Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Lactation: The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Animal Population Groups: Animals grouped according to ecological, morphological or genetic populations.Milk Ejection: Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.Weaning: Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Oxytocin: A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Intestine, Small: The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Prolactin: A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.Lactase: An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.DisaccharidasesEnterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Reoviridae Infections: Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Anovulation: Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.Ileum: The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Litter Size: The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Estrus: The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Luteinizing Hormone: A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.Trichinella: A genus of parasitic nematodes that causes TRICHINELLOSIS in man and other animal.Jejunum: The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Anestrus: A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of animals.Random Allocation: A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.SucraseParturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Rotavirus Infections: Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA OF SWINE. The organism damages the CILIA in the airways of the pig, and thus compromises one of the most effective mechanical barriers against invading pathogens. The resulting weakening of the IMMUNE SYSTEM can encourage secondary infections, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex.DairyingBiological Assay: A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.Relaxin: A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)Ovulation: The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.

Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase: a control enzyme in ketogenesis. (1/1173)

Cytosolic and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthases were first recognized as different chemical entities in 1975, when they were purified and characterized by Lane's group. Since then, the two enzymes have been studied extensively, one as a control site of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and the other as an important control site of ketogenesis. This review describes some key developments over the last 25 years that have led to our current understanding of the physiology of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase in the HMG-CoA pathway and in ketogenesis in the liver and small intestine of suckling animals. The enzyme is regulated by two systems: succinylation and desuccinylation in the short term, and transcriptional regulation in the long term. Both control mechanisms are influenced by nutritional and hormonal factors, which explains the incidence of ketogenesis in diabetes and starvation, during intense lipolysis, and in the foetal-neonatal and suckling-weaning transitions. The DNA-binding properties of the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor and other transcription factors on the nuclear-receptor-responsive element of the mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase promoter have revealed how ketogenesis can be regulated by fatty acids. Finally, the expression of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase in the gonads and the correction of auxotrophy for mevalonate in cells deficient in cytosolic HMG-CoA synthase suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme may play a role in cholesterogenesis in gonadal and other tissues.  (+info)

Ontogeny of intestinal safety factors: lactase capacities and lactose loads. (2/1173)

We measured intestinal safety factors (ratio of a physiological capacity to the load on it) for lactose digestion in developing rat pups. Specifically, we assessed the quantitative relationships between lactose load and the series capacities of lactase and the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT-1). Both capacities increased significantly with age in suckling pups as a result of increasing intestinal mass and maintenance of mass-specific activities. The youngest pups examined (5 days) had surprisingly high safety factors of 8-13 for both lactase and SGLT-1, possibly because milk contains lactase substrates other than lactose; it also, however, suggests that their intestinal capacities were being prepared to meet future demands rather than just current ones. By day 10 (and also at day 15), increased lactose loads resulted in lower safety factors of 4-6, values more typical of adult intestines. The safety factor of SGLT-1 in day 30 (weanling) and day 100 (adult) rats was only approximately 1.0. This was initially unexpected, because most adult intestines maintain a modest reserve capacity beyond nutrient load values, but postweaning rats appear to use hindgut fermentation, assessed by gut morphology and hydrogen production assays, as a built-in reserve capacity. The series capacities of lactase and SGLT-1 varied in concert with each other over ontogeny and as lactose load was manipulated by experimental variation in litter size.  (+info)

Effect of reducing the phytate content and of partially hydrolyzing the protein in soy formula on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys and rat pups. (3/1173)

BACKGROUND: Although soy formulas have been designed to meet the nutrient requirements of human infants, they also contain phytate, which may negatively affect trace element absorption. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of removing phytate on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys and suckling rat pups and evaluated differences between intact and partially hydrolyzed soy protein. DESIGN: In monkeys, regular and low-phytate soy formulas were fed exclusively for 4 mo and whole-body absorption and retention of 65Zn, 67Cu, 59Fe, 54Mn, and 47Ca were determined at different time points with a whole-body counter. Subsequently, zinc and copper absorption from several human infant formulas and the effect of phytate concentration were evaluated in suckling rat pups by using 65Zn and 64Cu. Finally, infant rhesus monkeys were fed low-phytate formulas with intact or hydrolyzed soy protein for 4 mo and plasma zinc and copper were measured monthly. RESULTS: In the first monkey study, zinc absorption at 1 mo was higher from low-phytate soy formula (36%) than from regular soy formula (22%), whereas there was no significant difference between groups in the absorption of other minerals. Plasma copper was significantly lower in monkeys fed low-phytate soy formula from 2 to 4 mo. In rat pups, zinc absorption was significantly higher from low-phytate soy formula (78%) than from regular soy formula (51%) and hydrolysis of the protein had no significant effect. Phytate content or protein hydrolysis did not significantly affect copper absorption. In the second monkey study, plasma copper concentrations were highest in monkeys fed the low-phytate, hydrolyzed-protein soy formula. CONCLUSION: Reducing the phytate content and partially hydrolyzing the protein in soy formula had a beneficial effect on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys.  (+info)

Comparisons of flux control exerted by mitochondrial outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase over ketogenesis in hepatocytes and mitochondria isolated from suckling or adult rats. (4/1173)

The primary aim of this paper was to calculate and report flux control coefficients for mitochondrial outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) over hepatic ketogenesis because its role in controlling this pathway during the neonatal period is of academic importance and immediate clinical relevance. Using hepatocytes isolated from suckling rats as our model system, we measured CPT I activity and carbon flux from palmitate to ketone bodies and to CO2 in the absence and presence of a range of concentrations of etomoxir. (This is converted in situ to etomoxir-CoA which is a specific inhibitor of the enzyme.) From these data we calculated the individual flux control coefficients for CPT I over ketogenesis, CO2 production and total carbon flux (0.51 +/- 0.03; -1.30 +/- 0.26; 0.55 +/- 0.07, respectively) and compared them with equivalent coefficients calculated by similar analyses [Drynan, L., Quant, P.A. & Zammit, V.A. (1996) Biochem. J. 317, 791-795] in hepatocytes isolated from adult rats (0.85 +/- 0.20; 0.23 +/- 0.06; 1.06 +/- 0.29). CPT I exerts significantly less control over ketogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from suckling rats than those from adult rats. In the suckling systems the flux control coefficients for CPT I over ketogenesis specifically and over total carbon flux (< 0.6) are not consistent with the enzyme being rate-limiting. Broadly similar results were obtained and conclusions drawn by reanalysis of previous data {from experiments in mitochondria isolated from suckling or adult rats [Krauss, S., Lascelles, C.V., Zammit, V.A. & Quant, P.A. (1996) Biochem. J. 319, 427-433]} using a different approach of control analysis, although it is not strictly valid to compare flux control coefficients from different systems. Our overall conclusion is that flux control coefficients for CPT I over oxidative fluxes from palmitate (or palmitoyl-CoA) differ markedly according to (a) the metabolic state, (b) the stage of development, (c) the specific pathway studied and (d) the model system.  (+info)

Interferon-gamma plays a role in pancreatic islet-cell destruction of reovirus type 2-induced diabetes-like syndrome in DBA/1 suckling mice. (5/1173)

Reovirus type 2 (Reo-2) infection in DBA/1 suckling mice causes insulitis, which leads to pancreatic islet-cell destruction, resulting in a diabetes-like syndrome. T-helper (Th) 1 cytokines are thought to play a key role in islet inflammation in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We examined this hypothesis in the Reo-2-induced diabetes-like syndrome. We used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR techniques to examine mRNA expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma (Th1 type cytokine), and interleukin (IL)-4 (Th2 type cytokine) in splenic cells. We observed that in Reo-2 infected mice the level of IFN-gamma expression increases with the development of insulitis, whereas expression of message for IL-4 is minimal to detectable with the immuno-inflammatory process 10 days after infection. The treatment of monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse IFN-gamma during the expansion phase of insulitis (5-9 days after infection) inhibited the development of insulitis and the elevation of blood glucose concentrations in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore altered CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio compared with uninfected mice in the splenic cells by the infection was recovered to the ratio of uninfected mice by the treatment of mAb against mouse IFN-gamma, suggesting normalization of T cell balance in immune system. These results suggest that Reo-2-triggered autoimmune insulitis may be mediated by Th1 lymphocytes and IFN-gamma may play a role in islet inflammation leading to islet cell destruction.  (+info)

Glucocorticoids mediate the enhanced expression of intestinal type II arginase and argininosuccinate lyase in postweaning pigs. (6/1173)

Arginine metabolism is enhanced in the small intestine of weanling pigs, but the molecular mechanism(s) involved is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine the following: 1) whether glucocorticoids play a role in induction of intestinal arginine metabolic enzymes during weaning; 2) whether the induction of enzyme activities was due to increases in corresponding mRNA levels; and 3) the identity of the arginase isoform(s) expressed in the small intestine. Jejunum was obtained from 29-d-old weaned pigs that were or were not treated with 17-beta-hydroxy-11beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)17alpha-(prop- 1-ynyl)es tra-4,9-dien-3-one (RU486, an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptors), or from age-matched suckling pigs. Activities and mRNA levels for type I and type II arginases, argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) were determined. Activities of arginase, ASL and ASS increased by 635, 56 and 106%, respectively, in weanling pigs, compared with suckling pigs. RU486 treatment attenuated the increase in arginase activity by 74% and completely prevented the ASL induction in weanling pigs, but had no effect on ASS activity. Pig intestine expresses both type I and type II arginases. On the basis of immunoblot analyses, there was no significant difference in levels of intestinal type I arginase among these three groups of pigs, indicating that changes in arginase activity were due only to type II arginase. The mRNA levels for type II arginase and ASL increased by 135 and 198%, respectively, in weanling pigs compared with suckling pigs, and this induction was completely prevented by RU486. In contrast, ASS mRNA levels did not differ between suckling and weanling pigs. These results suggest that intestinal type II arginase, ASS and ASL are regulated differentially at transcriptional and post-translational levels and that glucocorticoids play a major role in the induction of type II arginase and ASL mRNAs in the small intestine of weanling pigs.  (+info)

Recovery of 15N-lactoferrin is higher than that of 15N-casein in the small intestine of suckling, but not adult miniature pigs. (7/1173)

Performance of biological functions of lactoferrin in the small intestine requires at least some resistance to degradation. Therefore, we studied prececal digestibility of lactoferrin in comparison to casein both in suckling and adult miniature pigs, applying 15N-labeled proteins. In study 1, 43 piglets (10-d-old), deprived of food for 12 h received 10 mL of sow's milk supplemented with 120 mg of 15N-labeled protein (porcine or bovine lactoferrin or bovine casein). Piglets were anesthetized 150 min later, after which the small intestine was excised, cut into three sections, and chyme was collected. In study 2, nine food-deprived boars fitted with T-canulae at the terminal ileum were given two semisynthetic experimental meals (204 g) in a cross-over design, 2 wk apart. One contained 7.5% (g/100 g) 15N-labeled bovine casein, the other 1.25% 15N-labeled bovine lactoferrin. Both were adjusted to 15% total protein with nonlabeled casein. Ileal chyme was collected from the canula over 33 h postprandially. All diets contained the indigestible marker chromic oxide. 15N-digestibility of lactoferrin, both porcine (84.4 +/- 3.2%) and bovine (82.3 +/- 4.8%), was significantly lower than casein digestibility (97.6 +/- 0.5%) in the distal small intestine of suckling piglets (P < 0.05). Based on immunoblotting after acrylamide electrophoresis, 4.5% of non- and partially digested lactoferrin was found in the last third of the small intestine of piglets. In adult miniature pigs there was no difference in 15N-digestibility of bovine lactoferrin compared to bovine casein (90.7 +/- 1.9% vs. 93.9 +/- 1.0%, P > 0.05). In suckling miniature pigs, the reduced digestibility of lactoferrin may provide the prerequisite for biological actions along the whole intestinal tract. The source of lactoferrin, porcine or bovine, made no difference in this respect.  (+info)

Ultrasonic vocalizations elicit orienting and associative reactions in preweanling mice. (8/1173)

On postnatal days (PND) 12 and 13, 90 male Swiss CD-1 mice were tested for orientation to 3 intensities of recorded ultrasounds while climbing an inclined wire grid surface. Motor responses and vocalization to replayed ultrasounds (55-75 kHz) of 20-, 40-, and 60-dB SPL indicated an intensity dependence. In Experiment 2, 138 pups were exposed to either contingent or noncontingent pairings of recorded ultrasounds of 55-75 kHz, averaging 40 dB, and mild inescapable footshocks, or taped vocalizations or footshocks only on PND 12, 14, or 16. At PND 18, subjects were tested for passive avoidance following exposure to the taped ultrasounds only upon entry into the dark side of a black-white compartment. Results suggested only overall, nonspecific effects of pretreatment to elicit responses antagonistic to motor activity. In Experiment 3, 36 pups at PND 15 were tested for passive avoidance with the ultrasound recordings of 40- or 80-dB onset upon entry to the dark compartment; a third group had no ultrasound exposure. A significant intensity effect confirmed that the ultrasounds had prepotent properties.  (+info)

This study tested the hypothesis that intermittent suckling (IS) with or without an older weaning age would improve post-weaning gastrointestinal tract (GIT) carbohydrate absorptive capacity in pigs while reducing post-weaning stress and aspects of the inflammatory response. Three weaning regimes using primiparous sows were compared: (1) conventional weaning (CW28) (n = 22), where piglets were weaned conventionally at day 28; (2) IS28 (n = 21), where IS started at day 21 until weaning at day 28; and (3) IS35 (n = 21), where IS started at day 28 until weaning at day 35. Sugar absorption tests (10% mannitol or 10% galactose) were used to measure GIT absorptive capacity. All measured parameters were compared in relation to weaning across treatments (i.e., different physiological ages were compared). The IS35 pigs grew fastest in the 12 days after weaning (p , 0.01) and had the highest solid feed intake before and after weaning (p , 0.05). Irrespective of treatment, pre-weaning mannitol levels were ...
The oral application of a newly developed ferrous bisglycinate paste for suckling piglets at a dose of 180 mg/kg body weight led to increased death rates in 10% (n = 10) of Swiss test pig breeding farms (n = 100). Necropsy examination of suckling piglets (n = 12), selected randomly from the test farms with increased death rates, demonstrated severe gastric mucosal ulceration and necrosis. Due to the presence of crystalline iron surface coating within the gastric lesions, the iron was considered as the toxic principle and cause of death. To demonstrate the direct toxicity of ferrous bisglycinate, the paste was administered experimentally to a litter of suckling piglets (n=11). Different time points (24, 48 and 72 h post partum) and doses (180 mg/kg and 360 mg/kg) were investigated. The manufacturers recommended dose of 180 mg/kg corresponded to approximately 36 mg Fe/kg and to 6.4 % of the acute lethal dose(50) of oral iron in rats. In all piglets the lesions were reproduced and most severe at ...
Vaccination in suckling animals are always challenging because of maternally derived antibodies which interferes specific immune response in vaccinated animals. PRRSV vaccine is not an exception and vaccination schedule needs to be adjusted based on the level of the colostrum antibody specific to PRRSV. For piglets delivered from PRRSV vaccinated sows, vaccination schedule needs to be delayed after weaning. Evaluation of PRRSV specific antibody levels in piglets are essential to determine the proper vaccination schedule. Since continuous sow vaccination elicit more uniform antibody levels than natural infection by the field strains, therefore it is much easier to adjust vaccination schedule. You can ask your own question! Visit Pig333.com and submit your question to our experts.. ...
The recipe for purchasing, preparing, and cooking a whole hog or suckling pig and how to hold a traditional Carolina Pig Picking.
The absorptive cell of the suckling rat ileum is specialized for the uptake and digestion of milk macromolecules from the intestinal lumen. The apical cytoplasm contains an extensive tubulocisternal system, a variety of vesicles and multivesicular bodies (MVB), and a giant phagolysosomal vacuole where digestion is completed. To determine if sorting of membrane-bound and fluid-phase macromolecules occurs in this elaborate endocytic system, we infused adsorptive and soluble tracers into ligated intestinal loops in vivo and examined their fates. Lysosomal compartments were identified by acid phosphatase histochemistry. Native ferritin and two ferritin-lectin conjugates that do not bind to ileal membranes (Con A, UEAI) served as soluble tracers. Horseradish peroxidase binds to ileal membranes and thus was not useful as a fluid-phase tracer in this system. Cationized ferritin and a lectin that binds to terminal B-D-galactosyl sites on ileal membranes (Ricinus communis agglutinin [RCAI]-ferritin) were ...
Table 2: Mercury Disposition in Suckling Rats: Comparative Assessment Following Parenteral Exposure to Thiomersal and Mercuric Chloride
Daza, A.; Gutierrez Barquin, M.G.; Rioperez, J., 1999: The effects of sex, suckling position and initial weight of piglets on daily gain and mortality during lactation
6.6.2 Suckling Reflex (Animation) -Why is milk not produced during pregnancy and is produced after parturition? -How does suckling regulate production of prolactin and oxytocin? -What are the actions of prolactin and oxytocin in regulating lactation? -Why is resumption of menstruation delayed in a lactating female ...
6.6.2 Suckling Reflex (Animation) -Why is milk not produced during pregnancy and is produced after parturition? -How does suckling regulate production of prolactin and oxytocin? -What are the actions of prolactin and oxytocin in regulating lactation? -Why is resumption of menstruation delayed in a lactating female ...
Buy a sucking pig / roasting pig. Whole pig for sale. 10-50 lbs, delivered cleaned, eviscerated & trussed. Great roasted or smoked. No antibiotics or hormones.
You are invited to discover Segovia by land and air in this 8/9-hour tour. Revel in an amazing experience flying over the city of Segovia, driven solely by the wind. Ride up to the heavens in a hot air balloon from the outskirts of Segovia.
Some materials for cleanness such as soap will help you to get rid of the cuticle cell on the surface of the skin and promote the disruption and accrementition of the cell. If the cornification will not be removed timely, it will damage the protector
Research games: A complement to laboratory project work (pages 54-55). K E Suckling, D K Apps, I W Flynn, I A Nimmo, J H Phillips and S van Heyningen. Version of Record online: 26 JUN 2010 , DOI: 10.1016/0307-4412(79)90039-6. ...
To elucidate the mechanisms leading to the functional regionalization of the digestive epithelium, lactase expression was analyzed at the protein, mRNA and gene levels, along the intestinal tract at various stages of the rat postnatal development. In the colon of neonates, the transient expression of mRNA and enzyme correlated well with gene transcription. In contrast to the colon, complex patterns were observed in the small intestine. In suckling animals, the mRNA was present at a high level despite the progressive decline of enzyme activity. Crypts were devoid of mRNA and the transcript mainly accumulated in the lower half of the villi. From weaning onwards, a functional regionalization of the epithelium was defined, characterized by the modification of the longitudinal distribution of lactase mRNA. Indeed the transcript remained abundant in the distal duodenum, jejunum and proximal ileum, but decreased in the proximal duodenum and became virtually absent in the distal ileum. Concomitantly, ...
Ancient people might have discovered rennet by storing fresh milk in a bag made from the stomach of a young animal, such as a lamb or calf, and discovering that the milk was changed into creamy lumps (called curds) and a liquid (called whey). Being adventurous souls, they tried the curds and whey and found that they were edible and perhaps even tasty. At any rate, the process preserved the milk so that it did not spoil so quickly. Humans soon realized that something in the lining of the fourth stomach of suckling animals caused this curdling effect and began to use this substance, called rennet.. ...
A three-meter monolith topped with an oversized limestone piglet betrays Mealhadas standing as Portugals suckling pig central.
A study has been made of the lesions produced in suckling mice by the following viruses: Powers, Matulaitis, DeMole, Kine, McCarthy, Conn. 5, Ohio R, High Point, WS No. 4, EMC, and Col. SK.. Pathologic alterations have been found in myocardium, lungs, liver, pancreas, thymus, brain and spinal cord, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscles.. A comparison of the lesions produced by the individual strains has disclosed certain differential features which are discussed in detail. Within the group of so called Coxsackie viruses, myositis has not proved to be a constant finding, and it may occur in suckling mice infected with other types of virus.. ...
Measurement of virulence of aeromonads using a suckling mouse model of infection (pages 233-241). C.Y.F. Wong, G. Mayrhofer, M.W. Heuzenroeder, H.M. Atkinson, D.M. Quinn and R.L.P. Flower. Version of Record online: 17 JAN 2006 , DOI: 10.1111/j.1574-695X.1996.tb00089.x. ...
Early lactation: After ewes lambing, the abdomen is empty, physical weakness, poor digestive function, it is necessary to timely supplement the loss of nutrition and moisture. Within 7 days after delivery, drink 3 to 4 times of warm water every day. Add a small amount of bran and salt to the water. The diet should be dominated by tender hay, and grass and silage should be gradually increased after 7 days, and normal concentrates should be restored after two weeks. The lactation period: During this period, the ewes milk production keeps rising. Usually 30 to 45 days after childbirth is the peak of lactation. High-yielding sheep come late, about 60 to 70 days after childbirth. During this period the ewe’s appetite is strong and feed utilization is high. In order to keep the peak of lactation lasting longer, in addition to feeding high-quality hay, as much as possible should be allocated to grass, silage, and some tuber feeds. If the nutrition is still insufficient, 0.5 to 1 kg of mixed ...
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He lost weight after the birth and my milk coming in was delayed by him not suckling and sleeping too much. i double pump after each feed so he gets supplement through a syringe. problem is he forgets how to suck after feeding from syringe so its a vicious circle! ive so much milk and cannot spend hours on feeding him as my other two children are totally neglected. birth weight 3kg680 he went down to 3kg290 hes currently at 3kg460 i pump betwen 70-100ml after each feed is there any
TY - JOUR. T1 - Zinc status of mouse neonates suckling early-, mid-, late-lactating foster dams. AU - Reis, B. L.. AU - Lonnerdal, B.. AU - Keen, Carl L. AU - Hurley, L. S.. PY - 1985. Y1 - 1985. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0021955278&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0021955278&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. AN - SCOPUS:0021955278. VL - 44. SP - 3051. JO - Federation Proceedings. JF - Federation Proceedings. SN - 0014-9446. IS - 4. ER - ...
Health,...Breast-feeding releases oxytocin involved in bonding release of milk...FRIDAY July 18 (HealthDay News) -- How do infants and mothers bond b...Researchers have discovered that babies nursing at their mothers brea...Recent research has found oxytocin to be involved in trust and love in...,Suckling,Infant,Triggers,Trust,Hormone,in,Moms,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Serra, Andrea and Mele, Marcello and La Comba, Francesca and Conte, Giuseppe and Buccioni, Arianna and Secchiari, Pier Lorenzo (2009) Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) content of meat from three muscles of Massese suckling lambs slaughtered at different weights. Meat Science, 81/200 (2). pp. 396-404. ISSN 0309-1740. ...
Immunocrit results correlated well with results from a more complicated and expensive traditional method-protein A sepharose combined with electrophoresis-in detecting piglets that had not nursed at all.. In another study, using more than 2,000 piglets, researchers found that the immunocrit could predict preweaning survival. They also noted a connection between immunocrit measurements and piglet weight: Heavier piglets were more likely to survive the challenge of not getting colostrum within the critical time frame.. Enhancing Management Practices. The immunocrit can be used to test management practices, such as split suckling, and other strategies used by swine producers to help prevent colostrum deficiency, Vallet says.. Split suckling is a labor-intensive method that involves marking the first-born group of piglets, putting them aside, and then allowing the last piglets born uninhibited access to the sow. The practice is designed to improve access to colostrum for later-born piglets, because ...
I hope you all had a good Christmas weekend. The holiday was very kind to us and very rough on pigs: we spent the weekend eating bacon for breakfast, roast pork for lunch, lechón asado (yes, grilled suckling pig) for dinner. It was less like Christmas and more like a pagan slaughter-festival.. Through all of this, my two-year-old boy was the leader. He was the first to announce or at least admit to hunger. Hes shaking off the last remnants of pneumonia, and even through his sickness, his appetite barely wavered. He sits in his booster seat, eyeing his food, asking "whats dat?" and without waiting for a response, shovels great spoonfuls (or handfuls) of it into his mouth. Eating is the one thing he does with concentration and passion, every time.. Before I had kids, I would have maybe been concerned about all this gluttony. I would have wondered if Nico would end up like that poor superobese three-year-old I remember seeing someone cart around the Puyallup Fair back when we lived in Seattle. ...
Mike Isabellas small-plates Greek taverna. Make spit-roasted baby goat, lemon-marinated lamb, or suckling pig the center of your meal, with stone-baked flatbreads and spiked lemonade on the side.
I like crispy pork. I can imagine viewers watching this episode and thinking that Stefan was sent home because "Tom just must not care for crispy pork." This couldnt be further from the truth. I like -- and like to make -- crispy pork, but thats not what Stefan gave us. What Stefan made was beyond crispy; it was hard. And it was hard because it was improperly prepared.. The problem was this: if youre making suckling pig and the skin isnt so thick, you can leave it on, and it will get crispy. But if youre preparing pork belly from a bigger animal (and you can tell from the thickness of the belly that its an older animal), you need to do one of two things. Either you remove the skin and let the underlying layer get crispy, or, if you want to leave the skin on, you do the following: while youre first braising it, you need to make sure the entire pork is submerged in the braising liquid so that the skin gets moist. Then, when you reheat it, leave just the top surface above the liquid, and ...
MAIWASHE, A. et al. Estimates of lactation curve parameters for Bonsmara and Nguni cattle using the weigh-suckle-weigh technique. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2013, vol.43, suppl.1, pp.s12-s16. ISSN 2221-4062.. ...
Amrithmahal Project : Milk yield and its composition: The Amrithmahal cows were non cooperative to assess their milk yield by direct measurements. Hence, a new method of assessment of milk yield was developed at the station " Indirect method by weightiest of calf before and after suckling". Here in this method the calves were weighed before and after suckling milk from cows twice a day - once in morning and evening. The difference in weight of calves was added up to obtain the milk yield of the cows per day .This was further projected as milk yield per lactation ( kg/d). The composition of the milk was assets using milk - O - tester. The milk yield (kg/d) ranged 1.6 to 2.4 kg ...
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Evolution devised an ingenious way to bond infant to mother: proteins in milk that break down into peptides that have opiate-like drug effects. But what if a breastfeeding mother is herself effectively suckling by still drinking milk into adulthood?....... ...
Augie Doggie was a cute name when he was suckling but as he matured he had to change his name to August Dog so he wouldnt get beat up so often. ...
托斯卡尼釀酒師從過去幾年的經驗中學到許多新技術。即使葡萄生長季的氣候不佳,釀酒師們依然有能力降低不良因素,維持葡萄酒的高品質, James Suckling報導。
This report includes "forward-looking statements" within the meaning of, and made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of, the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. All statements other than statements of historical fact, including statements regarding the Companys strategy, future operations, future financial position, future revenues, projected costs, prospects, plans and objectives of management, shareholder value, expected revenue growth, the effect of recent management and board leadership changes, and the assumptions underlying or relating to such statements, are "forward-looking statements." These forward-looking statements include statements regarding the timing of, the approval by the FDA, and the commercial launch of CCH for the treatment of cellulite. In some cases, these statements can be identified by forward-looking words such as "expect," "plan," "anticipate," "potential," "estimate," "can," "will," "continue," the negative or plural of these words, and other ...
Background Diet plays a role on the development of the immune system, and polyunsaturated fatty acids can modulate the expression of a variety of genes. Human milk contains conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), a fatty acid that seems to contribute to immune development. Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. However, little work has been done on the effects of CLA on gene expression, and even less regarding immune system development in early life. Results The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dams milk (Group A) or by oral gavage (Group B), supplemented just during suckling (Group C) and control animals (Group D) was determined with the aid of the specific GeneChip® Rat Genome 230 2.0 (Affymettrix). Bioinformatics analyses were performed using the GeneSpring GX ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Limits to sustained energy intake. AU - Speakman, John R.. PY - 2009/6. Y1 - 2009/6. N2 - During late lactation maternal food intake reaches a plateau, indicating that the female is limited in her sustained energy intake. We recently suggested that this limit is mediated by the capacity to dissipate heat. This is consistent with the fact intake at peak lactation and pup growth increase in cold (8 °C) and decrease in hot (30 °C) conditions. Moreover shaving mice at peak lactation allows them to increase their food intake and raise larger pups. A potential mechanism causing these effects is that suckling pups reduce the females capacity to dissipate heat, causing her body temperature to rise. We have instrumented mice with temperature transmitters and followed their body temperatures in relation to their suckling behaviour during peak lactation. These studies reveal that lactating females are under chronic hyperthermia. The patterns of body temperature change during suckling ...
The effects of the recommended dose of 200 mg iron and of half that dose injected on the first day of life on health, iron status and performance during the 4 week suckling period were studied in 2123 piglets. All piglets received creep feed and soil which was supplemented with 14 g iron per kg. Neither mortality nor the prevalence of arthritis, meningitis and foot abscess (each disease affecting about 1% of the piglets) differed between the two groups. The low dose of 100 mg iron decreased blood haemoglobin concentration at weaning (110 ± 19 vs.120 ± 15 g/l), but did not affect growth rate.. ...
Recently while driving north on the New York State Thruway I passed the exit for the town of Coxsackie, NY (population 8,884). I grabbed my camera and photographed the exit sign, and reminded myself to write about the virus named after this small town.. In the summer of 1947 there were several small outbreaks of poliomyelitis in upstate New York. Gilbert Dalldorf, the director of the Wadsworth Laboratory in Albany, NY, and his associate Grace M. Sickles investigated this outbreak. In particular they sought polioviruses that could replicate in mice. This search was motivated by the fact that research on poliovirus required the use of monkeys which were extremely expensive. Dalldorf had attended the Fourth International Congress for Microbiology in 1947 where he heard that very young mice - suckling mice - could readily be infected with Theilers virus.. Dalldorf and Sickles made fecal suspensions from two children suspected of having poliomyelitis, and inoculated these into adult and suckling ...
This gallery of images is a collection of photographs taken by Carl Donohue. All images on this site remain the property of Carl Donohue Photography and Skolai Images, and are fully protected by federal and international copyright laws. Any unauthorized use is strictly prohibited, and any reproduction copying, manipulation, alteration, saving or distribution of these images will be prosecuted to the full extent of the law. All images are available for licensed use; to do so, please contact [email protected] or at phone # (770) 952 4549. ...
Studies on colostral and milk whey proteins in the sow 2. The effect of delayed suckling on colostrum and milk whey proteins - Volume 11 Issue 3 - F. J. Bourne
To date, investigations on the immune response to Cystoisospora suis infections focused on suckling piglets, the age group clinically most affected. Actively immunizing piglets is unfeasible due to their immature immune system and the typically early infection in the first days after birth. Therefore, understanding and possibly enhancing the immune response of immune-competent animals is the prerequisite to develop a passive immunization strategy for piglets which currently rely on very limited treatment options. To investigate antibody and cytokine responses of immune-competent animals and the impact of the oral immunization protocol on their immune response, growers with unknown previous exposure to C. suis (10-11 weeks-old) were infected one or three times with different doses (600 and 6000 or 200 and 2000, respectively) of C. suis oocysts, and compared to uninfected controls. Oocyst excretion was evaluated, and blood and intestinal mucus antibody titers were determined by IFAT. Systemic production
A highly sensitive and specific radioimmunoassay (RIA) for oxytocin was developed and used to measure oxytocin concentrations during both suckling and parturition in individual rats. In urethane-anaesthetized rats, the suckling stimuli, provided by ten pups, induced intermittent increases in intramammary pressure of about 10 mmHg. This was associated with a significant (P , 0·01) increase in serum oxytocin levels from 19·5 ± 4·5 (s.e.m., n = 9) to 49·1 ± 7·4 pmol/l (n = 9) in the samples taken within 30 s from the time of the peak in the pressure. These rises in serum oxytocin returned rapidly to the basal levels as expected from the short half-life (1·46 min) of oxytocin in general circulation.. On day 22 or 23 of gestation, serum oxytocin levels remained stable until 0-0·5 h before the first fetus was expelled. They then increased significantly (P , 0·01) from 27·6± 4·6 pmol/l (n = 19) in samples taken 0-0·5 h before to 45·1 ± 5·6 pmol/l in samples taken after the expulsion of ...
The mycotoxin zearalenone (ZEN) causes functional and morphological alterations in reproductive organs of pigs. In the field, diagnosis of ZEN-induced disorders is often challenging, as relevant feed lots are no longer available, or feed analysis results are not conclusive. Here, we report a field case of hyperestrogenism in newborn piglets. Surprisingly, more than 50 fungal metabolites were detected in hay pellets fed to gestating sows, including ZEN and its modified form zearalenone-14-sulfate (ZEN-14-S). Despite the broad contamination range in this unconventional feed component, a definite diagnosis of mycotoxicosis could not be achieved. In this context, current limitations regarding the confirmation of suspected cases of ZEN-induced disorders are discussed, covering both feed analysis and the biomarker approach. A piglet producer with 200 sows experienced a sudden increase in suckling piglet losses up to 30% by lower vitality and crushing. Predominant clinical signs were splay legs and signs of
Journal of Immunology Research is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that provides a platform for scientists and clinicians working in different areas of immunology and therapy. The journal publishes research articles, review articles, as well as clinical studies related to classical immunology, molecular immunology, clinical immunology, cancer immunology, transplantation immunology, immune pathology, immunodeficiency, autoimmune diseases, immune disorders, and immunotherapy.
Ample evidence indicates that drinking alcohol during pregnancy poses a severe and avoidable risk to unborn babies. The risks of drinking alcohol while breastfeeding, however, are not well defined. Currently, some mothers are still advised by physicians, nurses, lactation consultants, family members, and friends that it is all right to drink,1 even though an acceptable level of alcohol in breast milk has never been established. Alcohol consumed by a mother passes easily into her breast milk at concentrations similar to those found in her bloodstream. A nursing infant is actually exposed to only a fraction of the alcohol the mother ingests,2 but infants detoxify alcohol in their first weeks of life at only half the rate of adults.3 Several proven or potential adverse effects of alcohol on suckling infants have been reported, even after exposure to only moderate levels: impaired motor development,4 changes in sleep patterns,5 decrease in milk intake,6 and risk of hypoglycemia.7 In addition, ...
BACKGROUND: Maturity of intestinal functions is critical for neonatal health and survival, but comprehensive description of mechanisms underlying intestinal maturation that occur during late gestation still remain poorly characterized. The aim of this study was to investigate biological processes specifically involved in intestinal maturation by comparing fetal jejunal transcriptomes of two representative porcine breeds (Large White, LW; Meishan, MS) with contrasting neonatal vitality and maturity, at two key time points during late gestation (gestational days 90 and 110). MS and LW sows inseminated with mixed semen (from breed LW and MS) gave birth to both purebred and crossbred fetuses. We hypothesized that part of the differences in neonatal maturity between the two breeds results from distinct developmental profiles of the fetal intestine during late gestation. Reciprocal crossed fetuses were used to analyze the effect of parental genome. Transcriptomic data and 23 phenotypic variables known to be
This suckling behaviour is thought to be re-oriented to become a useful pacifying gesture. A human analogy is to consider young children thumb-sucking to self-soothe -- imagine if they licked our faces instead when they felt a bit unsure or stressed! Dogs have been seen to use licking as a type of appeasement behaviour - often interpreted by people as intended to reduce tension or apologise. This kind of pacifying lick can be self directed in the absence of other dogs or people, and in extreme cases, can even be a self-mutilation health issue. ...
Suckling, A J.; Jagelman, S; and Webb, H E., "Immunoglobulin synthesis in nude (nu/nu), nu/+ and reconstituted nu/nu mice infected with a demyelinating strain of semliki forest virus." (1982). Subject Strain Bibliography 1982. 3033 ...
The parasite Cystoisospora suis affects suckling pigs causing severe intestinal problems, such as diarrhoea. Scientists at the University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Vetmeduni) have now shown that antibodies against Cystoisospora ...
The animal launches itself from a tree, spreading its limbs to expose the gliding membranes. This creates an aerofoil enabling ... Suckling, G.C (1984). "Population ecology of the sugar glider "Petaurus breviceps", in a system of fragmented habitats". ... Unlike animals that move along the ground, the sugar glider and other gliding species produce fewer, but heavier, offspring per ... Entering torpor saves energy for the animal by allowing its body temperature to fall to a minimum of 10.4 °C (50.7 °F) to 19.6 ...
Animal Behaviour. 55: 779-786. doi:10.1006/anbe.1997.0651. Fraser, D., (1973). The nursing and suckling behaviour in pigs. I. ... As part of animal conservation (The Three Rs (animals)), these animals contribute to the reduction methods for animal research ... The domestic pig, both as a live animal and source of post-mortem tissues, is one of the most valuable animal models used in ... doi:10.1016/s0168-1591(98)00100-2. Houpt, K.A., (1998). Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists. 3rd ...
Suckling. Acoustic behavior[edit]. Australian fur seals are social animals that use vocalizations in a broad range of contexts ... The brown fur seal's main predator is the great white shark, although they are also preyed upon by various other animals, such ... This species is an inquisitive and friendly animal when in the water, and often accompanies scuba divers. They swim around ...
"Journal Animal Science. 71: 2826-2831.. *^ Castren, H.; Algers, B.; Jensen, P.; Saloniemi, H. (1989). "Suckling behaviour and ... As part of animal conservation (The Three Rs (animals)), live animals, as well as post mortem porcine tissues, contribute to ... Nursing and suckling behaviour[edit]. A sow with suckling piglets. Note the greater use of the anterior teats thus forming the ... The domestic pig, both as a live animal and source of post mortem tissues, is one of the most valuable animal models used in ...
In the summer of 2008, Best Friends Animal Society, an animal welfare organization, gathered 50,000 signatures on a petition ... apparently his attempts to suckle irritated her. The Obamas pledged a donation to the DC Humane Society in a show of support ... Some animal welfare supporters criticized The White House for not adopting a shelter dog. The Humane Society of the United ... Scott, Danny; Miller, William; Griffin, Craig (2001). Small Animal Dermatology. W B Saunders. p. 4. ISBN 0-7216-7618-9. ...
They cannot stand to suckle and must be destroyed. All the affected animals descend from a single individual. The gene involved ... animals show no symptoms, but are likely to be much more widespread in the population than affected animals. Today, the breed ... Animals taken to Scotland in 1817 from the Booth herd were used to produce the Beef Shorthorn breed. In 1822, George Coates ... and completely white animals are not common. However, one type of Shorthorn has been bred to be consistently white - the ...
The animals are docile and calm. The hair is soft and short. The cows have a fairly well-developed udder. The hooves are well- ... The calves suckle their dams before and after milking. Quantity of the dry fodder fed depends mainly on the availability of ... The animals are housed in either separate houses or a part of the owner's residence during the night. No weaning is practiced ... These animals are quite popular in the tracts of former Hyderabad State which is now Telangana and adjoining districts of ...
She-wolves suckled him, and deer brought him fruit. He learned to roar from a tiger, to hunt from an eagle, and to run from an ... Jangar went outside and roared, and all the animals living nearby came to see what the noise was. He befriended them and they ...
This animal is of ginger to red colouration and is thought to have descended from wild boars, via native pig stock of Europe. ... The sows demonstrate good maternal skills, being consistent in suckling all littermates. Litters normally range in size from ... This animal is very efficient at excavation while rooting for food in the forest or pasture. The breed is used in forage-based ... The animal is not only durable and rugged, but also is extremely well-suited for forest grazing, being able to thrive on ...
Like other monk seals, this species had four retractable nipples for suckling their young. Newborn pups were probably about 1 ... When compared to the body, the animal's foreflippers were relatively short with little claws and the hindflippers were slender ... It is believed this animal's average lifespan was approximately twenty years. Caribbean monk seals were found in warm temperate ... Extinction portal Hawaiian monk seal Mediterranean monk seal List of extinct animals Lowry, L. 2015. Neomonachus tropicalis. ...
... and leptin from mother's milk has been found in the blood of suckling infant animals. Leptin along with kisspeptin controls the ... This effect is reversed when the animals are put back on a low-energy diet. This also may have an evolutionary advantage: ... Leptin levels signal when an animal has enough stored energy to spend it in pursuits besides acquiring food. This would mean ... small doses of NPY injected into the brains of experimental animals stimulates feeding, while selective destruction of the NPY ...
He was exposed and suckled by animals, while his mother was executed. After Theseus had killed Cercyon he willingly handed over ...
This can cause additional injuries inside the animal itself, especially in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In suckling white ... In non-domestic animals, cases of red imported fire ants stings in animals such as ferrets, moles squirrels, white-tailed deer ... These large-scale attacks on an animal are caused by chemical signals. As a result, this explains why an animal may suffer from ... The aftermath of the injuries is like those in domestic animals. Red imported fire ants do not intend to kill animals because ...
His personal seal included suckling animals in two registers, allegorically symbolizing his care for his subjects. The ...
List of breeds documented in the Global Databank for Animal Genetic Resources, annex to The State of the World's Animal Genetic ... Sheep are not milked in Iceland today, and instead the lamb is allowed to continue suckling. This is largely due to the ... Solid-patterned animals simply show their base color all over. To be solid, a sheep must inherit the solid pattern from both ... of Animal Science. Retrieved 2009-04-17. Tyne, Tim (2009). The sheep book for smallholders. Preston [England]: Good Life Press ...
A chivito has already begun to eat solid foods, whereas the cabrito is still a suckling. The chivito is less gamey and has a ... Chivito differs from cabrito in that chivito is a slightly older animal with whose meat is less tender. ...
The chivito has already begun to eat solid foods, whereas the cabrito is still a suckling. It is a regional specialty of the ... Cabrito en salsa (cabrito in sauce) - The animal is cut into portions, browned in oil and braised in a tomato-based sauce with ... "Chivito" differs from "cabrito" in that chivito is a slightly older animal with less tender meat. ... along with the animal's liver, kidneys, and heart, and other seasonings. The end product is tender cabrito in a rich, very dark ...
King, S.A. (2007). Animal Dreaming: The Spiritual and Symbolic Language of the Australasian Animals (Revised and expanded ed ... They appear to remember their homes; females in particular remember the places they first gave birth or suckled their offspring ... Rosati, A.; Tewolde, A.; Mosconi, C. (2007). Animal Production and Animal Science Worldwide. Wageningen (The Netherlands): ... "Indian Journal of Animal Sciences. 56: 870-2.. *^ Hifny, A.K.; Mansour, A.A.; Moneim, M.E.A. (1985). "Some anatomical studies ...
Cakes of bread were sacrificed along with the three animals. At the moment the sacrifices were made, the landowner was to say: ... "Father Mars, if aught hath not pleased thee in the offering of those sucklings, I make atonement with these victims." If only ... of sacrificed animals for divinatory signs. Both public and private suovetaurilias were performed in the Roman religion. Cato ... The first step was to lead the three animals around the boundaries of the land to be blessed, pronouncing the following words: ...
One very unusual specialty is lion meat, from animals raised for those purpose in Zumpango and sells for about 850 pesos per ... These meats include those from iguanas, skunks, deer, rabbit, suckling pigs, goat, wild boar and lowland paca. ... Fresh meat from many different animals, both from Mexico and abroad can be found. ...
Qureshi, M. Subhan (2010). "Pregnancy depresses milk yield in Dairy Buffaloes" (PDF). Italian Journal of Animal Science. Animal ... Qureshi, M. Subhan (2008). "Interaction of calf suckling, use of oxytocin and milk yield with reproductive performance of dairy ... Dean Faculty of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Sciences: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Subhan Qureshi. University of Agriculture, Peshawar ... Meanwhile, he joined the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad and completed his MSc and PhD degrees in animal reproduction. In ...
See "Other animals" below. "Calf" is the term used from birth to weaning, when it becomes known as a weaner or weaner calf, ... They usually stand within a few minutes of calving, and suckle within an hour. However, for the first few days they are not ... See "Other animals" below. Calves may be produced by natural means, or by artificial breeding using artificial insemination or ... The single suckler system of rearing calves is similar to that occurring naturally in wild cattle, where each calf is suckled ...
The fresh meat tastes strong and juicy; the suckling pigs are much preferred for their good fresh meat qualities. In Hungary, ... In 1991 there were less than 200 animals in Hungary. Monte Nevado, a Spanish company began the breeding and recovery of ... Meat from Mangalica can be easily found in Hungary, as Hungarian farmers produce about 60,000 animals each year. The three ...
It is transmitted mainly by ingestion of infected tissues or fluids, semen during breeding, and suckling infected animals. ... The Brucella abortus (rough LPS Brucella) vaccine, developed for bovine brucellosis and licensed by the USDA Animal Plant ... The disease typically causes chronic inflammatory lesions in the reproductive organs of susceptible animals or orchitis, and ... 2003). "Brucellosis". Zoonoses and communicable diseases common to man and animals. Volume 1 (PDF) (3rd ed.). Washington, DC: ...
Cows average 2270 kilograms of milk while suckling a calf and much higher milk yields have been recorded. Due to their heat ... Sahiwal breeds are now used in Australia for beef production, as crossing high-grade Sahiwal sires with Bos taurus animals ... and farmers used them as draft and dairy animals. The Division Sahiwal has one of the best dairy breeds in India and Pakistan. ...
International Fund for Animal Welfare. Retrieved 29 August 2015.. *. Viegas, Jennifer (23 February 2010). "Thousands Mourn Dead ... Whales are creatures of the open ocean; they feed, mate, give birth, suckle and raise their young at sea. So extreme is their ... These animals have very large heads, which can make up as much as 40% of their body mass, and much of the head is the mouth. ... "International Fund for Animal Welfare. Retrieved 29 August 2015.. *. "Aboriginal Subsistence whaling". IWC. Retrieved 29 August ...
Data are expressed as the percentage reduction in villus height of indomethacin treated animals compared with animals given the ... and growth factors for the suckling neonate. Some studies suggest it may be of value in eliminating infection and stimulating ... Similar changes were seen in animals which had received the 5% or 10% milk or the 5% colostrum solution. Animals receiving 10% ... Animals were killed 24 hours after indomethacin as we have previously shown that this is the time of maximal damage.9 In order ...
... mostly due to the delay in suckling. Recent studies have found 46%-61% of calves fail to suckle in the first 6 hours after ... Calves should not be left on the cow to nurse as these animals experience an exceptionally high rate of failure of passive ... Additionally, cows with a dry period of less than 45 days often have poor-quality colostrum as well as those animals that ... According to the 2007 National Animal Health Monitoring System survey, approximately 19% of dairy heifer calves in the US had ...
Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after ... The expression profile of mesenteric lymph nodes from animals supplemented with CLA during gestation and suckling through dams ... milk (Group A) or by oral gavage (Group B), supplemented just during suckling (Group C) and control animals (Group D) was ... The 1% CLA diet in suckling animals corresponded to a daily administration of 1.5 mg CLA oil provided/g rat from day 1 to 21. ...
Some nutritional interventions mainly focused on suckling animals can also induce some effects on dams. This kind of protocol ... Animal identification by labeling the animals with a tag or just with a permanent marker pen on the skin can facilitate the ... b) Animal identification by labeling the animals with a marker pen on the skin. (c) Oral gavaging in newborns younger than 5 ... Some experimental studies in different animal models, including the suckling rat model, have been performed in this regard. ...
... human females sometimes breastfeed young animals, and animals are used to suckle babies and children. Animals were used as ... Suckling of animals by humans[edit]. Terracotta feeding bottles surviving from the third millennium BC in Sumeria indicate that ... The suckling of animals by infants was a repeated theme in classical mythology. Most famously, twin brothers Romulus and Remus ... Suckling directly was preferable to milking an animal and giving the milk, as contamination by microbes during the milking ...
The effect of delayed suckling on colostrum and milk whey proteins - Volume 11 Issue 3 - F. J. Bourne ... Suckling and teat disputes by neonatal piglets. Applied Animal Behaviour Science, Vol. 22, p. 23. ... Department of Animal Husbandry. , University of Bristol School of Veterinary Science. , Langford House. , Langford. , Bristol. ... Studies on colostral and milk whey proteins in the sow 2. The effect of delayed suckling on colostrum and milk whey proteins. * ...
Animals. Animals, Newborn / growth & development*, metabolism*. Animals, Suckling / metabolism*. Bone and Bones / metabolism*. ... Title: Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition Volume: 92 ISSN: 1439-0396 ISO Abbreviation: J Anim Physiol Anim Nutr ... For this purpose, 12 pregnant Wistar rats were divided into two groups of six animals each: a control group with free access to ... 11760154 - Exposure to flaxseed or its purified lignan during suckling only or continuously does n.... 3602124 - Effects of pre ...
Loading and Unloading Animals Properly. *. Gut Check: Why the Microbiome MattersBy Geoff Geddes, for Swine Innovation Porc. ... Samples can be collected from suckling piglets that are near weaning age but getting suckling pigs to consistently chew on the ... Paisley Canning from South West Ontario Veterinary Services, Oral Fluids For Monitoring In Suckling Pigs. March 30, 2020. 256 ...
Suckle To feed (a baby or young animal) from the breast or teat. ...
Any animal orifice that spits out coins is alright in my book. ... Doggie Mommy Suckles HIS Young. Might wanna fix that John.... ... Augie Doggie was a cute name when he was suckling but as he matured he had to change his name to August Dog so he wouldnt get ... Ive been told I tried to suckle it when I was a youngun. ...
Animal Nutrition. WIAS. Publication type. Refereed Article in a scientific journal. Publication year. 2007. ... Changes in the fermentation end-product profile in the GIT of piglets during post-colostrum suckling period. ... to evaluate the effect of age on fermentation end-product profiles during the post-colostrum suckling period, as the variation ... fermentation end-product profile skewed from lactic acid to acetic acid as a major product during the post-colostrum suckling ...
Suckling. Acoustic behavior[edit]. Australian fur seals are social animals that use vocalizations in a broad range of contexts ... The brown fur seals main predator is the great white shark, although they are also preyed upon by various other animals, such ... This species is an inquisitive and friendly animal when in the water, and often accompanies scuba divers. They swim around ...
Suckling, K.F. 2000. A House on Fire: Connecting the Biological and Linguistic Diversity Crises. Animal Law 6:193-202. Suckling ... and says of Suckling: "Rimbaud reinvented poetry. Kierán Suckling would do the same with environmentalism." The Center, which ... Suckling, K.F. and W. Hodges. 2007. Status of the bald eagle in the Lower 48 states and the District of Columbia. Center for ... Sucklings parents and siblings immigrated to the United States from Ireland and England in the 1960s. He is the only member of ...
ANIMAL CONTROLLING OR HANDLING (E.G., RESTRAINING, BREAKING, TRAINING, SORTING, CONVEYING, ETC.). ... Animal-carried hook or extension for engaging and preventing breaching or lifting of fence or barrier (e.g., poke, drag hook, ... Inhibiting use or movement of specific body part other than tail by re- straint carried solely by animal (e.g., for ear, head, ... Device simulates animal (e.g., steer, calf, etc.) for training a pursuing or regulating horse ...
animal model. Introduction. The role of dopamine (DA) in schizophrenia is well established based on the ability of DA agonists ... In control animals (n = 5 rats, 62 neurons), the simultaneous NMDA-induced activation of the vHipp and PPTg resulted in a ... Animals.. MAM treatments were performed as described previously (Moore et al., 2006). In brief, timed pregnant female Sprague ... 3B,C). It should be noted that no significant change in cells/track within animals across time was observed, suggesting that ...
Suckling,Infant,Triggers,Trust,Hormone,in,Moms,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current ... Recent research has found oxytocin to be involved in trust and love in both humans and animals. It is also causes the release ... Suckling Infant Triggers Trust Hormone in Moms. ...Breast-feeding releases oxytocin involved in bonding release of milk... ... "We knew that these pulses arise because, during suckling, oxytocin neurons fire together in dramatic synchronized bursts. But ...
D Antitoxin for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information. ... Prophlactic) Using aseptic technique, inject subcutaneously or intravenously: Calves - 10 mL; Cattle - 30 mL; Suckling lambs - ...
... piglet growth performance in addition to decreasing the crypt depth and enhancing functional development in jejunum of suckling ... All animal care and procedures were approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Nanjing Agricultural University in ... c) The blots of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1), occludin, and β-actin of the jejunum mucosa in suckling piglets. (d-e) The relative ... a-c) The brush border enzyme activity of the jejuna in suckling piglets. (d-e) The relative mRNA expression of jejunal nutrient ...
Animals, Suckling * Antiviral Agents / metabolism* * Diarrhea / physiopathology* * Interferon Type I / physiology* * Interferon ... In other experiments, type I IFN receptor -/- suckling mice and IFN-gamma-/- suckling mice developed diarrhea of similar ... Immunocompetent suckling mice were treated orally (5,000 IU) or parenterally (500 IU) with type I and II murine IFNs before and ... Treated animals developed diarrhea indistinguishable from that observed in untreated control mice. ...
Animals * Animals, Suckling * Chikungunya virus / genetics* * Chikungunya virus / pathogenicity* * Chlorocebus aethiops * ... aegypti to suckling mice in competition experiments. The effect of the E1-A226V mutation on cholesterol dependence of CHIKV was ... albopictus, and led to more efficient viral dissemination into mosquito secondary organs and transmission to suckling mice. ...
Causes death in host animal. Recommended Host suckling mouse; mouse, 3 to 4 weeks old, i.c. inoculation; hamster kidney cells ...
"Armed Sibling Rivalry among Suckling Piglets." Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 29.1 (1991): 9-15. Print. Pope W.F., S. Xie ... Animals, including siblings, compete for resources such as food, territory, and potential mating partners. In animal sibling ... Not all forms of sibling rivalry in animals involve direct aggression or death of a sibling. This is not an extremely ... "Fetal Programming by Co-Twin Rivalry in Sheep." Journal of Animal Science 92.1 (2014): 64-71. Print. Fraser, David, and B. K. ...
Pregnant or suckling mares need more water. Do not give water to tired or sweating animals as this can cause colic. Walk the ... Hobbling animals Lifting one leg to control the animal Holding one leg up will stop the animal moving or kicking. This will ... Grooming is the cleaning and brushing of the animals coat which helps to keep the animal healthy and prevent skin problems. ... Otherwise the young animal may be left to suckle from the mother until it is 20 months old. Foals should be trained to the head ...
Learn about Micro-Vet Equine Traditional Blend for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions ... Suckling foals, on dry feed:. 1/2 scoop per day. There are approximately 12 scoops per lb., or 1-1/3 oz (38 gm) per scoop. ... D-activated animal sterol (source of Vitamin D3), Vitamin E supplement, menadione sodium metabisulfite complex (source of ...
by Nigel Suckling Starting at $1.49 Anatomy for Artists: A New Approach to Discovering, Learning and Remembering the Body ...
  • Researchers Martin Taylor, Kieran Suckling, and Jeffrey Rachlinski compared population trends of 1,095 listed species with three related factors: how long the species were listed, whether their habitat had been protected, and whether specific recovery plans were in place. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • The Obama administration has no sense of urgency when it comes to protecting imperiled plants and animals," said Kieran Suckling, executive director of the Center for Biological Diversity. (commondreams.org)
  • Most of the mares are heavily pregnant, still suckling last year's foals. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The sight is repeated right across the country, as The Mail on Sunday has highlighted in recent weeks, with increasing numbers of animals, including pregnant mares and foals, being abandoned everywhere from Norfolk and Kent to South Wales. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • I actually pulled the foals out,' answered Moirano, an animal sciences major planning to go into veterinary medicine. (courant.com)
  • The foals added to the annual 'Ag Day' showcase at Maryland Day, drawing crowds of children and grown-up animal enthusiasts. (courant.com)
  • The involvement of the hypothalamopituitary-adrenocortical axis in stress physiology and its significance in the assessment of animal welfare in cattle. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Modeling extended lactation curves of dairy cattle:A biological basis for the multiphasic approach 1 Journal of Animal Science 86 , 988-998. (springer.com)
  • Indeed, recent studies carried out in our group in suckling animals have shown that the immune function is enhanced after feeding them with an 80:20 isomer mix composed of c9,t11 and t10,c12 CLA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Suckling founded the Center for Biological Diversity while working on doctoral dissertation in 1989 along with Peter Galvin, Robin Silver and Todd Schulke. (wikipedia.org)
  • Not only had Dalldorf and Sickles identified the first members of a very large group of human viruses, but they also introduced and popularized a new and inexpensive animal into the virology laboratory - the suckling mouse. (virology.ws)
  • The vaccine elicited neutralizing antibody titers after inoculation in hamsters and monkeys and protected immunized animals from lethal challenge including intracerebral inoculation of high dose of WN NY99 virus. (mdpi.com)
  • animals more than one week old were resistant to infection. (virology.ws)
  • Close contact with infected immature companion animals is a significant cause of campylobacteriosis in children and direct intrafamilial transmission and occupational infection have been documented. (springer.com)
  • Although some early publications identify breast-feeding as a possible route for T. cruzi infection, such data are scarce, and few animal studies exist ( 5 - 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The histopathology of Machupo virus infection in intracerebrally inoculated suckling hamsters was studied and compared to the histopathology of a virus isolated from a case of hemorrhagic fever from Cochabamba, Bolivia. (ajtmh.org)
  • These studies have usually been performed on adult animals through the consumption of enriched diets or by direct administration of dietary supplements (oral gavage) such as vitamins, minerals, polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), fiber, probiotics, prebiotics, and other ingredients. (hindawi.com)
  • However, agricultural [End Page antibiotic use has an equal number of disadvantages: it can cover up bad animal husbandry, and residues in food and the environment can create or trigger antibiotic allergies. (jhu.edu)
  • Stories of abandoned children being brought up by animal mothers such as she-wolves and bears were widespread in Europe from the Middle Ages and into modern times. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although data from animal studies and human studies are scarce, we do not recommend that mothers with Chagas disease discontinue breast-feeding, unless they are experiencing the acute phase of the disease, reactivated disease resulting from immunosuppression, or bleeding nipples. (cdc.gov)
  • They showed their youth, trotting around in fits and starts, suckling their mothers and laying lazily in the sun. (courant.com)
  • Since long before there were people, mammal mothers from anteaters to orangutans to whales have been suckling babies at their breasts. (latimes.com)
  • In particular, it describes the main changes in the systemic and mucosal immune system development during rat suckling and allows some of these elements to be established as target biomarkers for studying the influence of particular nutrients. (hindawi.com)
  • In summary, this paper provides investigators with useful tools for better designing experimental approaches focused on nutrition in early life for programming and immune development by using the suckling rat as a model. (hindawi.com)
  • Thus, the purpose of this paper is to describe the potential of the suckling rat as a model for immunonutrition studies in early life and, more specifically, to provide tools for the investigators for better designing experimental approaches focused on the importance of nutrition in early life for programming and immune development. (hindawi.com)
  • The Development of Animal Behavior: A R. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • This book brings together for the first time, a collection of classic texts combined with a number of contemporary syntheses on the widely studied topic of behavioral development in animals. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Behavioral development is a major subject area in both animal behavior and experimental psychology since throughout the history of psychology and ethology, the study of development has played a crucial role and has been the subject of some of the major intellectual debates, for example the "Nature versus Nurture" issue. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • More recently, biological approaches to development, derived from work on animals, have become increasingly important and influential. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • The Development of Animal Behaviour: A Reader" provides the key readings in these important areas of research in one volume. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • This Reader will therefore prove an invaluable resource for students and scholars who wish to engage with the study of animal behavioral development. (whsmith.co.uk)
  • Neurons start releasing oxytocin from their dendrites (the arms that extend outward from the nerve cell that transport messages to and from other nerve cells) and from their nerve endings when a baby suckles. (bio-medicine.org)
  • I think you'd first better study how the feeding of specific baby animals you want to portray actually happens. (absolutewrite.com)
  • For just as we pointed out resemblances in the physical organs, so in a number of animals we observe gentleness or fierceness, mildness or cross temper, courage, or timidity, fear or confidence, high spirit or low cunning, and, with regard to intelligence, something equivalent to sagacity. (edu.au)
  • Be sure to select the correct size suckling or roasting pig - one that fits your cooking method: grill, oven, rotisserie or roasting box and the size of your party. (dartagnan.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Warwick, in collaboration with other universities and institutes in Edinburgh, France and Italy, now seem to have pinpointed the actual mechanism by which suckling triggers the release of oxytocin. (bio-medicine.org)
  • what mechanism the animal uses to accomplish its behaviors, how the behaviors contribute to the animals continued existence and reproduction, the way in which the behavior develop in its life time and how such behavior developed. (essaysprofessors.com)
  • Although there are many benefits to interacting with farm animals, it's important to be aware that farm animals can sometimes carry harmful germs that can cause a variety of illnesses in people, ranging from minor skin infections to serious illnesses. (cdc.gov)
  • In animals, oral exposure to lower levels for a long period also affected the liver and decreased their ability to fight infections. (cdc.gov)
  • At this stage, the animal develops strain characterized by susceptible to various infections. (essaysprofessors.com)
  • and, in a word, the whole genus of plants, whilst it is devoid of life as compared with an animal, is endowed with life as compared with other corporeal entities. (edu.au)
  • Indeed, as we just remarked, there is observed in plants a continuous scale of ascent towards the animal. (edu.au)
  • Farm animals can become infected with anthrax when they ingest spores in contaminated soil, plants, or water. (cdc.gov)
  • Aldrin rapidly changes to dieldrin in plants and animals. (cdc.gov)
  • The Obama administration has been abysmal when it comes to protecting our most vulnerable plants and animals," Suckling said. (commondreams.org)
  • By providing your farm animals with routine veterinary care and following the Healthy People tips, you are less likely to get sick from touching, owning, visiting, or working with farm animals. (cdc.gov)