Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Mice, Inbred BALB CSalmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Mice, Inbred C57BLBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Inbred C3HSpores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.

Karyotype identity of two subspecies of Eld's deer [Cervus eldi (Cervinae, Artiodactyla)] and its consequences for conservation. (1/277)

Among the three subspecies generally recognized within the Eld's deer (Cervus eldi)--C. e. eldi, C. e. thamin, and C. e. siamensis--C. e. siamensis is considered to be particularly endangered following its disappearance from a major portion of its original range. The only captive breeding population of this subspecies is in the zoological parks at the Paris Museum of Natural History. Taking into account its low effective population size (Ne = 7) and the increasing levels of inbreeding, the continued breeding of this "micropopulation" in isolation from closely related subspecies and in particular from C. e. thamin, which is much more common in zoos as well as in the nature, is questioned. As an initial step in determining if crosses between these subspecies could be performed without risk of outbreeding depression due, in part, to gross differences in their karyotypes, a comparative chromosome banding analysis (RBG-bands) of C. e. siamensis and C. e. thamin was undertaken. No chromosomal differences were identified between the taxa at the level of resolution obtained. The study suggests that, at least from a karyotypic perspective, no obvious differences delimit the two subspecies, and hybridization between endangered C. e. siamensis and C. e. thamin is not likely to lead to impaired fertility in hybrid animals.  (+info)

CFU-S(11) activity does not localize solely with the aorta in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. (2/277)

The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a potent hematopoietic site in the midgestation mouse conceptus and first contains colony-forming units-spleen day 11 (CFU-S(11)) at embryonic day 10 (E10). Because CFU-S(11) activity is present in the AGM region before the onset of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activity, CFU-S(11) activity in the complex developing vascular and urogenital regions of the AGM was localized. From E10 onward, CFU-S(11) activity is associated with the aortic vasculature, and is found also in the urogenital ridges (UGRs). Together with data obtained from organ explant cultures, in which up to a 16-fold increase in CFU-S(11) activity was observed, it was determined that CFU-S(11) can be increased autonomously both in vascular sites and in UGRs. Furthermore, CFU-S(11) activity is present in vitelline and umbilical vessels. This, together with the presence of CFU-S(11) in the UGRs 2 days before HSC activity, suggests both temporally and spatially distinct emergent sources of CFU-S(11). (Blood. 2000;96:2902-2904)  (+info)

Genes in the first and fourth inversions of the mouse t complex synergistically mediate sperm capacitation and interactions with the oocyte. (3/277)

The t haplotypes (t) are recent evolutionary derivatives of an alternate form of the mouse t complex region located at the proximal end of chromosome 17. This variant form of approximately 1% of the mouse genome is a source of mutations altering numerous sperm functions crucial for fertilization. Males that carry two t haplotypes (t/t) are invariably sterile. t haplotypes contain four inversions relative to the wild-type t complex (+), so that in matings involving a +/t heterozygote, t is usually transmitted as a single unit. However, rare recombinants have been recovered, which carry only part of the t genotype and express only some of the t-dependent phenotypes. Use of these partial t haplotypes in genetic crosses has resulted in the general location of the two major t male sterility factors, S1 and S2, within inversions 1 and 4, respectively. Since sterility can result from a plethora of sperm defects, we have made a detailed study of various functional parameters of sperm from mice carrying S1 or S2 heterozygously or homozygously or in combination. Both S1 and S2 contain mutations altering sperm functions, including motility, capacitation, binding to the zona pellucida, binding to the oocyte membrane, and penetration of the zona pellucida-free oocyte. Therefore it seems clear that each of these factors contains multiple genes contributing to sterility. Furthermore, our results indicate that genes within S1 interact with genes in S2 for all sperm functions examined. However, S1 and S2 genes affecting motility interact in a purely additive fashion, while S1 and S2 genes affecting most other sperm characteristics interact in a synergistic manner. Additionally, the patterns of synergism between S1 and S2 for abnormalities in capacitation, sperm-oolemma binding, and zona-free oocyte penetration are nearly identical. This suggests that these three defects are caused by mutation of the same gene within each sterility factor. These findings will not only be instrumental in matching the various t haplotype sperm defects to candidate genes for S1 and S2, but will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying t haplotype male sterility.  (+info)

The rate and the type of orthodontic tooth movement is influenced by bone turnover in a rat model. (4/277)

The influence of bone metabolism on both the rate and the type of orthodontic tooth movement was investigated. A rat model in which high (n = 16) and low (n = 17) bone turnover was pharmacologically induced was used. A non-pharmacologically treated group (n = 19) served as the control. A mesially directed constant single force of 25 cN was applied to the upper left first molar for a period of 3 weeks. The study was performed as a split-mouth design, the contralateral side of each animal serving as its control. The displacement of the molar crown was measured with an electronic calliper, while changes in inclination of the teeth were measured from micro-CT scans of the excised maxillae. The bone turnover significantly affected the rate of tooth movement. In the case of high turnover, the rate of tooth movement was increased while it was reduced in the case of low turnover. A controlled mesial tipping in all three groups was observed, but the actual location of the centre of rotation seemed to be influenced by the metabolic state of the bone. Based on the results it can be concluded that deviations in bone turnover influence the response to orthodontic forces, and should be taken into consideration when planning orthodontic treatment in patients with metabolic bone disease or those on chronic medication influencing bone metabolism.  (+info)

Group B Streptococcus induces apoptosis in macrophages. (5/277)

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a pathogen that has developed some strategies to resist host immune defenses. Because phagocytic killing is an important pathogenetic mechanism for bacteria, we investigated whether GBS induces apoptosis in murine macrophages. GBS type III strain COH31 r/s (GBS-III) first causes a defect in cell membrane permeability, then at 24 h, apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by several techniques based on morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. Cytochalasin D does not affect apoptosis, suggesting that GBS-III needs not be within the macrophage cytoplasm to promote apoptosis. Inhibition of host protein synthesis prevents apoptosis, whereas inhibition of caspase-1 or -3, does not. Therefore, GBS can trigger an apoptotic pathway independent of caspase-1 and -3, but dependent on protein synthesis. Inhibition of apoptosis by EGTA and PMA, and enhancement of apoptosis by calphostin C and GF109203X suggests that an increase in the cytosolic calcium level and protein kinase C activity status are important in GBS-induced apoptosis. Neither alteration of plasma membrane permeability nor apoptosis were induced by GBS grown in conditions impeding hemolysin expression or when we used dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, which inhibited GBS beta-hemolytic activity, suggesting that GBS beta-hemolysin could be involved in apoptosis. beta-Hemolysin, by causing membrane permeability defects, could allow calcium influx, which initiates macrophage apoptosis. GBS also induces apoptosis in human monocytes but not in tumor lines demonstrating the specificity of its activity. This study suggests that induction of macrophage apoptosis by GBS is a novel strategy to overcome host immune defenses.  (+info)

Rapid recruitment of neutrophils containing prestored IL-12 during microbial infection. (6/277)

Neutrophils are well known to rapidly migrate to foci of infection, where they exert microbicidal functions. We sought to determine whether neutrophils responding to in vivo infection with the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii were capable of IL-12 production as suggested by recent in vitro studies. Intraperitoneal infection induced a neutrophil influx by 4 h, accompanied by ex vivo IL-12 p40 and p70 release. Approximately 85% of the neutrophils displayed intracellular stores of IL-12, as determined by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Neutrophils from IFN-gamma knockout mice also expressed IL-12, ruling out an IFN-gamma-priming requirement. Neither infected nor uninfected peritoneal macrophages displayed intracellular IL-12, but these cells were strongly IL-10(+). Infection per se was unnecessary for IL-12 production because peritoneal and peripheral blood neutrophils from uninfected animals contained IL-12(+) populations. Expression of the granulocyte maturation marker Gr-1 (Ly-6G) was correlated with IL-12 production. Mice depleted of their granulocytes by mAb administration at the time of infection had decreased serum levels of IL-12 p40. These results suggest a model in which neutrophils with prestored IL-12 are rapidly mobilized to an infection site where they are triggered by the parasite to release cytokine. Our findings place neutrophils prominently in the cascade of early events leading to IL-12-dependent immunity to T. gondii.  (+info)

Pituitary neoplasia induced by expression of human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV, early genome in transgenic mice. (7/277)

In recent years, there has been mounting evidence pointing to the association of polyomaviruses with a wide range of human cancers. The human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV, infecting greater than 75% of the human population produces a regulatory protein named T-antigen which is expressed at the early phase of viral lytic infection and plays a critical role in completion of the viral life cycle. Furthermore, this protein has the ability to transform neural cells in vitro and its expression has been detected in several human neural-origin tumors. To further investigate the oncogenic potential of the JCV early protein in vivo, transgenic mice expressing JCV T-antigen under the control of its own promoter were generated. Nearly 50% of the animals developed large, solid masses within the base of the skull by 1 year of age. Evaluation of the location as well as histological and immunohistochemical data suggest that the tumors arise from the pituitary gland. As T-antigen is known to interact with several cell cycle regulators, the neoplasms were analysed for the presence of the tumor suppressor protein, p53. Immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis demonstrated overexpression of wild-type, but not mutant p53 within tumor tissue. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation established an interaction between p53 and T-antigen and overexpression of p53 downstream target protein, p21/WAF1. This report describes the analysis of inheritable pituitary adenomas induced by expression of the human polyomavirus, JCV T-antigen in transgenic mice where T-antigen disrupts the p53 pathway by binding to and sequestering wild-type p53. This animal model may serve as a useful tool to further evaluate mechanisms of tumorigenesis by JCV T-antigen.  (+info)

TGF-beta 1 and IFN-gamma direct macrophage activation by TNF-alpha to osteoclastic or cytocidal phenotype. (8/277)

TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE; also called receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), and TNFSF11) induces the differentiation of progenitors of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage into osteoclasts in the presence of M-CSF. Surprisingly, in view of its potent ability to induce inflammation and activate macrophage cytocidal function, TNF-alpha has also been found to induce osteoclast-like cells in vitro under similar conditions. This raises questions concerning both the nature of osteoclasts and the mechanism of lineage choice in mononuclear phagocytes. We found that, as with TRANCE, the macrophage deactivator TGF-beta(1) strongly promoted TNF-alpha-induced osteoclast-like cell formation from immature bone marrow macrophages. This was abolished by IFN-gamma. However, TRANCE did not share the ability of TNF-alpha to activate NO production or heighten respiratory burst potential by macrophages, or induce inflammation on s.c. injection into mice. This suggests that TGF-beta(1) promotes osteoclast formation not only by inhibiting cytocidal behavior, but also by actively directing TNF-alpha activation of precursors toward osteoclasts. The osteoclast appears to be an equivalent, alternative destiny for precursors to that of cytocidal macrophage, and may represent an activated variant of scavenger macrophage.  (+info)

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Webster University Presents Embracing Diversity and Inclusion: Critical Conversations. A conference to be held on the Webster Groves campus, Feb. 29-March 1, 2016.
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ANAHEIM, Calif. -- The wait for Lenny Websters injured right ankle to heal will extend far beyond today, when the Orioles backup catcher becomes eligible to leave the disabled list.Webster
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Dr. Robert H. Hayes is seeking, by a suit now on trial before Judge Freedman and a jury in the Superior Court, to recover $50,000 damages from Dr. David Webster, President of the County ...
Bromate (?), n. Chemistry|Chem. A salt of bromic acid.   © Webster 1913. Bromate (?), v.t. Medicine|Med. To combine or imp...
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The Power Supply in Package (PSiP) and Power Supply on Chip (PwrSoC) Market Outlook & Projections, 2019-2027 report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.coms offering.
Defi*cit (?), n. [Lit., it is wanting, 3d person pres. indic. of L. deficere, cf. F. deficit. See Defect.] Deficiency in amount o...
Phar`ma*colo*gy (?), n. [Gr. drug + -logy: cf. F. pharmacologie.] 1. Knowledge of drugs or medicines; the art of preparing medicin...
(n.) A peculiar affection or condition of the rays of light or heat, in consequence of which they exhibit different properties in different directions.
Rampancy [ RAMPANCY, n. [from rampant.] Excessive growth or practice; excessive prevalence; exuberance; extravagance; as the rampancy of vice. ]
A final briefing from DrugScope highlights the increased complexity and level of continued changing in commissioning drug and alcohol systems.
Per`i*gan`gli*onic (?), a. Anatomy|Anat. Surrounding a ganglion; as, the periganglionic glands of the frog.   © Webster 19...
Webster1913 is entirely correct. Even today, prophylactic is commonly used to mean any medicine that is given to prevent disease. It is also used for o...
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The village of Webster has historically served as the core of the town of Webster. The commercial section of the village dates back to 1812, when the first two buildings were constructed near the present four corners. One of these buildings was a store and the other a tavern. From this modest beginning, the community and its center began to grow, becoming the commercial, social, and educational center of the town. 1 The history of the village center reflects the changing economy of the community. The village core was originally an agricultural center and distribution point for the town. The junction of Ridge Road and Webster Nine-Mile Point Road, which connected shipping points on the Erie Canal and the New York Central Railroad with a small port on Lake Ontario, was referred to as "the Village" because of a concentration of population and businesses. The railroad at the north end of the village attracted dried or evaporated apple businesses and small wood-working industries. The Village ...
Contact 2100 Webster Street Care Center at 4155214480. 2100 Webster Street Care Center is located at 2100 Webster Street, San Francisco CA 94115 and is part of the Sutter Health Network.
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Paul Webster provides some history and context for the evolution of the Eclipse 4 project, and sketches out where it is going with the Eclipse Kepler (4.3) and Luna (4.4) releases in the future.
Connect with Dr. Lee Webster, Ophthalmology, Muskegon, MI. Video chat, send a message, ask a text question, or make a virtual appointment on the doctors Virtual Practice on HealthTap.
Webster University is the only Tier 1, private, non-profit U.S.-based university with a network of international residential campuses.
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... CVE-2002-2268. Remote exploit for Windows platform. Tags: Metasploit Framework (MSF)
Hy*pertro*phy (?), n. [Gr. over, beyond + nourishment, fr. to nourish: cf. F. hypertrophie.] Medicine|Med. & Biology|Biol. A c...
As an undergraduate I studied zoology at Bristol University, and found I preferred to write about science than to actually do it. &
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A page for describing CharacterDerailment: Live-Action TV. Coronation Street has had several examples: Rosie Webster is currently a superficial ditz who can …
Wu, Xiangyang; Liu, Fang; Wells, Kym L.; Tan, Serena L. J.; Webster, Richard D.; Tan, Howe-Siang; Zhang, Dawei; Xing, Bengang; Yeow, Edwin K. L. ...
Wu, Xiangyang; Liu, Fang; Wells, Kym L.; Tan, Serena L. J.; Webster, Richard D.; Tan, Howe-Siang; Zhang, Dawei; Xing, Bengang; Yeow, Edwin K. L. ...
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Webster LUK Site is an alcohol and drug treatment facility found at 251 Main Street in Webster, Massachusetts. The center uses major approaches to treatment of Individual Alcohol Counseling, Family Focused Therapy, Cognitive-Based Therapy. The center also offers these services in the following settings: Outpatient Rehab. Webster LUK Site also provides clients with several special programs tailored to the specific needs of clients, such as: Court Ordered Outpatient Drug Treatment. Finally, Webster LUK Site also allows the following types of payment: Private Pay, Medicaid Covered Treatment, Private Insurance for Drug Rehab. ...
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MANCHESTER - The woman who drove Myles Webster to the West Side the night Webster is accused of shooting Manchester Police officer Daniel Doherty testified Thursday morning that Webster fired a gun while in her vehicle that day.
id":"6780","bid":"23377","uid":"0","title":"Mixed feelings","username":"flowerflyby","rating":"3","pros":"Convenient hours","cons":"Staff lack bedside manner","description":"This animal hospital has late night and weekend hours making it ideal in case of emergency. It is also less expensive than a pet emergency clinic. I have only taken my animals there during emergencies. The vets were great but the desk staff and techs not so much. Twice however, I have gone in with injured animals that I have simply found and had a more positive experience with the staff, they were actually kind and helpful those times.","date_added":"1226559405","date_modified":null,"is_external":"1","external_site_name":"zootoo","external_site_url":null,"external_user_profile":null,"status":"1"},{"id":"6779","bid":"23377","uid":"0","title":"Saved my dog!","username":"drkennethnoisewater","rating":"5","pros":"helpful","cons":"none","description":"When my dog was very ill the vets at Webster were able to diagnose his illness ...
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Do you wish your relationship with your mother was stronger, or are you looking to establish boundaries with your mother?. Join Ash this week for a unique conversation with Bethany Webster, a writer, speaker, and coach, all about healing your mother wound. Whether you are very close with your mother or are looking to resolve tension in your relationship, Bethany has powerful insight into how to be authentic together and heal any unspoken wounds with your mother.. The unique relationship we have with our moms can be hard to navigate. Bethany and Ash walk through the ways to identify what you want to resolve in your relationship and how your mother wound has impacted other aspects of your life.. Communication with your mother, especially when things are tumultuous, can feel sticky, Bethany offers powerful examples for how to address any problems or discuss emotional topics in a safe way.. Dont forget to stick around for the post episode notes with Ash, you dont want to miss this!. In This ...
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This offers a common websters spanish to english crossword puzzles level 3 stopped for source who Is great assistance and game. He came This is the ideological 6The price as security ( BDB 991, KB 1407, Qal IMPERFECT, cf. Deuteronomy 5:15 does another piece for the light for total crops, even ongoing decades as in Exod. This rhetoric is supported in such random futures, statistically in the sixty-five review of reference. 3:7-4:11 and its M of bar.
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... is the tendency of outbred strains to exceed both inbred parents in fitness. Selective breeding of plants and animals, ... But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ... It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous ... Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for recessive alleles that are mildly harmful (or produce a trait that is undesirable from ...
"Outbred rats - Sprague Dawley® Outbred Rat". Harlan Laboratories - Animal Research Laboratory - Contract Research Services. ... Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... ISBN 978-0-89089-333-3. "Rules and Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains". "Outbred Stocks". *Clause, B. T. ( ... Krinke, George J. (June 15, 2000). "History, Strains and Models". The Laboratory Rat (Handbook of Experimental Animals). ...
... a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. ... of animals displaying the EEG and behavioral characteristics of absence seizures, derived from an outbred Wistar colony and ... The development of two inbred strains from the same initial colony has appeared as a very powerful tool to study the possible ... These seizures were recorded on both sides of the brain, lasted about 20 sec and occurred when the animals were quiet. ...
They are an outbred strain that has an intact thymus and normal immune system. Hairless guinea pigs are not significantly ... or coloquially referring to the exposed skin of the animal. The modern Skinny Pig breed originated with a cross between haired ... The hairless strain that it is most likely related to was a spontaneous genetic mutation that was first identified at ... animal/labanimal.lec.11.03.98 "GuineaLynx-Records". GuineaLynx. Retrieved 25 November 2017. Banks, Ron. "The Guinea Pig: ...
Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ... Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... strain can be created for laboratory use Backcrossing Linebreeding Recombinant inbred strain Coisogenic strain Congenic strain ...
Mice without fur are easier for the animal to consume; however, mice with fur may be more convincing as animal feed. These ... However, certain strains have been known to be quite temperamental. Mice and rats have the same organs in the same places, with ... As a general rule, inbred mice tend to have longer gestation periods and smaller litters than outbred and hybrid mice. The ... The most well known strain, the white lab mouse, has more uniform traits that are appropriate to its use in research. The ...
There are hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in ... Laboratory rat Animal testing Animal testing on rodents Animal model Animal Identification Mouse models of colorectal and ... Various mutant strains of mice have been created by a number of methods. A small selection from the many available strains ... "Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare: PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals". Grants.nih.gov. Retrieved 2010- ...
Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... "Outbred Stocks".. *^ Clause, B. T. (1998). "The Wistar Institute Archives: Rats (Not Mice) and History", Mendel Newsletter ... Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344,[8] Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats ... "Sprague Dawley Outbred Rat". Harlan Laboratories. Retrieved 2012-10-25.. *^ Wallace Hayes A (March 2014). "Editor in Chief of ...
Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another one in Ottawa, Canada, an outbred strain ... Biobreeding rat also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ... They were originally derived from a Canadian colony of outbred Wistar rats that spontaneously develop hyperglycemia and ...
The waterschlager canary strain is conspecific to the domestic canary but has been inbred by humans for its beautiful song. The ... Syrinx (bird anatomy) Bird vocalization Lateralization of brain function Animal communication Bioacoustics Larsen, O.N.; Goller ... outbred domestic canary, however, does not exhibit the strong lateralization of the waterschlager canary. Possibly explaining ... video of a cardinal singing Macaulay Library at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology is the world's largest collection of animal ...
... use of multiple stocks/strains of animals to obtain an estimate of the range in sensitivities due to genotype, complete ... Multireplicated Dose-Response Studies in Four Inbred Strains and One Outbred Stock of Mice". Toxicological Sciences. 19 (2): ... Joe Holson's research career has spanned a diverse range of test agents using a variety of experimental animal models and human ... Holson, Joseph F.; Desesso, John M.; Jacobson, Catherine F.; Farr, Craig H. (2000-07-01). "Appropriate use of animal models in ...
Selection acts on out bred generations using increased diversity to adapt to the environment. This may result in greater ... This stems from the fact that many microorganisms are not easily obtainable as cultured strains in the laboratory, which would ... the study of animal behavior in relation to its ecology and evolutionary history. One behavior that molecular data has helped ...
The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity, and mouse strains with ... Guerin, J (2004). "Emerging area of aging research: long-lived animals with "negligible senescence"". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1019 (1 ... to have evaluated with respect to their effects on lifespan and age-related biomarkers in outbred mice.[168] Previous age- ... Evidence in both animals and humans suggests that resveratrol may be a caloric restriction mimetic.[157] ...
The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity, and mouse strains with ... The oldest animals known so far are 15,000-year-old Antarctic sponges, which can reproduce both sexually and clonally. Clonal ... to have evaluated with respect to their effects on lifespan and age-related biomarkers in outbred mice. Previous age-related ... Evidence in both animals and humans suggests that resveratrol may be a caloric restriction mimetic. As of 2015 metformin was ...
As such, because of Grant's well-connectedness and influential friends, he is often used to illustrate the strain of race-based ... As a conservationist, Grant is credited with the saving of many different species of animals, founding many different ... by miscegenation and by being outbred by inferior stock taking advantage of the situattion. The book was immensely popular, ...
CDR outbred strain; timed pregnant females obtained from Charles River, Wilmington, MA]. The animals were killed by cervical ... For the present study, cells were classified as type II hair cells if they lackedg K,L and were from animals P7 or older. In ...
Animals, Outbred Strains * Anthrax / microbiology * Anthrax / physiopathology * Bacillus anthracis / genetics * Bacillus ... Interestingly, the CapD(-) strain is far less virulent than the parental strain. ... We constructed a capD mutant strain, capD being the fourth gene of the capsule biosynthetic operon. The mutant bacilli are ...
Animals. Animals, Outbred Strains. Behavior, Animal / physiology*. Cognition. Exploratory Behavior / physiology*. Genetics, ... As in our previous work, we used the degree of rearing activity in a novel open field to assign male adult outbred Wistar rats ...
Inbred Strains of Mice: SWV. SWV Inbr (Bc) 73. Albino: A,c, plus unknown dilution gene. Origin: Outbred animals from Defense ... INBRED STRAINS OF MICE. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing. MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,. University of ... Animal Depot, Univ. Brit. Columbia. Inbreeding started in 1959. Develops nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with a progressive and ... Hackman R. M. and Hurley L. S. (1983) Interaction of dietary zinc, genetic strain, and acetazolamide in teratogenesis in mice. ...
... the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has b... ... The species, strain, and breed of the animal and individual ... Animal Environment, Housing, and Management: A respected resource for decades, ... Outbred animals are widely used in biomedical research. Founding populations should be large enough to ensure the long-term ... Noise produced by animals and animal care activities is inherent in the operation of an animal facility (Pfaff and Stecker 1976 ...
Strain:. other: Crl:WI(Han) (outbred, SPF-Quality). Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. Untreated, ... Strain:. other: Crl:WI(Han) (outbred, SPF-Quality). Details on species / strain selection:. Untreated, nulliparous, non- ... Animals fasted: Yes for F0, o/n (with a maximum of 24h). - How many animals: all F0 animals; 2 pups per litter of F1. - ... Animals fasted: Yes for F0,, o/n (with a maximum of 24h). - How many animals: all F0 animals; 2 pups per litter of F1. - ...
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a popular vertebrate model organism largely deployed using outbred laboratory animals. The non- ... Genome of Zebrafish Wild-type Strain(ASWT) Abstract:. ... Genome of Zebrafish Wild-type Strain(ASWT). *Zebrafish ...
RML mice represent an outbred strain that has been maintained at RML since 1937. Mice were tested for infection by serology, ... Experimental Mouse-Tick Infectious Cycle. All animal experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines of the ... Bacterial Strains and Growth Conditions. B. burgdorferi B31-A3 is an infectious clone that was derived from B31 MI (12). It ... Mice infected with B31-A3 and ospC7/ospC +4 strains mounted typical and similar immune responses to OspC, P39 [used as a marker ...
Animals. The mice used in this study were derived from Charles River Laboratories outbred CD-1 strain. All animals were ... Femaledb animals of this strain were obese and hyperinsulinemic, but only slightly hyperglycemic, in contrast to the sustained ... TheLepr db-NCSU mutation exhibits sexual dimorphism in the CD-1 outbred strain, produces a phenotype in CD-1 females unlike ... This sexual dimorphism is not present in the C57BLKS/J strain, with obese animals of both sexes being hyperglycemic with ...
Strain:. other: Wistar strain, Crl:WI (Han) (outbred, SPF-Quality). Sex:. male/female. Details on test animals and ... The moribund animals and/or animals surviving to the end of the observation period were sacrificed by an oxygen/carbon dioxide ... of animals per sex per dose:. 2000 mg/kg (10 mL/kg) body weight five males and five females. 1000 mg/kg (10 mL/kg) body weight ... Animals at 2000 mg/kg had an application period of 22 hours.). Doses:. Dose level (volume) 2000 mg/kg (10 mL/kg) body weight. ...
Charles Rivers portfolio includes inbred and outbred nude mice. They are particularly useful for tumor studies, due to their ... Charles River immunodeficient animal models are produced in flexible-film and semi-rigid isolators. This approach provides the ... These strains give insight into multiple forms of immune deficiencies. Charles River offers multiple immunodeficient mice, such ... Our portfolio includes inbred and outbred athymic nude mice.. Charles River maintains five different live nude mouse model ...
Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. TEST ANIMALS. - strain: Wistar Crl:(WI) BR (outbred, SPF). - Source: ... Strain:. other: RAI f SPF (RA25) Sex:. male/female. Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. TEST ANIMALS. - Age ... Strain:. other: RAI f SPF (RA25) Sex:. male/female. Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. TEST ANIMALS. - Age ... Strain:. Sprague-Dawley. Sex:. male/female. Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. TEST ANIMALS. - Source: S. ...
... than replicates from outbred animals (such as macaque and human; rs = 0.68 to 0.77, P , 0.0001; fig. S2C). Within each species ... ORs expressed at different levels in inbred strains of mice have greater numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphism upstream of ... WOM samples originated from animals that were humanely euthanized because of noninfection related animal welfare reasons (e.g ... Brown Norway rat (R. norvegicus). Ten-week-old male (n = 3) animals were maintained in accordance with the U.K. Home Office ...
... animals, insects and plants. Here, we demonstrate that highly virulent Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc) can be fully ... In vitro characterization showed that this mutant was similar to its parental strain in terms of its doubling time, even though ... In vitro characterization showed that this mutant was similar to its parental strain in terms of its doubling time, even though ... A novel in vivo challenge model in goats revealed that the wild-type parental strain caused marked necrotizing inflammation at ...
The genetic background of the transgenic HD rat is derived from the Sprague Dawley strain (outbred). A 12 h light/dark cycle ... On each session, the same random order was used for all the animals. For half of the animals in each group (transgenic and wild ... Electrophysiological assessment of prefrontostriatal synaptic function in transgenic animals. Animals and surgery.. This series ... Although a trend for a slight delay in learning the task was observed in the transgenic animals compared with the wt animals, ...
... is the tendency of outbred strains to exceed both inbred parents in fitness. ... Major histocompatibility complex in animals[edit]. One example of where particular genes may be important in vertebrate animals ... But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ... It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous ...
Wildtype animals were of the outbred Ekkwill (EK) strain. Mutant and transgenic stocks of nacrew2, csf1r, kitb5 mutant and ... We are grateful to D. Parichy for probes and mutant strains; J. Rawls for discussions; J. Burris and A. Eastes for animal care ... P.W.K. analyzed pigmentation during regeneration in wild-type and transgenic animals. D.H. generated transgenic animals. K.D.P ... B,C) Wild-type and hsp70:v-ras animals were given a daily 36°C HS for 5 days following amputation. Active Ras hyperpigments ...
NMRI mice are an outbred strain commonly used as controls in selection experiments and as experimental animals in biology, ... This could be done by carrying out the animal tests on a sample of five to ten inbred strains. The advantages of this strategy ... The toxicological testing of a compound in a single stock of outbred animals can be said to be equivalent, genetically, to ... The NMRI outbred model was developed by Lynch et al. Poiley of the National Institutes of Health received stock from Lynch in ...
The present paper evaluates the inclusion of a standard strain or outbred stock in multi-strain behavioral phenotyping ... As potential standards, the F344 inbred strain and an outbred stock of Long Evans were tested with three other inbred strains. ... McClearn, G. E. 1997Heterogeneous reference populations in animal model research in agingILAR J.38119123Google Scholar ... The present paper evaluates the inclusion of a standard strain or outbred stock in multi-strain behavioral phenotyping ...
Cui, S., Chesson, C. & Hope, R. Genetic variation within and between strains of outbred Swiss mice. Lab. Animals 27, 116-123 ( ... STR. D32. 2. y STR/1. D33. 2. y STS. D83. 2. y STU. A38. 2. y STUD. D76. 10. ? STX/Le. B138. 2. ? SUMS. D29. 2. ? SWJ. A4. 2. ... Table 1 - Key to the Chart of Strain Genealogies. Strain. Diagram reference. Reference. Extant 101. B8. 2. y 102. B9. 2. y ... Kluge, R., Meyer, J. & Rapp, K.G. Genetic characterization of the mouse strains of the Institute for Animal Breeding of the ...
Virulence model of pulmonary aspergillosis.Outbred male mice (strain CD1, 20 to 28 g; Charles Rivers Breeders) were used for ... Virulence tests in the model using cortisone-treated animals did not, however, reveal any attenuation in virulence for a prtTΔ ... Strains, media, and growth conditions.For general cloning procedures the bacterial strain Escherichia coli DH5α was used (56), ... Δ deletion strain and the reconstituted strain when grown in the presence of BSA and peptone reveals the almost-complete ...
... identical strain; 20-28 mo) were from the National Institute on Aging animal colonies. All animals were fed Purina rodent chow ... Rats (Fischer 344, virgin male, outbred albino) (3-5 mo) were obtained from Simonsen Laboratories (Gilroy, CA). Old rats ( ... All animals were acclimatized at the Northwest Animal Facilities at the University of California at Berkeley for at least 1 ... Results show that ALCAR+LA significantly improved ambulatory activity in young and old animals. For the young animals, the ...
Animal models of impaired sensorimotor gating, as assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, have demonstrated clear ... I. Apomorphine effects on startle gating in albino and hooded outbred rat strains and their F1 and N2 progeny. ... For animal models to remain relevant in the search for schizophrenia therapeutics, they will need to focus less on what is ... Animal models of impaired sensorimotor gating, as assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, have demonstrated clear ...
... of animals, some of them with anti-DNA specificity. Furthermore, all animals treated with heavy metals developed toxic ... To accomplish our goal, the animals were treated with the following ionic metals: HgCl,sub,2,/sub,, CuSO,sub,4,/sub,, AgNO,sub, ... we observed in this particular strain high sensitivity to heavy metals injuries; therefore, this animal model was used to ... also lower doses of mercuric chloride administrated to outbreed Wistar rats resulted in renal toxicity [7]. We used inbred Long ...
Epe and colleagues infected four inbred strains of mice and one outbred strain and reported the presence of Toxocara larvae in ... 1999). New animal model for human ocular toxocariasis: ophthalmoscopic observation. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 967-972. ... 1) Variability in parasite burden between outbred and inbred strains and within a range of inbred strains. The difficulty in ... BALB/c mice were selected as the susceptible strain and NIH mice were deemed to be resistant. The choice of strains was ...
  • Maintained as an outbred stock until the mid-1980s, then brother x sister mating initiated by A.P. Provoost to produce two strains designated FHH (also known as FHR) and FHL, which differ in hypertension and proteinuria. (mcw.edu)
  • Certain combinations of alleles that can be obtained by crossing two inbred strains are advantageous in the heterozygote . (wikipedia.org)
  • Principal component analysis revealed that the influence of diet caused a greater variation in significantly changing metabolites than that of age for the Brown Norway and Fisher 344 strains, whereas diet had the greatest influence in the Sprague Dawley strain only at the 4-week time point. (cdc.gov)
  • Because diabetic symptoms vary greatly among strains, other genes seem to play important interacting roles as well. (physiology.org)
  • Cross protection was not found among strains having different antigens of Osp A and B. Furthermore, Borrelia strains corresponding to endemic area are necessary for vaccine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • These strain differences are most often attributed to genetics but may also be due to environment and gene by environment interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Characterization of these two mouse inbred strains over the course of pregnancy and in the postpartum period for behavioral and neuroendocrine changes may provide useful information by which to inform human studies, leading to advances in our understanding of the etiology of anxiety and depression and the role of genetics and the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Charles River stocks and strains are managed under the International Genetic Standardization (IGS) program, a unique program designed to manage the health and genetics of outbred and inbred strains on a global basis, ensuring that researchers worldwide have access to standardized models, regardless of the production location. (criver.com)
  • But progress hasn't been so great in animal genetics. (eurekalert.org)
  • Expert advice might be sought for special requirements associated with the experiment or animal subject (for example, hazardous-agent use, behavioral studies, and immunocompromised animals, farm animals, and nontraditional laboratory species). (nap.edu)
  • Furthermore, the present study provides the first behavioral and electrophysiological evidence of a presymptomatic alteration of prefrontostriatal processing in an animal model for Huntington disease and suggests that supra-second timing may be the earliest cognitive dysfunction in HD. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present paper evaluates the inclusion of a standard strain or outbred stock in multi-strain behavioral phenotyping protocols to perform the same role as the external standard in biochemical assay procedures. (springer.com)
  • The laboratory rat thrives in captivity, and its domestication has produced many inbred and outbred lines that are used for different purposes, including medical trials and behavioral studies. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have extensively characterized the two strains and found divergent behavioral profiles for cocaine-related behaviors including initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine. (easychair.org)
  • The rat represents an important animal model that, in many respects, is superior to the mouse for dissecting behavioral, cardiovascular and other physiological pathologies relevant to humans. (plos.org)
  • For more than a century the rat has been an important animal model, which is superior in many respects to the mouse, for example for behavioral, cardiovascular and other physiological studies. (plos.org)
  • 2003 ) provided evidence, by irradiation of the hippocampus, that hippocampal neurogenesis is required to achieve the behavioral effects of antidepressants in animal models. (aspetjournals.org)
  • As an example, [ 23 ] demonstrated that behavioral traits could be mapped with high precision with even a modest number of animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • On the ground floor are the service areas like records office, washing and autoclaving area, raw material room for animal feed, feed preparation room, a biochemistry laboratory for studying biochemical markers to check the purity of the animal strains, a routine microbiology laboratory, and a histology facility. (forth.gr)
  • A novel in vivo challenge model in goats revealed that the wild-type parental strain caused marked necrotizing inflammation at the site of inoculation, septicemia and all animals reached endpoint criteria within 6 days after experimental infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • When animals were treated 48 hours after intraperitoneal inoculation with three intraperitoneal doses of EB-DNA no parasitemia was detected, even after 11 weeks, confirming previous results. (ajtmh.org)
  • A second strain of L. monocytogenes (CM [serotype 1/2b]) exhibited little ability to cause systemic infection following i.g. inoculation and was not significantly enhanced by administration of sodium bicarbonate. (asm.org)
  • These results highlight, for the first time, the rational design, construction and complete attenuation of a Mycoplasma strain via synthetic genomics tools. (frontiersin.org)
  • Research into the role of microbiota in health and disease has increased during the past decade due to the development of genetically engineered mutant animal models. (criver.com)
  • A drawback of the DO is that each animal is genetically unique and thus not reproducible. (jax.org)
  • This tamoxifen-inducible Pdx1 -Cre/Esr1 strain may be used to create conditional pancreatic cell knockouts when crossed with strains carrying floxed alleles. (jax.org)
  • Origin: Outbred animals from Defense Research Bd. (jax.org)
  • Studies of animal stress show that it stimulates the development of cancers of viral origin and exacerbates their growth, while inhibiting the development and progression of chemically induced cancers. (cancernetwork.com)
  • We constructed a capD mutant strain, capD being the fourth gene of the capsule biosynthetic operon. (nih.gov)
  • Deletion of the F1 gene does not abolish virulence but leads to a delay in onset of the disease in animal models. (asm.org)
  • This has led to the genetic characterization of outbred stocks, the realization that they can deliver gene level resolution(Yalcin et al. (ucla.edu)
  • Interestingly, introduction of the D-ssu gene into the same parasite strain (self), but not into a different subspecies, significantly affected or completely ablated oocyst development, suggesting a stage- and subspecies (strain)-specific regulation of oocyst development by D-ssu . (asm.org)
  • In our analysis of NGS-generated data, we overcome these challenges by using a clustering approach to determine the distribution of MLVs in two wild-caught and three inbred laboratory strains of M. musculus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eight hundred Erysipelothrix strains isolated between 1992 and 2002 from swine with erysipelas in Japan were serotyped. (asm.org)
  • The use of bioluminescence imaging to demonstrate proper establishment of tumor grafts and criteria for random segregation of animals into study groups are also discussed. (jove.com)
  • There was no immunocytochemically detectable expression of androgen (AR), α-estrogen (ERα), or progesterone (PR) receptors by the parental BPH-1 cell line or by any of the tumor-derived cell strains. (aacrjournals.org)
  • That's because researchers have mostly been using crosses between inbred strains, making it impossible to pinpoint specific genomic regions or individual genes associated with a trait. (eurekalert.org)
  • This is a system that could be used to discover genes associated with any complex trait a researcher is interested in, in any animal model," Palmer said. (eurekalert.org)
  • In vitro characterization showed that this mutant was similar to its parental strain in terms of its doubling time, even though 10% of the genome content were removed. (frontiersin.org)
  • Of the serotype 1a isolates, 64.6% were acriflavine resistant, with 98.4% of these acriflavine-resistant strains having been isolated from animals with chronic arthritis. (asm.org)
  • By randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, almost all the acriflavine-resistant serotype 1a strains showed the 253-bp band characteristic of vaccine strains and were easily discriminated from all 113 strains of acriflavine-sensitive serotype 1a strains from animals with acute and subacute swine erysipelas. (asm.org)
  • L. monocytogenes strain EGD (serotype 1/2a) has been previously used and reported on by our laboratory ( 3 , 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Strain CM (serotype 1/2b), which was obtained from the culture collection of the Food Research Institute (Madison, Wis. (asm.org)
  • We identified two CC strains that are phenotypic outliers novelty-induced locomotion - a trait previously shown to predict addiction-related behaviors. (easychair.org)
  • We performed genetic mapping in a F2 intercross population derived from the CC strain with low cocaine locomotor activation and identified three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL). (easychair.org)
  • Such a strain is of interest because it may permit the exploration of defective emmetropization and mapping of the underlying quantitative trait loci. (arvojournals.org)
  • These strains give insight into multiple forms of immune deficiencies. (criver.com)
  • Furthermore, all animals treated with heavy metals developed toxic glomerulonephritis with immune complex deposition along the mesangium and membranes. (hindawi.com)
  • Currently, the most common adjuvant used in experimental animals is Freund's adjuvants, which can enhance strong antigen-specific immune responses. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Twenty-eight guinea pigs were selected from 220 animals based on binocular myopia (exceeding −1.50 diopter [D]) or anisometropia (difference between both eyes exceeding 10 D) at 4 weeks of age. (arvojournals.org)
  • Our results indicate that RAPD type 1-2 strains are live vaccine strains and that 37% of the cases of chronic swine erysipelas detected in the past 11 years in Japan have occurred as a side effect of live vaccine use. (asm.org)
  • The distorted region harbors thousands of polymorphisms derived from the seven non-WSB founder strains and many of these would be lost if the sweep was allowed to continue. (g3journal.org)
  • But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of their hybrid crosses, as the proportion of harmful recessives in the inbred population rises. (wikipedia.org)
  • Proper housing and management of animal facilities are essential to animal well-being, to the quality of research data and teaching or testing programs in which animals are used, and to the health and safety of personnel. (nap.edu)
  • The following sections discuss some considerations of the physical environment related to common research animals. (nap.edu)
  • We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. (medsci.org)
  • Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions. (medsci.org)
  • The Foundation for Biomedical Research website has a table listing the animals behind top drugs and a comprehensive summary of how animal testing and research has advanced human health. (taconic.com)
  • The use of animals in biomedical research dates back to approximately the 6th-5th century BC with more prominent references in the writings of Aristotle, Diocles, Praxagoras in the 4th century BC and Erasistratus and Herophilus in the 4th-3rd century BC 1 . (taconic.com)
  • Any in vivo or in vitro research conducted on non-human animals or their cells and/or tissues. (frame.org.uk)
  • Specified how and where animals can be used for scientific research and testing, and also required that scientists using animals provided yearly reports for the British Government. (frame.org.uk)
  • The guinea pig most commonly used for influenza virus research is the outbred Hartley strain. (guinealynx.info)
  • I began to realize that the 'control' animals used for research studies throughout the world are couch potatoes," he tells me. (slate.com)
  • At the National Institute on Aging, as at every major research center, the animals are grouped in plastic cages the size of large shoeboxes, topped with a wire lid and a food hopper that's never empty of pellets. (slate.com)
  • The experienced and helpful technical staff of the Animal House assists the research workers in their animal experiments, and is responsible for proper maintenance of this key facility of the Centre. (forth.gr)
  • Our results showed that, as in other strains, dietary supplementation with selenium (3 ppm) in the form of methylselenocysteine for 30 days following N -nitroso- N -methylurea (NMU) exposure reduced the incidence of mammary carcinogenesis by ∼60% in the F344 strain. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Charles River immunodeficient animal models are produced in flexible-film and semi-rigid isolators . (criver.com)
  • However, because maximum glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity is attained in animal tissues without selenium supplementation, it is improbable that the latter mechanism plays a significant role ( 10 - 14 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • As examples, this strain may be useful in studies of tumorigenic potential in the hedgehog pathway, progenitor cell involvement in the development of medulloblastomas, craniofacial development, thalamic development, and of oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelination when used in combination with specific cre-expressing strains. (jax.org)
  • Trypanosoma vivax is one of the most common parasites responsible for animal trypanosomosis, and although this disease is widespread in Africa and Latin America, very few studies have been conducted on the parasite's biology. (plos.org)
  • In particular several studies have shown that manipulating animals to expend more or less energy generate the expected effects on lifespan (particularly when the subjects are ectotherms). (biologists.org)
  • The role of selenium in chemoprevention of mammary carcinomas was first suggested by animal studies done by Ip and coworkers. (aacrjournals.org)
  • To describe a wild-type guinea pig strain with an incidence of spontaneous axial myopia, minimal pupil responses, lack of accommodation, and apparently normal spatial vision. (arvojournals.org)
  • Obesity, induced by carbohydrate diet followed by induction of stress may promote the development of anxiety-like behaviour compared to animals on normal diet [ 12 ]. (ijpsonline.com)