Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Voltage-dependent anion channel 2 is a low abundance mammalian isoform of VDAC that interacts with the inactive form of BAK PROTEIN.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Bicarbonate transporters that move BICARBONATE IONS in exchange of CHLORIDE IONS or SODIUM IONS across membranes. They regulate acid-base HOMEOSTASIS, cell volume and intracellular pH. Members include CHLORIDE-BICARBONATE ANTIPORTERS (SLC4A1, 2, 3, and 9); SODIUM-COUPLED BICARBONATE TRANSPORTERS (SLC4A4 and 5, 7, 8 and 10); and a sodium borate cotransporter (SLC4A11 protein).
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
An organic anion transporter found in human liver. It is capable of transporting a variety organic anions and mediates sodium-independent uptake of bile in the liver.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).

The stimulatory effects of Hofmeister ions on the activities of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase. Apparent substrate inhibition by l-arginine is overcome in the presence of protein-destabilizing agents. (1/2355)

A variety of monovalent anions and cations were effective in stimulating both calcium ion/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM)-independent NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity of, and Ca2+/CaM-dependent nitric oxide (NO.) synthesis by, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The efficacy of the ions in stimulating both activities could be correlated, in general, with their efficacy in precipitating or stabilizing certain proteins, an order referred to as the Hofmeister ion series. In the hemoglobin capture assay, used for measurement of NO. production, apparent substrate inhibition by L-arginine was almost completely reversed by the addition of sodium perchlorate (NaClO4), one of the more effective protein-destabilizing agents tested. Examination of this phenomenon by the assay of L-arginine conversion to L-citrulline revealed that the stimulatory effect of NaClO4 on the reaction was observed only in the presence of oxyhemoglobin or superoxide anion (generated by xanthine and xanthine oxidase), both scavengers of NO. Spectrophotometric examination of nNOS revealed that the addition of NaClO4 and a superoxide-generating system, but neither alone, prevented the increase of heme absorption at 436 nm, which has been attributed to the nitrosyl complex. The data are consistent with the release of autoinhibitory NO. coordinated to the prosthetic group of nNOS, which, in conjunction with an NO. scavenger, causes stimulation of the reaction.  (+info)

Reactivity of cyanate with valine-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin. A probe of conformational change and anion binding. (2/2355)

The 3-fold increase in the carbamylation rate of Val-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin upon deoxygenation described earlier is now shown to be a sensitive probe of conformational change. Thus, whereas this residue in methemoglobin A is carbamylated at the same rate as in liganded hemoglobin, upon addition of inositol hexaphosphate its carbamylation rate is enhanced 30% as much as the total change in the rate between the CO and deoxy states. For CO-hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of the organic phosphate, the relative increase in the carbamylation rate of this residue is about 50%. These results indicate that methemoglobin A and hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of inositol hexaphosphate do not assume a conformation identical with deoxyhemoglobin but rather form either a mixture of R and T states or an intermediate conformation in the region around Val-1 (alpha). Studies on the mechanism for the rate enhancement in deoxyhemoglobin suggest that the cyanate anion binds to groups in the vicinity of Val-1 (alpha) prior to proton transfer and carbamylation of this NH2-terminal residue. Thus, specific removal with carboxypeptidase B of Arg-141 (alpha), which is close to Val-1 (alpha) in deoxyhemoglobin, abolishes the enhancement in carbamylation. Chloride, which has the same valency as cyanate, is a better competitive inhibitor of the carbamylation of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 50 mM) compared with liganded hemoglobin. Nitrate and iodide are also effective inhibitors of the carbamylation of Val-1 (alpha) of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 35 mM); inorganic phosphate, sulfate, and fluoride are poor competitive inhibitors. The change in pKa of Val-1 (alpha) upon deoxygenation may be due to its differential interaction with chloride.  (+info)

Distinct sensitivities of OmpF and PhoE porins to charged modulators. (3/2355)

The inhibition of the anion-selective PhoE porin by ATP and of the cation-selective OmpF porin by polyamines has been previously documented. In the present study, we have extended the comparison of the inhibitor-porin pairs by investigating the effect of anions (ATP and aspartate) and positively charged polyamines (spermine and cadaverine) on both OmpF and PhoE with the patch-clamp technique, and by comparing directly the gating kinetics of the channels modulated by their respective substrates. The novel findings reported here are (1) that the activity of PhoE is completely unaffected by polyamines, and (2) that the kinetic changes induced by ATP on PhoE or polyamines on OmpF suggest different mechanisms of inhibition. ATP induces a high degree of flickering in the PhoE-mediated current and appears to behave as a blocker of ion flow during its presumed transport through PhoE. Polyamines modulate the kinetics of openings and closings of OmpF, in addition to promoting a blocker-like flickering activity. The strong correlation between sensitivity to inhibitors and ion selectivity suggests that some common molecular determinants are involved in these two properties and is in agreement with the hypothesis that polyamines bind inside the pore of cationic porins.  (+info)

Regulation of a volume-sensitive anion channel in rat pancreatic beta-cells by intracellular adenine nucleotides. (4/2355)

1. The patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration was used to measure the effects of intracellular adenine nucleotides on activity of the volume-sensitive anion channel in single, isolated rat pancreatic beta-cells. 2. In the absence of intracellular nucleotides, swelling of cells with a hypertonic pipette solution failed to activate the conductance. Addition of ATP over the range 2-10 mM maintaining the same degree of hypertonicity caused a progressive activation of the conductance. An increase in ATP produced a similar activation of the conductance in non-swollen cells, albeit with reduced current amplitudes. 3. Activation of the conductance was also observed in the presence of ATPgammaS, adenylyl imidophosphate (AMP-PNP), ADP, diadenosine tetraphosphate and GTPgammaS. Neither ADP nor GDPbetaS inhibited activation of the conductance by ATP. 4. It is concluded that activity of the beta-cell volume-sensitive anion channel can be modulated by changes in intracellular concentrations of ATP within the physiological concentration range by a mechanism that does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Activity of the channel does not appear to be modulated by a G protein-coupled mechanism.  (+info)

Phospholipid-subclass-specific partitioning of lipophilic ions in membrane-water systems. (5/2355)

Herein, we systematically investigate phospholipid-subclass-specific alterations in the partitioning of both cationic and anionic amphiphiles to identify the importance of ester, ether and vinyl ether linkages at the sn-1 position of phospholipids in the partitioning of charged amphiphiles. The results demonstrated that the membrane-water partition coefficient of a prototypic cationic amphiphile (i.e. 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide) was approximately 2.5 times higher in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine in comparison with membranes comprised of either phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. In striking contrast, the membrane-water partition coefficient of a prototypic anionic amphiphile [i.e. bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol] in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine was approximately 2.5 times lower than that manifest in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. Utilizing theseexperimentally determined partition coefficients,the relative membrane dipole potential of membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine was calculated and found to be approximately 25 mV lower than in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. This lower membrane dipole potential in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine is equivalent to the membrane potential induced by incorporation of approximately 25 mol% of anionic phospholipids in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine. Collectively, these results demonstrate that phospholipid-subclass-specific differences in the membrane dipole potential contribute to alterations in the partitioning of lipophilic ions in membrane bilayers comprised of distinct phospholipid subclasses. Moreover, they suggest that these physicochemical differences can be exploited to facilitate the targeting of charged lipophilic drugs to specific cells and subcellular membrane compartments.  (+info)

Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum. (6/2355)

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

Anion efflux from cytotrophoblast cells derived from normal term human placenta is stimulated by hyposmotic challenge and extracellular A23187 but not by membrane-soluble cAMP. (7/2355)

The regulation of placental anion transport influences fetal accretion and placental homeostasis. We investigated whether efflux of 125I- or 36Cl- from multinucleated cytotrophoblast cells derived from human term placenta is regulated by one of three stimuli: (a) the calcium ionophore A23187, (b) a 'cocktail' of agents designed to raise intracellular levels of cAMP, (c) a hyposmotic solution. After loading with the appropriate isotope for 2 h and thorough washing, cells were exposed to sequential aliquots of buffer applied and removed each minute. Following an equilibration period of 5 min one of the stimuli was applied at room temperature At the end of the experiment the cells were lysed to give a lysate count which was used to express the count obtained from each aliquot as percentage efflux of that possible for that minute. The cAMP 'cocktail' and A23187 were applied for 5 min; the hyposmotic solution was applied for 10 min. The results for 125I- at 7 min showed that the mean efflux in the presence of hyposmotic shock was greater than control (5.7 +/- 1.0% min-1 versus 2.2 +/- 0.1% min-1, respectively; mean +/- S.E.M., n = 4 placentas). Similarly mean efflux at 6 min in the presence of A23187 was also significantly greater than control (6.5 +/- 1.9% min-1 versus 2.6 +/- 1.0% min-1, respectively, n = 3 placentas). The mean efflux in the presence of the cAMP cocktail was not different from control at any time point. The results were qualitatively the same if 36Cl- was used in the place of 125I- and when the experiment was performed with 36Cl- in a HCO3- buffer gassed with CO2. Mean 125I- efflux at 6 min in response to hyposmotic challenge was 33% less (P < 0.01) in the presence of 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and 37% less (P < 0.005) in the presence of 10 microM tamoxifen but no different if the hyposmotic solution was nominally calcium free. We conclude that there are differential effects of second messengers on anion efflux from the differentiated cytotrophoblast cells.  (+info)

Thermodynamic studies on anion binding to apotransferrin and to recombinant transferrin N-lobe half molecules. (8/2355)

Equilibrium constants for the binding of anions to apotransferrin, to the recombinant N-lobe half transferrin molecule (Tf/2N), and to a series of mutants of Tf/2N have been determined by difference UV titrations of samples in 0.1 M Hepes buffer at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C. The anions included in this study are phosphate, sulfate, bicarbonate, pyrophosphate, methylenediphosphonic acid, and ethylenediphosphonic acid. There are no significant differences between anion binding to Tf/2N and anion binding to the N-lobe of apotransferrin. The binding of simple anions like phosphate appears to be essentially equivalent for the two apotransferrin binding sites. The binding of pyrophosphate and the diphosphonates is inequivalent, and the studies on the recombinant Tf/2N show that the stronger binding is associated with the N-terminal site. Anion binding constants for phosphate, pyrophosphate, and the diphosphonates with the N-lobe mutants K206A, K296A, and R124A have been determined. Anion binding tends to be weakest for the K296A mutant, but the variation in log K values among the three mutants is surprisingly small. It appears that the side chains of K206, K296, and R124 all make comparable contributions to anion binding. There are significant variations in the intensities of the peaks in the difference UV spectra that are generated by the titrations of the mutant apoproteins with these anions. These differences appear to be related more to variations in the molar extinction coefficients of the anion-protein complexes rather than to differences in binding constants.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Anion effects on Cu-benzotriazole film formation. AU - Stewart, Karen L.. AU - Zhang, Jian. AU - Li, Shoutian. AU - Carter, Phillip W.. AU - Gewirth, Andrew A. PY - 2007/1/1. Y1 - 2007/1/1. N2 - We examine the effect of different anions in solutions containing benzotriazole (BTA) on the Cu removal rate during chemical mechanical planarization (CMP). In solutions containing both Cl- and BTA, the Cu removal rate is nearly a factor of twenty lower than in solutions containing either Cl- or BTA alone. As-grown BTA films from solutions containing different anions are characterized using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and open-circuit-potential measurements. Films grown from halide-containing solutions are found to be considerably thicker than those grown from other anions. The difference in Cu removal rate correlates well with the different as-grown film thicknesses.. AB - We examine the effect of different anions in solutions containing ...
Catalysis of the transfer of a solute or solutes from one side of a membrane to the other according to the reaction: inorganic anion A(out) + inorganic anion B(in) = inorganic anion A(in) + inorganic anion B(out).
Find all books from Novartis Foundation - Epithelial Anion Transport in Health and Disease. At you can find used, antique and new books, COMPARE results and immediately PURCHASE your selection at the best price. 9780470029565
The conformational preorganization and anion-induced conformational changes of indole-based receptors functionalized with an amide group at the 2-position and a variety of amide, urea and thiourea moieties at the 7-position have been studied by the means of NMR spectroscopy. NOE experiments showed that anti-anti orientation across C2-C2 and C7-N7 bonds is preferred for receptors 1-4 in acetone solution in the absence of anions. Anion-receptor interactions have been evaluated through 1H and 15N chemical shift changes. In 2,7-bis-carboxamido functionalized indoles the interaction with chloride and bromide anions primarily occurs at the indole H1 proton. The introduction of urea and thiourea moieties increases the number of hydrogen bond donor sites which manifests itself in a distribution of halide-receptor interactions among the H1, H7 and H7 protons. Acetate anions also interact strongly with indole and urea NH donor groups, whereas nitrate anions interact solely with H7 and H7 urea/thiourea ...
1 Oktober 2010 : Pemisahan anion Tujuan : Siswa mampu memahami prosedur identifikasi anion dengan baik dan benar Siswa mampu melaksanakn setiap proses yang terjadi pada analisis kualitatif anion Dapat melaksanakan prosedur analisis dan membuat kesimpulan dari hasil analisis yang diperoleh Siswa dapat mengidentifikasi sampel apakah terdapat anion Dasar teori : Analisa anion adalah analisa yang bertujuan untuk menganalisa adanya ion dalam sampel. Sedangkan analisa kualitatif dilakukan untuk mengetahui jenis unsur atau ion yang terdapat dalam suatu sampel. Jadi, analisa anion secara kualitatif merupakan analisa yang dilakukan untuk mengetahui adanya anion serta jenis anion apa saja yang terdapat dalam suatu sampel. Anion merupakan ion bermuatan negtif. Dalam analisa anion dikenal adanya analisa pendahuluan yang meliputi analisa kering dan analisa basah. Analisa kering meliputi pemeriksaan organoleptis (warna, bau, rasa) dan pemanasan. Analisa basah adalah analisa dengan melarutkan zat-zat dalam ...
In the fall of 2010, American Crystal Sugar Companys (ACSC) Hillsboro (HLB) sugarbeet processing plant experienced issues with large quantities of oxalate scale being captured in their standard liquor strainers during the processing of extract from their molasses desugarization plant. The initial culprit was thought to be incomplete elimination of oxalate in carbonation. This paper discusses a comparative study of anion elimination across carbonation undertaken at ACSCs five processing plants in response to the problem. We found that HLBs carbonation system met or exceeded the average elimination of oxalate and other anions measured at the other four factories. We were… Login to continue. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fine granular cationic colloid(Fe-Cac-f)as a tool for histochemicsl staining of tissue anionic groups.. AU - Ono, Toshirou. PY - 1984. Y1 - 1984. M3 - Article. VL - 6. SP - 27. EP - 34. JO - Shigei Medical Journal. JF - Shigei Medical Journal. ER - ...
It says in the textbook that anionic ligands that end in -ide, -ate, -ite change their endings to -ido, -ato, ito respectively. I dont think this was covered in class; is this something different? When do we use this for ...
Negatively charged ions - also known as anions - are important atomic components of air particles. Because every living thing in the world is related to them, the presence of anions in the air is as important as the presence of vitamins in our diet.. Anions are essential for our body. Thanks to their negative charge, they neutralize positively charged viruses and render bacteria harmless. The higher the anion content of the atmosphere, the less harmful substances it contains.. Upon contact of the anion strip with the liquid, it emits negatively charged particles. These ions are able to inhibit the growth of bacteria, thereby reducing the development of vaginal infections. ...
Consideration of transfer ratios in the optimisation of indirect absorption detection for small inorganic anions in ion chromatography and capillary electrophoresis
Except cations, any electrolyte consists of anions. So, the analysis of salts, acids, natural waters and industrial solutions will be incomplete, without identification of anions. Anions are divided into three (3) analytical groups (as it is shown in the table 7.1). First group contains such anions that form insoluble barium salts. Second group contains anions, that form precipitates with
Single channel currents though apical membrane Cl channels of the secretory epithelial cell line T84 were measured to determine the anionic selectivity and conc
D4327 - 17 Standard Test Method for Anions in Water by Suppressed Ion Chromatography , anions, drinking water, ion chromatography, reagent water, wastewater,,
Definition of anion exchange in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is anion exchange? Meaning of anion exchange as a legal term. What does anion exchange mean in law?
TY - JOUR. T1 - A Cyclic Hexacopper (II) fluoro Complex that Encapsulates Two Flouride Anions. AU - McLaughlin, Abbie. AU - Liu, X.. AU - De Miranda, M. P.. AU - McInnes, A. J. L.. AU - Kilner, C. A.. AU - Halcrow, M. A.. PY - 2002. Y1 - 2002. N2 - The complex [{Cu-3(Hpz(tBu))(4)(mu-pz(tBu))(2)(mu-F)(2)(mu(3)-F)}(2)]F-2 (Hpz(tBu) = 3{5}-tert-butylpyrazole) has a cyclic, C-2v-symmetric hexacopper core. The two non-coordinated F- anions are encapsulated within cavities formed by three Hpz(tBu) ligands.. AB - The complex [{Cu-3(Hpz(tBu))(4)(mu-pz(tBu))(2)(mu-F)(2)(mu(3)-F)}(2)]F-2 (Hpz(tBu) = 3{5}-tert-butylpyrazole) has a cyclic, C-2v-symmetric hexacopper core. The two non-coordinated F- anions are encapsulated within cavities formed by three Hpz(tBu) ligands.. KW - MAGNETIC-PROPERTIES. KW - LIGANDS. KW - CRYSTAL. KW - DIMERS. U2 - 10.1039/b207923m. DO - 10.1039/b207923m. M3 - Article. SP - 2978. EP - 2979. JO - Chemical Communications. JF - Chemical Communications. SN - 1359-7345. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Fragmentation of aluminum-cluster anions in collision with a solid surface. AU - Terasaki, A.. AU - Tsukuda, T.. AU - Yasumatsu, H.. AU - Sugai, T.. AU - Kondow, T.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - Dynamical processes involved in the scattering of aluminum-cluster anions, AlN- (4 ≤ N ≤ 25), from a silicon surface were investigated. The scattered anions observed were fragment cluster anions, Aln- (n ≤ N). The recoil velocities of these fragment anions were evaluated by analyzing both the angular dependence of their intensity and the collision-energy dependence of their time-of-flight. The recoil energy of each fragment anion thus obtained suggests that the fragmentation process involves not only sequential evaporation of aluminum atoms but also fission into fragment clusters. Comparison of the present result with that of the collision-induced dissociation with a rare-gas atom indicates that the electron transfer between the cluster and the surface plays an important ...
Tetrachlorodecaoxygen anion is used in the treatment of infections.get complete information about tetrachlorodecaoxygen anion including usage, side effects, drug interaction, expert advice along with medicines associated with tetrachlorodecaoxygen anion at
TY - JOUR. T1 - Stabilization of the adenine covalent anion by micro-hydration. T2 - Theoretical study. AU - Nugent, Michael L.. AU - Adamowicz, Ludwik. PY - 2005/6/1. Y1 - 2005/6/1. N2 - The Rydberg electron-transfer spectroscopy (RET) experiment [V. Periquet, A. Moreau, S. Carles, J.P. Schermann, C. Desfrançois, J. Electron. Spectrosc. Relat. Phenom., 106, 141 (2000)] showed that only after solvation by two water molecules the adenine molecule can form a stable covalent anion. Anions of adenine-water complexes containing different numbers of water molecules (A · Wn, n = 1-4) are investigated in this work with the use of quantum mechanical ab initio calculations. The calculations are used to determine the change of stability of the adenine covalent anion as the number of water molecules in the solvation shell increases. The analysis of the anion electron density is used to describe the localization of the excess electron in the A · Wn complexes.. AB - The Rydberg electron-transfer ...
Jianmingxi Anion Therapy Machine, Jianmingxi provides price consultation for anion therapist, high quality anion therapy machine manufacturer / wholesale manufacturer-Guangzhou Jianmingxi Medical Instrument Co., Ltd. Anion Therapy Consultation Hotline 400-716-2350
Current work is focused on applications of LDP to catalyst optimization in a variety of different areas. Selected references on this topic from our group:. Weakly Coordinating yet Ion Paired: Anion Effects on an Internal Rearrangement, Billow, B. S.; McDaniel, T. J.; Odom, A. L.; Nat. Chem., 2017, 9, 837. Link. Weakly Coordinating yet Ion Paired: Anion Effects on an Internal Rearrangement, Aldrich, K. E.; Billow, B. S.; Holmes, D.; Bemowski, R. D.; Odom, A. L.; Organometallics, 2017, 36 1227. Link. A Complex with Nitrogen Single, Double, and Triple Bonds to the Same Chromium Atom: Synthesis, Structure, and Reactivity, Beaumier, E. P.; Billow, B. S.; Singh, A. K.; Biros, S. M.; Odom, A. L.; Chem. Sci., 2016, 7, 2532. Link. Synthesis and Structure of Chromium(VI) Nitrido Cyclopentadienyl Complexes, Billow, B. S.; Bemowski, R. D.;DiFranco, S. A.; Staples, R. J.; Odom, A. L.; Organometallics, 2015, 34, 4567. Link. Effective donor abilities of E-t-Bu and EPh (E = O, S, Se, Te) to a high ...
Cation and Anion are inverse terms in science and represent the two primary sorts of particles framed. A particle is a condition of issue upon the misfortune or increase of electron contrasted with its real state. You will get here the difference between Cation and Anion. Here Also available Cation VS Anion table, definition and […]. ...
P. N. Nesterenko, M. A. Rybalko Mendeleev Commun. 2004 The continuous flow gradient and its effect on chromatographic parameters were investigated for
An electroplating apparatus and method reduces oxidation of thermodynamically unstable and oxidizable ionic species in an electroplating solution to deposit complex magnetic alloy onto substrates. The electroplating apparatus comprises an electroplating cell (30) in which oxidation of oxidizable anions and cations is reduced. The cell comprises an anode compartment (110) with anolyte solution in contact with the anode (55), a cathode compartment (105) with catholyte solution containing oxidizable plating anions in contact with the cathode (50). A cation selective membrane (100) separates the electrode compartments. Upon application of a voltage or power supply (90) across the anode and cathode, the transport of oxidizable plating anions and to a lesser degree cations, to the anode is substantially blocked by the cation-selective semi-permeable membrane, thereby reducing oxidation of the oxidizable anions and cations at the anode. The concentration of the anolyte and catholyte solutions can be
I also found that information on the internet about placing the anionic ligand before the neutral ligand in the chemical formula, but the some of the answers in the book, for example for 31d, had the neutral ligand go before the anionic ligand, so what is real ...
Positively charged cations and negatively charged anions attract one another. Conversely, cations repel one another as do anions.. Electrostatic attraction is indiscriminate. That is a cation can attract more than one anion and visa versa. The result is that cation-anions attractions form a large array that we call an ionic compound or salt. The bonds holding these ions together are called ionic bonds. However, this array has a very specific composition completely dictated by the charges on the cations and anions.. Formulas of ionic compounds:. The composition of ionic compounds is determined by the requirement that the compounds must be electrically neutral. That is that the charges of the cations and anions must balance or cancel out one another. For example consider sodium cations (Na+) and Chlorine anions (Cl ). Sodium has a positive 1 charge and chloride has a negative 1 charge. Thus one sodium cation cancels one chloride anion (+1 + 1 = 0) resulting in the formula Na1Cl1 or NaCl. ...
What type of coordination would you expect when (1)all the tetrahedral holes in an fcc structure of anions are occupied by cations, (2) half of the tetrahedral holes in an fcc structure of anions are occupied by cations and (3) all the octahedral holes of an fcc ...
The spectra of KClO4/DMSO electrolytes are depicted in Fig. 3A. The characteristic spectrum of KClO4 reported elsewhere was readily obtained (62). The broad ClO4− peak centered around 1,080 cm−1 was observed to split into peaks 1,095 and 1,045 cm−1 with the peak at 1,045 cm−1 being subsumed by the DMSO νSS at 1,050 cm−1. At higher salt concentrations, the shoulder to the right of the νSS peak was found to merge into the overall peak due to the contribution of the salt anion peak. The second prominent ClO4− peak centered at 625 cm−1 displayed 2 interesting characteristics. First, the peak shifted slightly to 620 cm−1 in the electrolyte (1 M) indicating a degree of anion coordination with the K+ ions, perhaps forming K+-(DMSO)n-ClO4−. However, the relatively small shift coupled with the fact that the peak intensity at 620 cm−1 was about a fourth of the intensity measured with the salt itself indicated that the ClO4− anions were solvated by DMSO. Thus, the electrolyte ...
I accidentally erased your post on the hydrolysis of various anions. The answer is Kb(for the anion) = (Kw/Ka for the Ka for the acid) where Ka will be Ka for monoprotic acids, k2 for diprotic acids, or k3 for triprotic acids So to ...
Enantiopure A4L4 tetrahedral cages (either ΔΔΔΔ or ΛΛΛΛ) were obtained through the anion-coordination-driven assembly (ACDA) of phosphate anions with C3-symmetric tris-bis(urea) ligands bearing chiral groups.
Machtens, J. P.; Kortzak, D.; Lansche, C.; Leinenweber, A.; Kilian, P.; Begemann, B.; Zachariae, U.; Ewers, D.; de Groot, B. L.; Briones, R. et al.; Fahlke, C.: Mechanisms of anion conduction by coupled glutamate transporters. Cell 160 (3), pp. 542 - 553 (2015 ...
Chapter 07: Chapter 7 of Chemistry Lab Manual (EN) book - UNIT-7 SYSTEMATIC QUALITATIVE ANALYSIS ANALYSIS always does not mean breaking of substance into its ultimate constituents. Finding out the nature of substance and identity of its constituents is also analysis and is known as qualitative analysis. Qualitative analysis of inorganic salts means the identification of cations and anions present in the salt or a ...
Are you having trouble balancing the dietary cation anion difference for your dairy cows? Then it is important to find a solution to this problem as soon as possible. An imbalance between cations and anions can for instance lead to calcium deficiency in your dairy cows. This results in a fatal condition known as milk fever. Of course, you do not want to lose your livestock. Thankfully you can prevent this condition by providing them with a balanced diet. One way to do this is by supplementing their Read more [...] ...
Cations are positively charged ions and anions are negatively charged ions. Metals act as cations and willingly give up or donate electrons to nonmetals. Nonmetals act as anions and accept donated...
Higieniniai paketai Gentle Day Far-IR Anion. Ekologiški, dieniniai higieniniai paketai. Gentle Day Far-IR Anion higieniniai paketai gera kaina, dažna akcija.
The Synchropak AX300 column has been used to separate a wide range of anions. A standard solution containing F−, Cl−, NO2−, NO3−, HPO42−, SO42−ions can be analysed in 8-14 minutes using a phthalate...
eng] Several sandwich complexes of hexafluorobenzene, trifluorobenzene, s-triazine, and trifluoro-s-triazine with halides, nitrate, and carbonate anions have been optimized at the RI-MP2/6-31++G** (full and frozen core), B3LYP/6-31++G**, and MPWB1K/6-31++G** levels of theory. All possible combinations of the π-systems and anions (to generate the sandwich π anion π0 complexes) have been computed and analyzed using the aforementioned levels of theory. This allows us to evaluate the reliability and the performance of the MPWB1K functional to compute the binding energies of the anion π complexes and to analyze the additivity of the interaction in π anion π0 complexes where the aromatic rings are of different nature (π-acidity). We have also explored the Cambridge Structural Database and several interesting X-ray structures that support the theoretical calculations that have been found ...
Waters offers an array of products for ion chromatography . IC-Pak resin based columns allow you to analyze a full range of ions from numerous sample matrices, both simple and complex. They offer an exceptional linear loading range of less than 1.0 ppb to greater than 400 ppm without dilution and without pH limitation on eluent or sample. The flexibility exists for accurate and reproducible anion and cation analyses at all concentration levels.
which ion forms the weakest ionic bond with a given anion_, 2. IONIC BONDING : Electrovalent or Ionic bond: The transfer of one or more electrons from one atom to another gives rise to an ionic bond. Such bonding occurs between a metal and a non metal. Ionic bond formation depends on: The easy formation of a positive and a negative ions from their atoms.
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsCations and iron carrying compoundstransporter, divalent anion:Na+ symporter (DASS) family (TIGR00785; HMM-score: 257) ...
MetabolismTransport and binding proteinsCations and iron carrying compoundstransporter, divalent anion:Na+ symporter (DASS) family (TIGR00785; HMM-score: 432.9) ...
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File scanned at 300 ppi (Monochrome) using Scamax Scan+ V. on a Scanmax 412CD by InoTec in PDF format. LuraDocument PDF Compressor V. used for pdf compression and textual OCR ...
Hello!. >I have a problem with convergence. Id like to geometry optimize the 1,4-diaminobenzene anion, using DFT/B3LYP. I had no problems with the cation, though. For the initial guess orbitals I used the ones from the ground state calculation. Could you give me any hints regarding how-to try to improve convergence? Due to computational cost I am using only a cc-pVTZ basis, although I know that the augmented one should be used for ions.... >Thank You for your help/ideas!. >Best regards ...
CO2 anion has which of the characteristics? Bonds of unequal length (A) (C) (B) (D) sp2-hybridised carbon Same bond angles Resonance stabilisation
The anions (A) form hexagonal closest packing and atoms (C) occupy only 2/3 of octahedral voids in it, then the general formula of the compound is ...
It is possible to predict whether an element will form a cation or anion by determining how many protons an element has. If an element has more protons tha
We developed molecular models for the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator chloride channel based on the prokaryotic ABC transporter, Sav1866. Here we analyze predicted pore geometry and side-chain orientations for TM3, TM6, TM9, and TM12, with particular attention being paid to the location of the rate-limiting barrier for anion conduction. Side-chain orientations assayed by cysteine scanning were found to be from 77 to 90% in accord with model predictions. The predicted geometry of the anion conduction path was defined by a space-filling model of the pore and confirmed by visualizing the distribution of water molecules from a molecular dynamics simulation. The pore shape is that of an asymmetric hourglass, comprising a shallow outward-facing vestibule that tapers rapidly toward a narrow bottleneck linking the outer vestibule to a large inner cavity extending toward the cytoplasmic extent of the lipid bilayer. The junction between the outer vestibule and the bottleneck features an
TY - JOUR. T1 - Formation of cellular films consisting of wurtzite-type zinc oxide nanosheets by mediation of phosphate anions. AU - Yamabi, Satoshi. AU - Yahiro, Junko. AU - Iwai, Satoko. AU - Imai, Hiroaki. N1 - Funding Information: This work was supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (No. 13650742) and 21st Century COE program KEIO Life Conjugate Chemistry from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan.. PY - 2005/10/1. Y1 - 2005/10/1. N2 - We successfully prepared a wide variety of wurtzite-type zinc oxide films exhibiting columnar, cellular and densely packed morphologies in a simple aqueous solution system containing phosphate anions. As the phosphate concentration increased, the shape of crystalline units composing the films varied from hexagonal needles into seaweed-like sheets. A novel type of open cellular structures was obtained by assembly of nanoscale zinc oxide sheets covered with phosphate. Specific adsorption of phosphate anions on ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Determination of lead, cations, and anions concentration in indoor and outdoor air at the primary schools in Kuala Lumpur. AU - Awang, Normah. AU - Jamaluddin, Farhana. PY - 2014. Y1 - 2014. N2 - This study was carried out to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), anions, and cations at six primary schools located around Kuala Lumpur. Low volume sampler (MiniVol PM10) was used to collect the suspended particulates in indoor and outdoor air. Results showed that the concentration of Pb in indoor air was in the range of 5.18 ± 1.08 μg/g-7.01 ± 0.08 μg/g. All the concentrations of Pb in indoor air were higher than in outdoor air at all sampling stations.The concentrations of cations and anions were higher in outdoor air than in indoor air. The concentration of Ca2+ (39.51 ± 5.01mg/g-65.13 ± 9.42 mg/g) was the highest because the cation existed naturally in soil dusts, while the concentrations of NO3 - and SO4 2- were higher in outdoor air because there were more sources of ...
Milk fever occurs in dairy cattle after calving because of low blood calcium levels as a result of calcium moving into milk. When the demand for calcium is greater than the supply in the blood, this can cause the problems of milk fever, unless the cow can rapidly mobilize stored calcium in her body (e.g. in bones) to offset the situation. A nutritional approach to managing milk fever involves monitoring specific elements in the diet.
Perchlorate is a naturally occurring inorganic anion used while an element of great rocket gasoline, explosives, and pyrotechnics. predicated on eating intake data. The power of perchlorate to stop sufficient iodide uptake with the thyroid might have been decreased with the iodine-sufficient position of the newborns examined (median urinary iodide 125 g/L). Additional research is Mouse monoclonal to HK1 required to find whether JTP-74057 these perchlorate intake dosages result in any health results. Introduction Perchlorate can be an inorganic anion found in solid rocket gasoline, explosives, and pyrotechnics (1). It forms normally in the atmosphere and accumulates in arid locations (2, 3). Perchlorate is normally widespread in the surroundings, resulting in individual publicity. Such publicity is a wellness concern because sufficiently high dosages are recognized to impair thyroid function by competitively inhibiting iodide uptake (4, 5). If the dosages that derive from environmental publicity ...
Read Tonoplast Anion Channel Activity Modulation by pH in Chara corallina, The Journal of Membrane Biology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Optical activity is directly related to molecular conformation through the anisotropic polarizabilities of molecules and the refractive index of materials. L-amino acids and D-sugars are characteristic essential bioactive molecules. Since molecular recognition and enzyme activity are related to the conformation of substrates, the relevance of optical activity to biological processes is evident. Specific ion, or Hofmeister, effects that occur with electrolytes at moderately high concentrations modify the behavior of interfaces, molecular forces between membranes, of bulk solutions, of enzymes, and even of DNA. Such effects are universal. Here we report a study on the change in optical rotation induced by some sodium salts for the enantiomers of serine and glucose in water solution. The optical rotation is shown to depend on the kind of anion and on the salt concentration. To obtain further insights into the mechanism behind the phenomenon, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral studies of ...
Aeroallergens produced by can elicit life-threatening exacerbations of asthma in patients sensitized to this fungus. In this study, the effect of on ion transport mechanisms underlying mucociliary clearance and airway epithelial barrier function was investigated in human airway epithelial cells. Apical exposure to induced an increase in anion secretion that was inhibited by blockers of CFTR and Ca-activated Cl channels. Stimulation of anion secretion was dependent on Ca uptake from the apical solution. exposure also produced an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) that was blocked by pretreatment with the oxidant scavenger glutathione (GSH). GSH and the NADPH oxidase inhibitor/complex 1 electron transport inhibitor diphenylene iodonium chloride (DPI) blocked ATP release and the increase in intracellular [Ca] evoked by also decreased transepithelial resistance, and a portion of this effect was dependent on the increase in ROS. However, the -induced increase in unidirectional dextran ...
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The binding and sensing abilities of pyrimidine based fluorescence chemosensor L towards different anions such as F-, Cl-, Br-, I-, NO3-, ClO4-, H2PO4- and HSO4- have been examined by fluorescence spectroscopy in DMSO-H2O (7: 3, v/v). Upon successive addition of various anions to DMSO-H2O solutions of L; quenching in emission fluorescence is observed at 480 nm. Analysis of fluorescence emission changes suggested the formation of 1:1 complex of L with the anions. From the fluorescence binding constant data, it is found that L form strong complexes with F- and HSO4- ions through H-bonding interactions. The selective response of F- over other halides and HSO4- amongst other oxo-anions towards L may be explained on the basis of photo-induced electron transfer process ...
In this mini-review type of article, a brief summary of the anionic group approximation as it relates to the borate nonlinear optical (NLO) crystals, an idea firstly proposed by Professor Chen, is presented.The basic idea, calculation method, tabulated coefficients of various common borate, as well as nitrate or carbonate groups, in their ideal geometries will be presented. New practices reveal that those parameters can still give very accurate predicted NLO coefficients for recently found NLO crystals without any adjustment of parameters.
TY - PAT. T1 - Sensor for measuring carbon dioxide levels in gases or liquids comprises a basic acceptor which is a polybasic inorganic anion or an organic anion. AU - Klimant, Ingo. AU - Brinz, Thomas. AU - Lewis, Jane. AU - Apostolidis, Athanas. AU - Wolfbeis, Otto. N1 - Anmelder: Robert Bosch GmbH;. PY - 2007/9/14. Y1 - 2007/9/14. M3 - Patent. M1 - CH 696675 A5. ER - ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ab initio theoretical study of dipole-bound anions of molecular complexes. T2 - Formaldehyde dimer anion. AU - Smith, Dayle M.A.. AU - Smets, Johan. AU - Elkadi, Yasser. AU - Adamowicz, Ludwik. N1 - Funding Information: Support for this work came from the National Science Foundation and from the UNCF/Merck Science Initiative.. PY - 1999/5/14. Y1 - 1999/5/14. N2 - Theoretical ab initio calculations reveal that when two formaldehyde molecules form a cluster with a collinear orientation of their dipoles and a perpendicular orientation of their planes, an excess electron can attach to the system forming a dipole-bound anion. This configuration is a local minimum on the anion potential energy surface (PES) and the vertical electron detachment energy of the anion at this point is predicted to be 20 meV. However, calculations of the PES near the minimum revealed that it does not support the zero-point vibration corresponding to the bending mode of the complex.. AB - Theoretical ab ...
Describes recent advances in ion chromatography and demonstrates how it is used to solve scientific and industrial problems. The basic principles of ion chromatography are explained, including gradient elution of ions and micromembrane suppressors. The various anion and cation exchange columns together with various detection methods and applications of ion chromatography in the .
View Notes - Lab_3_-_TESTS_for_ANIONS_and_CATIONS from CHEM 111 at Abraham Baldwin Agricultural College. Lab Experiment 3: Tests for Anions and Cations Table 1 Tests for Anions Anion Symbol Test
TY - JOUR. T1 - Weakly coordinating anions, and the exceptional conductivity of their nonaqueous solutions. AU - Xu, W.. AU - Angell, Charles. PY - 2001/1/1. Y1 - 2001/1/1. N2 - We describe the synthesis and properties of a new class of lithium salts in which the anions are dicarboxylic acid derivatives of orthoborate. The single negative charge of these anions is shared by eight oxygen atoms (more accurately four oxygen atoms and four carbonyl groups), hence it is very spread out, and the coordinating ability of the anions is consequently very weak. Judged by comparison of the high-temperature conductivities of 0.5 M lithium salt solutions with those of other weakly basic anions in a low dielectric constant solvent 1,2-dimethoxyethane, the first member of the new family, lithium bis(oxalato)borate, LiBOB, is dissociated much more than are LiClO4 or LiCF3SO3 and even more than lithium bis(trifluoromethane)sulfonylimide, LiTFSI. Conductivities of solutions in acetonitrile approach those of ...
The plant SLAC1 anion channel controls turgor pressure in the aperture-defining guard cells of plant stomata, thereby regulating the exchange of water vapour and photosynthetic gases in response to environmental signals such as drought or high levels of carbon dioxide. Here we determine the crystal structure of a bacterial homologue (Haemophilus influenzae) of SLAC1 at 1.20 Å resolution, and use structure-inspired mutagenesis to analyse the conductance properties of SLAC1 channels. SLAC1 is a symmetrical trimer composed from quasi-symmetrical subunits, each having ten transmembrane helices arranged from helical hairpin pairs to form a central five-helix transmembrane pore that is gated by an extremely conserved phenylalanine residue. Conformational features indicate a mechanism for control of gating by kinase activation, and electrostatic features of the pore coupled with electrophysiological characteristics indicate that selectivity among different anions is largely a function of the energetic ...
Haley Zynda is a graduate research associate in the Department of Animal Sciences working with Dr. Chanhee Lee. Her thesis will focus on reducing manure ammonia emissions by lowering dietary cation-anion differences in lactating dairy cows. She previously attended the University of Kentucky where she earned her B.S in Equine Science. There she was a part of the Equine Parasitology Lab and had the opportunity to publish and co-author peer reviewed journal articles as an undergraduate. Her anticipated graduation date is Spring 2021. ...
Introduction. Investigation 1.1A Investigating for Cations and Anions In this experiment I will investigate what cations and anions are present in various compounds. This will include carrying out a qualitative analysis, because I need to find out what type of cations and anions are there and not quantitative analysis, which includes finding out how much of each element there is. Safety Points: * Wear glasses * Wear gloves * Do not mix more than two solutions * Only mix the solutions listed by the teacher * Handle the chemicals with extreme care * Put the chemical solutions into a test-tube which is resting on a test-tube holder * Follow school lab safety procedures. Materials: * Various chemicals. * Test tubes. * Boiling tubes. * Pipettes. * Test tube holder. * Bench mat. Method * I first copied the chemical solutions listed. * I put on some gloves and safety glasses. * I got a test-tube holder and placed five test-tubes in it. Cations * I added the test solutions Copper Chloride to the ...
Kinetic energy spectra of O⁻ from dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to NO were measured at 7.6, 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0 eV electron energy using a spectrometer with hemispherical energy selectors for both the incident electrons and the resulting ions. The measurements were performed at 10°, 30°, 90° and 135°. The capacity of the spectrometer to detect both slow and fast ions was verified and the spectra were corrected for the analyser response function. Under these conditions only a signal corresponding to O⁻ in the ground state and N in the first excited state was observed, a signal from the remaining two energetically accessible channels was absent. These observations confirm the original conclusion of Chantry (1968 Phys. Rev. 172 125) and reduce the range of possible explanations for the diametrically different observations of Orient and Chutjian (1995 Phys. Rev. Lett. 74 5017). Allan, Michael
Synonyms for anion in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for anion. 5 words related to anion: ion, hydroxide ion, hydroxyl ion, superoxide anion, superoxide. What are synonyms for anion?
Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L. var. Ailsa Craig) were grown in water culture in nutrient solution in a series of 10 increasing levels of nitrate nutrition. Using whole plant data derived from analytical and yield data of individual plant parts, the fate of anion charge arising from increased NO3 assimilation was followed in its distribution between organic anion accumulation in the plant and OH− efflux into the nutrient solution as calculated by excess anion over cation uptake. With increasing NO3 nutrition the bulk of the anion charge appeared as organic anion accumulation in the plants. OH− efflux at a maximum accounted for only 20% of the anion charge shift. The major organic anion accumulated in response to nitrate assimilation was malate. The increase in organic anion accumulation was paralleled by an increase in cation concentration (K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+). Total inorganic anion levels (NO3−, SO42−, H2PO4−, Cl−) were relatively constant. The effect of increasing NO3 ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Absence of transepithelial anion exchange by rabbit OMCD. T2 - Evidence against reversal of cell polarity. AU - Hayashi, M.. AU - Schuster, V. L.. AU - Stokes, J. B.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - In the rabbit cortical collecting duct (CCD), Cl tracer crosses the epithelium predominantly via an anion exchange system that operates in either a Cl-Cl or Cl-HCO3 exchange mode. In the present study, we used the 36Cl lumen-to-bath rate coefficient (K(Cl), nm/s), a sensitive measurement of CCD transepithelial anion transport, to investigate the nature of Cl transport in the medullary collecting duct dissected from inner stripe, outer medulla (OMCD). The K(Cl) in OMCD perfused and bathed in HCO3-Ringer solution was low (46.2 ± 8.5 nm/s) and similar to that value observed in the CCD when anion exchange is inhibited and Cl permeates the epithelium by diffusion. Unlike K(Cl) in CCD, K(Cl) in OMCD was not stimulated by adenosine 3,5-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). OMCD K(Cl) was not altered by ...
To investigate the cellular mechanism responsible for the apical membrane Cl conductance in airway epithelia, we used the patch-clamp technique to study single ion channels in primary cultures of...
Mutagenesis of a number of different amino acid residues in the TM6 region of the CFTR pore alters permeation properties such as unitary conductance and anion binding (Anderson et al. 1991; Sheppard et al. 1993; Tabcharani et al. 1993; McDonough et al. 1994; Linsdell & Hanrahan, 1996; Linsdell et al. 1997b; Mansoura et al. 1998). In addition, the finding that amino acid side chains throughout and flanking TM6 line the aqueous lumen of the pore (Cheung & Akabas, 1996) supports a key role for this region in forming the permeation pathway for anions. Other membrane-spanning regions presumably also contribute to the pore (e.g. McDonough et al. 1994; Mansoura et al. 1998), although so far these regions have received less attention than TM6. We have shown that mutation of TM6 residue T338, the side chain of which does not appear to line the pore (Cheung & Akabas, 1996; see below), strongly affects the conductance and selectivity of the CFTR Cl− channel.. All amino acid substitutions carried out for ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Folding and anion-binding properties of fluorescent oligoindole foldamers. AU - Kim, Uk Il. AU - Suk, Jae Min. AU - Naidu, Veluru Ramesh. AU - Jeong, Kyu-Sung. PY - 2008/12/19. Y1 - 2008/12/19. N2 - A series of oligoindole foldamers 1a-d that are highly fluorescent were prepared by using a biindole derivative as the repeating unit, and their folding and anion-binding properties were revealed by 1H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. The oligoindoles exist in an extended conformation, but adopt a compact helical structure in the presence of an anion. The anion is entrapped inside the tubular cavity of the helical strand, comprising four aryl units per turn, by multiple hydrogen bonds with the indole NHs. These structural features were confirmed by 1H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy. When folded by anion binding, 1b-d show characteristic downfield shifts of the NH signals and upfield shifts of the aromatic CH signals by Δδ = 0.1-1.0 ppm. The average chemical shift for all the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Metal-controlled reactivity of a pincer-type, σ-coordinated naphthyl radical anion. AU - Frech, Christian M.. AU - Ben-David, Yehoshoa. AU - Weiner, Lev. AU - Milstein, David. PY - 2006/6/7. Y1 - 2006/6/7. N2 - Reduction of the new, naphthalene-based pincer complex [(C10H5(CH2PiPr2)2)Rh(η1-N2)] with potassium metal gave the corresponding σ-coordinated naphthyl radical anion complex, with a ring-centered radical and no change in the formal metal oxidation state. This paramagnetic complex can be reoxidized to the diamagnetic one with [Cp2Fe][BF4], the structural integrity being retained. Unexpectedly, treatment of a THF solution of the reduced complex with water leads to the immediate evolution of dihydrogen, with reoxidation to the starting complex. This is in striking contrast with the well-known reactivity of the naphthide radical anion, which undergoes ring protonation by water to form 1,4-dihydronaphthalene and naphthalene in a 1:1 ratio.. AB - Reduction of the new, ...
The anionic species resulting from hydride addition to the Watson-Crick guanine-cytosine (GC) DNA base pair are investigated theoretically. Proton-transferred structures of GC hydride, in which proton H1 of guanine or proton H4 of cytosine migrates to the complementary base-pair side, have been studied also. All optimized geometrical structures are confirmed to be minima via vibrational frequency analyses. The lowest energy structure places the additional hydride on the C6 position of cytosine coupled with proton transfer, resulting in the closed-shell anion designated 1T (G(-)C(C6)). Energetically, the major groove side of the GC pair has a greater propensity toward hydride/hydrogen addition than does the minor grove side. The pairing (dissociation) energy and electron-attracting ability of each anionic structure are predicted and compared with those of the neutral GC and the hydrogenated GC base pairs. Anion 8T (G(O6)C(-)) is a water-extracting complex and has the largest dissociation energy. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Crystal structure and Hirshfeld surface analysis of a copper(II) complex with ethyl-enedi-amine and non-coordinated benzoate. AU - Qadir, Adnan M.. AU - Kansiz, Sevgi. AU - Rosair, Georgina M.. AU - Dege, Necmi. AU - Iskenderov, Turganbay S.. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - In the title compound, di-aqua-bis-(ethyl-enedi-amine-κ2N,N)copper(II) bis-(2-nitro-benzoate), [Cu(C2H8N2)2(H2O)2](C7H4NO4)2, two di-aqua-bis-(ethyl-enedi-amine)-copper(II) cations and four nitro-benzoate anions are present in the asymmetric unit. All four anions are whole-mol-ecule disordered over two sets of sites. The major components have refined occupancies of 0.572 (13), 0.591 (9), 0.601 (9) and 0.794 (10). The CuII ions exhibit slightly distorted octa-hedral geometries. In the crystal, cations and anions are connected to each other via N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (200). The inter-molecular contacts in the crystal were further analysed using ...
We introduce bis-aryl croconamides as a new member in the family of dual hydrogen bonding anion receptors. In this study a series of croconamides are synthesised, and the selectivity for anion binding is investigated (Cl− | Br− | I− in CH2Cl2). The croconamides exhibit different structures in the crystal pha
There are two reasons, depending on the anion of interest: 1) For the flame emission of any species, anion or cation, metal or not, to be observable, it must emit light in the visible wavelength range, and most non-metal anions do not do this very strongly. 2) Even if there is some emission from the non-metal anion, in many cases their flame excitation efficiency is very low. The answer then is the combination of these two things, and the fact that many metals have the opposite tendencies (e.g. high excitation efficiency, strong emission in the visible region of the spectrum), which overrides any weak visible emission from the non-metal anions. As noted in a comment, this is not always the case, but it is the explanation for this strong trend.. ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Computational Electrophysiology on Vdac-1 reveals Mechanism of Anion Flux. AU - Zachariae, Ulrich. PY - 2011. Y1 - 2011. M3 - Meeting abstract. JO - Biophysical Journal. JF - Biophysical Journal. SN - 0006-3495. ER - ...
Method and apparatus for analysis, by ion chromatography, of anions, in a sample solution, wherein accurate analysis of anions in the sample solution is obtained by passing carbonic acid, through a prescribed membrane, into the sample solution, thereby completely eliminating or sharply lessening the so-called water dip effect. The method and apparatus are further directed to enabling anions in the sample solution to be accurately analyzed by passing prescribed cations, through a prescribed membrane, into the sample solution, thereby depriving the sample solution of interfering anions otherwise abundantly present therein.
We investigate the ionic conductivities, phase behaviors, conformational states, and interactions of three ionic liquids based on imidazolium cations and phosphonate anions with varying alkyl chain lengths. All three ionic liquids show high conductivities, with 1,3-dimethylimidazolium methyl-phosphonate [DiMIm(MeO)(H)- PO2] being the most conductive (7.3 x 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 298 K). The high ionic conductivities are a result of the low glass-transition temperatures, T-g, which do not change significantly upon changing the cation and/or anion size. However, there is a slight dependence of the temperature behavior of the conductivity on the size of the ions, as seen from the fragility parameter (D) obtained from fits, to the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. The molecular-level structure and interactions of the phosphonate anions were examined by Raman spectroscopy and first-principles calculations: The calculations identify two stable conformations for the methyl- and ethyl-phosphonate anions by rotation
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1FCJ: Identification of an allosteric anion-binding site on O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase: structure of the enzyme with chloride bound.
1FCJ: Identification of an allosteric anion-binding site on O-acetylserine sulfhydrylase: structure of the enzyme with chloride bound.
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Magnesium-aluminum, hydrotalcite-type clay compositions containing large, pillaring organic, inorganic, and mixed organic/inorganic anions have been made and shown to demonstrate catalytic properties. Heating of the mixed large organic/inorganic anion hydrotalcite-type clays can lead to substantially complete removal of the organic anions and a route to making large, inorganic-anion, hydrotalcite-type clays with more open galleries.
A method of detecting lead contamination of a surface is disclosed. A handwipe issued to collect any lead contamination on the surface. The lead is solubilized with an aqueous acid solution and treated with rhodizonate or sulfide anions. A change in color from pink to red, where rhodizonate anions are used, or brown to black, where sulfide anions are used, is indicative of the presence of lead. Th
For use with EPA Method 300.0 and ASTM Method D4327; Sulfate anion at 1000μg/mL in aqueous solution of K|sub|2|/sub|SO|sub|4|/sub| Shop Sulfate Standard for Ion Chromatography,
Redox reactions - C60 anions and cations[edit]. C60 anions[edit]. See also: Fullerides ... 7.7 Redox reactions - C60 anions and cations *7.7.1 C60 anions ... C60 should occur at mild potentials leading to fulleride anions ... C60]n− (n = 1-6). The midpoint potentials of 1-electron reduction of buckminsterfullerene and its anions is given in the table ...
Anion exchange[edit]. Anion exchange sorbents are derivatized with positively charged functional groups that interact and ... and weak anion exchange sorbents use amine groups which are charged when the pH is below about 9. Strong anion exchange ... Strong anion exchange sorbents contain quaternary ammonium groups that have a permanent positive charge in aqueous solutions, ... to recover a strong acid a weak anion exchange cartridge should be used. To elute the analyte from either the strong or weak ...
Brouillet, L.; Coursol, F.; Meades, S.J.; Favreau, M.; Anions, M.; Bélisle, P.; Desmet, P. (2010). "VASCAN, the Database of ...
The dodecaborate(12) anion, [B12H12]2−, has the structure of a regular icosahedron of boron atoms, with each boron atom being ... The anion can be electrochemically oxidised to [B24H23]3−. Salts of B12H2− 12 undergo hydroxylation with hydrogen peroxide to ... The existence of the dodecaborate(12) anion, [B12H12]2−, was predicted by H. C. Longuet-Higgins and M. de V. Roberts in 1955. ... First the borohydride is converted into a triborate anion using the etherate of boron trifluoride: 5 NaBH4 + BF3 → 2 NaB3H8 + 3 ...
The alkalide anions have filled s-subshells, which gives them enough stability to exist. All the stable alkali metals except ... The peroxide anion is weakly bound to the cation, and it is hydrolysed, forming stronger covalent bonds. Na2O2 + 2H2O → 2NaOH ... The radius of the H− anion also does not fit the trend of increasing size going down the halogens: indeed, H− is very diffuse ... The chemistry of lithium shows several differences from that of the rest of the group as the small Li+ cation polarises anions ...
Brouillet, L.; Desmet, P.; Coursol, F.; Meades, S.J.; Favreau, M.; Anions, M.; Bélisle, P.; Gendreau, C.; Shorthouse, D. (4 ...
Schmidtchen, Franz P. (2010). "Hosting anions. The energetic perspective". Chemical Society Reviews. 39 (10): 3916-35. doi: ...
Critchlow, S. C.; Corbett, J. D. (1981). "Stable homopolyatomic anions: the tetrastannide (2-) and tetragermanide(2-) anions, ... an anion consisting solely of tin atoms or a compound containing such an anion, or, in the field of organometallic chemistry an ... Sn2− 4, tetrahedral closo-cluster with 10 electrons (2n + 2). (Sn2−)n zig-zag chain polymeric anion with 2c-2e bonds found for ... Sn7− 12) n polymeric two-dimensional anion in Na7Sn12 Flacke, F.; Jacobs, H. (1997). "[Li(NH3)4] [Sn(SnPh3)3].C6H6, Crystal ...
Fluorocarbon anions in Ziegler-Natta catalysis[edit]. Fluorine-containing compounds are often featured in noncoordinating or ... The fluorinated substituents render the anions weakly basic and enhance the solubility in weakly basic solvents, which are ... weakly coordinating anions. Both tetrakis(pentafluorophenyl)borate, B(C6F5)4−, and the related tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl ...
Anion/cation analysis[edit]. See also: Qualitative inorganic analysis. Precipitate formation is useful in the detection of the ...
anions: nitrate, nitrite. Nitrate is a common component of fertilizers, e.g. ammonium nitrate. amine derivatives: ammonia and ... Representative species include the gases nitrogen oxides (NOx), ammonia (NH3), nitrous oxide (N2O), as well as the anion ...
West, Robert; Powell, David L. (1963). "New Aromatic Anions. III. Molecular Orbital Calculations on Oxygenated Anions". J. Am. ... and the conjugate base of the hydrogensquarate anion is the divalent squarate anion C 4O2− 4. This is one of the oxocarbon ... groups in the squarate anion can be replaced by dicyanomethylene =C(CN)2. The resulting anions, such as 1,2-bis( ... Although impractical, squarate and related anions such as deltate C 3O2− 3 and acetylenediolate C 2O2− 2 are obtainable by ...
A solvated electron is a free electron in (solvated in) a solution, and is the smallest possible anion. Solvated electrons ... Solvated electrons produced by dissolution of reducing metals in ammonia and amines are the anions of salts called electrides. ... In the 1970s, solid salts containing electrons as the anion were characterized. Focusing on solutions in ammonia, liquid ... Dye, J. L. (2003). "Electrons as Anions". Science. 301 (5633): 607-608. doi:10.1126/science.1088103. PMID 12893933. Edwin M. ...
In the solid alkali metal salts, the croconate anions and the alkali cations form parallel columns. In the mixed salt K 3(HC 5O ... The croconate anion also forms compounds with trivalent cations such as aluminium (yellow), chromium (brown), and iron (purple ... The croconate anion forms hydrated crystalline coordination compounds with divalent cations of transition metals, with general ... West, R.; Niu, H. Y. (1963). "New aromatic anions. VI. Complexes of croconate ion with some divalent and trivalent metals ( ...
Dilworth, J. R.; Hussain, W.; Hutson, A. J.; Jones, C. J.; McQuillan, F. S. (1997). "Tetrahalo Oxorhenate Anions". Inorganic ...
Several homoleptic derivatives have the formula M(R2dtc)n where n = 2 and 3. Dithiocarbamates are anions. Because of the pi- ... Ludwig N. Carbyn; S. Oosenbrug; D. W. Anions; Canadian Circumpolar Institute (1993). Wolves, bison and the dynamics ...
Most are anions. Cyanide is a highly basic and small ligand, hence it readily saturates the coordination sphere of metal ions. ... The resulting cyanometallate anions are often used as ligands for building more complex structures called coordination polymers ... both the nitrogen and the carbon extremities of the anion are basic. Thus cyanometalates can be alkylated to give isocyanide ...
The perrhenate ion is the anion with the formula ReO− 4, or a compound containing this ion. The perrhenate anion is tetrahedral ... The perrhenate anion is stable over a broad pH range and can be precipitated from solutions with the use of organic cations. At ... Basicity Perrhenate anion is a weaker base than Cl− or Br− but stronger than ClO− 4 or BF− 4. Silver perrhenate reacts with ... Dilworth, J. R.; Hussain, W.; Hutson, A. J.; Jones, C. J.; McQuillan, F. S. (1997). "Tetrahalo Oxorhenate Anions". Inorganic ...
NS− 4. metal carbonyl anions. Synthetic iron-sulfur clusters such as [Fe4S4(SPh)4]2− Octachlorodirhenate ([Re2Cl8]2−). ... Some tetrabutylammonium salts of simple anions include: tetrabutylammonium fluoride, a desilylation reagent. tetrabutylammonium ... It is used in the research laboratory to prepare lipophilic salts of inorganic anions. Relative to tetraethylammonium ...
doi:10.1016/S0010-8545(00)00246-0. Beer, Paul D.; Gale, Philip A. (2001). "Anion Recognition and Sensing: The State of the Art ... They are especially used to isolate salts of highly basic anions. They convert solvated alkali metal cations into lipophilic ... Activation and Nucleophilicity of Anions in Aqueous-Organic Thirteen-Phase Systems and in Organic Solvents of Low Polarity". J ... Polyamine-based cryptands can be converted to polyammonium cages, which exhibit high affinities for anions. Cryptands enjoy no ...
Lead can also create anions with tin, in a series of anions with the formula [Sn9−xPbx]4−. Lead can also form the [Pb9]4− anion ... P. A. Edwards, J. D. Corbett (1977). "Stable homopolyatomic anions. Synthesis and crystal structures of salts containing the ... or a Zintl phase compound with lead as the anion. Plumbides can be formed when lead forms a Zintl phase compound with a more ... pentaplumbide(2−) and pentastannide(2−) anions". Inorg. Chem. 16 (4): 903-907. doi:10.1021/ic50170a036. Greenwood, Norman N.; ...
With malonate nickel can form a bis-malonato-nickelate anion, which can form double salts. Nickel maleate can be made from ... September 1963). "New Aromatic Anions. VI. Complexes of Croconate Ion with Some Divalent and Trivalent Metals". Journal of the ...
Ballester P. "Anions and pi-Aromatic Systems. Do they interact attractively?" Recognition of Anions. Structure and Bonding ... Anion-π interactions: interaction of anion with π system Cation-π interactions: interaction of a cation with a π system C-H-π ... Anion and π-aromatic systems (typically electron-deficient) create an interaction that is associated with the repulsive forces ... These repulsive forces involve electrostatic and anion-induced polarized interactions. This force allows for the systems to be ...
An electride is an ionic compound in which an electron is the anion. Solutions of alkali metals in ammonia are electride salts ... F-center Dye, J. L. (2003). "Electrons as Anions". Science. 301 (5633): 607-608. doi:10.1126/science.1088103. PMID 12893933. ...
The anions and cations are arranged in alternate planes. Within each plane, the anions are arranged in a hexagonal grid. Each ... The monovalent anion C 6O− 6 has been detected in mass spectrometry experiments. Rhodizonic acid and the rhodizonate anion can ... yielding the hydrogenrhodizonate anion C 6HO− 6 and the rhodizonate anion C 6O2− 6. The latter is aromatic and symmetric, as ... with slightly more distorted anions (0.113 Å rms) In solution, the rhodizonate anion is not hydrated. Acetylenediol (COH) 2 ...
The cyanamide anion has the character of a pseudo chalcogen, cyanamide can therefore be regarded as analogue to water or ... Jonczyk A, Ochal Z, Makosza M (1978). "Reactions of Organic Anions; LXXXV1. Catalytic Two-Phase Alkylation of Cyanamide". ...
However, the cyclopropenyl anion has 4 π electrons in a cyclic system and in fact has a substantially higher pKa than 1-propene ... "Antiaromaticity of cyclopropenyl anions". Journal of the American Chemical Society. 89 (17): 4383-4390. doi:10.1021/ja00993a023 ... which is relatively acidic for an sp3 carbon center because the resultant allyl anion can be resonance stabilized. The ...
Bowman-James was the first to recognise that anions and transition metals had many similarities. She makes use of the anions ... In 1997, Bowman-Jones co-edited the first book on anion chemistry, Supramolecular Chemistry of Anions, published by Wiley. She ... Supramolecular chemistry of anions. Antonio Bianchi, Kristin Bowman-James, Enrique García-España. New York: Wiley-VCH. 1997. ... Supramolecular chemistry of anions. Antonio Bianchi, Kristin Bowman-James, Enrique García-España. New York: Wiley-VCH. 1997. ...
Vos, Johannes G.; Groeneveld, Willem L. (1979). "Pyrazolato and related anions. Part V. Transition metal salts of 4- ...
Anion (nds); Anion (de); anion (en); انىيون (kk-cn); آنیون (fa); Анион (bg); Anion (da); ანიონი (ka); 陰イオン (ja); Anion (oc); ... anion (fr); Anyon (ht); Anion (hr); Anioon (et); анион (tt-cyrl); anion (nl); anjon (sv); anion (nn); Anion (uz); anião (pt); ... anion transport (cargo),. anion transmembrane transporter activity (cargo),. folate:anion antiporter activity (cargo),. anion: ... solute:anion antiporter activity (cargo),. cellular anion homeostasis (Process variable),. anion homeostasis (Process variable) ...
Media in category "Anions". The following 67 files are in this category, out of 67 total. ... Potassium-nitrosodisulfonate-anion-pair-from-xtal-3D-balls.png 1,100 × 1,047; 223 KB. ... Heptachlorodigallate-anion-from-Ga3Cl7-xtal-3D-balls.png 1,100 × 686; 151 KB. ... Potassium-nitrosodisulfonate-anion-from-xtal-3D-balls.png 1,100 × 925; 167 KB. ...
... to form anions containing several molecules of the acid anhydride. If these condensed acids contain only one type of acid ... Isopoly and heteropoly anions: The amphoteric metals of groups VB (vanadium, niobium, and tantalum) and VIB (chromium, ... Because each element may form more than one heteropoly anion and some of these anions can contain several different heteroatoms ... According to the hard and soft acids and bases (HSAB) theory, the metal cation and anion are considered to be acids and bases, ...
Recent developments in the area of anion recognition and sensing have produced a variety of new selective receptors for anions. ... Gale P.A. (2004) Anions in Supramolecular Chemistry. In: Moyer B.A., Singh R.P. (eds) Fundamentals and Applications of Anion ... Recent developments in the area of anion recognition and sensing have produced a variety of new selective receptors for anions. ... Engl. 35, 1312-1315 (1996); Supramolecular Chemistry of Anions, A. Bianchi, K. Bowman-James, and E. García-España Eds., (WILEY- ...
... is a tricarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35753) citrate anion (CHEBI:133748) is conjugate base of ... citrate(1−) (CHEBI:35804) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). citrate(2−) (CHEBI:35808) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). ... citrate(3−) (CHEBI:16947) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). citrate(4−) (CHEBI:132362) is a citrate anion (CHEBI:133748). ... CHEBI:133748 - citrate anion. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. ...
Electron transfer dissociation of peptide anions.. Coon JJ1, Shabanowitz J, Hunt DF, Syka JE. ... Ion/ion reactions of multiply deprotonated peptide anions with xenon radical cations result in electron abstraction to generate ... charge-reduced peptide anions containing a free-radical site. Peptide backbone cleavage then occurs by hydrogen radical ...
This chapter focuses on the chemistry of boryl anions. The first section gives a brief history of boryl anion before the first ... isolated boryl anion equivalent, boryllithium, emerged. Synthesis and properties of all existing boryl anion... ... This chapter focuses on the chemistry of boryl anions. The first section gives a brief history of boryl anion before the first ... Synthesis and properties of all existing boryl anions are summarized in the second section. In the third section, examples of ...
... is a carboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:29067) monocarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35757) is ... imidazolyl carboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:38466) is a monocarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35757). indol-3-yl carboxylic acid anion ( ... chlorophenoxyacetate anion (CHEBI:23151) is a monocarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35757). chlorophyllide a(2−) (CHEBI:83348) is a ... bile acid anion (CHEBI:36235) is a monocarboxylic acid anion (CHEBI:35757). biotinate (CHEBI:57586) is a monocarboxylic acid ...
Metal carbonyl anions: More remarkable than the formation of zero-oxidation-state metal carbonyls is the reduction of many of ... these carbonyl compounds to metal carbonyl anions, in which the metal has a negative oxidation state. The following example ... Other articles where Metal carbonyl anion is discussed: organometallic compound: ... Metal carbonyl anion. THIS IS A DIRECTORY PAGE. Britannica does not currently have an article on this topic. ...
c The 2[B5O9]∞ infinite layer and isolated [BO2]− anions in K5Ba2(B10O17)2(BO2). The adjacent 2[B5O9]∞ infinite layers further ... Huang, C., Mutailipu, M., Zhang, F. et al. Expanding the chemistry of borates with functional [BO2]− anions. Nat Commun 12, ... Calvo, C. & Faggiani, R. Linear metaborate anions, BO2-, in apatitic phosphates. J. Chem. Soc., Chem. Commun. 17, 714-715 (1974 ... Expanding the chemistry of borates with functional [BO2]− anions. *Chunmei Huang1,2,3,4 na1, ...
Today more than 20 phosphates containing two kinds of phosphoric anions having different degrees of condensation are known. ... Ring Anion Mirror Plane Atomic Arrangement Phosphoric Anion Cesium Atom This is a preview of subscription content, log in to ... and those for mixed-anion phosphates containing anions with higher degrees of condensation are given in Table 5.2. ... Today more than 20 phosphates containing two kinds of phosphoric anions having different degrees of condensation are known. ...
The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses its best efforts to deliver a high quality copy of the Database and to verify that the data contained therein have been selected on the basis of sound scientific judgment. However, NIST makes no warranties to that effect, and NIST shall not be liable for any damage that may result from errors or omissions in the Database ...
Although nitrile anions are functionally similar to enolates, the extra pi bond in nitrile anions provides them with a unique ... Nitrile anions are most often generated through the action of an appropriate base. However, the pKas of nitriles span a wide ... Nitrile anions can also be involved in Michael-type additions to activated double bonds and vinylation reactions with a limited ... Nitrile anions are the conjugate bases of alkyl nitriles. They undergo nucleophilic addition and substitution reactions with ...
Direct functionalization of C−H bonds by electrophilic anions. Jonas Warneke, Martin Mayer, Markus Rohdenburg, Xin Ma, Judy K. ... Direct functionalization of C−H bonds by electrophilic anions. Jonas Warneke, Martin Mayer, Markus Rohdenburg, Xin Ma, Judy K. ... Direct functionalization of C−H bonds by electrophilic anions. View ORCID ProfileJonas Warneke, View ORCID ProfileMartin Mayer ... New Perspectives in the Noble Gas Chemistry Opened by Electrophilic Anions. Markus Rohdenburg, Vladimir A. Azov, Jonas Warneke ...
Learn about the anion gap blood test, which provides information on the acidity of your blood by measuring electrically charged ... What is an anion gap blood test?. An anion gap blood test is a way to check the levels of acid in your blood. The test is based ... Why do I need an anion gap blood test?. Your health care provider may have ordered an anion gap blood test if you have signs of ... What happens during an anion gap blood test?. The anion gap test is taken from the results of an electrolyte panel, which is a ...
This compact fluorination line is equipped with a CO2 laser system (MIR-10, 25W) that floats above the sample chamber enabling the use of non-flexible tubing for lower blanks. Laser-heating (and fluorination) is controlled at the click of a mouse. This system can be used to extract oxygen from almost all non-carbonate oxygen bearing solids (e.g., silicates, oxides, phosphates, sulfates, etc.) for triple oxygen isotopic analysis ...
Douglas I Benn, Guillaume Le Hir, Huiming Bao, Yannick Donnadieu, Christophe Dumas, Edward J Fleming, Michael J Hambrey, Emily A McMillan, Michael S Petronis, Gilles Ramstein, Carl TE Stevenson, Peter M Wynn, Ian J Fairchild, 2015. Orbitally forced ice sheet fluctuations during the Marinoan Snowball Earth glaciation, Nature Geoscience, V.8, p. 704-707 ...
1 definition found for anion. From Moby Thesaurus II by Grady Ward, 1.0 : 51 Moby Thesaurus words for "anion": acid, acidity, ...
Although nitrile anions are functionally similar to enolates, the extra multiple bond in nitrile anions provides them with a ... Nitrile anions are most often generated through the action of an appropriate base. However, the pKas of nitriles span a wide ... Nitrile anions are nitriles lacking a proton at the position α to the nitrile group. They undergo nucleophilic addition and ... Nitrile anions can also be involved in Michael-type additions to activated double bonds and vinylation reactions with a limited ...
IMAGE: This image shows the detail of the coordination spheres of the bromide anion with Et3BuN+Br? view more ... Coordination chemistry of anions through halogen-bonding interactions. International Union of Crystallography ... coordination-chemistry-of-anions-through-halogen%E2%80%93bonding-interactions/. Related Journal Article. http://dx.. doi.. org/ ...
anion synonyms, anion pronunciation, anion translation, English dictionary definition of anion. n. A negatively charged ion, ... anion. Also found in: Thesaurus, Medical, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.. Related to anion: anion exchange, anion gap an·i·on. (ăn′ī′ ... superoxide anion, superoxide - the univalent anion O2-; "much of the O2 supporting cellular respiration is reduced to the ... The first step in evaluation of primary metabolic acidosis is to calculate the anion gap (anion gap = Na+ - (Cl- + HCO3-).. Abg ...
Handbook of anion determination. [W John Williams] -- Handbook of Anion Determination is a guidebook that details various ... methods that can be employed in determining anions. The book is comprised of 62 chapters that are organized into four parts. ... Handbook of Anion Determination is a guidebook that details various methods that can be employed in determining anions. The ... Handbook of Anion Determination is a guidebook that details various methods that can be employed in determining anions. The ...
Open Bug 674689 (anion) Opened 10 years ago Updated 7 years ago ...
Free flashcards to help memorize facts about Anions for AP Chem. Other activities to help include hangman, crossword, word ...
Seven anions were separated on a Metrosep A Supp 5 - 100/4.0 column using 3.2 mmol/L sodium carbonate/1.0 mmol/L sodium ... For all the anions, the limit of quantitation (LOQ) was also calculated as 10 times the standard deviation of the 7 replicates. ... The 2.0 mg/L stock standard was used to perform calibration ranging from 0.04 mg/L to 2.0 mg/L for all seven anions. ... This article shows how the requirements for the seven anions listed under part A of EPA methods 300.0 & 300.1, are effectively ...
The multispecific organic anion transporter (OAT) family.. Sekine T1, Cha SH, Endou H. ... Organic anion transporters play important roles in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their ... The OAT family represents the renal secretory pathway for organic anions and is also involved in the distribution of organic ... OATs are multispecific organic anion transporters, the substrates of which include both endogenous (e.g. cyclic nucleotides, ...
This demonstration of increased doping levels, increased stability and excellent transport properties shows that anion-exchange ... and can be pictured as the effective instantaneous exchange of a conventional small p-type dopant anion with a second anion ... and allows an anion-exchange efficiency of nearly 100 per cent. As a result, doping levels of up to almost one charge per ... anion exchange-that might offer improved doping levels. This process is mediated by an ionic liquid solvent ...
Helping you find trustworthy answers on Excess Anion Gap , Latest evidence made easy ... Find all the evidence you need on Excess Anion Gap via the Trip Database. ... Anion gap Plasma, like any other body fluid compartment, is neutral; total anions match total cations. The major plasma cation ... Anion gap Plasma, like any other body fluid compartment, is neutral; total anions match total cations. The major plasma cation ...
one that moves toward the anode during electrolysisOrigin of anioncoined by Michael Faraday from Classical Greek anion, thing ... Origin of anion. coined by Michael Faraday from Classical Greek anion, thing going up, neuter present participle of anienai, to ... Origin of anion. From Greek neuter present participle of anienai to go up ana- ana- ienai to go ; see ei- in Indo-European ... anion. an·i·on. a negatively charged ion, esp. one that moves toward the anode during electrolysis ...
  • Dionex ICS 3000 for anion and cation concentration analysis. (
  • On the theory that the phenomena are wholly due to unequal ionic velocities this result would mean that the cation like the anion moved against the conventional direction of the current. (
  • Herein, a pathway is presented for the multifold increase of the practical discharge power of these batteries by tailoring the tripartite interactions between the salt cation and anion and the solvent. (
  • Increasing cation size (from Li + to K + ) doubled k / λ , indicating an increased sensitivity of k to the choice of anion, while variations in D O 2 were minimal over this cation size range. (
  • An improved chromatographic analytical column, the column containing a pellicular type (agglomerated) anion-exchange packing, comprising: Component A, which comprises a pressure packed bed of substrate particles of insoluble synthetic resin, having cation-exchanging sites at least on their available. (
  • How Can You Predict If an Element Will Form a Cation or an Anion? (
  • It is possible to predict whether an element will form a cation or anion by determining how many protons an element has. (
  • When two elements are mixed, the amount of ionization energy determines whether the new substance will turn into a cation or anion. (
  • A cation is a positively charged ion and an anion is a negatively charged ion. (
  • When combining two elements, it is necessary to identify the atomic number of the elements to determine if the mix will result in a cation or anion. (
  • With the aim to find safer and better performing lithium salts for lithium battery electrolytes two factors have been evaluated: the cation-anion interaction strength via the dissociation reaction LiAn (sic) Li+ + An(-) and the anion oxidative stability via a vertical ionisation from anion to radical. (
  • Anion exchange is a cellular transport function which contributes to the regulation of cell pH and volume by a functionally related anion exchanger protein family. (
  • The first two columns, a precolumn or guard column and a separator column, are packed with low-capacity, strongly basic anion exchanger. (
  • Acts as a sodium-independent DIDS-sensitive anion exchanger mediating bicarbonate, chloride, sulfate and oxalate transport. (
  • May play a role in the maintenance of the electrolyte and acid-base homeostasis in the kidney, by acting as a distal excretory segment-specific anion exchanger. (
  • This enzyme thereby ultimately fuels the secondary active transport of HCO 3 - and Cl - by the apical anion exchanger. (
  • The process by which an anion in a mobile (liquid) phase exchanges with another anion previously bound to a solid, nonmobile, positively charged phase, the latter being an anion exchanger. (
  • Hydroxide and chloride ions are anions. (
  • This article describes how the seven common anions (fluoride, nitrite, chloride, bromide, nitrate, sulfate, and phosphate) covered in US EPA method 300 Part A 1,2 were studied using a Metrohm ion chromatography system. (
  • This method addresses the sequential determination of the anions chloride, fluoride, bromide, nitrate, nitrite, phosphate, and sulfate in the collection solutions from the bomb combustion of solid waste samples, as well as all water samples. (
  • Aldex SB-1 is a high capacity shock resistant, strongly basic Type 1 gel anion resin supplied in the chloride form as moist, uniform spherical beads. (
  • 4.1 The anions fluoride, chloride, and sulfate have been identified as important contributors to corrosion of high pressure boilers, electric power turbines and their associated heat exchangers. (
  • While in a medium containing zinc chloride anions ZnO nano-discs were obtained and in a medium containing zinc sulfate anions nano-flakes are achieved. (
  • Background: Anion exchange protein 1 (AE1), also named solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1), is an anion transporter that mediates chloride-bicarbonate exchange in the kidney and regulates normal acidification of the urine (1,2). (
  • The multispecific organic anion transporter (OAT) family. (
  • During the last decade, molecular cloning has identified several families of multispecific organic anion transporters mediating the renal and hepatic elimination of organic anions and, most recently, the OAT (organic anion transporter) family, the founding member of which (OAT1) is the basolateral p-aminohippurate (PAH) transporter in the renal proximal tubule. (
  • The Formate/Nitrite Transporter Family Of Anion Channels. (
  • Abstract The Formate/Nitrite Transporter family of integral membrane proteins comprises pentameric channels for monovalent anions that exhibit a broad specificity for small anions such as chlo-ride, the physiological cargo molecules formate, nitrite and hydrosulfide, and also larger or-ganic acids. (
  • Identifying the hepatic organic anion transporter: One of many? (
  • Endogenous metabolic CO provides cellular HCO - 23 via carbonic anhydrase for the apical anion exchange process, with the resulting H + being extruded across the basolateral membrane via an NHE-like transporter. (
  • This image shows the detail of the coordination spheres of the bromide anion with Et3BuN+Br? (
  • The EPA's established method for determining the concentration of common anions present in water samples is ion chromatography (IC). (
  • 5.1 Ion chromatography provides for both qualitative and quantitative determination of seven common anions, F − , Cl − , NO 2 − , HPO 4 −2 , Br − , NO 3 − , and SO 4 −2 , in the milligram per litre range from a single analytical operation requiring only a few millilitres of sample and taking approximately 10 to 15 min for completion. (
  • 5.2 Anion combinations such as Cl − /Br − and NO 2 − /NO 3 − , which may be difficult to distinguish by other analytical methods, are readily separated by ion chromatography. (
  • Method and apparatus for analysis, by ion chromatography, of anions, in a sample solution, wherein accurate analysis of anions in the sample solution is obtained by passing carbonic acid, through a prescribed membrane, into the sample solution, thereby completely eliminating or sharply lessening the so-called water dip effect. (
  • This invention relates to method and apparatus for the analysis, by chromatography, of anions in a sample solution. (
  • This application note shows the determination of phosphate, HEDP (etidronic acid) and pyrophosphate in a biocide sample using anion chromatography with conductivity detection after sequential suppression. (
  • The tested extracts showed a superoxide anion scavenging activity ranging from 28. (
  • Additionally, geranylgeraniol induces an increase in superoxide anion production. (
  • Convincingly, hyperglycemic conditions yielded an increase in superoxide anion release from endothelial cells and the superoxide anion-generating mixture xanthine oxidase/hypoxanthine mimicked the effect of hyperglycemia on Ca2+/EDRF signaling. (
  • We suggest that vasoactivity during acute hyperglycemia depends on the superoxide anion scavenging properties of the vascular wall. (
  • Shaped like shallow bowls, the molecules have a strong affinity for binding with large anions such as certain borate, chlorate and phosphate ions. (
  • 1. A collection of particles comprising a crystalline composition with a phosphate anion, the collection of particles having an average particle size less than about 1000 nm. (
  • Also, anions are among the most pervasive of all known pollutants (e.g., nitrate, phosphate). (
  • The anion gap is a measurement of the difference-or gap-between the negatively charged and positively charged electrolytes. (
  • The anion gap blood test is used to show whether your blood has an imbalance of electrolytes or too much or not enough acid. (
  • This results in the atomic radius decreasing.Anions on the other hand are most often nonmetals, as anions are negatively charged ions meaning they have gained electron(s). (
  • Electron anions are essentially freely moving electrons in place of the much-larger negatively charged oxygen atoms that urge the oxide to form a tidy crystal. (
  • The team found that that the negatively-charged electron anions paired up between positively charged aluminum or calcium atoms, replacing the negatively charged oxygen atoms that would typically be found between the metals. (
  • Fig. 2: Molecular structures and electrostatic potential maps of the cations and anions used here. (
  • How do cations and anions form? (
  • The cations and anions together form an ionically bonded compound. (
  • How do the sizes of cations and anions relate to the atoms they form from? (
  • are called ions - cations and anions. (
  • Recent developments in the area of anion recognition and sensing have produced a variety of new selective receptors for anions. (
  • While the molecules have a neutral charge overall, their structure causes them to exhibit electro-positive properties and bind with weakly coordinating anions that were once thought to be incapable of being captured by molecular receptors. (
  • A novel class of anion receptors with with C-H···X - hydrogen bonding is introduced and demonstrated for Cl - , Br - , NO 3 - and HSO 4 - recognition. (
  • This article looks back at advances made in anion complexation since the turn of the millennium and ahead to the application of receptors in areas such as organocatalysis and nanotechnology. (
  • 13 Additionally progress has been made in the assembly both of anion receptors from metals and simple organic components, 14 and the generation of interlocked species using anionic templates. (
  • This finding offers the prospect of enhancing the reactivity of bound species using anion receptors-effectively using these compounds as organocatalysts. (
  • Anions are of great importance in the environment and health, thus it is no wonder that a great deal of research has been conducted to create synthetic receptors that can bind to various anions. (
  • Calix[n]pyrroles (n ≥ 4) are venerable anion receptors that are based on single pyrroles and ketones as building blocks. (
  • Selective complexation of anions is more demanding than that of cations due to the several aspects.1 Even though Beer2 and Reinhoudt3 reported several examples of anion receptors recently, much less successful receptors than those of cations are reported. (
  • Anions such as low molecular weight organic acids (formate, acetate, propionate, etc.) that are conductive coelute with fluoride and would bias fluoride quantitation in some drinking waters and most wastewaters. (
  • It shows interesting NIR lanthanide luminescence sensing towards anions, especially to fluoride at the ppm level. (
  • If your results show a high anion gap, you may have acidosis, which means higher than normal levels of acid in the blood. (
  • Brubaker RH, Meseeha M. High Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis. (
  • Metabolic acidosis, normal anion gap is a sample topic from the Diagnosaurus . (
  • Zeiger, Roni F.. "Metabolic Acidosis, Normal Anion Gap. (
  • 5minute , (
  • How is metabolic acidosis classified in relation to the anion gap (AG)? (
  • Non-Anion Gap Metabolic Acidosis: A Clinical Approach to Evaluation. (
  • What can affect the anion gap (AG) in the workup of metabolic acidosis? (
  • Electrophysiological studies have shown that a broad variety of monova-lent anions can be transported, and in the case of FocA these match exactly the products of mixed-acid fermentation, the predominant metabolic pathway for most enterobacterial species. (
  • 10 mmol l -1 ) are required for the anion exchange process and could be the result of both a high metabolic activity of the intestinal epithelium and a close association of the anion exchange protein and the enzyme carbonic anhydrase. (
  • Heteropoly acids and their salts may be formed by coordination of the central atom with four to six oxo anions, which may be mononuclear (containing one metal ion each), as in H 7 [P(MoO 4 ) 6 ], or trinuclear (containing three metal ions each), as in H 3 [P(W 3 O 10 ) 4 ]. (
  • All heteropolymolybdate and heteropolytungstate anions are decomposed in strongly basic solution to form simple molybdate or tungstate ions and either an oxy anion or a hydrous metal oxide of the central metal atom, e.g. (
  • Nonmetals generally are more electronegative than metals, meaning that they have a stronger pull on their electrons - thus when they form ions, metals give up electrons (forming cations) and nonmetals take up electrons (forming anions). (
  • Atoms of Metals lose electrons to empty their outer shell and become positive ions or cations.Atoms of non-metals gain electrons to fill their outer shell and become negative ions or anions. (
  • Gaining or losing electrons atoms become ions (anions or cations). (
  • Fe(CN) 5 NOS] 4- complex anion formed in the presence of sulphide ions is the cause for this coloration.colouration is important. (
  • We have crystallized ECP in complex with sulfate anions in a new monoclinic crystal form. (
  • Supramolecular Chemistry of Anions , A. Bianchi, K. Bowman-James, and E. García-España Eds. (
  • This chapter focuses on the chemistry of boryl anions. (
  • The following fourth section describes chemistry of boryl-substituted main group element compounds made from boryl anions. (
  • Except in the case of the very few of them that have been prepared by classical reactions of aqueous chemistry, such as K 2 H 5 (PO 4 )(P 2 O 7 ) and K 2 H 8 (PO 4 )2(P 2 O 7 ), there are no rules for the chemical preparation of these mixed-anion phosphates. (
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (
  • The field of anion receptor chemistry initiated in the late 1960s by Shriver and Biallas 1 and by Park and Simmons 2 was slow to develop in the subsequent two decades. (
  • The invention relates to the field of chemistry, and in particular to substituted and derivatized polyhedral borate and carborate anions and radicals useful in a variety of applications, for example, as weakly nucleophilic anions and/or as oxidizing agents. (
  • Some of the most elegant examples come from Kubik and co-workers who have developed a new class of anion receptor based on cyclic peptide subunits. (
  • Synthesis and properties of all existing boryl anions are summarized in the second section. (
  • I started my work with the synthesis of ZnO nanostructures focusing on the effect of different anions of zinc salts on the morphology and crystallinity of ZnO nanostructures. (
  • A novel anion concept of pseudo-delocalized anions, anions with distinct positive and negative charge regions, has been studied by a computer aided synthesis using DFT calculations. (
  • We observed that the medium containing zinc nitrate anions yields the nanorods, in a medium containing zinc acetate anions nano-candles are obtained. (
  • This chapter will discuss the efforts of our group and our collaborators in the areas of recognition and sensing of anionic species and of the roles of anions in assembly processes in solut ion and in the solid state. (
  • OATs are multispecific organic anion transporters, the substrates of which include both endogenous (e.g. cyclic nucleotides, prostaglandins, urate, dicarboxylates) and exogenous anions (various anionic drugs and environmental substances). (
  • SDS and other anionic detergents interfere with the binding of nucleic acids to QIAGEN resin by competing for binding to the anion-exchange groups. (
  • Effective design has allowed neutral hydrogen bond donor receptor species to bind anions in aqueous solution, so overcoming the enthalpic penalty that must be paid to dehydrate even the most strongly hydrated anionic guest prior to complexation. (
  • Double-layer concentration of diffusing anion is the maximum available anion concentration. (
  • Fig. 3: Variations in anion exchange and doping concentration with the strength of ionic interactions. (
  • The method detection limit (MDL), the minimum concentration of a substance that can be measured and reported with 99% confidence that the value is above zero, varies for anions as a function of sample size and the conductivity scale used. (
  • The upper limit of the method is dependent on total anion concentration and may be determined experimentally. (
  • Electrochemical potential for the apical anion exchange (AE) process calculated assuming intracellular Cl - concentration and apical membrane potential of 30 mmol l -1 and -100 mV, respectively, and using luminal Cl - and HCO 3 - concentrations from unfed gulf toadfish ( Taylor and Grosell, 2006a ) and different intracellular HCO 3 - concentrations ranging from 1.5 to 40 mmol l -1 (indicated by different symbols). (
  • Thus, the separation and purification qualities of QIAGEN resin, as well as its ease of use surpass those of conventional anion-exchange resins. (
  • This invention relates to resins suitable for the removal of anions from fluid media and to processes of purifying fluid media by means of such resins. (
  • Batch decolorization experiments were conducted with the crude filtered vancomycin broth by adding 1g (based on dry weight) of various anion exchange resins to 20mL of broth, and shaking the contents for four hours. (
  • Protein involved in the exchange of anions across a membrane. (
  • Despite an obvious cholesterol elevation, most excretory kidney functions, including organic anion excretion rate, are not influenced by the free cholesterol accumulation in proximal tubule cells, whereas some reabsorptive functions such as protein endocytosis and glucose reabsorption by the apical membrane appear to be vulnerable. (
  • When at least one group is CH.sub.2N(CH.sub.3).sub.3Br, the material functions as an anion exchange membrane. (
  • The composition can be used as anion-exchange membranes and as an electrode binder material in anion exchange membrane fuel cells. (
  • With a goal of developing a new anion exchange membrane technology with applications to fuel cells, electrolyzers, flow batteries and other energy conversion devices, they will evaluate new concepts in anion exchange membranes with low-cost polymer backbones and novel cations. (
  • The method and apparatus are further directed to enabling anions in the sample solution to be accurately analyzed by passing prescribed cations, through a prescribed membrane, into the sample solution, thereby depriving the sample solution of interfering anions otherwise abundantly present therein. (
  • A physical association of AE and carbonic anhydrase II (CAII) might explain how local HCO 3 - concentrations on the luminal side of the apical membrane can reach levels satisfying the thermodynamical conditions necessary for anion exchange. (
  • QIAGEN-tips contain a unique, patented anion-exchange resin which eliminates the need for expensive equipment and reagents such as ultracentrifuges, HPLC/FPLC‚ or CsCl. (
  • The key advantage of QIAGEN anion-exchange resin arises from its exceptionally high charge density. (
  • Plasmid DNA remains tightly bound to the DEAE groups over a wide range of salt concentrations (see figure Separation of nucleic acids at neutral pH on QIAGEN anion-exchange resin ). (
  • The separation range of QIAGEN resin is extremely broad, extending from 0.1 M to 1.6 M salt (see figure Separation of nucleic acids at neutral pH on QIAGEN anion-exchange resin ), and DNA can be efficiently separated from RNA and other impurities. (
  • Still another object of the present invention is to prepare an anion active resin from epichlorohydrin and a polyamine. (
  • The second object is attained by contacting a fluid containing anions with an insoluble resin prepared in the manner described above. (
  • The inorganic P extracted with anion exchange resin ([Pi. (
  • Elements with more electrons than protons form an anion. (
  • When it reacts with the I 3 - anion, the nitrite ion reduces itself to nitric oxide. (
  • The realisation that very simple organic compounds can function as selective and effective anion receptor systems has led to work on studying the ability of simple off-the-shelf compounds such as catechol , 16 and of a wide range of commercially available compounds containing NH and OH hydrogen bond donor groups, 19 as selective anion sensors. (
  • Can you name the causes of a raised anion gap acidosis? (
  • More remarkable than the formation of zero-oxidation-state metal carbonyls is the reduction of many of these carbonyl compounds to metal carbonyl anions, in which the metal has a negative oxidation state. (
  • 3) Electron-poor aromatic compounds undergo nucleophilic aromatic substitution in the presence of nitrile anions. (
  • Why do nonmetal atoms form anions when they react to form compounds? (
  • We briefly surveyed metal-rich and intermetallic compounds containing metal anions that have been characterized by density functional calculations. (
  • Handbook of Anion Determination is a guidebook that details various methods that can be employed in determining anions. (
  • To provide an analytical method for the quantitative determination of perchlorate anion in fruits, vegetables, milk, low moisture foods, infant foods, and water. (
  • Organic anion transporters play important roles in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body. (
  • The OAT family represents the renal secretory pathway for organic anions and is also involved in the distribution of organic anions in the body. (
  • It facilitates the efflux of organic anions including monoanionic bile acid and anti-cancer reagents such as etoposide and paclitaxel from liver and small intestine into blood (4-7). (
  • The amphoteric metals of groups VB ( vanadium , niobium , and tantalum ) and VIB ( chromium , molybdenum , and tungsten ) in the +5 and +6 oxidation states, respectively, form weak acids that readily condense (polymerize) to form anions containing several molecules of the acid anhydride . (
  • A tricarboxylic acid anion obtained by deprotonation of at least one of the carboxy groups of citric acid. (
  • A carboxylic acid anion formed when the carboxy group of a monocarboxylic acid is deprotonated. (
  • An anion gap blood test is a way to check the levels of acid in your blood. (
  • Your health care provider may have ordered an anion gap blood test if you have signs of an imbalance in your blood acid levels. (
  • The anion gap blood test can provide important information about the acid and base balance in your blood. (
  • The serum anion gap in the evaluation of acid-base disorders: What are its limitations and can its effectiveness be improved? (
  • Measured standard BE level was significantly less as compared to unmeasured anion effect on BE, in both the groups.Simplified Fencl-Stewart equation is effective in identifying a mixed acid-base disorder, which otherwise would remain undetected. (
  • The reaction below indicates that the addition of an acid (HA, where H + is combined with an unmeasured anion A - ) results in the consumption of HCO 3 - with an addition of anions that will account for the increase in the AG. (
  • Clinical utility of anion gap in deciphering acid-base disorders. (
  • The separated anions in their acid form are measured using an electrical-conductivity cell. (
  • Activity is inhibited by 4,4'-Di-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS - an inhibitor of several anion channels and transporters). (
  • A novel fluorescence chemosensor array composed of pyrenylboronic acid-based probes for multi- anion detection has been developed. (
  • The pyrenylboronic acid derivatives showed fluorescence quenching or enhancement due to photoinduced electron transfer originating from anion binding. (
  • However, to the best of our knowledge, general methods to distinguish the multiple anions simultaneously using simple boronic acid-based chemosensors have not been established owing to the complex interference among analytes. (
  • The anion exchange activity in vivo is likely most pronounced in the anterior segment and results in net intestinal acid absorption. (
  • Low cost, durable, commercially viable polymer-based anion exchange membranes are the focus of a $2,300,000 grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to an industry, government, university collaboration including Penn State. (
  • This important university, industry, government lab collaboration has the potential to move the field forward in new anion exchange membranes," said Hickner. (
  • The molecules bind in 2-to-1 sandwich-shaped complexes, with the anion sandwiched between two saucer-like cyanostars. (
  • Electron anions (center green blob) pair up in the center of molecular cages and lower the temperature at which glass forms in C12A7 electride. (
  • This demonstration of increased doping levels, increased stability and excellent transport properties shows that anion-exchange doping, which can use an almost infinite selection of ionic salts, could be a powerful tool for the realization of advanced molecular electronics. (
  • The compound's anion-sequestering abilities could find applications in environmental remediation of perchlorate and molecular sensing of biological phosphates. (
  • The team simulated Hosono's lab experiments using molecular dynamics software that could capture the movement of both the atoms and the electron anions in both the melted material and glass. (
  • If your results show a low anion gap, it may mean you have a low level of albumin, a protein in the blood. (
  • 1.6 Using alternate separator column and eluents may permit additional anions such as acetate, formate, or citrate to be determined. (
  • Know the definition for ANION ? (
  • Johnny discovered Anion, we liked the word itself as well as the definition associated with it, which relates to our negative and ugly music, so it was a perfect fit," says bass player Cole Benoit. (
  • Substituted borate and carborate anions having unusual properties of being exceptionally weakly nucleophilic and being soluble in non-polar solvents. (
  • There has been a consistent effort to develop anions that are very weakly nucleophilic. (
  • None of the known weakly nucleophilic anions meet these criteria. (
  • Among the known anions displaying some of the above properties, certain deltahedral closo-carborate anions (CB 11 H 12 1- ) have been shown to be both weakly coordinating and weakly nucleophilic (Reed, C. A. et al. (
  • Utilization of conducting nanostructured polymers as well as choice of a suitable anion dopant type are among the key features of the research that has led to the accurate nanosensor which maintains favorable performance at low temperatures and offers a conveniently short response time," Sajjad Pirsa pointed out. (
  • This process is mediated by an ionic liquid solvent and can be pictured as the effective instantaneous exchange of a conventional small p-type dopant anion with a second anion provided by an ionic liquid. (
  • The introduction of optimized ionic salt (the ionic liquid solvent) into a conventional binary donor-acceptor system can overcome the redox potential limitations described by Marcus theory 5 , and allows an anion-exchange efficiency of nearly 100 per cent. (
  • Anions and cations are held together by ionic bonds. (
  • Here we describe a different process-which we term 'anion exchange'-that might offer improved doping levels. (
  • Fig. 1: Summary of anion-exchange doping. (
  • Use a strong anion-exchange column with the Thermo Scientific™ DNASwift™ SAX-1S Oligonucleotide Column that provides exceptionally high resolution for the purification of oligonucleotides. (
  • Exchange reactions of anions, especially ferrocyanide and carbonate, with layered double hydroxides (LDHs) were investigated in relation to the origin of life on the early Earth. (
  • Two parallel systems, the Na + , Cl - and the Na + ,K + ,2Cl - cotransporters account for Na + , K + and a portion of Cl - absorption, with the remaining Cl - uptake occurring via anion exchange (AE). (
  • It is now being recognized that intestinal anion exchange is responsible for high luminal HCO 3 - and CO 3 2- concentrations while at the same time contributing substantially to intestinal Cl - and thereby water absorption, which is vital for marine fish osmoregulation. (
  • The basolateral H + extrusion is critical for the apical anion exchange and relies on the Na + gradient established by the Na + -K + -ATPase. (
  • Anion exchange may also be used chromatographically, to separate anions, and, medicinally, to remove an anion (for example, Cl - ) from gastric contents or bile acids in the intestine. (
  • Anion exchange may also be used chromatographically, to separate anions, and medicinally, to remove an anion (e.g. (
  • 4X08: Structure of H128N/ECP mutant in complex with sulphate anions at 1.34 Angstroms. (
  • Structure of H128N/ECP mutant in complex with sulphate anions at 1.34 Angstroms. (
  • Throughout specific ranges of pH and other conditions, most solutions of heteropolymolybdates and heteropolytungstates appear to contain predominantly one distinct species of anion, many of which are remarkably stable and nonlabile. (
  • A single protonable residue, a histidine, plays a key role by tran-siently protonating the transported anion to allow an uncharged species to pass the hydrophobic barrier. (
  • Anions are important species in the natural world and are critically involved in almost the full range of known chemical process. (
  • Seven anions were separated on a Metrosep A Supp 5 - 100/4.0 column using 3.2 mmol/L sodium carbonate/1.0 mmol/L sodium bicarbonate eluent followed by chemical suppression and conductivity detection. (
  • The last column is a suppressor column that reduces the background conductivity of the eluent to a low or negligible level and converts the anions in the sample to their corresponding acids. (
  • The bonds that the electron anions formed between the metal atoms were weaker than bonds between metal and oxygen atoms. (
  • In new work, researchers show how C12A7 components called electron anions help to transform crystalline C12A7 into semiconducting glass. (
  • They suspected components of the electride known as electron anions were responsible. (
  • This movement allowed a small number of electron anions to have a greater effect on the glass transition temperature than much larger quantities of minerals typically used as additives in glasses. (
  • The second part of your qualitative analysis experiment is the testing of anions. (
  • In contrast, conventional anion-exchangers, based on cellulose, dextran, or agarose, have separation ranges only up to 0.4 M salt, so that binding and elution of all substances is limited to a narrow range of salt concentrations. (