac.uk/publications/2732/voltage-dependent-anion-channels-are-dispensable-mitochondrial-dependent-cell

Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: a molecular model defines the architecture of the anion conduction path...Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator: a molecular model defines the architecture of the anion conduction path...

The predicted geometry of the anion conduction path was defined by a space-filling model of the pore and confirmed by ... The predicted dimensions of the bottleneck are consistent with the demonstrated permeation of Cl(-), pseudohalide anions, water ... with particular attention being paid to the location of the rate-limiting barrier for anion conduction. Side-chain orientations ... The predicted geometry of the anion conduction path was defined by a space-filling model of the pore and confirmed by ...
more infohttps://www.neuroscience.ox.ac.uk/publications/322751

Removal of copper ions from electroplating waste water by weakly basic chelating anion exchange resins: Dowex 50 X 4, Dowex 50...Removal of copper ions from electroplating waste water by weakly basic chelating anion exchange resins: Dowex 50 X 4, Dowex 50...

The removal of copper from plating waste water by weakly basic chelating anion exchange resins, such as Dowex 50 x 4, Dowex 50 ... The removal of copper from plating waste water by weakly basic chelating anion exchange resins, such as Dowex 50 x 4, Dowex 50 ... Removal of copper ions from electroplating waste water by weakly basic chelating anion exchange resins: Dowex 50 X 4, Dowex 50 ... recovery of copper from plating waste effluent contains copper in the form of chelating anion. Ion exchange resins, such as ...
more infohttps://www.derpharmachemica.com/abstract/removal-of-copper-ions-from-electroplating-waste-water-by-weakly-basic-chelating-anion-exchange-resins-dowex-50-x-4-dowe-3852.html

Azolium-based systems: application of an anion exchange resin (A- form) method and 1H NMR analysis of the charged-assisted (C...Azolium-based systems: application of an anion exchange resin (A- form) method and 1H NMR analysis of the charged-assisted (C...

H)+·anion hydrogen bonds Author: Dinarès Milà, M. Immaculada; Mesquida Estévez, Ma. Neus; Ibáñez Jiménez, Anna; Alcalde Pais, ... anion exchange proceeded in excellent to quantitative yields, concomitantly removing halide impurities. Additionally, an anion ... H)+···anion hydrogen bonds of simple azolium systems such as 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium and 1-benzyl-3-methyl-1,2,3-triazolium ... A simple halide-to-anion exchange method for heteroaromatic salts and ionic liquids (Publication date: 2014-03-05) ...
more infohttp://www.recercat.cat/handle/2072/245591

Category:Anions - Wikimedia CommonsCategory:Anions - Wikimedia Commons

Media in category "Anions". The following 67 files are in this category, out of 67 total. ... Potassium-nitrosodisulfonate-anion-pair-from-xtal-3D-balls.png 1,100 × 1,047; 223 KB. ... Heptachlorodigallate-anion-from-Ga3Cl7-xtal-3D-balls.png 1,100 × 686; 151 KB. ... Potassium-nitrosodisulfonate-anion-from-xtal-3D-balls.png 1,100 × 925; 167 KB. ...
more infohttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/Category:Anions

Anions in Supramolecular Chemistry | SpringerLinkAnions in Supramolecular Chemistry | SpringerLink

Recent developments in the area of anion recognition and sensing have produced a variety of new selective receptors for anions. ... Gale P.A. (2004) Anions in Supramolecular Chemistry. In: Moyer B.A., Singh R.P. (eds) Fundamentals and Applications of Anion ... Recent developments in the area of anion recognition and sensing have produced a variety of new selective receptors for anions. ... Engl. 35, 1312-1315 (1996); Supramolecular Chemistry of Anions, A. Bianchi, K. Bowman-James, and E. García-España Eds., (WILEY- ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4419-8973-4_1

citrate anion (CHEBI:133748)citrate anion (CHEBI:133748)

... is a tricarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35753) citrate anion (CHEBI:133748) is conjugate base of ... citrate(1−) (CHEBI:35804) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). citrate(2−) (CHEBI:35808) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). ... citrate(3−) (CHEBI:16947) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). citrate(4−) (CHEBI:132362) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). ... CHEBI:133748 - citrate anion. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
more infohttps://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:133748

Al99 anionAl99 anion

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=B5616

Pb8I anionPb8I anion

The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
more infohttps://webbook.nist.gov/cgi/cbook.cgi?ID=B4814

Anion exchangeAnion exchange

Protein involved in the exchange of anions across a membrane. Anion exchange is a cellular transport function which contributes ... to the regulation of cell pH and volume by a functionally related anion exchanger protein family. ...
more infohttps://www.uniprot.org/keywords/KW-0039

Metal carbonyl anion | Britannica.comMetal carbonyl anion | Britannica.com

Metal carbonyl anions: More remarkable than the formation of zero-oxidation-state metal carbonyls is the reduction of many of ... these carbonyl compounds to metal carbonyl anions, in which the metal has a negative oxidation state. The following example ... Other articles where Metal carbonyl anion is discussed: organometallic compound: ... Metal carbonyl anion. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not currently have an article on this topic. ...
more infohttps://www.britannica.com/science/metal-carbonyl-anion

Mixed-Anion Phosphates | SpringerLinkMixed-Anion Phosphates | SpringerLink

Today more than 20 phosphates containing two kinds of phosphoric anions having different degrees of condensation are known. ... Ring Anion Mirror Plane Atomic Arrangement Phosphoric Anion Cesium Atom This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... and those for mixed-anion phosphates containing anions with higher degrees of condensation are given in Table 5.2. ... Today more than 20 phosphates containing two kinds of phosphoric anions having different degrees of condensation are known. ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-9894-4_5

monocarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35757)monocarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35757)

... is a carboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:29067) monocarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35757) is ... imidazolyl carboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:38466) is a monocarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35757). indol-3-yl carboxylic acid anion ( ... chlorophenoxyacetate anion (CHEBI:23151) is a monocarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35757). chlorophyllide a(2−) (CHEBI:83348) is a ... bile acid anion (CHEBI:36235) is a monocarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35757). biotinate (CHEBI:57586) is a monocarboxylic acid ...
more infohttp://www.ebi.ac.uk/chebi/searchId.do?chebiId=CHEBI:35757

Category:Anions - wikidocCategory:Anions - wikidoc

Pages in category "Anions". The following 31 pages are in this category, out of 31 total. ... Retrieved from "https://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Category:Anions&oldid=374827" ...
more infohttps://www.wikidoc.org/index.php?title=Category:Anions&mobileaction=toggle_view_mobile

Free Chemistry Flashcards about Anions-hardFree Chemistry Flashcards about Anions-hard

Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Anions-hard. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word scramble, ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-486403

Free Chemistry Flashcards about Anions+CationsFree Chemistry Flashcards about Anions+Cations

Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Monoatomic and polyatomic cations and anions. Other activities to help include ...
more infohttps://www.studystack.com/flashcard-797794

Oxy-Anion Stable Isotope ConsortiumOxy-Anion Stable Isotope Consortium

This compact fluorination line is equipped with a CO2 laser system (MIR-10, 25W) that floats above the sample chamber enabling the use of non-flexible tubing for lower blanks. Laser-heating (and fluorination) is controlled at the click of a mouse. This system can be used to extract oxygen from almost all non-carbonate oxygen bearing solids (e.g., silicates, oxides, phosphates, sulfates, etc.) for triple oxygen isotopic analysis ...
more infohttp://www.lsu.edu/science/geology/research_areas/oasic/facility.php

Electron Anions | Electron anions (center green blob) pair u… | FlickrElectron Anions | Electron anions (center green blob) pair u… | Flickr

Electron anions (center green blob) pair up in the center of molecular cages and lower the temperature at which glass forms in ... Electron Anions Electron anions (center green blob) pair up in the center of molecular cages and lower the temperature at which ...
more infohttps://www.flickr.com/photos/pnnl/29321087795/

Oxy-Anion Stable Isotope ConsortiumOxy-Anion Stable Isotope Consortium

Douglas I Benn, Guillaume Le Hir, Huiming Bao, Yannick Donnadieu, Christophe Dumas, Edward J Fleming, Michael J Hambrey, Emily A McMillan, Michael S Petronis, Gilles Ramstein, Carl TE Stevenson, Peter M Wynn, Ian J Fairchild, 2015. Orbitally forced ice sheet fluctuations during the Marinoan Snowball Earth glaciation, Nature Geoscience, V.8, p. 704-707 ...
more infohttps://www.lsu.edu/science/geology/research_areas/oasic/publications.php

Anion dictionary definition | anion definedAnion dictionary definition | anion defined

one that moves toward the anode during electrolysisOrigin of anioncoined by Michael Faraday from Classical Greek anion, thing ... Origin of anion. coined by Michael Faraday from Classical Greek anion, thing going up, neuter present participle of anienai, to ... Origin of anion. From Greek neuter present participle of anienai to go up ana- ana- ienai to go ; see ei- in Indo-European ... anion. an·i·on. a negatively charged ion, esp. one that moves toward the anode during electrolysis ...
more infohttps://www.yourdictionary.com/anion
  • In contrast, conventional anion-exchangers, based on cellulose, dextran, or agarose, have separation ranges only up to 0.4 M salt, so that binding and elution of all substances is limited to a narrow range of salt concentrations. (qiagen.com)
  • Recent developments in the area of anion recognition and sensing have produced a variety of new selective receptors for anions. (springer.com)
  • Anions are of great importance in the environment and health, thus it is no wonder that a great deal of research has been conducted to create synthetic receptors that can bind to various anions. (utexas.edu)
  • Calix[n]pyrroles (n ≥ 4) are venerable anion receptors that are based on single pyrroles and ketones as building blocks. (utexas.edu)
  • After protection of the hydroxyl group, cyanohydrins can function essentially as masked acyl anions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supramolecular Chemistry of Anions , A. Bianchi, K. Bowman-James, and E. García-España Eds. (springer.com)
  • Except in the case of the very few of them that have been prepared by classical reactions of aqueous chemistry, such as K 2 H 5 (PO 4 )(P 2 O 7 ) and K 2 H 8 (PO 4 )2(P 2 O 7 ), there are no rules for the chemical preparation of these mixed-anion phosphates. (springer.com)
  • The invention relates to the field of chemistry, and in particular to substituted and derivatized polyhedral borate and carborate anions and radicals useful in a variety of applications, for example, as weakly nucleophilic anions and/or as oxidizing agents. (google.com)
  • Utilization of conducting nanostructured polymers as well as choice of a suitable anion dopant type are among the key features of the research that has led to the accurate nanosensor which maintains favorable performance at low temperatures and offers a conveniently short response time," Sajjad Pirsa pointed out. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Substituted borate and carborate anions having unusual properties of being exceptionally weakly nucleophilic and being soluble in non-polar solvents. (google.com)
  • There has been a consistent effort to develop anions that are very weakly nucleophilic. (google.com)
  • None of the known weakly nucleophilic anions meet these criteria. (google.com)
  • Among the known anions displaying some of the above properties, certain deltahedral closo-carborate anions (CB 11 H 12 1- ) have been shown to be both weakly coordinating and weakly nucleophilic (Reed, C. A. et al. (google.com)
  • 3) Electron-poor aromatic compounds undergo nucleophilic aromatic substitution in the presence of nitrile anions. (wikipedia.org)
  • This chapter will discuss the efforts of our group and our collaborators in the areas of recognition and sensing of anionic species and of the roles of anions in assembly processes in solut ion and in the solid state. (springer.com)
  • SDS and other anionic detergents interfere with the binding of nucleic acids to QIAGEN resin by competing for binding to the anion-exchange groups. (qiagen.com)
  • OATs are multispecific organic anion transporters, the substrates of which include both endogenous (e.g. cyclic nucleotides, prostaglandins, urate, dicarboxylates) and exogenous anions (various anionic drugs and environmental substances). (nih.gov)
  • Also, anions are among the most pervasive of all known pollutants (e.g., nitrate, phosphate). (utexas.edu)
  • This application note shows the determination of phosphate, HEDP (etidronic acid) and pyrophosphate in a biocide sample using anion chromatography with conductivity detection after sequential suppression. (selectscience.net)
  • Although intermolecular arylations using nitrile anions result in modest yields, the intramolecular procedure efficiently gives four-, five-, and six-membered benzo-fused rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • More remarkable than the formation of zero-oxidation-state metal carbonyls is the reduction of many of these carbonyl compounds to metal carbonyl anions, in which the metal has a negative oxidation state. (britannica.com)
  • In contrast, conventional anion-exchangers, based on cellulose, dextran, or agarose, have separation ranges only up to 0.4 M salt, so that binding and elution of all substances is limited to a narrow range of salt concentrations. (qiagen.com)
  • Thus, the separation and purification qualities of QIAGEN resin, as well as its ease of use surpass those of conventional anion-exchange resins. (qiagen.com)
  • Anions are important species in the natural world and are critically involved in almost the full range of known chemical process. (utexas.edu)
  • concentrations of the nitrile anion must be high to mitigate processes involving self-condensation, such as the Thorpe-Ziegler reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Use a strong anion-exchange column with the Thermo Scientific™ DNASwift™ SAX-1S Oligonucleotide Column that provides exceptionally high resolution for the purification of oligonucleotides. (fishersci.com)
  • The key advantage of QIAGEN anion-exchange resin arises from its exceptionally high charge density. (qiagen.com)
  • Handbook of Anion Determination is a guidebook that details various methods that can be employed in determining anions. (worldcat.org)
  • The mechanisms of reactions involving nitrile anions depend primarily on the nature of the electrophile involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nitrile anions can also be involved in Michael-type additions to activated double bonds and vinylation reactions with a limited number of polarized, unhindered acetylene derivatives. (wikipedia.org)
  • The major problem associated with alkylation reactions employing nitrile anions is over-alkylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • These intermediates almost always react with α selectitivity in alkylation reactions, the exception to the rule being anions of ortho-tolyl nitriles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The primary difficulty for alkylation reactions employing nitrile anions is over-alkylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proven, patented technology and safe natural ingredients,with its 7 layers of protection and the power of Anion technology,our Napkins offer dry, breathable and superior comfort during those times of the month. (authorstream.com)
  • IR spectroscopy studies have demonstrated the existence of at least two tautomeric forms of the nitrile anion (see above). (wikipedia.org)
  • Aryl phosphates and ammoniums react through the SRN1 pathway, which involves the generation of an aryl radical anion, fragmentation, and bond formation with a nucleophile. (wikipedia.org)
  • 4) Conjugated nitriles containing γ hydrogens may be deprotonated at the γ position to give vinylogous anions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A tricarboxylic acid anion obtained by deprotonation of at least one of the carboxy groups of citric acid. (ebi.ac.uk)