Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Voltage-dependent anion channel 2 is a low abundance mammalian isoform of VDAC that interacts with the inactive form of BAK PROTEIN.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Bicarbonate transporters that move BICARBONATE IONS in exchange of CHLORIDE IONS or SODIUM IONS across membranes. They regulate acid-base HOMEOSTASIS, cell volume and intracellular pH. Members include CHLORIDE-BICARBONATE ANTIPORTERS (SLC4A1, 2, 3, and 9); SODIUM-COUPLED BICARBONATE TRANSPORTERS (SLC4A4 and 5, 7, 8 and 10); and a sodium borate cotransporter (SLC4A11 protein).
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
An organic anion transporter found in human liver. It is capable of transporting a variety organic anions and mediates sodium-independent uptake of bile in the liver.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Phenolic metacyclophanes derived from condensation of PHENOLS and ALDEHYDES. The name derives from the vase-like molecular structures. A bracketed [n] indicates the number of aromatic rings.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.
Inorganic or organic salts and esters of nitric acid. These compounds contain the NO3- radical.
Disturbances in the ACID-BASE EQUILIBRIUM of the body.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Salts or ions of the theoretical carbonic acid, containing the radical CO2(3-). Carbonates are readily decomposed by acids. The carbonates of the alkali metals are water-soluble; all others are insoluble. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Solutions that have a lesser osmotic pressure than a reference solution such as blood, plasma, or interstitial fluid.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Compounds that contain the Cl(=O)(=O)(=O)O- structure. Included under this heading is perchloric acid and the salts and ester forms of perchlorate.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
An iron-molybdenum flavoprotein containing FLAVIN-ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE that oxidizes hypoxanthine, some other purines and pterins, and aldehydes. Deficiency of the enzyme, an autosomal recessive trait, causes xanthinuria.
Substances that influence the course of a chemical reaction by ready combination with free radicals. Among other effects, this combining activity protects pancreatic islets against damage by cytokines and prevents myocardial and pulmonary perfusion injuries.
Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Inorganic compounds that contain the OH- group.
An anionic compound that is used as a reagent for determination of potassium, ammonium, rubidium, and cesium ions. It also uncouples oxidative phosphorylation and forms complexes with biological materials, and is used in biological assays.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Granular leukocytes having a nucleus with three to five lobes connected by slender threads of chromatin, and cytoplasm containing fine inconspicuous granules and stainable by neutral dyes.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A strong oxidizing agent used in aqueous solution as a ripening agent, bleach, and topical anti-infective. It is relatively unstable and solutions deteriorate over time unless stabilized by the addition of acetanilide or similar organic materials.
Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS whose transport of organic anions is driven either directly or indirectly by a gradient of sodium ions.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).

The stimulatory effects of Hofmeister ions on the activities of neuronal nitric-oxide synthase. Apparent substrate inhibition by l-arginine is overcome in the presence of protein-destabilizing agents. (1/2355)

A variety of monovalent anions and cations were effective in stimulating both calcium ion/calmodulin (Ca2+/CaM)-independent NADPH-cytochrome c reductase activity of, and Ca2+/CaM-dependent nitric oxide (NO.) synthesis by, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). The efficacy of the ions in stimulating both activities could be correlated, in general, with their efficacy in precipitating or stabilizing certain proteins, an order referred to as the Hofmeister ion series. In the hemoglobin capture assay, used for measurement of NO. production, apparent substrate inhibition by L-arginine was almost completely reversed by the addition of sodium perchlorate (NaClO4), one of the more effective protein-destabilizing agents tested. Examination of this phenomenon by the assay of L-arginine conversion to L-citrulline revealed that the stimulatory effect of NaClO4 on the reaction was observed only in the presence of oxyhemoglobin or superoxide anion (generated by xanthine and xanthine oxidase), both scavengers of NO. Spectrophotometric examination of nNOS revealed that the addition of NaClO4 and a superoxide-generating system, but neither alone, prevented the increase of heme absorption at 436 nm, which has been attributed to the nitrosyl complex. The data are consistent with the release of autoinhibitory NO. coordinated to the prosthetic group of nNOS, which, in conjunction with an NO. scavenger, causes stimulation of the reaction.  (+info)

Reactivity of cyanate with valine-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin. A probe of conformational change and anion binding. (2/2355)

The 3-fold increase in the carbamylation rate of Val-1 (alpha) of hemoglobin upon deoxygenation described earlier is now shown to be a sensitive probe of conformational change. Thus, whereas this residue in methemoglobin A is carbamylated at the same rate as in liganded hemoglobin, upon addition of inositol hexaphosphate its carbamylation rate is enhanced 30% as much as the total change in the rate between the CO and deoxy states. For CO-hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of the organic phosphate, the relative increase in the carbamylation rate of this residue is about 50%. These results indicate that methemoglobin A and hemoglobin Kansas in the presence of inositol hexaphosphate do not assume a conformation identical with deoxyhemoglobin but rather form either a mixture of R and T states or an intermediate conformation in the region around Val-1 (alpha). Studies on the mechanism for the rate enhancement in deoxyhemoglobin suggest that the cyanate anion binds to groups in the vicinity of Val-1 (alpha) prior to proton transfer and carbamylation of this NH2-terminal residue. Thus, specific removal with carboxypeptidase B of Arg-141 (alpha), which is close to Val-1 (alpha) in deoxyhemoglobin, abolishes the enhancement in carbamylation. Chloride, which has the same valency as cyanate, is a better competitive inhibitor of the carbamylation of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 50 mM) compared with liganded hemoglobin. Nitrate and iodide are also effective inhibitors of the carbamylation of Val-1 (alpha) of deoxyhemoglobin (Ki = 35 mM); inorganic phosphate, sulfate, and fluoride are poor competitive inhibitors. The change in pKa of Val-1 (alpha) upon deoxygenation may be due to its differential interaction with chloride.  (+info)

Distinct sensitivities of OmpF and PhoE porins to charged modulators. (3/2355)

The inhibition of the anion-selective PhoE porin by ATP and of the cation-selective OmpF porin by polyamines has been previously documented. In the present study, we have extended the comparison of the inhibitor-porin pairs by investigating the effect of anions (ATP and aspartate) and positively charged polyamines (spermine and cadaverine) on both OmpF and PhoE with the patch-clamp technique, and by comparing directly the gating kinetics of the channels modulated by their respective substrates. The novel findings reported here are (1) that the activity of PhoE is completely unaffected by polyamines, and (2) that the kinetic changes induced by ATP on PhoE or polyamines on OmpF suggest different mechanisms of inhibition. ATP induces a high degree of flickering in the PhoE-mediated current and appears to behave as a blocker of ion flow during its presumed transport through PhoE. Polyamines modulate the kinetics of openings and closings of OmpF, in addition to promoting a blocker-like flickering activity. The strong correlation between sensitivity to inhibitors and ion selectivity suggests that some common molecular determinants are involved in these two properties and is in agreement with the hypothesis that polyamines bind inside the pore of cationic porins.  (+info)

Regulation of a volume-sensitive anion channel in rat pancreatic beta-cells by intracellular adenine nucleotides. (4/2355)

1. The patch-clamp technique in the whole-cell configuration was used to measure the effects of intracellular adenine nucleotides on activity of the volume-sensitive anion channel in single, isolated rat pancreatic beta-cells. 2. In the absence of intracellular nucleotides, swelling of cells with a hypertonic pipette solution failed to activate the conductance. Addition of ATP over the range 2-10 mM maintaining the same degree of hypertonicity caused a progressive activation of the conductance. An increase in ATP produced a similar activation of the conductance in non-swollen cells, albeit with reduced current amplitudes. 3. Activation of the conductance was also observed in the presence of ATPgammaS, adenylyl imidophosphate (AMP-PNP), ADP, diadenosine tetraphosphate and GTPgammaS. Neither ADP nor GDPbetaS inhibited activation of the conductance by ATP. 4. It is concluded that activity of the beta-cell volume-sensitive anion channel can be modulated by changes in intracellular concentrations of ATP within the physiological concentration range by a mechanism that does not require nucleotide hydrolysis. Activity of the channel does not appear to be modulated by a G protein-coupled mechanism.  (+info)

Phospholipid-subclass-specific partitioning of lipophilic ions in membrane-water systems. (5/2355)

Herein, we systematically investigate phospholipid-subclass-specific alterations in the partitioning of both cationic and anionic amphiphiles to identify the importance of ester, ether and vinyl ether linkages at the sn-1 position of phospholipids in the partitioning of charged amphiphiles. The results demonstrated that the membrane-water partition coefficient of a prototypic cationic amphiphile (i.e. 3,3'-dipropylthiadicarbocyanine iodide) was approximately 2.5 times higher in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine in comparison with membranes comprised of either phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. In striking contrast, the membrane-water partition coefficient of a prototypic anionic amphiphile [i.e. bis-(1,3-dibutylbarbituric acid)trimethine oxonol] in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine was approximately 2.5 times lower than that manifest in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. Utilizing theseexperimentally determined partition coefficients,the relative membrane dipole potential of membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine was calculated and found to be approximately 25 mV lower than in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine or plasmanylcholine. This lower membrane dipole potential in membranes comprised of plasmenylcholine is equivalent to the membrane potential induced by incorporation of approximately 25 mol% of anionic phospholipids in membranes comprised of phosphatidylcholine. Collectively, these results demonstrate that phospholipid-subclass-specific differences in the membrane dipole potential contribute to alterations in the partitioning of lipophilic ions in membrane bilayers comprised of distinct phospholipid subclasses. Moreover, they suggest that these physicochemical differences can be exploited to facilitate the targeting of charged lipophilic drugs to specific cells and subcellular membrane compartments.  (+info)

Evidence for an anion exchange mechanism for uptake of conjugated bile acid from the rat jejunum. (6/2355)

Absorption of conjugated bile acids from the small intestine is very efficient. The mechanisms of jejunal absorption are not very well understood. The aim of this study was to clarify the mechanism of absorption of conjugated bile acid at the apical membrane of jejunal epithelial cells. Brush-border membrane vesicles from intestinal epithelial cells of the rat were prepared. Absorption of two taurine-conjugated bile acids that are representative of endogenous bile acids in many variate vertebrate species were studied. In ileal, but not jejunal brush-border membrane vesicles, transport of conjugated bile acids was cis-stimulated by sodium. Transport of conjugated bile acids was trans-stimulated by bicarbonate in the jejunum. Absorption of conjugated dihydroxy-bile acids was almost twice as fast as of trihydroxy-bile acids. Coincubation with other conjugated bile acids, bromosulfophthalein, and DIDS, as well as by incubation in the cold inhibited the transport rate effectively. Absorption of conjugated bile acids in the jejunum from the rat is driven by anion exchange and is most likely an antiport transport.  (+info)

Anion efflux from cytotrophoblast cells derived from normal term human placenta is stimulated by hyposmotic challenge and extracellular A23187 but not by membrane-soluble cAMP. (7/2355)

The regulation of placental anion transport influences fetal accretion and placental homeostasis. We investigated whether efflux of 125I- or 36Cl- from multinucleated cytotrophoblast cells derived from human term placenta is regulated by one of three stimuli: (a) the calcium ionophore A23187, (b) a 'cocktail' of agents designed to raise intracellular levels of cAMP, (c) a hyposmotic solution. After loading with the appropriate isotope for 2 h and thorough washing, cells were exposed to sequential aliquots of buffer applied and removed each minute. Following an equilibration period of 5 min one of the stimuli was applied at room temperature At the end of the experiment the cells were lysed to give a lysate count which was used to express the count obtained from each aliquot as percentage efflux of that possible for that minute. The cAMP 'cocktail' and A23187 were applied for 5 min; the hyposmotic solution was applied for 10 min. The results for 125I- at 7 min showed that the mean efflux in the presence of hyposmotic shock was greater than control (5.7 +/- 1.0% min-1 versus 2.2 +/- 0.1% min-1, respectively; mean +/- S.E.M., n = 4 placentas). Similarly mean efflux at 6 min in the presence of A23187 was also significantly greater than control (6.5 +/- 1.9% min-1 versus 2.6 +/- 1.0% min-1, respectively, n = 3 placentas). The mean efflux in the presence of the cAMP cocktail was not different from control at any time point. The results were qualitatively the same if 36Cl- was used in the place of 125I- and when the experiment was performed with 36Cl- in a HCO3- buffer gassed with CO2. Mean 125I- efflux at 6 min in response to hyposmotic challenge was 33% less (P < 0.01) in the presence of 1 mM 4,4'-diisothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulphonic acid (DIDS) and 37% less (P < 0.005) in the presence of 10 microM tamoxifen but no different if the hyposmotic solution was nominally calcium free. We conclude that there are differential effects of second messengers on anion efflux from the differentiated cytotrophoblast cells.  (+info)

Thermodynamic studies on anion binding to apotransferrin and to recombinant transferrin N-lobe half molecules. (8/2355)

Equilibrium constants for the binding of anions to apotransferrin, to the recombinant N-lobe half transferrin molecule (Tf/2N), and to a series of mutants of Tf/2N have been determined by difference UV titrations of samples in 0.1 M Hepes buffer at pH 7.4 and 25 degrees C. The anions included in this study are phosphate, sulfate, bicarbonate, pyrophosphate, methylenediphosphonic acid, and ethylenediphosphonic acid. There are no significant differences between anion binding to Tf/2N and anion binding to the N-lobe of apotransferrin. The binding of simple anions like phosphate appears to be essentially equivalent for the two apotransferrin binding sites. The binding of pyrophosphate and the diphosphonates is inequivalent, and the studies on the recombinant Tf/2N show that the stronger binding is associated with the N-terminal site. Anion binding constants for phosphate, pyrophosphate, and the diphosphonates with the N-lobe mutants K206A, K296A, and R124A have been determined. Anion binding tends to be weakest for the K296A mutant, but the variation in log K values among the three mutants is surprisingly small. It appears that the side chains of K206, K296, and R124 all make comparable contributions to anion binding. There are significant variations in the intensities of the peaks in the difference UV spectra that are generated by the titrations of the mutant apoproteins with these anions. These differences appear to be related more to variations in the molar extinction coefficients of the anion-protein complexes rather than to differences in binding constants.  (+info)

An anion is an ion that has a negative electrical charge because it has more electrons than protons. The term "anion" is derived from the Greek word "anion," which means "to go up" or "to move upward." This name reflects the fact that anions are attracted to positively charged electrodes, or anodes, and will move toward them during electrolysis.

Anions can be formed when a neutral atom or molecule gains one or more extra electrons. For example, if a chlorine atom gains an electron, it becomes a chloride anion (Cl-). Anions are important in many chemical reactions and processes, including the conduction of electricity through solutions and the formation of salts.

In medicine, anions may be relevant in certain physiological processes, such as acid-base balance. For example, the concentration of anions such as bicarbonate (HCO3-) and chloride (Cl-) in the blood can affect the pH of the body fluids and help maintain normal acid-base balance. Abnormal levels of anions may indicate the presence of certain medical conditions, such as metabolic acidosis or alkalosis.

Anion transport proteins are specialized membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of negatively charged ions, known as anions, across biological membranes. These proteins play a crucial role in maintaining ionic balance and regulating various physiological processes within the body.

There are several types of anion transport proteins, including:

1. Cl-/HCO3- exchangers (also known as anion exchangers or band 3 proteins): These transporters facilitate the exchange of chloride (Cl-) and bicarbonate (HCO3-) ions across the membrane. They are widely expressed in various tissues, including the red blood cells, gastrointestinal tract, and kidneys, where they help regulate pH, fluid balance, and electrolyte homeostasis.
2. Sulfate permeases: These transporters facilitate the movement of sulfate ions (SO42-) across membranes. They are primarily found in the epithelial cells of the kidneys, intestines, and choroid plexus, where they play a role in sulfur metabolism and absorption.
3. Cl- channels: These proteins form ion channels that allow chloride ions to pass through the membrane. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as neuronal excitability, transepithelial fluid transport, and cell volume regulation.
4. Cation-chloride cotransporters: These transporters move both cations (positively charged ions) and chloride anions together across the membrane. They are involved in regulating neuronal excitability, cell volume, and ionic balance in various tissues.

Dysfunction of anion transport proteins has been implicated in several diseases, such as cystic fibrosis (due to mutations in the CFTR Cl- channel), distal renal tubular acidosis (due to defects in Cl-/HCO3- exchangers), and some forms of epilepsy (due to abnormalities in cation-chloride cotransporters).

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are membrane transport proteins that are responsible for the cellular uptake and excretion of various organic anions, such as drugs, toxins, and endogenous metabolites. They are found in various tissues, including the kidney, liver, and brain, where they play important roles in the elimination and detoxification of xenobiotics and endogenous compounds.

In the kidney, OATs are located in the basolateral membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells and mediate the uptake of organic anions from the blood into the cells. From there, the anions can be further transported into the urine by other transporters located in the apical membrane. In the liver, OATs are expressed in the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes and facilitate the uptake of organic anions from the blood into the liver cells for metabolism and excretion.

There are several isoforms of OATs that have been identified, each with distinct substrate specificities and tissue distributions. Mutations in OAT genes can lead to various diseases, including renal tubular acidosis, hypercalciuria, and drug toxicity. Therefore, understanding the function and regulation of OATs is important for developing strategies to improve drug delivery and reduce adverse drug reactions.

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of organic anions across biological membranes. The term "sodium-independent" refers to the fact that these particular OATs do not require the presence of sodium ions for their transport function.

Sodium-independent OATs are a subgroup of the larger family of organic anion transporters, which also includes sodium-dependent OATs. These transporters play important roles in the elimination and distribution of various endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including drugs, toxins, and metabolic waste products.

In the kidney, for example, sodium-independent OATs are located in the basolateral membrane of renal tubular epithelial cells and are involved in the secretion and reabsorption of organic anions. They help maintain the balance of these compounds in the body by facilitating their movement into and out of cells, often in conjunction with other transport proteins that move these compounds across the apical membrane of the tubular epithelial cells.

Overall, sodium-independent OATs are important for the proper functioning of various physiological processes, including drug disposition, toxin elimination, and waste product clearance.

Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels (VDACs) are large protein channels found in the outer mitochondrial membrane. They play a crucial role in the regulation of metabolite and ion exchange between the cytosol and the mitochondria. VDACs are permeable to anions such as chloride, phosphate, and bicarbonate ions, as well as to small molecules and metabolites like ATP, ADP, NADH, and others.

The voltage-dependent property of these channels arises from the fact that their permeability can be modulated by changes in the membrane potential across the outer mitochondrial membrane. At low membrane potentials, VDACs are predominantly open and facilitate the flow of metabolites and ions. However, as the membrane potential becomes more positive, VDACs can transition to a closed or partially closed state, which restricts ion and metabolite movement.

VDACs have been implicated in various cellular processes, including apoptosis, calcium homeostasis, and energy metabolism. Dysregulation of VDAC function has been associated with several pathological conditions, such as neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and ischemia-reperfusion injury.

Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1 (VDAC1) is a protein channel found in the outer mitochondrial membrane. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of metabolite and ion exchange between the cytosol and the mitochondria. VDAC1 is voltage-dependent, meaning that its permeability to anions (negatively charged ions) changes based on the electrical potential across the membrane. This channel is also known as the mitochondrial porin. Its dysfunction has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases and cancer.

Superoxides are partially reduced derivatives of oxygen that contain one extra electron, giving them an overall charge of -1. They are highly reactive and unstable, with the most common superoxide being the hydroxyl radical (•OH-) and the superoxide anion (O2-). Superoxides are produced naturally in the body during metabolic processes, particularly within the mitochondria during cellular respiration. They play a role in various physiological processes, but when produced in excess or not properly neutralized, they can contribute to oxidative stress and damage to cells and tissues, potentially leading to the development of various diseases such as cancer, atherosclerosis, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Chlorides are simple inorganic ions consisting of a single chlorine atom bonded to a single charged hydrogen ion (H+). Chloride is the most abundant anion (negatively charged ion) in the extracellular fluid in the human body. The normal range for chloride concentration in the blood is typically between 96-106 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Chlorides play a crucial role in maintaining electrical neutrality, acid-base balance, and osmotic pressure in the body. They are also essential for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission, maintenance of membrane potentials, and digestion (as hydrochloric acid in the stomach).

Chloride levels can be affected by several factors, including diet, hydration status, kidney function, and certain medical conditions. Increased or decreased chloride levels can indicate various disorders, such as dehydration, kidney disease, Addison's disease, or diabetes insipidus. Therefore, monitoring chloride levels is essential for assessing a person's overall health and diagnosing potential medical issues.

Anion exchange resins are a type of ion exchange resin that are positively charged and used to remove anions (negatively charged ions) from aqueous solutions. These resins contain functional groups such as quaternary ammonium or tertiary amine groups, which can attract and retain anions like chloride, sulfate, or nitrate ions.

Anion exchange resins are commonly used in water treatment to remove excess dissolved salts, heavy metals, and other impurities from drinking water, industrial wastewater, and process water. They can also be used in the pharmaceutical industry for the purification of drugs and biomolecules, as well as in research and analytical applications.

When anions come into contact with the resin, they are attracted to the positively charged functional groups and exchanged for hydroxide ions (OH-) present on the resin surface. This exchange results in the formation of water and the release of the anion from the resin. The resin can then be regenerated by washing it with a strong base, which replaces the hydroxide ions and restores its ability to exchange anions.

Overall, anion exchange resins are important tools for removing unwanted anions from various types of solutions, including water, biological samples, and industrial process streams.

In medical terms, "bromides" refer to salts or compounds that contain bromine, a chemical element. Historically, potassium bromide was used as a sedative and anticonvulsant in the 19th and early 20th centuries. However, its use has largely been discontinued due to side effects such as neurotoxicity and kidney damage.

In modern medical language, "bromides" can also refer to something that is unoriginal, dull, or lacking in creativity, often used to describe ideas or expressions that are trite or clichéd. This usage comes from the fact that bromide salts were once commonly used as a sedative and were associated with a lack of excitement or energy.

Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 2 (VDAC2) is a protein channel found in the outer mitochondrial membrane. It plays a crucial role in the regulation of metabolite and ion exchange between the cytosol and the mitochondria. VDAC2 is a member of the VDAC family, which includes VDAC1 and VDAC3. These channels are permeable to anions and cations, and their permeability is influenced by the membrane potential. VDAC2 has been implicated in various cellular processes, including apoptosis, calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial dynamics. Mutations in the VDAC2 gene have been associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy and neurodegenerative diseases.

'4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid' is a chemical compound that is often used in research and scientific studies. Its molecular formula is C14H10N2O6S2. This compound is a derivative of stilbene, which is a type of organic compound that consists of two phenyl rings joined by a ethylene bridge. In '4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid', the hydrogen atoms on the carbon atoms of the ethylene bridge have been replaced with isothiocyanate groups (-N=C=S), and the phenyl rings have been sulfonated (introduction of a sulfuric acid group, -SO3H) to increase its water solubility.

This compound is often used as a fluorescent probe in biochemical and cell biological studies due to its ability to form covalent bonds with primary amines, such as those found on proteins. This property allows researchers to label and track specific proteins or to measure the concentration of free primary amines in a sample.

It is important to note that '4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid' is a hazardous chemical and should be handled with care, using appropriate personal protective equipment and safety measures.

p-Aminohippuric acid (PAH) is a small organic compound that is primarily used as a diagnostic agent in measuring renal plasma flow. It is freely filtered by the glomeruli and almost completely secreted by the proximal tubules of the kidney. This makes it an ideal candidate for measuring effective renal plasma flow, as changes in its clearance can indicate alterations in renal function.

In a medical context, PAH is often used in conjunction with other tests to help diagnose and monitor kidney diseases or conditions that affect renal function. The compound is typically administered intravenously, and its clearance is then measured through blood or urine samples collected over a specific period. This information can be used to calculate the renal plasma flow and assess the overall health of the kidneys.

It's important to note that while PAH is a valuable tool in clinical nephrology, it should be used as part of a comprehensive diagnostic workup and interpreted in conjunction with other test results and clinical findings.

4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid is a chemical compound that is often used in research and scientific studies. It is a type of stilbene derivative, which is a class of compounds characterized by the presence of a central double bond flanked by two phenyl rings.

In this particular compound, one of the phenyl rings has been substituted with an acetamido group (-NH-C(=O)CH3), while the other phenyl ring has been substituted with an isothiocyanato group (-N=C=S) and two sulfonic acid groups (-SO3H).

The compound is often used as a fluorescent probe in biochemical and cellular studies, as it exhibits strong fluorescence when bound to certain proteins or other biological molecules. It can be used to study the interactions between these molecules and to investigate their structure and function.

It's important to note that this compound is not approved for medical use in humans and should only be handled by trained professionals in a controlled laboratory setting.

Bicarbonates, also known as sodium bicarbonate or baking soda, is a chemical compound with the formula NaHCO3. In the context of medical definitions, bicarbonates refer to the bicarbonate ion (HCO3-), which is an important buffer in the body that helps maintain normal pH levels in blood and other bodily fluids.

The balance of bicarbonate and carbonic acid in the body helps regulate the acidity or alkalinity of the blood, a condition known as pH balance. Bicarbonates are produced by the body and are also found in some foods and drinking water. They work to neutralize excess acid in the body and help maintain the normal pH range of 7.35 to 7.45.

In medical testing, bicarbonate levels may be measured as part of an electrolyte panel or as a component of arterial blood gas (ABG) analysis. Low bicarbonate levels can indicate metabolic acidosis, while high levels can indicate metabolic alkalosis. Both conditions can have serious consequences if not treated promptly and appropriately.

Solute carrier family 4A (anion exchanger) proteins, also known as SLC4A proteins, are a group of membrane transport proteins that facilitate the exchange of bicarbonate (HCO3-) and chloride (Cl-) ions across biological membranes. They play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including pH regulation, intracellular signaling, and fluid secretion/absorption in different tissues such as the kidney, brain, and red blood cells.

There are several members of this protein family, including:

1. SLC4A1 (AE1): Also known as band 3 anion transport protein, it is primarily expressed in the erythrocyte membrane and facilitates chloride-bicarbonate exchange. It also plays a role in carbon dioxide transport and maintaining the stability of red blood cells.
2. SLC4A2 (AE2): Expressed in various tissues, including the kidney, gastrointestinal tract, and brain. AE2 mediates chloride-bicarbonate exchange in these tissues and is involved in pH regulation and fluid secretion/absorption.
3. SLC4A3 (AE3): Found mainly in the heart, skeletal muscle, and brain, where it facilitates chloride-bicarbonate exchange. AE3 plays a role in regulating intracellular pH during muscle contraction and neuronal activity.
4. SLC4A4 (NBCe1): Expressed primarily in the kidney and brain, NBCe1 is a sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter that mediates the uptake of bicarbonate into cells. It plays a critical role in maintaining acid-base balance by reabsorbing bicarbonate from the urine filtrate in the kidney.
5. SLC4A5 (NBCe2): Found in various tissues, including the kidney and brain, NBCe2 is another sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter that facilitates bicarbonate uptake into cells. It contributes to pH regulation and acid-base balance.
6. SLC4A7 (NBCn1): Present in various tissues, including the eye, brain, and heart, NBCn1 is a sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter that mediates bicarbonate efflux from cells. It plays a role in maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis and has been implicated in certain diseases such as epilepsy and glaucoma.
7. SLC4A8 (NDCBE): Expressed mainly in the brain, NDCBE is a sodium-dependent chloride-bicarbonate exchanger that plays a role in regulating intracellular pH during neuronal activity.
8. SLC4A9 (AE4): Found primarily in the gastrointestinal tract and kidney, AE4 is a chloride-bicarbonate exchanger involved in pH regulation and fluid secretion/absorption.
9. SLC4A10 (NBCn2): Expressed mainly in the eye, NBCn2 is a sodium-bicarbonate cotransporter that plays a role in maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis and has been implicated in certain diseases such as epilepsy.
10. SLC4A11 (BTR1): Present in various tissues, including the eye and inner ear, BTR1 is a sodium-dependent borate cotransporter that plays a role in maintaining intracellular pH homeostasis and has been implicated in certain diseases such as Fuchs endothelial corneal dystrophy.

In the context of medicine and biology, sulfates are ions or compounds that contain the sulfate group (SO4−2). Sulfate is a polyatomic anion with the structure of a sphere. It consists of a central sulfur atom surrounded by four oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.

Sulfates can be found in various biological molecules, such as glycosaminoglycans and proteoglycans, which are important components of connective tissue and the extracellular matrix. Sulfate groups play a crucial role in these molecules by providing negative charges that help maintain the structural integrity and hydration of tissues.

In addition to their biological roles, sulfates can also be found in various medications and pharmaceutical compounds. For example, some laxatives contain sulfate salts, such as magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) or sodium sulfate, which work by increasing the water content in the intestines and promoting bowel movements.

It is important to note that exposure to high levels of sulfates can be harmful to human health, particularly in the form of sulfur dioxide (SO2), a common air pollutant produced by burning fossil fuels. Prolonged exposure to SO2 can cause respiratory problems and exacerbate existing lung conditions.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Sulfobromophthalein (BSP or bromsulphthalein) is not typically defined in a medical dictionary as it is a chemical compound. However, I can provide you with some information about its use in a medical context:

Sulfobromophthalein is a chemical compound primarily used for liver function tests. It is a dye that is injected into the patient's bloodstream, and then its clearance rate from the blood is measured to evaluate liver function. A healthy liver should quickly remove the dye from the blood and excrete it through the bile ducts into the digestive system. If the liver is not functioning properly, the clearance of sulfobromophthalein will be slower, leading to higher levels of the dye remaining in the bloodstream over time.

The test using sulfobromophthalein has largely been replaced by more modern and specific liver function tests; however, it was once widely used for assessing overall liver health and diagnosing conditions such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, and liver damage due to various causes.

Biological transport refers to the movement of molecules, ions, or solutes across biological membranes or through cells in living organisms. This process is essential for maintaining homeostasis, regulating cellular functions, and enabling communication between cells. There are two main types of biological transport: passive transport and active transport.

Passive transport does not require the input of energy and includes:

1. Diffusion: The random movement of molecules from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until equilibrium is reached.
2. Osmosis: The diffusion of solvent molecules (usually water) across a semi-permeable membrane from an area of lower solute concentration to an area of higher solute concentration.
3. Facilitated diffusion: The assisted passage of polar or charged substances through protein channels or carriers in the cell membrane, which increases the rate of diffusion without consuming energy.

Active transport requires the input of energy (in the form of ATP) and includes:

1. Primary active transport: The direct use of ATP to move molecules against their concentration gradient, often driven by specific transport proteins called pumps.
2. Secondary active transport: The coupling of the movement of one substance down its electrochemical gradient with the uphill transport of another substance, mediated by a shared transport protein. This process is also known as co-transport or counter-transport.

Probenecid is a medication that is primarily used to treat gout and hyperuricemia (high levels of uric acid in the blood). It works by decreasing the production of uric acid in the body and increasing its excretion through the kidneys.

In medical terms, probenecid is a uricosuric agent, which means it increases the urinary excretion of urate, the salt form of uric acid. It does this by inhibiting the reabsorption of urate in the proximal tubules of the kidneys, thereby promoting its elimination in the urine.

Probenecid is also used in conjunction with certain antibiotics, such as penicillin and cephalosporins, to increase their concentration in the body by reducing their excretion by the kidneys. This is known as probenecid-antibiotic interaction.

It's important to note that probenecid should be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, and its use may be contraindicated in certain medical conditions or in combination with specific medications.

Chloride channels are membrane proteins that form hydrophilic pores or gaps, allowing the selective passage of chloride ions (Cl-) across the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including regulation of neuronal excitability, maintenance of resting membrane potential, fluid and electrolyte transport, and pH and volume regulation of cells.

Chloride channels can be categorized into several groups based on their structure, function, and mechanism of activation. Some of the major classes include:

1. Voltage-gated chloride channels (ClC): These channels are activated by changes in membrane potential and have a variety of functions, such as regulating neuronal excitability and transepithelial transport.
2. Ligand-gated chloride channels: These channels are activated by the binding of specific ligands or messenger molecules, like GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) or glycine, and are involved in neurotransmission and neuromodulation.
3. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR): This is a chloride channel primarily located in the apical membrane of epithelial cells, responsible for secreting chloride ions and water to maintain proper hydration and mucociliary clearance in various organs, including the lungs and pancreas.
4. Calcium-activated chloride channels (CaCCs): These channels are activated by increased intracellular calcium concentrations and participate in various physiological processes, such as smooth muscle contraction, neurotransmitter release, and cell volume regulation.
5. Swelling-activated chloride channels (ClSwells): Also known as volume-regulated anion channels (VRACs), these channels are activated by cell swelling or osmotic stress and help regulate cell volume and ionic homeostasis.

Dysfunction of chloride channels has been implicated in various human diseases, such as cystic fibrosis, myotonia congenita, epilepsy, and certain forms of cancer.

Organic anion transport polypeptide C (OATPc or OATPC) is not a widely recognized or established term in the medical field. It seems that this terminology might be referring to one or more members of the organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs) family, specifically those localized to the canalicular membrane of hepatocytes.

OATPs are a group of membrane transporters primarily responsible for the uptake of various amphipathic organic molecules, including bile salts, steroid conjugates, thyroid hormones, and various drugs. They play a crucial role in the hepatic clearance and disposition of many endogenous and exogenous substances.

The term "OATPc" might be referring to OATP1B1 (SLCO1B1) and/or OATP1B3 (SLCO1B3), which are the two major isoforms found in the human liver's canalicular membrane. However, it is essential to note that there isn't a universally accepted or standardized definition for "OATPc."

To obtain accurate and reliable information, consult scientific literature, textbooks, or databases specializing in medical definitions and terminology.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Iodides are chemical compounds that contain iodine in the form of an iodide ion (I-). Iodide ions are negatively charged ions that consist of one iodine atom and an extra electron. Iodides are commonly found in dietary supplements and medications, and they are often used to treat or prevent iodine deficiency. They can also be used as expectorants to help thin and loosen mucus in the respiratory tract. Examples of iodides include potassium iodide (KI) and sodium iodide (NaI).

Ion channels are specialized transmembrane proteins that form hydrophilic pores or gaps in the lipid bilayer of cell membranes. They regulate the movement of ions (such as sodium, potassium, calcium, and chloride) across the cell membrane by allowing these charged particles to pass through selectively in response to various stimuli, including voltage changes, ligand binding, mechanical stress, or temperature changes. This ion movement is essential for many physiological processes, including electrical signaling, neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and maintenance of resting membrane potential. Ion channels can be categorized based on their activation mechanisms, ion selectivity, and structural features. Dysfunction of ion channels can lead to various diseases, making them important targets for drug development.

Calixarenes are a type of macrocyclic compound, which are formed by the condensation of certain phenolic compounds. The name "calixarene" comes from the Latin word "calyx," meaning "cup-shaped structure," and "arene," referring to the aromatic components of the molecule.

Calixarenes have a cup-like shape, with a hydrophobic cavity that can bind to various guest molecules through non-covalent interactions such as van der Waals forces, hydrogen bonding, and π-π stacking. The size and functionality of the cavity can be modified by changing the number and type of aromatic rings and substituents, making calixarenes useful in a variety of applications, including molecular recognition, catalysis, and drug delivery.

In medical contexts, calixarenes have been explored for their potential as drug delivery vehicles, due to their ability to encapsulate drugs within their hydrophobic cavities and release them in response to specific stimuli. They have also been studied for their potential use in diagnostic imaging, as they can be functionalized with radioactive isotopes or other contrast agents. However, further research is needed to fully understand the potential benefits and risks of using calixarenes in medical applications.

Ion exchange is not a medical term per se, but it is a process that is used in various medical and healthcare applications. Here's a general definition:

Ion exchange is a reversible chemical reaction where ions are exchanged between two electrolytes or between an electrolyte and a solid phase. In the context of medical and healthcare applications, ion exchange resins are often used to remove unwanted ions or to add beneficial ones in various settings such as water treatment, dialysis, and drug delivery systems.

In water treatment, for example, ion exchange resins can be used to soften hard water by exchanging calcium and magnesium ions with sodium ions. In hemodialysis, ion exchange membranes are used to selectively remove waste products and excess fluids from the blood of patients with kidney failure. Ion exchange resins are also used in some drug delivery systems to control the release of drugs in a targeted and sustained manner.

Thiocyanates are chemical compounds that contain the thiocyanate ion (SCN-), which consists of a sulfur atom, a carbon atom, and a nitrogen atom. The thiocyanate ion is formed by the removal of a hydrogen ion from thiocyanic acid (HSCN). Thiocyanates are used in various applications, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and industrial chemicals. In medicine, thiocyanates have been studied for their potential effects on the thyroid gland and their use as a treatment for cyanide poisoning. However, excessive exposure to thiocyanates can be harmful and may cause symptoms such as irritation of the eyes, skin, and respiratory tract, as well as potential impacts on thyroid function.

A cation is a type of ion, which is a charged particle, that has a positive charge. In chemistry and biology, cations are formed when a neutral atom loses one or more electrons during chemical reactions. The removal of electrons results in the atom having more protons than electrons, giving it a net positive charge.

Cations are important in many biological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and enzyme function. For example, sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), calcium (Ca2+), and magnesium (Mg2+) are all essential cations that play critical roles in various physiological functions.

In medical contexts, cations can also be relevant in the diagnosis and treatment of various conditions. For instance, abnormal levels of certain cations, such as potassium or calcium, can indicate specific diseases or disorders. Additionally, medications used to treat various conditions may work by altering cation concentrations or activity within the body.

Medical Definition:

Superoxide dismutase (SOD) is an enzyme that catalyzes the dismutation of superoxide radicals (O2-) into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). This essential antioxidant defense mechanism helps protect the body's cells from damage caused by reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are produced during normal metabolic processes and can lead to oxidative stress when their levels become too high.

There are three main types of superoxide dismutase found in different cellular locations:
1. Copper-zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZnSOD or SOD1) - Present mainly in the cytoplasm of cells.
2. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD or SOD2) - Located within the mitochondrial matrix.
3. Extracellular superoxide dismutase (EcSOD or SOD3) - Found in the extracellular spaces, such as blood vessels and connective tissues.

Imbalances in SOD levels or activity have been linked to various pathological conditions, including neurodegenerative diseases, cancer, and aging-related disorders.

Nitrates are chemical compounds that consist of a nitrogen atom bonded to three oxygen atoms (NO3-). In the context of medical science, nitrates are often discussed in relation to their use as medications or their presence in food and water.

As medications, nitrates are commonly used to treat angina (chest pain) caused by coronary artery disease. Nitrates work by relaxing and widening blood vessels, which improves blood flow and reduces the workload on the heart. Some examples of nitrate medications include nitroglycerin, isosorbide dinitrate, and isosorbide mononitrate.

In food and water, nitrates are naturally occurring compounds that can be found in a variety of vegetables, such as spinach, beets, and lettuce. They can also be present in fertilizers and industrial waste, which can contaminate groundwater and surface water sources. While nitrates themselves are not harmful, they can be converted into potentially harmful compounds called nitrites under certain conditions, particularly in the digestive system of young children or in the presence of bacteria such as those found in unpasteurized foods. Excessive levels of nitrites can react with hemoglobin in the blood to form methemoglobin, which cannot transport oxygen effectively and can lead to a condition called methemoglobinemia.

An acid-base imbalance refers to a disturbance in the normal balance of acids and bases in the body, which can lead to serious health consequences. The body maintains a delicate balance between acids and bases, which is measured by the pH level of the blood. The normal range for blood pH is between 7.35 and 7.45, with a pH below 7.35 considered acidic and a pH above 7.45 considered basic or alkaline.

Acid-base imbalances can occur due to various factors such as lung or kidney disease, diabetes, severe infections, certain medications, and exposure to toxins. The two main types of acid-base imbalances are acidosis (excess acid in the body) and alkalosis (excess base in the body).

Acidosis can be further classified into respiratory acidosis (caused by impaired lung function or breathing difficulties) and metabolic acidosis (caused by an accumulation of acid in the body due to impaired kidney function, diabetes, or other conditions).

Alkalosis can also be classified into respiratory alkalosis (caused by hyperventilation or excessive breathing) and metabolic alkalosis (caused by excessive loss of stomach acid or an excess intake of base-forming substances).

Symptoms of acid-base imbalances may include confusion, lethargy, shortness of breath, rapid heartbeat, nausea, vomiting, and muscle weakness. If left untreated, these conditions can lead to serious complications such as coma, seizures, or even death. Treatment typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the imbalance and may include medications, oxygen therapy, or fluid and electrolyte replacement.

Membrane potential is the electrical potential difference across a cell membrane, typically for excitable cells such as nerve and muscle cells. It is the difference in electric charge between the inside and outside of a cell, created by the selective permeability of the cell membrane to different ions. The resting membrane potential of a typical animal cell is around -70 mV, with the interior being negative relative to the exterior. This potential is generated and maintained by the active transport of ions across the membrane, primarily through the action of the sodium-potassium pump. Membrane potentials play a crucial role in many physiological processes, including the transmission of nerve impulses and the contraction of muscle cells.

Cell membrane permeability refers to the ability of various substances, such as molecules and ions, to pass through the cell membrane. The cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin, flexible barrier that surrounds all cells, controlling what enters and leaves the cell. Its primary function is to protect the cell's internal environment and maintain homeostasis.

The permeability of the cell membrane depends on its structure, which consists of a phospholipid bilayer interspersed with proteins. The hydrophilic (water-loving) heads of the phospholipids face outward, while the hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails face inward, creating a barrier that is generally impermeable to large, polar, or charged molecules.

However, specific proteins within the membrane, called channels and transporters, allow certain substances to cross the membrane. Channels are protein structures that span the membrane and provide a pore for ions or small uncharged molecules to pass through. Transporters, on the other hand, are proteins that bind to specific molecules and facilitate their movement across the membrane, often using energy in the form of ATP.

The permeability of the cell membrane can be influenced by various factors, such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain chemicals or drugs. Changes in permeability can have significant consequences for the cell's function and survival, as they can disrupt ion balances, nutrient uptake, waste removal, and signal transduction.

Acid-base equilibrium refers to the balance between the concentration of acids and bases in a solution, which determines its pH level. In a healthy human body, maintaining acid-base equilibrium is crucial for proper cellular function and homeostasis.

The balance is maintained by several buffering systems in the body, including the bicarbonate buffer system, which helps to regulate the pH of blood. This system involves the reaction between carbonic acid (a weak acid) and bicarbonate ions (a base) to form water and carbon dioxide.

The balance between acids and bases is carefully regulated by the body's respiratory and renal systems. The lungs control the elimination of carbon dioxide, a weak acid, through exhalation, while the kidneys regulate the excretion of hydrogen ions and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions.

When the balance between acids and bases is disrupted, it can lead to acid-base disorders such as acidosis (excessive acidity) or alkalosis (excessive basicity). These conditions can have serious consequences on various organ systems if left untreated.

An ion is an atom or molecule that has gained or lost one or more electrons, resulting in a net electric charge. Cations are positively charged ions, which have lost electrons, while anions are negatively charged ions, which have gained electrons. Ions can play a significant role in various physiological processes within the human body, including enzyme function, nerve impulse transmission, and maintenance of acid-base balance. They also contribute to the formation of salts and buffer systems that help regulate fluid composition and pH levels in different bodily fluids.

Biological transport, active is the process by which cells use energy to move materials across their membranes from an area of lower concentration to an area of higher concentration. This type of transport is facilitated by specialized proteins called transporters or pumps that are located in the cell membrane. These proteins undergo conformational changes to physically carry the molecules through the lipid bilayer of the membrane, often against their concentration gradient.

Active transport requires energy because it works against the natural tendency of molecules to move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration, a process known as diffusion. Cells obtain this energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is produced through cellular respiration.

Examples of active transport include the uptake of glucose and amino acids into cells, as well as the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters. The sodium-potassium pump, which helps maintain resting membrane potential in nerve and muscle cells, is a classic example of an active transporter.

Carbonates are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a metal or metalloid combined with carbonate ions (CO32-). These compounds form when carbon dioxide (CO2) reacts with a base, such as a metal hydroxide. The reaction produces water (H2O), carbonic acid (H2CO3), and the corresponding carbonate.

Carbonates are important in many biological and geological processes. In the body, for example, calcium carbonate is a major component of bones and teeth. It also plays a role in maintaining pH balance by reacting with excess acid in the stomach to form carbon dioxide and water.

In nature, carbonates are common minerals found in rocks such as limestone and dolomite. They can also be found in mineral waters and in the shells of marine organisms. Carbonate rocks play an important role in the global carbon cycle, as they can dissolve or precipitate depending on environmental conditions, which affects the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere.

Free radicals are molecules or atoms that have one or more unpaired electrons in their outermost shell, making them highly reactive. They can be formed naturally in the body through processes such as metabolism and exercise, or they can come from external sources like pollution, radiation, and certain chemicals. Free radicals can cause damage to cells and contribute to the development of various diseases, including cancer, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Antioxidants are substances that can neutralize free radicals and help protect against their harmful effects.

Carrier proteins, also known as transport proteins, are a type of protein that facilitates the movement of molecules across cell membranes. They are responsible for the selective and active transport of ions, sugars, amino acids, and other molecules from one side of the membrane to the other, against their concentration gradient. This process requires energy, usually in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).

Carrier proteins have a specific binding site for the molecule they transport, and undergo conformational changes upon binding, which allows them to move the molecule across the membrane. Once the molecule has been transported, the carrier protein returns to its original conformation, ready to bind and transport another molecule.

Carrier proteins play a crucial role in maintaining the balance of ions and other molecules inside and outside of cells, and are essential for many physiological processes, including nerve impulse transmission, muscle contraction, and nutrient uptake.

Sodium is an essential mineral and electrolyte that is necessary for human health. In a medical context, sodium is often discussed in terms of its concentration in the blood, as measured by serum sodium levels. The normal range for serum sodium is typically between 135 and 145 milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L).

Sodium plays a number of important roles in the body, including:

* Regulating fluid balance: Sodium helps to regulate the amount of water in and around your cells, which is important for maintaining normal blood pressure and preventing dehydration.
* Facilitating nerve impulse transmission: Sodium is involved in the generation and transmission of electrical signals in the nervous system, which is necessary for proper muscle function and coordination.
* Assisting with muscle contraction: Sodium helps to regulate muscle contractions by interacting with other minerals such as calcium and potassium.

Low sodium levels (hyponatremia) can cause symptoms such as confusion, seizures, and coma, while high sodium levels (hypernatremia) can lead to symptoms such as weakness, muscle cramps, and seizures. Both conditions require medical treatment to correct.

Estrone is a type of estrogen, which is a female sex hormone. It's one of the three major naturally occurring estrogens in women, along with estradiol and estriol. Estrone is weaker than estradiol but has a longer half-life, meaning it remains active in the body for a longer period of time.

Estrone is produced primarily in the ovaries, adrenal glands, and fat tissue. In postmenopausal women, when the ovaries stop producing estradiol, estrone becomes the dominant form of estrogen. It plays a role in maintaining bone density, regulating the menstrual cycle, and supporting the development and maintenance of female sexual characteristics.

Like other forms of estrogen, estrone can also have effects on various tissues throughout the body, including the brain, heart, and breast tissue. Abnormal levels of estrone, either too high or too low, can contribute to a variety of health issues, such as osteoporosis, menstrual irregularities, and increased risk of certain types of cancer.

Ion exchange chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used to separate and analyze charged molecules (ions) based on their ability to exchange bound ions in a solid resin or gel with ions of similar charge in the mobile phase. The stationary phase, often called an ion exchanger, contains fixed ated functional groups that can attract counter-ions of opposite charge from the sample mixture.

In this technique, the sample is loaded onto an ion exchange column containing the charged resin or gel. As the sample moves through the column, ions in the sample compete for binding sites on the stationary phase with ions already present in the column. The ions that bind most strongly to the stationary phase will elute (come off) slower than those that bind more weakly.

Ion exchange chromatography can be performed using either cation exchangers, which exchange positive ions (cations), or anion exchangers, which exchange negative ions (anions). The pH and ionic strength of the mobile phase can be adjusted to control the binding and elution of specific ions.

Ion exchange chromatography is widely used in various applications such as water treatment, protein purification, and chemical analysis.

A hypotonic solution is a type of fluid that has a lower osmotic pressure than another fluid. In the context of medical and physiological terms, it typically refers to a solution that has a lower solute concentration (and therefore lower osmolarity) than the fluids found in the body's cells.

When a hypotonic solution is introduced into the body or comes into contact with body tissues, water molecules tend to move from the area of lower solute concentration (the hypotonic solution) to the area of higher solute concentration (the body's fluids), in an attempt to equalize the osmotic pressure. This movement of water can cause cells to swell and potentially burst if the difference in osmolarity is significant or if the exposure is prolonged.

Hypotonic solutions are sometimes used medically for specific purposes, such as in irrigation solutions or in certain types of intravenous fluids, where careful control of osmotic pressure is required. However, it's important to use them appropriately and under medical supervision to avoid potential adverse effects.

A cell membrane, also known as the plasma membrane, is a thin semi-permeable phospholipid bilayer that surrounds all cells in animals, plants, and microorganisms. It functions as a barrier to control the movement of substances in and out of the cell, allowing necessary molecules such as nutrients, oxygen, and signaling molecules to enter while keeping out harmful substances and waste products. The cell membrane is composed mainly of phospholipids, which have hydrophilic (water-loving) heads and hydrophobic (water-fearing) tails. This unique structure allows the membrane to be flexible and fluid, yet selectively permeable. Additionally, various proteins are embedded in the membrane that serve as channels, pumps, receptors, and enzymes, contributing to the cell's overall functionality and communication with its environment.

Perchlorates are chemical compounds containing the perchlorate ion (ClO4-). Perchloric acid is the parent compound and has the formula HClO4. Perchlorates contain chlorine in its highest oxidation state (+7) and are strong oxidizing agents. They have been used in various industrial and military applications, such as in explosives, rocket propellants, and matches.

In a medical context, perchlorates can be relevant due to their potential health effects. Exposure to high levels of perchlorates can affect the thyroid gland's function because they can compete with iodide ions for uptake by the thyroid gland. Iodide is an essential component of thyroid hormones, and disruption of iodide uptake may lead to hypothyroidism, particularly in individuals who are iodine-deficient. However, it's important to note that the evidence for adverse health effects in humans from environmental exposures to perchlorates is still a subject of ongoing research and debate.

Electric conductivity, also known as electrical conductance, is a measure of a material's ability to allow the flow of electric current through it. It is usually measured in units of Siemens per meter (S/m) or ohm-meters (Ω-m).

In medical terms, electric conductivity can refer to the body's ability to conduct electrical signals, which is important for various physiological processes such as nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction. Abnormalities in electrical conductivity can be associated with various medical conditions, including neurological disorders and heart diseases.

For example, in electrocardiography (ECG), the electric conductivity of the heart is measured to assess its electrical activity and identify any abnormalities that may indicate heart disease. Similarly, in electromyography (EMG), the electric conductivity of muscles is measured to diagnose neuromuscular disorders.

Oxidation-Reduction (redox) reactions are a type of chemical reaction involving a transfer of electrons between two species. The substance that loses electrons in the reaction is oxidized, and the substance that gains electrons is reduced. Oxidation and reduction always occur together in a redox reaction, hence the term "oxidation-reduction."

In biological systems, redox reactions play a crucial role in many cellular processes, including energy production, metabolism, and signaling. The transfer of electrons in these reactions is often facilitated by specialized molecules called electron carriers, such as nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD/FADH2).

The oxidation state of an element in a compound is a measure of the number of electrons that have been gained or lost relative to its neutral state. In redox reactions, the oxidation state of one or more elements changes as they gain or lose electrons. The substance that is oxidized has a higher oxidation state, while the substance that is reduced has a lower oxidation state.

Overall, oxidation-reduction reactions are fundamental to the functioning of living organisms and are involved in many important biological processes.

Oxalates, also known as oxalic acid or oxalate salts, are organic compounds that contain the functional group called oxalate. Oxalates are naturally occurring substances found in various foods such as spinach, rhubarb, nuts, and seeds. They can also be produced by the body as a result of metabolism.

In the body, oxalates can bind with calcium and other minerals to form crystals, which can accumulate in various tissues and organs, including the kidneys. This can lead to the formation of kidney stones, which are a common health problem associated with high oxalate intake or increased oxalate production in the body.

It is important for individuals with a history of kidney stones or other kidney problems to monitor their oxalate intake and limit consumption of high-oxalate foods. Additionally, certain medical conditions such as hyperoxaluria, a rare genetic disorder that causes increased oxalate production in the body, may require medical treatment to reduce oxalate levels and prevent complications.

Erythrocytes, also known as red blood cells (RBCs), are the most common type of blood cell in circulating blood in mammals. They are responsible for transporting oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.

Erythrocytes are formed in the bone marrow and have a biconcave shape, which allows them to fold and bend easily as they pass through narrow blood vessels. They do not have a nucleus or mitochondria, which makes them more flexible but also limits their ability to reproduce or repair themselves.

In humans, erythrocytes are typically disc-shaped and measure about 7 micrometers in diameter. They contain the protein hemoglobin, which binds to oxygen and gives blood its red color. The lifespan of an erythrocyte is approximately 120 days, after which it is broken down in the liver and spleen.

Abnormalities in erythrocyte count or function can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, polycythemia, and sickle cell disease.

Phosphates, in a medical context, refer to the salts or esters of phosphoric acid. Phosphates play crucial roles in various biological processes within the human body. They are essential components of bones and teeth, where they combine with calcium to form hydroxyapatite crystals. Phosphates also participate in energy transfer reactions as phosphate groups attached to adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and adenosine triphosphate (ATP). Additionally, they contribute to buffer systems that help maintain normal pH levels in the body.

Abnormal levels of phosphates in the blood can indicate certain medical conditions. High phosphate levels (hyperphosphatemia) may be associated with kidney dysfunction, hyperparathyroidism, or excessive intake of phosphate-containing products. Low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia) might result from malnutrition, vitamin D deficiency, or certain diseases affecting the small intestine or kidneys. Both hypophosphatemia and hyperphosphatemia can have significant impacts on various organ systems and may require medical intervention.

Xanthine oxidase is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of xanthine to uric acid, which is the last step in purine metabolism. It's a type of molybdenum-containing oxidoreductase that generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) during its reaction mechanism.

The enzyme exists in two interconvertible forms: an oxidized state and a reduced state. The oxidized form, called xanthine oxidase, reduces molecular oxygen to superoxide and hydrogen peroxide, while the reduced form, called xanthine dehydrogenase, reduces NAD+ to NADH.

Xanthine oxidase is found in various tissues, including the liver, intestines, and milk. An overproduction of uric acid due to increased activity of xanthine oxidase can lead to hyperuricemia, which may result in gout or kidney stones. Some medications and natural compounds are known to inhibit xanthine oxidase, such as allopurinol and febuxostat, which are used to treat gout and prevent the formation of uric acid stones in the kidneys.

Free radical scavengers, also known as antioxidants, are substances that neutralize or stabilize free radicals. Free radicals are highly reactive atoms or molecules with unpaired electrons, capable of causing damage to cells and tissues in the body through a process called oxidative stress. Antioxidants donate an electron to the free radical, thereby neutralizing it and preventing it from causing further damage. They can be found naturally in foods such as fruits, vegetables, and nuts, or they can be synthesized and used as dietary supplements. Examples of antioxidants include vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, and selenium.

Uricosuric agents are a class of medications that work by increasing the excretion of uric acid through the kidneys, thereby reducing the levels of uric acid in the blood. This helps to prevent the formation of uric acid crystals, which can cause joint inflammation and damage leading to conditions such as gout.

Uricosuric agents achieve this effect by inhibiting the reabsorption of uric acid in the kidney tubules or by increasing its secretion into the urine. Examples of uricosuric agents include probenecid, sulfinpyrazone, and benzbromarone. These medications are typically used to manage chronic gout and hyperuricemia (elevated levels of uric acid in the blood). It is important to note that uricosuric agents may increase the risk of kidney stones due to increased excretion of uric acid in the urine, so it is essential to maintain adequate hydration while taking these medications.

Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator (CFTR) is a protein that functions as a chloride channel in the membranes of various cells, including those in the lungs and pancreas. Mutations in the gene encoding CFTR can lead to Cystic Fibrosis, a genetic disorder characterized by thick, sticky mucus in the lungs and other organs, leading to severe respiratory and digestive problems.

CFTR is normally activated by cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) and regulates the movement of chloride ions across cell membranes. In Cystic Fibrosis, mutations in CFTR can result in impaired channel function or reduced amounts of functional CFTR at the cell surface, leading to an imbalance in ion transport and fluid homeostasis. This can cause the production of thick, sticky mucus that clogs the airways and leads to chronic lung infections, as well as other symptoms associated with Cystic Fibrosis.

Taurocholic acid is a bile salt, which is a type of organic compound that plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins in the small intestine. It is formed in the liver by conjugation of cholic acid with taurine, an amino sulfonic acid.

Taurocholic acid has a detergent-like effect on the lipids in our food, helping to break them down into smaller molecules that can be absorbed through the intestinal wall and transported to other parts of the body for energy production or storage. It also helps to maintain the flow of bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine, where it is stored until needed for digestion.

Abnormal levels of taurocholic acid in the body have been linked to various health conditions, including gallstones, liver disease, and gastrointestinal disorders. Therefore, it is important to maintain a healthy balance of bile salts, including taurocholic acid, for optimal digestive function.

Hydroxides are inorganic compounds that contain the hydroxide ion (OH−). They are formed when a base, which is an electron pair donor, reacts with water. The hydroxide ion consists of one oxygen atom and one hydrogen atom, and it carries a negative charge. Hydroxides are basic in nature due to their ability to donate hydroxide ions in solution, which increases the pH and makes the solution more alkaline. Common examples of hydroxides include sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2). They have various applications in industry, medicine, and research.

Tetraphenylborate is not typically considered a medical term, but rather a chemical one. However, it can be encountered in the context of medical research or pharmaceutical chemistry. Here's a basic definition:

Tetraphenylborate (TPB-) is an anion of tetraphenylboric acid (C6H5B(OH)3), with the chemical formula [B(C6H5)4]-. It is often used in chemistry as a non-coordinating anion, which means it does not readily form bonds with other ions. This property makes it useful in the preparation of salts of cations that are easily hydrolyzed or oxidized.

In a medical context, tetraphenylborate salts have been used in research to study various biological processes. For instance, rubidium tetraphenylborate has been used in studies investigating the function of ion channels in cells. However, these uses are typically within the realm of laboratory research and not in clinical medicine.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

NADPH oxidase is an enzyme complex that plays a crucial role in the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in various cell types. The primary function of NADPH oxidase is to catalyze the transfer of electrons from NADPH to molecular oxygen, resulting in the formation of superoxide radicals. This enzyme complex consists of several subunits, including two membrane-bound components (gp91phox and p22phox) and several cytosolic components (p47phox, p67phox, p40phox, and rac1 or rac2). Upon activation, these subunits assemble to form a functional enzyme complex that generates ROS, which serve as important signaling molecules in various cellular processes. However, excessive or uncontrolled production of ROS by NADPH oxidase has been implicated in the pathogenesis of several diseases, such as cardiovascular disorders, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer.

Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins (MRPs) are a subfamily of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter proteins that play a crucial role in the efflux of various substrates, including drugs and organic anions, out of cells. They are located in the plasma membrane of many cell types, including epithelial cells in the liver, intestine, kidney, and blood-brain barrier.

MRPs are known to transport a wide range of molecules, such as glutathione conjugates, bilirubin, bile acids, and various clinical drugs. One of the most well-known MRPs is MRP1 (ABCC1), which was initially identified in drug-resistant tumor cells. MRP1 can confer resistance to chemotherapeutic agents by actively pumping them out of cancer cells, thereby reducing their intracellular concentration and effectiveness.

The activity of MRPs can have significant implications for the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of drugs, as they can affect drug absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME). Understanding the function and regulation of MRPs is essential for developing strategies to overcome multidrug resistance in cancer therapy and optimizing drug dosing regimens in various clinical settings.

Neutrophils are a type of white blood cell that are part of the immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and released into the bloodstream where they circulate and are able to move quickly to sites of infection or inflammation in the body. Neutrophils are capable of engulfing and destroying bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances through a process called phagocytosis. They are also involved in the release of inflammatory mediators, which can contribute to tissue damage in some cases. Neutrophils are characterized by the presence of granules in their cytoplasm, which contain enzymes and other proteins that help them carry out their immune functions.

In the context of medical and biological sciences, a "binding site" refers to a specific location on a protein, molecule, or cell where another molecule can attach or bind. This binding interaction can lead to various functional changes in the original protein or molecule. The other molecule that binds to the binding site is often referred to as a ligand, which can be a small molecule, ion, or even another protein.

The binding between a ligand and its target binding site can be specific and selective, meaning that only certain ligands can bind to particular binding sites with high affinity. This specificity plays a crucial role in various biological processes, such as signal transduction, enzyme catalysis, or drug action.

In the case of drug development, understanding the location and properties of binding sites on target proteins is essential for designing drugs that can selectively bind to these sites and modulate protein function. This knowledge can help create more effective and safer therapeutic options for various diseases.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) is a high-energy molecule that stores and transports energy within cells. It is the main source of energy for most cellular processes, including muscle contraction, nerve impulse transmission, and protein synthesis. ATP is composed of a base (adenine), a sugar (ribose), and three phosphate groups. The bonds between these phosphate groups contain a significant amount of energy, which can be released when the bond between the second and third phosphate group is broken, resulting in the formation of adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This process is known as hydrolysis and can be catalyzed by various enzymes to drive a wide range of cellular functions. ATP can also be regenerated from ADP through various metabolic pathways, such as oxidative phosphorylation or substrate-level phosphorylation, allowing for the continuous supply of energy to cells.

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a colorless, odorless, clear liquid with a slightly sweet taste, although drinking it is harmful and can cause poisoning. It is a weak oxidizing agent and is used as an antiseptic and a bleaching agent. In diluted form, it is used to disinfect wounds and kill bacteria and viruses on the skin; in higher concentrations, it can be used to bleach hair or remove stains from clothing. It is also used as a propellant in rocketry and in certain industrial processes. Chemically, hydrogen peroxide is composed of two hydrogen atoms and two oxygen atoms, and it is structurally similar to water (H2O), with an extra oxygen atom. This gives it its oxidizing properties, as the additional oxygen can be released and used to react with other substances.

Carboxylic acids are organic compounds that contain a carboxyl group, which is a functional group made up of a carbon atom doubly bonded to an oxygen atom and single bonded to a hydroxyl group. The general formula for a carboxylic acid is R-COOH, where R represents the rest of the molecule.

Carboxylic acids can be found in various natural sources such as in fruits, vegetables, and animal products. Some common examples of carboxylic acids include formic acid (HCOOH), acetic acid (CH3COOH), propionic acid (C2H5COOH), and butyric acid (C3H7COOH).

Carboxylic acids have a variety of uses in industry, including as food additives, pharmaceuticals, and industrial chemicals. They are also important intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds. In the body, carboxylic acids play important roles in metabolism and energy production.

Molecular structure, in the context of biochemistry and molecular biology, refers to the arrangement and organization of atoms and chemical bonds within a molecule. It describes the three-dimensional layout of the constituent elements, including their spatial relationships, bond lengths, and angles. Understanding molecular structure is crucial for elucidating the functions and reactivities of biological macromolecules such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, and carbohydrates. Various experimental techniques, like X-ray crystallography, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, and cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM), are employed to determine molecular structures at atomic resolution, providing valuable insights into their biological roles and potential therapeutic targets.

Organic anion transporters (OATs) are membrane transport proteins that facilitate the movement of organic anions across biological membranes. The term "sodium-dependent" refers to a specific type of OAT that requires sodium ions (Na+) as a co-transport substrate to move organic anions across the membrane. These transporters play crucial roles in the elimination and distribution of various endogenous and exogenous organic anions, including drugs, toxins, and metabolites. Sodium-dependent OATs are primarily located in the kidneys and liver, where they help maintain homeostasis by regulating the reabsorption and secretion of these substances.

"Xenopus laevis" is not a medical term itself, but it refers to a specific species of African clawed frog that is often used in scientific research, including biomedical and developmental studies. Therefore, its relevance to medicine comes from its role as a model organism in laboratories.

In a broader sense, Xenopus laevis has contributed significantly to various medical discoveries, such as the understanding of embryonic development, cell cycle regulation, and genetic research. For instance, the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine was awarded in 1963 to John R. B. Gurdon and Sir Michael J. Bishop for their discoveries concerning the genetic mechanisms of organism development using Xenopus laevis as a model system.

Osmolar concentration is a measure of the total number of solute particles (such as ions or molecules) dissolved in a solution per liter of solvent (usually water), which affects the osmotic pressure. It is expressed in units of osmoles per liter (osmol/L). Osmolarity and osmolality are related concepts, with osmolarity referring to the number of osmoles per unit volume of solution, typically measured in liters, while osmolality refers to the number of osmoles per kilogram of solvent. In clinical contexts, osmolar concentration is often used to describe the solute concentration of bodily fluids such as blood or urine.

Phenolsulfonphthalein (PSP) is a chemical compound that has been historically used in medicine as a diagnostic test for kidney function. It's an acid-base indicator, which means it changes color depending on the pH of the solution it's in. In its colored form, PSP is pink, and in its uncolored form, it's colorless.

In the context of renal function testing, PSP is given to a patient orally or intravenously, and then its clearance from the body is measured through urine and blood samples. The rate at which PSP is cleared from the body can provide information about the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), which is an important indicator of kidney function. However, this test has largely been replaced by more modern and accurate methods for measuring GFR.

It's worth noting that phenolsulfonphthalein is not a medication or therapeutic agent, but rather a diagnostic tool that has been used in the past to assess kidney function.

Stilbenes are a type of chemical compound that consists of a 1,2-diphenylethylene backbone. They are phenolic compounds and can be found in various plants, where they play a role in the defense against pathogens and stress conditions. Some stilbenes have been studied for their potential health benefits, including their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. One well-known example of a stilbene is resveratrol, which is found in the skin of grapes and in red wine.

It's important to note that while some stilbenes have been shown to have potential health benefits in laboratory studies, more research is needed to determine their safety and effectiveness in humans. It's always a good idea to talk to a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

The proximal kidney tubule is the initial portion of the renal tubule in the nephron of the kidney. It is located in the renal cortex and is called "proximal" because it is closer to the glomerulus, compared to the distal tubule. The proximal tubule plays a crucial role in the reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the filtrate that has been formed by the glomerulus. It also helps in the secretion of waste products and other substances into the urine.

The proximal tubule is divided into two segments: the pars convoluta and the pars recta. The pars convoluta is the curved portion that receives filtrate from the Bowman's capsule, while the pars recta is the straight portion that extends deeper into the renal cortex.

The proximal tubule is lined with a simple cuboidal epithelium, and its cells are characterized by numerous mitochondria, which provide energy for active transport processes. The apical surface of the proximal tubular cells has numerous microvilli, forming a brush border that increases the surface area for reabsorption.

In summary, the proximal kidney tubule is a critical site for the reabsorption of water, electrolytes, and nutrients from the glomerular filtrate, contributing to the maintenance of fluid and electrolyte balance in the body.

Patch-clamp techniques are a group of electrophysiological methods used to study ion channels and other electrical properties of cells. These techniques were developed by Erwin Neher and Bert Sakmann, who were awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1991 for their work. The basic principle of patch-clamp techniques involves creating a high resistance seal between a glass micropipette and the cell membrane, allowing for the measurement of current flowing through individual ion channels or groups of channels.

There are several different configurations of patch-clamp techniques, including:

1. Cell-attached configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is attached to the outer surface of the cell membrane, and the current flowing across a single ion channel can be measured. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of individual channels in their native environment.
2. Whole-cell configuration: Here, the micropipette breaks through the cell membrane, creating a low resistance electrical connection between the pipette and the inside of the cell. This configuration allows for the measurement of the total current flowing across all ion channels in the cell membrane.
3. Inside-out configuration: In this configuration, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the inner surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in isolation from other cellular components.
4. Outside-out configuration: Here, the micropipette is pulled away from the cell after establishing a seal, resulting in the exposure of the outer surface of the cell membrane to the solution in the pipette. This configuration allows for the study of the properties of ion channels in their native environment, but with the ability to control the composition of the extracellular solution.

Patch-clamp techniques have been instrumental in advancing our understanding of ion channel function and have contributed to numerous breakthroughs in neuroscience, pharmacology, and physiology.

An oocyte, also known as an egg cell or female gamete, is a large specialized cell found in the ovary of female organisms. It contains half the number of chromosomes as a normal diploid cell, as it is the product of meiotic division. Oocytes are surrounded by follicle cells and are responsible for the production of female offspring upon fertilization with sperm. The term "oocyte" specifically refers to the immature egg cell before it reaches full maturity and is ready for fertilization, at which point it is referred to as an ovum or egg.

Although nitrile anions are functionally similar to enolates, the extra multiple bond in nitrile anions provides them with a ... Nitrile anions are alkylated by alkyl halides. The primary difficulty for alkylation reactions employing nitrile anions is over ... Nitrile anions is jargon from the organic product resulting from the deprotonation of alkylnitriles. The proton(s) α to the ... Nitrile anions can also be involved in Michael-type additions to activated double bonds and vinylation reactions with a limited ...
Organic anions are conjugate bases of organic acids. The following table lists some of the organic anions and their conjugate ... Sekine T, Cha SH, Endou H (July 2000). "The multispecific organic anion transporter (OAT) family". Pflügers Arch. 440 (3): 337- ... In organic chemistry, organic anions are chemically heterogeneous substances possessing a carbon backbone and a net negative ...
Stable oxocarbon anions form salts with a large variety of cations. Unstable anions may persist in very rarefied gaseous state ... Conversely, some oxocarbon anions can be reduced to yield other anions with the same structural formula but greater negative ... 1 partially hydrogenated anions with formulas H kC xO(n−k)− y, where k ranges from 1 to n−1. These anions are generally ... The most common oxocarbon anions are carbonate, CO2−3, and oxalate, C2O2−4. There is however a large number of stable anions in ...
Tropylium ion Cyclopentadienyl anion Jug, Karl (November 1984). "Aromaticity in unusual heteropolar monocyclic rings with (4n ... Salts of the cyclooctatetraenide anion can be stable, e.g., Dipotassium cyclooctatetraenide or disodium cyclooctatetraenide. ... In chemistry, the cyclooctatetraenide anion or cyclooctatetraenide, more precisely cyclooctatetraenediide, is an aromatic ...
Thus, the anions are kept at a distance and cannot react with each other. To circumvent this problem, the corresponding anions ... On the other hand, an anion usually has no affinity to bind to other anions for two reasons. Firstly, the large Coulomb barrier ... Thus, it is the most electrophilic anion known to date. Even though anions cannot formally fulfill the concept of ... 1). For this reason, the following article deals exclusively with superelectrophilic anions of this type. Anions are negatively ...
An example of a non-carbon radical anion is the superoxide anion, formed by transfer of one electron to an oxygen molecule. ... Radical anions and their protonation are central to the Birch reduction. Radical anions of polycyclic aromatic compounds ... In organic chemistry, a radical anion is a free radical species that carries a negative charge. Radical anions are encountered ... The pi-radical anions are used as reducing agents in specialized syntheses. Being soluble in at least some solvents, these ...
The term "anion gap" usually implies "serum anion gap", but the urine anion gap is also a clinically useful measure. The anion ... we can conclude that the anion gap calculation represents the concentration of unmeasured anions. The anion gap varies in ... The anion gap is the quantity difference between cations (positively charged ions) and anions (negatively charged ions) in ... These "unmeasured" ions are mostly anions, which is why the value is called the "anion gap." By definition, only the cations ...
A phosphite anion or phosphite in inorganic chemistry usually refers to [HPO3]2− but includes [H2PO3]− ([HPO2(OH)]−). These ... Organic esters of hydrogen phosphites are anions with the formula HP(O)2OR− (R = organic group). One commercial example is the ... IUPAC recommends the name hydrogenphosphonates). They are anions HP(O)2OH−. Aypical derivative is the salt [NH4][HP(O)2OH]. ... These compounds contain a layer polymeric anion consisting of HPO3 tetrahedra linked by hydrogen bonds. These layers are ...
The cyclopentadienyl anion is a ligand which binds to a metal in organometallic chemistry. The cyclopentadienyl anion is a ... The enhanced acidity is attributed to stabilization of the conjugate base, cyclopentadienyl anion. Cyclopentadienyl anions form ... The cyclopentadienyl anion is a conjugated system because there are alternating π and 𝜎 bonds. Cyclopentadiene has a pKa of ... In chemistry, the cyclopentadienyl anion or cyclopentadienide is an aromatic species with a formula of [C 5H 5]− and ...
An example of a hydride is the borohydride anion (BH− 4). Hydron (hydrogen cation) Electride, another very simple anion ... The hydrogen anion, H−, is a negative ion of hydrogen, that is, a hydrogen atom that has captured an extra electron. The ... The hydrogen anion is the dominant bound-free opacity source at visible and near-infrared wavelengths in the atmospheres of ... In chemistry, the hydride anion is hydrogen that has the formal oxidation state −1. The term hydride is probably most often ...
1). As the main anion of extracellular fluid is chloride (Cl−), anion-conducting channelrhodopsins are also known as "chloride- ... Anion-conducting channelrhodopsins are light-gated ion channels that open in response to light and let negatively charged ions ... Anion-conducting channelrhodopsins are used as tools to manipulate brain activity in mice, fruit flies and other model ... Anion-conducting channelrhodopsins (ACRs) have been used as optogenetic tools to inhibit neuronal activation. When expressed in ...
It is an anion exchanger and a member of the sulfate anion transporter (SAT) family. It mediates chloride and bicarbonate ... Chloride anion exchanger, also known as down-regulated in adenoma (protein DRA), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... Lohi H, Kujala M, Kerkelä E, Saarialho-Kere U, Kestilä M, Kere J (November 2000). "Mapping of five new putative anion ... It is different from the anion exchanger that present in erythrocytes, renal tubule, and several other tissues. The protein ...
... is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC26A7 gene. This gene is one member of a family of ... Kujala M, Tienari J, Lohi H, Elomaa O, Sariola H, Lehtonen E, Kere J (2006). "SLC26A6 and SLC26A7 anion exchangers have a ... a novel member of the SLC26 sulfate/anion transporter family, from high endothelial venules and kidney". Genomics. 79 (2): 249- ... "Functional characterization of three novel tissue-specific anion exchangers SLC26A7, -A8, and -A9". The Journal of Biological ...
Anion, and an Example of a Mixed-Anion Salt Containing Two Different Fluoridotitanate(IV) Anions". European Journal of ... Mixed-anion compounds, heteroanionic materials or mixed-anion materials are chemical compounds containing cations and more than ... By having more than one anion, many more compounds can be made, and properties tuned to desirable values. In terms of optics, ... Li, Yan-Yan; Wang, Wen-Jing; Wang, Hui; Lin, Hua; Wu, Li-Ming (7 June 2019). "Mixed-Anion Inorganic Compounds: A Favorable ...
An anion exchange membrane (AEM) is a semipermeable membrane generally made from ionomers and designed to conduct anions but ... Anion exchange membranes are used in electrolytic cells and fuel cells to separate reactants present around the two electrodes ... Alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells Alkaline fuel cell Artificial membrane Gas diffusion electrode Glossary of fuel ... An important example is the hydroxide anion exchange membrane used to separate the electrodes of a direct methanol fuel cell ( ...
The term "anion gap" without qualification usually implies serum anion gap. The "urine anion gap" is a different measure, ... A negative urine anion gap can be used as evidence of increased NH4+ excretion. In a metabolic acidosis without a serum anion ... Urine anion gap is calculated by subtracting the urine concentration of chloride (anions) from the concentrations of sodium ... The urine anion gap is calculated using measured ions found in the urine. It is used to aid in the differential diagnosis of ...
If it is stable at pH values above the pI then the anion exchange column can be used. Lee, Y.C. (1990). "High-performance Anion ... Anion exchange resins will bind to negatively charged molecules, displacing the counter-ion. Anion exchange chromatography is ... If the pH is above the pI, the protein will have a negative charge and bind to the matrix in an anion exchange column. The ... Anion-exchange chromatography is a process that separates substances based on their charges using an ion-exchange resin ...
Another large class of non-coordinating anions are derived from carborane anion CB 11H− 12. Using this anion, the first example ... Related anions are derived from tris(pentafluorophenyl)boron B(C6F5)3. Another advantage of these anions is that their salts ... Anions that interact weakly with cations are termed non-coordinating anions, although a more accurate term is weakly ... the use of a non-coordinating anion is pointless. Salts of the anion B[3,5-(CF 3) 2C 6H 3]− 4 were first reported by Kobayashi ...
The anion is prepared in a mass spectrometer by successive decarboxylation and decarbonylation of lithium oxalate anion under ... Lithium monoxide anion (LiO−) is a superbase existing in the gas phase. It was the strongest known base until 2008, when the ... "Lithium oxide anion". webbook.nist.gov. Poad, Berwyck L. J.; Reed, Nicholas D.; Hansen, Christopher S.; Trevitt, Adam J.; ... The methanide ion CH3− was the strongest known base before lithium monoxide anion was discovered. LiO− has a proton affinity of ...
Several possibilities (uniport, anion:anion exchange and anion:cation exchange) can account for the data. The physiologically ... AE1 in human red blood cells has been shown to transport a variety of inorganic and organic anions. Divalent anions may be ... AE1 preferentially catalyzes anion exchange (antiport) reactions. Specific point mutations in human anion exchanger 1 (AE1) ... The anion exchanger family (TC# 2.A.31, also named bicarbonate transporter family) is a member of the large APC superfamily of ...
... the term pseudo-oxocarbon anion is used to refer to a negative ion that is conceptually derived from an oxocarbon anion through ... derived from the croconate anion C 5O2− 5 by replacing one, two, or three oxygen atoms by dicyanomethylene groups: These anions ... Similar anions can be obtained from squarate C 4O2− 4. 1,2-bis(dicyanomethylene)squarate 1,3-bis(dicyanomethylene)squarate ... Typical examples are the anions 2-(Dicyanomethylene)croconate, croconate violet, and croconate blue, ...
Anion exchange membrane (AEM) electrolysis is the electrolysis of water that utilises a semipermeable membrane that conducts ... The head group allows anions but not cations to be transported. QA AEMs have low chemical stability because they are ... AEM electrolysis is similar to alkaline water electrolysis, which uses a non-ion-selective separator instead of an anion- ... Oxygen evolution reactions (OER) need four electrons to produce one molecule of O2, consume multiple OH- anions, and form ...
... and a normal anion gap. As opposed to high anion gap acidosis (which involves increased organic acid production), normal anion ... Normal anion gap acidosis is an acidosis that is not accompanied by an abnormally increased anion gap. The most common cause of ... High anion gap metabolic acidosis "Metabolic Acidosis: Acid-Base Regulation and Disorders: Merck Manual Professional". ... This is compensated by an increase in chloride concentration, thus leading to a normal anion gap, or hyperchloremic, metabolic ...
... (OAT4) can refer to either of these carrier proteins: Solute carrier family 22 member 9 (SLC22A9) ...
... is a membrane transport protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A3 gene. AE3 is functionally ... Morgans CW, Kopito RR (1993). "Association of the brain anion exchanger, AE3, with the repeat domain of ankyrin". J. Cell Sci. ... "Entrez Gene: SLC4A3 solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 3". Casey JR, Sly WS, Shah GN, Alvarez BV (November 2009 ... 2001). "Human intestinal anion exchanger isoforms: expression, distribution, and membrane localization". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ...
Divalent anion:Na+ symporters were found in bacteria, archaea, plant chloroplasts and animals. They vary in size from 432 amino ... The Na+:anion coupling ratio is 3:1, indicative of electrogenic properties. They have a substrate preference for divalent ... Proteins of the DASS family are divided into two groups of transporters with distinct anion specificities: the Na+-sulfate (NaS ... anions, which include tetra-oxyanions for the NaS cotransporters or Krebs cycle intermediates (including mono-, di- and ...
... s (VRACs) are crucial to the regulation of cell size by transporting chloride ions and various ... Deneka, D; Sawicka, M; Lam, AKM; Paulino, C; Dutzler, R (June 2018). "Structure of a volume-regulated anion channel of the ... Nilius B, Eggermont J, Voets T, Buyse G, Manolopoulos V, Droogmans G (1997). "Properties of volume-regulated anion channels in ... Eggermont J, Trouet D, Carton I, Nilius B (December 2001). "Cellular function and control of volume-regulated anion channels". ...
OAT1 functions as organic anion exchanger. When the uptake of one molecule of an organic anion is transported into a cell by an ... The organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) also known as solute carrier family 22 member 6 (SLC22A6) is a protein that in humans is ... The renal organic anion transporters OAT1, OAT3, OATP4C1, MDR1, MRP2, MRP4 and URAT1 are expressed in the S2 segment of the ... These organic anions are then excreted in the urine. Known substrates of OAT1 include para-aminohippurate (PAH), dicarboxylates ...
... s, or mitochondrial porins, are a class of porin ion channel located on the outer mitochondrial ... Voltage-Dependent+Anion+Channels at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article ... Although both states allow passage of simple salts, VDAC is much more stringent with organic anions, a category into which most ... De Pinto, V.; Messina, A.; Lane, D. J. R.; Lawen, A. (2010). "Voltage-dependent anion-selective channel (VDAC) in the plasma ...
The generalized transport reactions catalyzed by members of the OAT family are: Anion (in) → Anion (out) Anion1 (in) + Anion2 ( ... Members of the Organo Anion Transporter (OAT) Family (organic-anion-transporting polypeptides, OATP) are membrane transport ... Organic anion transporting polypeptides carry bile acids as well as bilirubin and numerous hormones such as thyroid and steroid ... As of this edit, this article uses content from "2.A.60 The Organo Anion Transporter (OAT) Family", which is licensed in a way ...
Inhibition of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 by quercetin: an in vitro and in vivo assessment Lan-Xiang Wu 1 , ... Inhibition of the organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B1 by quercetin: an in vitro and in vivo assessment Lan-Xiang Wu et ... Effects of natural products on the function of human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1. Wu LX, Guo CX, Qu Q, Yu J, ... Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1: a genetically polymorphic transporter of major importance for hepatic drug uptake. ...
Go To: Top, References, Notes. Data compilation copyright by the U.S. Secretary of Commerce on behalf of the U.S.A. All rights reserved. Data compiled by: John E. Bartmess. Note: Please consider using the reaction search for this species. This page allows searching of all reactions involving this species. A general reaction search form is also available. Future versions of this site may rely on reaction search pages in place of the enumerated reaction displays seen below. ...
However, subtle but statistically significant changes in CCrCl and anion-gap were observed. ... Baseline values for serum creatinine, CCrCl and anion-gap were similar for those on TDF- and non-TDF HAART. In a multivariate ... The aim of this study was to investigate changes in anion-gap and calculated creatinine clearance (CCrCl) in a large cohort of ... Parameters Associated With Time-Weighted Change in Anion-gap From Baseline to Last Follow-up in Individuals on TDF- and Non-TDF ...
Learn about the anion gap blood test, which provides information on the acidity of your blood by measuring electrically charged ... What is an Anion Gap Blood Test?. An anion gap blood test is a way to check the acid-base balance (pH balance) of your blood. ... If the anion gap is too high, your blood is more acidic than normal. If the anion gap is too low, your blood isnt acidic ... Why do I need an anion gap blood test?. Your health care provider may order an anion gap blood test if you have symptoms that ...
... and the primary measured anions (chloride Cl- and bicarbonate HCO3-) in serum. This test is most commonly performed in patients ... The anion gap is the difference between primary measured cations (sodium Na+ and potassium K+) ... The anion gap (see the Anion Gap calculator) can be defined as low, normal, or high. Laboratory error always needs to be ruled ... The urine anion gap is either positive or negative and can be used when the causes of normal anion gap acidosis are unclear. A ...
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Calculate anion gap for workup of acid-base disorders ... Anion Gap. Calculate anion gap for workup of acid-base ...
What does elevated anion gap mean?. Elevated Anion Gap. An increase in an anion gap is most often due to some for of a ... The normal value for the serum anion gap is 8-16 mEq/L. However, there are always unmeasurable anions, so an anion gap of less ... Does a high anion gap mean metabolic acidosis?. What do the results mean? If your results show a high anion gap, you may have ... Is an anion gap of 7 normal?. The value of the anion gap is reported in milliequivalents per liter (mEq/L). Normal values are 3 ...
Anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) from the cryptophyte alga ,i,Guillardia theta,/i, generate larger photocurrents than other avai ... Extending the Time Domain of Neuronal Silencing with Cryptophyte Anion Channelrhodopsins Elena G Govorunova et al. eNeuro. 2018 ... Extending the Time Domain of Neuronal Silencing with Cryptophyte Anion Channelrhodopsins Elena G Govorunova 1 , Oleg A ... Anion channelrhodopsins (ACRs) from the cryptophyte alga Guillardia theta generate larger photocurrents than other available ...
Modulation of anion channel gating by C-terminal domains in excitatory amino acid transporters. Authors. *SG Amara ... In addition, mutations in either TM3 or the C-terminus alter anion permeability ratio suggesting that both domains influence ... supporting a role for C-terminal residues in the structural coupling between substrate transport and anion channel opening. ... that the C-terminus and its interaction with TM3 have a major influence on the complex structural dynamics that regulate anion ...
... with lithium diisopropylamide to generate the corresponding α-sulfonyl anion, and anion trapping with trimethylsilyl chloride ... with lithium diisopropylamide to generate the corresponding α-sulfonyl anion, and anion trapping with trimethylsilyl chloride ... with lithium diisopropylamide to generate the corresponding α-sulfonyl anion, and anion trapping with trimethylsilyl chloride ... with lithium diisopropylamide to generate the corresponding α-sulfonyl anion, and anion trapping with trimethylsilyl chloride ...
Comparison of Enrichment Methods for Intact N- and O-Linked Glycopeptides Using Strong Anion Exchange and Hydrophilic ... Comparison of Enrichment Methods for Intact N- and O-Linked Glycopeptides Using Strong Anion Exchange and Hydrophilic ... O-linked glycopeptides using other chromatography methods and found that using cartridges containing materials for strong anion ...
Anion II Head. Anion II. Price $95.00. Purchase includes 1 Anion. II Shower Head with citrus. Filter & 3 shower Sediment ... The Anion 101 is a low-flow shower head, which is a great money-saver. High-quality shower heads like ours provide a forceful, ... Our patented plate is removable for easy cleaning so you can get the most from your Anion 101 for years to come.. ... The Anion 101 creates an experience you wont soon forget. The filter inside removes harmful chlorine on contact, adds natural ...
Carbon atom anion. C- (g). 589.624. 594.770. ± 0.048. kJ/mol. 12.01125 ±. 0.00080. 14337-00-9*0. ... Cyanogen anion. [NCCN]- (g). 281.6. 284.8. ± 2.2. kJ/mol. 52.0354 ±. 0.0016. 11118-88-0*0. ...
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Anion. A negatively charged atom or molecule.. Anode. In an electrochemical cell, the electrode at which the oxidation half- ...
Anion sanitary pads are basically Made for controlling bacterial generation. There are so many colors of Anion cheap available ... Anion Sanitary Pad Manufacturer In Talwara Anion sanitary pads are now in trend in the market. ... in 2021 its huge demand for Anion Sanitary Pad Manufacturer In Talwara. and we are the largest manufacturer in India ... Anion Sanitary Pad Manufacturer In Talwara. Anion sanitary pads are now in trend in the market. Anion sanitary pads are ...
anion traces. chloride (Cl-): ≤50 mg/kg. sulfate (SO42-): ≤50 mg/kg. ...
This study casts doubt on the utility of anion gap measurement as an approach for diagnosis of metformin-associated lactic ... Conclusions: In patients with MALA, there is a significant variability in the anion gap values, which is not related to the ... The anion gap values ranged from 12.3 to 39.3, with only two patients exhibiting values , 14. ... Despite being considered one of the main causes of metabolic acidosis, the association between an anion gap and MALA diagnosis ...
Water is vital to the transport of ion through anion exchange membranes (AEMs). However, excessive water causes a decline in ... Evaluation of Water in Perfluorinated Anion Exchange Membranes with Different IEC Values. Xiaohong Chen, Supeng Pei, Xundao Liu ... Water is vital to the transport of ion through anion exchange membranes (AEMs). However, excessive water causes a decline in ... were identified quantitatively in perfluorinated anion exchange membrane with seven IEC values in the range of 0.9-1.89 mequiv· ...
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Cellular Uptake of Levocetirizine by Organic Anion Transporter 4. / Noguchi, Saki; Nishimura, Tomohiro; Mukaida, Saya et al. In ... Cellular Uptake of Levocetirizine by Organic Anion Transporter 4. Saki Noguchi, Tomohiro Nishimura, Saya Mukaida, Leslie Z. ... Cellular Uptake of Levocetirizine by Organic Anion Transporter 4. In: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017 ; Vol. 106, No. ... Cellular Uptake of Levocetirizine by Organic Anion Transporter 4. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences. 2017 Sept;106(9):2895- ...
Investigating how conducting polymers interact with a variety of anions in aqueous solution has uncovered these polymers (under ... Anion-assisted hydrolysis of conducting polymers. Investigating how conducting polymers interact with a variety of anions in ... Anion-assisted hydrolysis of conducting polymers. Investigating how conducting polymers interact with a variety of anions in ... the PEDOT layer after exposing to an anion solution depends on the dissociation constant of the anions conjugate acid. At ...
Anion exchange in human erythrocytes has a large activation volume. / Canfield, Victor A.; Macey, Robert I. In: BBA - ... Anion exchange in human erythrocytes has a large activation volume. BBA - Biomembranes. 1984 Dec 5;778(2):379-384. doi: 10.1016 ... Canfield, V. A., & Macey, R. I. (1984). Anion exchange in human erythrocytes has a large activation volume. BBA - Biomembranes ... Canfield, Victor A. ; Macey, Robert I. / Anion exchange in human erythrocytes has a large activation volume. In: BBA - ...
Here the use of anion amphiprotic ionic liquid (AAIL) based electrolytes is proposed for SIB application. Two different AAILs, ... based on organic trifluoromethylsulfonylamide (TFSAm) and inorganic HSO4- anions, respectively, doped with NaTFSI salt have ... Anion amphiprotic ionic liquids as protic electrolyte matrices allowing sodium metal plating Artikel i vetenskaplig tidskrift, ... Here the use of anion amphiprotic ionic liquid (AAIL) based electrolytes is proposed for SIB application. Two different AAILs, ...
SLC26 family, anion transporter, membrane protein structure, transport mechanism, cryo-EM, single particle, membrane protein ...
Anion-deficient perovskite-like Ba3SmFe2O7.5 was prepared using a glycerol-nitrate synthesis. Using high-temperature X-ray ... Crystal structure, electrical and magnetic properties of anion-deficient perovskite-like Ba3SmFe2O7.5. Research output: ...
Koyama T, Oike M, Komiyama S, Ito Y. Superoxide anion impairs Ca2+ mobilization in cultured human nasal epithelial cells. ... Superoxide anion impairs Ca2+ mobilization in cultured human nasal epithelial cells. In: American Journal of Physiology - Lung ... Superoxide anion impairs Ca2+ mobilization in cultured human nasal epithelial cells. / Koyama, Tetsuya; Oike, Masahiro; ... Koyama, T., Oike, M., Komiyama, S., & Ito, Y. (1999). Superoxide anion impairs Ca2+ mobilization in cultured human nasal ...
Nanoporous Anion Exchange Membranes for Solar Fuel Generators. Amount: $200,000.00 Solar photoelectrochemical cells utilize ...
  • Normal anion gap metabolic acidosis is a common but often misdiagnosed clinical condition associated with diarrhea and renal tubular acidosis (RTA). (karger.com)
  • This review highlights practical aspects concerning normal anion gap metabolic acidosis. (karger.com)
  • 10 mEq/L). A urine anion gap of more than 20 mEq/L is seen in metabolic acidosis when the kidneys are unable to excrete ammonia (such as in renal tubular acidosis). (medscape.com)
  • The presence of metabolic acidosis with anion and osmolal gaps is an important clue to the diagnosis (Friedman et al. (cdc.gov)
  • According to Gamble [ 6 ], electrical neutrality in solution demands that the sum of the cations is equal to the sum of the anions, also represented in a gamblegram (Fig. 1 ). (karger.com)
  • Gamblegram: balance between anions and cations in plasma. (karger.com)
  • Serum AG is affected by the concentrations of all anions and cations which are not included in its calculations: i.e., albumin, globulin, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and organic and inorganic acids. (karger.com)
  • Coupling Methylammonium and Formamidinium Cations With Halide Anions: " by Chinnathambi Kamal, Dirk Hauschild et al. (unlv.edu)
  • Therefore, the number of negatively charged ions (anions) should equal the number of positively charged ions (cations). (medscape.com)
  • The anion gap is the difference between primary measured cations (sodium Na + and potassium K + ) and the primary measured anions (chloride Cl - and bicarbonate HCO3 - ) in serum. (medscape.com)
  • CrVI was separated from trivalent- chromium (CrIII) and other cations on a strong anion exchange resin using a slightly basic ammonium-sulfate buffer solution. (cdc.gov)
  • Measured serum anions are chloride and bicarbonate, and the unmeasured anions include phosphates, sulfates, and proteins (eg, albumin). (medscape.com)
  • The normal value for the serum anion gap is 8-16 mEq/L. However, there are always unmeasurable anions, so an anion gap of less than 11 mEq/L using any of the equations listed in Description is considered normal. (medscape.com)
  • If the urine anion gap is zero or negative but the serum AG is positive, the source is most likely gastrointestinal (diarrhea or vomiting). (medscape.com)
  • If the anion gap is found to be high, other tests such as urine ketones, serum ketones (beta-hydroxybutyrate), serum lactic acid, urine drug screen, serum drug screen, salicylate level, and creatinine kinase level should also be performed to diagnose the etiology of the anion gap acidosis. (medscape.com)
  • The following equation is used to calculate the serum anion gap. (medscape.com)
  • He underwent fluid resuscitation and investigations showed the following results: serum sodium 128 mmol/L, chloride 76 mmol/L, potassium 3.3 mmol/L, bicarbonate 28 mmol/L, anion gap 15.6 mmol/L, urea 35 mg/dL, creatinine 1.3 mg/dL, calcium 10.5 mg/dL, phosphorus 7.6mg/dL and magnesium 2.3 mg/dL. (who.int)
  • Alkylation of a nitrile anion followed by reductive decyanation was employed in the synthesis of (Z)-9-dodecen-1-yl acetate, the sex pheromone of Paralobesia viteana. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the present work, we study an application of SMBR to transesterification synthesis using anion exchange resin as a catalyst and adsorbent, which will be a new platform for ester production. (aiche.org)
  • We have been studying the generation and cycloaddition of 2-azaallyl anions [1] , a convenient method for the synthesis of pyrrolidines [2-5] . (ic.ac.uk)
  • Duedahl-Olesen, L , Larsen, KL & Zimmermann, W 2000, ' Rapid detection of malto-oligosaccharide-forming bacterial amylases by high performance anion-exchange chromatography ', Letters in Applied Microbiology , vol. 30, no. 4, pp. 312-316. (dtu.dk)
  • The monitoring system used, both in the on- and off-line mode, was based on continuous flow microdialysis sampling (CFMS) coupled to anion exchange chromatography and integrated pulsed electrochemical detection (IPED). (lu.se)
  • A microdialysis probe equipped with a 5-mm polysulfone (SPS 4005) membrane, with a molecular-weight cut-off of 5 kDa, was used to sample the hydrolysis products of native wheat starch at 90 degrees C. Characteristic fingerprint separations were achieved by anion exchange chromatography after enzymatic hydrolysis. (lu.se)
  • Mice with targeted deletion of the gene encoding the Cl-/HCO3- anion exchanger AE2 (also termed SLC4A2), a membrane-bound carrier involved in intracellular pH regulation, showed a progressive decrease in the number of Treg cells. (cun.es)
  • Nitrile anions is jargon from the organic product resulting from the deprotonation of alkylnitriles. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reactions of organic anions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Interleukin (IL) 1β is a proinflammatory cytokine known to markedly alter expression of major organic anion transporters in rodent hepatocytes. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Therefore, the present study was aimed at determining IL-1β effects on expression of organic anion transporters in primary human hepatocytes and highly differentiated human hepatoma HepaRG cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • however, chemical inhibition of this kinase failed to counteract repressing effects of IL-1β toward NTCP, BSEP, OATP-B, and OATP-C. Taken together, these data indicate that IL-1β treatment reduced expression of major organic anion transporters in human hepatic cells in an ERK-independent manner. (aspetjournals.org)
  • suggesting that at least some human organic anion transporters, especially NTCP, may be down-regulated by IL-1β, as their rodent counterparts. (aspetjournals.org)
  • mRNA levels of other major organic anion transporters, especially BSEP (ABCB11) and OATPs (SLCOs), were also decreased. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Inclusion of long aliphatic chains on these ligands allows the assemblies to extract anions from aqueous media into organic solvents . (bvsalud.org)
  • The limiting factor of urine anion gap equation is that it is valid only if the urine sodium level is less than 20mEq/L. (medscape.com)
  • To calculate the urine anion gap the urine electrolytes sodium, chloride, and potassium are measured. (medscape.com)
  • The anion gap measures the difference-or gap-between the negatively charged and positively charged electrolytes in your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The anion gap blood test shows whether your electrolytes are out of balance or if your blood is too acidic or not acidic enough. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Certain errors in collection can interfere with the ions of measured electrolytes that are used to calculate the anion gap. (medscape.com)
  • Here we report the operation of direct ammonia alkaline anion-exchange fuel cells based on low cost membrane and non-noble catalysts with potential use in transportation and other applications. (monash.edu)
  • For the urine anion gap, the most prominently unmeasured anion is ammonia. (medscape.com)
  • Perchlorate, nitrate, and thiocyanate are polyatomic anions. (cdc.gov)
  • Although intermolecular arylations using nitrile anions result in modest yields, the intramolecular procedure efficiently gives four-, five-, and six-membered benzo-fused rings. (wikipedia.org)
  • An early example of our work is shown in Scheme 1, which illustrates the first example of an intramolecular 2-azaallyl anion cycloaddition [2] . (ic.ac.uk)
  • concentrations of the nitrile anion must be high in order to mitigate processes involving self-condensation, such as the Thorpe-Ziegler reaction. (wikipedia.org)
  • Calculations of PAH anions: When are diffuse functions necessary? (rsc.org)
  • I have free energies of hydration for all 3 anions from previous calculations that were done with CHARMM, so I was comparing the DeltaDeltaG(hydration) values with the DeltaDeltaG(alchemical perturbation) values. (uiuc.edu)
  • The compound's anion-sequestering abilities could find applications in environmental remediation of perchlorate and molecular sensing of biological phosphates. (acs.org)
  • The urine anion gap is either positive or negative and can be used when the causes of normal anion gap acidosis are unclear. (medscape.com)
  • A positive urine anion gap is seen in conditions of type 1 and type 2 renal tubular acidosis versus almost every other cause of normal anion gap acidosis (diarrhea). (medscape.com)
  • 06.12.2023 - Japanese manufacturer Asahi Kasei invests in Canadian startup Ionomr Innovations, known for its high-performance anion exchange membrane (AEM). (chemanager-online.com)
  • The most common cause of a low anion gap is a low level of albumin , a protein in the blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, no study has been conducted on a SMBR for the formation of DOWANOL™ PMA glycol ether acetate using an anion exchange resin. (aiche.org)
  • We found that the most general method for 2-azaallyl anion generation is tin-lithium exchange. (ic.ac.uk)
  • Ultimately, we found that the deprotonation route to 2-azaallyl anions was limited to non-enolizable imines, thus precipitating our more recent excursion into tin-lithium exchange methodology. (ic.ac.uk)
  • Breakthrough of CrVI from the anion exchange resin and recovery of CrVI were examined by separating, eluting, and analyzing solutions of various buffer strengths spiked with CrVI and CrIII. (cdc.gov)
  • Over 95% of the CrVI was eluted from the anion exchange resin using 5 milliliters of the buffer solution containing 0.1M ammonium and 0.5M ammonium-sulfate. (cdc.gov)
  • A protein I'm interested in prefers to bind some anions over other anions. (uiuc.edu)
  • If the anion gap is too high, your blood is more acidic than normal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your health care provider may order an anion gap blood test if you have symptoms that your blood acidity may not be normal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A high anion gap test result may mean that you may have acidosis (blood that is more acidic than normal). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The anion gap (see the Anion Gap calculator) can be defined as low, normal, or high. (medscape.com)
  • For more than 40 years, clinicians have used the anion gap (AG) as a major tool to evaluate acid-base disorders [ 1,2,3,4,5 ]. (karger.com)
  • I want to evaluate the preference of the binding site for the different anions. (uiuc.edu)
  • Several types of medical conditions can cause abnormal anion gap test results. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The primary difficulty for alkylation reactions employing nitrile anions is over-alkylation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The effect of including vs . excluding diffuse functions while calculating numerous parameters of PAH anions by various calculation methods is discussed. (rsc.org)
  • Numerous toxic substances are associated with an elevated anion gap ( Table 3 ) (Goldfrank LR FN 1998). (cdc.gov)
  • Phosphate can be removed from water efficiently and highly selectively, even in the presence of other anions . (bvsalud.org)
  • During the next 28 days, the anionic dietary supplement was added to the oat and grass hay diets to achieve a dietary cation-anion difference of 0 mEq/100g of dry matter. (avma.org)
  • What is an Anion Gap Blood Test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • An anion gap blood test is a way to check the acid-base balance (pH balance) of your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If the anion gap is too low, your blood isn't acidic enough. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Why do I need an anion gap blood test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The anion gap test is a calculation that's done with the results of an electrolyte panel, which is a blood test. (medlineplus.gov)
  • There is no special preparation necessary for an anion gap blood test. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Is there anything else I need to know about an anion gap blood test? (medlineplus.gov)
  • The anion gap blood test provides information about the acid-base balance of your blood. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The equation itself is used as an estimate to measure the unmeasurable anions in blood. (medscape.com)
  • Your provider will use the results of the anion gap test, your medical history, and other tests to make a diagnosis. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Tandem ion mobility mass spectrometry-coupled laser excitation is used to record photodetachment, photoisomerization and photodepletion action spectra for a series of deprotomer-selected hydroxycinnamate anions, including deprotonated caffeic, ferulic and sinapinic acids. (uea.ac.uk)
  • These data suggest that targeting the anion exchanger AE2 with specific peptides may represent an effective therapeutic approach in B-cell malignancies. (cun.es)
  • The products are not anions but covalent organolithium complexes. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, deprotonated cyanohydrins can act as masked acyl anions, giving products impossible to access with enolates alone. (wikipedia.org)
  • ACS's Basic Package keeps you connected with C&EN and ACS. (acs.org)

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