Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Birds: Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.Bird Diseases: Diseases of birds not considered poultry, therefore usually found in zoos, parks, and the wild. The concept is differentiated from POULTRY DISEASES which is for birds raised as a source of meat or eggs for human consumption, and usually found in barnyards, hatcheries, etc.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Animals, Domestic: Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Disease Reservoirs: Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Influenza in Birds: Infection of domestic and wild fowl and other BIRDS with INFLUENZA A VIRUS. Avian influenza usually does not sicken birds, but can be highly pathogenic and fatal in domestic POULTRY.Anseriformes: An order of BIRDS comprising the waterfowl, particularly DUCKS; GEESE; swans; and screamers.Poliomyelitis: An acute infectious disease of humans, particularly children, caused by any of three serotypes of human poliovirus (POLIOVIRUS). Usually the infection is limited to the gastrointestinal tract and nasopharynx, and is often asymptomatic. The central nervous system, primarily the spinal cord, may be affected, leading to rapidly progressive paralysis, coarse FASCICULATION and hyporeflexia. Motor neurons are primarily affected. Encephalitis may also occur. The virus replicates in the nervous system, and may cause significant neuronal loss, most notably in the spinal cord. A rare related condition, nonpoliovirus poliomyelitis, may result from infections with nonpoliovirus enteroviruses. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp764-5)Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Animal Population Groups: Animals grouped according to ecological, morphological or genetic populations.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Deer: The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)Ethnobotany: The study of plant lore and agricultural customs of a people. In the fields of ETHNOMEDICINE and ETHNOPHARMACOLOGY, the emphasis is on traditional medicine and the existence and medicinal uses of PLANTS and PLANT EXTRACTS and their constituents, both historically and in modern times.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Animals, ZooAquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Carnivora: An order of MAMMALS, usually flesh eaters with appropriate dentition. Suborders include the terrestrial carnivores Fissipedia, and the aquatic carnivores PINNIPEDIA.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.DucksCanidae: A family of terrestrial carnivores with long snouts and non-retractable claws. Members include COYOTES; DOGS; FOXES; JACKALS; RACCOON DOGS; and WOLVES.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Rodentia: A mammalian order which consists of 29 families and many genera.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Reproduction: The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)Solanum: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain SOLANACEOUS ALKALOIDS. Some species in this genus are called deadly nightshade which is also a common name for ATROPA BELLADONNA.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Mice, Inbred C57BLConservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Charadriiformes: An order of BIRDS including over 300 species that primarily inhabit coastal waters, beaches, and marshes. They are comprised of shorebirds, gulls, and terns.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)ArtiodactylaTransfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Poliovirus: A species of ENTEROVIRUS which is the causal agent of POLIOMYELITIS in humans. Three serotypes (strains) exist. Transmission is by the fecal-oral route, pharyngeal secretions, or mechanical vector (flies). Vaccines with both inactivated and live attenuated virus have proven effective in immunizing against the infection.Cloaca: A dilated cavity extended caudally from the hindgut. In adult birds, reptiles, amphibians, and many fishes but few mammals, cloaca is a common chamber into which the digestive, urinary and reproductive tracts discharge their contents. In most mammals, cloaca gives rise to LARGE INTESTINE; URINARY BLADDER; and GENITALIA.Tigers: The species Panthera tigris, a large feline inhabiting Asia. Several subspecies exist including the Siberian tiger and Sumatran tiger.GeeseSequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Poliovirus Vaccine, Oral: A live vaccine containing attenuated poliovirus, types I, II, and III, grown in monkey kidney cell tissue culture, used for routine immunization of children against polio. This vaccine induces long-lasting intestinal and humoral immunity. Killed vaccine induces only humoral immunity. Oral poliovirus vaccine should not be administered to immunocompromised individuals or their household contacts. (Dorland, 28th ed)Seasons: Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Genetics, Population: The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Passeriformes: A widely distributed order of perching BIRDS, including more than half of all bird species.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Ruminants: A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Zoonoses: Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Arvicolinae: A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Herpestidae: The family of agile, keen-sighted mongooses of Asia and Africa that feed on RODENTS and SNAKES.Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Agaricales: An extensive order of basidiomycetous fungi whose fruiting bodies are commonly called mushrooms.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Gene Knockout Techniques: Techniques to alter a gene sequence that result in an inactivated gene, or one in which the expression can be inactivated at a chosen time during development to study the loss of function of a gene.Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Ectoparasitic Infestations: Infestations by PARASITES which live on, or burrow into, the surface of their host's EPIDERMIS. Most ectoparasites are ARTHROPODS.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Parasitic Diseases, Animal: Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.Falconiformes: An order of diurnal BIRDS of prey, including EAGLES; HAWKS; buzzards; vultures; and falcons.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Sexual Behavior, Animal: Sexual activities of animals.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Murinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the Old World MICE and RATS.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Panthera: Genus in the family FELIDAE comprised of big felines including LIONS; TIGERS; jaguars; and the leopard.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Rupicapra: A genus of ruminants in the family Bovidae. The common name chamois usually refers to the species Rupicapra rupicapra. Rupicapra pyrenaica, found in the Pyrenees, is more properly referred to as the Pyrenean chamois.Tibet: An autonomous region located in central Asia, within China.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Influenza A Virus, H5N1 Subtype: A subtype of INFLUENZA A VIRUS comprised of the surface proteins hemagglutinin 5 and neuraminidase 1. The H5N1 subtype, frequently referred to as the bird flu virus, is endemic in wild birds and very contagious among both domestic (POULTRY) and wild birds. It does not usually infect humans, but some cases have been reported.Raccoons: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Archaeology: The scientific study of past societies through artifacts, fossils, etc.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Raptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Felis: Genus in the family FELIDAE comprised of small felines including the domestic cat, Felis catus (CATS) and its ancestor the wild cat, Felis silvestris.Copepoda: A huge subclass of mostly marine CRUSTACEA, containing over 14,000 species. The 10 orders comprise both planktonic and benthic organisms, and include both free-living and parasitic forms. Planktonic copepods form the principle link between PHYTOPLANKTON and the higher trophic levels of the marine food chains.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.Olea: A plant genus of the family Oleaceae. The olive fruit is the source of olive oil.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.DNA, Mitochondrial: Double-stranded DNA of MITOCHONDRIA. In eukaryotes, the mitochondrial GENOME is circular and codes for ribosomal RNAs, transfer RNAs, and about 10 proteins.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Feeding Behavior: Behavioral responses or sequences associated with eating including modes of feeding, rhythmic patterns of eating, and time intervals.Gene Flow: The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Pigmentation: Coloration or discoloration of a part by a pigment.Tool Use Behavior: Modifying, carrying, or manipulating an item external to itself by an animal, before using it to effect a change on the environment or itself (from Beck, Animal Tool Behavior, 1980).Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Songbirds: PASSERIFORMES of the suborder, Oscines, in which the flexor tendons of the toes are separate, and the lower syrinx has 4 to 9 pairs of tensor muscles inserted at both ends of the tracheal half rings. They include many commonly recognized birds such as CROWS; FINCHES; robins; SPARROWS; and SWALLOWS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Poliovirus Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent POLIOMYELITIS. They include inactivated (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, INACTIVATED) and oral vaccines (POLIOVIRUS VACCINE, ORAL).Raccoon Dogs: The lone species in the genus Nyctereutes, family CANIDAE. It is found in the woodland zone from southeastern Siberia to Vietnam and on the main islands of Japan.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Environment: The external elements and conditions which surround, influence, and affect the life and development of an organism or population.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Phylogeography: A field of study concerned with the principles and processes governing the geographic distributions of genealogical lineages, especially those within and among closely related species. (Avise, J.C., Phylogeography: The History and Formation of Species. Harvard University Press, 2000)Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Ecology: The branch of science concerned with the interrelationship of organisms and their ENVIRONMENT, especially as manifested by natural cycles and rhythms, community development and structure, interactions between different kinds of organisms, geographic distributions, and population alterations. (Webster's, 3d ed)Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Arachis hypogaea: A plant species of the family FABACEAE that yields edible seeds, the familiar peanuts, which contain protein, oil and lectins.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Paralysis: A general term most often used to describe severe or complete loss of muscle strength due to motor system disease from the level of the cerebral cortex to the muscle fiber. This term may also occasionally refer to a loss of sensory function. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p45)Pollination: The transfer of POLLEN grains (male gametes) to the plant ovule (female gamete).Ursidae: The family of carnivorous or omnivorous bears, having massive bodies, coarse heavy fur, relatively short limbs, and almost rudimentary tails.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.

Comparison of Ehrlichia muris strains isolated from wild mice and ticks and serologic survey of humans and animals with E. muris as antigen. (1/1525)

In metropolitan Tokyo, the Ehrlichia muris seropositivity rate of 24 wild mice was 63% in Hinohara Village, but in the surrounding areas, it was 0 to 5%. This finding suggests that the reservoir of E. muris is focal. Among the 15 seropositive mice, ehrlichiae were isolated from 9 Apodemus speciosus mice and 1 A. argenteus mouse, respectively. Five ehrlichial isolates were obtained from 10 ticks (Haemaphysalis flava) collected in Asuke Town, Aichi Prefecture, where the E. muris type strain had been isolated. These new isolates were compared with the E. muris type strain. The mouse virulence and ultrastructure of the new isolates were similar to those of the type strain, and all of them were cross-reactive with each other, as well as with the type strain, by indirect immunofluorescent-antibody test. The levels of similarity of the base sequences of the 16S rRNA gene of one of the A. speciosus isolates and one of the tick isolates to that of the E. muris type strain were 99.79 and 99.93%, respectively. We suggest that all of these isolates are E. muris; that E. muris is not limited to Eothenomys kageus but infects other species of mice; and that E. muris is present at locations other than Aichi Prefecture. It appears that H. flava is a potential vector of E. muris. Twenty (1%) of 1803 humans from metropolitan Tokyo were found to be seropositive for E. muris antibodies. A serological survey revealed that exposure to E. muris or organisms antigenically cross-reactive to E. muris occurred among dogs, wild mice, monkeys, bears, deer, and wild boars in Gifu Prefecture, nearby prefectures, and Nagoya City, central Japan. However, human beings and Rattus norvegicus rats in this area were seronegative. These results indicate broader geographic distribution of and human and animal species exposure to E. muris or related Ehrlichia spp. in Japan.  (+info)

Use of protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for screening for antibodies against parapoxvirus in wild animals in Japan. (2/1525)

Using protein AG in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), we tried to detect antibodies against parapoxvirus in 9 species of wild animals in Japan: the Japanese badger (Meles meles anakuma), Japanese black bear (Ursus thibetanus japonicus), Japanese deer (Cervus nippon centralis), Japanese monkey (Macaca fuscata), Japanese raccoon dog (Nyctereutes procyonoides viverrinus), Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus), Japanese wild boar (Sus scrofa leucomystax), masked palm civet (Paguma larvata), and nutria (Myocastor coypus). A total of 272 serum samples were collected over the period from 1984 to 1995 and were tested by the protein AG-ELISA, the agar gel immunodiffusion test, and an indirect immunofluorescence assay. The protein AG-ELISA was effective in a serological survey for parapoxvirus in wild animals, and antibodies were detected only in Japanese serows. A total of 24 of 66 (36.4%) Japanese serows reacted positively, and they were found in almost all prefectures in all years tested. These results suggest that epizootic cycles of parapoxvirus exist widely in Japanese serows and that they could be reservoirs for the virus in the field in Japan. Moreover, it is probable that they might carry the virus to domestic animals such as cattle, sheep, and goats.  (+info)

Epidemiological study of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in Scotland. (3/1525)

A survey of 22 farms confirmed the presence of paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in Scotland. Regional differences were apparent in the prevalence of the disease in rabbits, with a significantly higher incidence occurring in the Tayside region. Statistical analysis showed a significant relationship between a previous history or current problem of paratuberculosis in cattle and the presence of paratuberculosis in rabbits on the farms. Molecular genetic typing techniques could not discriminate between selected rabbit and cattle isolates from the same or different farms, suggesting that the same strain may infect and cause disease in both species and that interspecies transmission may occur. The possibility of interspecies transmission and the involvement of wildlife in the epidemiology of paratuberculosis have important implications for the control of the disease.  (+info)

Human rabies postexposure prophylaxis during a raccoon rabies epizootic in New York, 1993 and 1994. (4/1525)

We describe the epidemiology of human rabies postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) in four upstate New York counties during the 1st and 2nd year of a raccoon rabies epizootic. We obtained data from records of 1,173 persons whose rabies PEP was reported to local health departments in 1993 and 1994. Mean annual PEP incidence rates were highest in rural counties, in summer, and in patients 10 to 14 and 35 to 44 years of age. PEP given after bites was primarily associated with unvaccinated dogs and cats, but most (70%) was not attributable to bites. Although pet vaccination and stray animal control, which target direct exposure, remain the cornerstones of human rabies prevention, the risk for rabies by the nonbite route (e. g., raccoon saliva on pet dogs' and cats' fur) should also be considered.  (+info)

Survey of Bartonella species infecting intradomicillary animals in the Huayllacallan Valley, Ancash, Peru, a region endemic for human bartonellosis. (5/1525)

The natural cycle of Bartonella bacilliformis remains uncertain, and the suspected existence of animal reservoirs for the bacterium has never been convincingly demonstrated. We conducted a survey of Bartonella species infecting intradomicillary animals in a bartonellosis-endemic region of Peru, obtaining blood from 50 animals living in the homes of 11 families whose children had recently had bartonellosis. Bartonella-like bacteria were recovered from four of nine small rodents included in the study, but from none of the 41 domesticated animals. Identification and comparison of these isolates, and two Bartonella-like isolates obtained from Phyllotis mice in a different endemic region of Peru using serologic and genotypic methods indicated that although none were strains of B. bacilliformis, five were probably representatives of three previously unrecognized Bartonella species and one was a likely strain of the pathogenic species B. elizabethae.  (+info)

Characterization of potential endocrine-related health effects at low-dose levels of exposure to PCBs. (6/1525)

This article addresses issues related to the characterization of endocrine-related health effects resulting from low-level exposures to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). It is not intended to be a comprehensive review of the literature but reflects workshop discussions. "The Characterizing the Effects of Endocrine Disruptors on Human Health at Environmental Exposure Levels," workshop provided a forum to discuss the methods and data needed to improve risk assessments of endocrine disruptors. This article contains an overview of endocrine-related (estrogen and thyroid system) interactions and other low-dose effects of PCBs. The data set on endocrine effects includes results obtained from mechanistic methods/ and models (receptor based, metabolism based, and transport protein based), as well as from (italic)in vivo(/italic) models, including studies with experimental animals and wildlife species. Other low-dose effects induced by PCBs, such as neurodevelopmental and reproductive effects and endocrine-sensitive tumors, have been evaluated with respect to a possible causative linkage with PCB-induced alterations in endocrine systems. In addition, studies of low-dose exposure and effects in human populations are presented and critically evaluated. A list of conclusions and recommendations is included.  (+info)

Genetic structure of natural populations of Escherichia coli in wild hosts on different continents. (7/1525)

Current knowledge of genotypic and phenotypic diversity in the species Escherichia coli is based almost entirely on strains recovered from humans or zoo animals. In this study, we analyzed a collection of 202 strains obtained from 81 mammalian species representing 39 families and 14 orders in Australia and the Americas, as well as several reference strains; we also included a strain from a reptile and 10 from different families of birds collected in Mexico. The strains were characterized genotypically by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE) and phenotypically by patterns of sugar utilization, antibiotic resistance, and plasmid profile. MLEE analysis yielded an estimated genetic diversity (H) of 0.682 for 11 loci. The observed genetic diversity in this sample is the greatest yet reported for E. coli. However, this genetic diversity is not randomly distributed; geographic effects and host taxonomic group accounted for most of the genetic differentiation. The genetic relationship among the strains showed that they are more associated by origin and host order than is expected by chance. In a dendrogram, the ancestral cluster includes primarily strains from Australia and ECOR strains from groups B and C. The most differentiated E. coli in our analysis are strains from Mexican carnivores and strains from humans, including those in the ECOR group A. The kinds and numbers of sugars utilized by the strains varied by host taxonomic group and country of origin. Strains isolated from bats were found to exploit the greatest range of sugars, while those from primates utilized the fewest. Toxins are more frequent in strains from rodents from both continents than in any other taxonomic group. Strains from Mexican wild mammals were, on average, as resistant to antibiotics as strains from humans in cities. On average, the Australian strains presented a lower antibiotic resistance than the Mexican strains. However, strains recovered from hosts in cities carried significantly more plasmids than did strains isolated from wild mammals. Previous studies have shown that natural populations of E. coli harbor an extensive genetic diversity that is organized in a limited number of clones. However, knowledge of this worldwide bacterium has been limited. Here, we suggest that the strains from a wide range of wild hosts from different regions of the world are organized in an ecotypic structure where adaptation to the host plays an important role in the population structure.  (+info)

Interspecies transmission of feline immunodeficiency virus from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura) in the wild. (8/1525)

Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) was isolated from a wild-caught Tsushima cat (Felis bengalensis euptilura), an endangered Japanese nondomestic subspecies of leopard cat (F. bengalensis). Phylogenetic analysis of the env gene sequences indicated that the FIV from the Tsushima cat belonged to a cluster of subtype D FIVs from domestic cats. FIVs from both the Tsushima cat and the domestic cat showed similar levels of replication and cytopathicity in lymphoid cell lines derived from these two species. The results indicated the occurrence of interspecies transmission of FIV from the domestic cat to the Tsushima cat in the wild.  (+info)

Since its inception in 2004, the Wildlife Services National Wildlife Disease Program (NWDP) has collected almost 600,000 samples from more than 200 wildlife species across the United States, Puerto Rico and Guam. Its mission is to survey for wildlife diseases, parasites and disease-causing agents of agricultural and human health concern. NWDP experts also serve as first responders to emergencies, such as disease outbreaks, natural disasters and oil spills.. In 2017, NWDP disease biologists collected more than 28,000 samples (see table below) in order to monitor for diseases, such as avian influenza, pseudorabies, plague and leptospirosis. With 32 wildlife disease biologists across the country, NWDP and its partners provide an "early warning system" to Americas agricultural producers, natural resources managers and public health officials who may be impacted by wildlife disease outbreaks.. As first responders, NWDP biologists can be mobilized within 24 to 48 hours of an emergency response ...
JORGE, Rodrigo Silva Pinto et al. Exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs to Leptospira spp in the northern Pantanal, Brazil. Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz [online]. 2011, vol.106, n.4, pp.441-444. ISSN 0074-0276. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0074-02762011000400009.. Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease affecting most mammals and is distributed throughout the world. Several species of domestic and wild animals may act as reservoirs for this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess the exposure of free-ranging wild carnivores, horses and domestic dogs on a private reserve located in the northern Pantanal (Brazil) and the surrounding areas to Leptospira spp from 2002-2006, 75 free-ranging wild carnivores were captured in the Pantanal and serum samples were collected. In addition, samples from 103 domestic dogs and 23 horses in the region were collected. Serum samples were tested for the presence of Leptospira antibodies using the microscopic agglutination test. Thirty-two ...
The Wildlife Data Integration Network (WDIN), is a dynamic and evolving Web resource ever working to adapt to the changing landscape of wildlife disease. Its many products and services provide a gateway to a comprehensive collection of wildlife disease resources, as well as a means for staying abreast of current wildlife disease issues ...
The Wildlife Data Integration Network (WDIN), is a dynamic and evolving Web resource ever working to adapt to the changing landscape of wildlife disease. Its many products and services provide a gateway to a comprehensive collection of wildlife disease resources, as well as a means for staying abreast of current wildlife disease issues ...
The University of Tennessee student chapter of the Wildlife Disease Association met at NIMBioS last week for an introduction to mathematical modeling of wildlife diseases including rabies.. Participants learned about the value of mathematical models for describing and understanding biological phenomena and interacted with a MATLAB model on vaccination for rabies in raccoons. They were also introduced to agent-based modeling of infectious disease with Netlogo. NIMBioS Associate Director of Education & Outreach Suzanne Lenhart and Director Louis Gross led the event with Education & Outreach Coordinator Kelly Sturner assisting.. The chapter is preparing to help host the 62nd International Conference of the Wildlife Disease Association to be held in Knoxville, July 27-Aug. 2, 2013. NIMBioS will give a full day workshop to students on July 28 called Introduction to Population Wildlife Disease Modeling, which will be offered to graduate and advanced undergraduate students attending the ...
NBII Wildlife Disease Information Node 2002 [Indexes and Abstracts]. WDIN is a collaborative project working to develop a Web-based monitoring and reporting system to provide state and federal resource managers, animal disease specialists, veterinary diagnostic laboratories, physicians, public health workers, educators, and the general public with access to data on wildlife diseases, mortality events, and other critical related information. Data are contributed voluntarily, with partners deciding which data they choose to share. The resulting distributed wildlife disease data warehouse can be a valuable resource for all to share and use to enhance the understanding, surveillance, management, control, and prevention of wildlife diseases around the world.. ...
A new initiative was launched today to investigate the health of wildlife disease in Britain.. Launched by a new partnership between the Zoological Society of London (ZSL), the British Trust for Ornithology (BTO), Froglife and the Royal Society for the Protection of Birds (RSPB) and based on the predecessor projects, Garden Bird Health initiative and the Frog Mortality Project; the Garden Wildlife Heath Project launches today.. To find out more about todays launch follow this link to ZSLs website and find out more about the Garden Wildlife Health Project here.. This is an exciting project and we hope that anyone who loves amphibians or reptiles will take part in the project and let others know about it and as the launch says help "Nurture the nature in your garden". ...
Journal of Wildlife Diseases publishes work on infectious, parasitic, toxic, nutritional, physiologic, and neoplastic diseases impacting wild animals.
Journal of Wildlife Diseases publishes work on infectious, parasitic, toxic, nutritional, physiologic, and neoplastic diseases impacting wild animals.
This book offers an all-encompassing resource for reliable information on the medical management of wild birds, mammals, amphibians, and turtles. Focusing on the medical information relevant to the wildlife setting, it covers triage, emergency care, and other key considerations in handling, diagnosing, and treating wild animals. The books population-based approach encourages practitioners to understand individual animal care within the broader context. Medical Management of Wildlife Species: A Guide for Practitioners begins with a brief summary of natural history, and introductory chapters address general topics such as pre-release conditioning, post-release monitoring, and legal issues associated with handling wildlife species. Species-specific chapters provide practical information on medical management, including the most prevalent concerns for each species and the epidemiology of infectious diseases. ...
Despite calls for improved responses to emerging infectious diseases in wildlife, management is seldom considered until a disease has been detected in affected populations. Reactive approaches may limit the potential for control and increase total response costs. An alternative, proactive management framework can identify immediate actions that reduce future impacts even before a disease is detected, and plan subsequent actions that are conditional on disease emergence. We identify four main obstacles to developing proactive management strategies for the newly discovered salamander pathogen Batrachochytrium salamandrivorans (Bsal). Given that uncertainty is a hallmark of wildlife disease management and that associated decisions are often complicated by multiple competing objectives, we advocate using decision analysis to create and evaluate trade-offs between proactive (pre-emergence) and reactive (post-emergence) management options. Policy makers and natural resource agency personnel can apply
The scientific program of the 65th annual international Wildlife Disease Association conference begins on Monday, August 1, 2016 and goes through Friday, August 5, 2016. The schedule shown below is subject to change prior to the start of the conference. Please return to this page for the latest program schedule ...
... A number of studies on the nutritional value of wild animal meat indicate that bushmeat is comparable if not better than domestic meat. The general trend is that the meat of most wild animal species tends to be low in fat, while equal or better than beef, mutton, chicken or pork in protein content and much higher in vitamin content (Tables 2.7 and 2.8). Apart from the large game species, nutritional studies on wild animals have been carried out for non-conventional species such as rodents, insects and snails. Nutritional studies of rodents used as food in the Zambezian woodland gave average protein content of 24% (fresh weight); fat content of 2.816.8% and ash consent of % for twelve species (Malaise and Parent 1982, see Table 2.7). Based on these results, the authors concluded that the nutritive value of rodents places them on the same level as beef and chicken.. Several species of insects used for food in Africa have high protein and calorific ...
As Chinas government prepares new laws to ban wildlife trade, it looks like the countrys fur and traditional medicine sectors will continue as usual.
Cambridge, UK, 1 June 2007-The European Union (EU) tops the list for major importer by value for many wild animal and plant products, including tropical ...
Wildlife trade is any sale or exchange of wild animal and plant resources by people. This can involve live animals and plants or a diverse range of products needed or prized by humans-including skins, medicinal ingredients, tourist curios, timber, fish and other food products.
Bareilly: In a milestone for wildlife conservation in the country, Indian Veterinary Research Institute (IVRI) here is setting up a DNA bank for wild animals, the first of its kind in North India. Scientists have so far collected samples of 140 species.. Through the DNA bank, scientists at IVRIs Centre for Wildlife will be able to tell the name and schedule of the species if they get only a part of the meat, hair, blood, skin or bone of any animal. Besides, the centre is also collecting serum of animals. The move will help clamp down on wildlife poaching and smuggling, and also aid in research on wildlife species, scientists said. A DNA bank exists in Hyderabad at present.. Talking to TOI, principal scientist and in-charge of the Centre for Wildlife, IVRI, A K Sharma said, On the instruction of director of IVRI R K Sharma, we have started setting up a DNA bank at our institute. We have already collected samples of all species which are targets of poachers. We have samples of tigers, leopards, ...
The American Association of Wildlife Veterinarians was formed in 1979 by a small group of veterinarians with a common interest in free-ranging wildlife. Initially, most members worked for government wildlife management agencies. But, with the rise of conservation biology and a better societal appreciation for what veterinarians can bring to wildlife health and conservation, current AAWV members work at academic institutions, in domestic animal private practice, at zoos and aquaria, and with state/provincial and federal agencies. Members engage in wildlife health research, clinical medicine, teaching, disease surveillance, regulatory work, and administration. https://aawv.net/. ...
Wildlife Health Australia (Formerly Australian Wildlife Health Network) aims to develop strong partnerships in order to better manage the adverse effects of wildlife diseases on Australias animal health industries, human health, biodiversity, trade and tourism.
While we may be familiar with the impact that deforestation and environmental pollution has on the worlds species, most people overlook the massive role that the illegal wildlife trade plays in species extinction.
Skunk is among the wild animal known to carry not only parasites in the feces and urine but also lots of dangerous diseases that can easily be transmitted to human. One of such diseases which one can easily get from touching or breathing skunk feces is listerosis disease. This is a disease of nervous system of mammals and can be severe if not controlled immediately. Pregnant women can easily have miscarriage when affected by this bacterial disease from wild animal feces. So, you must stay away from wild animal feces if you want to remain healthy and enjoy your life ...
Land use influences disease emergence by changing the ecological dynamics of humans, wildlife, domestic animals, and pathogens. This is a central tenet of One Health, and one that is gaining momentum in wildlife management decision-making in the United States. Using almost 2000 serological samples collected from non-native wild pigs (Sus scrofa) throughout Florida (U.S.), we compared the prevalence and exposure risk of two directly transmitted pathogens, pseudorabies virus (PrV) and Brucella spp., to test the hypothesis that disease emergence would be positively correlated with one of the most basic wildlife management operations: Hunting. The seroprevalence of PrV-Brucella spp. coinfection or PrV alone was higher for wild pigs in land management areas that allowed hunting with dogs than in areas that culled animals using other harvest methods. This pattern did not hold for Brucella alone. The likelihood of exposure to PrV, but not Brucella spp., was also significantly higher among wild pigs at hunted
Howletts Wild Animal Park+44 (0)844 842 4647workGroup VisitsHowletts Wild Animal Park, near Canterbury, offers an exciting and educational day out for groups and families of all ages. In 2015, the successful wild animal park will be celebrating its 40th birthday with a host of events and activities taking place to mark this special occasion so join in the fun with us ...
In recent years, human feeding appears to be one of the major causes of inducing the unnatural growth of monkey and wild pig population in Hong Kong. Through frequent contacts with humans, these wild animals might lose their instinctive fear to humans and become habituated to stay near the urban area to approach human for food. Some of them might even become aggressive and stray into nearby urban settlement for searching of abandoned rubbish, or snatching plastic bags from human and causing human-wild animals conflict in the society. To abate the conflict, Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department (AFCD) has adopted multiple approaches, including the enactment of feeding ban under Wild Animals Protection Ordinance in 1999 and the implementation of contraceptive programme for long-term control of the monkey and wild pig population. Meanwhile, various educational and publicity programmes have also been implemented by AFCD to educate the public about the negative consequence of feeding ...
Diseases of wildlife or diseases present in their habitats can infect humans and some can cause serious illness or even death. Contact a professional wildlife control company to handle your wild animal.
Diseases of wildlife or diseases present in their habitats can infect humans and some can cause serious illness or even death. Contact a professional wildlife control company to handle your wild animal.
Diseases of wildlife or diseases present in their habitats can infect humans and some can cause serious illness or even death. Contact a professional wildlife control company to handle your wild animal.
Publication Disease in Wild Animals. Wildlife diseases have become increasingly important recently due to their effect upon human health, veterinary medicine, wildlife, and conservation biology. Gary Wobesers successful book from 1994 has been compl...
A number of philosophical issues present themselves when it comes to interventions targeting diseases impacting free-ranging wildlife. One consideration relates to whether a given pathogen is a natural part of an ecosystem, versus a pathogen introduced by humans and their domestic animals or farmed wildlife. While there seems to be much conservation interest in intervening when it comes to Ebola and great apes, for example, its worth noting that Ebolavirus evolved in Central Africa, and is indeed considered a natural part of the Congo Basin forest ecosystem. Of course human-related activities can trigger all sorts of socio-ecological changes that can alter the impact of a pathogen on a species of conservation concern, or on humanity itself. There is unfortunately no clear "formula" for deciding when intervention is likely to be worthwhile from a conservation point of view- there are obviously many factors to consider. And when vaccination is deemed a logical or even essential conservation ...
The great demand for African bushmeat, both within Africa and in international markets, is emptying forests of wildlife and catalyzing outbreaks of wild animal diseases in humans. At a minimum, governments should zealously enforce bans on the hunting and consumption of bats and apes, two groups most commonly associated with Ebola. The fear and social unrest generated by the recent Ebola outbreak may spur governments to take such bans seriously with the vigilant support of a concerned populace. Yet reducing the trade in bushmeat will likely remain challenging due to the high demand and profits associated with it and the fact that it is widespread and pervasive throughout Africa. One collective action, however, can immediately reduce the chance of future outbreaks and spread of Ebola and other wildlife-based diseases. The world needs to act together to stop the illegal trade in live wildlife. We can start today by enforcing existing laws and regulations at airports and transport hubs across ...
Read Ghjgjgjs review of the South Lakes Wild Animal Park, Dalton-in-Furness, of 2 South Lakes Wild Animal Park, Dalton-in-Furness reviews, & compare with other Wildlife, Safari Parks & Zoos at Review Centre
The latest tips and news on Wild Animals are on POPSUGAR Pets. On POPSUGAR Pets you will find everything you need on pets and Wild Animals.
From elk hoof disease to white-nose syndrome in bats, WDFW tracks and responds to reports of disease affecting wildlife in our state.
Read all about the worlds wild animals on VilingStore. Discover cool photos, wildlife videos, interesting facts, information about rare and extinct wild animals on the planet.
Looking for a hotel near Howletts Wild Animal Park, Canterbury? Choose from over 156 near Howletts Wild Animal Park with great savings.
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Recent outbreaks of disease in domestic animals, humans and wildlife illustrate the relative importance of infectious diseases and the vulnerability of susceptible animals.
Recent outbreaks of disease in domestic animals, humans and wildlife illustrate the relative importance of infectious diseases and the vulnerability of susceptible animals.
A friend of mine, who has a 2-week-old, thanked me for being honest about how much the first few weeks can suck. Crying, your not knowing what the baby wants, cluster-feeding, pulling off if the flow is too fast or too slow, etc. He said most people candy-coat the first few weeks/months, and he thinks its because people dont want to admit that their child was like a wild animal.. I would much rather say to someone that I hated the early weeks because you have zero control and the baby is a constant vacuum of need, but gives you virtually no positive feedback. Seriously, when the fact that the kid poops and pees regularly is the best feedback youre getting, its not the most blissful phase. But Id rather be honest about that and then talk about how it does get better. Because it does. But also so your friend doesnt abandon all hope.. I never thought of either of my newborns as wild animals, but thats probably because I was thinking of them more as alien cyborgs with neverending appetites. ...
The feeding of monkeys (and other wild animals) is banned under the Wild Animals Protection Ordinance at the following places:. ...
This petition is asking to ban ALL wild animals from circuses in LA, But EVERYONE can sign no matter where you live if we can get this passed in LA it will help it pass easier in every other state so PLEASE SIGN & SHARE to ban wild animals from circuses
Read reviews, compare customer ratings, see screenshots, and learn more about Photo Spots Wild Animals. Download Photo Spots Wild Animals and enjoy it on your iPhone, iPad, and iPod touch.
Infectious Disease. The risks and risk of treatment. Understanding Wildlife Disease. Wildlife Disease Infectious Zoonotic Viral Bacterial Fungal Parasitic. Essential factors for disease transmission. Must be a causative agent Bacteria / Fungus Virus Parasite Must be a reservoir Slideshow 513417 by xaria
Join One Health Club for the first Dinner Seminar of the year as we host Dr. Dan Salkeld, who will be speaking about the interactions between biodiversity and emerging infectious diseases using case studies including prairie dogs and plague and Lyme Disease and squirrels in California. Thursday, September 12th, 2014 Dinner at 5:30, Lecture at 6:00…
Eureka College alum Dr. Travis Wilcoxen will present at annual William Thomas Jackson Lecture in Science on March 31 at 7:30 p.m. in Becker Auditorium.
October 23, 2017 By Rattler Rider 2 Comments. So the TV, the lap top, the PC, video games... As in everything the enemy does they first notify you … [Read More...] ...
2014) Key concepts for wildlife disease risk analysis. In: Jakob-Hoff, R.M., MacDiarmid, S.C., Lees, C., Miller, P.S., Travis, D. and Kock, R., (eds.) Manual of Procedures for Wildlife Disease Risk Analysis. OIE and IUCN, pp. 17-20. ...
The Government of Canada is committed to preventing the disappearance of wildlife species at risk from our lands. As part of its strategy for realizing that commitment, on June 5, 2003, the Government of Canada proclaimed the Species at Risk Act (SARA). Attached to the Act is Schedule 1, the list of the species provided for under SARA, also called the List of Wildlife Species at Risk. Endangered or Threatened species on Schedule 1 benefit from the protection of prohibitions and recovery planning under SARA. Special Concern species benefit from its management planning. Schedule 1 has grown from the original 233 to 493 wildlife species at risk.
Location: 136 Hitchner Hall. Professional Interests: Infectious diseases of livestock, poultry and wildlife. Research: Anne Lichtenwalner DVM PhD is an Associate Professor of Cooperative Extension and the School of Food and Agriculture, and cooperating faculty in the Honors College as well as the School of Biology and Ecology at the University of Maine at Orono. Since 2008, Dr. Lichtenwalner has been the director and diagnostician for the University of Maine Animal Health Lab (UMAHL), a member lab of the Northeast Wildlife Disease Cooperative. She is involved in research about, and service to, Maine animal industries. She conducts translational research in the fields of infectious diseases and parasitology, involving students in these efforts. Due to the diverse nature of agriculture in Maine, and due to the close proximity of farms and wild lands, she studies both domestic and wildlife species. Current and past funded research includes studies of common ovine infectious and parasitic diseases, ...
The relationship between the coronavirus and wildlife is complex: while the pandemic may lead to a reduction in the illegal trade in wild animals, it may also encourage it in other respects.
"Wild Animals". animalinfo.org. Retrieved 14 February 2013. "Western Africa: Western Cameroon extending into Ni". World Wild ... Hunting for ivory, skins and other animal parts is also reported in many national park areas in Cameroon, from within the ... "Cameroon". Animal Diversity Web, University of Michigan, Museum of Zoology. Retrieved 14 February 2013. "Birds Of Cameroon, ... Many NGOs are working in Cameroon for the conservation and preservation of wild life. Conservation efforts in the Sangha River ...
Animals.nationalgeographic.com. Retrieved 17 August 2012. "Trophy Hunting of BC Grizzly Bears". Pacific Wild. Archived from the ... The oldest wild inland grizzly was 34 years old in Alaska; the oldest coastal bear was 39, but most grizzlies die in their ... The grizzly bear is, by nature, a long-living animal. The average lifespan for a male is estimated at 22 years, with that of a ... Rarely do interactions such as these end in death or serious injury to either animal. One carcass simply is not usually worth ...
Most common are domesticated animals such as dogs, cats, cows, etc.; then wild animals; human figures are scarce; inanimate ...
Among the furnishings were collections of dolls; swans; World War I medals, decorations and uniforms; stuffed wild animals; ...
Wild animals ("slaughtered ... in the wild state") may not be used. Started in 1990 and held annually since, the Great Aussie ...
"Wild Animals/Exotica". Georgia Department of Natural Resources. Retrieved 17 August 2016. The exotic species listed below, ... The city of Oshkosh, for example, classifies ferrets as a wild animal and subsequently prohibits them from being kept within ... Under common law, ferrets are deemed "wild animals" subject to strict liability for injuries they cause, but in several states ... 1993). "Hokkaido Animal Welfare and Control Ordinance". Hokkaido Animal Welfare and Control Ordinance Chapter 2, Section 3. ...
... captive wild animals; understanding animal emotions, sentience, and communication; blood sports; bite prevention; ecological ... Stuart, FL: Animal Hero Kids ACTAsia for Animals Academy of Prosocial Learning Animal Hero Kids The Association of Professional ... Encyclopædia of Human-Animal Relationships: A Global Exploration of Our Connections with Animals (pp. 680 - 683), M. Bekoff and ... animals in circuses and zoos, animals in agriculture and on factory farms, or to show how reducing pollution in one's ...
Fur bearing animals. Edmonton:Alberta Department of Lands and Forests, 1959. The wild dogs; a story of wolves in Manitoba. Text ... Clarence Tillenius, Clarence Tillenius was a: Founding member of the Society of Animal Artists of New York, New York Founding ... "Formats and Editions of The wild dogs; a story of wolves in Manitoba. [WorldCat.org]". www.worldcat.org. WorldCat. Retrieved 29 ... Tillenius, Clarence (1959). "Fur bearing animals". Worldcat. Alberta Dept. of Lands and Forests. Retrieved 29 October 2017. " ...
... for 2015 revealed that wild animals accounted for 92.4% and domestic animals accounted for 7.6% of all reported cases. In wild ... The vaccine comes in the form of 3/3 cm dumplings, which are made from a preferred ingredient by wild animals, with a pouch ... Oral vaccines can be safely administered to wild animals through bait, a method initiated on a large scale in Belgium that has ... domestic farm animals, groundhogs, bears, and wild carnivores. However, dogs are the principal host in Asia, parts of America, ...
All Wild Animals. Retrieved 6 October 2013. Wang, F.; Xu, S.; Wu, X.; Li, C.; Wang, S. (2013). "A new specimen of Shansisuchus ...
Wild animals are kept as pets. The term "wild" in this context specifically applies to any species of animal which has not ... exotic animals, wild animals, and canid or felid hybrids), or they may simply be based on the animal's size. Additional or ... It is considered animal cruelty by some, as most often, wild animals require precise and constant care that is very difficult ... In Defense of Animals. Retrieved 29 August 2013.. *^ "Animal Rights Uncompromised: 'Pets'". PETA Website. People for the ...
Other animals. Wild animals. Ebola has a high mortality rate among primates.[132] Frequent outbreaks of Ebola may have resulted ... the spread is believed to involve direct contact with an infected wild animal or fruit bat.[53] Besides bats, other wild ... In Africa, wild animals including fruit bats are hunted for food and are referred to as bushmeat.[72][73] In equatorial Africa ... Animals may become infected when they eat fruit partially eaten by bats carrying the virus.[76] Fruit production, animal ...
... wild and tame animals; the colours of the maize; diseases and their curative herbs; agricultural instruments; the steam bath, ... and the Elder Brethren are transformed into wild pigs and other forest animals. In a comparable way, the Elder Brethren of the ... The Popol Vuh gives a sequence of four efforts at creation: First were animals, then wet clay, wood, then last, the creation of ... Other parts of Maya oral tradition (such as animal tales and many moralising stories) do not properly belong to the domain of ...
Nat Geo Wild : Animals. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2011-12-19. Froese, Rainer and Pauly, Daniel, eds. (2014). " ... Clownfish or anemonefish are fishes that, in the wild, form symbiotic mutualisms with sea anemones and are unaffected by the ...
ISBN 0-7641-3256-3. "Clown Anemonefish". Nat Geo Wild : Animals. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2011-12-19. Fautin, ... Like other species of the genus, the fish feeds on algae and zooplankton in the wild. Clownfish or anemonefish are fishes that ... in the wild, form symbiotic mutualisms with sea anemones and are unaffected by the stinging tentacles of the host anemone, see ...
In 1942 Heini Hediger developed the science of wild animals kept in human care and published his concept of a new, special ... the meaning of animal to man and man to animal, the exhibition value of animals, and the behavior of humans in zoos. ... Hediger's publications influenced the keeping of wild animals in human care in particular also in the construction of ... English edition: Hediger, Heini (1950). Wild Animals in Captivity. Translated by G. Sircom. London: Butterworth. Hediger, Heini ...
"Clown Anemonefish". Nat Geo Wild : Animals. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2011-12-19. Fautin, Daphne G.; Allen, Gerald ... Clownfish or anemonefish are fishes that, in the wild, form symbiotic mutualisms with sea anemones and are unaffected by the ...
Animals (cows etc.) Wild animals (deer etc.) Roadworks Traffic signals Low-flying aircraft Crosswind from right Crosswind from ... No animal-drawn vehicles No handcarts No tractors No power-driven vehicles No motor and animal-drawn vehicles Width limit (2 m ...
Crowder, Jack L. (1972). The wild animals: Itsá. San Carlos, AZ: Rice School District No. 20. Crowder, Jack L. (1972). [Apache ... Animal/Non-animal. There are two features on this dimension: "animal" and "non-animal." The former, designated by the symbol ( ...
World of Wild Animals. Beck & Eggeling Kunstverlag, 2014, ISBN 978-3-930919-87-1. Staedtische Galerie Offenburg (Hrsg.): ... Germany 2014 World of Wild Animals, Beck & Eggeling, Duesseldorf, Germany 2012 15 Disegni, Sala 1, Centro Internazionale d'Arte ...
"Clown Anemonefish". Nat Geo Wild : Animals. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2011-12-19. Fautin, Daphne G.; Allen, Gerald ... Clownfish or anemonefish are fishes that, in the wild, form symbiotic mutualisms with sea anemones and are unaffected by the ... Tomato Clownfish page at Animal World. Tomato Clownfish page at Stan & Debbie Hauter guide to Saltwater Aquariums. Photo of ...
"Clown Anemonefish". Nat Geo Wild : Animals. National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2011-12-19. Breder, C.M. and D.E. Rosen 1966 ... Clownfish or anemonefish are fishes, that in the wild, form symbiotic mutualisms with sea anemones and are unaffected by the ...
Padhi, Panda & Panigrahi (2016). Wild Animals of India. Hamburg: Anchor Academic Publishing. p. 29. ISBN 978-3-96067-514-3. ... In the words of early naturalists, they were dangerous, savage animals that feared no other animal and in prime condition could ... The crossbred animals did not demonstrate any form of hybrid vigor, so the practice was abandoned. Wisent-American bison ... The animals are belligerent, unpredictable, and most dangerous. American bison live in river valleys, and on prairies and ...
Several writings by Bartlett were published after his death in two books, Wild Animals in Captivity (1898) and Life among Wild ... He was an agent for the acquisition of wild animals from suppliers such as Edward Blyth and was involved in their sale to ... He became an authority on the care of wild animals and published papers in the Proceedings of the Zoological Society and other ... 4 (37): 1-2. Media related to Abraham Dee Bartlett at Wikimedia Commons Wild Animals in Captivity (1898) Abraham Dee Bartlett. ...
... killing or removing any wild animal; destroying eggs/nests of birds and reptiles; disturbing of wild animals; and interfering ... in the breeding of any animal. Permission is not required to enter sanctuaries. There are currently 61 sanctuaries which ...
Adults live from two weeks to a month in the wild. After they come out from the pupae, the flies do not grow. Small flies of ... often dead animals. Within a day, larvae (maggots) hatch from the eggs; they live and feed on dead and decaying organic ...
Gorillas in the wild live on a bulky, low-calorie diet of such things as leaves, shoots and bark, but in zoos are often fed ... Observer reports on a recent symposium at North Carolina State University dealing with overweight zoo animals: ... Gorillas in the wild live on a bulky, low-calorie diet of such things as leaves, shoots and bark, but in zoos are often fed ... That also means that zoo gorillas -- who spend much of the day foraging in the wild -- have little to do, except sit around and ...
Companion Animal Clinical Studies, University of Pretoria, Pretoria, Gauteng, South Africa. *Correspondence to Dr Charles ...
Animals, Wild. * Animals, Zoo. * Immobilization. Target audience adult. Label Zoo animal and wildlife immobilization and ... Zoo animal and wildlife immobilization and anesthesia. Title Zoo animal and wildlife immobilization and anesthesia. Statement ... link.liverpool.ac.uk/portal/Zoo-animal-and-wildlife-immobilization-and/GfTax9kW-z8/,Zoo animal and wildlife immobilization and ... link.liverpool.ac.uk/portal/Zoo-animal-and-wildlife-immobilization-and/GfTax9kW-z8/,Zoo animal and wildlife immobilization and ...
Another problem with this is that they are wild animals. A raccoon could decide to be defensive and hurt you. ... Another problem with this is that they are wild animals. A raccoon could decide to be defensive and hurt you. ... Raccoons are destructive animals, but all is not lost if you find one taking up residence in your home. One call to the right ... Raccoons are nocturnal animals. They are usually black in color, and have a black tail with rings. They weigh around 10 to 20 ...
Another problem with this is that they are wild animals. A raccoon could decide to be defensive and hurt you. ... Usually in winter, Animal Control gets a lot of calls for Raccoons in peoples homes. (Mainly being found in attics). Animal ... Another important part of these animals is that they carry diseases. One, a very common one: Rabies, once infected this animal ... A Raccoon in the wild can live anywhere from 5-12 years in the wild, andin captivity up to 20 years! Their weight runs anywhere ...
Animals Videos. Battle at Kruger. Crazy animals. Ellenlj American Express commerical. Crazy Animals. Talking animals. Panda Bear ... Tigers in the Wild:Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Myanmar and Nepal. Most Bengal tigers live in India, and some range through Nepal ... Although the wild Bengal tiger populations are considered more secure in India than other tiger subspecies found elsewhere in ... long nose vine snake , snake , bull terrier attack pictures , cats , mexican native animals , bear , Australia , north american ...
... and the animal is often killed within a matter of seconds. The white tiger prefers to hunt larger animals, such as wild boar, ... The white tiger is very rarely seen in the wild due to the low occurrence of two tigers carrying the white gene actually mating ... The white Bengal tigers are a majestic animal, and they are quite stunningly beautiful to look at. Unlike most cats, the white ... This can greatly affect the animals ability to run, climb and hunt. Also, the tendons of the forelegs are sometimes shortened ...
Animal lover and Ohio Geese Control dog handler Brianna C. often sees geese with this condition at client properties in Toledo ... Feeding wild canada geese leads to other environmental problems. Canada geese, like all waterfowl, depend on an extremely ... the US Fish and Wildlife Service and many State wildlife agencies began a program of re-population of wild Canada geese. They ...
Wild Animals (1997) Yasaeng dongmul bohoguyeog (original title). 1h 45min , Comedy, Crime, Drama , 25 October 1997 (South Korea ...
... and coyotes are the animals most commonly infected with rabies in the US. Bites from any of these animals should be considered ... Wild animals and wild animal hybrids should not be kept as pets. In instances where wild or hybrid animals are suspected of ... The offspring of wild animals crossbred to domestic dogs and cats (wild animal hybrids) are considered wild animals by the ... Small rodents and other wild animals. Small rodents like squirrels, hamsters, guinea pigs, gerbils, chipmunks, rats, and mice) ...
I delve into the concept of animal happiness and whether wild animals are happier than others in a new post on SciAms Guest ... In case you missed it, I delve into the concept of animal happiness and whether wild animals are happier than others in a new ... Of course, the question of eating wild vs captive vs domesticated animals goes beyond an individual animals well-being. ... To argue about wild vs captive animal happiness Id rather look at more "sociological" values like freedom from parasites and ...
Neatorama Posts Tagged "wild animals" Nic Cages Encounters With The Animal Kingdom... (Video Link)Nicolas Cage has a ... Europes Wild Men The custom of dressing up as wild animals and monsters dates back to pagan rites surroundin... ...tens ... Amazing Photo Series Features Subjects Posing With Wild Animals Russian photographer Katerina Plotnikova is an adm... ...va is ... www.neatorama.com/2014/04/11/Amazing-Photo-Series-Features-Subjects-Posing-With-Wild-Animals/ ...
Many wild animals are active around dawn and dusk.. *Photographing frogs in the wild at night can be challenging, and often ... Submit a photograph of a small wild animal. This may be a frog, insect, spider, mouse, squirrel, snake, or other small animal. ... Small Wild Animals. Challenge #22 in the Prime Subjects of Photography series. Hosted by Mark Scott Abeln. ... You need to be patient, and go where you expect to see these kinds of animals. Ask local park rangers or wilderness experts for ...
On POPSUGAR Pets you will find everything you need on pets and Wild Animals. ... The latest tips and news on Wild Animals are on POPSUGAR Pets. ... Wild Animals Teddy the Porcupine Is as Excited For Fall as We ... 14 Times Pandas Were the Cutest Animals on the Face of This Planet ...
We always urge people to think about wild animals before they start work on their gardens and homes and the advice is ... For those who find themselves faced with a stranded baby wild animal there are certain rules to follow that will ensure a ... For the offspring of the nations wild animals however, the struggle is only just beginning. Adults are whelping their young ... Commercial vets also help out at this time of year, with many animal surgeons donating their time and expertise to animal ...
Map and Links on Wild Animal Rabies Surveillance in the US ... Wild animals accounted for 92.7% of reported cases of rabies in ... What kind of animal did you come in contact with?plus icon *Domestic Animals ... Bats were the most frequently reported rabid wildlife species (33% of all animal cases during 2018), followed by raccoons (30.3 ...
Download this Wild Animals vector illustration now. And search more of the webs best library of royalty-free vector art from ...
... A number of studies on the nutritional value of wild animal meat indicate that ... Table 2.8 Proximate composition (g/100 g) of meat of some wild animal species compared with selected domestic animals. (Sources ... The general trend is that the meat of most wild animal species tends to be low in fat, while equal or better than beef, mutton ... nutritional studies on wild animals have been carried out for non-conventional species such as rodents, insects and snails. ...
Until now, the scientific community had assumed that wild animals died before they got old. Now, a Spanish-Mexican research ... However, the idea that wild animals are killed off by predators or parasites before showing signs of ageing has changed " ... "totally" in recent years: "Senescence exists in wild animals reproduction and living capacity", confirms Velando. ... "It was always thought that senescence was something particular to humans and domestic animals, because we have an extended life ...
The Secret Lives of Wild Animals - Text-only , Flash Special Report. Zebra. ...
Comments on Wild animals of Beijing. yes, I have spotted the "huangshulang" in our apartment garden in China World while ... Wild animals of Beijing. Posted by Jeremy Goldkorn on Monday, June 25, 2007 at 5:47 PM ... One addition to the wild animals, though - weve got hedgehogs too, but you dont see them very often. ... Therefore, they are not good animals to be around humans because animals are forbiden to be enlightened in the kingdom of ...
Wild animals Challenge series hosted by Kris Bell. Challenges start on Thursdays. ... A series dedicated to pictures of animals where they look their best and should be - in the wild. ...
Wild animals vs. dumb people. By paul_frolov on October 18, 2010 at 2:53 PM ...
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  • Postexposure prophylaxis should be initiated as soon as possible following exposure to such wildlife unless the animal has already been tested and determined not to be rabid. (cdc.gov)
  • T he battle to save bereft youngsters has already commenced at the Wildlife Aid Foundation (WAF), one if the UK's busiest wild animal rescue and rehabilitation centres, based in Surrey. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • At the height of orphan season, which runs into June, the centre will take in an average of 15 baby animals a day and be staffed by an army of over 300 volunteers, who will see an upsurge of patients this weekend as the nation takes to its gardens and unwittingly unsettles the wildlife therein. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Humans often refer to "wild animals" or "wildlife" only to distinguish them from truly domesticated animals. (friendsofanimals.org)
  • With more than 60 million people under lockdown in more than a dozen Chinese cities, the new outbreak is prompting calls to permanently ban the sale of wildlife, which many say is being fueled by a limited group of wealthy people who consider the animals delicacies. (startribune.com)
  • Zoocheck Canada is a national charity dedicated to protecting wildlife in captivity and in the wild. (spca.bc.ca)
  • Eight thousand deer alone were struck and killed by drivers in New Jersey last year, and that's the fate of most of the parents of the orphaned baby animals that are brought to wildlife rehabbers each spring and summer. (loe.org)
  • Minister of State for Forest Rajendra Shukla told IANS that the national park launched the scheme for adoption of wild animals with a view to instilling affection towards wildlife in the hearts of people. (thaindian.com)
  • A baby bat is fed milk at Wildlife in Crisis, a nonprofit wildlife rehabilitation center in Weston, Conn. 'We are the front line of defense for animals,' says founder Dara Reid. (csmonitor.com)
  • The Barred owls are recuperating here at Wildlife in Crisis (WIC), a nonprofit organization that helps heal more than 5,000 wounded, ill, and orphaned wild animals a year. (csmonitor.com)
  • All recent Ebola virus outbreaks in humans in forests between Gabon and the Republic of Congo were the result of handling infected wild animal carcasses, according to a study by the Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) and its regional partners. (news-medical.net)
  • Specifically, the researchers found that Ebola infections in wild animals such as gorillas, chimpanzees, and occasionally duikers (a diminutive antelope species), move across the human-wildlife divide through hunters taking either sick animals or carcasses for meat. (news-medical.net)
  • The International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW) and Wildlife Trust of India (WTI) Guardians of the Wild Project helps protect critically endangered wild tigers by training and outfitting rangers who risk their lives to safeguard tigers from poaching and other threats in key range states. (ifaw.org)
  • Both blue bulls and wild boars are declared wild under Schedule III of The Indian Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972, which was later amended in 1993. (org.in)
  • According to him, Section 62 of the wildlife Act empowers the Centre to declare any wild animal, apart from rare and endangered species, to be classified as vermins, for a specified period of time. (org.in)
  • According to last year's office memorandum issued by the wildlife division under MoEFCC, human lives have been lost due to man-animal conflict, along with loss of crops and valuable property. (org.in)
  • The memorandum suggests that these two animals should be put under Schedule V of the wildlife Act, so that their killing does not amount to illegality. (org.in)
  • The Subramaniam committee also noted that Section 11(1)(b) of the wildlife Act empowers the chief wildlife warden or authorised officers to permit hunting of an animal or a group of animals specified in Schedule II, III and IV in a specified area if it has become dangerous to human life or property or is disabled or diseased beyond recovery. (org.in)
  • Other critical measures include mitigating man-wildlife conflict by creating physical barriers (solar fencing), providing interim relief schemes to forest dwellers to curb retaliatory killings, providing alternatives to village residents to reduce pressure on forest resources, evacuating people from illegally-encroached forestlands, exploring and supporting alternative livelihood options and spreading awareness among villagers for animal protection. (org.in)
  • This originated with William Beebe, who traveled the world observing wildlife in nature, his discoveries informing how to design exhibits and care for animals at the zoo. (librarything.com)
  • Animals, Wildlife. (wgbh.org)
  • It is important to note that regulations in North Carolina forbid those unlicensed in wildlife handling from housing wild animals. (starnewsonline.com)
  • If you find an injured animal such as a squirrel, opossum, deer, bird or reptile you should call a wildlife rehabilitator such as Jennifer and David Leonard of Wilmington. (starnewsonline.com)
  • She said she and her husband decided a good way for her to be involved with animals would be to become involved with wildlife rehabilitation. (starnewsonline.com)
  • The regulations on wildlife handling and rehabilitation exist in part because people in the general population are likely not well-versed in the proper care and feeding of wild creatures. (starnewsonline.com)
  • SCOTLAND'S stunning native wildlife is having a moment in the spotlight with the BBC series Highlands: Scotland's Wild Heart. (dailyrecord.co.uk)
  • It was always thought that senescence was something particular to humans and domestic animals, because we have an extended life expectancy", Alberto Velando, lead author of the study and a researcher at the Ecology and Animal Biology Department of the University of Vigo, tells SINC. (scienceblog.com)
  • Humans should not be managing any wild animal by keeping them in small "herd areas," or limiting their population through culling, relocation or forcibly drugging them with the fertility control drugs. (friendsofanimals.org)
  • There's a vast number of viruses in the animal world that have not spread to humans, and have the potential to do so," said Robert Webster, an expert on influenza viruses at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee. (startribune.com)
  • At one time, animals were kept in captivity so that humans could better understand the natural world. (spca.bc.ca)
  • EDDINGS: Every feeding and every cleaning helps these squirrels stay alive, but it also makes them a little more used to humans and a little less fit for surviving in the wild on their own. (loe.org)
  • Humans should stay at least 100 yards away from bears and 25 yards from other large animals, according to U.S. government safety guidelines. (foxnews.com)
  • Wild yak distribution is highly clumped, with most animals in widely scattered herds, concentrated in the areas with little disturbance by humans. (animalinfo.org)
  • Appearing in the February edition of the journal Emerging Infectious Diseases, the study found that many animal carcasses tested for Ebola between 2001 and 2003 produced positive results, and found direct links between the deadly disease in animal populations and humans. (news-medical.net)
  • Genes related to behaviour, food digestion and reproduction have evolved in order to adapt dingoes to living in the wild instead of together with humans. (kth.se)
  • Several varieties of ALS occur in humans and in some animals, the most common human variation being sporadic Charcot ALS (SC-ALS). (rainbow.coop)
  • general been well received by the public, in contrast to the outcry and suspicion that has greeted cloning animals raised for food, and cloning of humans. (worldcat.org)
  • The photographs, which depict wild animals encountering and interacting with humans and the built environment, were constructed. (yesmagazine.org)
  • Stein says of her work, "Within these scenes I explore our paradoxical relationship with the 'wild' and how our conflicting impulses continue to evolve and alter the behavior of both humans and animals. (yesmagazine.org)
  • When you feed any wild animal, you create a "nuisance animal" that will have its normal life span cut on average by 50 percent because it will constantly interact with humans and will be killed either on purpose or by accident. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Why is it we humans feel we must touch or feed wild animals to be complete or feel superior? (sun-sentinel.com)
  • For all of the endangered animals, I'm asking you, Obama, that you find a way to make more havens for these creatures, where they can live in peace and once more begin to recover without humans hunting them. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • Young animals need to be fed every few hours until they are old enough to be weaned and each species needs its own unique milk formulation. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The general trend is that the meat of most wild animal species tends to be low in fat, while equal or better than beef, mutton, chicken or pork in protein content and much higher in vitamin content (Tables 2.7 and 2.8). (fao.org)
  • Apart from the large game species, nutritional studies on wild animals have been carried out for 'non-conventional' species such as rodents, insects and snails. (fao.org)
  • Table 2.8 Proximate composition (g/100 g) of meat of some wild animal species compared with selected domestic animals. (fao.org)
  • An account of the status of the hog badger in India states that most sightings of the species are of single animals [b130- suggesting that the species is solitary. (danwei.org)
  • The wild horse population is fragmented to isolated and small herds that threaten the species' survival. (friendsofanimals.org)
  • BEIJING - China cracked down on the sale of exotic species after an outbreak of a new virus in 2002 was linked to markets selling live animals. (startribune.com)
  • This means creating species-specific enclosures that meet the physiological, emotional and behavioural needs of the animals. (spca.bc.ca)
  • Since we are in a sanctuary for endangered animals and a successful breeding ground for dozens of species including the Arabian oryx, the California condor and the slender-horned gazelle, the animals are free to roam without fear. (chicagotribune.com)
  • It built the Wild Kingdom Train to entertain paying guests, not to preserve endangered species. (standard.net)
  • On the animal side, they note and separate the effects of resource availability and body mass on vagility (migration distances) -- larger species travel further as do carnivores. (commondreams.org)
  • The craze for tourists taking selfies alongside wild animals then posting on Instagram is fueling cruel treatment of iconic species in the Amazon, activists warn. (arabnews.com)
  • For example, a year and a half ago, Zavitz, an animal-control officer in Kane County, encountered a species far from indigenous to the county. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Private centres are being created with an aim of rushing to the rescue of wild species. (gov.pl)
  • It all started with a veterinary clinic run by my father, where people brought injured or sick animals of protected species which no one else in this area was able to take care of," Radosław Fedaczyński, a veterinarian co-managing the Rehabilitation Centre of Protected Animals in Przemysl, told Poland.pl. (gov.pl)
  • A lot of Polish rehabilitation centres specialise in the care of a particular class or species of animals. (gov.pl)
  • He emphasises that even though not everyone can provide professional help to hedgehogs, everyone has a duty to show concern for an animal in need and deliver it to a specialised centre qualified to hold protected species during the convalescence. (gov.pl)
  • Young animals are not only taught to survive, they are also taught how to thrive and negotiate the social realities of their species, and often their particular community . (innerself.com)
  • The effect of animals' subsistence and care work is the social reproduction of their young, their group and their species. (innerself.com)
  • Thinking about wild animals and their actions in this way offers a different perspective on our multi-species communities. (innerself.com)
  • Barack Obama, I am asking you to enforce the laws for endangered species, I'm asking you to step up for animal rights and for you to be the one that says, No more hunting, No more Ariel hunting, no more torture and abuse. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • But it has now been revealed that exotic species including Nile crocodiles and American alligators - which are living in Lanarkshire - wild boar, snakes and a host of unusual cats now call Scotland home. (dailyrecord.co.uk)
  • But the regionally renowned rehabilitators who run the operation have seen a groundswell of support from animal lovers that includes an online petition with more than 1,300 signatures as of Wednesday night. (newsday.com)
  • petition: Save wolves, animals and wild life. (thepetitionsite.com)
  • ALDF filed a petition asking OSHA to require a barrier between workers and captive wild animals, just as OSHA currently does for other inherently dangerous workplace hazards. (aldf.org)
  • This petition highlights the reality of animal entertainment: it is not a playful demonstration of an animal's favorite tricks, but a contrived interaction with a wild animal that is dangerous to both animal and human alike. (aldf.org)
  • This petition reminds spectators that what they are seeing is a wild animal isolated from his natural home, deprived of the opportunity to engage in natural behaviors, and expected to gently and safely interact with his human captors. (aldf.org)
  • Others wondered if changing the law would give individuals an excuse to needlessly shoot bears, alligators, or imposing wild turkeys in anticipation of a future threat. (savannahnow.com)
  • Oyster Bay officials are cracking down on a North Massapequa menagerie of wild animals with hawks, turkeys and a bobcat named Tasha, deeming it dangerous and saying it must be cleared out. (newsday.com)
  • He found himself trapped inside his work vehicle surrounded by aggressive, wild turkeys. (nj1015.com)
  • SACRAMENTO (CN) - Uncle Sam wants to round up every single one of more than 2,000 wild horses and burros on 800,000 acres on the California-Nevada border and "warehouse" them in the Midwest, horse-lovers say in a federal complaint. (courthousenews.com)
  • The horse-lovers say the BLM plan violates the National Environmental Policy Act and the 1971 Wild Free-Roaming Horses and Burros Act, which manages wild horses as "living symbols" of the "pioneer spirit. (courthousenews.com)
  • The offspring of wild animals crossbred to domestic dogs and cats (wild animal hybrids) are considered wild animals by the National Association of State and Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) and the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists. (cdc.gov)
  • the world's wild cats. (care2.com)
  • But there are so many more amazing wild cats you've probably never even heard of. (howstuffworks.com)
  • SHENZHEN, China -- On Saturday afternoon, vendors at the Dongmen live-animal market here were busy peddling pheasants, hedgehogs, cats and other creatures destined for cooking pots, when a tip began to spread. (wsj.com)
  • Most animals, including the big cats, live in small wire and concrete cages. (standard.net)
  • Shocked police discovered the 86-year-old victim Maria Najera was unable to move while rats and wild cats ate all of her toes. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Supervisor John Venditto said he supports the Horvaths' cause as an animal lover, but, "If you're a neighbor with a 2-year-old child, you wouldn't be comfortable having a bobcat within striking distance. (newsday.com)
  • PUPILS at Caerphilly's Twyn School kept up their long tradition of supporting animal welfare by handing over a cheque for £256.16 to the local branch of the RSPCA. (walesonline.co.uk)
  • Animal welfare groups such as People for Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) have, however, expressed their concern over the ministry's decision. (org.in)
  • Baby hedgehogs eviscerated by garden strimmers, nests of chicks dislodged from branches by pruning poles, baby deer suckling at the teats of their roadkill mothers - these are all-too-common occurrences at this time of year, with adult animals coming to grief as they leave their newborns in search of food. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Don't wait, have a look at our vacation rentals via our search bar and be ready for your next trip near Wild Animal Safari! (vrbo.com)
  • I'm calling on all Canadians and the International community to join me in demanding that the Canadian Government, both Provincial and Federal, finally commit to protect our wild horses by creating cohesive legislation under which all our wild horses will be protected and granted the freedom to roam our public Lands, which is as much theirs as it is ours. (change.org)
  • A buzzard patient taken in by WAF after breaking a wing near Heathrow Airport recently benefited from the services of avian specialist Neil Forbes from Vets Now Referrals in Swindon, and several months ago one of the UK's top animal eye surgeons performed a delicate operation on an owlet at the centre. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The Fedaczyński family veterinary clinic supported by the foundation has grown to a centre which employs about 15 people and through which nearly 600 animals pass through each year, of which about 60 per cent returns to nature. (gov.pl)
  • The authorities of Kłodzko equipped the "Jerzy dla jeży" centre with an incubator for newborns as well as a microscope and an otoscope to examine the animals for parasites. (gov.pl)
  • Professional care of the animals is also provided by veterinarian Katarzyna Ptak, who co-manages the centre and is currently preparing a Ph.D. dissertation on parasitic diseases of hedgehogs. (gov.pl)
  • Also, there have been suggestions from several quarters that since state forest departments do not have the power to issue orders to hunt down wild animals, the Centre must make regulations to ensure the safety of human life and property. (org.in)
  • The wild yak was once numerous and widespread on the entire Tibetan plateau north of the Himalayas, in central China , India (Ladakh), Bhutan and Nepal . (animalinfo.org)
  • Photographing frogs in the wild at night can be challenging, and often call for the use of off-camera flashes or at least a bright flashlight. (dpreview.com)
  • A wild horse grazes in the desert in the Tonto National Forest near the Salt River March 5, 2017. (azcentral.com)
  • More commonly, however, he rescues opossums from window wells or raccoons from under porches and releases them into the wild if they're healthy. (chicagotribune.com)
  • Vets cleaned the two small puncture wounds in its neck and it is now convalescing before going into specialist care until it is old enough to survive in the wild on its own. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Wild Animals and Zoology. (waset.org)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Wild Animals and Zoology are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • Britain is dotted with a network of rescue centres and individual hobbyist rescuers who share tips about animal care and pass patients between themselves depending on specialisms. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The book is largely spoiled by the sentimental, inappropriate words that Bouchard puts in the mouths of the animals: I m just grateful that you care, says the otter to the painter. (umanitoba.ca)
  • Eventually, nearly every animal under WIC's care will be released. (csmonitor.com)
  • See how one man is taking it upon himself to care for wild animals and help preserve nature. (wyff4.com)
  • We take care of all animals, without distinctions," emphasises Dr. Fedaczyński. (gov.pl)
  • In fact, I suggest we recognize that wild animals are also integral to what I call eco-social reproduction: The subsistence and care work they do contributes to the maintenance of ecosystems . (innerself.com)
  • They offer feeding and medical treatment, keeping a log on each animal taken in and details of the care. (starnewsonline.com)
  • Using animals this way is unnecessary, inhumane, disrespectful and unethical. (spca.bc.ca)
  • It is inhumane for the animals to go through such torture, I propose a law that outlaws big game hunting and makes it illegal for hunters to hunt using airborne transportation such as airplanes. (thepetitionsite.com)