Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
A phenolphthalein that is used as a diagnostic aid in hepatic function determination.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
An organic anion transporter found in human liver. It is capable of transporting a variety organic anions and mediates sodium-independent uptake of bile in the liver.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A polyspecific transporter for organic cations found primarily in the kidney. It mediates the coupled exchange of alpha-ketoglutarate with organic ions such as P-AMINOHIPPURIC ACID.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.
A broad category of membrane transport proteins that specifically transport FREE FATTY ACIDS across cellular membranes. They play an important role in LIPID METABOLISM in CELLS that utilize free fatty acids as an energy source.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The prototypical uricosuric agent. It inhibits the renal excretion of organic anions and reduces tubular reabsorption of urate. Probenecid has also been used to treat patients with renal impairment, and, because it reduces the renal tubular excretion of other drugs, has been used as an adjunct to antibacterial therapy.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Erythrocytes with protoplasmic projections giving the cell a thorny appearance.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
A villous structure of tangled masses of BLOOD VESSELS contained within the third, lateral, and fourth ventricles of the BRAIN. It regulates part of the production and composition of CEREBROSPINAL FLUID.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
Small oviparous fishes in the family Cyprinodontidae, usually striped or barred black. They are much used in mosquito control.
Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.
A reagent that is highly selective for the modification of arginyl residues. It is used to selectively inhibit various enzymes and acts as an energy transfer inhibitor in photophosphorylation.
A sequence-related subfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS that actively transport organic substrates. Although considered organic anion transporters, a subset of proteins in this family have also been shown to convey drug resistance to neutral organic drugs. Their cellular function may have clinical significance for CHEMOTHERAPY in that they transport a variety of ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of proteins in this class by NEOPLASMS is considered a possible mechanism in the development of multidrug resistance (DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE). Although similar in function to P-GLYCOPROTEINS, the proteins in this class share little sequence homology to the p-glycoprotein family of proteins.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
The product of conjugation of cholic acid with taurine. Its sodium salt is the chief ingredient of the bile of carnivorous animals. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and cholerectic.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
A phthalic indicator dye that appears yellow-green in normal tear film and bright green in a more alkaline medium such as the aqueous humor.
Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
A uricosuric drug that is used to reduce the serum urate levels in gout therapy. It lacks anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and diuretic properties.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A chloride channel that regulates secretion in many exocrine tissues. Abnormalities in the CFTR gene have been shown to cause cystic fibrosis. (Hum Genet 1994;93(4):364-8)
A phylum of microscopic ecdysozoan invertebrates, closely related to ARTHROPODS. Members exhibit anabiosis and cryptobiosis, dormant states where metabolic activity is reduced or absent, thus making them tolerant to extreme environmental conditions. They are distributed worldwide and most are semi-aquatic.
A broad category of proteins involved in the formation, transport and dissolution of TRANSPORT VESICLES. They play a role in the intracellular transport of molecules contained within membrane vesicles. Vesicular transport proteins are distinguished from MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS, which move molecules across membranes, by the mode in which the molecules are transported.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Red dye, pH indicator, and diagnostic aid for determination of renal function. It is used also for studies of the gastrointestinal and other systems.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An herbicide with irritant effects on the eye and the gastrointestinal system.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
Proteins that bind to and are involved in the metabolism of phosphate ions.
The process by which ELECTRONS are transported from a reduced substrate to molecular OXYGEN. (From Bennington, Saunders Dictionary and Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984, p270)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Organic derivatives of thiocyanic acid which contain the general formula R-SCN.
Vesicles that are involved in shuttling cargo from the interior of the cell to the cell surface, from the cell surface to the interior, across the cell or around the cell to various locations.
A family of monosaccharide transport proteins characterized by 12 membrane spanning helices. They facilitate passive diffusion of GLUCOSE across the CELL MEMBRANE.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A versatile red dye used in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, textiles, etc., and as tissue stain, vital stain, and counterstain with HEMATOXYLIN. It is also used in special culture media.
A conditionally essential nutrient, important during mammalian development. It is present in milk but is isolated mostly from ox bile and strongly conjugates bile acids.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.
An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Proteins that cotransport sodium ions and bicarbonate ions across cellular membranes.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A sulfamyl diuretic.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
A family of spiro(isobenzofuran-1(3H),9'-(9H)xanthen)-3-one derivatives. These are used as dyes, as indicators for various metals, and as fluorescent labels in immunoassays.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
One or more layers of EPITHELIAL CELLS, supported by the basal lamina, which covers the inner or outer surfaces of the body.
A family of proteins involved in the transport of organic cations. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics, and their metabolites from the body.
The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.
A stack of flattened vesicles that functions in posttranslational processing and sorting of proteins, receiving them from the rough ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM and directing them to secretory vesicles, LYSOSOMES, or the CELL MEMBRANE. The movement of proteins takes place by transfer vesicles that bud off from the rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus and fuse with the Golgi, lysosomes or cell membrane. (From Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOTIDES across cellular membranes.
A cyclododecadepsipeptide ionophore antibiotic produced by Streptomyces fulvissimus and related to the enniatins. It is composed of 3 moles each of L-valine, D-alpha-hydroxyisovaleric acid, D-valine, and L-lactic acid linked alternately to form a 36-membered ring. (From Merck Index, 11th ed) Valinomycin is a potassium selective ionophore and is commonly used as a tool in biochemical studies.
A greenish-yellow, diatomic gas that is a member of the halogen family of elements. It has the atomic symbol Cl, atomic number 17, and atomic weight 70.906. It is a powerful irritant that can cause fatal pulmonary edema. Chlorine is used in manufacturing, as a reagent in synthetic chemistry, for water purification, and in the production of chlorinated lime, which is used in fabric bleaching.
An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
A light microscopic technique in which only a small spot is illuminated and observed at a time. An image is constructed through point-by-point scanning of the field in this manner. Light sources may be conventional or laser, and fluorescence or transmitted observations are possible.
Proteins involved in the transport of NUCLEOSIDES across cellular membranes.
A subclass of IMIDES with the general structure of pyrrolidinedione. They are prepared by the distillation of ammonium succinate. They are sweet-tasting compounds that are used as chemical intermediates and plant growth stimulants.
Cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body by forming cellular layers (EPITHELIUM) or masses. Epithelial cells lining the SKIN; the MOUTH; the NOSE; and the ANAL CANAL derive from ectoderm; those lining the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM and the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM derive from endoderm; others (CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM and LYMPHATIC SYSTEM) derive from mesoderm. Epithelial cells can be classified mainly by cell shape and function into squamous, glandular and transitional epithelial cells.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A group of genetic disorders of the KIDNEY TUBULES characterized by the accumulation of metabolically produced acids with elevated plasma chloride, hyperchloremic metabolic ACIDOSIS. Defective renal acidification of URINE (proximal tubules) or low renal acid excretion (distal tubules) can lead to complications such as HYPOKALEMIA, hypercalcinuria with NEPHROLITHIASIS and NEPHROCALCINOSIS, and RICKETS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.
This is the active form of VITAMIN B 6 serving as a coenzyme for synthesis of amino acids, neurotransmitters (serotonin, norepinephrine), sphingolipids, aminolevulinic acid. During transamination of amino acids, pyridoxal phosphate is transiently converted into pyridoxamine phosphate (PYRIDOXAMINE).
A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.
A metallic element with atomic symbol Fe, atomic number 26, and atomic weight 55.85. It is an essential constituent of HEMOGLOBINS; CYTOCHROMES; and IRON-BINDING PROTEINS. It plays a role in cellular redox reactions and in the transport of OXYGEN.
Periplasmic proteins that scavenge or sense diverse nutrients. In the bacterial environment they usually couple to transporters or chemotaxis receptors on the inner bacterial membrane.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.
Enzymes that catalyze the formation of acyl-CoA derivatives. EC 6.2.1.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
An ADP-ribosylating polypeptide produced by CORYNEBACTERIUM DIPHTHERIAE that causes the signs and symptoms of DIPHTHERIA. It can be broken into two unequal domains: the smaller, catalytic A domain is the lethal moiety and contains MONO(ADP-RIBOSE) TRANSFERASES which transfers ADP RIBOSE to PEPTIDE ELONGATION FACTOR 2 thereby inhibiting protein synthesis; and the larger B domain that is needed for entry into cells.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Voltage-dependent anion channel 1 is the major pore-forming protein of the mitochondrial outer membrane. It also functions as a ferricyanide reductase in the PLASMA MEMBRANE.
A 170-kDa transmembrane glycoprotein from the superfamily of ATP-BINDING CASSETTE TRANSPORTERS. It serves as an ATP-dependent efflux pump for a variety of chemicals, including many ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS. Overexpression of this glycoprotein is associated with multidrug resistance (see DRUG RESISTANCE, MULTIPLE).
A family of organic anion transporters that specifically transport DICARBOXYLIC ACIDS such as alpha-ketoglutaric acid across cellular membranes.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Highly reactive compounds produced when oxygen is reduced by a single electron. In biological systems, they may be generated during the normal catalytic function of a number of enzymes and during the oxidation of hemoglobin to METHEMOGLOBIN. In living organisms, SUPEROXIDE DISMUTASE protects the cell from the deleterious effects of superoxides.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A class of sodium-independent nucleoside transporters that mediate the facilitative transport of NUCLEOSIDES.
A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Minute intercellular channels that occur between liver cells and carry bile towards interlobar bile ducts. Also called bile capillaries.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A sulfhydryl reagent that is widely used in experimental biochemical studies.
Uptake of substances through the lining of the INTESTINES.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.
An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
A class of porins that allow the passage of WATER and other small molecules across CELL MEMBRANES.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Gated transport mechanisms by which proteins or RNA are moved across the NUCLEAR MEMBRANE.
Integral membrane proteins of the LIPID BILAYER of SECRETORY VESICLES that catalyze transport and storage of biogenic amine NEUROTRANSMITTERS such as ACETYLCHOLINE; SEROTONIN; MELATONIN; HISTAMINE; and CATECHOLAMINES. The transporters exchange vesicular protons for cytoplasmic neurotransmitters.
An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.
A family of plasma membrane neurotransmitter transporter proteins that regulates extracellular levels of the inhibitory neurotransmitter GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They differ from GABA RECEPTORS, which signal cellular responses to GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID. They control GABA reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM through high-affinity sodium-dependent transport.
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A tetrameric protein, molecular weight between 50,000 and 70,000, consisting of 4 equal chains, and migrating on electrophoresis in 3 fractions more mobile than serum albumin. Its concentration ranges from 7 to 33 per cent in the serum, but levels decrease in liver disease.
Stable elementary particles having the smallest known positive charge, found in the nuclei of all elements. The proton mass is less than that of a neutron. A proton is the nucleus of the light hydrogen atom, i.e., the hydrogen ion.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.

Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced glutathione. (1/811)

The canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter (cMOAT), a member of the ATP-binding cassette transporter family, mediates the transport of a broad range of non-bile salt organic anions from liver into bile. cMOAT-deficient Wistar rats (TR-) are mutated in the gene encoding cMOAT, leading to defective hepatobiliary transport of a whole range of substrates, including bilirubin glucuronide. These mutants also have impaired hepatobiliary excretion of GSH and, as a result, the bile flow in these animals is reduced. In the present work we demonstrate a role for cMOAT in the excretion of GSH both in vivo and in vitro. Biliary GSH excretion in rats heterozygous for the cMOAT mutation (TR/tr) was decreased to 63% of controls (TR/TR) (114+/-24 versus 181+/-20 nmol/min per kg body weight). Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) II cells stably expressing the human cMOAT protein displayed >10-fold increase in apical GSH excretion compared with wild-type MDCKII cells (141+/-6.1 pmol/min per mg of protein versus 13.2+/-1.3 pmol/min per mg of protein in wild-type MDCKII cells). Similarly, MDCKII cells expressing the human multidrug resistance protein 1 showed a 4-fold increase in GSH excretion across the basolateral membrane. In several independent cMOAT-transfectants, the level of GSH excretion correlated with the expression level of the protein. Furthermore, we have shown, in cMOAT-transfected cells, that GSH is a low-affinity substrate for the transporter and that its excretion is reduced upon ATP depletion. In membrane vesicles isolated from cMOAT-expressing MDCKII cells, ATP-dependent S-(2,4-dinitrophenyl)glutathione uptake is competitively inhibited by high concentrations of GSH (Ki approximately 20 mM). We concluded that cMOAT mediates low-affinity transport of GSH. However, since hepatocellular GSH concentrations are high (5-10 mM), cMOAT might serve an important physiological function in maintenance of bile flow in addition to hepatic GSH turnover.  (+info)

Genomic structure of the canalicular multispecific organic anion-transporter gene (MRP2/cMOAT) and mutations in the ATP-binding-cassette region in Dubin-Johnson syndrome. (2/811)

Dubin-Johnson syndrome (DJS) is an autosomal recessive disease characterized by conjugated hyperbilirubinemia. Previous studies of the defects in the human canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter gene (MRP2/cMOAT) in patients with DJS have suggested that the gene defects are responsible for DJS. In this study, we determined the exon/intron structure of the human MRP2/cMOAT gene and further characterized mutations in patients with DJS. The human MRP2/cMOAT gene contains 32 exons, and it has a structure that is highly conserved with that of another ATP-binding-cassette gene, that for a multidrug resistance-associated protein. We then identified three mutations, including two novel ones. All mutations identified to date are in the cytoplasmic domain, which includes the two ATP-binding cassettes and the linker region, or adjacent putative transmembrane domain. Our results confirm that MRP2/cMOAT is the gene responsible for DJS. The finding that mutations are concentrated in the first ATP-binding-cassette domain strongly suggests that a disruption of this region is a critical route to loss of function.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical localization of multispecific renal organic anion transporter 1 in rat kidney. (3/811)

Renal proximal convoluted tubules have an important role, i.e., to excrete organic anions, including numerous drugs and endogenous substances. Recently, multispecific organic anion transporter 1 (OAT1) was isolated from rat kidney. In this study, the cellular and subcellular localization of OAT1 in rat kidney was investigated. Kidneys from normal rats were perfused and fixed with periodate-lysine-paraformaldehyde solution and were then processed for immunohistochemical analysis using the labeled streptavidin-biotin method, preembedding horseradish peroxidase method, and immunogold method. Light microscopic examination revealed immunostaining for OAT1 in the middle portion of the proximal tubule (S2 segment), but not in the initial portion of the proximal convoluted tubule, next to the glomerulus. Nephron segments other than the S2 segment and the renal vasculature were not stained with antibody to OAT1. Electron-microscopic observation using a preembedding method revealed that OAT1 was exclusively expressed in the basolateral membrane of S2 segments of proximal tubules. The immunogold method showed no labeling for OAT1 in the cytoplasmic vesicles, suggesting that OAT1 may not move together with organic anions into the cells. These results are consistent with previous physiologic data showing that organic anions, including para-aminohippurate, are taken up by the basolateral Na+-independent organic anion/dicarboxylate exchanger and excreted at S2 segments. In conclusion, OAT1 was localized to the basolateral membrane of S2 segments of proximal tubules in rat kidneys.  (+info)

Immunohistochemical distribution and functional characterization of an organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (oatp2). (4/811)

The rabbit polyclonal antibody against rat organic anion transporting polypeptide 2 (oatp2) was raised and immunoaffinity-purified. Western blot analysis for oatp2 detected two bands ( 74 and 76 kDa) in rat brain and a single band (76 kDa) in the liver. By immunohistochemical analysis, the oatp2 immunoreactivity was specifically high at the basolateral membrane of rat hepatocytes. Functionally, the oatp2-expressing oocytes were found to transport dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, delta1 opioid receptor agonist [D-Pen2,D-Pen5]enkephalin, Leuenkephalin, and biotin significantly, as well as the substrates previously reported. These data reveal the exact distribution of the rat oatp2 at the protein level in the liver, and that oatp2 appears to be involved in the multispecificity of the uptaking substrates in the liver and brain.  (+info)

Polyspecific substrate uptake by the hepatic organic anion transporter Oatp1 in stably transfected CHO cells. (5/811)

The rat liver organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp1) has been extensively characterized mainly in the Xenopus laevis expression system as a polyspecific carrier transporting organic anions (bile salts), neutral compounds, and even organic cations. In this study, we extended this characterization using a mammalian expression system and confirm the basolateral hepatic expression of Oatp1 with a new antibody. Besides sulfobromophthalein [Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of approximately 3 microM], taurocholate (Km of approximately 32 microM), and estradiol- 17beta-glucuronide (Km of approximately 4 microM), substrates previously shown to be transported by Oatp1 in transfected HeLa cells, we determined the kinetic parameters for cholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), glycocholate (Km of approximately 54 microM), estrone-3-sulfate (Km of approximately 11 microM), CRC-220 (Km of approximately 57 microM), ouabain (Km of approximately 3,000 microM), and ochratoxin A (Km of approximately 29 microM) in stably transfected Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. In addition, three new substrates, taurochenodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 7 microM), tauroursodeoxycholate (Km of approximately 13 microM), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (Km of approximately 5 microM), were also investigated. The results establish the polyspecific nature of Oatp1 in a mammalian expression system and definitely identify conjugated dihydroxy bile salts and steroid conjugates as high-affinity endogenous substrates of Oatp1.  (+info)

Transcriptional regulation of molybdoenzyme synthesis in Escherichia coli in response to molybdenum: ModE-molybdate, a repressor of the modABCD (molybdate transport) operon is a secondary transcriptional activator for the hyc and nar operons. (6/811)

Escherichia coli growing under anaerobic conditions produces several molybdoenzymes, such as formate hydrogenlyase (formate to H2 and CO2; hyc and fdhF genes) and nitrate reductase (narGHJI genes). Synthesis of these molybdoenzymes, even in the presence of the cognate transcriptional activators and effectors, requires molybdate in the medium. Besides the need for molybdopterin cofactor synthesis, molybdate is also required for transcription of the genes encoding these molybdoenzymes. In E. coli, ModE was previously identified as a repressor controlling transcription of the operon encoding molybdate transport components (modABCD). In this work, the ModE protein was also found to be a required component in the activation of hyc-lacZ to an optimum level, but only in the presence of molybdate. Mutant ModE proteins which are molybdate-independent for repression of modA-lacZ also restored hyc-lacZ expression to the wild-type level even in the absence of molybdate. Nitrate-dependent enhancement of transcription of narX-lacZ was completely abolished in a modE mutant. Nitrate-response by narG-lacZ and narK-lacZ was reduced by about 50% in a modE mutant. DNase I footprinting experiments revealed that the ModE protein binds the hyc promoter DNA in the presence of molybdate. ModE-molybdate also protected DNA in the intergenic region between narXL and narK from DNase I hydrolysis. DNA sequences (5' TAYAT 3' and 5' GTTA 3') found in ModE-molybdate-protected modABCD operator DNA were also found in the ModE-molybdate-protected region of hyc promoter DNA (5' GTTA-7 bp-CATAT 3') and narX-narK intergenic region (5' GTTA-7 bp-TACAT 3'). Based on these results, a working model is proposed in which ModE-molybdate serves as a secondary transcriptional activator of both the hyc and narXL operons which are activated primarily by the transcriptional activators, FhlA and NarL, respectively.  (+info)

A spliced variant of AE1 gene encodes a truncated form of Band 3 in heart: the predominant anion exchanger in ventricular myocytes. (7/811)

The anion exchangers (AE) are encoded by a multigenic family that comprises at least three genes, AE1, AE2 and AE3, and numerous splicoforms. Besides regulating intracellular pH (pHi) via the Cl-/HCO3- exchange, the AEs exert various cellular functions including generation of a senescent antigen, anchorage of the cytoskeleton to the membrane and regulation of metabolism. Most cells express several AE isoforms. Despite the key role of this family of proteins, little is known about the function of specific AE isoforms in any tissue, including the heart. We therefore chose isolated cardiac cells, in which a tight control of pHi is mandatory for the excitation-contraction coupling process, to thoroughly investigate the expression of the AE genes at both the mRNA and protein levels. RT-PCR revealed the presence of AE1, AE2 and AE3 mRNAs in both neonatal and adult rat cardiomyocytes. AE1 is expressed both as the erythroid form (Band 3 or eAE1) and a novel alternate transcript (nAE1), which was more specifically characterized using a PCR mapping strategy. Two variants of AE2 (AE2a and AE2c) were found at the mRNA level. Cardiac as well as brain AE3 mRNAs were expressed in both neonatal and adult rat cardiomyocytes. Several AE protein isoforms were found, including a truncated form of AE1 and two AE3s, but there was no evidence of AE2 protein in adult rat cardiomyocytes. In cardiomyocytes transfected with an AE3 oligodeoxynucleotide antisense, AE3 immunoreactivity was dramatically decreased but the activity of the Cl-/HCO3- exchange was unchanged. In contrast, intracellular microinjection of blocking anti-AE1 antibodies inhibited the AE activity. Altogether, our findings suggest that a specific and novel AE1 splicoform (nAE1) mediates the cardiac Cl-/HCO3- exchange. The multiple gene and protein expression within the same cell type suggest numerous functions for this protein family.  (+info)

Active lucifer yellow secretion in renal proximal tubule: evidence for organic anion transport system crossover. (8/811)

Recent studies show that organic anion secretion in renal proximal tubule is mediated by distinct sodium-dependent and sodium-independent transport systems. Here we investigated the possibility that organic anions entering the cells on one system can exit into the lumen on a transporter associated with the other system. In isolated rat kidneys perfused with 10 microM lucifer yellow (LY, a fluorescent organic anion) plus 100 micrograms/ml inulin, the LY-to-inulin clearance ratio averaged 1.6 +/- 0.2, indicating net tubular secretion. Probenecid significantly reduced both LY clearance and LY accumulation in kidney tissue. In intact killifish proximal tubules, confocal microscopy was used to measure steady-state LY uptake into cells and secretion into the tubular lumen. Probenecid, p-aminohippurate, and ouabain nearly abolished both uptake and secretion. To this point, the data indicated that LY was handled by the sodium-dependent and ouabain-sensitive organic anion transport system. However, leukotriene C4, an inhibitor of the luminal step for the sodium-independent and ouabain-insensitive organic anion system, reduced luminal secretion of LY by 50%. Leukotriene C4 did not affect cellular accumulation of LY or the transport of fluorescein on the sodium-dependent system. A similar inhibition pattern was found for another fluorescent organic anion, a mercapturic acid derivative of monochlorobimane. Thus, both organic anions entered the cells on the basolateral transporter for the classical, sodium-dependent system, but about half of the transport into the lumen was handled by the luminal carrier for the sodium-independent system, which is most likely the multidrug resistance-associated protein. This is the first demonstration that xenobiotics can enter renal proximal tubule cells on the carrier associated with one organic anion transport system and exit into the tubular lumen on multiple carriers, one of which is associated with a second system.  (+info)

There are several types of RTA, including:

1. Type 1 RTA: This is caused by a defect in the genes that code for the proteins involved in acid secretion in the renal tubules.
2. Type 2 RTA: This is caused by damage to the renal tubules, such as from exposure to certain drugs or toxins.
3. Type 4 RTA: This is caused by a deficiency of the hormone aldosterone, which helps regulate electrolyte levels in the body.

Symptoms of RTA can include:

* Nausea and vomiting
* Abdominal pain
* Fatigue
* Weakness
* Dehydration
* Increased heart rate
* Decreased urine production

RTA can be diagnosed through blood tests that measure the pH levels in the body, as well as tests that assess kidney function and electrolyte levels. Treatment for RTA typically involves correcting any underlying causes, such as stopping certain medications or addressing electrolyte imbalances. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help regulate acid levels in the body.

Prevention of RTA includes maintaining proper hydration, avoiding exposure to harmful substances, and managing any underlying medical conditions that may increase the risk of developing RTA. Early detection and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes for individuals with RTA.

Symptoms of cystic fibrosis can vary from person to person, but may include:

* Persistent coughing and wheezing
* Thick, sticky mucus that clogs airways and can lead to respiratory infections
* Difficulty gaining weight or growing at the expected rate
* Intestinal blockages or digestive problems
* Fatty stools
* Nausea and vomiting
* Diarrhea
* Rectal prolapse
* Increased risk of liver disease and respiratory failure

Cystic fibrosis is usually diagnosed in infancy, and treatment typically includes a combination of medications, respiratory therapy, and other supportive care. Management of the disease focuses on controlling symptoms, preventing complications, and improving quality of life. With proper treatment and care, many people with cystic fibrosis can lead long, fulfilling lives.

In summary, cystic fibrosis is a genetic disorder that affects the respiratory, digestive, and reproductive systems, causing thick and sticky mucus to build up in these organs, leading to serious health problems. It can be diagnosed in infancy and managed with a combination of medications, respiratory therapy, and other supportive care.

... is a phylogenetically-preserved transport protein responsible for mediating the exchange of ... Band 3 anion transport protein, also known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1) or band 3 or solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1), ... Diego blood group system at BGMUT Blood Group Antigen Gene Mutation Database at NCBI, NIH Band+3+Protein at the US National ... The erythrocyte and kidney forms are different isoforms of the same protein. The erythrocyte isoform of AE1, known as eAE1, is ...
... (AE2) is a membrane transport protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A2 gene. AE2 is ... Gehrig H, Müller W, Appelhans H (1992). "Complete nucleotide sequence of band 3 related anion transport protein AE2 from human ... "Entrez Gene: SLC4A2 solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 2 (erythrocyte membrane protein band 3-like 1)". Gawenis ... Huang QR, Li Q, Chen YH, Li L, Liu LL, Lei SH, Chen HP, Peng WJ, He M (June 2010). "Involvement of anion exchanger-2 in ...
... is a membrane transport protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A3 gene. AE3 is functionally ... Morgans CW, Kopito RR (1993). "Association of the brain anion exchanger, AE3, with the repeat domain of ankyrin". J. Cell Sci. ... "Entrez Gene: SLC4A3 solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 3". Casey JR, Sly WS, Shah GN, Alvarez BV (November 2009 ... 2001). "Human intestinal anion exchanger isoforms: expression, distribution, and membrane localization". Biochim. Biophys. Acta ...
... a putative organic anion transport protein". World Journal of Gastroenterology. 12 (42): 6797-805. doi:10.3748/wjg.v12.i42.6797 ... Solute carrier family 10 member 4 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC10A4 gene. In mice, it appears to promote ...
"The human organic anion transport protein SLC21A6 is not sufficient for bilirubin transport". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (23): 20695-9 ... "A novel human hepatic organic anion transporting polypeptide (OATP2). Identification of a liver-specific human organic anion ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1B1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1B1 gene. ... Campbell SD, de Morais SM, Xu JJ (2005). "Inhibition of human organic anion transporting polypeptide OATP 1B1 as a mechanism of ...
Cells also contain anion antiporters such as the Band 3 (or AE1) anion transport protein. This cotransporter is an important ... to provide the power needed for transport. This type of transport is known as secondary active transport and is powered by the ... For instance the wheat HKT1 transporter shows two modes of transport by the same protein. Cotransporters can be classified as ... ISBN 978-1-4292-3413-9. Chrispeels, Maarten J.; Nigel M. Crawford; Julian I. Schroeder (April 1999). "Proteins for Transport of ...
"Multidrug-resistance protein 5 is a multispecific organic anion transporter able to transport nucleotide analogs". Proceedings ... Multidrug resistance-associated protein 5 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC5 gene. The protein encoded by this ... ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... "Characterization of the transport of nucleoside analog drugs by the human multidrug resistance proteins MRP4 and MRP5". ...
"Canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter/multidrug resistance protein 2 mediates low-affinity transport of reduced ... Conjugated bilirubin is excreted into canalicular bile by way of the canalicular multispecific organic anion transport (C-MOAT ... These conditions are associated with either defective intracellular protein binding (for the second time) or disturbed ... Erlinger, Serge; Arias, Irwin M.; Dhumeaux, Daniel (2014). "Inherited Disorders of Bilirubin Transport and Conjugation: New ...
2004). "Protein kinase C activation downregulates human organic anion transporter 1-mediated transport through carrier ... OAT1 functions as organic anion exchanger. When the uptake of one molecule of an organic anion is transported into a cell by an ... It is a member of the organic anion transporter (OAT) family of proteins. OAT1 is a transmembrane protein that is expressed in ... and OATP4C1 transport small organic anions from the plasma into the S2 cells. MDR1, MRP2, MRP4 and URAT1 then transports these ...
Organic cation transport proteins Organic anion-transporting polypeptide Solute carrier family Osmoregulation Organic anion ... The generalized transport reaction catalyzed by OSTα/OSTβ is: organic anion (out) ⇌ organic anion (in) Each transport system ... Transmembrane proteins, Transmembrane transporters, Transport proteins, Integral membrane proteins). ... The two proteins are highly expressed in many human tissues. The β-subunit is not required to target the α-subunit to the ...
2005). "Interaction with PDZK1 is required for expression of organic anion transporting protein 1A1 on the hepatocyte surface ... Solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 4A1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO4A1 gene. Solute ... "Entrez Gene: SLCO4A1 solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member 4A1". Fujiwara K, Adachi H, Nishio T, et al. (2001 ... v t e (Genes on human chromosome 20, Solute carrier family, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ...
1988 Award of the Polish Academy of Sciences for participation in studies on Band 3 anion transport protein. 1989 Parnas Award ... carcinoembryonic antigen forms dimers in solution and was the first to demonstrate that human Band 3 anion transport protein is ... She identified that these antigens were carried by the glycosylated protein of the erythrocyte membrane called glycophorins. At ... Lisowska, Elwira (2002-10-11). "The role of glycosylation in protein antigenic properties". Cellular and Molecular Life ...
Anion exchanger proteins exchange HCO3 − for Cl− in a reversible, electroneutral manner. Na+/HCO3 − co-transport proteins ... The same transport site within the AE1 spanning domain is involved in both anion exchange and cation transport. AE1 in human ... In these proteins it covers almost the entire length of the sequence. The Band 3 anion exchange proteins that exchange ... A conserved domain is found at the C terminus of many bicarbonate transport proteins. It is also found in some plant proteins ...
... and organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3), respectively. Both proteins are found in liver cells; they transport ... nonfunctional OATP1B1 and OATP1B3 proteins or an absence of these proteins. Without the function of either transport protein, ... The SLCO1B1 and SLCO1B3 genes provide instructions for making similar proteins, called organic anion transporting polypeptide ... Rotor syndrome is caused by mutations in two proteins responsible for transporting bilirubin and other compounds from the blood ...
As the blood pH increases, blood transport proteins, such as albumin, become more ionized into anions. This causes the free ...
Rosen BP, Weigel U, Monticello RA, Edwards BP (1991). "Molecular analysis of an anion pump: purification of the ArsC protein". ... Rosen BP, Weigel U, Monticello RA, Edwards BP (1991). "Molecular analysis of an anion pump: purification of the ArsC protein". ... In enzymology, an arsenite-transporting ATPase (EC is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction ATP + H2O + ...
"The multivalent PDZ domain-containing protein PDZK1 regulates transport activity of renal urate-anion exchanger URAT1 via its C ... Na(+)/H(+) exchange regulatory cofactor NHE-RF3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PDZK1 gene. PDZK1 has been shown ... Kocher O, Comella N, Gilchrist A, Pal R, Tognazzi K, Brown LF, Knoll JH (1999). "PDZK1, a novel PDZ domain-containing protein ... White KE, Biber J, Murer H, Econs MJ (1999). "A PDZ domain-containing protein with homology to Diphor-1 maps to human ...
"The multivalent PDZ domain-containing protein PDZK1 regulates transport activity of renal urate-anion exchanger URAT1 via its C ... The protein encoded by this gene is a urate transporter and urate-anion exchanger which regulates the level of urate in the ... Solute carrier family 22 (organic anion/cation transporter), member 12, also known as SLC22A12 and URAT1, is a protein which in ... This protein is an integral membrane protein primarily found in kidney. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms ...
... reversibly with plasma protein albumin and dissociates to be taken up by liver cells through organic anion transport proteins ( ... which is transported across the plasma membrane by multidrug resistant-associated protein 2 (MRP2) to finally enter bile ... 80% of which is derived from haemoglobin (Hb) produced by erythrocyte breakdown, with the remaining from heme proteins, like ... Hepatitis, commonly virus- or alcohol-induced, causes internal liver inflammation and disrupts conjugated bilirubin transport. ...
The red blood cell membrane proteins organized according to their function: Transport Band 3 - Anion transporter, also an ... Protein 4.1R-based macromolecular complex - proteins interacting with Protein 4.1R. Protein 4.1R - weak expression of Gerbich ... facilitated by the band 3 anion transport protein colocated in the RBC membrane. The bicarbonate ion does not diffuse back out ... These membrane proteins can perform a wide diversity of functions, such as transporting ions and molecules across the red cell ...
This family of proteins can also transport zwitterions and anions, though it is a different subfamily of solute carrier ... An organic cation transport protein mediates the transport of organic cations across the cell membrane. These proteins are ... proteins than the organic anion transporters. (Solute carrier family, Transmembrane transporters, Transport proteins). ...
"Borate as a synergistic anion for Marinobacter algicola ferric binding protein, FbpA: a role for boron in iron transport in ...
Anion Exchanger 1, a transport protein AE1/AE3, an antibody cocktail used in immunohistochemistry Air Energy AE-1 Silent, a ...
... transport protein Ape Escape 2 A size designation for Constantinian bronze coins Applied Energistics 2, a popular mod for the ... AE2 may refer to: HMAS AE2, E-class submarine of the Royal Australian Navy Aero Ae 02, a design of Czechoslovakian plane Anion ...
Sam37 accommodates the release of the folded β-barrel proteins from the SAM complex. VDAC (voltage-dependent anion ion channel ... Mitochondrial membrane transport proteins, also known as mitochondrial carrier proteins, are proteins which exist in the ... Phosphate transport proteins are responsible for transport of phosphate across the inner membrane so it can be used in the ... The outer membrane consists of two types of integral proteins, including proteins with transmembrane β-barrel and proteins with ...
... whose members encode anion transporter proteins. This particular family member encodes a protein involved in transporting ... Solute carrier family 26 member 6 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC26A6 gene. It is an anion-exchanger ... 2005). "Functional comparison of mouse slc26a6 anion exchanger with human SLC26A6 polypeptide variants: differences in anion ... Lohi H; Kujala M; Kerkela E; Saarialho-Kere U; Kestila M; Kere J (Jan 2001). "Mapping of five new putative anion transporter ...
... they release proteins which facilitate active transport of lightweight anions between leaf and fungus even before germination. ... from which 437 encoded candidate secretor proteins and 165 for non-secreted candidate secretor proteins.[clarification needed] ... The exact mechanism of action is unknown, but one known effect is that ferroglobulin, a protein in whey, produces oxygen ... selective pressure acting on genes that code for candidate secretor proteins and non-secreted candidate secretor proteins, ...
... also known as organic anion-transporting polypeptide 2B1 (OATP2B1) ... The complete sequences of 100 new cDNA clones from brain which code for large proteins in vitro". DNA Res. 5 (6): 355-64. doi: ... 2002). "Characterization of an organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP-B) in human placenta". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. ... 2006). "Functional analysis of the extracellular cysteine residues in the human organic anion transporting polypeptide, OATP2B1 ...
... increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the band 3 protein, reduced sulfate anion transport through the cell membrane, and more ... Rather, the defect lies in a protein known as the band 3 protein, which lies in the cell membrane itself. The band 3 protein ... The band 3 proteins aggregate on the cell membrane at the site of entry, forming a circular orifice that the parasite squeezes ... These band 3 proteins act as receptors for the parasite. Normally a process much like endocytosis occurs, and the parasite is ...
Transport proteins). ... Organic anions are conjugate bases of organic acids. The ... family of transmembrane proteins. Sekine T, Cha SH, Endou H (July 2000). "The multispecific organic anion transporter (OAT) ... In organic chemistry, organic anions are chemically heterogeneous substances possessing a carbon backbone and a net negative ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Solute carrier family, Transmembrane proteins, ...
The disulfide bond (-S-S-) plays a major role in the conformation of proteins and in the catalytic activity of enzymes. Sulfide ... Sulfide (British English also sulphide) is an inorganic anion of sulfur with the chemical formula S2− or a compound containing ... pipelines transporting soured oil, Kraft paper factories. Microbially-induced corrosion (MIC) or biogenic sulfide corrosion are ... Anions, Corrosion, Sulfides, Functional groups, Sulfur ions). ...
2004). "Phylogeny as a guide to structure and function of membrane transport proteins". Mol Membr Biol. 21 (3): 171-181. doi: ... IUPHAR-DB Voltage-gated ion channel subunits The IUPHAR Compendium of Voltage-gated Ion Channels 2005 Voltage-Dependent+Anion+ ... Phylogenetic studies of proteins expressed in bacteria revealed the existence of a superfamily of voltage-gated sodium channels ... Voltage-gated ion channels are a class of transmembrane proteins that form ion channels that are activated by changes in the ...
Coull JA, Boudreau D, Bachand K, Prescott SA, Nault F, Sík A, De Koninck P, De Koninck Y. Trans-synaptic shift in anion ... In 2013, the De Koninck team reported the identification of a compound that restored the function of a protein called KCC2, and ... Yves De Koninck's work showing how a dysregulation of chloride ion transport is involved in chronic pain and other brain ... Lavertu G, Côté SL, De Koninck Y. Enhancing K-Cl co-transport restores normal spinothalamic sensory coding in a neuropathic ...
... s are 90% bonded to proteins and are secreted into the proximal convoluted tubule through organic anion ... Loop diuretics also inhibits NKCC2 at macula densa, reducing sodium transported into macula densa cells. This stimulates the ... Loop diuretics are highly protein bound and therefore have a low volume of distribution. The protein bound nature of the loop ...
From this observation, it proposed that HClO blocks uptake of nutrients by inactivating transport proteins. The question of ... hypochlorous acid partially dissociates into the anion hypochlorite ClO−: HClO ⇌ ClO− + H+ Salts of hypochlorous acid are ... Sulfenic acids form disulfides with another protein sulfhydryl group, causing cross-linking and aggregation of proteins. ... resulting in cleavage of the protein. McKenna and Davies found that 10 mM or greater HClO is necessary to fragment proteins in ...
Fresh and saltwater fish are the main source of protein for about one billion people and comprise 15% of an additional 3.5 ... Key factors that are assessed to determine water quality include: Major anion analysis: (HCO3−,Cl−,NO3−,SO42-) Major cation ... Sediment and heavy metal traps: Precipitation and surface runoff induces soil erosion, transporting sediment in suspension into ... billion people's protein intake. Another food staple found in wetland systems is rice, a popular grain that is consumed at the ...
Exons are DNA fragments that provide the code for a protein structure. CFTR functions as phosphorylation and ATP-gated anion ... This in contrast to other ABC proteins, in which ATP-driven conformational changes fuel uphill substrate transport across ... at the 508th position on the protein. As a result, the protein does not fold normally and is more quickly degraded. The vast ... at position 508 in the CFTR protein. This altered protein never reaches the cell membrane because it is degraded shortly after ...
... also known as organic anion-transporting polypeptide 1B3 (OATP1B3) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the SLCO1B3 gene. ... 2006). "Transport of fluorescent chenodeoxycholic acid via the human organic anion transporters OATP1B1 and OATP1B3" (PDF). J. ... 2002). "Human organic anion transporting polypeptide 8 promoter is transactivated by the farnesoid X receptor/bile acid ... Hagenbuch B, Gui C (July 2008). "Xenobiotic transporters of the human organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATP) family". ...
... which respectively encode the canalicular transport proteins BSEP and multidrug resistance protein 3 (MDR3). MDR3 is ... On cholangiocytes, TGR5 activation induces CFTR to secrete chloride into bile ducts, which then drives anion exchanger 2 to ... protein. BSEP and MDR3 are respectively responsible for transporting bile salt and phospholipid, two major constituents of bile ... The three genes thought to be involved include APT8B1, which encodes for the FIC1 protein. The ABCB11 gene encodes for the bile ...
... known effect of grapefruit flavonoids on intestinal transporter systems such as P-glycoproteins and organic anion transporting ... and has an elimination half-life of 14.5 h and plasma protein binding of 84-90%. Bilastine is a peripherally selective drug, ... Bailey DG (2010). "Fruit juice inhibition of uptake transport: a new type of food-drug interaction". Br. J. Clin. Pharmacol. 70 ... Coadministration of bilastine and grapefruit juice (a known P-glycoprotein-mediated drug transport activator) significantly ...
... is a component of the Hopkins-Cole reaction, used to check for the presence of tryptophan in proteins. Glyoxylic ... It is then converted into glycine through parallel actions by SGAT and GGAT, which is then transported into the mitochondria. ... Glyoxylate is both a substrate and inductor of sulfate anion transporter-1 (sat-1), a gene responsible for oxalate ... The disrupted pathway, however, causes a buildup of 4-hydroxy-2-oxoglutarate which can also be transported to the cytosol and ...
... +protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This article incorporates text from ... O'Kelly I, Butler MH, Zilberberg N, Goldstein SA (2002). "Forward transport. 14-3-3 binding overcomes retention in endoplasmic ... 2002). "Gender-specific and developmental influences on the expression of rat organic anion transporters". J. Pharmacol. Exp. ... Potassium channel subfamily K member 3 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNK3 gene. This gene encodes K2P3.1, one ...
... and multi-specific organic anion transporter E (MOAT-E) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ABCC6 gene. The protein ... ABC proteins transport various molecules across extra- and intra-cellular membranes. ABC genes are divided into seven distinct ... Mutations in this protein cause pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE). The most common mutations, R1141X and 23-29del, account for ... Multidrug resistance-associated protein 6 (MRP6) also known as ATP-binding cassette sub-family C member 6 (ABCC6) ...
Human serum albumin (HSA) is one of the most abundant blood proteins. It serves as a transport protein for several endogenous ... Its surface is covered with epoxy, hydroxyl, and carboxyl groups that interact with cations and anions. It is soluble in water ... "Selective Phosphorylation Inhibitor of Delta Protein Kinase C-Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Protein-Protein Interactions: ... By the next year, a commercial version of a graphene biosensor was being used by biology researchers as a protein binding ...
... which allows cells to regulate salt concentrations and pH by transporting ions across their membranes using proteins called ion ... Anions typically have a higher rate of diffusion through bilayers than cations. Compared to ions, water molecules actually have ... Some of these proteins are linked to the exterior of the cell membrane. An example of this is the CD59 protein, which ... The most common class of this type of protein is the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). GPCRs are responsible for much of the ...
Transport proteins, Transmembrane transporters, All stub articles, Membrane protein stubs). ... "Functional identity of a purified proximal tubule anion exchanger protein: Mediation of chloride/formate and chloride/ ... A chloride hydroxyl exchanger is a purported membrane transport protein responsible for the exchange of chloride and hydroxyl ... However, little is known about the protein responsible for this action. " ...
Allosteric inhibition and activation by Protein-protein interactions (PPI). Indeed, some proteins interact with and regulate ... Atom balance is maintained by the two phosphate (Pi) groups: Each exists in the form of a hydrogen phosphate anion ([HPO4]2−), ... The oxaloacetate is then re-cycled to the cytosol via its conversion to aspartate which is readily transported out of the ... PFK2 is phosphorylated by protein kinase A. The phosphorylation inactivates PFK2, and another domain on this protein becomes ...
... proteins and their genes must be co-located for redox regulation according to the CoRR hypothesis for the function of DNA ... Once formed, these anion free radicals reduce molecular oxygen to superoxide and regenerate the unchanged parent compound. The ... combustion Citric acid cycle Electrochemical series Electrochemistry Electrolysis Electron equivalent Electron transport chain ... The reduction reaction converts fluorine to the fluoride anion: F2 + 2 e− → 2 F− The half reactions are combined so that the ...
His studies helped answer questions about why defects in the protein emerge and how these defects affect the protein's function ... it could be transported to the cell surface under low temperature but not at body temperature. His study also showed F508del- ... "Demonstration that CFTR is a chloride channel by alteration of its anion selectivity". Science. 253 (5016): 202-205. Bibcode: ... and their team discovered the gene that encodes the CFTR protein and found that changes in the protein caused cystic fibrosis. ...
Depending on their charge, proteins are associated with a variety of smaller anions and cations. In plant cells, the anion ... Ion permeation through hydrophobic cell walls is mediated by ion transport channels. Nucleic acids are anionic, the ... The solubility of cations in organic solvents can be enhanced when the anion is lipophilic. Similarly, the solubility of anions ... borate is the lithium salt of a highly lipophilic tetraarylborate anion, often referred to as a weakly coordinating anion. ...
His research group was the first to clone and sequence mRNAs encoding a mammalian glucose transport protein, GLUT1, and then ... an anion exchange protein, a transporter for free fatty acids, the hepatic asialoglycoprotein receptors, intestinal sucrose- ... and cellular functions of these and related proteins and to identify and characterize related genes that encode proteins with ... Lodish's research focused on cell surface proteins and other important areas at the interface between molecular cell biology ...
Any electron donor can donate electrons into the σ-hole of a bonded chalcogen, including halogen anions, amines, and π ... ChBs, much like hydrogen and halogen bonds, have been invoked in various non-covalent interactions, such as protein folding, ... crystal engineering, self-assembly, catalysis, transport, sensing, templation, and drug design. Chalcogen bonding is comparable ... Surveys of the Cambridge Structural Database have revealed a high frequency of likely chalcogen bonding interactions in protein ...
In the latter case ATP hydrolysis again energizes transport. ARC3 homologues transport the same anions as ArsA/AB homologues, ... These proteins are the ACR3 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, also called the ARR3 protein, and the 'ArsB' protein of ... The Bacillus protein exports both arsenite and antimonite. The exact transport mechanism has not established. The generalized ... "The Saccharomyces cerevisiae ACR3 gene encodes a putative membrane protein involved in arsenite transport". The Journal of ...
Protein DRA is a membrane protein in intestinal cells. It is an anion exchanger and a member of the sulfate anion transporter ( ... It mediates chloride and bicarbonate exchange and additionally transports sulfate and other anions at the apical membrane, part ... Chloride anion exchanger, also known as down-regulated in adenoma (protein DRA), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ... It is different from the anion exchanger that present in erythrocytes, renal tubule, and several other tissues. The protein ...
"Thiocyanate transport in resting and IL-4-stimulated human bronchial epithelial cells: role of pendrin and anion channels". J. ... Tenovuo J (January 2002). "Clinical applications of antimicrobial host proteins lactoperoxidase, lysozyme and lactoferrin in ... "The Lactoperoxidase System Links Anion Transport To Host Defense in Cystic Fibrosis". FEBS Lett. 581 (2): 271-8. doi:10.1016/j. ... Hypothiocyanite is the anion [OSCN]− and the conjugate base of hypothiocyanous acid (HOSCN). It is an organic compound part of ...
Grieschat M, Alekov AK (March 2012). "Glutamate 268 regulates transport probability of the anion/proton exchanger ClC-5". The ... transepithelial transport and cell volume in different tissues. Based on sequence homology, the nine mammalian ClC proteins can ... "Determinants of anion-proton coupling in mammalian endosomal CLC proteins". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (7): 4219- ... for the NH2-terminal extended 816 amino acid protein and one does not encode for any protein (Transcript variant 5, [NM_ ...
Stable inducible expression of a functional rat liver organic anion transport protein in HeLa cells. J Biol Chem. 1995;270(43): ... 6, 30, 31). Even if truncated ZnT8 protein could be generated from the mutant allele, it contains no transporter function. ... Disruption of G protein-coupled receptor 39 impairs insulin secretion in vivo. Endocrinology. 2009;150(6):2586-2595.. View this ... While the presumed function of Slc30a8 is to transport zinc ion into insulin granules, the difference in zinc content per islet ...
The SLC4A1 gene provides instructions for making a protein known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1). Learn about this gene and related ... The SLC4A1 gene provides instructions for making a protein known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1). This protein transports negatively ... and normal AE1 protein is produced from the other copy. However, the altered protein attaches to the normal protein and keeps ... Trafficking defects of the Southeast Asian ovalocytosis deletion mutant of anion exchanger 1 membrane proteins. Biochem J. 2005 ...
Alectinib and M4 are not substrates of breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP) ... Alectinib and its major active metabolite M4 are , 99% bound to plasma proteins; therefore, hemodialysis is likely to be ... Alectinib and M4 are bound to human plasma proteins greater than 99%, independent of drug concentration. ... Alectinib did not inhibit OATP1B1, OATP1B3, OAT1, OAT3, or OCT2 transport activity in vitro. ...
... organic anion transport proteins (OATP) 1B1, or OATP1B3. Drugs Affecting Hepatic Microsomal Enzymes. Potent inhibitors of CYP3A ... Substrates of Efflux Transport Systems. Substrates of P-gp: Possible increased systemic exposure of the substrate drug. ... Plasma Protein Binding. Approximately 94%. Blood to plasma ratio is 0.7-0.8. ... Substrate and inhibitor of P-glycoprotein (P-gp); not a substrate or inhibitor of organic anion transporter (OAT) 1, OAT3, ...
of RSV into cells expressing organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) 1a1, 1a4, and 1b2 was also determined. Protein ... organic anion transporting polypeptide. PET. positron emission tomography. RAF. relative activity factor. RSV. rosuvastatin. ... Protein expression of oatps and transport-mediated intrinsic of RSV in CHO-Oatp1a1, HEK293-Oatp1a4, and HEK293-Oatp1b2 cells ... 2010) Sulindac and its metabolites inhibit multiple transport proteins in rat and human hepatocytes. J Pharmacol Exp Ther 334: ...
... is a substrate for certain transporter proteins including the hepatic uptake transporter organic anion-transporting polyprotein ... Protein and blood in the urine. Rosuvastatin tablets may cause you to have protein and blood in your urine. If you develop ... Rosuvastatin is 88% bound to plasma proteins, mostly albumin. This binding is reversible and independent of plasma ... Disposition of rosuvastatin, involves OATP1B1 and other transporter proteins. Higher plasma concentrations of rosuvastatin have ...
Title: Activation of Protein Kinase A Stimulates SUMOylation, Expression, and Transport Activity of Organic Anion Transporter 3 ... Protein interactions. Protein. Gene. Interaction. Pubs. Tat tat Expression of HIV-1 Tat downregulates the abundance of SMT3 ... The encoded protein is covalently conjugated to other proteins via a post-translation modification known as sumoylation. ... General protein information Go to the top of the page Help Preferred Names. small ubiquitin-related modifier 3. Names. SMT3 ...
The 5′-AMP-Activated Protein Kinase Regulates the Function and Expression of Human Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1A2 ... Functional Expression of Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide 1a4 Is Regulated by Transforming Growth Factor-β/Activin ... The G-Protein-Coupled Receptors in the Human Genome Form Five Main Families. Phylogenetic Analysis, Paralogon Groups, and ...
Anion Pump. Anion Pumps. Anion Transport Proteins (Hepatocyte Plasma Membrane). Pump, Anion. Pumps, Anion. ... Anion Transport Proteins (Hepatocyte Plasma Membrane) - Narrower Concept UI. M0076797. Preferred term. Anion Transport Proteins ... ANION TRANSPORT PROTEINS was indexed under CARRIER PROTEINS 1983-2001 & MEMBRANE PROTEINS 1980-1982; for ANION PUMP & ANION ... 2002; use ANION TRANSPORT PROTEINS (NM) 1980-2001; for ANION PUMP & ANION PUMPS use ION PUMPS 1992-2001. ...
Replaced for 2016 by Solute Carrier Organic Anion Transporter Family Member 1b1) Organic Anion Transport Protein 1 D12.776. ... Protein Transport G3.495.166.700 G3.143.700 Protein Unfolding G1.154.100.640.750 G1.154.651.750 G1.595.100.640.750 G2.111. ... ELAV Proteins D12.776.641.520 D12.776.631.520 ELAV-Like Protein 2 D12.776.641.520.500 D12.776.631.520.500 ELAV-Like Protein 3 ... PrP 27-30 Protein D12.776.785.700.700 D12.776.785.340.750.700 PrPC Proteins D12.776.785.680 D12.776.785.340.500 PrPSc Proteins ...
organic anion transport protein 3 Medicine & Life Sciences 100% * Osteosclerosis Medicine & Life Sciences 66% ... has high homology with rat and human organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3). However, its transport properties and involvement in ... has high homology with rat and human organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3). However, its transport properties and involvement in ... has high homology with rat and human organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3). However, its transport properties and involvement in ...
Elimination routes of CPT-11 also depend on the presence of drug-transporting proteins, notably P-glycoprotein and canalicular ... canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter; BCRP, breast cancer resistance protein; P-gp, P-glycoprotein. ... Plasma Protein Binding.. An important factor in the pharmacology of drugs is its binding to plasma proteins. In accordance with ... which is dependent on a host of enzymes involved in metabolic transformation and active transport proteins, regulating ...
Transport of equine estrogens: binding of conjugated and unconjugated equine estrogens with human serum proteins. Pan, C.C., ... Interaction of methotrexate with organic-anion transporting polypeptide 1A2 and its genetic variants. Badagnani, I., Castro, R. ... of organic anions using double-transfected Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells expressing human organic anion-transporting ... wikigene or wiki gene protein drug chemical gene disease author authorship tracking collaborative publishing evolutionary ...
Metal Transport Protein, Nramp2: Natural resistance-associated macrophage protein, ROS: Reactive Oxygen Species, AE2: Anion ... Anion-exchange protein is a novel system in the lung for transferring-independent iron transport, which superoxide dismutase ... Superoxide-dependent iron uptake: A new role for anion exchange protein 2. Am. J. Respir. Cell Mol. Biol., 29: 653-660.. ... Superoxide anion, kappa: IKK: IκB kinase, NFκB : Nuclear Factor κ B, Fe: iron, MAPK: Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase, ERK1/2: ...
... organic anion-transporting polypeptide (OATP)1B1, and multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP)2; pharmacokinetics of ...
One such protein is the CLCF F-/H+ antiporter protein, a member of the CLC superfamily of anion-transport proteins. Though ... Members of the SLC26 family constitute a conserved class of anion transport proteins, which encompasses uncoupled transporters ... The anion exchanger protein SLC26A3 (down-regulated in adenoma, DRA) is expressed in the luminal membrane of intestinal ... Ca2+ efflux facilitated by co-transport of inorganic phosphate anion in the H+/Ca2+ antiporter YfkE. ...
Our major model proteins are members of the ClC family of anion-transport proteins. Use a combination of biochemical and ... The Membrane Transport Biophysics Unit focuses on understanding the physical principles governing membrane-protein function. ... We are also interested in other transport proteins. Bacterial genome projects continue to reveal that these so-called lower ... structural and functional approaches to answer mechanistic questions regarding ClC channels and other anion transport proteins. ...
... the proximal tubule is the major site of organic anion transport in the kidney and has a role in the metabolism of proteins and ... Renal tubular transport and catabolism of proteins and peptides. Kidney Int. 1979;16(3):271-278.. View this article via: PubMed ... Renal organic anion transport: a comparative and cellular perspective. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2002;1566(1-2):169-181.. View this ... for biological processes showed that the expression of genes involved in metabolism and anion transport was decreased in the ...
Anion-transport proteins are central to all of physiology, for processes ranging from regulating bone-density, muscle ... A major research focus is on the chloride-selective CLC family, which contains both types ion-transport protein. CLC proteins ... Protein ligands for studying ion channel proteins. journal of general physiology Chavan, T., Maduke, M., Swartz, K. 2017 View ... IMPORT OF A MITOCHONDRIAL PRESEQUENCE INTO P-DENITRIFICANS - INSIGHT INTO THE EVOLUTION OF PROTEIN-TRANSPORT FEBS LETTERS ROISE ...
Organic Anion Transport Protein 1. *Potassium-Hydrogen Antiporters. *Reduced Folate Carrier Protein ... Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these ...
Metabolism Transport and binding proteins Anions nitrate ABC transporter, ATP-binding proteins C and D (TIGR01184; HMM-score: ... Metabolism Transport and binding proteins Anions sulfate ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein (TIGR00968; EC; HMM- ... Metabolism Transport and binding proteins Anions phosphate ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein (TIGR00972; EC; HMM- ... Metabolism Transport and binding proteins Anions molybdate ABC transporter, ATP-binding protein (TIGR02142; EC; HMM- ...
Anion transport across erythrocyte membrane and reversibility of band 3 protein sulphydrylic groups oxidation in canine ... Melatonin ameliorates anion exchange capability through Band 3 protein after H2O2-induced oxidative stress. 48 ... Anion exchange through band 3 protein in canine leishmaniasis at different stages of disease 68 ... Effect of cadmium on anion exchange capability through Band 3 protein in human erythrocytes 73 ...
Antibodies, ELISA kits, proteins, reagents. Order quickly and easily at ... organic anion transporter F. *organic anion transporter polypeptide-related protein 5. *organic anion transporting polypeptide ... This gene encodes a member of the organic anion transporter family. The encoded protein is a transmembrane receptor that ... solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 1C1 (SLCO1C1), solute carrier organic anion transporter family, member ...
Several sodium-coupled transport proteins have been identified that enable intracellular uptake of phosphate by taking ... Phosphate is a predominantly intracellular anion (it has a negative charge) with a concentration of approximately 100 mmol/L, ... Type 3 transporters were initially identified as viral transport proteins. Almost all cells express type 3 sodium phosphate ... and frizzled related protein-4. The roles of these 2 latter proteins and their relationship with FGF23 and PHEX are unknown. ...
Impact of organic anion transporting polypeptide, P-glycoprotein, and breast cancer resistance protein transporters on observed ... Study of Breast Cancer Resistance Protein ABCG2 C421A Single Nucleotide Polymorphism RS2231142 in Multiple Myeloma. Indian ...
The function of this protein is to transport iron from the intestine, reticuloendothelial system, and liver parenchymal cells ... ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. It is responsible for the transport of iron from sites ... This protein may also have a physiologic role as granulocyte/pollen-binding protein (GPBP) involved in the removal of certain ... Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ...
... visceral anion-transporting polypeptide 2 (OATP2) and the biotic cation transporter OCTN2 is controlled by key xenosensors such ... Other protein rapport methods, like amino acid layout scrutiny, N-terminal sequencing, or immunochemistry, as well as column ... To offset these risks, the evidence of numerous membrane transporters such as P-gp, multidrug resistance-associated proteins ( ...
  • Members of the SLC26 family constitute a conserved class of anion transport proteins, which encompasses uncoupled transporters with channel-like properties, coupled exchangers and motor proteins. (
  • We also measure the chloride and proton fluxes through these transporters using electrical recordings in lipid bilayer membranes as a means to probe the functional behavior of these proteins. (
  • My laboratory studies the molecular mechanisms of ion channels and transporters, the proteins that catalyze this transport. (
  • To offset these risks, the evidence of numerous membrane transporters such as P-gp, multidrug resistance-associated proteins (MRPs), visceral anion-transporting polypeptide 2 (OATP2) and the biotic cation transporter OCTN2 is controlled by key xenosensors such as PXR and CAR. (
  • To address this question, we expressed wildtype and mutant hEAAT3 transporters in Xenopus oocytes and measured substrate transport and anion currents mediated by hEAAT3. (
  • It was known from previous work that the nucleotide sugar substrates necessary for the synthesis of the linkage region, UDP-xylose (UDP-Xyl), UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) and UDP-glucuronic acid (UDP-GlcA) were transported into the Golgi apparatus from the cytosol via protein mediated transporters. (
  • ABC transporters are a family of membrane transporter proteins that regulate the transport of a wide variety of pharmacological agents, potentially toxic drugs, and xenobiotics, as well as anions. (
  • ABC transporters are homologous membrane proteins that bind and use cellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) for their specific activities. (
  • Some of these transporters were discovered as multidrug resistance proteins (like the MDR1-P glycoprotein, or the multidrug resistance protein, MRP1), defending malignant cancer cells against chemotherapeutic agents. (
  • In general, Nrf2 did not have a marked effect on uptake transporters, but the mRNAs of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1a1, sodium taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, and organic anion transporter 2 were decreased with Nrf2 activation. (
  • Efflux transporters, such as multidrug resistance-associated proteins, breast cancer resistant protein, as well as ATP-binding cassette g5 and g8 were induced by Nrf2. (
  • She studies ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters, a diverse group of membrane proteins integral to almost every biological process. (
  • By pursuing structural and mechanistic studies of ABC transporters, she hopes to understand how nature utilizes the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis to perform work - transporting substrates against their chemical gradients. (
  • Yet whereas other ABC transporters utilize the chemical energy of ATP hydrolysis to transport substrates against their chemical gradients, CFTR conducts anions down their electrochemical gradient. (
  • of RSV into cells expressing organic anion transporting polypeptide (Oatp) 1a1, 1a4, and 1b2 was also determined. (
  • Once inside, these nascent polypeptide chains are bound by a lumenal ER protein called BiP (Immunoglobulin Binding Protein) or Grp 78 (Glucose Regulated Protein 78). (
  • The "reduced in osteosclerosis" transporter (Roct), which shows decreased expression in the osteosclerosis (oc) mutant mouse, has high homology with rat and human organic anion transporter 3 (OAT3). (
  • Elimination routes of CPT-11 also depend on the presence of drug-transporting proteins, notably P-glycoprotein and canalicular multispecific organic anion transporter, present on the bile canalicular membrane. (
  • This gene encodes a member of the organic anion transporter family. (
  • This protein may also have a physiologic role as granulocyte/pollen-binding protein (GPBP) involved in the removal of certain organic matter and allergens from serum. (
  • The SLC4A1 gene provides instructions for making a protein known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1). (
  • The Na+/H+ antiporter NhaC family protein is a kind of Na+/H+ exchanger from the ion transporter (IT) superfamily, which has mainly been identified in the halophilic bacteria of Bacillus. (
  • This protein transports negatively charged atoms (anions) across cell membranes. (
  • Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane. (
  • Negatively charged chloride can cross biological membranes only with the help of membrane-spanning proteins such as Cl - channels, which allow passive diffusion of Cl - along its electrochemical gradient, or transporter proteins that couple the movement of Cl - to that of other ions and can thereby establish electrochemical gradients. (
  • Trace for the use of trace minerals in the treatment or preven- elements absorbed as negatively charged anions, e.g. tion of diabetes. (
  • Use a combination of biochemical and physiological approaches, we seek to understand the protein elements mediating chloride selectivity as well as those involved in regulating the passage of ions across the membrane. (
  • CLC proteins are expressed ubiquitously and perform diverse physiological functions in cardiovascular, neuronal, muscular, and epithelial function. (
  • Mammalian CLC proteins comprise both Cl- channels and Cl-/H+ antiporters that carry out fundamental physiological tasks by transporting Cl- across plasma membrane and intracellular compartments. (
  • Its identification will help to understand its physiological roles and the diverse ways by which anion-selective pores can be formed. (
  • Here we investigate whether such a reduced activity is due to an impairment of the transport mechanism or an alteration in trafficking to the plasma membrane. (
  • ASOR is formed by TMEM206 proteins which display two transmembrane domains (TMs) and are expressed at the plasma membrane. (
  • The Membrane Transport Biophysics Unit focuses on understanding the physical principles governing membrane-protein function. (
  • We use a combination of biophysical methods to investigate membrane-protein structure and dynamics together with electrophysiological analyses to directly measure function. (
  • In mammals, newly synthesized proteins destined for secretion are translocated cotranslationally into the lumen of the Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER). (
  • In patients with cystic fibrosis, mutations in CFTR endogenously expressed in respiratory epithelia leads to reduced apical anion secretion causing an imbalance in ion and fluid transport. (
  • Here we show for the Cl-/H+ antiporter CLC-5 that the conserved and extracellularly exposed Lys210 residue is critical to determine the anion specificity for transport activity. (
  • Metronidazole, being electron-affinic, can accept an electron from neutral free radical centres to generate a reactive cation that binds to an anion such as hydroxyl (OH-), causing a permanent lesion. (
  • CFTR is expressed in a variety of cells types, including absorptive and secretory epithelia cells, where it regulates anion flux across the membrane, as well as the activity of other ion channels and proteins. (
  • In order to eventually purify one of these transporter proteins, we wanted to reconstitute their activities. (
  • The NO3- over Cl- preference of a plant CLC transporter has been pinpointed to a conserved serine residue located at Scen and it is generally assumed that the other two binding sites of CLCs, Sext and Sin, do not substantially contribute to anion selectivity. (
  • In alpha-intercalated cells, the exchange of bicarbonate through the AE1 protein allows acid to be released from the cell into the urine. (
  • Transferrins are iron binding transport proteins which can bind two Fe(3+) ions in association with the binding of an anion, usually bicarbonate. (
  • Metronidazole is heterocyclic nitro derivative in which the nitro group of metronidazole is reduced by an electron transport protein such as NADPH in an anaerobic micro-organism [6,7,12,13]. (
  • The SLC4A1 gene mutations involved in SLC4A1 -associated distal renal tubular acidosis lead to production of altered AE1 proteins that are either stuck inside the cell or trafficked to the wrong side of the cell. (
  • In autosomal recessive SLC4A1 -associated distal renal tubular acidosis, both copies of the SLC4A1 gene are mutated, so all of the protein produced from this gene is altered and not trafficked correctly. (
  • Studies suggest that with the help of glycophorin A, the altered AE1 protein can often get to the cell membrane in red blood cells, which explains why most people with SLC4A1 -associated distal renal tubular acidosis do not have blood cell abnormalities. (
  • CFTR is composed of approximately 1480 amino acids that encode a protein made up of a tandem repeate of transmembrane domains, each containing six transmembrane helices and a nucleotide binding domain. (
  • In the case of UDP-xylose it was necessary to prepare the liposomes using endogenous Golgi lipids in order to get transport activity similar to that seen in the intact Golgi vesicles. (
  • We determined whether in vivo transporter-mediated hepatobiliary clearance (CL) and hepatic concentrations of rosuvastatin (RSV) in the rat could be predicted by transport activity in sandwich-cultured rat hepatocytes (SCRHs) and/or transporter-expressing cell lines scaled by differences in transporter protein expression between SCRHs, cell lines, and rat liver. (
  • Protein expression of Oatps in SCRHs and Oatp-expressing cells was quantified by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. (
  • into Oatp-expressing cells (active transport) plus passive diffusion CL in SCRHs, scaled by the difference in protein expression in Oatp cells versus SCRH versus rat liver, was within 2-fold of that observed in SCRHs or in vivo. (
  • for Oatp protein expression. (
  • Here, we examined Roct-mediated transport using a Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system. (
  • Strategies to individualize CPT-11 administration schedules based on patient differences in enzyme or protein expression or by coadministration of specific agents modulating side effects are under way and may ultimately lead to more selective chemotherapeutic use of this agent. (
  • In the autosomal dominant form of the condition, gene mutations affect only one copy of the SLC4A1 gene, and normal AE1 protein is produced from the other copy. (
  • This gene encodes a member of the small ubiquitin-related modifier (SUMO) family of eukaryotic proteins. (
  • Polymorphisms in the gene encoding this protein may be associated with fatigue and depression in patients suffering from hyperthyroidism. (
  • Description of the protein which includes the UniProt Function and the NCBI Gene Summary. (
  • At saturating extracellular anion concentrations, neutralization of Lys210 is of little impact on the anion preference, suggesting an important role of Lys210 on the association rate of extracellular anions to Sext. (
  • Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. (
  • One member of the ABC transporter family commonly associated with disease is the cAMP/ATP-mediated anion channel, CFTR. (
  • In epithelia cells, normal functioning of CFTR is critical for the maintenance of electrolyte transport throughout the body, including respiratory and digestive tissue. (
  • However, little is known about the Na+/H+ antiporter NhaC family of proteins in the extremely halophilic archaea. (
  • Phylogenetic analysis shows that both NhaC1 and NhaC2 belong to the Na+/H+ antiporter NhaC family of proteins and are significantly distant from the identified NhaC proteins from Bacillus. (
  • Extracellular determinants of anion discrimination of the Cl-/H+ antiporter protein CLC-5. (
  • 2, How antigens are transported and loaded onto MHC-I molecules? (
  • Sumoylation may play a role in a wide variety of cellular processes, including nuclear transport, DNA replication and repair, mitosis, transcriptional regulation, and signal transduction. (
  • Bacterial genome projects continue to reveal that these so-called 'lower' organisms express membrane proteins which are remarkably similar to their physiologically important mammalian cousins. (
  • We now used a genome-wide siRNA screen to molecularly identify the widely expressed acid-sensitive outwardly-rectifying anion channel PAORAC/ASOR. (
  • 1998. Ammonia: Emission, atmospheric transport and deposition. (
  • Our major model proteins are members of the ClC family of anion-transport proteins. (
  • A major research focus is on the chloride-selective CLC family, which contains both types ion-transport protein. (
  • WCPs are a family of membrane proteins, belonging to the Membrane Intrinsic Proteins superfamily. (
  • We demonstrated that 2,4-D is consistently transported into saliva using both in vitro and in vivo models, making 2,4-D a potential candidate for human non-invasive salivary biomonitoring. (
  • We studied the transport of ATP in vitro and found that ATP enters the lumen of the ER in a saturable manner with a Kmapp~3μM. (
  • Since ATP is synthesized mainly in the mitochondria, we hypothesized that there must be an ATP transporter in the ER which would allow the protein mediated transport of ATP from the cytosol into the ER lumen. (
  • Kelch-like ECH associating protein 1 (Keap1) sequesters Nrf2 in the cytosol. (
  • This protein has particularly high affinity for the thyroid hormones thyroxine, tri-iodothyronine and reverse tri-iodothyronine. (
  • Such transport sets up and exploits ion gradients, thus providing the basic energy and signaling events that are the foundation of life. (
  • The encoded protein is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the sodium-independent uptake of thyroid hormones in brain tissues. (
  • Preliminary data suggest that this reduction in transport activity may arise from a decrease in the efficiency of trafficking of mutant carriers to the cell surface. (
  • The resulting decrease in anion transport contributes to enhanced mucus accumulation in the lung and the accompanying microbial infections that ultimately cause death in CF patients. (
  • In addition to exchanging ions, the longer AE1 protein attaches to other proteins that make up the structural framework (the cytoskeleton) of red blood cells, helping to maintain their structure. (
  • His laboratory is using a combination of structural and functional approaches to answer mechanistic questions regarding ClC channels and other anion transport proteins. (
  • Furthermore, compared to their 'higher' counterparts, these bacterial proteins are often more chemically stable and are easier to purify in large quantities, rendering them amenable to structural analysis. (
  • We consistently observe a 50% reduction of the transport activity of the T164A hEAAT3. (
  • We have expressed several such proteins, and are pursuing more detailed analysis of their function and architecture. (
  • The function of this protein is to transport iron from the intestine, reticuloendothelial system, and liver parenchymal cells to all proliferating cells in the body. (
  • Receptor activator of NF-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis is accompanied by intracellular Ca2+ mobilization in a kind of oscillations, which takes on necessary tasks by activating Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent proteins kinase sequentially, nFATc1 and calcineurin, required in the osteoclast differentiation. (
  • Furthermore, mutant nematodes possessed significantly reduced rates of cytochrome C oxidase activity and ammonia excretion rates, indicating the knockout of NHX-3 induced fundamental changes in metabolism that could impact the nematode's need to eliminate metabolic end-products like H+ and ammonia that relate to NHX transport. (
  • 1987. A long-range transport model for ammonia and ammonium for Europe. (
  • We additionally apply our expertise on ion-transport mechanisms to interdisciplinary collaborations to create novel chemical tools, to develop CLC-targeted therapies, and to understand the mechanism by which ultrasound modulates ion-transport to effect neuromodulation. (
  • H2O2-induced oxidative stress affects SO4= transport in human erythrocytes. (
  • Currently, we are using fluorescence-based methods to determine the nature and magnitude of conformational changes involved in the transport mechanism of ClC-ec1. (
  • Recent developments, including the determination of a high-resolution structure of a bacterial ClC, have allowed us to focus our attention on particular regions of these proteins, which we explore with combinations of biochemistry, genetic mutation, and electrical recordings. (
  • Heterologously expressed proteins bearing this mutation showed a reduced transport activity. (
  • Because of this, they represent important potential drug targets for the treatment of diseases associated with defects in the transporter, prevention of drug transport out of the target cell, and intervention in other diseases in which modulation of ABC transporter activity may be beneficial. (
  • ATP transport is dependent on time, protein, and vesicle integrity, it is also inhibited by the general anion transport inhibitor, 4,4' diisothiocyano-2,2'-disulfonic acid stilbene (DIDS). (
  • In red blood cells, the AE1 protein can interact with another protein called glycophorin A, which helps ensure AE1 gets moved (trafficked) to the correct location of the cell. (
  • The mutations involved in hereditary spherocytosis lead to a reduction of AE1 protein, which results in abnormal red blood cells that are round and spherical rather than a flattened disk shape and are more fragile than usual. (
  • Ion transport across the hydrophobic barrier of the cell membrane is a primary challenge faced by all cells. (
  • Elucidation of these roles has been greatly facilitated by the molecular identification of the underlying channel proteins, a discovery process that began in the late 1980's and is still ongoing. (

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