A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE. It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS.
Bicarbonate transporters that move BICARBONATE IONS in exchange of CHLORIDE IONS or SODIUM IONS across membranes. They regulate acid-base HOMEOSTASIS, cell volume and intracellular pH. Members include CHLORIDE-BICARBONATE ANTIPORTERS (SLC4A1, 2, 3, and 9); SODIUM-COUPLED BICARBONATE TRANSPORTERS (SLC4A4 and 5, 7, 8 and 10); and a sodium borate cotransporter (SLC4A11 protein).
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of negatively charged molecules (anions) across a biological membrane.
A non-penetrating amino reagent (commonly called SITS) which acts as an inhibitor of anion transport in erythrocytes and other cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the opposite direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.
Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.
High-molecular-weight insoluble polymers that contain functional cationic groups capable of undergoing exchange reactions with anions.
Protein factors that promote the exchange of GTP for GDP bound to GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
A genetically related subfamily of RAP GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that share homology with RAS PROTEINS. They bind to Ras effectors but do not activate them, therefore they may antagonize the effects of RAS PROTEINS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
An adenine nucleotide containing one phosphate group which is esterified to both the 3'- and 5'-positions of the sugar moiety. It is a second messenger and a key intracellular regulator, functioning as a mediator of activity for a number of hormones, including epinephrine, glucagon, and ACTH.
A genetically related subfamily of RAB GTP-BINDING PROTEINS involved in calcium-dependent EXOCYTOSIS. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
A family of MONOMERIC GTP-BINDING PROTEINS that are related to RAS PROTEINS.This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
The senescence of RED BLOOD CELLS. Lacking the organelles that make protein synthesis possible, the mature erythrocyte is incapable of self-repair, reproduction, and carrying out certain functions performed by other cells. This limits the average life span of an erythrocyte to 120 days.
A group of enzymes that are dependent on CYCLIC AMP and catalyze the phosphorylation of SERINE or THREONINE residues on proteins. Included under this category are two cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase subtypes, each of which is defined by its subunit composition.
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Electroneutral chloride bicarbonate exchangers that allow the exchange of BICARBONATE IONS exchange for CHLORIDE IONS across the cellular membrane. The action of specific antiporters in this class serve important functions such as allowing the efficient exchange of bicarbonate across red blood cell membranes as they passage through capillaries and the reabsorption of bicarbonate ions by the kidney.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A subcategory of guanine nucleotide dissociation inhibitors that are specific for RHO GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
Reversible chemical reaction between a solid, often one of the ION EXCHANGE RESINS, and a fluid whereby ions may be exchanged from one substance to another. This technique is used in water purification, in research, and in industry.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
Protein factors that inhibit the dissociation of GDP from GTP-BINDING PROTEINS.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
A guanine nucleotide containing two phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
A family of GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are specific for RAS PROTEINS.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Ability of ERYTHROCYTES to change shape as they pass through narrow spaces, such as the microvasculature.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.
High molecular weight, insoluble polymers which contain functional groups that are capable of undergoing exchange reactions (ION EXCHANGE) with either cations or anions.
Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.
A family of enzymes that catalyze the exonucleolytic cleavage of RNA. It includes EC 3.1.13.-, EC 3.1.14.-, EC 3.1.15.-, and EC 3.1.16.-. EC 3.1.-
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
Regulatory proteins that act as molecular switches. They control a wide range of biological processes including: receptor signaling, intracellular signal transduction pathways, and protein synthesis. Their activity is regulated by factors that control their ability to bind to and hydrolyze GTP to GDP. EC 3.6.1.-.
A class of RAS GUANINE NUCLEOTIDE EXCHANGE FACTORS that are genetically related to the Son of Sevenless gene from DROSOPHILA. Sevenless refers to genetic mutations in DROSOPHILA that cause loss of the R7 photoreceptor which is required to see UV light.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The destruction of ERYTHROCYTES by many different causal agents such as antibodies, bacteria, chemicals, temperature, and changes in tonicity.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A ubiquitous family of proteins that transport PHOSPHOLIPIDS such as PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL and PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINE between membranes. They play an important role in phospholipid metabolism during vesicular transport and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
Derivatives of OXALIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are derived from the ethanedioic acid structure.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The number of RED BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in a sample of venous BLOOD.
The formation of clumps of RED BLOOD CELLS under low or non-flow conditions, resulting from the attraction forces between the red blood cells. The cells adhere to each other in rouleaux aggregates. Slight mechanical force, such as occurs in the circulation, is enough to disperse these aggregates. Stronger or weaker than normal aggregation may result from a variety of effects in the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE or in BLOOD PLASMA. The degree of aggregation is affected by ERYTHROCYTE DEFORMABILITY, erythrocyte membrane sialylation, masking of negative surface charge by plasma proteins, etc. BLOOD VISCOSITY and the ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE are affected by the amount of erythrocyte aggregation and are parameters used to measure the aggregation.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
An electrogenic ion exchange protein that maintains a steady level of calcium by removing an amount of calcium equal to that which enters the cells. It is widely distributed in most excitable membranes, including the brain and heart.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
A chlorinated epoxy compound used as an industrial solvent. It is a strong skin irritant and carcinogen.
Potent activator of the adenylate cyclase system and the biosynthesis of cyclic AMP. From the plant COLEUS FORSKOHLII. Has antihypertensive, positive inotropic, platelet aggregation inhibitory, and smooth muscle relaxant activities; also lowers intraocular pressure and promotes release of hormones from the pituitary gland.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
A long-acting derivative of cyclic AMP. It is an activator of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase, but resistant to degradation by cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A research technique to measure solvent exposed regions of molecules that is used to provide insight about PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Volume of circulating ERYTHROCYTES . It is usually measured by RADIOISOTOPE DILUTION TECHNIQUE.
Proteins involved in the transport of organic anions. They play an important role in the elimination of a variety of endogenous substances, xenobiotics and their metabolites from the body.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
QUATERNARY AMMONIUM COMPOUNDS based on BENZYLAMINES with the general formula phenyl-CN+R3.
The major sialoglycoprotein of the human erythrocyte membrane. It consists of at least two sialoglycopeptides and is composed of 60% carbohydrate including sialic acid and 40% protein. It is involved in a number of different biological activities including the binding of MN blood groups, influenza viruses, kidney bean phytohemagglutinin, and wheat germ agglutinin.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
A single chain of deoxyribonucleotides that occurs in some bacteria and viruses. It usually exists as a covalently closed circle.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.
Guanosine 5'-(tetrahydrogen triphosphate). A guanine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Cellular proteins encoded by the H-ras, K-ras and N-ras genes. The proteins have GTPase activity and are involved in signal transduction as monomeric GTP-binding proteins. Elevated levels of p21 c-ras have been associated with neoplasia. This enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.6.1.47.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.
A species of protozoa that is the causal agent of falciparum malaria (MALARIA, FALCIPARUM). It is most prevalent in the tropics and subtropics.
An exchange of segments between the sister chromatids of a chromosome, either between the sister chromatids of a meiotic tetrad or between the sister chromatids of a duplicated somatic chromosome. Its frequency is increased by ultraviolet and ionizing radiation and other mutagenic agents and is particularly high in BLOOM SYNDROME.
Inorganic binary compounds of iodine or the I- ion.
A plasma membrane exchange glycoprotein transporter that functions in intracellular pH regulation, cell volume regulation, and cellular response to many different hormones and mitogens.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
RED BLOOD CELL sensitivity to change in OSMOTIC PRESSURE. When exposed to a hypotonic concentration of sodium in a solution, red cells take in more water, swell until the capacity of the cell membrane is exceeded, and burst.
Proteins that are present in blood serum, including SERUM ALBUMIN; BLOOD COAGULATION FACTORS; and many other types of proteins.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A high molecular weight (220-250 kDa) water-soluble protein which can be extracted from erythrocyte ghosts in low ionic strength buffers. The protein contains no lipids or carbohydrates, is the predominant species of peripheral erythrocyte membrane proteins, and exists as a fibrous coating on the inner, cytoplasmic surface of the membrane.
A Rec A recombinase found in eukaryotes. Rad51 is involved in DNA REPAIR of double-strand breaks.
The aggregation of ERYTHROCYTES by AGGLUTININS, including antibodies, lectins, and viral proteins (HEMAGGLUTINATION, VIRAL).
The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.
Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.
The glycine amide of 4-aminobenzoic acid. Its sodium salt is used as a diagnostic aid to measure effective renal plasma flow (ERPF) and excretory capacity.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
Guanosine 5'-(trihydrogen diphosphate), monoanhydride with phosphorothioic acid. A stable GTP analog which enjoys a variety of physiological actions such as stimulation of guanine nucleotide-binding proteins, phosphoinositide hydrolysis, cyclic AMP accumulation, and activation of specific proto-oncogenes.
A subclass of ORGANIC ANION TRANSPORTERS that do not rely directly or indirectly upon sodium ion gradients for the transport of organic ions.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Organic compounds that contain 1,2-diphenylethylene as a functional group.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A carbonic anhydrase inhibitor used as diuretic and in glaucoma. It may cause hypokalemia.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
A family of voltage-gated eukaryotic porins that form aqueous channels. They play an essential role in mitochondrial CELL MEMBRANE PERMEABILITY, are often regulated by BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS, and have been implicated in APOPTOSIS.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
Minute projections of cell membranes which greatly increase the surface area of the cell.

Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1. (1/661)

Anion exchanger 1 (AE1) is the chloride/bicarbonate exchange protein of the erythrocyte membrane. By using a combination of introduced cysteine mutants and sulfhydryl-specific chemistry, we have mapped the topology of the human AE1 membrane domain. Twenty-seven single cysteines were introduced throughout the Leu708-Val911 region of human AE1, and these mutants were expressed by transient transfection of human embryonic kidney cells. On the basis of cysteine accessibility to membrane-permeant biotin maleimide and to membrane-impermeant lucifer yellow iodoacetamide, we have proposed a model for the topology of AE1 membrane domain. In this model, AE1 is composed of 13 typical transmembrane segments, and the Asp807-His834 region is membrane-embedded but does not have the usual alpha-helical conformation. To identify amino acids that are important for anion transport, we analyzed the anion exchange activity for all introduced cysteine mutants, using a whole cell fluorescence assay. We found that mutants G714C, S725C, and S731C have very low transport activity, implying that this region has a structurally and/or catalytically important role. We measured the residual anion transport activity after mutant treatment with the membrane-impermeant, cysteine-directed compound, sodium (2-sulfonatoethyl)methanethiosulfonate) (MTSES). Only two mutants, S852C and A858C, were inhibited by MTSES, indicating that these residues may be located in a pore-lining region.  (+info)

Structural and functional consequences of antigenic modulation of red blood cells with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol). (2/661)

We previously showed that the covalent modification of the red blood cell (RBC) surface with methoxypoly(ethylene glycol) [mPEG; MW approximately 5 kD] could significantly attenuate the immunologic recognition of surface antigens. However, to make these antigenically silent RBC a clinically viable option, the mPEG-modified RBC must maintain normal cellular structure and functions. To this end, mPEG-derivatization was found to have no significant detrimental effects on RBC structure or function at concentrations that effectively blocked antigenic recognition of a variety of RBC antigens. Importantly, RBC lysis, morphology, and hemoglobin oxidation state were unaffected by mPEG-modification. Furthermore, as shown by functional studies of Band 3, a major site of modification, PEG-binding does not affect protein function, as evidenced by normal SO4- flux. Similarly, Na+ and K+ homeostasis were unaffected. The functional aspects of the mPEG-modified RBC were also maintained, as evidenced by normal oxygen binding and cellular deformability. Perhaps most importantly, mPEG-derivatized mouse RBC showed normal in vivo survival ( approximately 50 days) with no sensitization after repeated transfusions. These data further support the hypothesis that the covalent attachment of nonimmunogenic materials (eg, mPEG) to intact RBC may have significant application in transfusion medicine, especially for the chronically transfused and/or allosensitized patient.  (+info)

Volume expansion stimulates p72(syk) and p56(lyn) in skate erythrocytes. (3/661)

Hypotonic volume expansion of skate erythrocytes rapidly stimulates the tyrosine phosphorylation of band 3, the membrane protein thought to mediate the osmotically sensitive taurine efflux. Skate erythrocytes possess numerous tyrosine kinases including p59fyn, p56lyn, pp60(src), and p72(syk), demonstrated by immune complex assays measuring autocatalytic kinase activity. Inclusion of the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 in this assay showed that only Syk and Lyn can directly phosphorylate the cytoplasmic domain of band 3. Upon cell volume expansion, Syk activity was increased as assessed by three different assays (immune complex assay measuring autophosphorylation, assay of the level of phosphotyrosine of the immunoprecipitated kinase, and assay of level of 32P in the kinase immunoprecipitated from cells prelabeled with 32PO4 and then volume-expanded). The tyrosine kinase Lyn was also stimulated by volume expansion, most notably when analyzed by the latter two methods. Volume expansion stimulated a large increase in the ability of Syk to phosphorylate band 3 at times that coincide with the stimulation of taurine flux. The stilbene piceatannol inhibited Syk preferentially over Lyn and other tyrosine kinases and inhibited volume-stimulated taurine efflux in a concentration-dependent manner similar to that for the inhibition of Syk. Two major phosphorylation peaks were detected in tryptic digests of cdb3 separated by reverse phase HPLC. Edman degradation demonstrated a phosphotyrosine in a YXXL motif. In conclusion, p72(syk) appears to be a strong candidate as a pivotal signal-transducing step in the volume-activated taurine efflux in skate red cells. The level of band-3 phosphorylation may be regulated, in addition, by a protein-tyrosine phosphatase of the 1B variety.  (+info)

Hydrodynamic properties of human erythrocyte band 3 solubilized in reduced Triton X-100. (4/661)

The oligomeric state and function of band 3, purified by sulfhydryl affinity chromatography in reduced Triton X-100, was investigated. Size exclusion high-performance liquid chromatography showed that a homogeneous population of band 3 dimers could be purified from whole erythrocyte membranes. The elution profile of band 3 purified from membranes that had been stripped of its cytoskeleton before solubilization was a broad single peak describing a heterogeneous population of oligomers with a mean Stokes radius of 100 A. Sedimentation velocity ultracentrifugation analysis confirmed particle heterogeneity and further showed monomer/dimer/tetramer equilibrium self-association. Whether the conversion of dimer to the form described by a Stokes radius of 100 A was initiated by removal of cytoskeletal components, alkali-induced changes in band 3 conformation, or alkali-induced loss of copurifying ligands remains unclear. After incubation at 20 degrees C for 24 h, both preparations of band 3 converted to a common form characterized by a mean Stokes radius of 114 A. This form of the protein, examined by equilibrium sedimentation ultracentrifugation, is able to self-associate reversibly, and the self-association can be described by a dimer/tetramer/hexamer model, although the presence of higher oligomers cannot be discounted. The ability of the different forms of the protein to bind stilbene disulfonates revealed that the dimer had the highest inhibitor binding affinity, and the form characterized by a mean Stokes radius of 114 A to have the lowest.  (+info)

Decreased plasma membrane thiol concentration is associated with increased osmotic fragility of erythrocytes in zinc-deficient rats. (5/661)

Zinc deficiency leads to pathological signs that are related to impaired function of plasma membrane proteins. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of dietary zinc status on the sulfhydryl (SH) content of erythrocyte plasma membranes and erythrocyte function. Three experiments were performed. In the first, immature male rats were fed for 21 d either a low-zinc (<1.0 mg/kg) diet free choice (-ZnAL), an adequate-zinc (100 mg/kg) diet free choice (+ZnAL), or the adequate-zinc diet limited to the intake of -ZnAL pair-mates (+ZnPF). Tail blood was sampled to measure osmotic fragility and SH concentration of erythrocyte membrane proteins. The zinc-deficient rats were then repleted for 2 d and erythrocytes assayed for fragility and SH content. In the second experiment blood was sampled at 3-d intervals to determine the time course of change in fragility and SH concentration. In the third experiment the SH concentration of erythrocyte band 3 protein and the binding of zinc to isolated plasma membranes were measured. SH concentration decreased from approximately 75 nmol/mg protein to 68 nmol/mg protein during 21 d of depletion and returned to control level within 2 d of repletion. There was an inverse relationship between osmotic fragility and SH concentration of erythrocyte membrane proteins. Maximal decrease in SH occurred within 6 d of consuming the low-zinc diet. The SH content of band 3 protein isolated from deficient rats was also significantly lower than that of pair-fed controls (45 vs. 51 nmol/mg protein). The zinc-binding affinity of plasma membrane proteins tended to be decreased by zinc deficiency. In summary, low-zinc status lowers the plasma membrane SH concentration, and the decreased reducing potential is inversely related to osmotic fragility, and presumably, with impaired volume recovery of erythrocytes.  (+info)

Splenic but not thymic autoreactive T cells from New Zealand Black mice respond to a dominant erythrocyte Band 3 peptide. (6/661)

Previous work from our laboratory suggested that erythrocyte Band 3 peptide 861-874 is the dominant epitope recognized by splenic T cells from adult New Zealand Black (NZB) mice that are developing autoimmune haemolytic anaemia (AIHA). Here, it is shown that splenic T cells from 6-week-old NZB mice mount a vigorous in vitro proliferative response to peptide 861-874 and some other selected Band 3 peptides. As the donors grow older, splenic T cells respond to an increasing number of Band 3 peptides and the magnitude of their response also becomes greater. Splenic T cells from 3-week-old NZB mice still responded vigorously to peptide 861-874 and Band 3. By contrast, neither thymocytes nor single-positive CD4-enriched thymus cells from NZB mice responded to peptide 861-874 or Band 3, although they responded to concanavalin A (Con A). However, thymocytes from mice expressing a transgenic T-cell receptor (TCR)-specific for myelin basic protein (MBP) peptide Ac 1-9 responded vigorously to Ac 1-9. It is considered that the T-cell response of NZB mice to Band 3 is initially focused on peptide 861-874 and later spreads to other Band 3 peptides as the disease progresses and that peptide 861-874-reactive T cells are primed in the periphery rather than the thymus.  (+info)

Mapping of a palmitoylatable band 3-binding domain of human erythrocyte membrane protein 4.2. (7/661)

Evidence accumulated over the years suggests that human erythrocyte membrane protein 4.2 is one of the proteins involved in strengthening the cytoskeleton-membrane interactions in the red blood cell. Deficiency of protein 4.2 is linked with a variety of hereditary haemolytic anaemia. However, the interactions of protein 4.2 with other proteins of the erythrocyte membrane remain poorly understood. The major membrane-binding site for protein 4.2 resides on the cytoplasmic domain of band 3 (CDB3). In order to carry out an initial characterization of its interaction with the CDB3, protein 4. 2 was subjected to proteolytic cleavage and gel renaturation assay, and the 23-kDa N-terminal domain was found to interact with band 3. This domain contained two putative palmitoylatable cysteine residues, of which cysteine 203 was identified as the palmitoylatable cysteine. Recombinant glutathione S-transferase-fusion peptides derived from this domain were characterized with respect to their ability to interact with the CDB3. Whereas these studies do not rule out the involvement of other subsites on protein 4.2 in interaction with the CDB3, the evidence suggests that the region encompassing amino acid residues 187-211 is one of the domains critical for the protein 4.2-CDB3 interaction. This is also the first demonstration that palmitoylation serves as a positive modulator of this interaction.  (+info)

Mild spherocytosis and altered red cell ion transport in protein 4. 2-null mice. (8/661)

Protein 4.2 is a major component of the red blood cell (RBC) membrane skeleton. We used targeted mutagenesis in embryonic stem (ES) cells to elucidate protein 4.2 functions in vivo. Protein 4. 2-null (4.2(-/-)) mice have mild hereditary spherocytosis (HS). Scanning electron microscopy and ektacytometry confirm loss of membrane surface in 4.2(-/-) RBCs. The membrane skeleton architecture is intact, and the spectrin and ankyrin content of 4. 2(-/-) RBCs are normal. Band 3 and band 3-mediated anion transport are decreased. Protein 4.2(-/-) RBCs show altered cation content (increased K+/decreased Na+)resulting in dehydration. The passive Na+ permeability and the activities of the Na-K-2Cl and K-Cl cotransporters, the Na/H exchanger, and the Gardos channel in 4. 2(-/-) RBCs are significantly increased. Protein 4.2(-/-) RBCs demonstrate an abnormal regulation of cation transport by cell volume. Cell shrinkage induces a greater activation of Na/H exchange and Na-K-2Cl cotransport in 4.2(-/-) RBCs compared with controls. The increased passive Na+ permeability of 4.2(-/-) RBCs is also dependent on cell shrinkage. We conclude that protein 4.2 is important in the maintenance of normal surface area in RBCs and for normal RBC cation transport.  (+info)

There are two main types of hemolysis:

1. Intravascular hemolysis: This type occurs within the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as mechanical injury, oxidative stress, and certain infections.
2. Extravascular hemolysis: This type occurs outside the blood vessels and is caused by factors such as bone marrow disorders, splenic rupture, and certain medications.

Hemolytic anemia is a condition that occurs when there is excessive hemolysis of RBCs, leading to a decrease in the number of healthy red blood cells in the body. This can cause symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, pale skin, and shortness of breath.

Some common causes of hemolysis include:

1. Genetic disorders such as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia.
2. Autoimmune disorders such as autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA).
3. Infections such as malaria, babesiosis, and toxoplasmosis.
4. Medications such as antibiotics, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and blood thinners.
5. Bone marrow disorders such as aplastic anemia and myelofibrosis.
6. Splenic rupture or surgical removal of the spleen.
7. Mechanical injury to the blood vessels.

Diagnosis of hemolysis is based on a combination of physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests such as complete blood count (CBC), blood smear examination, and direct Coombs test. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include supportive care, blood transfusions, and medications to suppress the immune system or prevent infection.

"Entrez Gene: SLC4A2 solute carrier family 4, anion exchanger, member 2 (erythrocyte membrane protein band 3-like 1)". Gawenis ... Anion exchange protein 2 (AE2) is a membrane transport protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A2 gene. AE2 is ... Gehrig H, Müller W, Appelhans H (1992). "Complete nucleotide sequence of band 3 related anion transport protein AE2 from human ... Jöns T, Drenckhahn D (1998). "Anion exchanger 2 (AE2) binds to erythrocyte ankyrin and is colocalized with ankyrin along the ...
... hiv envelope protein gp41 MeSH D12.776.543.550.190.110 - anion exchange protein 1, erythrocyte MeSH D12.776.543.550.190.276 - ... erythrocyte MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.234 - organic anion transport protein 1 MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.235 - ... sodium-phosphate cotransporter proteins, type iii MeSH D12.776.543.585.450.162.110 - anion exchange protein 1, erythrocyte MeSH ... anion exchange protein 1, erythrocyte MeSH D12.776.543.550.190.442 - potassium-hydrogen antiporters MeSH D12.776.543.550. ...
1990). "Regulation of intracellular pH by a neuronal homolog of the erythrocyte anion exchanger". Cell. 59 (5): 927-37. doi: ... Anion exchange protein 3 is a membrane transport protein that in humans is encoded by the SLC4A3 gene. AE3 is functionally ... exchange protein but it is expressed primarily in brain neurons and in the heart. Like AE2 its activity is sensitive to pH. AE3 ... Morgans CW, Kopito RR (1993). "Association of the brain anion exchanger, AE3, with the repeat domain of ankyrin". J. Cell Sci. ...
... anion exchange protein 1, erythrocyte MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.162.193 - chloride-bicarbonate antiporters MeSH D12.776.157.530. ... erythrocyte MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.162.276 - potassium-hydrogen antiporters MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.162.442 - sodium-calcium ... organic anion transport polypeptide c MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.074.500.781.750 - organic anion transport protein 1 MeSH D12.776 ... anion transport proteins MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.074.249 - halorhodopsins MeSH D12.776.157.530.450.074.500 - organic anion ...
... anion transport protein. This cotransporter is an important integral protein in mammalian erythrocytes and moves chloride ion ... The sodium-calcium exchanger exchanges 3 sodium ions for 1 calcium ion and represents a cation antiporter. Cells also contain ... The NKCC1 cotransport protein is found throughout the body but NKCC2 is found only in the kidney and removes the sodium, ... The four known KCC proteins team up to form two separate subfamilies with KCC1 and KCC3 pairing together and KCC2 and KCC4 ...
It is different from the anion exchanger that present in erythrocytes, renal tubule, and several other tissues. The protein ... It mediates chloride and bicarbonate exchange and additionally transports sulfate and other anions at the apical membrane, part ... Protein DRA is a membrane protein in intestinal cells. It is an anion exchanger and a member of the sulfate anion transporter ( ... Chloride anion exchanger, also known as down-regulated in adenoma (protein DRA), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the ...
The increased rigidity of the erythrocyte membrane in SAO is thought to reduce the capacity of the band 3 proteins to cluster ... general rigidity of the cell membrane Loss of sensitivity to substances that cause spiculation of cells Reduced anion exchange ... Rather, the defect lies in a protein known as the band 3 protein, which lies in the cell membrane itself. The band 3 protein ... increased tyrosine phosphorylation of the band 3 protein, reduced sulfate anion transport through the cell membrane, and more ...
Hydroxyurea has also been prepared by converting a quaternary ammonium anion exchange resin from the chloride form to the ... Hydroxyurea lay dormant for more than fifty years until it was studied as part of an investigation into the toxicity of protein ... Antisickling Agents - Agents used to prevent or reverse the pathological events leading to sickling of erythrocytes in sickle ... 70 (1): 13-7. PMID 17642550. Archived from the original on 2009-07-03. Escribano, L.; Álvarez-Twose, I. N.; Sánchez-Muñoz, L.; ...
In these proteins it covers almost the entire length of the sequence. The Band 3 anion exchange proteins that exchange ... November 2015). "Crystal structure of the anion exchanger domain of human erythrocyte band 3" (PDF). Science. 350 (6261): 680-4 ... Several possibilities (uniport, anion:anion exchange and anion:cation exchange) can account for the data. The physiologically ... Anion exchanger proteins exchange HCO3 − for Cl− in a reversible, electroneutral manner. Na+/HCO3 − co-transport proteins ...
The sample material is subsequently run through an anion-exchange column to isolated and purify Cu. This step can also ... Andreini C, Banci L, Bertini I, Rosato A (January 2006). "Counting the zinc-proteins encoded in the human genome". Journal of ... relative to erythrocytes (i.e., red blood cells). In a study of 49 male and female blood donors, the average δ65Cu value of the ... In the context of catalytic activity, copper proteins function as electron or oxygen carriers, oxidases, mono- and dioxygenases ...
... is a phylogenetically-preserved transport protein responsible for mediating the exchange of ... The erythrocyte and kidney forms are different isoforms of the same protein. The erythrocyte isoform of AE1, known as eAE1, is ... Band 3 anion transport protein, also known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1) or band 3 or solute carrier family 4 member 1 (SLC4A1), ... Tanner MJ (2002). "Band 3 anion exchanger and its involvement in erythrocyte and kidney disorders". Curr. Opin. Hematol. 9 (2 ...
The protein then undergoes a conformational change to a new 'closed'' conformation that exposes both the proton and lactate to ... For this reason, exchange of one monocarboxylate inside the cell with another outside is considerably faster than net transport ... MCT1 has a substrate binding site open to the extracellular matrix which binds a proton first followed by the lactate anion. ... Detailed kinetic analysis of monocarboxylate transport in erythrocytes revealed that MCT1 operates through an ordered mechanism ...
Calcium ions have a great propensity to bind to proteins. This changes the distribution of electrical charges on the protein, ... If hemoglobin in erythrocytes is the main transporter of oxygen in the blood, plasma lipoproteins may be its only carrier in ... One of the main roles of extracellular fluid is to facilitate the exchange of molecular oxygen from blood to tissue cells and ... Main cations: Sodium (Na+) 136-146 mM Potassium (K+) 3.8-5.0 mM Calcium (Ca2+) 1.0-1.4 mM Main anions: Chloride (Cl−) 103-112 ...
Another protein considered to play an important role in adherence is P30, as M. pneumoniae cells with mutations in this protein ... Transmission of M. pneumoniae can only occur through close contact and exchange of aerosols by coughing due to the increased ... Adherence of M. pneumoniae to a host cell (usually a respiratory tract cell, but occasionally an erythrocyte or urogenital ... Local damage may also be a result of lactoferrin acquisition and subsequent hydroxyl radical, superoxide anion and peroxide ...
... anion exchange chromatography, cation exchange chromatography, and gel filtration chromatography. The recovered purified ... Pre-existing salivary proteins are the likely ancestors of most venom toxin genes. Expression of the new protein in the venom ... Condrea E, Devries A, Mager J (February 1964). "Hemolysis and splitting of human erythrocyte phospholipids by snake venoms". ... After ion exchange, generally purification steps and buffer exchange occur. However, chromatographic methods began to be ...
... ions from erythrocytes with a rate constant of 0.3 per second. [18F]NaF is also taken-up by immature erythrocytes in the bone ... The plasma protein binding of [18F]NaF is negligible. [18F]NaF renal clearance is affected by diet and pH level, due to its re- ... The chemically stable anion of Fluorine-18-Fluoride is a bone-seeking radiotracer in skeletal imaging. [18F]NaF has an affinity ... the most fundamental approach is considered here with two tissue compartments and four tracer-exchange parameters. The whole ...
... which is followed by denaturation of the globin protein and a cross-linking of erythrocyte membrane proteins with resultant ... The film impedes the diffusion of anions to the cathode, whereas the access of cations and their reduction is facilitated. The ... The treatment will consist of exchange transfusion, peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis. Sodium chlorate comes in dust, spray ... The reaction is suppressed by the addition of a small amount of dichromate (1-5 g/L) to the electrolyte. A porous film of ...
The bicarbonate ions in turn leave the RBC in exchange for chloride ions from the plasma, facilitated by the band 3 anion ... Protein 4.1R-based macromolecular complex - proteins interacting with Protein 4.1R. Protein 4.1R - weak expression of Gerbich ... Database of vertebrate erythrocyte sizes. Red Gold, PBS site containing facts and history (CS1 maint: uses authors parameter, ... The red blood cell membrane proteins organized according to their function: Transport Band 3 - Anion transporter, also an ...
Some of these proteins are linked to the exterior of the cell membrane. An example of this is the CD59 protein, which ... This random walk exchange allows lipid to diffuse and thus wander across the surface of the membrane. Unlike liquid phase ... Anions typically have a higher rate of diffusion through bilayers than cations. Compared to ions, water molecules actually have ... For instance, PS presence on the extracellular membrane face of erythrocytes is a marker of cell apoptosis, whereas PS in ...
Aida, Masao; Fujii, Yasuhiko; Okamoto, Makoto (1986). "Chromatographic Enrichment of 10B by Using Weak-Base Anion-Exchange ... A Human-Derived, Genetic, Positron-emitting and Fluorescent (HD-GPF) reporter system uses a human protein, PSMA and non- ... "18F-positron-emitting/fluorescent labeled erythrocytes allow imaging of internal hemorrhage in a murine intracranial hemorrhage ... A typical motif is exemplified by the tetraborate anions of the common mineral borax, shown at left. The formal negative charge ...
... in which the attack of a hydroxylate on an aldehyde renders it into a tetravalent alcohol anion; this anion donates its ... Finally, many proteins of unknown or uncertain function likewise resemble glyoxalase I, such as At5g48480 from the plant, ... Jafari S, Ryde U, Irani M (2019-01-01). "QM/MM study of the stereospecific proton exchange of glutathiohydroxyacetone by ... configuration of the lactoyl group of S-lactoylglutathionine formed by the action of glyoxalase I from porcine erythrocytes and ...
To date, only the ZntA protein of Paramecium has been shown to be a Mg2+ channel. The mechanisms of Mg2+ transport by the ... stabilising anions or reactive intermediates, also including binding to ATP and activating the molecule to nucleophilic attack ... POTASSIUM/PROTON EXCHANGE ACROSS THE CHLOROPLAST ENVELOPE". Plant Physiology. 65 (2): 350-354. doi:10.1104/pp.65.2.350. PMC ... and Zinc in Normal Human Erythrocytes". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 44 (3): 379-389. doi:10.1172/JCI105151. PMC 292488. ...
... assessment using oligosaccharide substrates and high-pH anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection". ... matrix protein (M), fusion protein (F), neuraminidase (NA) and large protein (L). All these proteins have variable functions ... Umeda M, Nojima S, Inoue K (February 1984). "Activity of human erythrocyte gangliosides as a receptor to HVJ". Virology. 133 (1 ... F-protein, as other paramyxoviral fusion proteins, is a trimeric class I viral membrane fusion protein. It is produced in the ...
ROS also interacts with ERK pathway that leads to activation of Ras, MEK and MEK-like proteins. These proteins activate protein ... The blood cells (erythrocytes, leukocytes and platelets) are produced by hematopoiesis. The erythrocytes have as main function ... Reactome data available in a variety of standard formats, including BioPAX, SBML and PSI-MI, and also enable data exchange with ... One example of a protein that binds to adaptor proteins and become activated is PLC that is very important in the lymphocyte ...
Platinum NPs are used as catalysts for proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), for industrial synthesis of nitric acid, ... These effects are seen in different levels of gene expression measured through protein levels. Last is the developmental ... "Platinum nanoparticle is a useful scavenger of superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide". Free Radical Research. 41 (6): 615-26. ... "Investigations on the Structural Damage in Human Erythrocytes Exposed to Silver, Gold, and Platinum Nanoparticles". Advanced ...
Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte / metabolism Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Erythrocyte Actions. * Search in PubMed * Search in MeSH ... Anion Transport Proteins / metabolism Actions. * Search in ... Immunolabeling of cell type-selective proteins. (A) Immunolabeling showing labeling for cell type-selective proteins (green) ... and secreted proteins. The analysis also identified a small fraction of hybrid cells expressing aquaporin-2 and anion exchanger ...
EPB3 Protein Erythrocyte Anion Exchanger Erythrocyte Anion Transport Protein Erythrocyte Membrane Anion Transport Protein ... SLC4A Proteins [D12.776.543.550.779] * Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters [D12.776.543.550.779.249] * Anion Exchange Protein 1, ... Anion Transport Protein, Erythrocyte Antigens, CD233 Band 3 Anion Transport Protein Band 3 Protein Band III Protein CD233 ... Erythrocyte Membrane Band 3 Protein Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 3, Diego Blood Group Protein Band 3 SLC4A1 Protein Solute ...
The SLC4A1 gene provides instructions for making a protein known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1). Learn about this gene and related ... erythrocyte membrane protein band 3. *erythroid anion exchange protein. *FR. *Froese blood group ... In addition to exchanging ions, the longer AE1 protein attaches to other proteins that make up the structural framework (the ... This protein transports negatively charged atoms (anions) across cell membranes. Specifically, AE1 exchanges negatively charged ...
G7.49 Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte D12.776.157.530.450.162.110 D12.776.157.530.450.437.249.500 D12.776.543.550.190.110 ... E2.175 Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins D20.888.850.325.220.260 D20.888.850.325.220.222 D23.946.833.850.325.220.260 D23.946.833.850. ... D8.811.682.47.820.100 14-3-3 Proteins D12.644.360.24.313 D12.644.360.24.50 D12.776.157.57.126 D12.776.476.24.50 D12.776.476.24. ... A11.329.228.100.775.800 A Kinase Anchor Proteins D12.776.157.57.03 Acebutolol D2.33.100.624.25 D2.33.755.624.25 Acellular ...
Erythrocyte [D12.776.157.530.450.162.193.500] Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte ... EPB3 Protein Erythrocyte Anion Exchanger Erythrocyte Anion Transport Protein Erythrocyte Membrane Anion Transport Protein ... EPB3 Protein. Erythrocyte Anion Exchanger. Erythrocyte Anion Transport Protein. Erythrocyte Membrane Anion Transport Protein. ... Anion Exchanger, Erythrocyte Anion Transport Protein, Erythrocyte Antigen, CD233 Antigens, CD233 Band 3 Anion Transport Protein ...
EPB3 Protein Erythrocyte Anion Exchanger Erythrocyte Anion Transport Protein Erythrocyte Membrane Anion Transport Protein ... SLC4A Proteins [D12.776.543.550.779] * Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters [D12.776.543.550.779.249] * Anion Exchange Protein 1, ... Anion Transport Protein, Erythrocyte Antigens, CD233 Band 3 Anion Transport Protein Band 3 Protein Band III Protein CD233 ... Erythrocyte Membrane Band 3 Protein Erythrocyte Membrane Protein Band 3, Diego Blood Group Protein Band 3 SLC4A1 Protein Solute ...
Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte (17) * Kidney (9) * Acidosis, Renal Tubular (8) ... Adaptor protein 1 B mu subunit does not contribute to the recycling of kAE1 protein in polarized renal epithelial cells. ... Adaptor protein 1 complexes regulate intracellular trafficking of the kidney anion exchanger 1 in epithelial cells. Almomani, ... Degradation mechanism of a Golgi-retained distal renal tubular acidosis mutant of the kidney anion exchanger 1 in renal cells. ...
Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte.. Erythrocytes.. Dissertations, Academic. National Library of Medicine Call No.: WC 750 ... Studies on the inhibitory effects of erythrocyte band 3 protein on malarial (merozoite invasion of human erythrocytes / Okoye, ... Studies on the inhibitory effects of erythrocyte band 3 protein on malarial (merozoite invasion of human erythrocytes / by ...
Erythrocyte N0000011437 Anion Transport Proteins N0000007541 Anions N0000006748 anisindione N0000007545 Anisoles N0000167149 ... Aniline Hydroxylase N0000166339 Aniline Mustard N0000167384 Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates N0000169724 Anion Exchange Protein 1 ... N0000169241 HMGB3 Protein N0000169206 HMGN Proteins N0000169207 HMGN1 Protein N0000169208 HMGN2 Protein N0000171143 HN Protein ... N0000170951 Wnt Proteins N0000170952 Wnt1 Protein N0000170953 Wnt2 Protein N0000183504 Wnt3 Protein N0000183484 Wnt3A Protein ...
From anion exchanger isoforms 1-3 (AE1-3), only the mRNA transcript of AE2 was identified by RT-PCR and the identity was ... The NHE inhibitors, HOE694 (10 microM) and amiloride (1 mM), showed a similar potency in enhancing the rate and extent of the ... Using isoform-specific primers, mRNA transcripts of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) and isoform 3 were identified by ... Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte, Cell Size, Cervix Uteri, Female, Homeostasis, Humans, Hydrogen-Ion Concentration, Models ...
Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte. *Chloride-Bicarbonate Antiporters. *Mitochondrial ADP, ATP Translocases ... Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. The action of these ... K-induced alkalinization in all cell types of rabbit gastric glands: a novel K/H exchange mechanism. J Membr Biol. 1992 Mar; ...
Band 3 Protein [P] MH NEW = Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte MH OLD = Baths, Finnish # [P] MH NEW = Steam Bath MH OLD = ... cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Yeast [P] MH NEW = cdc42 GTP-Binding Protein, Saccharomyces cerevisiae MH OLD = Chi [P] MH NEW = Qi ... Soy Proteins # [N] MH NEW = Soybean Proteins MH OLD = STLV [] MH NEW = Simian T-lymphotropic virus 1 MH OLD = Swine Infertility ... Membrane Transport Proteins MH OLD = Peste-des-Petits-Ruminants Virus [] MH NEW = Peste-des-petits-ruminants virus MH OLD = ...
G7.49 Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte D12.776.157.530.450.162.110 D12.776.157.530.450.437.249.500 D12.776.543.550.190.110 ... E2.175 Cobra Cardiotoxin Proteins D20.888.850.325.220.260 D20.888.850.325.220.222 D23.946.833.850.325.220.260 D23.946.833.850. ... D8.811.682.47.820.100 14-3-3 Proteins D12.644.360.24.313 D12.644.360.24.50 D12.776.157.57.126 D12.776.476.24.50 D12.776.476.24. ... A11.329.228.100.775.800 A Kinase Anchor Proteins D12.776.157.57.03 Acebutolol D2.33.100.624.25 D2.33.755.624.25 Acellular ...
Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte D12.776.157.530.937.625.249.500 D12.776.543.585.937.750.249.500 Anisotropy G2.842.50 ... Erythrocyte Aging G4.299.119.260 G4.43.260 G9.188.124.454 G9.188.230 Erythrocyte Count G4.170.107.330 G4.140.107.330 Erythroid- ... Replaced for 2016 by Solute Carrier Organic Anion Transporter Family Member 1b1) Organic Anion Transport Protein 1 D12.776. ... ELAV Proteins D12.776.641.520 D12.776.631.520 ELAV-Like Protein 2 D12.776.641.520.500 D12.776.631.520.500 ELAV-Like Protein 3 ...
Band 3 anion transport protein; Functions both as a transporter that mediates electroneutral anion exchange across the cell ... Protein 4.1; Protein 4.1 is a major structural element of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. It plays a key role in regulating ... Band 3 anion transport protein; Functions both as a transporter that mediates electroneutral anion exchange across the cell ... Band 3 anion transport protein; Functions both as a transporter that mediates electroneutral anion exchange across the cell ...
Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1. J. Biol. Chem. ... Topology of the membrane domain of human erythrocyte anion exchange protein, AE1. J. Biol. Chem. ... Identification of the binding interface involved in linkage of cytoskeletal protein 4.1 to the erythrocyte anion exchanger. ... Identification of the binding interface involved in linkage of cytoskeletal protein 4.1 to the erythrocyte anion exchanger. ...
Functions of extracellular lysine residues in the human erythrocyte anion transport protein.. Jennings ML; Monaghan R; Douglas ... application to the anion-exchange channel in intact human erythrocytes.. Anjaneyulu PS; Beth AH; Sweetman BJ; Faulkner LA; ... and chymotryptic digestion of the extracytoplasmic domain of the anion exchange channel in intact human erythrocytes.. Staros ... Organizational differences in the membrane proteins of normal and irreversibly sickled erythrocytes.. Rubin RW; Milikowski C; ...
Acute-Phase Proteins. *Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte. *Ankyrins. *beta 2-Glycoprotein I ... Luiking YC, Abrahamse E, Ludwig T, Boirie Y, Verlaan S. Protein type and caloric density of protein supplements modulate ... A major protein in the BLOOD. It is important in maintaining the colloidal osmotic pressure and transporting large organic ... Comparative study of somatostatin-human serum albumin fusion proteins and natural somatostatin on receptor binding, ...
Lactate leaves the cell in exchange for a hydroxyl anion (OH-), a membrane-associated, pH-dependent, antiport system. The ... Erythrocytes are capable of carrying out glycolysis; however, these cells do not have mitochondria and cannot use oxygen to ... Cells require a continuous supply of energy for protein synthesis. This energy is stored in the phosphate bonds of the ATP ... compared with anion gap acidosis (39%). A stepwise logistic regression model identified serum lactate, anion gap acidosis, ...
... is extracted from plasma or serum along with an added internal standard using a commercially available strong anion exchange ... Erythrocyte Protoporphyrin Free erythrocyte protoporphyrin (FEP) is measured by a modification of the method of Sassa et al.4 ... Labeled and unlabeled folate and vitamin B12, binding to immobilized binding proteins, are concentrated in the bottom of the ... In the erythrocyte folate procedure, the sample is first diluted 1:11 with a solution of 1 g/dL ascorbic acid in water and ...
Erythrocyte Anion Exchange Resins Anion Transport Proteins Anions Aniridia Anisakiasis Anisakis Aniseikonia Anisocoria Anisoles ... ADAMTS Proteins ADAMTS1 Protein ADAMTS13 Protein ADAMTS4 Protein ADAMTS5 Protein ADAMTS7 Protein ADAMTS9 Protein Adansonia ... Erythrocyte Aging Erythrocyte Count Erythrocyte Deformability Erythrocyte Inclusions Erythrocyte Indices Erythrocyte Membrane ... Adenovirus E1 Proteins Adenovirus E1A Proteins Adenovirus E1B Proteins Adenovirus E2 Proteins Adenovirus E3 Proteins Adenovirus ...
The protein encoded by this gene is part of the anion exchanger (AE) family and is expressed in the erythrocyte plasma membrane ... Mediates chloride-bicarbonate exchange in the kidney, and is required for normal acidification of the urine. ... The encoded protein associates with the red cell membrane protein glycophorin A and this association promotes the correct ... erythrocyte membrane and for normal erythrocyte shape via the interactions of its cytoplasmic domain with cytoskeletal proteins ...
... as well as cation and anion exchange chromatography steps. The distribution of IgG subclasses present in this product is ... As a class, IgG survives longer in vivo than other serum proteins. Peak levels of IgG are reached within 30 minutes after an ... GAMMAGARD S/D also contains a spectrum of antibodies capable of reacting with cells such as erythrocytes. The role of these ... Passive transmission of antibodies to erythrocyte antigens (e.g., A, B, and D) may cause a positive direct or indirect ...
... an alpha 1-adrenergic blocker, thus suggesting that the ionophore stimulation of PtdIns(4,5)P2 breakdown we reported previously ... was monitored with anion-exchange chromatography. Carbachol stimulated the accumulation of inositol phosphates and this was ... was monitored with anion-exchange chromatography. Carbachol stimulated the accumulation of inositol phosphates and this was ... 22 pmol/mg of protein; 120 s carbachol, 365 +/- 22 pmol/mg of protein; t1/2 14 s) and remained at this new steady-state level ...
Photoactivated h/d exchange in tyrosine: involvement of a radical anion intermediate. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Feb 22;128(7):2268-75 ... an AHSA1 protein from Bacillus subtilis. Proteins. 2010 78(16):3328-3340. [Abstract Stark JL, Mercier, KA, Mueller, GA, Acton, ... Fluorine-19 NMR studies of glucosyl fluoride transport in human erythrocytes. Biophys J. 1995 Nov;69(5):1814-8. PMID: 8580324.] ... Photoactivated h/d exchange in tyrosine: involvement of a radical anion intermediate. J Am Chem Soc. 2006 Feb 22;128(7):2268-75 ...
Specific proteins. Examination of the thyroid gland. Urine analysis. Urine biochemistry. Hematology. Histopathology. Hormones ... With inorganic acids (NH4Cl, HCl) induced during acute metabolic acidosis K+ Leaves cell H+ In exchange for and causes acute ... Diseases associated with cell damage: hemolysis of erythrocytes, disseminated intravascular coagulation syndrome, burns, severe ... anion type and. ... An increase in blood potassium concentration above 5,1 mmol / l ...
PMID- 14067882 TI - ANION EXCHANGE SEPARATIONS OF ALDOBIONIC AND ALDONIC ACIDS. PMID- 14067883 TI - GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY IN THE ... PMID- 14067449 TI - NUTRITIVE VALUE OF SELECTED PROTEINS AND PROTEIN COMBINATIONS. I. THE BIOLOGICAL VALUE OF PROTEINS SINGLY ... The purified common antigen fails to coat erythrocytes, is poorly, if at all antigenic, it is non-dialyzable and excluded from ... ITS DETECTION BY A BARRIER TECHNIQUE BASED ON ANION EXCHANGE. PMID- 14068542 TI - ABSORPTION AND FLUORESCENCE SPECTRA OF ...
... as well as cation and anion exchange chromatography steps. The distribution of IgG subclasses present in this product is ... As a class, IgG survives longer in vivo than other serum proteins. Peak levels of IgG are reached within 30 minutes after an ... GAMMAGARD S/D also contains a spectrum of antibodies capable of reacting with cells such as erythrocytes. The role of these ... Passive transmission of antibodies to erythrocyte antigens (e.g., A, B, and D) may cause a positive direct or indirect ...
  • It is the anion exchanger responsible for electroneutral transporting in CHLORIDE IONS in exchange of BICARBONATE IONS allowing CO2 uptake and transport from tissues to lungs by the red blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • The SLC4A1 gene provides instructions for making a protein known as anion exchanger 1 (AE1). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Anion exchanger isoform 2 operates in parallel with Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 during regulatory volume decrease of human cervical cancer cells. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Using isoform-specific primers, mRNA transcripts of Na(+)/H(+) exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) and isoform 3 were identified by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the results confirmed by Western immunoblotting. (ox.ac.uk)
  • From anion exchanger isoforms 1-3 (AE1-3), only the mRNA transcript of AE2 was identified by RT-PCR and the identity was confirmed by digestion with a specific restriction endonuclease. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The protein encoded by this gene is part of the anion exchanger (AE) family and is expressed in the erythrocyte plasma membrane, where it functions as a chloride/bicarbonate exchanger involved in carbon dioxide transport from tissues to lungs. (nih.gov)
  • A major integral transmembrane protein of the ERYTHROCYTE MEMBRANE . (nih.gov)
  • Ankyrin-1, encoded by ANK1 , is a major protein of erythrocytes, and it anchors transmembrane proteins to the cell membrane skeleton through band 3, spectrin, and protein 4.2 (Fig. 1 ). (karger.com)
  • Several mechanisms are involved in pH i regulation, among which sodium-hydrogen exchangers (NHEs), a family of integral transmembrane proteins that catalyze the exchange of Na + for H + across lipid bilayers. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Specifically, AE1 exchanges negatively charged atoms of chlorine (chloride ions) for negatively charged bicarbonate molecules (bicarbonate ions). (medlineplus.gov)
  • In addition to exchanging ions, the longer AE1 protein attaches to other proteins that make up the structural framework (the cytoskeleton) of red blood cells, helping to maintain their structure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Membrane proteins that allow the exchange of hydrogen ions for potassium ions across the cellular membrane. (harvard.edu)
  • Cations (ions with a positive charge) are attracted to anions (ions with a negative charge). (openstax.org)
  • revealed the best binding properties towards low-molecular thiols, amino acids and proteins/enzymes. (eurekamag.com)
  • All recognized mutations for AD are associated with increased deposition of amyloid-beta (Abeta), a peptide fragment comprising 39-43 amino acids that derive from the catabolism of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) molecule. (medscape.com)
  • Functions both as a transporter that mediates electroneutral anion exchange across the cell membrane and as a structural protein. (nih.gov)
  • 17. Modulated red blood cell survival by membrane protein clustering. (nih.gov)
  • Hereditary spherocytosis (HS) is a common type of hereditary hemolytic anemia, with wide heterogeneity in the severity of its clinical symptoms, membrane protein defects, and genetic patterns. (karger.com)
  • In the primary pathogenic mechanism of HS, dysregulation or abnormal quantities of erythrocyte membrane protein can decrease the stability and deformability of erythrocytes and increase their osmotic fragility, causing them to break easily and cause hemolysis. (karger.com)
  • Mutations in ≥1 HS-related genes can cause membrane protein deficiency [ 1, 2 ], leading to HS. (karger.com)
  • Genetic mutations that result in a loss of the protein function have been associated with type 4 HEREDITARY SPHEROCYTOSIS. (nih.gov)
  • The mutations involved in hereditary spherocytosis lead to a reduction of AE1 protein, which results in abnormal red blood cells that are round and spherical rather than a flattened disk shape and are more fragile than usual. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 12. Functions of extracellular lysine residues in the human erythrocyte anion transport protein. (nih.gov)
  • Liver fibrosis is a process arises in response to varieties of liver injuries such as toxic or drugs exposure 1 , it is characterized by the excess deposition of the components of extracellular matrix which commonly ending with hepatic dysfunction, even hepatocellular carcinoma, leading to increased morbidity and mortality 2 . (scialert.net)
  • The three best described defense mechanisms of neutrophils are phagocytosis (engulfment of pathogenic microorganisms and subsequent destruction in phagosomes), degranulation (the release of antimicrobial proteins from granules to the extracellular space) and the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). (elifesciences.org)
  • The pedicels of neighboring podocytes interdigitate with each other leaving between them filtration slits that are bridged by an extracellular structure impermeable to large macromolecules called the slit diaphragm, and provide the last barrier to protein loss in the KIDNEY. (lookformedical.com)
  • required for normal flexibility and stability of the erythrocyte membrane and for normal erythrocyte shape via the interactions of its cytoplasmic domain with cytoskeletal proteins, glycolytic enzymes, and hemoglobin. (nih.gov)
  • Over 150 enzymes contain known removed in proteins, and Similarly a download data mining and predictive analysis intelligence of these is located found. (evakoch.com)
  • The CCL 4 increased serum liver enzymes (ALT, AST and ALP), mRNA expression levels of TNF-α, IL-1 and IL-6 were detected as pro-inflammatory markers and 5LO, NOX2 and COX-2 as inflammatory biomarkers for liver and spleen, significant elevations was detected in LPO levels. (scialert.net)
  • Mediates the nuclear export of proteins (cargos) with broad substrate specificity. (string-db.org)
  • Functions as a transporter that mediates the 1:1 exchange of inorganic anions across the erythrocyte membrane. (nih.gov)
  • Mediates chloride-bicarbonate exchange in the kidney, and is required for normal acidification of the urine. (nih.gov)
  • Improper location or absence of AE1 in kidney cell membranes disrupts bicarbonate exchange, and as a result, acid cannot be released into the urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES. (lookformedical.com)
  • The vast majority of potassium (90%) is in ionic form, the rest is associated with proteins. (synevo.ge)
  • Potassium plays an important role in physiological processes of muscle contraction, functional activity of the heart, conduction of nerve impulses, enzymatic processes, metabolism, maintenance of acid-base balance, osmotic pressure, protein anabolism and glycogen formation. (synevo.ge)
  • Renal excretion of potassium and future external balance: potassium intake with food, sodium content and flow rate in distal tubules, acid-base balance, mineralocorticoid function, distal tubular response to mineralocorticoids, anion type and. (synevo.ge)
  • The nature of the stable noncovalent dimers of band 3 protein from erythrocyte membranes in solutions of Triton X-100. (nih.gov)
  • This protein transports negatively charged atoms (anions) across cell membranes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • However, some altered AE1 proteins cannot be helped by glycophorin A and are not trafficked to red blood cell membranes. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Any given stretch of genomic chromatin consists of a nucleosomal array bound to specific chromosomal proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the next section of the review, we discuss how certain chromatin-associated proteins undergo LLPS in vitro and in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Some chromatin-binding proteins undergo LLPS in purified form in near-physiological ionic strength buffers while others will do so only in the presence of DNA, nucleosomes, or chromatin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • How is chromatin structured and packaged within a chromosome such that it can be accessed and navigated by proteins involved in DNA-based functions? (biomedcentral.com)
  • Thus, in order to understand the structure and function of chromatin, one needs to understand both the fundamental behavior of an array of nucleosomes and how that behavior is influenced by the proteins and other factors that are bound to the nucleosomal array. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The other is chromatin aggregation (Fig. 1 ). (biomedcentral.com)
  • The goal of this review is to critically discuss the phase separation behavior of chromatin and specific chromatin-associated proteins and relate this in vitro behavior to the properties of chromatin in the nucleus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NETs are chromatin structures studded with antimicrobial proteins derived mostly from neutrophil granules, which can trap pathogens ( Papayannopoulos, 2018 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • Band 3 protein, the anion transport protein of the human erythrocyte membrane, was solubilized and purified in aqueous solutions of two nonionic detergents: Ammonyx-LO (dimethyl laurylamine oxide) and C12E9 (nonaethylene glycol lauryl ether). (nih.gov)
  • Band 3 protein solubilized and studied in solutions of Ammonyx-LO was found to be in a monomer/dimer/tetramer association equilibrium. (nih.gov)
  • It is concluded that a monomer/dimer/tetramer association equilibrium is the native state of association of band 3 protein solubilized by nonionic detergents. (nih.gov)
  • Since nonionic detergents are assumed not to interfere with protein-protein interactions among membrane proteins, the results strongly support the claim that, in the erythrocyte membrane, band 3 is in a monomer/dimer/tetramer association equilibrium (Dorst, H.-J. and Schubert, D. (1979) Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. (nih.gov)
  • Dimers of human erythrocyte band 3 subunits cross-linked at the extracytoplasmic membrane face. (nih.gov)
  • 4. In situ cross-linking of human erythrocyte band 3 by bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate. (nih.gov)
  • 5. In vitro properties and organ uptake of rat band 3 cross-linked erythrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • 10. Partial covalent labeling with pyridoxal 5'-phosphate induces bis(sulfosuccinimidyl)suberate crosslinking of band 3 protein tetramers in intact human red blood cells. (nih.gov)
  • 16. Differential induction of macrophage recognition of carrier erythrocytes by treatment with band 3 cross-linkers. (nih.gov)
  • There are 5 genes associated with HS, including α-spectrin ( SPTA1 ), β-spectrin ( SPTB ), ankyrin ( ANK1 ), band 3 ( SLC4A1 ), and protein 4.2 ( EPB42 ), that are involved in the interaction between the erythrocyte membrane and the lipid bilayer. (karger.com)
  • The erythrocyte membrane proteins regulating the elasticity and deformability in a vertical direction are band 3, ankyrin-1, protein 4.2, spectrin, and Rh complex. (karger.com)
  • Protein 4.1 is a major structural element of the erythrocyte membrane skeleton. (string-db.org)
  • Schematic presentation of erythrocyte membrane proteins. (karger.com)
  • 1983 Apr 21;730(1):32-40. (nih.gov)
  • The SLC4A1 gene mutations involved in SLC4A1 -associated distal renal tubular acidosis lead to production of altered AE1 proteins that are either stuck inside the cell or trafficked to the wrong side of the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In autosomal recessive SLC4A1 -associated distal renal tubular acidosis, both copies of the SLC4A1 gene are mutated, so all of the protein produced from this gene is altered and not trafficked correctly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Studies suggest that with the help of glycophorin A, the altered AE1 protein can often get to the cell membrane in red blood cells, which explains why most people with SLC4A1 -associated distal renal tubular acidosis do not have blood cell abnormalities. (medlineplus.gov)
  • By the turn of the 20th century, many physicians recognized that patients who are critically ill could exhibit metabolic acidosis unaccompanied by elevation of ketones or other measurable anions. (medscape.com)
  • In the autosomal dominant form of the condition, gene mutations affect only one copy of the SLC4A1 gene, and normal AE1 protein is produced from the other copy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • denoting the phosphorylated overall: congenital download data mining and predictive analysis intelligence mutations bond with proteins who generate with a metabolism with a other Expression. (evakoch.com)
  • Binds to the erythrocyte membrane receptor SLC2A1/GLUT1 and may therefore provide a link between the spectrin cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane. (string-db.org)
  • Peng Y, Deng L, Ding Y, Chen Q, Wu Y, Yang M, Wang Y, Fu Q. Comparative study of somatostatin-human serum albumin fusion proteins and natural somatostatin on receptor binding, internalization and activation. (uams.edu)
  • 2,900 receptor of GTPases of 17 significant similarity erythrocytes, plus the hepatocytes of the lysosomal Rail. (evakoch.com)
  • A major protein in the BLOOD. (uams.edu)
  • In alpha-intercalated cells, the exchange of bicarbonate through the AE1 protein allows acid to be released from the cell into the urine. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Hydrogen bonds link hydrogen atoms already participating in polar covalent bonds to anions or electronegative regions of other polar molecules. (openstax.org)
  • however, during aging the protein was converted into stable noncovalent dimers. (nih.gov)
  • Determination of mass changes in phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate and evidence for agonist-stimulated metabolism of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate in airway smooth muscle. (omicsdi.org)
  • An enzyme is a catalytic protein that speeds up chemical reactions in the human body. (openstax.org)
  • 3. Bis(sulfo-N-succinimidyl) [15N,2H16]doxyl-2-spiro-4'-pimelate, a stable isotope-substituted, membrane-impermeant bifunctional spin label for studies of the dynamics of membrane proteins: application to the anion-exchange channel in intact human erythrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • 9. Cross-linking and chymotryptic digestion of the extracytoplasmic domain of the anion exchange channel in intact human erythrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • Effects of crude venom from Pelagia noctiluca (Cnidaria: Scyphozoa) nematocysts on SO4= uptake and on the intracellular GSH content in human erythrocytes. (unime.it)
  • H2O2-induced oxidative stress affects SO4= transport in human erythrocytes. (unime.it)
  • A minimal human physiologically based kinetic model of thyroid hormones and chemical disruption of plasma thyroid hormone binding proteins. (nih.gov)
  • Subretinal vector injections led to nearly complete suppression of endogenous canine RHO RNA, while the human RHO replacement cDNA resulted in up to 30% of normal RHO protein levels. (regenerativemedicine.net)
  • Membrane-cytoskeleton-associated protein with F-actin- binding activity that induces F-actin bundles formation and stabilization. (string-db.org)
  • Its F-actin-bundling activity is reversibly regulated upon its phosphorylation by the cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA). (string-db.org)
  • Binds to the erythrocyte membrane glucose transporter-1 SLC2A1/GLUT1, and hence stabilizes and attaches the spectrin-actin network to the erythrocytic plasma membrane. (string-db.org)
  • Membrane-cytoskeleton-associated protein that promotes the assembly of the spectrin-actin network. (string-db.org)
  • Organizes filamentous actin into bundles with a minimum of 4.1:1 actin/fascin ratio. (string-db.org)
  • Furthermore, by the use of alternative promoters and alternative-splicing events, individual SLC4 genes have the potential to generate multiple splice variants (as many as 16 in the case of NBCn1 ), each of which could have unique temporal and spatial patterns of distribution, unitary transporter activity (i.e. flux mediated by one molecule), array of protein-binding partners, and complement of regulatory stimuli. (silverchair.com)
  • However, the altered protein attaches to the normal protein and keeps it from getting to the correct location, leading to a severe reduction or absence of AE1 protein in the correct part of the cell membrane. (medlineplus.gov)
  • 7. N-hydroxysulfosuccinimido active esters and the L-(+)-lactate transport protein in rabbit erythrocytes. (nih.gov)
  • The predominant form of the protein is comprised of two alpha1(IV) subunits and one alpha2(IV) subunit, however, at least six different alpha subunits can be incorporated into the heterotrimer. (lookformedical.com)
  • Renal collecting duct physiology and pathophysiology 1 . (bvsalud.org)
  • 33) and the apical receptors of the Fourier protein, the world associated to work induces well viable in some processes of transcription energy. (evakoch.com)
  • it seems to be due to oxidation of the protein by degradation products of the detergent. (nih.gov)
  • Vanadium (CAS No. 7440-62-2) is an element that exists in a number of oxidation states ranging from -1 to +5 and can be found in various locales around the world. (nih.gov)
  • Luiking YC, Abrahamse E, Ludwig T, Boirie Y, Verlaan S. Protein type and caloric density of protein supplements modulate postprandial amino acid profile through changes in gastrointestinal behaviour: A randomized trial. (uams.edu)
  • In red blood cells, the AE1 protein can interact with another protein called glycophorin A, which helps ensure AE1 gets moved (trafficked) to the correct location of the cell. (medlineplus.gov)
  • K-induced alkalinization in all cell types of rabbit gastric glands: a novel K/H exchange mechanism. (harvard.edu)
  • Description of the protein which includes the UniProt Function and the NCBI Gene Summary. (nih.gov)

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