Anion Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte: A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.4-Acetamido-4'-isothiocyanatostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic Acid: A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.Sulfobromophthalein: A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Organic Anion Transport Polypeptide C: An organic anion transporter found in human liver. It is capable of transporting a variety organic anions and mediates sodium-independent uptake of bile in the liver.4,4'-Diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-Disulfonic Acid: An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Stilbenes: Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Organic Anion Transport Protein 1: A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Fatty Acid Transport Proteins: A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Probenecid: The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.p-Aminohippuric Acid: The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.Organic Anion Transporters: Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Monosaccharide Transport Proteins: A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Organic Anion Transporters, Sodium-Independent: A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.Antiporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Acanthocytes: Erythrocytes with protoplasmic projections giving the cell a thorny appearance.Cation Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.Choroid Plexus: A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.PhloretinAxonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Killifishes: Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters: Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Phenylglyoxal: A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.Multidrug Resistance-Associated Proteins: A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Ion Exchange: Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.Taurocholic Acid: The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.ATP-Binding Cassette Transporters: A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.Fluorescein: A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.Uricosuric Agents: Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Glycophorin: The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.Oxalates: Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Iodides: Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.Sulfinpyrazone: A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator: A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)Tardigrada: A phylum of microscopic ecdysozoan invertebrates, closely related to ARTHROPODS. Members exhibit anabiosis and cryptobiosis, dormant states where metabolic activity is reduced or absent, thus making them tolerant to extreme environmental conditions. They are distributed worldwide and most are semi-aquatic.Vesicular Transport Proteins: A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phenolsulfonphthalein: Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic Acid: An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Phosphate-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.Electron Transport: The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Thiocyanates: Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.Transport Vesicles: Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative: A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Eosine Yellowish-(YS): A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.Taurine: A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.Microvilli: Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.Niflumic Acid: An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters: Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.Blood Proteins: Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Bumetanide: A sulfamyl diuretic.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Fluoresceins: A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Epithelium: One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.Organic Cation Transport Proteins: A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Golgi Apparatus: A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Nucleotide Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.Valinomycin: A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.Chlorine: A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.RNA, Complementary: Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Microscopy, Confocal: A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.Nucleoside Transport Proteins: Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.Succinimides: A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.Epithelial Cells: Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channels: A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Acidosis, Renal Tubular: A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Nitrobenzoates: Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.Pyridoxal Phosphate: This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.Iron: A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.Periplasmic Binding Proteins: Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Coenzyme A Ligases: Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Diphtheria Toxin: An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Voltage-Dependent Anion Channel 1: Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.P-Glycoprotein: A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).Dicarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Superoxides: Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Equilibrative Nucleoside Transport Proteins: A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Cyclic AMP: An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Bile Canaliculi: Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Dicarboxylic AcidsEthylmaleimide: A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.Intestinal Absorption: Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Neutral: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).Adenosine Triphosphatases: A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.Aquaporins: A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Active Transport, Cell Nucleus: Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.Vesicular Biogenic Amine Transport Proteins: Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.GABA Plasma Membrane Transport Proteins: A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.Mesocricetus: A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Prealbumin: A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.Protons: Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.Anion Exchange Resins: High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.

Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced glutathione. (1/811)

The canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, mediates the transport of a broad range of non-bile salt organic anions from liver into bile. cMOAT-deficient Wistar rats (TR-) are mutated in the gene encoding cMOAT, leading to defective hepatobiliary transport of a whole range of substrates, including bilirubin glucuronide. These mutants also have impaired hepatobiliary excretion of GSH and, as a result, the bile flow in these animals is reduced. In the present work we demonstrate a role for cMOAT in the excretion of GSH both in vivo and in vitro. Biliary GSH excretion in rats heterozygous for the cMOAT mutation (TR/tr) was decreased to 63% of controls (TR/TR) (114+/-24 versus 181+/-20 nmol/min per kg body weight). Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells stably expressing the human cMOAT protein displayed >10-fold increase in apical GSH excretion compared with wild-type MDCKII cells (141+/-6.1 pmol/min per mg of protein versus 13.2+/-1.3 pmol/min per mg of protein in wild-type MDCKII cells). Similarly, MDCKII cells expressing the human multidrug resistance protein 1 showed a 4-fold increase in GSH excretion across the basolateral membrane. In several independent cMOAT-transfectants, the level of GSH excretion correlated with the expression level of the protein. Furthermore, we have shown, in cMOAT-transfected cells, that GSH is a low-affinity substrate for the transporter and that its excretion is reduced upon ATP depletion. In membrane vesicles isolated from cMOAT-expressing MDCKII cells, ATP-dependent S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione uptake is competitively inhibited by high concentrations of GSH (Ki approximately 20 mM). We concluded that cMOAT mediates low-affinity transport of GSH. However, since hepatocellular GSH concentrations are high (5-10 mM), cMOAT might serve an important physiological function in maintenance of bile flow in addition to hepatic GSH turnover.  (+info)

Genomic structure of the canalicular multispecific organic anion-transporter gene (MRP2/cMOAT) and mutations in the ATP-binding-cassette region in Dubin-Johnson syndrome. (2/811)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Previous studies of the defects in the human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter gene (MRP2/cMOAT) in patients with DJS have suggested that the gene defects are responsible for DJS. In this study, we determined the exon/intron structure of the human MRP2/cMOAT gene and further characterized mutations in patients with DJS. The human MRP2/cMOAT gene contains 32 exons, and it has a structure that is highly conserved with that of another ATP-binding-cassette gene, that for a multidrug resistance-associated protein. We then identified three mutations, including two novel ones. All mutations identified to date are in the cytoplasmic domain, which includes the two ATP-binding cassettes and the linker region, or adjacent putative transmembrane domain. Our results confirm that MRP2/cMOAT is the gene responsible for DJS. The finding that mutations are concentrated in the first ATP-binding-cassette domain strongly suggests that a disruption of this region is a critical route to loss of function.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical localization of multispecific renal organic anion transporter 1 in rat kidney. (3/811)

Renal proximal convoluted tubules have an important role, i.e., to excrete organic anions, including numerous drugs and endogenous substances. Recently, multispecific organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) was isolated from rat kidney. In this study, the cellular and subcellular localization of OAT1 in rat kidney was investigated. Kidneys from normal rats were perfused and fixed with periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde solution and were then processed for immunohistochemical analysis using the labeled streptavidin-biotin method, preembedding horseradish peroxidase method, and immunogold method. Light microscopic examination revealed immunostaining for OAT1 in the middle portion of the proximal tubule (S2 segment), but not in the initial portion of the proximal convoluted tubule, next to the glomerulus. Nephron segments other than the S2 segment and the renal vasculature were not stained with antibody to OAT1. Electron-microscopic observation using a preembedding method revealed that OAT1 was exclusively expressed in the basolateral membrane of S2 segments of proximal tubules. The immunogold method showed no labeling for OAT1 in the cytoplasmic vesicles, suggesting that OAT1 may not move together with organic anions into the cells. These results are consistent with previous physiologic data showing that organic anions, including para-aminohippurate, are taken up by the basolateral Na+-independent organic anion/dicarboxylate exchanger and excreted at S2 segments. In conclusion, OAT1 was localized to the basolateral membrane of S2 segments of proximal tubules in rat kidneys.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical distribution and functional characterization of an organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (oatp2). (4/811)

The rabbit polyclonal antibody against rat organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (oatp2) was raised and immunoaffinity-purified. Western blot analysis for oatp2 detected two bands ( 74 and 76 kDa) in rat brain and a single band (76 kDa) in the liver. By immunohistochemical analysis, the oatp2 immunoreactivity was specifically high at the basolateral membrane of rat hepatocytes. Functionally, the oatp2-expressing oocytes were found to transport dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, delta1 opioid receptor agonist [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin, Leuenkephalin, and biotin significantly, as well as the substrates previously reported. These data reveal the exact distribution of the rat oatp2 at the protein level in the liver, and that oatp2 appears to be involved in the multispecificity of the uptaking substrates in the liver and brain.  (+info)

Polyspecific substrate uptake by the hepatic organic anion transporter Oatp1 in stably transfected CHO cells. (5/811)

The rat liver organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp1) has been extensively characterized mainly in the Xenopus laevis expression system as a polyspecific carrier transporting organic anions (bile salts), neutral compounds, and even organic cations. In this study, we extended this characterization using a mammalian expression system and confirm the basolateral hepatic expression of Oatp1 with a new antibody. Besides sulfobromophthalein [Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of approximately 3 microM], taurocholate (Km of approximately 32 microM), and estradiol- 17beta-glucuronide (Km of approximately 4 microM), substrates previously shown to be transported by Oatp1 in transfected HeLa cells, we determined the kinetic parameters for cholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), glycocholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), estrone-3-sulfate (Km of approximately 11 microM), CRC-220 (Km of approximately 57 microM), ouabain (Km of approximately 3,000 microM), and ochratoxin A (Km of approximately 29 microM) in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In addition, three new substrates, taurochenodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 7 microM), tauroursodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 13 microM), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (Km of approximately 5 microM), were also investigated. The results establish the polyspecific nature of Oatp1 in a mammalian expression system and definitely identify conjugated dihydroxy bile salts and steroid conjugates as high-affinity endogenous substrates of Oatp1.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of molybdoenzyme synthesis in Escherichia coli in response to molybdenum: ModE-molybdate, a repressor of the modABCD (molybdate transport) operon is a secondary transcriptional activator for the hyc and nar operons. (6/811)

Escherichia coli growing under anaerobic conditions produces several molybdoenzymes, such as formate hydrogenlyase (formate to H2 and CO2; hyc and fdhF genes) and nitrate reductase (narGHJI genes). Synthesis of these molybdoenzymes, even in the presence of the cognate transcriptional activators and effectors, requires molybdate in the medium. Besides the need for molybdopterin cofactor synthesis, molybdate is also required for transcription of the genes encoding these molybdoenzymes. In E. coli, ModE was previously identified as a repressor controlling transcription of the operon encoding molybdate transport components (modABCD). In this work, the ModE protein was also found to be a required component in the activation of hyc-lacZ to an optimum level, but only in the presence of molybdate. Mutant ModE proteins which are molybdate-independent for repression of modA-lacZ also restored hyc-lacZ expression to the wild-type level even in the absence of molybdate. Nitrate-dependent enhancement of transcription of narX-lacZ was completely abolished in a modE mutant. Nitrate-response by narG-lacZ and narK-lacZ was reduced by about 50% in a modE mutant. DNase I footprinting experiments revealed that the ModE protein binds the hyc promoter DNA in the presence of molybdate. ModE-molybdate also protected DNA in the intergenic region between narXL and narK from DNase I hydrolysis. DNA sequences (5' TAYAT 3' and 5' GTTA 3') found in ModE-molybdate-protected modABCD operator DNA were also found in the ModE-molybdate-protected region of hyc promoter DNA (5' GTTA-7 bp-CATAT 3') and narX-narK intergenic region (5' GTTA-7 bp-TACAT 3'). Based on these results, a working model is proposed in which ModE-molybdate serves as a secondary transcriptional activator of both the hyc and narXL operons which are activated primarily by the transcriptional activators, FhlA and NarL, respectively.  (+info)

A spliced variant of AE1 gene encodes a truncated form of Band 3 in heart: the predominant anion exchanger in ventricular myocytes. (7/811)

The anion exchangers (AE) are encoded by a multigenic family that comprises at least three genes, AE1, AE2 and AE3, and numerous splicoforms. Besides regulating intracellular pH (pHi) via the Cl-/HCO3- exchange, the AEs exert various cellular functions including generation of a senescent antigen, anchorage of the cytoskeleton to the membrane and regulation of metabolism. Most cells express several AE isoforms. Despite the key role of this family of proteins, little is known about the function of specific AE isoforms in any tissue, including the heart. We therefore chose isolated cardiac cells, in which a tight control of pHi is mandatory for the excitation-contraction coupling process, to thoroughly investigate the expression of the AE genes at both the mRNA and protein levels. RT-PCR revealed the presence of AE1, AE2 and AE3 mRNAs in both neonatal and adult rat cardiomyocytes. AE1 is expressed both as the erythroid form (Band 3 or eAE1) and a novel alternate transcript (nAE1), which was more specifically characterized using a PCR mapping strategy. Two variants of AE2 (AE2a and AE2c) were found at the mRNA level. Cardiac as well as brain AE3 mRNAs were expressed in both neonatal and adult rat cardiomyocytes. Several AE protein isoforms were found, including a truncated form of AE1 and two AE3s, but there was no evidence of AE2 protein in adult rat cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes transfected with an AE3 oligodeoxynucleotide antisense, AE3 immunoreactivity was dramatically decreased but the activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchange was unchanged. In contrast, intracellular microinjection of blocking anti-AE1 antibodies inhibited the AE activity. Altogether, our findings suggest that a specific and novel AE1 splicoform (nAE1) mediates the cardiac Cl-/HCO3- exchange. The multiple gene and protein expression within the same cell type suggest numerous functions for this protein family.  (+info)

Active lucifer yellow secretion in renal proximal tubule: evidence for organic anion transport system crossover. (8/811)

Recent studies show that organic anion secretion in renal proximal tubule is mediated by distinct sodium-dependent and sodium-independent transport systems. Here we investigated the possibility that organic anions entering the cells on one system can exit into the lumen on a transporter associated with the other system. In isolated rat kidneys perfused with 10 microM lucifer yellow (LY, a fluorescent organic anion) plus 100 micrograms/ml inulin, the LY-to-inulin clearance ratio averaged 1.6 +/- 0.2, indicating net tubular secretion. Probenecid significantly reduced both LY clearance and LY accumulation in kidney tissue. In intact killifish proximal tubules, confocal microscopy was used to measure steady-state LY uptake into cells and secretion into the tubular lumen. Probenecid, p-aminohippurate, and ouabain nearly abolished both uptake and secretion. To this point, the data indicated that LY was handled by the sodium-dependent and ouabain-sensitive organic anion transport system. However, leukotriene C4, an inhibitor of the luminal step for the sodium-independent and ouabain-insensitive organic anion system, reduced luminal secretion of LY by 50%. Leukotriene C4 did not affect cellular accumulation of LY or the transport of fluorescein on the sodium-dependent system. A similar inhibition pattern was found for another fluorescent organic anion, a mercapturic acid derivative of monochlorobimane. Thus, both organic anions entered the cells on the basolateral transporter for the classical, sodium-dependent system, but about half of the transport into the lumen was handled by the luminal carrier for the sodium-independent system, which is most likely the multidrug resistance-associated protein. This is the first demonstration that xenobiotics can enter renal proximal tubule cells on the carrier associated with one organic anion transport system and exit into the tubular lumen on multiple carriers, one of which is associated with a second system.  (+info)

Uchiumi T., Hinoshita E., Haga S., Nakamura T., Tanaka T., Toh S., Furukawa M., Kawabe T., Wada M., Kagotani K., Okumura K., Kohno K., Akiyama S., Kuwano M.. The human multidrug resistance protein (MRP) gene encodes a membrane protein involved in the ATP-dependent transport of hydrophobic compounds. We previously isolated a canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, cMOAT1/MRP2, that belongs to the ATP binding cassette (ABC) superfamily, which is specifically expressed in liver, and cMOAT1/MRP2 is responsible for the defects in hyperbilirubinemia II/Dubin-Johnson syndrome. In this study, we isolated a new cDNA of the ABC superfamily designated cMOAT2/MRP3 that is homologous to human MRP1 and cMOAT1/MRP2: cMOAT2/MRP3 is 56% identical to MRP1 and 45% identical to cMOAT1/MRP2, respectively. Fluorescence in situ hybridization demonstrated the chromosomal locus of this gene on chromosome 17q22. The human cMOAT2 cDNA hybridized to a 6.5-kb mRNA that was mainly expressed in liver and to a ...
1. Bailey, AJ, et al. Abnormal collagen cross-linking in the cartilage of a Diastrophic Dysplasia patient. British Journal of Rheumatology. 1995 June; 34(6): 512-515 2. Cetta, G, et al. Diastrophic Dysplasia sulfate transporter gene is not involved in Pseudodiastrophic Dysplasia. American Journal of Medical Genetics. 1997 Dec; 73(4): 493-494. 3. Domer, Timothy P. Diastrophic Dysplasia. The Orthopedic Department; The Alfred Dupont Center. http://gait.aidi.udel.edu/res695/homepage/pd_ortho/orthhome.htm. Feb 1, 2000. 4. Forese, LL, et al. Severe mid-cervical kyphosis with cord compression in Larsen`s syndrome and Diastrophic Dysplasia: unrelated syndromes with similar radiologic findings and neurosurgical implications. Pediatric Radiology. 1995; 25(2): 136-139. 5. Greenberg Center for Skeletal Dysplasias. http://ww2.med.jhu.edu/Greenberg.Center/ diastrop.htm. Feb 1, 2000. 6. Hastbacka, J, et al. The Diastrophic Dysplasia gene encodes a novel sulfate transporter: positional cloning by time structure ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Mutations in the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT) gene, a novel ABC transporter, in patients with hyperbilirubinemia II/Dubin-Johnson syndrome. AU - Wada, Morimasa. AU - Toh, Satoshi. AU - Taniguchi, Ken. AU - Nakamura, Takanori. AU - Uchiumi, Takeshi. AU - Kohno, Kimitoshi. AU - Yoshida, Ichiro. AU - Kimura, Akihiko. AU - Sakisaka, Shotaro. AU - Adachi, Yukihiko. AU - Kuwano, Michihiko. PY - 1998/2. Y1 - 1998/2. N2 - Members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter superfamily are mutated to cause diseases that include cystic fibrosis, hyperinsulinemia, adrenoleukodystrophy, Stargardt disease and multidrug resistance. We recently isolated a novel human member of ABC transporter superfamily as the candidate transporter for the glucuronide and glutathione-conjugated antitumor agents, and found it highly homologous to the rat cmoat gene. Consistent with recent findings of defects in the homologous cmoat gene in two rat models of hyperbilirubinemia ...
Achondrogenesis, type IB (ACG1B; MIM 600972) is a lethal condition caused by the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter gene mutations (DTDST/SLC26A2). Affected fetuses are usually in breech position and appear hydropic. The limbs and the trunk are shortened. In contrast to the findings in achondrogenesis, type II (ACG2; MIM 200610), the head is of a normal or near normal size and the fingers and toes are short. The feet and toes are rotated inward, a finding shared with diastrophic dysplasia (DTD; MIM 222600), another disorder caused by DTDST mutations.. Read less ...
J:223752 Cai T, Yang L, Cai W, Guo S, Yu P, Li J, Hu X, Yan M, Shao Q, Jin Y, Sun ZS, Luo ZJ, Dysplastic spondylolysis is caused by mutations in the diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter gene. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 30;112(26):8064-9 ...
Summary is not available for the mouse gene. This summary is for the human ortholog.] The diastrophic dysplasia sulfate transporter is a transmembrane glycoprotein implicated in the pathogenesis of several human chondrodysplasias. It apparently is critical in cartilage for sulfation of proteoglycans and matrix organization. [provided by RefSeq, Jul 2008 ...
Irinotecan, 7-ethyl-10-[4-(1-piperidino)-1-piperidino]-carbonyloxycamptothecin (CPT-11), is a potent anticancer drug that is increasingly used in chemotherapy. A frequent limiting side effect involves gastrointestinal toxicity (diarrhea), which is thought to be related to the biliary excretion of CPT-11 and its metabolites. Accordingly, the biliary excretion mechanisms for both the lactone and carboxylate forms of CPT-11 and its metabolites, SN-38 and its glucuronide (SN38-Glu), were investigated using Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and Eisai hyperbilirubinemic rats (EHBR), with the latter being mutant rats with a genetic deficiency of the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter. After i.v. administration of CPT-11, the biliary excretion clearance, defined as the biliary excretion rate normalized to the hepatic concentration, of both the lactone and carboxylate forms of SN38-Glu was much lower in EHBR. The biliary excretion clearance for the carboxylate form of both CPT-11 and SN-38 was ...
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Domain combinations containing the Phoshotransferase/anion transport protein superfamily . Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the Phoshotransferase/anion transport protein superfamily.
... , AS12 2611, antibody to AtNRT1, Nitrate/chlorate transporter, protein CHLORINA 1, AtNPF6.3, Q05085, AT1G12110
Nitrate transporter structure paves the way for exciting new areas of work, Representing biochemistry research at Oxford University
Shop High affinity sulfate transporter ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and High affinity sulfate transporter Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Shop Probable sulfate transporter ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Probable sulfate transporter Antibody at MyBioSource. Custom ELISA Kit, Recombinant Protein and Antibody are available.
Find reviews, trailers, release dates, news, screenshots, walkthroughs, and more for Choaniki: Sei Naru Protein Densetsu here on GameSpot.
Pri ileu je v dôsledku rôznych príčin narušená fyziologická motilita čriev. Dôvody jeho vzniku sú rôznorodé, patria k nim mechanické prekážky pasáže obsahu, poruchy prenosu.... ...
Disruption of the high-affinity nitrate transporter NRT2.1 activates the priming defence against Pseudomonas syringae, resulting in enhanced resistance. In this study, it is demonstrated that the high-affinity ammonium transporter AMT1.1 is a negative regulator of Arabidopsis defence responses. The T-DNA knockout mutant amt1.1 displays enhanced resistance against Plectosphaerella cucumerina and reduced susceptibility to P. syringae. The impairment of AMT1.1 induces significant metabolic changes in the absence of challenge, suggesting that amt1.1 retains constitutive defence responses. Interestingly, amt1.1 combats pathogens differently depending on the lifestyle of the pathogen. In addition, N starvation enhances the susceptibility of wild type plants and the mutant amt1.1 to P. syringae whereas it has no effect on P. cucumerina resistance. The metabolic changes of amt1.1 against P. syringae are subtler and are restricted to the phenylpropanoid pathway, which correlates with its reduced susceptibility.
By screening databases of human expressed sequence tags, we have identified three new homologues of MRP1, the gene encoding the multidrug resistance-associated protein, and cMOAT (or MRP2), the canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter gene. We call these new genes MRP3, MRP4, and MRP5. MRP3, like cMOAT, is mainly expressed in the liver. MRP4 is expressed only at very low levels in a few tissues, and MRP5, like MRP1, is expressed in almost every tissue tested. To assess a possible role of these new MRP homologues in multidrug or cisplatin resistance, a large set of resistant cell lines was examined for the (over)expression of MRP1, cMOAT, MRP3, MRP4, and MRP5. We find that even in cells selected for a low level of resistance, several MRP-related genes can be up-regulated simultaneously. However, MRP4 is not overexpressed in any of the cell lines we analyzed; MRP3 and MRP5 are only overexpressed in a few cell lines, and the RNA levels do not seem to correlate with resistance to either ...
Prestin is the motor protein of cochlear outer hair cells. It belongs to a distinct anion transporter family called solute carrier protein 26A, or SLC26A. Members of this family serve two fundamentally distinct functions. While most members transport different anion substrates across a variety of epithelia, prestin (SLC26A5) uniquely functions as a voltage-dependent motor protein. This voltage-dependent response of prestin is accompanied by a charge movement, which is reflected in nonlinear capacitance (NLC). . Prestin is assumed to contain a tunnel-like structure which is only accessible from intracellular side, based on a hypothetical working model as a partial anion transporter proposed by Oliver et al. (2001). Intracellular anions such as Cl- act as the external voltage sensor of prestin and trigger the conformational change in the molecule, which in turn alters the surface area of plasma membrane. This study tends to gain insight on the functionally critical structures of prestin using ...
The symptoms and physical findings associated with diastrophic dysplasia may be extremely variable, differing in range and severity even among affected family members (kindreds). However, in all individuals with the disorder, there is abnormal development of bones and joints of the body (skeletal and joint dysplasia).. During normal development before birth (embryonic and fetal development) as well as development during early childhood, cartilage in many areas of the body is gradually replaced by bone (ossification). In addition, a layer of cartilage (epiphyseal cartilage [growth plate]) separates the shafts (diaphyses) of long bones (e.g., bones of the arms and legs) from their ends (epiphyses), allowing long bones to grow until the cartilage is no longer present. In those affected by diastrophic dysplasia, however, there is delayed growth before and after birth (prenatal and postnatal growth retardation), the development of the ends of the long bones (epiphyses) is irregular, and the ...
Examination of wild ancestors can identify which traits have been altered by selection as possible targets for genetic improvement. We investigated the whole plant response to low nitrogen (LN), especially below ground, by the wild ancestor of modern maize (Zea mays L.), Balsas teosinte (Zea mays subsp. parviglumis H. H. Iltis & Doebley). Teosinte responded to LN by reducing the shoot N concentration and increasing the root:shoot biomass ratio. The lengths of individual crown roots and the total lateral root length increased, compensated by reduced crown root number. Low N caused a decrease in total root hair (RH) length and increased expression of high affinity nitrate transporters. To facilitate future mapping studies, these results were compared to a modern inbred (W22) used as the parent in a modern maize × teosinte population and extensively employed in maize domestication studies. The adaptations to LN in teosinte and W22 were surprisingly conserved, but the strategies employed were ...
This project is supported by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research (award #111062), Alberta Innovates - Health Solutions, and by The Metabolomics Innovation Centre (TMIC), a nationally-funded research and core facility that supports a wide range of cutting-edge metabolomic studies. TMIC is funded by Genome Alberta, Genome British Columbia, and Genome Canada, a not-for-profit organization that is leading Canadas national genomics strategy with funding from the federal government. Maintenance, support, and commercial licensing is provided by OMx Personal Health Analytics, Inc. Designed by Educe Design & Innovation Inc. ...
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The human solute carrier 26 (SLC26) family of anion transporters consists of ten members that are found in various organs in the body including the stomach, intestine, kidney, thyroid and ear where they transport anions including bicarbonate, chloride and sulfate, typically in an exchange mode. Mutations in these genes cause a plethora of diseases such as diastrophic dysplasia affecting sulfate uptake into chondrocytes (SLC26A2), congenital chloride-losing diarrhoea (SLC26A3) affecting chloride secretion in the intestine and Pendreds syndrome (SLC26A4) resulting in hearing loss. To understand how these mutations affect the structures of the SLC26 membrane proteins and their ability to function properly, 12 human disease-causing mutants from SLC26A2, SLC26A3 and SLC26A4 were introduced into the equivalent sites of the sulfate transporter anti-sigma factor antagonist (STAS) domain of a bacterial homologue SLC26 protein DauA (YchM). Biophysical analyses including size-exclusion chromatography, ...
The macronutrient nitrogen (N) is an essential component of numerous important compounds, including amino acids, proteins, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, and some plant hormones. This element is a major limiting factor in most agricultural systems. Because the N-utilization efficiency strongly influences crop productivity, a vast amount of N fertilizers is applied to maximize yields. However, it is estimated that more than half of that N is lost from the plant-soil system, with unused N fertilizers severely polluting the environment [1]. Thus, N-uptake efficiency must be increased to improve productivity and reduce pollution.. During periods of N-starvation, various deficiency-responsive genes function to support plant survival by increasing the level of chlorophyll synthesis [2], altering root architecture [3], improving N-assimilation [4], enhancing lignin content [5], and changing the amounts of sugars and sugar phosphates [6]. Nitrate transporter genes (NRTs) are responsible for the ...
Complete information for SLCO2A1 gene (Protein Coding), Solute Carrier Organic Anion Transporter Family Member 2A1, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Complete information for SLCO1A2 gene (Protein Coding), Solute Carrier Organic Anion Transporter Family Member 1A2, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
SLCO1A2 antibody (solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 1A2) for ELISA, WB. Anti-SLCO1A2 pAb (GTX87607) is tested in Human samples. 100% Ab-Assurance.
Gene target information for Slco1a1 - solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 1a1 (house mouse). Find diseases associated with this biological target and compounds tested against it in bioassay experiments.
In this study, we describe transcriptional regulation of the hPDS gene encoding pendrin, a major anion exchanger in the CCD, by UGN, an important modulator of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. We demonstrate a UGN-induced decrease in both pendrin protein expression (Fig. 2) and pendrin mRNA level (Fig. 3, A and B) in kidneys harvested from mice that were injected with this modulator as well as a UGN-induced reduction in endogenous pendrin mRNA level in renal cells (Fig. 3C). In addition, we demonstrate that UGN decreases hPDS promoter activity in transfected renal cells (Figs. 4 and 5). We show that UGN modulates hPDS promoter activity in large part via a HSE located between nt −1119 and −1115 of the hPDS promoter (Figs. 5 and 6), and we demonstrate that HSF1 likely mediates this UGN-induced modulation (Fig. 7). These findings suggest that pendrin gene expression is subject to HSE/HSF1-mediated transcriptional regulation by UGN.. The renal CCD plays a vital role in acid-base homeostasis and ...
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Antivirotika jsou extrémně pestrou skupinou léčiv, které nejrůznějšími mechanizmy působí proti virovým částicím. Některé narušují replikaci virové DNA, jiné blokují tvorbu virových částic v postižené buňce, další narušují průnik virů do buňky atp ...
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1) We have prepared murine monoclonal antibodies to the membrane domain of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein (band 3). (2) All of these antibodies react with regions of the protein located at the cytoplasmic surface of the red cell. (3) One of the antibodies reacts with an epitope present on a cytoplasmic loop of the protein located between the C-terminus and a point 168 amino acids from the C-terminus. The other antibodies recognize different epitopes on the C-terminal tail of the protein and the sequences likely to be involved in these epitopes are defined. (4) Our results show that the C-terminus of the red-cell anion transport protein is located on the cytoplasmic side of the red-cell membrane. (5) None of the antibodies inhibited sulphate exchange transport when introduced into resealed red-cell membranes; however, the bivalent form of one of the antibodies reduced the inhibitory potency of 4-acetamido-4-isothiocyanatostilbene disulphonate on sulphate exchange transport in ...
Purpose. Biliary organic anion excretion is mediated by an ATP-dependent primary active transporter, a so-called canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT). As there appear to be many canalicular organic anion transports, we examined the effects of various organic anions and bile acid conjugates on the biliary excretion of pravastatin in rats. Methods. [l4C]pravastatin was intravenously injected into rats with bile drainage in the presence and absence of the continuous infusion of organic anions and bile acids, and radioactivity of its biliary excretion was studied. Results. Biliary excretion of [14C]pravastatin was markedly inhibited by sulfobromophthalein-glutathione, taurolithocholate-3-sulfate, ursodeoxycholate-3,7-sulfate, and ursodeoxycholate-3-O-glucuronide. In contrast, dibromosulfophthalein only slightly inhibited biliary pravastatin excretion, and cefpiramide did not affect biliary pravastatin excretion. Conclusions. These findings further support the multiplicity of
The Chlamydomonas reinhardtii nar-2, nar-3, and nar-4 genes, which are within a nitrate-regulated gene cluster containing the nitrate reductase structural gene nit-1, have been related to nitrate transport. Mutant strains defective in nitrate transport and having an active nitrate reductase have bee …
Congenital hereditary endothelial dystrophy (CHED) is an inherited disorder of the corneal endothelium characterised by bilateral non-inflammatory corneal clouding ranging from a diffuse haze to a ground-glass appearance. CHED can be inherited in an autosomal dominant (CHED1) or recessive (CHED2) manner. CHED2 usually presents at birth or early infancy. Bilateral corneal clouding can lead to visual impairment often accompanied by nystagmus in CHED2 patients requiring corneal transplantation.1 Mutations in the solute carrier family 4 member 11 (SLC4A11) gene have been identified in most patients with CHED2. With PCR sequencing of the entire coding and putative promoter regions of SLC4A11, there were, however, some clinically confirmed CHED2 patients with undetected SLC4A11 mutations.2 ...
Irinotecan is a relatively new anticancer agent of interest for both its clinical activity and its complex clinical pharmacology. It is a prodrug, requiring activation by carboxylesterases to SN-38, an inhibitor of topoisomerase I. Recent studies suggest that human carboxylesterase-2 is the primary carboxylesterase involved in the hydrolysis at pharmacological concentrations (1) . Irinotecan is also oxidized by CYP3A43 to the inactive metabolite 7-ethyl-10-[4-N-(5-aminopentanoic acid)-1-piperidino]carbonyloxycamptothecin as well as to 7-ethyl-10-[4-(piperidino)-1-amino]carbonyloxycamptothecin, which can undergo hydrolysis to SN-38 (2, 3, 4) . SN-38 undergoes glucuronidation by UGT1A1 (5) and is possibly oxidized by CYP3A4 as well (6) . Mass balance studies have demonstrated that 64% of the total dose is excreted in the feces, confirming the important role of biliary excretion (7) . Studies suggest that canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter is the major transporter of irinotecan and ...
OsNRT1.1a is a low-affinity nitrate (NO3 ) transporter gene. In this study, another mRNA splicing product, OsNRT1.1b, putatively encoding a protein with six transmembrane domains, was identified based on the rice genomic database and bioinformatics analysis. OsNRT1.1a/OsNRT1.1b expression in Xenopus oocytes showed OsNRT1.1a-expressing oocytes accumulated 15N levels to about half as compared to OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes. The electrophysiological recording of OsNRT1.1b-expressing oocytes treated with 0.25mM NO3 confirmed 15N accumulation data. More functional assays were performed to examine the function of OsNRT1.1b in rice. The expression of both OsNRT1.1a and OsNRT1.1b was abundant in roots and downregulated by nitrogen (N) deficiency. The shoot biomass of transgenic rice plants with OsNRT1.1a or OsNRT1.1b overexpression increased under various N supplies under hydroponic conditions compared to wild-type (WT). The OsNRT1.1a overexpression lines showed increased plant N accumulation compared ...
Diastrophic dysplasia (DTD) is a chondrodysplasia causing severe growth retardation, and structural and functional abnormalities of joints. Growth retardation and joint abnormalities are already present in utero, and mean height at birth is 32.5 cm. Extremities are short while the trunk is of normal size, upper arms show ulnar deviation with stiff fingers and a hitchhiker thumb. Hips are stiff and most patients have club foot. A cleft palate is frequent. Growth remains slow, the median adult height for males is 135 cm and 129 cm for females. Changes in the joints often progress with age and corrective surgery becomes necessary.
TY - JOUR. T1 - The extracellular loop of pendrin and prestin modulates their voltage-sensing property. AU - Kuwabara, Makoto F.. AU - Wasano, Koichiro. AU - Takahashi, Satoe. AU - Bodner, Justin. AU - Komori, Tomotaka. AU - Uemura, Sotaro. AU - Zheng, Jing. AU - Shima, Tomohiro. AU - Homma, Kazuaki. PY - 2018/1/1. Y1 - 2018/1/1. N2 - Pendrin and prestin belong to the solute carrier 26 (SLC26) family of anion transporters. Prestin is unique among the SLC26 family members in that it displays voltage-driven motor activity (electromotility) and concurrent gating currents that manifest as nonlinear cell membrane electrical capacitance (nonlinear capacitance (NLC)). Although the anion transport mechanism of the SLC26 proteins has begun to be elucidated, the molecular mechanism of electromotility, which is thought to have evolved from an ancestral ion transport mechanism, still remains largely elusive. Here, we demonstrate that pendrin also exhibits large NLC and that charged residues present in one ...
Diastrophic dysplasia is a rare genetic disorder that interferes with bone development and causes abnormal bone growth and dwarfism (short stature).
Author: Rubin, G. et al.; Genre: Journal Article; Published in Print: 2009; Open Access; Keywords: affinity nitrate transporter|br/|sucrose-specific induction|br/|knox gene-expression|br/|lob domain protein|br/|p-i starvation|br/|enzyme-activities|br/|phenylpropanoid biosynthesis|br/|flavonoid biosynthesis|br/|environmental nitrate|br/|secondary metabolism; Title: Members of the LBD Family of Transcription Factors Repress Anthocyanin Synthesis and Affect Additional Nitrogen Responses in Arabidopsis
Pendrin is a Cl-/HCO3- exchanger expressed in the apical regions of renal intercalated cells. Following pendrin gene ablation, blood pressure falls, in part, from reduced renal NaCl absorption. We asked if pendrin is expressed in vascular tissue and if the lower blood pressure observed in pendrin null mice is accompanied by reduced vascular reactivity. Thus, the contractile responses to KCl and phenylephrine (PE) were examined in isometrically mounted thoracic aortas from wild-type and pendrin null mice. Although pendrin expression was not detected in the aorta, pendrin gene ablation changed contractile protein abundance and increased the maximal contractile response to PE when normalized to cross sectional area (CSA). However, the contractile sensitivity to this agent was unchanged. The increase in contractile force/cross sectional area observed in pendrin null mice was due to reduced cross sectional area of the aorta and not from increased contractile force per vessel. The pendrin-dependent ...
Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1A2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1A2 gene.[1][2] This gene encodes a sodium-independent transporter which mediates cellular uptake of organic ions in the liver. Its substrates include bile acids, bromosulphophthalein, and some steroidal compounds. The protein is a member of the SLC21A family of solute carriers. Alternate splicing of this gene results in three transcript variants encoding two different isoforms.[2] ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - NaBC1 is a ubiquitous electrogenic Na+-coupled borate transporter essential for cellular boron homeostasis and cell growth and proliferation. AU - Park, Meeyoung. AU - Li, Qin. AU - Shcheynikov, Nikolay. AU - Zeng, Weizong. AU - Muallem, Shmuel. PY - 2004/11/5. Y1 - 2004/11/5. N2 - Boron is a vital micronutrient in plants and may be essential for animal growth and development. Whereas the role of boron in the life cycle of plants is well documented, nothing is known about boron homeostasis and function in animal cells. NaBC1, the mammalian homolog of AtBor1, is a borate transporter. In the absence of borate, NaBC1 conducts Na+ and OH- (H+), while in the presence of borate, NaBC1 functions as an electrogenic, voltage-regulated, Na+-coupled B(OH)4 - transporter. At low concentrations, borate activated the MAPK pathway to stimulate cell growth and proliferation, and at high concentrations, it was toxic. Accordingly, overexpression of NaBC1 shifted both effects of borate to the left, ...
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InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
V deln kolon da byla postavena v dob od 1. jna 1878 do 27. dubna 1879 na m st star d ev n kolon dy podle projektu v de sk ch architekt Ferdinanda Fellnera a Hermanna Gottlieba Helmera. Proto e litinov d ly byly spojov ny ocelov mi prvky, do lo k naru en stability a na ja e roku 1939 bylo p ikro eno k jej demolici. V roce 1946 byla postavena dal konstrukce od architekta Ladislava Koz ka, kter vydr ela tvrt stolet , ve fotogalerii je uvedena jako prozat mn kolon da. V roce 1975 byla otev ena nov V deln kolon da, d lo architekta J. Otruby. ...
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... a putative organic anion transport protein". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 12 (42): 6797-805. doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i42.6797 ... Solute carrier family 10 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC10A4 gene. In mice, it appears to promote ...
"The human organic anion transport protein SLC21A6 is not sufficient for bilirubin transport". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (23): 20695-9 ... "A novel human hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP2). Identification of a liver-specific human organic anion ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1B1 gene. ... Campbell SD, de Morais SM, Xu JJ (2005). "Inhibition of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP 1B1 as a mechanism of ...
Anion exchange protein 2 (AE2) is a membrane transport protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A2 gene. AE2 is ... Gehrig H, Müller W, Appelhans H (1992). "Complete nucleotide sequence of band 3 related anion transport protein AE2 from human ... "Entrez Gene: SLC4A2 solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 2 (erythrocyte membrane protein band 3-like 1)". Gawenis ... Huang QR, Li Q, Chen YH, Li L, Liu LL, Lei SH, Chen HP, Peng WJ, He M (June 2010). "Involvement of anion exchanger-2 in ...
Cells also contain anion antiporters such as the Band 3 (or AE1) anion transport protein. This cotransporter is an important ... to provide the power needed for transport. This type of transport is known as secondary active transport and is powered by the ... For instance the wheat HKT1 transporter shows two modes of transport by the same protein. Cotransporters can be classified as ... Cotransporters are a subcategory of membrane transport proteins (transporters) that couple the favorable movement of one ...
"Multidrug-resistance protein 5 is a multispecific organic anion transporter able to transport nucleotide analogs". Proceedings ... Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC5 gene. The protein encoded by this ... ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... "Characterization of the transport of nucleoside analog drugs by the human multidrug resistance proteins MRP4 and MRP5". ...
2005). "Interaction with PDZK1 is required for expression of organic anion transporting protein 1A1 on the hepatocyte surface ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO4A1 gene. Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLCO4A1 solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 4A1". Fujiwara K, Adachi H, Nishio T, et al. (2001 ... 2003). "Identification of steroid sulfate transport processes in the human mammary gland". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 88 (8): ...
Anion exchange protein 3 is a membrane transport protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A3 gene. AE3 is functionally ... Morgans CW, Kopito RR (1993). "Association of the brain anion exchanger, AE3, with the repeat domain of ankyrin". J. Cell Sci. ... "Entrez Gene: SLC4A3 solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 3". Casey JR, Sly WS, Shah GN, Alvarez BV (November 2009 ... 2001). "Human intestinal anion exchanger isoforms: expression, distribution, and membrane localization". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ...
As the blood pH increases, blood transport proteins, such as albumin, become more ionized into anions. This causes the free ...
"The multivalent PDZ domain-containing protein PDZK1 regulates transport activity of renal urate-anion exchanger URAT1 via its C ... The protein encoded by this gene is a urate transporter and urate-anion exchanger which regulates the level of urate in the ... Solute carrier family 22 (organic anion/cation transporter), member 12, also known as SLC22A12 and URAT1, is a protein which in ... This protein is an integral membrane protein primarily found in kidney. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms ...
Organic cation transport proteins Organic anion-transporting polypeptide Solute carrier family Osmoregulation Organic anion ... The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by OSTα/OSTβ is: organic anion (out) ⇌ organic anion (in) Each transport system ... The two proteins are highly expressed in many human tissues. The β-subunit is not required to target the α-subunit to the ... Transport of estrone sulfate by the two subunit Ost transporter of Raja erinacea (TC# 2.A.82.1.1) is Na+-independent, ATP- ...
"The multivalent PDZ domain-containing protein PDZK1 regulates transport activity of renal urate-anion exchanger URAT1 via its C ... Na(+)/H(+) exchange regulatory cofactor NHE-RF3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDZK1 gene. PDZK1 has been shown ... Kocher O, Comella N, Gilchrist A, Pal R, Tognazzi K, Brown LF, Knoll JH (1999). "PDZK1, a novel PDZ domain-containing protein ... White KE, Biber J, Murer H, Econs MJ (1999). "A PDZ domain-containing protein with homology to Diphor-1 maps to human ...
... anion transport protein is a phylogenetically-preserved transport protein responsible for mediating the exchange of ... Band 3 anion transport protein, also known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1) or band 3 or solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1), ... Diego blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH Band 3 Protein at the US National ... The erythrocyte and kidney forms are different isoforms of the same protein. The erythrocyte isoform of AE1, known as eAE1, is ...
... and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3), respectively. Both proteins are found in liver cells; they transport ... nonfunctional OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 proteins or an absence of these proteins. Without the function of either transport protein, ... The SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 genes provide instructions for making similar proteins, called organic anion transporting polypeptide ...
Rosen BP, Weigel U, Monticello RA, Edwards BP (1991). "Molecular analysis of an anion pump: purification of the ArsC protein". ... Rosen BP, Weigel U, Monticello RA, Edwards BP (1991). "Molecular analysis of an anion pump: purification of the ArsC protein". ... In enzymology, an arsenite-transporting ATPase (EC 3.6.3.16) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O + ...
This family of proteins can also transport zwitterions and anions, though it is a different subfamily of solute carrier ... An organic cation transport protein mediates the transport of organic cations across the cell membrane. These proteins are ...
"Borate as a synergistic anion for Marinobacter algicola ferric binding protein, FbpA: a role for boron in iron transport in ...
... they release proteins which facilitate active transport of lightweight anions between leaf and fungus even before germination. ... from which 437 encoded candidate secretor proteins and 165 for non-secreted candidate secretor proteins. These were shown to be ... The exact mechanism of action is unknown, but one known effect is that ferroglobulin, a protein in whey, produces oxygen ... selective pressure acting on genes that code for candidate secretor proteins and non-secreted candidate secretor proteins, ...
Anion exchanger proteins exchange HCO3 − for Cl− in a reversible, electroneutral manner. Na+/HCO3 − co-transport proteins ... In molecular biology, bicarbonate transporter proteins are proteins which transport bicarbonate. Bicarbonate (HCO3 −) transport ... In these proteins it covers almost the entire length of the sequence. The Band 3 anion exchange proteins that exchange ... A conserved domain is found at the C terminus of many bicarbonate transport proteins. It is also found in some plant proteins ...
Nine encode proteins that transport HCO− 3. Functionally, eight of these proteins fall into two major groups: three Cl-HCO− 3 ... The same transport site within the AE1 spanning domain is involved in both anion exchange and cation transport. AE1 in human ... Several possibilities (uniport, anion:anion exchange and anion:cation exchange) can account for the data. The physiologically ... "Dual transport properties of anion exchanger 1: the same transmembrane segment is involved in anion exchange and in a cation ...
For medications that interact due to inhibition of OATP (organic anion-transporting polypeptides), a relative short period of ... Bioactive compounds in grapefruit juice may also interfere with MDR1 (multidrug resistance protein 1) and OATP (organic anion ... Andrade, Chittaranjan (24 November 2014). "Fruit Juice, Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides, and Drug Interactions in ... possible role of organic anion transporting polypeptides". Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. 77 (3): 170-7. doi:10.1016/j ...
... increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the band 3 protein, reduced sulfate anion transport through the cell membrane, and more ... Rather, the defect lies in a protein known as the band 3 protein, which lies in the cell membrane itself. The band 3 protein ... The band 3 proteins aggregate on the cell membrane at the site of entry, forming a circular orifice that the parasite squeezes ... These band 3 proteins act as receptors for the parasite. Normally a process much like endocytosis occurs, and the parasite is ...
... also known as organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1B3 gene. ... 2006). "Transport of fluorescent chenodeoxycholic acid via the human organic anion transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3". J. Lipid ... 2002). "Human organic anion transporting polypeptide 8 promoter is transactivated by the farnesoid X receptor/bile acid ... Hagenbuch B, Gui C (July 2008). "Xenobiotic transporters of the human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) family". ...
An organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) is a membrane transport protein or 'transporter' that mediates the transport ... transporting anions, as well as neutral and even cationic compounds. They also transport an extremely diverse range of drug ... Hagenbuch B, Meier PJ (February 2004). "Organic anion transporting polypeptides of the OATP/ SLC21 family: phylogenetic ... Organic anion transporting polypeptides carry bile acids as well as bilirubin and numerous hormones such as thyroid and steroid ...
2004). "Protein kinase C activation downregulates human organic anion transporter 1-mediated transport through carrier ... OAT1 functions as organic anion exchanger. When the uptake of one molecule of an organic anion is transported into a cell by an ... It is a member of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family of proteins. OAT1 is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in ... and OATP4C1 transport small organic anions from the plasma into the S2 cells. MDR1, MRP2, MRP4 and URAT1 then transports these ...
Proteins of the OAT family catalyze the Na+-independent facilitated transport of fairly large amphipathic organic anions (and ... The generalized transport reactions catalyzed by members of the OAT family are: Anion (in) → Anion (out) Anion1 (in) + Anion2 ( ... Members of the Organo Anion Transporter (OAT) Family (TC# 2.A.60) catalyze electrogenic anion uniport or more frequently, anion ... "Glutamate cycling may drive organic anion transport on the basal membrane of human placental syncytiotrophoblast". The Journal ...
transmembrane transport. • calcium ion transport. • regulation of ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential. • embryonic ... Calcium channel, voltage-dependent, L type, alpha 1C subunit (also known as Cav1.2) is a protein that in humans is encoded by ... regulation of ion transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • calcium-mediated signaling using extracellular calcium source. • ... Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective Wikipedia articles. [§ 1] ...
4) Our results show that the C-terminus of the red-cell anion transport protein is located on the cytoplasmic side of the red- ... Monoclonal antibodies to the membrane domain of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein. Localization of the C-terminus ... Monoclonal antibodies to the membrane domain of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein. Localization of the C-terminus ... Monoclonal antibodies to the membrane domain of the human erythrocyte anion transport protein. Localization of the C-terminus ...
This gene provides instructions for making the anion exchanger 1 (AE1) protein, which transports negatively charged atoms ( ... and normal AE1 protein is produced from the other copy. However, the altered protein attaches to the normal protein and keeps ... In red blood cells, interaction with a protein called glycophorin A can often help the altered AE1 protein get to the cell ... However, some altered AE1 proteins cannot be helped by glycophorin A and are not found in the cell membrane. Without AE1, the ...
The predicted geometry of the anion conduction path was defined by a space-filling model of the pore and confirmed by ... The predicted dimensions of the bottleneck are consistent with the demonstrated permeation of Cl(-), pseudohalide anions, water ... with particular attention being paid to the location of the rate-limiting barrier for anion conduction. Side-chain orientations ... Ion Transport, Models, Molecular, Molecular Dynamics Simulation, Oocytes, Protein Conformation, Xenopus laevis ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... Solved structures for this protein. ID. Structure. Description. 1btq THE SOLUTION STRUCTURES OF THE FIRST AND SECOND ... STRUCTURAL STUDIES ON THE EFFECTS OF THE DELETION IN THE RED CELL ANION EXCHANGER (BAND3, AE1) ASSOCIATED WITH SOUTH EAST ASIAN ...
The PDB archive contains information about experimentally-determined structures of proteins, nucleic acids, and complex ... Protein Feature View of PDB entries mapped to a UniProtKB sequence * Number of PDB entries for P78487: no matching PDB entries ... This protein in other organisms (by gene name): P78487 - Homo sapiens 0 * P15575 - Gallus gallus no matching PDB entries ... Protein disorder predictions are based on JRONN (Troshin, P. and Barton, G. J. unpublished), a Java implementation of RONN * ...
Protein kinase C regulates the internalization and function of the human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2.. Zhou F1, ... Protein kinase C regulates the internalization and function of the human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 ... Protein kinase C regulates the internalization and function of the human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 ... Protein kinase C regulates the internalization and function of the human organic anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 ...
Classification of inhibitors of hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs): influence of protein expression on ... Classification of Inhibitors of Hepatic Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs): Influence of Protein Expression on ... Classification of Inhibitors of Hepatic Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs): Influence of Protein Expression on ... Classification of Inhibitors of Hepatic Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptides (OATPs): Influence of Protein Expression on ...
Interindividual variability in protein expression of organic anion-transporting polypeptides (OATPs) OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OATP2B1 ... Interindividual Variability in Hepatic Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides and P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) Protein Expression: ... Interindividual Variability in Hepatic Organic Anion-Transporting Polypeptides and P-Glycoprotein (ABCB1) Protein Expression: ... The mean ± S.D. (maximum/minimum range in parentheses) protein expression (fmol/µg of membrane protein) in human liver tissue ...
... in transport of fluorescent anions across the human erythrocyte membrane, The Journal of Membrane Biology" on DeepDyve, the ... Transport of organic anions by multidrug resistanceassociated protein in the erythrocyte. Rychlik, B.; Pulaski, L.; Sokal, A.; ... The role of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in transport of fluorescent anions across the human erythrocyte membrane. ... The role of multidrug resistance protein 1 (MRP1) in transport of fluorescent anions across the... Rychlik, B.; Balcerczyk, A ...
Human Band 3 anion transport protein (SLC4A1) ELISA Kit-NP_000333.1 (MBS7230564) product datasheet at MyBioSource, ELISA Kits ... UniProt Protein Name Band 3 anion transport protein UniProt Synonym Protein Names Anion exchange protein 1; AE 1; Anion ... Band 3 anion transport protein (SLC4A1), ELISA Kit. ★Popular Item★ Also Known As Human Band 3 anion transport protein (SLC4A1) ... NCBI Protein Information band 3 anion transport protein; Diego blood group; Swann blood group; anion exchanger 1; anion ...
Domain architectures illustrate each occurrence of the Phoshotransferase/anion transport protein superfamily. ... Domain combinations containing the Phoshotransferase/anion transport protein superfamily . ... 1 domain combinations include a Phoshotransferase/anion transport protein domain in Mycoplasma gallisepticum str. F. With a ... Domain combinations for Phoshotransferase/anion transport protein superfamily. ...
... is a polytopic membrane protein found in outer hair cells (OHCs) of the mammalian cochlea. Prestin is an essential component of ... a member of the SLC26A family of anion transporters, ... Anion Transport Proteins / genetics * Anion Transport Proteins ... Prestin, a member of the SLC26A family of anion transporters, is a polytopic membrane protein found in outer hair cells (OHCs) ... Essential helix interactions in the anion transporter domain of prestin revealed by evolutionary trace analysis J Neurosci. ...
Stable inducible expression of a functional rat liver organic anion transport protein in HeLa cells. Journal of biological ... Recently we expression cloned a rat liver organic anion transport protein in Xenopus laevis oocytes (Jacquemin, E. Hagenbuch, B ... Stable inducible expression of a functional rat liver organic anion transport protein in HeLa cells ... whereas the induced transfected cells express a novel 74-kDa protein and avidly transport this ligand. Transport by these cells ...
BAND 3 ANION TRANSPORT PROTEIN: A. SMTL:PDB. SMTL Chain Id:. PDB Chain Id:. A. A ...
Transport of anions through neuronal cell-membranes by receptor-channel proteins. ... Transport of anions through neuronal cell-membranes by receptor-channel proteins. Bormann, J. (1987). Transport of anions ... through neuronal cell-membranes by receptor-channel proteins. Biological Chemistry Hoppe-Seyler, 368(10), 1247-1247. ...
2012) Anion transport by the cochlear motor protein prestin. J Physiol 590(Pt 2):259-272. ... C) Electrogenic anion transport mediated by Ci-Slc26aα in CHO cells. Transport currents occurred in the presence of either ... Electrogenic anion transport was measured as the ionic transport current in the response to command voltage ramps (300 ms; ∼0.8 ... 2009) Diverse transport modes by the solute carrier 26 family of anion transporters. J Physiol 587(Pt 10):2179-2185. ...
Purpose: Organic anion-transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are sinusoidal membrane transporters. Published July 13, ... Purpose: Organic anion-transporting polypeptides OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 are sinusoidal membrane transporters mediating liver ... Manifestation of OATP1B proteins is definitely CCT137690 regulated in the transcriptional [2,8,9] and/or protein level [2]. ... Proteins kinase C II (PKCII) amounts upsurge in the myocardium of * Background The role of advanced glycation end products ( ...
Mutant strains defective in nitrate transport and having an active nitrate reductase have bee … ... Anion Transport Proteins* * Base Sequence * Biological Transport * Carrier Proteins / genetics* * Chlamydomonas reinhardtii / ... These data strongly support the hypothesis that the nitrate transport system in C. reinhardtii contains at least two protein ... have been related to nitrate transport. Mutant strains defective in nitrate transport and having an active nitrate reductase ...
ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed export pumps) for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, ... 0/Anion Transport Proteins; 0/Bicarbonates; 0/Bile Acids and Salts; 0/Carrier Proteins; 0/P-Glycoprotein; 0/Phospholipids; 56- ... Anion Transport Proteins. Bicarbonates / metabolism. Bile Acids and Salts / metabolism. Bile Canaliculi / physiopathology*. ... Biological Transport, Active. Carrier Proteins / metabolism. Cholestasis / etiology, genetics, physiopathology*. Cholesterol / ...
... shows relevant inhibition of organic anion-transporting protein 1B1-mediated transport of atorvastatin. Drug Metab Dispos 38: ... organic anion-transporting protein. ABT. 1-aminobenzotriazole. M1. 2-despiperidyl-2-amino repaglinide. M2. 2-despiperidyl-2(5- ... Organic anion-transporting proteins (OATPs) are expressed on the sinusoidal membrane of hepatocytes and have been identified as ... 2008) Xenobiotic transporters of the human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) family. Xenobiotica 38:778-801. ...
0 (Anion Transport Proteins); 0 (Mitochondrial Proteins); 0 (Slc25a1 protein, human); 0 (Sterols); 1339-63-5 (Ubiquinone); 2067 ... The results show that nine mutations abolish transport of citrate completely, whereas the other three reduce the transport rate ... Here, we have measured the effect of all twelve known pathogenic mutations on the transport activity. ... To understand the consequences of impaired citrate transport on metabolism, the substrate specificity was also determined, ...
... is an Escherichia coli Protein fragment 1 to 403 aa range, , 90% purity and validated in SDS-PAGE. ... Anion exchanger 1. *B3AT_HUMAN. *Band 3. *Band 3 anion transport protein ... Detected in erythrocytes (at protein level) (PubMed:7506871, PubMed:26542571). Isoform 2 is expressed in kidney (at protein ... Proteins and Peptides. Proteomics tools. Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex Assays. By ...
30% of the protein was expressed at the cell surface. Moving the N-glycosylation site to the preceding extracellular loop in an ... in the fourth extracellular loop of this polytopic membrane protein, while other isoforms (AE2, AE3 and trout AE1) are N- ... The human erythrocyte anion exchanger (AE)1 (Band 3) contains a single complex N-linked oligosaccharide that is attached to Asn ... N-glycosylation and topology of the human SLC26 family of anion transport membrane proteins.. *Jing Li, Fan Xia, Reinhart A. F ...
We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their ... InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites ... GO:0006820 anion transport Molecular Function. GO:0005452 inorganic anion exchanger activity GO:0008509 anion transmembrane ... Protein family membership. *Bicarbonate transporter, eukaryotic (IPR003020)*Anion exchange protein (IPR001717)*Anion exchange ...
Kaplan RS (2001) Structure and function of mitochondrial anion transport proteins. J Membr Biol 179:165-183CrossRefPubMedGoogle ... expression patterns of the transport protein genes, and protein-protein interactions with other proteins. Biochim Biophys Acta ... Mitochondrial phosphate transport protein replacements of glutamic aspartic and histidine residues affect transport and protein ... Pedersen PL (Editor) (1993) Minireview series: Mitochondrial anion transport systems. J Bioenerg Biomembr 25:429-535PubMed ...
  • MBS7230564 is a ready-to-use microwell, strip plate Competitive ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) Kit for analyzing the presence of the Band 3 anion transport protein (SLC4A1) ELISA Kit target analytes in biological samples. (mybiosource.com)
  • To understand the consequences of impaired citrate transport on metabolism, the substrate specificity was also determined, showing that the human citrate carrier predominantly transports citrate, isocitrate, cis-aconitate, phosphoenolpyruvate and malate. (bireme.br)
  • Although a large number of studies have described that botanical supplements interfere with drug metabolism, the mode of their interaction with drug transport processes is not well described. (mdpi.com)
  • Molecular alterations of canalicular transport systems in experimental models of cholestasis: possible functional correlations. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Recent cloning of several canalicular transport systems now facilitates studies on their molecular regulation in cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • With the increasing availability of molecular probes for these transport systems in humans, new information on the molecular regulation of canalicular transport proteins in human cholestatic liver diseases is beginning to emerge and should bring new insights into their pathophysiology and treatment. (biomedsearch.com)
  • This article gives an overview on molecular alterations of canalicular transport systems in experimental models of cholestasis and discusses the potential implications of these changes for the pathophysiology of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • We developed a method that facilitates patch-clamp recording from the whole IMM, enabling the direct measurement of small H + leak currents via uncoupling proteins and thus, providing a rigorous understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved. (frontiersin.org)
  • Inhibition potency of all 225 compounds on OATP1B1 (a), OATP1B3 (b), and OATP2B1 mediated transport (c) at a concentration of 20 μM. (nih.gov)
  • Our aims were to select antibodies suitable for specific detection of both or either of the OATP1B proteins on formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded liver specimens by testing them in OATP1B1- and OATP1B3-transgenic mice and to correlate liver expression of OATP1Bs with both forms of plasma bilirubin, cholestatic markers and histological findings in various forms of biliary and parenchymal liver diseases. (neuroart2006.com)
  • For example, the OATP1B3 protein transports bilirubin, which is a yellowish substance that is produced when red blood cells are broken down. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The OATP1B3 protein also transports certain hormones, toxins, and drugs into the liver for removal from the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In some cases, the condition is caused by a deletion of genetic material that removes parts of both the SLCO1B3 and SLCO1B1 genes, so no functional OATP1B3 or OATP1B1 protein is made. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Most mutations that cause Rotor syndrome lead to abnormally short, nonfunctioning OATP1B3 and OATP1B1 proteins. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Among its related pathways are Transport of glucose and other sugars, bile salts and organic acids, metal ions and amine compounds and Cytochrome P450 - arranged by substrate type . (genecards.org)
  • As the substrate of both hOAT1 and hOAT3, the methotrexate transport was significantly inhibited by RAG in hOAT1 transfected cells at 50 M and hOAT3 transfected cells at 1 M by 69% and 87%, respectively. (bireme.br)
  • In spite of this, we observed that NSC73306 is a transport substrate for ABCG2 that can effectively inhibit ABCG2-mediated drug transport and reverse resistance to both mitoxantrone and topotecan in ABCG2-expressing cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • This method is, however, limited by the space available to the substrate, its specific activity and total radioactivity, the efficiency and speed of separation relative to the actual transport rates, as well as by the capacity of the biological system to retain its structural integrity during separation steps. (springer.com)
  • Dr Jennifer Greaves , Coventry University, Investigating the function and substrate interaction network of ABHD16A, a novel regulator of protein S-acylation. (acmedsci.ac.uk)
  • Energy derived from the hydrolysis of ATP is used to transport the substrate across the membrane against a concentration gradient. (wikipathways.org)
  • Most of these residues are important for substrate interaction, whereas F51 is crucial for correct folding of the transporter protein. (antibodies-online.com)
  • A well-known example of such an uncoupling of respiration to ADP phosphorylation is represented by the mitochondrial uncoupling protein of brown adipocytes (UCP1), which dissipates energy of substrate oxidation as heat ( 15 - 18 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Studies suggest that with the help of glycophorin A, the altered AE1 protein can often get to the cell membrane in red blood cells, which explains why most people with SLC4A1 -associated distal renal tubular acidosis do not have blood cell abnormalities. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The discovery of unidirectional, ATP-dependent canalicular transport systems (also termed "export pumps") for bile salts, amphiphilic anionic conjugates, lipophilic cations, and phospholipids has opened new opportunities for understanding biliary physiology and the pathophysiology of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Canalicular excretion of bile salts and several non-bile acid organic anions is impaired in various experimental models of cholestasis. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins. (curehunter.com)
  • Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed. (uniprot.org)
  • Moreover, the present invention relates to methods of inducing bone formation by transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding LIM mineralization protein. (google.com)
  • In a particular embodiment, the invention provides a method of fusing a spine by transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with an isolated nucleic acid molecule having a nucleotide sequence encoding LIM mineralization protein, admixing the transfected osteogenic precursor cells with a matrix and contacting the matrix with the spine. (google.com)
  • 1. A method of inducing bone formation comprising transfecting osteogenic precursor cells with an isolated nucleic acid molecule comprising a nucleotide sequence encoding LIM mineralization protein, wherein said nucleic acid molecule is SEQ ID NO: 22 or SEQ ID NO: 33. (google.com)
  • Acylation Occurs in the Middle of the Consensus Sequence of F--I-IICLAVL Found in Band 3 Protein and G2 Protein of Rift Valley Fever Virus. (seitoku.jp)
  • Here we identify a solute carrier 26 (Slc26) family protein as an essential regulator of tubulogenesis using the notochord of the invertebrate chordate Ciona intestinalis as a model. (pnas.org)
  • required for normal flexibility and stability of the erythrocyte membrane and for normal erythrocyte shape via the interactions of its cytoplasmic domain with cytoskeletal proteins, glycolytic enzymes, and hemoglobin. (rcsb.org)
  • Functions as a transporter that mediates the 1:1 exchange of inorganic anions across the erythrocyte membrane. (rcsb.org)
  • We found significant differences in the characteristics of transport of the dyes tested across the erythrocyte membrane. (deepdyve.com)
  • 8.Palmitoylation of Cysteine 69 from the COOH-terminal of Band 3 Protein in the Human Erythrocyte Membrane. (seitoku.jp)
  • In the present study the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of OATP1A2 was investigated in an in vitro cell model. (nih.gov)
  • PKC activation decreased the transport function of OATP1A2 in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. (nih.gov)
  • A) Transport of 300 nM [ 3 H]-ES in OATP1A2 transfected COS-7 cells after treatment with PMA (1 µM) at 37°C for various durations. (nih.gov)
  • Kinetic analysis of oestrone sulphate (ES) transport mediated by OATP1A2 in the presence or absence of PMA treatment. (nih.gov)
  • A) Direct Michaelis-Menten plot, and (B) K m and V max values for ES transport by OATP1A2. (nih.gov)
  • Functions both as a transporter that mediates electroneutral anion exchange across the cell membrane and as a structural protein. (rcsb.org)
  • For electroneutral mechanisms, the anion flux can be traced by a variety of physical or chemical techniques, the most widely used being tracing the movement of a radiolabeled anion by separating the compartments at various time points, sampling their contents, and measuring the amount of tracer in one of them. (springer.com)
  • Bartosz, G. 2002-03-25 00:00:00 We employed human red blood cells as a model system to check the affinity of MRP1 (Multi-drug Resistance-associated Protein 1) towards fluorescein and a set of its carboxyl derivatives: 5/6-carboxyfluorescein (CF), 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5/6-carboxyfluorescein (BCECF) and calcein (CAL). (deepdyve.com)
  • BCECF is transported mainly via MRP1, as proven by the use of QCRL3, a monoclonal antibody known to specifically inhibit MRP1-mediated transport. (deepdyve.com)
  • Of all the MRP-class transporter proteins, MRP1 has been the most widely studied and best-characterized and available evidence points to a role for MRP1 in the clinical drug resistance of several malignancies, including neuroblastoma. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We expressed MRP1 and MRP2 in Spodoptera frugiperda ovarian cells and compared their ATP-dependent transport properties and vanadate-sensitive ATPase activities in isolated membrane vesicles. (aspetjournals.org)
  • ATP-dependent NEM-GS transport by MRP1 and MRP2 was variably modulated by organic anions. (aspetjournals.org)
  • His laboratory is using a combination of structural and functional approaches to answer mechanistic questions regarding ClC channels and other anion transport proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Immunohistochemical staining in tissues from mice, rats, and guinea pigs points to a strong evolutionary conservation for these transporter proteins. (bmj.com)
  • disulfonic stilbene derivatives (stilbenes) are divalent anions at neutral pH ( Fig. 1 ). (physiology.org)