Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.
Animals grouped according to ecological, morphological or genetic populations.
Expulsion of milk from the mammary alveolar lumen, which is surrounded by a layer of milk-secreting EPITHELIAL CELLS and a network of myoepithelial cells. Contraction of the myoepithelial cells is regulated by neuroendocrine signals.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
A nonapeptide hormone released from the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR). It differs from VASOPRESSIN by two amino acids at residues 3 and 8. Oxytocin acts on SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, such as causing UTERINE CONTRACTIONS and MILK EJECTION.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The portion of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT between the PYLORUS of the STOMACH and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE. It is divisible into three portions: the DUODENUM, the JEJUNUM, and the ILEUM.
Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
An enzyme which catalyzes the hydrolysis of LACTOSE to D-GALACTOSE and D-GLUCOSE. Defects in the enzyme cause LACTOSE INTOLERANCE.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Disaccharidases are a group of enzymes, including maltase, sucrase, lactase, and trehalase, found primarily in the brush border of the small intestine, responsible for breaking down complex disaccharides into simpler monosaccharides for absorption.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
Infections produced by reoviruses, general or unspecified.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
The distal and narrowest portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between the JEJUNUM and the ILEOCECAL VALVE of the LARGE INTESTINE.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A genus of parasitic nematodes that causes TRICHINELLOSIS in man and other animal.
The middle portion of the SMALL INTESTINE, between DUODENUM and ILEUM. It represents about 2/5 of the remaining portion of the small intestine below duodenum.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
A state of sexual inactivity in female animals exhibiting no ESTROUS CYCLE. Causes of anestrus include pregnancy, presence of offspring, season, stress, and pathology.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
'Sucrase' is an intestinal brush-border enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of sucrose into glucose and fructose in the digestive process.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
Infection with any of the rotaviruses. Specific infections include human infantile diarrhea, neonatal calf diarrhea, and epidemic diarrhea of infant mice.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
A species of gram-negative bacteria that causes MYCOPLASMA PNEUMONIA OF SWINE. The organism damages the CILIA in the airways of the pig, and thus compromises one of the most effective mechanical barriers against invading pathogens. The resulting weakening of the IMMUNE SYSTEM can encourage secondary infections, leading to porcine respiratory disease complex.
'Dairying' is not a term used in medical definitions; it refers to the practice of keeping dairy animals for milk production and its related processes, which is an agricultural or farming concept.
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition.

Mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA synthase: a control enzyme in ketogenesis. (1/1173)

Cytosolic and mitochondrial 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) synthases were first recognized as different chemical entities in 1975, when they were purified and characterized by Lane's group. Since then, the two enzymes have been studied extensively, one as a control site of the cholesterol biosynthetic pathway and the other as an important control site of ketogenesis. This review describes some key developments over the last 25 years that have led to our current understanding of the physiology of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase in the HMG-CoA pathway and in ketogenesis in the liver and small intestine of suckling animals. The enzyme is regulated by two systems: succinylation and desuccinylation in the short term, and transcriptional regulation in the long term. Both control mechanisms are influenced by nutritional and hormonal factors, which explains the incidence of ketogenesis in diabetes and starvation, during intense lipolysis, and in the foetal-neonatal and suckling-weaning transitions. The DNA-binding properties of the peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor and other transcription factors on the nuclear-receptor-responsive element of the mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase promoter have revealed how ketogenesis can be regulated by fatty acids. Finally, the expression of mitochondrial HMG-CoA synthase in the gonads and the correction of auxotrophy for mevalonate in cells deficient in cytosolic HMG-CoA synthase suggest that the mitochondrial enzyme may play a role in cholesterogenesis in gonadal and other tissues.  (+info)

Ontogeny of intestinal safety factors: lactase capacities and lactose loads. (2/1173)

We measured intestinal safety factors (ratio of a physiological capacity to the load on it) for lactose digestion in developing rat pups. Specifically, we assessed the quantitative relationships between lactose load and the series capacities of lactase and the Na+-glucose cotransporter (SGLT-1). Both capacities increased significantly with age in suckling pups as a result of increasing intestinal mass and maintenance of mass-specific activities. The youngest pups examined (5 days) had surprisingly high safety factors of 8-13 for both lactase and SGLT-1, possibly because milk contains lactase substrates other than lactose; it also, however, suggests that their intestinal capacities were being prepared to meet future demands rather than just current ones. By day 10 (and also at day 15), increased lactose loads resulted in lower safety factors of 4-6, values more typical of adult intestines. The safety factor of SGLT-1 in day 30 (weanling) and day 100 (adult) rats was only approximately 1.0. This was initially unexpected, because most adult intestines maintain a modest reserve capacity beyond nutrient load values, but postweaning rats appear to use hindgut fermentation, assessed by gut morphology and hydrogen production assays, as a built-in reserve capacity. The series capacities of lactase and SGLT-1 varied in concert with each other over ontogeny and as lactose load was manipulated by experimental variation in litter size.  (+info)

Effect of reducing the phytate content and of partially hydrolyzing the protein in soy formula on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys and rat pups. (3/1173)

BACKGROUND: Although soy formulas have been designed to meet the nutrient requirements of human infants, they also contain phytate, which may negatively affect trace element absorption. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the effect of removing phytate on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys and suckling rat pups and evaluated differences between intact and partially hydrolyzed soy protein. DESIGN: In monkeys, regular and low-phytate soy formulas were fed exclusively for 4 mo and whole-body absorption and retention of 65Zn, 67Cu, 59Fe, 54Mn, and 47Ca were determined at different time points with a whole-body counter. Subsequently, zinc and copper absorption from several human infant formulas and the effect of phytate concentration were evaluated in suckling rat pups by using 65Zn and 64Cu. Finally, infant rhesus monkeys were fed low-phytate formulas with intact or hydrolyzed soy protein for 4 mo and plasma zinc and copper were measured monthly. RESULTS: In the first monkey study, zinc absorption at 1 mo was higher from low-phytate soy formula (36%) than from regular soy formula (22%), whereas there was no significant difference between groups in the absorption of other minerals. Plasma copper was significantly lower in monkeys fed low-phytate soy formula from 2 to 4 mo. In rat pups, zinc absorption was significantly higher from low-phytate soy formula (78%) than from regular soy formula (51%) and hydrolysis of the protein had no significant effect. Phytate content or protein hydrolysis did not significantly affect copper absorption. In the second monkey study, plasma copper concentrations were highest in monkeys fed the low-phytate, hydrolyzed-protein soy formula. CONCLUSION: Reducing the phytate content and partially hydrolyzing the protein in soy formula had a beneficial effect on zinc and copper absorption and status in infant rhesus monkeys.  (+info)

Comparisons of flux control exerted by mitochondrial outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase over ketogenesis in hepatocytes and mitochondria isolated from suckling or adult rats. (4/1173)

The primary aim of this paper was to calculate and report flux control coefficients for mitochondrial outer-membrane carnitine palmitoyltransferase (CPT I) over hepatic ketogenesis because its role in controlling this pathway during the neonatal period is of academic importance and immediate clinical relevance. Using hepatocytes isolated from suckling rats as our model system, we measured CPT I activity and carbon flux from palmitate to ketone bodies and to CO2 in the absence and presence of a range of concentrations of etomoxir. (This is converted in situ to etomoxir-CoA which is a specific inhibitor of the enzyme.) From these data we calculated the individual flux control coefficients for CPT I over ketogenesis, CO2 production and total carbon flux (0.51 +/- 0.03; -1.30 +/- 0.26; 0.55 +/- 0.07, respectively) and compared them with equivalent coefficients calculated by similar analyses [Drynan, L., Quant, P.A. & Zammit, V.A. (1996) Biochem. J. 317, 791-795] in hepatocytes isolated from adult rats (0.85 +/- 0.20; 0.23 +/- 0.06; 1.06 +/- 0.29). CPT I exerts significantly less control over ketogenesis in hepatocytes isolated from suckling rats than those from adult rats. In the suckling systems the flux control coefficients for CPT I over ketogenesis specifically and over total carbon flux (< 0.6) are not consistent with the enzyme being rate-limiting. Broadly similar results were obtained and conclusions drawn by reanalysis of previous data {from experiments in mitochondria isolated from suckling or adult rats [Krauss, S., Lascelles, C.V., Zammit, V.A. & Quant, P.A. (1996) Biochem. J. 319, 427-433]} using a different approach of control analysis, although it is not strictly valid to compare flux control coefficients from different systems. Our overall conclusion is that flux control coefficients for CPT I over oxidative fluxes from palmitate (or palmitoyl-CoA) differ markedly according to (a) the metabolic state, (b) the stage of development, (c) the specific pathway studied and (d) the model system.  (+info)

Interferon-gamma plays a role in pancreatic islet-cell destruction of reovirus type 2-induced diabetes-like syndrome in DBA/1 suckling mice. (5/1173)

Reovirus type 2 (Reo-2) infection in DBA/1 suckling mice causes insulitis, which leads to pancreatic islet-cell destruction, resulting in a diabetes-like syndrome. T-helper (Th) 1 cytokines are thought to play a key role in islet inflammation in insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. We examined this hypothesis in the Reo-2-induced diabetes-like syndrome. We used reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative PCR techniques to examine mRNA expression of interferon (IFN)-gamma (Th1 type cytokine), and interleukin (IL)-4 (Th2 type cytokine) in splenic cells. We observed that in Reo-2 infected mice the level of IFN-gamma expression increases with the development of insulitis, whereas expression of message for IL-4 is minimal to detectable with the immuno-inflammatory process 10 days after infection. The treatment of monoclonal antibody (mAb) against mouse IFN-gamma during the expansion phase of insulitis (5-9 days after infection) inhibited the development of insulitis and the elevation of blood glucose concentrations in a dose dependent manner. Furthermore altered CD4+/CD8+ cell ratio compared with uninfected mice in the splenic cells by the infection was recovered to the ratio of uninfected mice by the treatment of mAb against mouse IFN-gamma, suggesting normalization of T cell balance in immune system. These results suggest that Reo-2-triggered autoimmune insulitis may be mediated by Th1 lymphocytes and IFN-gamma may play a role in islet inflammation leading to islet cell destruction.  (+info)

Glucocorticoids mediate the enhanced expression of intestinal type II arginase and argininosuccinate lyase in postweaning pigs. (6/1173)

Arginine metabolism is enhanced in the small intestine of weanling pigs, but the molecular mechanism(s) involved is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine the following: 1) whether glucocorticoids play a role in induction of intestinal arginine metabolic enzymes during weaning; 2) whether the induction of enzyme activities was due to increases in corresponding mRNA levels; and 3) the identity of the arginase isoform(s) expressed in the small intestine. Jejunum was obtained from 29-d-old weaned pigs that were or were not treated with 17-beta-hydroxy-11beta-(4-dimethylaminophenyl)17alpha-(prop- 1-ynyl)es tra-4,9-dien-3-one (RU486, an antagonist of glucocorticoid receptors), or from age-matched suckling pigs. Activities and mRNA levels for type I and type II arginases, argininosuccinate synthase (ASS) and argininosuccinate lyase (ASL) were determined. Activities of arginase, ASL and ASS increased by 635, 56 and 106%, respectively, in weanling pigs, compared with suckling pigs. RU486 treatment attenuated the increase in arginase activity by 74% and completely prevented the ASL induction in weanling pigs, but had no effect on ASS activity. Pig intestine expresses both type I and type II arginases. On the basis of immunoblot analyses, there was no significant difference in levels of intestinal type I arginase among these three groups of pigs, indicating that changes in arginase activity were due only to type II arginase. The mRNA levels for type II arginase and ASL increased by 135 and 198%, respectively, in weanling pigs compared with suckling pigs, and this induction was completely prevented by RU486. In contrast, ASS mRNA levels did not differ between suckling and weanling pigs. These results suggest that intestinal type II arginase, ASS and ASL are regulated differentially at transcriptional and post-translational levels and that glucocorticoids play a major role in the induction of type II arginase and ASL mRNAs in the small intestine of weanling pigs.  (+info)

Recovery of 15N-lactoferrin is higher than that of 15N-casein in the small intestine of suckling, but not adult miniature pigs. (7/1173)

Performance of biological functions of lactoferrin in the small intestine requires at least some resistance to degradation. Therefore, we studied prececal digestibility of lactoferrin in comparison to casein both in suckling and adult miniature pigs, applying 15N-labeled proteins. In study 1, 43 piglets (10-d-old), deprived of food for 12 h received 10 mL of sow's milk supplemented with 120 mg of 15N-labeled protein (porcine or bovine lactoferrin or bovine casein). Piglets were anesthetized 150 min later, after which the small intestine was excised, cut into three sections, and chyme was collected. In study 2, nine food-deprived boars fitted with T-canulae at the terminal ileum were given two semisynthetic experimental meals (204 g) in a cross-over design, 2 wk apart. One contained 7.5% (g/100 g) 15N-labeled bovine casein, the other 1.25% 15N-labeled bovine lactoferrin. Both were adjusted to 15% total protein with nonlabeled casein. Ileal chyme was collected from the canula over 33 h postprandially. All diets contained the indigestible marker chromic oxide. 15N-digestibility of lactoferrin, both porcine (84.4 +/- 3.2%) and bovine (82.3 +/- 4.8%), was significantly lower than casein digestibility (97.6 +/- 0.5%) in the distal small intestine of suckling piglets (P < 0.05). Based on immunoblotting after acrylamide electrophoresis, 4.5% of non- and partially digested lactoferrin was found in the last third of the small intestine of piglets. In adult miniature pigs there was no difference in 15N-digestibility of bovine lactoferrin compared to bovine casein (90.7 +/- 1.9% vs. 93.9 +/- 1.0%, P > 0.05). In suckling miniature pigs, the reduced digestibility of lactoferrin may provide the prerequisite for biological actions along the whole intestinal tract. The source of lactoferrin, porcine or bovine, made no difference in this respect.  (+info)

Ultrasonic vocalizations elicit orienting and associative reactions in preweanling mice. (8/1173)

On postnatal days (PND) 12 and 13, 90 male Swiss CD-1 mice were tested for orientation to 3 intensities of recorded ultrasounds while climbing an inclined wire grid surface. Motor responses and vocalization to replayed ultrasounds (55-75 kHz) of 20-, 40-, and 60-dB SPL indicated an intensity dependence. In Experiment 2, 138 pups were exposed to either contingent or noncontingent pairings of recorded ultrasounds of 55-75 kHz, averaging 40 dB, and mild inescapable footshocks, or taped vocalizations or footshocks only on PND 12, 14, or 16. At PND 18, subjects were tested for passive avoidance following exposure to the taped ultrasounds only upon entry into the dark side of a black-white compartment. Results suggested only overall, nonspecific effects of pretreatment to elicit responses antagonistic to motor activity. In Experiment 3, 36 pups at PND 15 were tested for passive avoidance with the ultrasound recordings of 40- or 80-dB onset upon entry to the dark compartment; a third group had no ultrasound exposure. A significant intensity effect confirmed that the ultrasounds had prepotent properties.  (+info)

"Suckling animals" refers to young mammals that are in the process of nursing from their mother's teats or nipples, typically for the purpose of obtaining milk and nutrition. This behavior is instinctual in newborn mammals and helps to establish a strong bond between the mother and offspring, as well as providing essential nutrients for growth and development.

The duration of suckling can vary widely among different species, ranging from just a few days or weeks in some animals to several months or even years in others. In many cases, suckling also helps to stimulate milk production in the mother, ensuring an adequate supply of milk for her offspring.

Examples of suckling animals include newborn humans, as well as young mammals such as puppies, kittens, piglets, lambs, calves, and fawns, among others.

Lactation is the process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals, including humans, for the nourishment of their young. This physiological function is initiated during pregnancy and continues until it is deliberately stopped or weaned off. The primary purpose of lactation is to provide essential nutrients, antibodies, and other bioactive components that support the growth, development, and immune system of newborns and infants.

The process of lactation involves several hormonal and physiological changes in a woman's body. During pregnancy, the hormones estrogen and progesterone stimulate the growth and development of the mammary glands. After childbirth, the levels of these hormones drop significantly, allowing another hormone called prolactin to take over. Prolactin is responsible for triggering the production of milk in the alveoli, which are tiny sacs within the breast tissue.

Another hormone, oxytocin, plays a crucial role in the release or "let-down" of milk from the alveoli to the nipple during lactation. This reflex is initiated by suckling or thinking about the baby, which sends signals to the brain to release oxytocin. The released oxytocin then binds to receptors in the mammary glands, causing the smooth muscles around the alveoli to contract and push out the milk through the ducts and into the nipple.

Lactation is a complex and highly regulated process that ensures the optimal growth and development of newborns and infants. It provides not only essential nutrients but also various bioactive components, such as immunoglobulins, enzymes, and growth factors, which protect the infant from infections and support their immune system.

In summary, lactation is the physiological process by which milk is produced and secreted from the mammary glands of female mammals for the nourishment of their young. It involves hormonal changes, including the actions of prolactin, oxytocin, estrogen, and progesterone, to regulate the production, storage, and release of milk.

"Sucking behavior" is not a term typically used in medical terminology. However, in the context of early childhood development and behavior, "non-nutritive sucking" is a term that may be used to describe an infant or young child's habitual sucking on their thumb, fingers, or pacifiers, beyond what is necessary for feeding. This type of sucking behavior can provide a sense of security, comfort, or help to self-soothe and manage stress or anxiety.

It's important to note that while non-nutritive sucking is generally considered a normal part of early childhood development, persistent sucking habits beyond the age of 2-4 years may lead to dental or orthodontic problems such as an overbite or open bite. Therefore, it's recommended to monitor and address these behaviors if they persist beyond this age range.

An animal population group refers to a collection of animals of the same species that live in a specific geographic area and interact with each other. These groups can vary in size and can be as small as a few individuals or as large as millions of individuals. The study of animal population groups is known as "population ecology" and it examines the dynamics of animal populations, including their distribution, abundance, demographics, and genetic structure.

Animal population groups can be structured into subgroups based on various factors such as age, sex, or social status. These subgroups may have different behaviors, habitats, or resource needs, which can affect their survival and reproduction. The study of animal population groups is important for understanding the dynamics of wildlife populations, managing wildlife resources, and conserving biodiversity.

Medical definition: "Milk ejection," also known as the "let-down reflex," is the release of milk from the alveoli (milk-producing sacs) of the breast during breastfeeding or pumping. It occurs when the hormone oxytocin is released into the bloodstream, causing the smooth muscles surrounding the alveoli to contract and push out the milk. This reflex is an essential part of lactation and helps ensure that the baby receives enough milk during feeding. The milk ejection can be triggered by various stimuli such as suckling, thinking about or hearing the baby, or physical touch.

Weaning is the process of gradually introducing an infant or young child to a new source of nutrition, such as solid foods, while simultaneously decreasing their dependence on breast milk or formula. This process can begin when the child is developmentally ready, typically around 6 months of age, and involves offering them small amounts of pureed or mashed foods to start, then gradually introducing more textured and varied foods as they become comfortable with the new diet. The weaning process should be done slowly and under the guidance of a healthcare provider to ensure that the child's nutritional needs are being met and to avoid any potential digestive issues.

Medically, "milk" is not defined. However, it is important to note that human babies are fed with breast milk, which is the secretion from the mammary glands of humans. It is rich in nutrients like proteins, fats, carbohydrates (lactose), vitamins and minerals that are essential for growth and development.

Other mammals also produce milk to feed their young. These include cows, goats, and sheep, among others. Their milk is often consumed by humans as a source of nutrition, especially in dairy products. However, the composition of these milks can vary significantly from human breast milk.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

Colostrum is the first type of milk produced by the mammary glands of mammals (including humans) after giving birth. It is a yellowish, sticky fluid that contains a higher concentration of nutrients, antibodies, and immune-boosting components compared to mature milk. Colostrum provides essential protection and nourishment for newborns during their most vulnerable period, helping them establish a healthy immune system and promoting optimal growth and development. It is rich in proteins, vitamins, minerals, and growth factors that support the baby's gut health, brain development, and overall well-being. In humans, colostrum is usually produced in small quantities during the first few days after delivery, and its consumption by newborns is crucial for setting a strong foundation for their health.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

The postpartum period refers to the time frame immediately following childbirth, typically defined as the first 6-12 weeks. During this time, significant physical and emotional changes occur as the body recovers from pregnancy and delivery. Hormone levels fluctuate dramatically, leading to various symptoms such as mood swings, fatigue, and breast engorgement. The reproductive system also undergoes significant changes, with the uterus returning to its pre-pregnancy size and shape, and the cervix closing.

It is essential to monitor physical and emotional health during this period, as complications such as postpartum depression, infection, or difficulty breastfeeding may arise. Regular check-ups with healthcare providers are recommended to ensure a healthy recovery and address any concerns. Additionally, proper rest, nutrition, and support from family and friends can help facilitate a smooth transition into this new phase of life.

Oxytocin is a hormone that is produced in the hypothalamus and released by the posterior pituitary gland. It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including social bonding, childbirth, and breastfeeding. During childbirth, oxytocin stimulates uterine contractions to facilitate labor and delivery. After giving birth, oxytocin continues to be released in large amounts during breastfeeding, promoting milk letdown and contributing to the development of the maternal-infant bond.

In social contexts, oxytocin has been referred to as the "love hormone" or "cuddle hormone," as it is involved in social bonding, trust, and attachment. It can be released during physical touch, such as hugging or cuddling, and may contribute to feelings of warmth and closeness between individuals.

In addition to its roles in childbirth, breastfeeding, and social bonding, oxytocin has been implicated in other physiological functions, including regulating blood pressure, reducing anxiety, and modulating pain perception.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

The small intestine is the portion of the gastrointestinal tract that extends from the pylorus of the stomach to the beginning of the large intestine (cecum). It plays a crucial role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food. The small intestine is divided into three parts: the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum.

1. Duodenum: This is the shortest and widest part of the small intestine, approximately 10 inches long. It receives chyme (partially digested food) from the stomach and begins the process of further digestion with the help of various enzymes and bile from the liver and pancreas.
2. Jejunum: The jejunum is the middle section, which measures about 8 feet in length. It has a large surface area due to the presence of circular folds (plicae circulares), finger-like projections called villi, and microvilli on the surface of the absorptive cells (enterocytes). These structures increase the intestinal surface area for efficient absorption of nutrients, electrolytes, and water.
3. Ileum: The ileum is the longest and final section of the small intestine, spanning about 12 feet. It continues the absorption process, mainly of vitamin B12, bile salts, and any remaining nutrients. At the end of the ileum, there is a valve called the ileocecal valve that prevents backflow of contents from the large intestine into the small intestine.

The primary function of the small intestine is to absorb the majority of nutrients, electrolytes, and water from ingested food. The mucosal lining of the small intestine contains numerous goblet cells that secrete mucus, which protects the epithelial surface and facilitates the movement of chyme through peristalsis. Additionally, the small intestine hosts a diverse community of microbiota, which contributes to various physiological functions, including digestion, immunity, and protection against pathogens.

Maternally-acquired immunity (MAI) refers to the passive immunity that is transferred from a mother to her offspring, typically through the placenta during pregnancy or through breast milk after birth. This immunity is temporary and provides protection to the newborn or young infant against infectious agents, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the mother's own immune experiences and responses.

In humans, maternally-acquired immunity is primarily mediated by the transfer of antibodies called immunoglobulins (IgG) across the placenta to the fetus during pregnancy. This process begins around the 20th week of gestation and continues until birth, providing the newborn with a range of protective antibodies against various pathogens. After birth, additional protection is provided through breast milk, which contains secretory immunoglobulin A (IgA) that helps to prevent infections in the infant's gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts.

Maternally-acquired immunity is an essential mechanism for protecting newborns and young infants, who have not yet developed their own active immune responses. However, it is important to note that maternally-acquired antibodies can also interfere with the infant's response to certain vaccines, as they may neutralize the vaccine antigens before the infant's immune system has a chance to mount its own response. This is one reason why some vaccines are not recommended for young infants and why the timing of vaccinations may be adjusted in cases where maternally-acquired immunity is present.

Prolactin is a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, a small gland located at the base of the brain. Its primary function is to stimulate milk production in women after childbirth, a process known as lactation. However, prolactin also plays other roles in the body, including regulating immune responses, metabolism, and behavior. In men, prolactin helps maintain the sexual glands and contributes to paternal behaviors.

Prolactin levels are usually low in both men and non-pregnant women but increase significantly during pregnancy and after childbirth. Various factors can affect prolactin levels, including stress, sleep, exercise, and certain medications. High prolactin levels can lead to medical conditions such as amenorrhea (absence of menstruation), galactorrhea (spontaneous milk production not related to childbirth), infertility, and reduced sexual desire in both men and women.

Lactase is a specific enzyme that is produced by the cells lining the small intestine in humans and other mammals. Its primary function is to break down lactose, a sugar found in milk and dairy products, into simpler sugars called glucose and galactose, which can then be absorbed into the bloodstream.

Lactase is most active during infancy and early childhood, when breast milk or formula is the primary source of nutrition. However, in some individuals, lactase production decreases after weaning, leading to a condition called lactose intolerance. Lactose intolerant individuals have difficulty digesting lactose, which can result in various gastrointestinal symptoms such as bloating, cramps, diarrhea, and gas.

Supplemental lactase enzymes are available over the counter to help lactose-intolerant individuals digest dairy products more comfortably.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

Disaccharidases are a group of enzymes found in the brush border of the small intestine. They play an essential role in digesting complex carbohydrates into simpler sugars, which can then be absorbed into the bloodstream. The three main disaccharidases are:

1. Maltase-glucoamylase: This enzyme breaks down maltose (a disaccharide formed from two glucose molecules) and maltotriose (a trisaccharide formed from three glucose molecules) into individual glucose units.
2. Sucrase: This enzyme is responsible for breaking down sucrose (table sugar, a disaccharide composed of one glucose and one fructose molecule) into its component monosaccharides, glucose and fructose.
3. Lactase: This enzyme breaks down lactose (a disaccharide formed from one glucose and one galactose molecule) into its component monosaccharides, glucose and galactose.

Deficiencies in these disaccharidases can lead to various digestive disorders, such as lactose intolerance (due to lactase deficiency), sucrase-isomaltase deficiency, or congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID). These conditions can cause symptoms like bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps after consuming foods containing the specific disaccharide.

Enterotoxins are types of toxic substances that are produced by certain microorganisms, such as bacteria. These toxins are specifically designed to target and affect the cells in the intestines, leading to symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps. One well-known example of an enterotoxin is the toxin produced by Staphylococcus aureus bacteria, which can cause food poisoning. Another example is the cholera toxin produced by Vibrio cholerae, which can cause severe diarrhea and dehydration. Enterotoxins work by interfering with the normal functioning of intestinal cells, leading to fluid accumulation in the intestines and subsequent symptoms.

Ketone bodies, also known as ketones or ketoacids, are organic compounds that are produced by the liver during the metabolism of fats when carbohydrate intake is low. They include acetoacetate (AcAc), beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), and acetone. These molecules serve as an alternative energy source for the body, particularly for the brain and heart, when glucose levels are insufficient to meet energy demands.

In a healthy individual, ketone bodies are present in low concentrations; however, during periods of fasting, starvation, or intense physical exertion, ketone production increases significantly. In some pathological conditions like uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, the body may produce excessive amounts of ketones, leading to a dangerous metabolic state called diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA).

Elevated levels of ketone bodies can be detected in blood or urine and are often used as an indicator of metabolic status. Monitoring ketone levels is essential for managing certain medical conditions, such as diabetes, where maintaining optimal ketone concentrations is crucial to prevent complications.

Reoviridae infections refer to diseases caused by the Reoviridae family of viruses, which are non-enveloped, double-stranded RNA viruses. These viruses are widespread and can infect a variety of hosts, including humans, animals, and insects. The infection typically causes mild respiratory or gastrointestinal symptoms in humans, such as cough, runny nose, sore throat, and diarrhea. In some cases, Reoviridae infections may also lead to more severe diseases, such as meningitis or encephalitis, particularly in immunocompromised individuals. However, it's worth noting that many Reoviridae infections are asymptomatic and do not cause any noticeable illness.

Reoviridae viruses include several genera, such as Orthoreovirus, Rotavirus, Coltivirus, and Orbivirus, among others. Some of the most well-known human pathogens in this family include Rotaviruses, which are a leading cause of severe diarrheal disease in young children worldwide, and Orthoreoviruses, which can cause respiratory illnesses.

Treatment for Reoviridae infections is generally supportive, focusing on managing symptoms such as fever, dehydration, and pain. Antiviral medications are not typically used to treat these infections. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing and avoiding close contact with infected individuals, as well as vaccination against specific Reoviridae viruses, such as Rotavirus vaccines.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Anovulation is a medical condition in which there is a failure to ovulate, or release a mature egg from the ovaries, during a menstrual cycle. This can occur due to various reasons such as hormonal imbalances, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, excessive exercise, stress, low body weight, or certain medications. Anovulation is common in women with irregular menstrual cycles and can cause infertility if left untreated. In some cases, anovulation may be treated with medication to stimulate ovulation.

The ileum is the third and final segment of the small intestine, located between the jejunum and the cecum (the beginning of the large intestine). It plays a crucial role in nutrient absorption, particularly for vitamin B12 and bile salts. The ileum is characterized by its thin, lined walls and the presence of Peyer's patches, which are part of the immune system and help surveil for pathogens.

Mammary glands are specialized exocrine glands found in mammals, including humans and other animals. These glands are responsible for producing milk, which is used to nurse offspring after birth. The mammary glands are located in the breast region of female mammals and are usually rudimentary or absent in males.

In animals, mammary glands can vary in number and location depending on the species. For example, humans and other primates have two mammary glands, one in each breast. Cows, goats, and sheep, on the other hand, have multiple pairs of mammary glands located in their lower abdominal region.

Mammary glands are made up of several structures, including lobules, ducts, and connective tissue. The lobules contain clusters of milk-secreting cells called alveoli, which produce and store milk. The ducts transport the milk from the lobules to the nipple, where it is released during lactation.

Mammary glands are an essential feature of mammals, as they provide a source of nutrition for newborn offspring. They also play a role in the development and maintenance of the mother-infant bond, as nursing provides opportunities for physical contact and bonding between the mother and her young.

Litter size is a term used in veterinary medicine, particularly in relation to breeding of animals. It refers to the number of offspring that are born to an animal during one pregnancy. For example, in the case of dogs or cats, it would be the number of kittens or puppies born in a single litter. The size of the litter can vary widely depending on the species, breed, age, and health status of the parent animals.

Aging is a complex, progressive and inevitable process of bodily changes over time, characterized by the accumulation of cellular damage and degenerative changes that eventually lead to increased vulnerability to disease and death. It involves various biological, genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that contribute to the decline in physical and mental functions. The medical field studies aging through the discipline of gerontology, which aims to understand the underlying mechanisms of aging and develop interventions to promote healthy aging and extend the human healthspan.

Estrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the physiological and behavioral state of female mammals that are ready to mate and conceive. It refers to the period of time when the female's reproductive system is most receptive to fertilization.

During estrus, the female's ovaries release one or more mature eggs (ovulation) into the fallopian tubes, where they can be fertilized by sperm from a male. This phase of the estrous cycle is often accompanied by changes in behavior and physical appearance, such as increased vocalization, restlessness, and swelling of the genital area.

The duration and frequency of estrus vary widely among different species of mammals. In some animals, such as dogs and cats, estrus occurs regularly at intervals of several weeks or months, while in others, such as cows and mares, it may only occur once or twice a year.

It's important to note that the term "estrus" is not used to describe human reproductive physiology. In humans, the equivalent phase of the menstrual cycle is called ovulation.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Luteinizing Hormone (LH) is a glycoprotein hormone, which is primarily produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland. In women, a surge of LH triggers ovulation, the release of an egg from the ovaries during the menstrual cycle. During pregnancy, LH stimulates the corpus luteum to produce progesterone. In men, LH stimulates the testes to produce testosterone. It plays a crucial role in sexual development, reproduction, and maintaining the reproductive system.

"Trichinella" is a genus of parasitic roundworms that are known to cause the disease trichinosis in humans and other animals. The worms are tiny, typically less than 1-2 millimeters in length, and live in the small intestine of their host after being ingested through contaminated raw or undercooked meat, particularly pork.

The larvae of Trichinella can encyst themselves in the muscle tissue of the host, leading to symptoms such as muscle pain, fever, swelling, and gastrointestinal distress. In severe cases, trichinosis can cause neurological problems, heart complications, and even death.

Preventing trichinosis involves cooking meat thoroughly, avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, and practicing good food hygiene.

The jejunum is the middle section of the small intestine, located between the duodenum and the ileum. It is responsible for the majority of nutrient absorption that occurs in the small intestine, particularly carbohydrates, proteins, and some fats. The jejunum is characterized by its smooth muscle structure, which allows it to contract and mix food with digestive enzymes and absorb nutrients through its extensive network of finger-like projections called villi.

The jejunum is also lined with microvilli, which further increase the surface area available for absorption. Additionally, the jejunum contains numerous lymphatic vessels called lacteals, which help to absorb fats and fat-soluble vitamins into the bloodstream. Overall, the jejunum plays a critical role in the digestion and absorption of nutrients from food.

Maternal behavior refers to the nurturing and protective behaviors exhibited by a female animal towards its offspring. In humans, this term is often used to describe the natural instincts and actions of a woman during pregnancy, childbirth, and early child-rearing. It encompasses a broad range of activities such as feeding, grooming, protecting, and teaching the young.

In the context of medical and psychological research, maternal behavior is often studied to understand the factors that influence its development, expression, and outcomes for both the mother and offspring. Factors that can affect maternal behavior include hormonal changes during pregnancy and childbirth, as well as social, cultural, and environmental influences.

Abnormal or atypical maternal behavior may indicate underlying mental health issues, such as postpartum depression or anxiety, and can have negative consequences for both the mother and the child's development and well-being. Therefore, it is important to monitor and support healthy maternal behaviors in new mothers to promote positive outcomes for both parties.

Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding and raising animals for agricultural purposes, such as for the production of meat, milk, eggs, or fiber. It involves providing proper care for the animals, including feeding, housing, health care, and breeding management. The goal of animal husbandry is to maintain healthy and productive animals while also being mindful of environmental sustainability and animal welfare.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

Rotavirus is a genus of double-stranded RNA virus in the Reoviridae family, which is a leading cause of severe diarrhea and gastroenteritis in young children and infants worldwide. The virus infects and damages the cells lining the small intestine, resulting in symptoms such as vomiting, watery diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever.

Rotavirus is highly contagious and can be spread through contact with infected individuals or contaminated surfaces, food, or water. The virus is typically transmitted via the fecal-oral route, meaning that it enters the body through the mouth after coming into contact with contaminated hands, objects, or food.

Rotavirus infections are often self-limiting and resolve within a few days to a week, but severe cases can lead to dehydration, hospitalization, and even death, particularly in developing countries where access to medical care and rehydration therapy may be limited. Fortunately, there are effective vaccines available that can prevent rotavirus infection and reduce the severity of symptoms in those who do become infected.

Swine diseases refer to a wide range of infectious and non-infectious conditions that affect pigs. These diseases can be caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites, or environmental factors. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): a viral disease that causes reproductive failure in sows and respiratory problems in piglets and grower pigs.
2. Classical Swine Fever (CSF): also known as hog cholera, is a highly contagious viral disease that affects pigs of all ages.
3. Porcine Circovirus Disease (PCVD): a group of diseases caused by porcine circoviruses, including Porcine CircoVirus Associated Disease (PCVAD) and Postweaning Multisystemic Wasting Syndrome (PMWS).
4. Swine Influenza: a respiratory disease caused by type A influenza viruses that can infect pigs and humans.
5. Mycoplasma Hyopneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes pneumonia in pigs.
6. Actinobacillus Pleuropneumoniae: a bacterial disease that causes severe pneumonia in pigs.
7. Salmonella: a group of bacteria that can cause food poisoning in humans and a variety of diseases in pigs, including septicemia, meningitis, and abortion.
8. Brachyspira Hyodysenteriae: a bacterial disease that causes dysentery in pigs.
9. Erysipelothrix Rhusiopathiae: a bacterial disease that causes erysipelas in pigs.
10. External and internal parasites, such as lice, mites, worms, and flukes, can also cause diseases in swine.

Prevention and control of swine diseases rely on good biosecurity practices, vaccination programs, proper nutrition, and management practices. Regular veterinary check-ups and monitoring are essential to detect and treat diseases early.

Anestrus is a term used in veterinary medicine to describe the period of sexual quiescence in female animals, during which they do not exhibit estrous cycles. This phase is characterized by low levels of reproductive hormones and is seen in some species as a part of their natural reproductive cycle, while in others it may indicate an abnormality or underlying health issue.

For example, in dogs, anestrus is the period between heat cycles when the reproductive system is relatively inactive. In contrast, in domestic cats, continuous estrous cycling is the norm, and they do not typically exhibit an anestrus phase.

In some cases, anestrus may be induced by factors such as poor nutrition, stress, or illness, and it can have negative consequences for an animal's reproductive health if it persists for too long. If an animal is experiencing prolonged anestrus or other reproductive issues, it is important to consult with a veterinarian for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Weight gain is defined as an increase in body weight over time, which can be attributed to various factors such as an increase in muscle mass, fat mass, or total body water. It is typically measured in terms of pounds or kilograms and can be intentional or unintentional. Unintentional weight gain may be a cause for concern if it's significant or accompanied by other symptoms, as it could indicate an underlying medical condition such as hypothyroidism, diabetes, or heart disease.

It is important to note that while body mass index (BMI) can be used as a general guideline for weight status, it does not differentiate between muscle mass and fat mass. Therefore, an increase in muscle mass through activities like strength training could result in a higher BMI, but this may not necessarily be indicative of increased health risks associated with excess body fat.

"Animal nutritional physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical or scientific term. However, it seems to refer to the processes and functions related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Here's a breakdown of the possible components:

1. Animal: This term refers to non-human living organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic, and have a distinct nervous system.
2. Nutritional: This term pertains to the nourishment and energy requirements of an animal, including the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients.
3. Physiological: This term refers to the functions and processes that occur within a living organism, including the interactions between different organs and systems.
4. Phenomena: This term generally means an observable fact or event.

Therefore, "animal nutritional physiological phenomena" could refer to the observable events and processes related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Examples of such phenomena include digestion, absorption, metabolism, energy production, growth, reproduction, and waste elimination.

"Random allocation," also known as "random assignment" or "randomization," is a process used in clinical trials and other research studies to distribute participants into different intervention groups (such as experimental group vs. control group) in a way that minimizes selection bias and ensures the groups are comparable at the start of the study.

In random allocation, each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any group, and the assignment is typically made using a computer-generated randomization schedule or other objective methods. This process helps to ensure that any differences between the groups are due to the intervention being tested rather than pre-existing differences in the participants' characteristics.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Sucrase is a digestive enzyme that is produced by the cells lining the small intestine. Its primary function is to break down sucrose, also known as table sugar or cane sugar, into its component monosaccharides: glucose and fructose. This process allows for the absorption of these simple sugars into the bloodstream, where they can be used as energy sources by the body's cells.

Sucrase is often deficient in people with certain genetic disorders, such as congenital sucrase-isomaltase deficiency (CSID), which leads to an impaired ability to digest sucrose and results in gastrointestinal symptoms like bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal pain after consuming sugary foods or beverages. In these cases, a sucralose-based diet may be recommended to alleviate the symptoms.

Parturition is the process of giving birth, or the act of delivering newborn offspring. In medical terms, it refers to the expulsion of the products of conception (such as the fetus, placenta, and membranes) from the uterus of a pregnant woman during childbirth. This process is regulated by hormonal changes and involves complex interactions between the mother's body and the developing fetus. Parturition typically occurs after a full-term pregnancy, which is approximately 40 weeks in humans.

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotavirus is the most common cause of severe diarrhea among children under 5 years of age. It is responsible for around 215,000 deaths among children in this age group each year.

Rotavirus infection causes inflammation of the stomach and intestines, resulting in symptoms such as vomiting, watery diarrhea, and fever. The virus is transmitted through the fecal-oral route, often through contaminated hands, food, or water. It can also be spread through respiratory droplets when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

Rotavirus infections are highly contagious and can spread rapidly in communities, particularly in settings where children are in close contact with each other, such as child care centers and schools. The infection is usually self-limiting and resolves within a few days, but severe cases can lead to dehydration and require hospitalization.

Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, such as handwashing with soap and water, safe disposal of feces, and rotavirus vaccination. The WHO recommends the inclusion of rotavirus vaccines in national immunization programs to reduce the burden of severe diarrhea caused by rotavirus infection.

Lactose is a disaccharide, a type of sugar, that is naturally found in milk and dairy products. It is made up of two simple sugars, glucose and galactose, linked together. In order for the body to absorb and use lactose, it must be broken down into these simpler sugars by an enzyme called lactase, which is produced in the lining of the small intestine.

People who have a deficiency of lactase are unable to fully digest lactose, leading to symptoms such as bloating, diarrhea, and abdominal cramps, a condition known as lactose intolerance.

Breastfeeding is the process of providing nutrition to an infant or young child by feeding them breast milk directly from the mother's breast. It is also known as nursing. Breast milk is the natural food for newborns and infants, and it provides all the nutrients they need to grow and develop during the first six months of life.

Breastfeeding has many benefits for both the mother and the baby. For the baby, breast milk contains antibodies that help protect against infections and diseases, and it can also reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), allergies, and obesity. For the mother, breastfeeding can help her lose weight after pregnancy, reduce the risk of certain types of cancer, and promote bonding with her baby.

Breastfeeding is recommended exclusively for the first six months of an infant's life, and then continued along with appropriate complementary foods until the child is at least two years old or beyond. However, it is important to note that every mother and baby pair is unique, and what works best for one may not work as well for another. It is recommended that mothers consult with their healthcare provider to determine the best feeding plan for themselves and their baby.

Maternal-fetal exchange, also known as maternal-fetal transport or placental transfer, refers to the physiological process by which various substances are exchanged between the mother and fetus through the placenta. This exchange includes the transfer of oxygen and nutrients from the mother's bloodstream to the fetal bloodstream, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide from the fetal bloodstream to the mother's bloodstream.

The process occurs via passive diffusion, facilitated diffusion, and active transport mechanisms across the placental barrier, which is composed of fetal capillary endothelial cells, the extracellular matrix, and the syncytiotrophoblast layer of the placenta. The maternal-fetal exchange is crucial for the growth, development, and survival of the fetus throughout pregnancy.

"Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae" is a type of bacteria that primarily affects the respiratory system of pigs, causing a disease known as Enzootic Pneumonia. It is one of the most common causes of pneumonia in pigs and can lead to reduced growth rates, decreased feed conversion efficiency, and increased mortality in infected herds.

The bacteria lack a cell wall, which makes them resistant to many antibiotics that target cell wall synthesis. They are also highly infectious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected pigs or contaminated fomites such as feed, water, and equipment. Infection with "Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae" can lead to the development of lesions in the lungs, which can make the animal more susceptible to secondary bacterial and viral infections.

Diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection typically involves a combination of clinical signs, laboratory tests such as serology, PCR, or culture, and sometimes histopathological examination of lung tissue. Control measures may include antibiotic treatment, vaccination, biosecurity measures, and herd management practices aimed at reducing the spread of the bacteria within and between pig populations.

"Dairying" is not a medical term. It refers to the industry or practice of producing and processing milk and milk products, such as butter, cheese, and yogurt, typically from cows but also from other animals like goats and sheep. Dairying involves various activities including breeding and raising dairy animals, milking, processing, and marketing milk and milk products. It is not a medical concept or procedure.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

Relaxin is a hormone produced by the ovaries and, during pregnancy, also by the placenta and the fetal membranes. Its primary function is to relax the uterus and pelvic joints in preparation for childbirth, hence its name. It does this by softening the connective tissues and increasing their elasticity, which allows them to stretch more easily. Relaxin also plays a role in the cardiovascular system during pregnancy, helping to maintain healthy blood pressure levels.

Additionally, relaxin has been shown to have effects on other parts of the body, such as reducing muscle stiffness and joint pain, increasing flexibility, and potentially even playing a role in bone metabolism. However, more research is needed to fully understand all of its functions and potential therapeutic uses.

Ovulation is the medical term for the release of a mature egg from an ovary during a woman's menstrual cycle. The released egg travels through the fallopian tube where it may be fertilized by sperm if sexual intercourse has occurred recently. If the egg is not fertilized, it will break down and leave the body along with the uterine lining during menstruation. Ovulation typically occurs around day 14 of a 28-day menstrual cycle, but the timing can vary widely from woman to woman and even from cycle to cycle in the same woman.

During ovulation, there are several physical changes that may occur in a woman's body, such as an increase in basal body temperature, changes in cervical mucus, and mild cramping or discomfort on one side of the lower abdomen (known as mittelschmerz). These symptoms can be used to help predict ovulation and improve the chances of conception.

It's worth noting that some medical conditions, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) or premature ovarian failure, may affect ovulation and make it difficult for a woman to become pregnant. In these cases, medical intervention may be necessary to help promote ovulation and increase the chances of conception.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

Nutrition disorders refer to conditions that result from eating, drinking, or absorbing nutrients in a way that is not consistent with human physiological needs. These disorders can manifest as both undernutrition and overnutrition. Undernutrition includes disorders such as protein-energy malnutrition, vitamin deficiencies, and mineral deficiencies, while overnutrition includes conditions such as obesity and diet-related noncommunicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer.

Malnutrition is the broad term used to describe a state in which a person's nutrient intake is insufficient or excessive, leading to negative consequences for their health. Malnutrition can be caused by a variety of factors, including poverty, food insecurity, lack of education, cultural practices, and chronic diseases.

In addition to under- and overnutrition, disordered eating patterns such as anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and other specified feeding or eating disorders can also be considered nutrition disorders. These conditions are characterized by abnormal eating habits that can lead to serious health consequences, including malnutrition, organ damage, and mental health problems.

Overall, nutrition disorders are complex conditions that can have significant impacts on a person's physical and mental health. They require careful assessment, diagnosis, and treatment by healthcare professionals with expertise in nutrition and dietetics.

There are many ancient recipes for suckling pig from Roman and Chinese cuisine. Since the pig is one of the first animals ... It has been argued that the use of suckling pigs for human consumption is unethical, especially in the case of young animals ... A suckling pig is a piglet fed on its mother's milk (i.e., a piglet which is still a "suckling"). In culinary contexts, a ... Lechón/Leitão is a word referring to a roasted baby pig (piglet) which was still fed by suckling its mother's milk (a suckling ...
Suckling, K.F. 2000. A House on Fire: Connecting the Biological and Linguistic Diversity Crises. Animal Law 6:193-202. Suckling ... and says of Suckling: "Rimbaud reinvented poetry. Kierán Suckling would do the same with environmentalism." The Center, which ... Suckling, K.F. and W. Hodges. 2007. Status of the bald eagle in the Lower 48 states and the District of Columbia. Center for ... Suckling's parents and siblings immigrated to the United States from Ireland and England in the 1960s. He is the only member of ...
Suckling, K.; W. Hodges (September 21, 2007). "Status of the bald eagle in the lower 48 states and the District of Columbia: ... It builds the largest nest of any North American bird and the largest tree nests ever recorded for any animal species, up to 4 ... "San Diego Zoo's Animal Bytes: Bald Eagle". Archived from the original on February 1, 2009. Retrieved March 3, ... "Animal Facts: Bald Eagle". August 14, 2006. Retrieved October 22, 2018. "Bald Eagle Viewing Directory". Archived from the ...
"Armed Sibling Rivalry among Suckling Piglets." Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 29.1 (1991): 9-15. Print. Pope W.F., S. Xie ... Animals, including siblings, compete for resources such as food, territory, and potential mating partners. In animal sibling ... Not all forms of sibling rivalry in animals involve direct aggression or death of a sibling. This is not an extremely ... "Fetal Programming by Co-Twin Rivalry in Sheep." Journal of Animal Science 92.1 (2014): 64-71. Print. Fraser, David, and B. K. ...
Odde, K. G.; Kiracofe, G.H.; Schalles, R.R. (1985). "Suckling behavior in range beef calves". Journal of Animal Science. 61 (2 ... While the animal is feeding, the food is swallowed without being chewed and goes into the rumen for storage until the animal ... They are used as riding animals and draft animals (oxen or bullocks, which pull carts, plows and other implements). Another ... Wolfson, D. J. (1996). Beyond the law: Agribusiness and the systemic abuse of animals raised for food or food production Animal ...
"Epizootic coronaviral typhlocolitis in suckling mice". Laboratory Animal Science. 32 (4): 376-83. ISSN 0023-6764. PMID 6292575 ... Helicobacter typhlonius is thought to cause irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) in both humans and animals, so it is used to study ... Laboratory Animals. 40 (1): 70-9. doi:10.1258/002367706775404390. PMID 16460591. S2CID 9941560. Kanehisa M, Furumichi M, Tanabe ...
These animals contribute to the reduction methods for animal research, as they supply more information from fewer animals used ... Piglets massage and suckle the sow's teats after milk flow ceases as a way of letting the sow know their nutritional status. ... Pigs, both as live animals and a source of post-mortem tissues, are one of the most valuable animal models used in biomedical ... doi:10.1016/s0168-1591(98)00100-2. Houpt, K.A., (1998). Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists. 3rd ...
"Using Anti-suckling Devices to Wean Beef Calves". New Mexico State University. January 2019. "Jack Albright, Why and how to ... animals). Bull § Handling Animal husbandry Calvin W. Schwabe, 'Cattle, Priests and Medicine', Vol.4, at p. 16 (U. of Minn. 1978 ... Animal welfare, Animal equipment, Cattle, Bulls, Pigs, Livestock, Metal rings, Farming tools). ... A nose ring is inserted into the nose of an animal. Nose rings are used to control bulls and occasionally cows, and to help ...
Cameron, Elissa Z (September 1998). "Is suckling behaviour a useful predictor of milk intake? A review". Animal Behaviour. 56 ( ... In animals that have infant altriciality and extended development, interbirth intervals are often longer to allow the mother to ... For example, as a benefit for the allo-nursers, an infant, through suckling, can stimulate the nipple to produce prolactin. ... Maternity in humans, like many other animals, is known and the mother's female relatives relatedness can be assumed by ...
Puppies become infected by close contact with the bitch during suckling. Puppies are more susceptible to infestation at this ... Close attention to domestic animals is necessary, including regular hand grooming of companion animals. This enables early ... Companion Animal Parasite Council, USA Dog ear mites - Companion Animal Parasite Council, USA Sarcoptic mites in dogs and cats ... Animal Health and Veterinary Laboratories Agency, UK Sarcoptic mites - Companion Animal Parasite Council, USA Demodex mites - ...
She-wolves suckled him, and deer brought him fruit. He learned to roar from a tiger, to hunt from an eagle, and to run from an ... Jangar went outside and roared, and all the animals living nearby came to see what the noise was. He befriended them and they ...
The Jewish Talmud permits children to suckle animals if the child's welfare dictates it. The suckling of infants by animals was ... women sometimes breastfed young animals, and animals were used to suckle babies and children. Animals were used as substitute ... Suckling directly was preferable to milking an animal and giving the milk, as contamination by microbes during the milking ... Several famous ancient historical figures were claimed to have been suckled by animals; Cyrus I of Persia was said to have been ...
Yavas, Y.; Wallon, J.S. (2000-07-01). "Induction of ovulation in postpartum suckled beef cows: A review". Theriogenology. 54 (1 ... Animals this has been recorded in include rabbits, voles, ferrets and camels. In some species such as the ferret, the duration ... Animals that have large, complex social groups benefit from spontaneous ovulation as only the best males get to breed with ... Induced ovulation is when a female animal ovulates due to an externally-derived stimulus during, or just prior to, mating, ...
Post-mortem findings in suckling animals include empty stomach contents with little milk curd. The intestines are thin walled ... Older animals do not shed as much virus in their feces as piglets. It can also be spread via contaminated fomites. A study ... Diagnosis of PED is confirmed using PCR from feces or intestines of affected animals, or by immunohistochemistry on formalin- ... doi: 10.1007/s13258-018-0686-0 Transboundary and Emerging Diseases of Animals. Iowa State University. 2016. ISBN 9780984627059 ...
Extinct animals of Cuba, Extinct animals of Haiti, Extinct animals of Jamaica, Extinct animals of the Dominican Republic). ... Like other monk seals, this species had four retractable nipples for suckling their young. Newborn pups were probably about 1 ... When compared to the body, the animal's foreflippers were relatively short with little claws and the hindflippers were slender ... It is believed this animal's average lifespan was approximately twenty years. The Caribbean monk seal nasal mite (Halarachne ...
... and leptin from mother's milk has been found in the blood of suckling infant animals. Leptin along with kisspeptin controls the ... This effect is reversed when the animals are put back on a low-energy diet. This also may have an evolutionary advantage: ... Leptin levels signal when an animal has enough stored energy to spend it in pursuits besides acquiring food. This would mean ... Treatment with leptin has been shown to enhance learning and memory in animal models. In humans, low circulating plasma leptin ...
Solid-patterned animals will simply show their base color all over. To be solid, a sheep must inherit the solid pattern from ... Sheep are not milked in Greenland, and instead the lamb is allowed to continue suckling. An attempt to determine the pattern of ... There are several other patterns which will change the appearance of the color the animal shows. One of these is gray, which, ... The taste and quality are closely linked to the animals' life conditions. Greenlandic fleece is dual-coated. When the long and ...
Another example of bunting is when a dam experiences pain while a foal is suckling. The dam will proceed to bunt the foal with ... This is when an animal, typically a carnivore, will rub its back on a scent, such as that of prey, or on the urine of an animal ... Cattle will attempt to bunt the rival animal with the goal of bunting its head under the hind legs of the other animal. This ... Bunting is a form of animal behavior, often found in cats, in which the animal butts or rubs its head against other things, ...
Cakes of bread were sacrificed along with the three animals. At the moment the sacrifices were made, the landowner was to say: ... "Father Mars, if aught hath not pleased thee in the offering of those sucklings, I make atonement with these victims." If only ... ISBN 978-1-60606-462-7. Hitch, Sarah; Rutherford, Ian (2017-08-24). Animal Sacrifice in the Ancient Greek World. Cambridge ... of sacrificed animals for divinatory signs. A private rural suovetaurilia was sacrificed each May on the festival of Ambarvalia ...
Pups are suckled for 4-6 weeks and weaned at four months. They become independent of their parents when they are 6-2 months old ... After a nine-week gestation, four to six pups are born in a den that provides protection from the elements and other animals. ... They will eat whatever is easiest to obtain when they are hungry, animal or vegetable matter. They will hunt for live prey, or ... When hunting in packs, they will take larger animals such as kangaroos, goats or the young of cattle and horses. Their choice ...
He was exposed and suckled by animals, while his mother was executed. After Theseus had killed Cercyon he willingly handed over ...
Small boats can easily be capsized by hippos and passengers can be injured or killed by the animals, or drown in the water. In ... Calves no longer need to suckle when they are a year old.: 64 Hippos coexist alongside a variety of large predators in their ... It rarely enters deep water; when it does, the animal moves by bouncing off the bottom. An adult hippo surfaces every four to ... According to Pliny the Elder, in his time, the best location in Egypt for capturing this animal was in the Saite nome; the ...
Compared to more conventional animals such as dairy cattle or goats, a main issue is their omnivorous diet. Also, the flavor of ... Production has been estimated using a system of weighing piglets prior to and after suckling.) In addition, no existing milking ... April 2014). "Shotgun proteomic analysis of porcine colostrum and mature milk". Animal Science Journal. 85 (4): 440-448. doi: ... Subcommittee on Feed Intake (contributor) (January 15, 1987). Predicting Feed Intake of Food-Producing Animals. National ...
... as well as eliminating infected animals and screening incoming animals, should clear the problem very quickly. Imported animals ... The virus can be detected in mouse colonies worldwide, generally in suckling to young adult mice. A study in France reported ... and has oncolytic properties demonstrated in animal models and in naturally-occurring cancers in animals. SeV's ability to fuse ... Moreover, even the animals that are unresponsive to type I IFN develop long-term anti-SeV immunity in a form of memory response ...
This can cause additional injuries inside the animal itself, especially in the upper gastrointestinal tract. In suckling white ... In non-domestic animals, cases of red imported fire ants stings in animals such as ferrets, moles squirrels, white-tailed deer ... Red imported fire ants are known to actively kill vertebrate animals, and cause significant livestock losses. Animals may ... Some animals may swallow red imported fire ants as they lick or bite around the sites they are stinging. ...
His personal seal included suckling animals in two registers, allegorically symbolizing his care for his subjects. The ...
A chivito has already begun to eat solid foods, whereas the cabrito is still a suckling. The chivito is less gamey and has a ... Chivito differs from cabrito in that chivito is a slightly older animal with whose meat is less tender. ...
Qureshi, M. Subhan (2010). "Pregnancy depresses milk yield in Dairy Buffaloes". Italian Journal of Animal Science. Animal ... Qureshi, M. Subhan (2008). "Interaction of calf suckling, use of oxytocin and milk yield with reproductive performance of dairy ... Dean Faculty of Animal Husbandry & Veterinary Sciences: Prof. Dr. Muhammad Subhan Qureshi. University of Agriculture, Peshawar ... Meanwhile, he joined the University of Agriculture, Faisalabad and completed his MSc and PhD degrees in animal reproduction. In ...
suckling An infant or young animal that suckles milk for most or all of its nourishment; one that has not yet been weaned. ... animal-free agriculture Any agricultural practice or farming method that does not make use of animals or animal products, such ... animal engine Any machine powered by an animal. Domestic animals, especially horses, mules, donkeys, oxen, and dogs, have ... free range A method of animal farming and animal husbandry in which the animals are permitted to roam freely outdoors, rather ...
The chivito has already begun to eat solid foods, whereas the cabrito is still a suckling. It is a regional specialty of the ... Cabrito en salsa (cabrito in sauce): The animal is cut into portions, browned in oil and braised in a tomato-based sauce with ... "Chivito" differs from "cabrito" in that chivito is a slightly older animal with less tender meat. ... along with the animal's liver, kidneys, and heart, and other seasonings. The end product is tender cabrito in a rich, very dark ...
... suckling whole pigs ideal for roasting. 100% milk-fed, antibiotic-free, and raised on small sustainable farms. Order now! ... Superior Animal Treatment. We raise our animals to be stress free. They roam wide open pastures grazing on native prairie ... Suckling, LARGE Roasting Pig (23-32 lbs). If youre looking for a main course that will make an impression, look no further. A ... These are heirloom breed, suckling whole pigs ideal for roasting. They are 100% milk fed with absolutely NO antibiotics in ...
There are many ancient recipes for suckling pig from Roman and Chinese cuisine. Since the pig is one of the first animals ... It has been argued that the use of suckling pigs for human consumption is unethical, especially in the case of young animals ... A suckling pig is a piglet fed on its mothers milk (i.e., a piglet which is still a "suckling"). In culinary contexts, a ... Lechón/Leitão is a word referring to a roasted baby pig (piglet) which was still fed by suckling its mothers milk (a suckling ...
We take a look at the Animal Health Ireland-led Pig HealthCheck programme and get an update on its activities in recent months ... The end of the road for small-scale suckling John Moran believes older farmers are being forced out of sucklers by the ... The suckler sector will meet its environmental targets by 2030 if those suckling just continue as we are, given the huge exodus ... The first feed of colostrum is crucial for newborn calves, but are animals getting enough? ...
Our research uses data-driven evidence to impact on human and animal health policy. ... Centre of Expertise on Animal Disease Outbreaks. *Improving neonatal survival of lambs and suckled calves ... Improving neonatal survival of lambs and suckled calves. Aims to develop evidence based advice for farmers to improve neonatal ... Centre of Expertise on Animal Disease Outbreaks (EPIC). Aiming to advise the Scottish Government and industry stakeholders on ...
Suckling mouse brain. 3 + 1. ,90. Hantaan/Seoul. Mongolian gerbil kidney. 2 + 1. ,95. ... Hantavirus Infections in Humans and Animals, China Yong-Zhen Zhang. , Yang Zou, Zhen F. Fu, and Alexander Plyusnin ... Hantavirus Infections in Humans and Animals, China. ...
Víctor Gaviria - "The Animals Wife," "The Rose Seller". Holly Goldberg Sloan - "Angels in the Outfield," "Made in America". ... Richard Suckle - "Wonder Woman," "American Hustle". Emma Tillinger Koskoff - "Silence," "The Wolf of Wall Street". Anne- ... Anne Nikitin - "American Animals," "The Imposter". Heitor Teixeira Pereira - "Smallfoot," "Real Women Have Curves". Arthur ... Zak Mulligan - "We the Animals," "Bleeding Heart". Sean Porter - "Green Book," "Rough Night". Joshua James Richards - "The ...
2. Do not treat sick, convalescent, or stressed animals. Do not apply directly to suckling pigs.. 3. Swine may be slaughtered ... Not for residential use on companion animals.. Storage:. Do not use or store near heat or open flame. Protect from temperatures ... Do not use this product on animals simultaneously or within a few days before or after treatment with or exposure to ... Do not use this product on animals simultaneously or within a few days before or after treatment with or exposure to ...
Animal studies have shown excretion of saxagliptin and/or metabolite in milk. A risk to the suckling child cannot be excluded. ... Studies in animals have shown reproductive toxicity at high doses (see section 5.3). The potential risk for humans is unknown. ...
1913 Webster] 2. A suckling; a sucking animal. --Beau. & Fl. [1913 Webster] 3. The embolus, or bucket, of a pump; also, the ... "er\ (s[u^]k"[~e]r), n. 1. One who, or that which, sucks; esp., one of the organs by which certain animals, as the octopus and ...
Mythology doesnt seem to connect the charioteer and the animals. However the goat is the star Capella (a name meaning little ... Capella is associated in mythology with Amalthea who suckled the infant Zeus. Two stars, Eta Aurigae and Zeta Aurigae, are the ...
However, some animals can also pass diseases to people. These diseases are called zoonoses. ... How it spreads: Animals spread Orf virus to each other through cuts or abrasions in the skin, typically during suckling. People ... Signs in farm animals: Most animals infected with C. burnetii do not have symptoms. However, infected animals may lose weight ... Do not stand directly behind a farm animal or approach a farm animal from the rear, even when the animal stands in stocks or is ...
He first sculpted animals while studying under Richard Scheibe (from 1907), and in 1910 modelled animals for the Schwarzburg ... This new style of work can be seen in Woman Suckling (gold-plated limewood relief, 1919; Bremen, Marcks-Haus). Walter Gropius, ...
Which means that animals and natural elements in general are treated with respect. Closed from 2 to 30 November, the park is ... the Capitoline Wolf suckling Romulus and Remus; the two Egyptian Lions at the ramp of the Capitol; the little elephant in ... Every Thursday and Friday, the appointments with animal meals return, organized by the Zookeepers, to discover the ingredients ... Lets discover the fascinating symbolic animals that hide in the streets of the historic city centre! Among them: ...
Season(s) Companion Animals are available: All Seasons. Live Animals for Slaughter: Feeder stock, Sucklings 3 mo to consumers, ... Live Animals: Commercial Breeding Stock, Companion Animals. Season(s) Commercial Breeding Stock are available: All Seasons. ... Adult animals to consumers. Season(s) Feeder stock are available: Spring, Winter. Season(s) Sucklings Fall, Winter, All Seasons ... Season(s) Adult animals to consumers are available: All Seasons. Remarks: Providing healthy, local, natural, pasture raised, ...
Current concepts on animal bites: bacteriology and therapy. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis. 1999. 19:99-111. [QxMD MEDLINE Link]. ... Two types of nerve tissue vaccine exist: the Semple type (STV) and the suckling mouse brain vaccine (SMBV). STV is obtained ... Animal and Food related Public Health Risks. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2001. [Full Text]. ... Same as for risk category 3, but risk duration ≤3 years (eg, short-term volunteer providing hands-on animal care or infrequent ...
He went on to detail pheromones and their effects in the animal kingdom, from suckling rabbits to ovulating goats. ... followed by time to walk around with a glass of wine staring at the bizarre animals preserved in jars! ...
Animals-13 healthy Holstein cows.. Procedures-All calvings were observed. After parturition, calves were not allowed to suckle ... Animals-104 calves.. Procedures-Equal numbers of calves were randomly assigned to groups and fed 3 L of their dams colostrum ... Animals-78 dairy cows.. Procedures-Serum samples were obtained 60 and 39 days prior to expected parturition in vaccinated and ... ANIMALS 16 healthy adult mixed-breed sheep.. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, sheep were randomly assigned to receive ...
Animal Legal Defense Fund. The Animal Legal Defense Fund Externship and Volunteer Program gives law students who demonstrate an ... It was founded in 1989 by Kieran Suckling, Peter Galvin, Todd Schulke and Robin Silver. The organization believes that the ... Animal Legal Defense Fund. American Bee Project. Disability Rights Louisiana. Immigration Services and Legal Advocacy (ISLA). ... Externs and volunteers also participate in activities that will allow them to network across the organization with Animal Legal ...
The western population segment ranges from Cape Suckling, just east of Prince William Sound, to the end of the Aleutian Islands ... More than half of those cases involved animals in the western Steller sea lion population, which is classified as endangered. ... While the vast majority of Steller sea lion cases involved gear entanglements or entrapments, 38 of the animals were found dead ... Cases ranged geographically from the Arctic Ocean, where animals like ringed seals were reported to be entangled in gear, to ...
Ulbricht, T.L.V. (1992) Animal fats and human health. Animal Production 54: 462AGoogle Scholar ... Fritsche, K.L., Huang, S.C. and Cassity, N.A. (1993) Enrichment of omega-3 fatty acids in suckling pigs by maternal dietary ... Karrick, N.L. (1990) Nutritional value of fish oil as animal feed. In: Fish Oils in Nutrition (Ed.Stansby, M.E.), Van Nostrand ... Opstvedt, J. (1985) Fish Lipids in Animal Nutrition. Technical Bulletin. International Fishmeal and Oil Manufacturers ...
Nothing but a rational animal confined to the dust and ooze of evolution, just a mass of DNA coming apart at the genes. Or, as ... Or, as Emerson put it: "A pagan, suckled in a creed outworn." ... Nothing but a rational animal confined to the dust and ooze of ... Emerson put it: "A pagan, suckled in a creed outworn.". Emersons next attack was aimed at the nature of revelation itself. It ...
... at Saving Hope Animal Rescue Fund in Brigham City, UT on Petfinder. Learn more about Lonestar today. ... Sometimes you can hear him suckling, its just the cutest noise.. Lonestars back story the poor guy found himself at the Fort ... Saving Hope Animal Rescue Fund Brigham City, UT * Can be transported to: Brigham City, UT ...
Piglets are precocious animals, born with teeth and the ability to suckle immediately. They first fight for space with their ... Unlike many other animals, white coloration in sheep is a dominant gene, rather than a recessive gene or mutation like albinism ... The sheep is one of the earliest domesticated animals. There are over one billion sheep in the world, and their wool is one of ... Palomino refers to a size and color of horse, specifically a gold-colored animal standing 14 to 17 hands high. A hand is a ...
... "suckle animal." The strange nonsense language makes the standard language strange, nonsensical. The different versions of the ... For example I realized that "valnötsdjur" wasnt just a "walnut-animal" but maybe even a "whale-nut-animal. The neologisms ...
Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources, 2015. DOI:10.5851/kosfa.2015.35.6.824 ... L) extract on leptin, ghrelin, total antioxidant capacity, and performance of suckling lambs. Comparative Clinical Pathology, ... World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology, International Journal of Animal and Veterinary Sciences, 2016 ... L) on lipid profile, some blood parameters and performance in Torki Qashqai suckling lambs ...
Linnaeus invented the term Mammalia to separate off warm-blooded animals that. suckle their young from the rest of the ... Instead, with an open mind, she explores attitudes to human and animal. monstrosities, the production of hybrids, and even ...
The history of animals which suckle their young.. MASTRESS, n.. for Mistress, is not used. Chaucer. ... A genus of mammiferous and pachydermatous animals resembling the elephant, now extinct, and known only by their fossil remains. ...
... an animal welfare organization, gathered 50,000 signatures on a petition asking the family to adopt a shelter animal.[32] ... apparently his attempts to suckle irritated her.[20][33] The Obamas pledged a donation to the DC Humane Society in a show of ... Scott, Danny; Miller, William; Griffin, Craig (2001). Small Animal Dermatology. W B Saunders. p. 4. ISBN 0-7216-7618-9. .. ... People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) described the familys choice to accept the gift of a puppy from a family ...
  • These are heirloom breed, suckling whole pigs ideal for roasting. (
  • Since the pig is one of the first animals domesticated by human beings for slaughter, many references to pigs are found in human culture. (
  • It has been argued that the use of suckling pigs for human consumption is unethical, especially in the case of young animals removed from their mothers earlier than weaning would happen in nature: natural weaning takes place at around 12 weeks of age, whereas suckling pigs are slaughtered at 2 to 6 weeks of age. (
  • Further, investigations by media and animal rights groups have uncovered animal cruelty and inhumane conditions related to the farming of suckling pigs. (
  • In the latter case, the meaning of the designation diverted in these regions from the original Spanish term to become a general term for "roasted pig", and is nowadays used in reference to adult roasted pigs more often than to lechones (milk suckling pigs), with Cebu being asserted by American chef Anthony Bourdain as having the best pigs. (
  • The first feed of colostrum is crucial for newborn calves, but are animals getting enough? (
  • Aims to develop evidence based advice for farmers to improve neonatal survival of lambs and suckled calves. (
  • Objective -To determine and compare the abomasal emptying rates in calves suckling milk replacer or an isotonic or hypertonic solution of NaHCO 3 or glucose. (
  • Whether slowing of the abomasal emptying rate in dehydrated diarrheic calves suckling an oral electrolyte solution is clinically important remains to be determined. (
  • Objective -To develop nuclear scintigraphic and acetaminophen absorption methods for measuring abomasal emptying rate in suckling calves. (
  • Lechón/Leitão is a word referring to a roasted baby pig (piglet) which was still fed by suckling its mother's milk (a suckling pig). (
  • He went on to detail pheromones and their effects in the animal kingdom, from suckling rabbits to ovulating goats. (
  • The meat from suckling pig is pale and tender and the cooked skin is crisp and can be used for pork rinds. (
  • People get infected by having contact with sick or dead animals or eating meat contaminated with spores. (
  • Obviously, no one has to eat meat or dairy products, but to live successfully on plants still means destroying plant-eating animals: slugs and grubs, for example. (
  • But some vegans, while campaigning against animal cruelty, have resorted to threats of violence against people in the food industry which I have found disturbing, even hypocritical. (
  • STV is obtained from inactivated virus prepared on adult animal nerve tissue. (
  • Data on the efficacy of active and passive immunization after rabies exposure have come from both human and animal studies. (
  • The number of rabies cases among domestic animals has decreased similarly. (
  • Thus, the likelihood of human exposure to rabies in domestic animals has decreased greatly, although bites by dogs and cats continue to be the principal reasons given for antirabies treatments. (
  • The disease in wildlife--especially skunks, foxes, raccoons, and bats-- has become more prevalent in recent years, accounting for approximately 85% of all reported cases of animal rabies every year since 1976. (
  • This English/Portuguese vocabulary of terms in animal behavior was prepared under the support of the Brazilian Ethological Society (SBEt). (
  • It includes 775 terms taken mainly from Ethology, Experimental and Comparative Psychology, Human and Applied Ethology, Behavioral Ecology, and Neuroethology, and provides a basis for the uniform use of terms in Portuguese about animal behavior. (
  • Two types of nerve tissue vaccine exist: the Semple type (STV) and the suckling mouse brain vaccine (SMBV). (
  • Clinical signs vary by animal species. (
  • EERA has a long history in carrying out epidemiological studies in Cameroon to better understand the burden of diseases in animal and human populations. (
  • Their diet is highly varied, and animals from different populations and areas show differences, and there is also variation associated with seasonal and interannual changes in the abundance of prey. (
  • Do not use this product on animals simultaneously or within a few days before or after treatment with or exposure to cholinesterase inhibiting drugs, pesticides, or chemicals. (
  • Inhalation and dermal exposure to CDDs are of lesser concern than oral exposure (because ingestion of CDDs in food is thought to be the principal route of exposure for the general population), but limited information from exposed human and animal studies indicate that CDDs can be absorbed by these routes. (
  • Public health officials and others concerned with appropriate actions to take at hazardous waste sites may want information on levels of exposure associated with more subtle effects in humans or animals (LOAELs) or exposure levels below which no adverse effects (NOAELs) have been observed. (
  • Information from studies of exposed humans and laboratory animals indicates that absorbed CDDs are distributed preferentially to fatty tissues and to a lesser extent, the liver (ATSDR 1998). (
  • Our research uses data-driven evidence to impact on human and animal health policy. (
  • Because SMBV and STV are widely used throughout the developing world, they are the vaccines that are administered to US travelers exposed to animal bites in some countries. (
  • One of the best ways to protect yourself from getting sick is to thoroughly wash your hands right after handling farm animals, their supplies, or anything in the areas where they live and roam. (
  • Read below about diseases that can be spread by farm animals. (
  • In keeping with the spirit of the season, animals and their offspring feature in four titles released just in time for Mother's Day and Father's Day. (
  • The text's gentle rhythm and softly rendered images aptly capture the quietness of a nursing babe, content to suckle amidst a bustling world. (
  • There are various preparations for suckling pig in Western and Asian cuisines. (
  • More than half of those cases involved animals in the western Steller sea lion population, which is classified as endangered. (
  • The western population segment ranges from Cape Suckling, just east of Prince William Sound, to the end of the Aleutian Islands. (
  • We take a look at the Animal Health Ireland-led Pig HealthCheck programme and get an update on its activities in recent months. (
  • The sheep is one of the earliest domesticated animals. (
  • To gain approval of regulatory authorities in different countries, nonclinical efficacy data from animal model studies and infected cell cultures might be needed for those drugs to be used in the case of smallpox infections. (
  • however, it's important to remember that these animals are livestock and are not meant to live inside the home or be kept indoors, which increases the risk of illness in people. (
  • Wild animals now constitute the most important potential source of infection for both humans and domestic animals in the United States. (
  • While the vast majority of Steller sea lion cases involved gear entanglements or entrapments, 38 of the animals were found dead after being shot during the five-year period, according to the report. (
  • The Animal Legal Defense Fund Externship and Volunteer Program gives law students who demonstrate an interest in animal law the opportunity to work with and be trained by top experts in the field. (
  • Externs and volunteers are integral members of a program team and work on projects that further the current work of the program and advance the mission and goals of the Animal Legal Defense Fund. (
  • This Toob contains 12 farm animal figurines ready for a hard day's work, inc. (
  • By providing your farm animals with routine veterinary care and following the Healthy People tips, you are less likely to get sick from touching, owning, visiting, or working with farm animals. (
  • Visit the Healthy People section to learn about staying healthy around farm animals. (
  • This collection is the best way to shop all of the greatest Safari Ltd. animal, dinosaur, and mythical creature toys. (
  • 2. Do not treat sick, convalescent, stressed, or animals less than 3 months old. (
  • 2. Do not treat sick, convalescent, or stressed animals. (
  • Animals do not always appear sick, but if they do, they can get sick suddenly and die quickly. (
  • Many people will only see farm animals at petting zoos or on farm visits. (