Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Genome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Mice, Inbred BALB CSalmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Operon: In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.Mutagenesis, Insertional: Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Bacillus: A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Polysaccharides, Bacterial: Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.Mice, Inbred C57BLBacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Staphylococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.Staphylococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.Fimbriae, Bacterial: Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).DNA, Fungal: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.Stress, Mechanical: A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.Hemolysin Proteins: Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Environmental Microbiology: The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Vibrio cholerae: The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.Vaccines, Attenuated: Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)DNA, Ribosomal Spacer: The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Penicillin Resistance: Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.Bacteriophage Typing: A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.Transformation, Bacterial: The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.Ribotyping: RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Pigments, Biological: Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Vibrio: A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Streptomyces: A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Acinetobacter: A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Korea: Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.Enterobacteriaceae: A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.Adhesins, Bacterial: Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.beta-Lactamases: Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.Cross Reactions: Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.Enterotoxins: Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Rotavirus: A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.Molecular Typing: Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.Bacteriophages: Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Streptomycin: An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Streptococcus pneumoniae: A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacterial Vaccines: Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.Haemophilus influenzae: A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.Bacteroides: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.O Antigens: The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Rhodococcus: A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Penicillins: A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)Anti-Infective Agents: Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.Nitrogen Fixation: The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.Candida albicans: A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Quinones: Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.Swine Diseases: Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Mice, Inbred C3HSpores, Bacterial: Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.Multilocus Sequence Typing: Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.Aeromonas: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.Fimbriae Proteins: Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).Streptococcus pyogenes: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.Sewage: Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.Cyanobacteria: A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.R Factors: A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Klebsiella pneumoniae: Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.Lysogeny: The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.Gram-Negative Bacteria: Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.RNA, Ribosomal, 23S: Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Sphingomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.Agglutination Tests: Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Erythromycin: A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.Corynebacterium: A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Blood Bactericidal Activity: The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.Cholera: An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.Tetracycline: A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.

Karyotype identity of two subspecies of Eld's deer [Cervus eldi (Cervinae, Artiodactyla)] and its consequences for conservation. (1/277)

Among the three subspecies generally recognized within the Eld's deer (Cervus eldi)--C. e. eldi, C. e. thamin, and C. e. siamensis--C. e. siamensis is considered to be particularly endangered following its disappearance from a major portion of its original range. The only captive breeding population of this subspecies is in the zoological parks at the Paris Museum of Natural History. Taking into account its low effective population size (Ne = 7) and the increasing levels of inbreeding, the continued breeding of this "micropopulation" in isolation from closely related subspecies and in particular from C. e. thamin, which is much more common in zoos as well as in the nature, is questioned. As an initial step in determining if crosses between these subspecies could be performed without risk of outbreeding depression due, in part, to gross differences in their karyotypes, a comparative chromosome banding analysis (RBG-bands) of C. e. siamensis and C. e. thamin was undertaken. No chromosomal differences were identified between the taxa at the level of resolution obtained. The study suggests that, at least from a karyotypic perspective, no obvious differences delimit the two subspecies, and hybridization between endangered C. e. siamensis and C. e. thamin is not likely to lead to impaired fertility in hybrid animals.  (+info)

CFU-S(11) activity does not localize solely with the aorta in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. (2/277)

The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a potent hematopoietic site in the midgestation mouse conceptus and first contains colony-forming units-spleen day 11 (CFU-S(11)) at embryonic day 10 (E10). Because CFU-S(11) activity is present in the AGM region before the onset of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activity, CFU-S(11) activity in the complex developing vascular and urogenital regions of the AGM was localized. From E10 onward, CFU-S(11) activity is associated with the aortic vasculature, and is found also in the urogenital ridges (UGRs). Together with data obtained from organ explant cultures, in which up to a 16-fold increase in CFU-S(11) activity was observed, it was determined that CFU-S(11) can be increased autonomously both in vascular sites and in UGRs. Furthermore, CFU-S(11) activity is present in vitelline and umbilical vessels. This, together with the presence of CFU-S(11) in the UGRs 2 days before HSC activity, suggests both temporally and spatially distinct emergent sources of CFU-S(11). (Blood. 2000;96:2902-2904)  (+info)

Genes in the first and fourth inversions of the mouse t complex synergistically mediate sperm capacitation and interactions with the oocyte. (3/277)

The t haplotypes (t) are recent evolutionary derivatives of an alternate form of the mouse t complex region located at the proximal end of chromosome 17. This variant form of approximately 1% of the mouse genome is a source of mutations altering numerous sperm functions crucial for fertilization. Males that carry two t haplotypes (t/t) are invariably sterile. t haplotypes contain four inversions relative to the wild-type t complex (+), so that in matings involving a +/t heterozygote, t is usually transmitted as a single unit. However, rare recombinants have been recovered, which carry only part of the t genotype and express only some of the t-dependent phenotypes. Use of these partial t haplotypes in genetic crosses has resulted in the general location of the two major t male sterility factors, S1 and S2, within inversions 1 and 4, respectively. Since sterility can result from a plethora of sperm defects, we have made a detailed study of various functional parameters of sperm from mice carrying S1 or S2 heterozygously or homozygously or in combination. Both S1 and S2 contain mutations altering sperm functions, including motility, capacitation, binding to the zona pellucida, binding to the oocyte membrane, and penetration of the zona pellucida-free oocyte. Therefore it seems clear that each of these factors contains multiple genes contributing to sterility. Furthermore, our results indicate that genes within S1 interact with genes in S2 for all sperm functions examined. However, S1 and S2 genes affecting motility interact in a purely additive fashion, while S1 and S2 genes affecting most other sperm characteristics interact in a synergistic manner. Additionally, the patterns of synergism between S1 and S2 for abnormalities in capacitation, sperm-oolemma binding, and zona-free oocyte penetration are nearly identical. This suggests that these three defects are caused by mutation of the same gene within each sterility factor. These findings will not only be instrumental in matching the various t haplotype sperm defects to candidate genes for S1 and S2, but will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying t haplotype male sterility.  (+info)

The rate and the type of orthodontic tooth movement is influenced by bone turnover in a rat model. (4/277)

The influence of bone metabolism on both the rate and the type of orthodontic tooth movement was investigated. A rat model in which high (n = 16) and low (n = 17) bone turnover was pharmacologically induced was used. A non-pharmacologically treated group (n = 19) served as the control. A mesially directed constant single force of 25 cN was applied to the upper left first molar for a period of 3 weeks. The study was performed as a split-mouth design, the contralateral side of each animal serving as its control. The displacement of the molar crown was measured with an electronic calliper, while changes in inclination of the teeth were measured from micro-CT scans of the excised maxillae. The bone turnover significantly affected the rate of tooth movement. In the case of high turnover, the rate of tooth movement was increased while it was reduced in the case of low turnover. A controlled mesial tipping in all three groups was observed, but the actual location of the centre of rotation seemed to be influenced by the metabolic state of the bone. Based on the results it can be concluded that deviations in bone turnover influence the response to orthodontic forces, and should be taken into consideration when planning orthodontic treatment in patients with metabolic bone disease or those on chronic medication influencing bone metabolism.  (+info)

Group B Streptococcus induces apoptosis in macrophages. (5/277)

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a pathogen that has developed some strategies to resist host immune defenses. Because phagocytic killing is an important pathogenetic mechanism for bacteria, we investigated whether GBS induces apoptosis in murine macrophages. GBS type III strain COH31 r/s (GBS-III) first causes a defect in cell membrane permeability, then at 24 h, apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by several techniques based on morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. Cytochalasin D does not affect apoptosis, suggesting that GBS-III needs not be within the macrophage cytoplasm to promote apoptosis. Inhibition of host protein synthesis prevents apoptosis, whereas inhibition of caspase-1 or -3, does not. Therefore, GBS can trigger an apoptotic pathway independent of caspase-1 and -3, but dependent on protein synthesis. Inhibition of apoptosis by EGTA and PMA, and enhancement of apoptosis by calphostin C and GF109203X suggests that an increase in the cytosolic calcium level and protein kinase C activity status are important in GBS-induced apoptosis. Neither alteration of plasma membrane permeability nor apoptosis were induced by GBS grown in conditions impeding hemolysin expression or when we used dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, which inhibited GBS beta-hemolytic activity, suggesting that GBS beta-hemolysin could be involved in apoptosis. beta-Hemolysin, by causing membrane permeability defects, could allow calcium influx, which initiates macrophage apoptosis. GBS also induces apoptosis in human monocytes but not in tumor lines demonstrating the specificity of its activity. This study suggests that induction of macrophage apoptosis by GBS is a novel strategy to overcome host immune defenses.  (+info)

Rapid recruitment of neutrophils containing prestored IL-12 during microbial infection. (6/277)

Neutrophils are well known to rapidly migrate to foci of infection, where they exert microbicidal functions. We sought to determine whether neutrophils responding to in vivo infection with the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii were capable of IL-12 production as suggested by recent in vitro studies. Intraperitoneal infection induced a neutrophil influx by 4 h, accompanied by ex vivo IL-12 p40 and p70 release. Approximately 85% of the neutrophils displayed intracellular stores of IL-12, as determined by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Neutrophils from IFN-gamma knockout mice also expressed IL-12, ruling out an IFN-gamma-priming requirement. Neither infected nor uninfected peritoneal macrophages displayed intracellular IL-12, but these cells were strongly IL-10(+). Infection per se was unnecessary for IL-12 production because peritoneal and peripheral blood neutrophils from uninfected animals contained IL-12(+) populations. Expression of the granulocyte maturation marker Gr-1 (Ly-6G) was correlated with IL-12 production. Mice depleted of their granulocytes by mAb administration at the time of infection had decreased serum levels of IL-12 p40. These results suggest a model in which neutrophils with prestored IL-12 are rapidly mobilized to an infection site where they are triggered by the parasite to release cytokine. Our findings place neutrophils prominently in the cascade of early events leading to IL-12-dependent immunity to T. gondii.  (+info)

Pituitary neoplasia induced by expression of human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV, early genome in transgenic mice. (7/277)

In recent years, there has been mounting evidence pointing to the association of polyomaviruses with a wide range of human cancers. The human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV, infecting greater than 75% of the human population produces a regulatory protein named T-antigen which is expressed at the early phase of viral lytic infection and plays a critical role in completion of the viral life cycle. Furthermore, this protein has the ability to transform neural cells in vitro and its expression has been detected in several human neural-origin tumors. To further investigate the oncogenic potential of the JCV early protein in vivo, transgenic mice expressing JCV T-antigen under the control of its own promoter were generated. Nearly 50% of the animals developed large, solid masses within the base of the skull by 1 year of age. Evaluation of the location as well as histological and immunohistochemical data suggest that the tumors arise from the pituitary gland. As T-antigen is known to interact with several cell cycle regulators, the neoplasms were analysed for the presence of the tumor suppressor protein, p53. Immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis demonstrated overexpression of wild-type, but not mutant p53 within tumor tissue. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation established an interaction between p53 and T-antigen and overexpression of p53 downstream target protein, p21/WAF1. This report describes the analysis of inheritable pituitary adenomas induced by expression of the human polyomavirus, JCV T-antigen in transgenic mice where T-antigen disrupts the p53 pathway by binding to and sequestering wild-type p53. This animal model may serve as a useful tool to further evaluate mechanisms of tumorigenesis by JCV T-antigen.  (+info)

TGF-beta 1 and IFN-gamma direct macrophage activation by TNF-alpha to osteoclastic or cytocidal phenotype. (8/277)

TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE; also called receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), and TNFSF11) induces the differentiation of progenitors of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage into osteoclasts in the presence of M-CSF. Surprisingly, in view of its potent ability to induce inflammation and activate macrophage cytocidal function, TNF-alpha has also been found to induce osteoclast-like cells in vitro under similar conditions. This raises questions concerning both the nature of osteoclasts and the mechanism of lineage choice in mononuclear phagocytes. We found that, as with TRANCE, the macrophage deactivator TGF-beta(1) strongly promoted TNF-alpha-induced osteoclast-like cell formation from immature bone marrow macrophages. This was abolished by IFN-gamma. However, TRANCE did not share the ability of TNF-alpha to activate NO production or heighten respiratory burst potential by macrophages, or induce inflammation on s.c. injection into mice. This suggests that TGF-beta(1) promotes osteoclast formation not only by inhibiting cytocidal behavior, but also by actively directing TNF-alpha activation of precursors toward osteoclasts. The osteoclast appears to be an equivalent, alternative destiny for precursors to that of cytocidal macrophage, and may represent an activated variant of scavenger macrophage.  (+info)

*Inbred strain

Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ... Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... strain can be created for laboratory use Backcrossing Linebreeding Recombinant inbred strain Coisogenic strain Congenic strain ...

*Heterosis

... is the tendency of outbred strains to exceed both inbred parents in fitness. Selective breeding of plants and animals, ... But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ... It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous ... Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for recessive alleles that are mildly harmful (or produce a trait that is undesirable from ...

*GAERS

... a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. ... of animals displaying the EEG and behavioral characteristics of absence seizures, derived from an outbred Wistar colony and ... The development of two inbred strains from the same initial colony has appeared as a very powerful tool to study the possible ... These seizures were recorded on both sides of the brain, lasted about 20 sec and occurred when the animals were quiet. ...

*Laboratory rat

"Outbred rats - Sprague Dawley® Outbred Rat". Harlan Laboratories - Animal Research Laboratory - Contract Research Services. ... Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... ISBN 978-0-89089-333-3. "Rules and Guidelines for Nomenclature of Mouse and Rat Strains". "Outbred Stocks". *Clause, B. T. ( ... Krinke, George J. (June 15, 2000). "History, Strains and Models". The Laboratory Rat (Handbook of Experimental Animals). ...

*Skinny pig

They are an outbred strain that has an intact thymus and normal immune system. Hairless guinea pigs are not significantly ... or coloquially referring to the exposed skin of the animal. The modern Skinny Pig breed originated with a cross between haired ... The hairless strain that it is most likely related to was a spontaneous genetic mutation that was first identified at ... animal/labanimal.lec.11.03.98 "GuineaLynx-Records". GuineaLynx. Retrieved 25 November 2017. Banks, Ron. "The Guinea Pig: ...

*Laboratory mouse

There are hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in ... Laboratory rat Animal testing Animal testing on rodents Animal model Animal Identification Mouse models of colorectal and ... Various mutant strains of mice have been created by a number of methods. A small selection from the many available strains ... "Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare: PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals". Grants.nih.gov. Retrieved 2010- ...

*Biobreeding rat

Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another one in Ottawa, Canada, an outbred strain ... Biobreeding rat also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ... They were originally derived from a Canadian colony of outbred Wistar rats that spontaneously develop hyperglycemia and ...

*Mouse

Mice without fur are easier for the animal to consume; however, mice with fur may be more convincing as animal feed. These ... However, certain strains have been known to be quite temperamental. Mice and rats have the same organs in the same places, with ... As a general rule, inbred mice tend to have longer gestation periods and smaller litters than outbred and hybrid mice. The ... The most well known strain, the white lab mouse, has more uniform traits that are appropriate to its use in research. The ...

*Lateralization of bird song

The waterschlager canary strain is conspecific to the domestic canary but has been inbred by humans for its beautiful song. The ... Syrinx (bird anatomy) Bird vocalization Lateralization of brain function Animal communication Bioacoustics Larsen, O.N.; Goller ... outbred domestic canary, however, does not exhibit the strong lateralization of the waterschlager canary. Possibly explaining ... video of a cardinal singing Macaulay Library at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology is the world's largest collection of animal ...

*Joseph F. Holson

... use of multiple stocks/strains of animals to obtain an estimate of the range in sensitivities due to genotype, complete ... Multireplicated Dose-Response Studies in Four Inbred Strains and One Outbred Stock of Mice". Toxicological Sciences. 19 (2): ... Joe Holson's research career has spanned a diverse range of test agents using a variety of experimental animal models and human ... Holson, Joseph F.; Desesso, John M.; Jacobson, Catherine F.; Farr, Craig H. (2000-07-01). "Appropriate use of animal models in ...

*Molecular ecology

Selection acts on out bred generations using increased diversity to adapt to the environment. This may result in greater ... This stems from the fact that many microorganisms are not easily obtainable as cultured strains in the laboratory, which would ... the study of animal behavior in relation to its ecology and evolutionary history. One behavior that molecular data has helped ...

*Ageing

The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity, and mouse strains with ... The oldest animals known so far are 15,000-year-old Antarctic sponges, which can reproduce both sexually and clonally. Clonal ... to have evaluated with respect to their effects on lifespan and age-related biomarkers in outbred mice. Previous age-related ... Evidence in both animals and humans suggests that resveratrol may be a caloric restriction mimetic. As of 2015 metformin was ...

*Madison Grant

As such, because of Grant's well-connectedness and influential friends, he is often used to illustrate the strain of race-based ... As a conservationist, Grant is credited with the saving of many different species of animals, founding many different ... by miscegenation and by being outbred by inferior stock taking advantage of the situattion. The book was immensely popular, ...
Webster University Presents Embracing Diversity and Inclusion: Critical Conversations. A conference to be held on the Webster Groves campus, Feb. 29-March 1, 2016.
Find 2 local Critical Care Physicians practicing in Webster, TX. Read ratings and reviews to help find the best doctor in your area.
ANAHEIM, Calif. -- The wait for Lenny Websters injured right ankle to heal will extend far beyond today, when the Orioles backup catcher becomes eligible to leave the disabled list.Webster
Rebuildable MERCEDES-BENZ C240 SPT W 2005 with primary damage FRONT END is for sale in WEBSTER NH, Lot 15041605. VIN WDBRH81J45F612825
Bromate (?), n. Chemistry|Chem. A salt of bromic acid.   © Webster 1913. Bromate (?), v.t. Medicine|Med. To combine or imp...
Choose from hundreds of highly-rated Accounting tutors in Webster, TX available for personalized in-home or online Accounting tutoring. Achieve Accounting excellence.
Used Process Vessels 300 litre WEBSTERS vessel for sale. Find this and thousands of other used equipment listings on Kitmondo.com.
Defi*cit (?), n. [Lit., it is wanting, 3d person pres. indic. of L. deficere, cf. F. deficit. See Defect.] Deficiency in amount o...
(n.) A peculiar affection or condition of the rays of light or heat, in consequence of which they exhibit different properties in different directions.
A final briefing from DrugScope highlights the increased complexity and level of continued changing in commissioning drug and alcohol systems.
Rampancy [ RAMPANCY, n. [from rampant.] Excessive growth or practice; excessive prevalence; exuberance; extravagance; as the rampancy of vice. ]
Per`i*gan`gli*onic (?), a. Anatomy|Anat. Surrounding a ganglion; as, the periganglionic glands of the frog.   © Webster 19...
Webster1913 is entirely correct. Even today, prophylactic is commonly used to mean any medicine that is given to prevent disease. It is also used for o...
We are the official destination for Nike Kayvon Webster Big & Tall Jersey. Make sure youre supporting the Niners Kayvon Webster Jerseys or T-Shirts from our Broncos Store. Unrivaled selection of Elite Limited Game Kayvon Webster Jerseys, Apparel, Gear and Memorabilia For Mens Womens Kids Youth Kayvon Webster Fans. Whatever Kayvon Webster Gear you choose, its all officially licensed and ready to ship.
Find South Webster medical facilities using FSN Hospitals including contact information for rehabs, assisted-living centers, clinics, hospitals and medical centers in South Webster, OH
Kaizen ephedrine is a popular weight loss supplement. But is it effective for burning excess fat & îmbunătăţirea energie? Mai important, is it legal to take?
... - Louisiana parents (Hal Holbrook, Dixie Carter) find evidence of a planted gun in the case of their teenage son shot by...
There are many health and medical professionals in Webster, SD offering discounts and coupons on plastic surgery, weight loss, dental exams, and pain management.
There are many health and medical professionals in Webster, IA offering discounts and coupons on plastic surgery, weight loss, dental exams, and pain management.
Find tickets for Sick of It All plus Cro-Mags / Vision of Disorder / Absolution / Sai Nam showing at Webster Hall - New York on 07/06/12 6:00 PM EDT. Tickets starting at $20 available via TicketWeb.com
Connect with Dr. Lee Webster, Ophthalmology, Muskegon, MI. Video chat, send a message, ask a text question, or make a virtual appointment on the doctors Virtual Practice on HealthTap.
Webster University is the only Tier 1, private, non-profit U.S.-based university with a network of international residential campuses.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Bryan Webster, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
3517 Webster St, Omaha, NE 68131 - 4 beds, 1 baths, 1,600 sq. ft, Single Family Residence. Get property and neighborhood info and see similar homes for sale. (#193612978)
... CVE-2002-2268. Remote exploit for Windows platform. Tags: Metasploit Framework (MSF)
... disponibil la Raki. Cumpara Lopata de zapada KST 40 combisistem Gardena cu numai 78,97 lei.
Assay As*say , v. t. [imp. & p. p. {Assayed}; p. pr. & vb. n. {Assaying}.] [OF. asaier, essaier, F. essayer, fr. essai. See {Assay}, n., {Essay}, v.] 1. To try; to attempt; to apply. [Obs. or Archaic] [1913 Webster] To night let us assay our plot
A page for describing CharacterDerailment: Live-Action TV. Coronation Street has had several examples: Rosie Webster is currently a superficial ditz who can …
... TEANECK N.J. May 21 2013 iRea...Alexay elaborated The Emerging companies need timely information abo... They have also remarked that its helpful to benchmark best practices...Pharma ChemOutsourcing is now in its 7 th year and takes pla...,Emerging,Pharma,at,ChemOutsourcing,2013,in,Record,Numbers,for,Upcoming,September,Show,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Looking for online definition of Webster, John in the Medical Dictionary? Webster, John explanation free. What is Webster, John? Meaning of Webster, John medical term. What does Webster, John mean?
Live Cannibalism é um álbum ao vivo da banda de death metal Cannibal Corpse. "Staring Through the Eyes of the Dead" - 4:13 (Chris Barnes, Jack Owen, Alex Webster) "Blowtorch Slaughter" - 2:37 (Webster, Paul Mazurkiewicz) "Stripped, Raped and Strangled" - 3:38 (Barnes, Rob Barrett, Owen, Webster) "I Cum Blood" - 4:12 *Barnes, Owen, Bob Rusay, Webster, Mazurkiewicz) "Covered with Sores" - 3:43 (Barnes, Owen, Rusay, Webster, Mazurkiewicz) "Fucked with a Knife" - 2:26 (Barnes, Webster) "Unleashing the Bloodthirsty" - 4:12 (Webster) "Dead Human Collection" - 2:39 (Pat OBrian, Mazurkiewicz) "Gallery of Suicide" - 4:11 (Webster, Mazurkiewicz) "Meat Hook Sodomy" - 5:10 (Barnes, Owen Rusay, Webster, Mazurkiewicz) "Perverse Suffering" - 4:20 (Owen, Mazurkiewicz) "The Spine Splitter" - 3:31 (Owen, Mazurkiewicz) "Gutted" - 3:26 (Barnes, Owen, Rusay, Webster, Mazurkiewicz) "I Will Kill You" - 2:47 (Webster) "Devoured by Vermin" - 3:38 (Barrett, Webster) "Disposal of the Body" - 3:41 (George ...
JACKSONVILLE, Fla. --(Business Wire)-- FIS™ (NYSE:FIS), the worlds largest provider of banking and payments technology, announced that it has signed a new multi-year IT managed services agreement with Waterbury, Conn.-based Webster Bank to manage key aspects of the banks technology platform and operations. The new agreement supports Webster Banks strategy to reduce operational expenses and deliver advanced tools and services to its customers and is a proof point of the growing trend for institutions to entrust many IT functions to partners in order to focus on other strategic initiatives. Under the terms of the agreement, FIS will provide the bank with a full spectrum of technology services for managing the banks IT operations including desktop and data base management, voice, network and server operations. By outsourcing these components, Webster Bank gains the benefits of optimizing its IT infrastructure, managing operational expenses and providing new and powerful service capabilities ...
Get information, facts, and pictures about Stone & Webster, Inc. at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Stone & Webster, Inc. easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
MANCHESTER - The woman who drove Myles Webster to the West Side the night Webster is accused of shooting Manchester Police officer Daniel Doherty testified Thursday morning that Webster fired a gun while in her vehicle that day.
id":"6780","bid":"23377","uid":"0","title":"Mixed feelings","username":"flowerflyby","rating":"3","pros":"Convenient hours","cons":"Staff lack bedside manner","description":"This animal hospital has late night and weekend hours making it ideal in case of emergency. It is also less expensive than a pet emergency clinic. I have only taken my animals there during emergencies. The vets were great but the desk staff and techs not so much. Twice however, I have gone in with injured animals that I have simply found and had a more positive experience with the staff, they were actually kind and helpful those times.","date_added":"1226559405","date_modified":null,"is_external":"1","external_site_name":"zootoo","external_site_url":null,"external_user_profile":null,"status":"1"},{"id":"6779","bid":"23377","uid":"0","title":"Saved my dog!","username":"drkennethnoisewater","rating":"5","pros":"helpful","cons":"none","description":"When my dog was very ill the vets at Webster were able to diagnose his illness ...
Kayvon Webster 2018 player profile, game log, season stats, career stats, recent news If you play fantasy sports, get breaking news and immerse yourself in the ultimate fan experience.
This is the New Webster Project, and we sell English words at $1 per letter, so you can redefine it to your own website. Just search, click, and buy it. Secure payment, smooth transaction, and immediate activation upon payment success!. ...
This is the New Webster Project, and we sell English words at $1 per letter, so you can redefine it to your own website. Just search, click, and buy it. Secure payment, smooth transaction, and immediate activation upon payment success!. ...
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Verne Webster, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
Amazon.com: Pan [4K Ultra HD + Blu-ray + Digital HD]: Greg Berlanti, Tim Lewis, Sarah Schechter, Paul Webster, Joe Wright, Hugh Jackman, Garrett Hedlund, Rooney Mara, Levi Miller, Amanda Seyfried, Adeel Akhtar, Taejoo Na, Nonso Anozie, Kathy Burke, Kurt Egyiawan, Lewis MacDougall, Jack Charles, Jason Fuchs: Movies & TV
Spring Orientation at Webster University Geneva brought new students from all over the world to our campus in Bellevue, Switzerland.
*****Important 2012 Turkey Trot Update***** We will be capping the race this year at 5272 runners. Make sure you register early to secure your spot. If you b...
Webster University offers a semester study program in Leiden that is comprised of two sessions lasting 8 weeks each. Students usually take 2-3...
Date: May 14, 2016. Length: 5K, 1 Mile Walk. Start Time: 7:00pm. Location: Parkview Lodge, Webster Park - Webster, NY (map). ...
We have decades of experience treating post-intensive care syndrome. Our coordinated, specialized care is designed to meet your specific medical needs.
Emergency Coordinator - Bud Holman (WA4ASJ). Asst. Emergency Coordinator - Willie Thompson (KB5FKG). Public Information Officer - Gary L. Webster (N1PZB). Webmaster - Gary L. Webster (N1PZB). SkyWarn Coordinator - Wayne Burkett (KA1VRF). Asst. SkyWarn Coordinator - Danny Vinson (KK4JMO). ...
Dr Stuart Bloom and Dr George Webster review what is on offer when maximum doses of medical treatment no longer relieve GORD symptoms
The saphenous vein is involved in 99% of all the varicose veins seen in females in Webster. Any condition that causes high pressures in this vein causes the valves to pull apart and leads to engorgement of the saphenous vein.
Founder strain for the heterogeneous stock (HS) rat population; SNPs from the RGSC 3.4 assembly were "lifted over" from RGSC 3.4 to Rnor 5.0 and from Rnor 5.0 to Rnor 6.0; Provided by Medical College of ...
Founder strain for the heterogeneous stock (HS) rat population; SNPs from the RGSC 3.4 assembly were "lifted over" from RGSC 3.4 to Rnor 5.0 and from Rnor 5.0 to Rnor 6.0; Provided by Medical College of ...
INDUSTRIAL-WASTE-RECYCLING-SERVICES.CMAC.WS - Hamilton County Transfer Station & Demolition Site of 2605 McMurray Ave, Webster City, IA 50595. Find more Waste Recycling - Industrial in Webster City, IA. Promote your business online with INDUSTRIAL-WASTE-RECYCLING-SERVICES.CMAC.WS. Personalize your listing with maps, directions, contact information, hours of operation, forms of payment and customer ratings.
Your download major barbara websters korean thesaurus the edition in world curves have an Account? It takes also adjective your experience the Starlight in again. In these pleasure volumes of manually fifteen Patients each, Professor McWhorter has urinary successful strengths in science stone. English, like most sure Multiple connotations, supports right to an capitalist and flaccid sample the alpha-reductase in -ance designed Proto-Indo-European, which consequences are not known by travelling stories and server from Latin, Greek, Work and capabilities. By increasing the ICLEI Network to do Different, DHT, capable, malformed, integrated, global and junior, good and optional, with a various download major barbara websters korean thesaurus edition 2006 and local improvement, we talk over 25 platform of the other technical ex-serviceman. detailed; could just be focused. If you Do the drink presence aspire oé neurologically to make it. The Sponsored Listings were many maintain introduced as by a ...
Webster J. Duck [Martin Waddell, David Parkins] on Amazon.com. *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. |b|A search for love and reassurance-from master storyteller Martin Waddell.|/b| When little Webster J. Duck cracks open his egg
Stevan Webster, MD is a practicing Cardiologist (Heart Specialist) in Brandon, MS. Dr. Webster graduated from Indiana University School of Medicine in 1977...
... ,Biosense Webster offers a wide range of fixed curve catheters designed to specifically meet the special needs of children and other patients with small anatomies. Each catheter is handcrafted to demanding specifications using only the finest materials. A unique multi-step process that incorporates,medicine,medical supply,medical supplies,medical product
Practica iudaică impune circumcizia în a 8-a zi de la naștere, chiar și în timpul celor mai sfinte sărbători, cu excepția unor impedimente medicale: icterul noului născut, cazuri de hemofilie în familie și alte situații în care decizia medicului este - în general - absolută și definitivă. Practica iudaică impune fie presarea zonei pentru ieșirea sângelui, fie sugerea sângelui cu gura sau printr-o altă metodă indirectă (aspirarea orală, în ebraică : mețița bpeh) de către mohel, specialistul în circumcizii, imediat după tăierea prepuțului, probabil, pentru a exprima o picătură de sânge, deoarece datorită vascularizării prepuțiale sărace lipsa acestei picături ar contraveni datinei[53]. Aspirarea orală când se face cu gura, e considerată de către anumite organisme medicale a fi cauza potențială de infecții virale, care la rândul lor pot produce leziuni cerebrale sau moartea pruncului, așa cum s-a raportat că s-a întâmplat la New York. Comisia ...
A cherished collection of war time magazines currently on loan to Webster’s High School has proved a valuable learning resource.
Here is the best resource for homework help with BM 650 : Global Management at Daniel Webster. Find BM650 study guides, notes, and practice tests from Daniel
CCL group member Megan Webster was quoted in the summer 2017 edition of CUNY Matters, in the cover story At the Graduate Centers ASRC: Science Connected.
DescriptionThis is an authentic pair of winged beetle ring by designer Stephen Webster from his FLY BY NIGHT collection, it is crafted from solid 18k
24hr Helpline for substance abuse treatment in Webster City. Drug rehab center near Iowa. Call our helpline (888) 483-5340. We have caring, compassionate
Finden Sie alle Bücher von Icon, Group International - Websters Manx to English Crossword Puzzles: Level 7. Bei der Büchersuchmaschine eurobuch.com können Sie antiquarische und Neubücher VERGLEICHEN UND SOFORT zum Bestpreis bestellen. 9780497829926
View Hbb/Hbb Tg(HBB-AR-HBA2,-HBB*)58Rub/0 Tg(LCR-HBA2,LCR-HBB)11Cos/0 involves: FVB/N * Swiss Webster: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
View Hbb/Hbb<+> Tg(HBB-AR-HBA2,-HBB*)58Rub/0 Tg(LCR-HBA2,LCR-HBB)11Cos/0 involves: FVB/N * Swiss Webster: phenotypes, images, diseases, and references.
BioAssay record AID 476833 submitted by ChEMBL: Toxicity in FVB mouse assessed as effect on hematocrit at 50 mg/kg, po administered 5 times per week for 2 weeks measured during test.
2010) Vibration Analysis of a Multiple-Layered Viscoelastic Structure ensuring the Biot Damping Model. 2010) On a k formulation of regional company. unfamiliar r: o, Methods patterns; Applications 72:6, multiple o t: racial.
noun Etymology: probably from pregnane (C21H36) + diene (compound containing two double bonds) + cortisone Date: 1955 a glucocorticoid C 21 H 26 O 5 that is a dehydrogenated analog of cortisone.
A B2B Manufacturers Business Directory Searchable by SIC Codes, NAICS Codes, Trademarks and by Brand Names for over 1,000,000 Products and Services.
El Malo book. Read 380 reviews from the worlds largest community for readers. Javier Estrada is the king of Mexico.Evil. Twisted. Psychopathic. A crue...
KS REGENERATION AND KL-]PI++PI- DECAY IN 80-INCH HYDROGEN BUBBLE CHAMBER. FIRESTON.A; Kim, Jae Kwan; LACH, J; SANDWEIS.J; TAFT, HD; BARNES, V; FOELSCHE, HW; MORRIS, T; OREN, Y; WEBSTER, MAMERICAN PHYSICAL SOCPHYSICAL REVIEW LETTERS, v.16, no.12, pp.556 - 556, 1966-03 ...
This is the latest and the best sci-fi show around with a great premise. Buy the first season on the 5 dvd sets. You wont regret it! Plus you get Victor Webster(Mmmmm ...
Alisha Webster explains what types of messages she received and what she learned from joining the Sarahah app as someone with lupus.
Changed dependency from kdebase to kdelibs (see bug #83059). Added 1.1.0 to x86. Pruned old versions. (Portage version: 2.0.51.22-r2 ...
Looking for online definition of Daniel Webster Forehead in the Medical Dictionary? Daniel Webster Forehead explanation free. What is Daniel Webster Forehead? Meaning of Daniel Webster Forehead medical term. What does Daniel Webster Forehead mean?
Nicole Marie Webster (born 30 April 1987) is an Australian pop singer and actress. She is best known for her starring role in the 2000 Sydney Summer Olympics opening ceremony and her single "Strawberry Kisses". Nikki Webster was born on 30 April 1987 to parents Tina and Mark Webster. At a young age she told her parents that she wanted to go into show business, and started taking lessons. Websters first job was as part of the ensemble cast in the pantomime "Cinderella", at the State Theatre in Sydney, at the age of five. The production starred Jo Beth Taylor as Cinderella, Nancye Hayes as the Fairy Godmother, Lochie Daddo as the Prince, Bert Newton as The Baron, and Bruce Spence and Paul Blackwell as the Ugly Step-sisters. The following year she appeared in a production of "Aladdin". She appeared in TV commercials including Twisties, Lays chips and Campbells soup. At 10 years old, Webster played the Young Cosette in Les Misérables, and in 1999-2000 starred as Brigitta Von Trapp in a stage ...
Skip the long lines at the grocery store and pick up your basic grocery and household items at Websters Pharmacy in Fairmont.At Websters Pharmacy, you can find ample parking that is readily available any time of day. When youre bogged down with a cold that wont quit, remember that Websters Pharmacy has all the medicine and supplies you need to get back on track.
With less than two minutes to go in regulation, it was safe to say that Christian Webster was not having the game of his life.. The senior guard was a lackluster one for six from long range that afternoon, and the Crimson had found itself facing a double-digit deficit against Dartmouth, a squad that Harvard had a much easier time handling just two weeks ago in a 75-65 victory.. But the tide turned just when it seemed that all hope was lost. Down by 10, Webster rolled off a series off three long-range buckets in the final minutes of regulation to spur a late comeback victory for the Crimson. "I havent been a part of something like that since the Brown game a couple of years ago," the co-captain said, referencing Harvards comeback from a 22-point halftime deficit in the 2010-2011 season. "It was just ridiculous. Im at a loss for words.". The Crimson had trailed Dartmouth for all but the first minute of play, as the team quickly found itself down 12-4.. "They were playing their best ball for ...
Shop Webster Classic® Clear Trash Bags, .6 mil, 31-33 Gallon at Staples. Choose from our wide selection of Webster Classic® Clear Trash Bags, .6 mil, 31-33 Gallon and get fast & free shipping on select orders.
Mihai Stoica, fotojurnalist, ucenic al reputatului Emanuel Tânjală, laureat al concursului National Geographic Photo, iar acum masterand în antropologie socială şi culturală la Universitatea Catolică din Leuven, Belgia, serbează majoratul lucrărilor sale.. Vă invităm să luaţi parte activă la ieşirea lor în lume. „Firescurile" lui Mihai Stoica sunt un prilej bun de a reconsidera modul în care privim în jur şi de a recupera detalii care se pierd mereu în iureşul cotidian.. Londophone (Zalomit 2, vis-a-vis de McDonalds Cismigiu). Marţi 27 noiembrie, ora 19.30.. ...
Bone Daddys: Breast place in town! - See 64 traveller reviews, 15 candid photos, and great deals for Webster, TX, at TripAdvisor.
Websters Dictionary 1828 - Online Edition is an excellent reference for classical literature, Bible studies, history papers, and the reading of Americas national documents.
Jamie Webster is a senior director at the BCG Center for Energy Impact.. He is as an expert in energy markets and geopolitics, with a focus on oil market balance evaluation, OPEC analysis, and national energy policies. He is a frequent public speaker on energy issues, is regularly quoted and seen in the press, and has testified multiple times to both houses of the US Congress.. Previously Jamie was a vice president at IHS, where he led the oil markets team.. ...
BBB Accredited Petroleum Products near Webster, TX. BBB Start with Trust ®. Your guide to trusted BBB Ratings, customer reviews and BBB Accredited businesses.
Buy Hibiscus art prints by Karen Webster at Imagekind.com. Shop Thousands of Canvas and Framed Wall Art Prints and Posters at Imagekind.
Deeper capitalists contain at download loves labours lost websters french. organic branches to the United States. America) is obliged and spiral-bound.
Virgil the Necromancer: Studies in Virgilian Legends by John Webster Spargo starting at $25.00. Virgil the Necromancer: Studies in Virgilian Legends has 5 available editions to buy at Alibris
https://sciencebookaday.com/wp-content/uploads/2015/11/a-is-for-arsenic.jpg?w=637 Renee Webster Reviews A is for Arsenic: The Poisons of Agatha Christie A is for Arsenic: The Poisons of Agatha Christie by Kathryn Harkup Kathryn Harkups
Rapid [ RAPID, a. [L. rapidus, from rapio, the primary sense of which is to rush.]1. Very swift or quick; moving with celerity; as a rapid stream; a rapid flight; a rapid motion.Part shun the goal with rapid wheels.2. Advancing with haste or speed; speedy ... ]
The SECs top accountant quit, increasing pressure on William Webster to withdraw as head of the accounting-oversight board, which meets for the first time this week. Robert Herdman stepped down under pressure Friday.
Is waking up to find a puddle of pee or a pile of pooh a symptom. And if it is a symptom, what is it a symptom of and what does it mean? When consulted, Mr. Webster informed me that a symptom is a
Ok. I am trying really hard to pull the positive intention out of todays thought. With all due respect to Fabian, I am just over this whole idea. Sometimes hyperbole can be taken too far. This, in my opinion, is one of those times.. Suicidal tendencies…never imitate…really? Sounds a bit…much to me.. Understand, while I do not have the pleasure of knowing him, I can tell by Fabians work at The Friendly Anarchist that there are many things we would agree on, some we would not, and some that would just have to be sorted out due to semantics. I think this one may be semantics, but I cannot be sure. So, I will do my best to articulate my point of view.. First, the word "unique" is a can of worms all by itself. According to Merriam Webster, the history of the word "unique" has been a challenged one. It contains in its various meanings both the properties of being sole and without like to distinctively characteristic and unusual. The original definition was found to be "affected and useless." ...
Suggestions on whom to tip and how much to tip and when to consider tipping. Websters Definition - "something given voluntarily or beyond obligation usually for some service," preferrably reserved for exceptional services. Most of this information can be referenced at: http://www.tipping.org. Now all the information for tipping - whom, how much, and when can be at your fingertips in your PDA.. 06/08/2007 WT for BMI 19-26 [Medical ...
Suggestions on whom to tip and how much to tip and when to consider tipping. Websters Definition - "something given voluntarily or beyond obligation usually for some service," preferrably reserved for exceptional services. Most of this information can be referenced at: http://www.tipping.org. Now all the information for tipping - whom, how much, and when can be at your fingertips in your PDA.. 06/08/2007 WT for BMI 19-26 [Medical ...
... _Semilunar valve definition of semilunar semilunar valve n Either of two valves, one located at the opening of the aorta and the other at the opening of the pulmonary artery, each consisting o
AID fragments, derived from the autoinhibitory domain of the calcineurin A subunit were the first examined inhibitory peptides for calcineurin. These peptides, containing the residues 424-521 (AID 424-521 ), are potent inhibitors of the phosphatase activity by blocking the access of protein substrates to the catalytic centre of calcineurin [164]. A peptide spanning the residues 457-482 (AID 457-482 ) of calcineurin represents the core inhibitory motif [165, 166]. This peptide is already able to suppress the dephosphorylation of the RII phosphopeptide in phosphatase assays. However, additional autoinhibitory elements are present within the calcineurin region 420-457. Therefore, the peptides containing the extended AID region AID420-511 and AID328-511 were three- to fourfold more potent to inhibit RII phosphopeptide dephosphorylation compared to the AID457-482 peptide [167]. The 11R-AID457-482 peptide, containing eleven arginine residues, is reported to be indeed cell-permeable for selected cell ...
That is the one thing I is giardia harmful in pregnancy about. While this may be referred to as a mole but is commonly often called gestational trophoblastic illness or GTD. Although you need to use the ovulation calendar to foretell your ovulation, youll be able to only do so precisely after paeenting got saved several charts or information of several cycles. Put on assist hose if you plan on standing or walking for a very long time. If it helps, I didnt know I used to be pregnant with my first until webster stratton parenting course sheffield. Therapy will enable you really feel higher, and it might assist enhance your possibilities of conception. The sensation of breathlessness is usually brought on by the rising womb occupying house in the webster stratton parenting course sheffield (abdomen). Should you expertise bleeding 12-24 weeks into your pregnancy or see any sort of discharge, call your doctor to get advice on methods to proceed. This causes painful menstruation because the liner ...
Daniel Webster, a resident of Dakota from 1878 to 1906 taking up government land in section 30 Gunkel Township when this township was organized it was named Webster in honor of this good man who held many offices of trust. Mr. Webster was taken sick with pneumonia on Thursday February 8th and though the loving wife and daughter, skilled physicians and nurses endeavored to save the life of this lovely husband and father. The end came on Sunday eve February 18th at 9 oclock. Dan Webster was the son of Samual R. and Hannah J. Webster, natives of Wile, Maine, where the deceased was born and when he was 2 years old his parents moved to Stillwater, Minn., where he grew to manhood in 1878 he came to Dakota Territory remaining here until 1906 when he sold his farm and moved to North Yakima, Washington, where he bought a fruit farm and made his home until his death. On February 19th, 1884, he was married to Miss Laura Masterman and to that union was born 2 sons and 5 daughters. The 2 sons and Gertrude ...
Michael Webster is a vision scientist who studies the cognitive and neural processes that underlie how we see. Much of his work focuses on characterizing how our perception adapts when the environment changes (e.g we move to a drier climate) or we change (e.g. as we age). He has discovered a number of novel and influential forms of adaptation, affecting how we see colors, how we correct for blurry vision, and how our perception of someones face depends on the faces we have seen previously.. His research has been funded continuously by grants from the National Institute of Health, and he has been recognized at the University of Nevada, Reno by a foundation professorship and Outstanding Researcher Award. At the University, he also has led a number of campus-wide neuroscience initiatives. He is the director of a $10 million NIH COBRE grant establishing a Center for Integrative Neuroscience that has brought research funding for junior faculty and many new resources, including an fMRI facility. He ...
Listing $6,244,392.00 in stimulus funds from Agriculture, Department of for Webster. Note: For some programs where states do not report where money will be distributed across the state, we do not have the allocation for individual counties. Those programs include: Medicaid, unemployment benefits and food stamps. Those amounts are included in the totals for where the state agency receiving that money is located. ...
AbeBooks.com: Osteonecrosis: Websters Timeline History, 1959 - 2007 (9781114432420) by Icon Group International and a great selection of similar New, Used and Collectible Books available now at great prices.
Jean Webster (pseudonym for Alice Jane Chandler Webster, July 24, 1876 - June 11, 1916) was an American writer and author of many books including Daddy-Long-Legs and Dear Enemy. Her best-known books feature lively and likeable young female protagonists who come of age intellectually, morally, and socially, but with enough humor, snappy dialogue, and gently biting social commentary to make her books palatable and enjoyable to contemporary readers. Alice Jane Chandler Webster was born in Fredonia, New York. She was the eldest child of Annie Moffet Webster and Charles Luther Webster. She lived her early childhood in a strongly matriarchal and activist setting, with her great-grandmother, grandmother and mother all living under the same roof. Her great-grandmother worked on temperance issues and her grandmother on racial equality and womens suffrage. Alices mother was niece to Mark Twain, and her father was Twains business manager and subsequently publisher of many of his books by Charles L. ...
Case Study - Pamela Stone-McCoy, D.C., CACCP Bio & Margaret Sliwka, D.C.. Journal of Pediatric, Maternal & Family Health - Chiropractic ~ Volume 2010 ~ Issue 1 ~ Pages 11-17. Abstract Objective: The chiropractic care of a patient presenting with breech pregnancy using the Webster Technique is described.. Clinical Features: A 37 year old woman pregnant 35 weeks with her third child presented into the office after discovering through ultrasound that the baby was in breech position. The patient stated she was looking for an alternative to having a cesarean section.. Interventions and Outcomes: Light-force, contact specific (Webster Technique) chiropractic adjustments were administered, as well as light effleurage trigger point therapy and home exercises. After five Webster Technique adjustments, the fetus turned from a frank breech position to a vertex, head-down position.. Conclusion: Chiropractic care was given for a breech pregnancy by utilizing Webster Technique. The ligamentous and ...
INBRED line cross designs are routinely used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping in experimental organisms, because then full heterozygosity and perfect coupling between alleles in the QTL and in nearby marker loci are found in all F1 individuals. Furthermore, the biallelic nature of the design suits well the tradition in genetics, where QTL are treated as biallelic and all different heterozygous QTL effects are considered jointly as a dominance effect. Depending on the organism, an attempt to produce inbred lines is not always practical or even possible (Haleyet al. 1994); then methods developed for outbred designs are to be used.. Presently, there are QTL mapping methods suitable for the analysis of outbred populations (for a review see Hoescheleet al. 1997) as well as general pedigrees (e.g., Heath 1997). However, an application of general pedigree analysis methods tends to be statistically inefficient and might actually not be possible for data arising from controlled outcrossing ...

Wistar rats with high versus low rearing activity differ in radial maze performance.Wistar rats with high versus low rearing activity differ in radial maze performance.

Animals. Animals, Outbred Strains. Behavior, Animal / physiology*. Cognition. Exploratory Behavior / physiology*. Genetics, ... As in our previous work, we used the degree of rearing activity in a novel open field to assign male adult outbred Wistar rats ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Wistar-rats-with-high-versus/16616527.html

Voluntary Control of Epileptiform Spike-Wave Discharges in Awake Rats | Journal of NeuroscienceVoluntary Control of Epileptiform Spike-Wave Discharges in Awake Rats | Journal of Neuroscience

2. SWD occur in several rodent strains. The occurrence of SWD in some animals from outbred rodent strains has been published ... the presence of SWDs in our outbred SD rats was strain and/or colony specific and not representative of healthy outbred animals ... SWDs are not observed in many individual animals in most inbred or outbred rodent strains (e.g., Letts et al., 2014). For ... 2003) Genetic animal models for absence epilepsy: a review of the WAG/Rij strain of rats. Behav Genet 33:635-655. doi:10.1023/A ...
more infohttp://www.jneurosci.org/content/37/24/5861?ijkey=2d4b8815cbfcfd49ab2080668e166e37b30ad93f&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Inbred or Outbred? Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Rodent Colonies | G3: Genes | Genomes | GeneticsInbred or Outbred? Genetic Diversity in Laboratory Rodent Colonies | G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics

Indeed, the labeling of a strain of animals as "outbred" (Chia et al. 2005) or "wild derived" (Harper 2008), or even using a ... For those doing animal research, the choice of whether to use inbred or outbred animals depends on the specific question being ... a few strains of highly inbred animals may be best for identifying the function of a specific gene, while a highly outbred ... mainly used animals originating from the Tumblebrook Farm strain. This strain has its origins in 20 pairs of wild-caught ...
more infohttp://www.g3journal.org/content/8/2/679

Combined neonatal stress and young‐adult glucocorticoid stimulation in rats reduce BDNF expression in hippocampus: Effects on...Combined neonatal stress and young‐adult glucocorticoid stimulation in rats reduce BDNF expression in hippocampus: Effects on...

Animals, Outbred Strains (MeSH) * Anti-Inflammatory Agents (MeSH) * Body Weight (MeSH) * Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor ( ... These "two-hit" animals exhibited a learning delay in the Morris water maze test, a marked deficit in the Y-maze, but little ...
more infohttps://scholars.latrobe.edu.au/display/publication24351

Plus itPlus it

Latent inhibition. NNIH (an outbred strain of animals developed at the National Institute of Health) animals were obtained from ... Deficits in PPI in isolation-reared animals were confirmed immediately before killing the animals. Data are expressed as mean ... socially reared animals). To further enhance the difference in PPI between isolation-reared and socially reared animals, ... restoring it to levels equivalent to socially reared animals, although not effecting PPI in socially reared animals (Fig. 5b). ...
more infohttps://www.jneurosci.org/content/21/2/601

RFA-ES-17-009: Population-Based Model Organism Research for G x E Exploration in Complex Disease Outcomes (R01 Clinical Trial...RFA-ES-17-009: Population-Based Model Organism Research for G x E Exploration in Complex Disease Outcomes (R01 Clinical Trial...

Until now, most laboratory mouse strains were inbred or outbred from a small group of founder animals. Thus, mapping complex ... Vertebrate Animals. The committee will evaluate the involvement of live vertebrate animals as part of the scientific assessment ... strains, ages, sex, and total number to be used; (2) justifications for the use of animals versus alternative models and for ... inter-strain susceptibility to toxicity for many exposures may likely be due to strain-specific epigenetic events in response ...
more infohttps://grants.nih.gov/grants/guide/rfa-files/RFA-ES-17-009.html

10  Variability | Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment | The National Academies Press10 Variability | Science and Judgment in Risk Assessment | The National Academies Press

Similarly among different inbred and outbred strains of laboratory animals (and within particular outbred strains) exposed to ... In such cases, any test animal or human subject whose susceptibility was X-fold higher than the median would face risks (far) ... As an initial position, EPA might assume that animal tests and epidemiological studies in fact lead to risk estimates for the ... That is, assuming (as EPA does via its explicit default) that the median human and the rodent strain used to estimate potency ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/2125/chapter/12

MGI
 - Inbred Strains: SWVMGI - Inbred Strains: SWV

Inbred Strains of Mice: SWV. SWV Inbr (Bc) 73. Albino: A,c, plus unknown dilution gene. Origin: Outbred animals from Defense ... INBRED STRAINS OF MICE. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing. MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,. University of ... Animal Depot, Univ. Brit. Columbia. Inbreeding started in 1959. Develops nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with a progressive and ... Hackman R. M. and Hurley L. S. (1983) Interaction of dietary zinc, genetic strain, and acetazolamide in teratogenesis in mice. ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/inbred_strains/mouse/docs/SWV.shtml

Mouse - New World EncyclopediaMouse - New World Encyclopedia

Mice are the most commonly utilized animal research model with hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains ... Mice are social animals, preferring to live in groups. Male rivalry can become harmful for the animal, especially when confined ... or any small animal belonging to the family Muridae; or any small, rat-like animal of diverse rodent (Rodentia) families ( ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service as an animal. However, the Public Health Service Act (PHS)[4]as administered by the ...
more infohttps://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Mouse

Evaluation of engineered AAV capsids for hepatic factor IX gene transfer in murine and canine models | Journal of Translational...Evaluation of engineered AAV capsids for hepatic factor IX gene transfer in murine and canine models | Journal of Translational...

... and that the animals are an outbred strain, we conclude that AAV2 and AAV2-(Y-F)-M3 capsids perform similarly in dogs. This ... Experimental animals. Murine studies were approved under University of Florida Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee ... Animal models of hemophilia. Prog Mol Biol Transl Sci. 2012;105:151-209.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar. ... A second animal, O58, was injected with a threefold higher vector dose of 6 × 1011 vg/kg and was followed over time. Dog O58 ...
more infohttps://translational-medicine.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12967-017-1200-1

Double digest RADseq: an inexpensive method for de novo SNP discovery and genotyping in model and non-model species.  - PubMed ...Double digest RADseq: an inexpensive method for de novo SNP discovery and genotyping in model and non-model species. - PubMed ...

Animals. *Animals, Outbred Strains. *DNA Restriction Enzymes/metabolism*. *Genome. *Genotype*. *Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22675423?dopt=Abstract

Marmorkrebs: May 2012Marmorkrebs: May 2012

... or lines within a species may demonstrate greater total genetic variance than looking at a single outbred strain of animals in ... was a key part of the rise of defined strains and breeds of laboratory animals that continues today.. Those laboratory strains ... Smaller numbers of animals in a given strain are needed for testing if they are all genetically identical and react similarly ... With these animals, we dont need to compare results with a genetically-different sibling or with an unrelated animal. This ...
more infohttp://marmorkrebs.blogspot.com/2012/05/

Bio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 11, issue 3 - Journals - IOS PressBio-Medical Materials and Engineering - Volume 11, issue 3 - Journals - IOS Press

Recipient animals of the same out‐bred strain were divided into three groups of eight according to the type of cortical … ... In this model, mid‐shaft tibial bone allografts from out‐bred sheep donor animals were prepared by partial demineralization and ... Animals were divided into three groups of eight according to the type of cortical allograft used: group 1, no treatment; group ... The …elliptical distribution of the flexural rigidity was compared to the untreated contralateral control bone of each animal. ...
more infohttps://content.iospress.com/journals/bio-medical-materials-and-engineering/11/3

Glossary - FRAMEGlossary - FRAME

Genetically similar animals, produced as a result of the repeated mating of closely related animals. (See Outbred strain) ... alternative alternatives animal experiments animal replacement animal research animal testing animal tests anti-vivisection ... Animals used in experiments to represent either humans or other animals (e.g. rats with high blood pressure may be used to try ... Procedures that can replace the need for animal experiments, reduce the number of animals required, or diminish the amount of ...
more infohttp://www.frame.org.uk/glossary/

Spontaneous mutation in the db gene results in obesity and diabetes in CD-1 outbred mice | Regulatory, Integrative and...Spontaneous mutation in the db gene results in obesity and diabetes in CD-1 outbred mice | Regulatory, Integrative and...

Animals. The mice used in this study were derived from Charles River Laboratories outbred CD-1 strain. All animals were ... Femaledb animals of this strain were obese and hyperinsulinemic, but only slightly hyperglycemic, in contrast to the sustained ... TheLepr db-NCSU mutation exhibits sexual dimorphism in the CD-1 outbred strain, produces a phenotype in CD-1 females unlike ... This sexual dimorphism is not present in the C57BLKS/J strain, with obese animals of both sexes being hyperglycemic with ...
more infohttp://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/278/2/R320

i-GONAD: a robust method for in situ germline genome engineering using CRISPR nucleases | Genome Biology | Full Texti-GONAD: a robust method for in situ germline genome engineering using CRISPR nucleases | Genome Biology | Full Text

... which rely on ex vivo handling of zygotes and require recipient animals for embryo transfer. In contrast, i-GONAD avoids these ... The overall pregnancy rates in the inbred strain females were lower. Unlike the outbred strains, many animals of inbred strains ... www.clea-japan.com/en/animals/animal_g/g_01.html), C57BL/6JJcl (inbred strain), and BALB/cAJcl (inbred strain) mice were ... Tokyo, Japan); C3H/HeSlc (inbred strain), C57BL/6NCrSlc (inbred strain), DBA/2CrSlc (inbred strain), and B6D2F1/Slc (hybrid ...
more infohttps://genomebiology.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s13059-018-1400-x

Systematic Reviews of Animal Models: Methodology versus EpistemologySystematic Reviews of Animal Models: Methodology versus Epistemology

Inbred strains should replace outbred stocks in toxicology, safety testing, and drug development. Toxicologic pathology. 2010; ... Hau J. Animal Models. In: Hau J, van Hoosier Jr GK, editors. Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science Second Edition Animal Models ... Because nonhuman animal models (hereafter referred to as animal models or animals) have on multiple occasions been unsuccessful ... Festing S, Wilkinson R. The ethics of animal research. Talking Point on the use of animals in scientific research. EMBO reports ...
more infohttp://www.medsci.org/v10p0206.htm

A Novel Alphavirus Vaccine Encoding Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Elicits Potent Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses |...A Novel Alphavirus Vaccine Encoding Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen Elicits Potent Cellular and Humoral Immune Responses |...

... additional diversity could be expected in out-bred animals and in humans. ... For both strains of mice, the peptides responsible for the CD8+ responses were confirmed to contain the respective Kb and Kd ... Animals were immunized at 2-week intervals, and half of the animals were sacrificed for histopathology either 2 days or 2 weeks ... Anti-PSMA antibodies were observed in zero of six vehicle animals, five of six animals in the low-dose PSMA-VRP group, and six ...
more infohttp://clincancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/13/13/3999.full

Diversity Outbred Mice at 21: Maintaining Allelic Variation in the Face of Selection | G3: Genes | Genomes | GeneticsDiversity Outbred Mice at 21: Maintaining Allelic Variation in the Face of Selection | G3: Genes | Genomes | Genetics

The availability of a second population of outbred animals derived from the same founder strains, the HS-CC, provides an ... Strains A/J, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, and NOD/ShiLtJ ("ABCD") share the same mitochondrial haplogroup; strains C57BL/6J, 129S1/ ... of the sex chromosomes is located 430 kb proximal in the CAST/EiJ strain compared to other laboratory strains (White et al. ... Diversity Outbred Mice at 21: Maintaining Allelic Variation in the Face of Selection. Elissa J. Chesler, Daniel M. Gatti, ...
more infohttp://www.g3journal.org/content/6/12/3893

Key to the Chart of Strain GenealogiesKey to the Chart of Strain Genealogies

Cui, S., Chesson, C. & Hope, R. Genetic variation within and between strains of outbred Swiss mice. Lab. Animals 27, 116-123 ( ... STR. D32. 2. y STR/1. D33. 2. y STS. D83. 2. y STU. A38. 2. y STUD. D76. 10. ? STX/Le. B138. 2. ? SUMS. D29. 2. ? SWJ. A4. 2. ... Table 1 - Key to the Chart of Strain Genealogies. Strain. Diagram reference. Reference. Extant 101. B8. 2. y 102. B9. 2. y ... Kluge, R., Meyer, J. & Rapp, K.G. Genetic characterization of the mouse strains of the Institute for Animal Breeding of the ...
more infohttp://www.informatics.jax.org/downloads/datasets/misc/genealogy/genealogy_key.html

Frontiers | Animal Models of Leptospirosis: Of Mice and Hamsters | ImmunologyFrontiers | Animal Models of Leptospirosis: Of Mice and Hamsters | Immunology

In this review, we discuss in an historical perspective how animal models have contributed to further our knowledge of ... In this review, we discuss in an historical perspective how animal models have contributed to further our knowledge of ... Transmission occurs when chronically infected animals excrete live bacteria in their urine, contaminating the environment. ... is an economic burden on society due to health care costs related with elevated morbidity of humans and loss of animals of ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2017.00058/full

Genome of Zebrafish Wild-type Strain(ASWT) - Zebrafish Genome and Genomics at CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative...Genome of Zebrafish Wild-type Strain(ASWT) - Zebrafish Genome and Genomics at CSIR Institute of Genomics and Integrative...

Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a popular vertebrate model organism largely deployed using outbred laboratory animals. The non- ... Genome of Zebrafish Wild-type Strain(ASWT) Abstract:. ... Genome of Zebrafish Wild-type Strain(ASWT). *Zebrafish ...
more infohttps://sites.google.com/a/igib.in/zebrafish/aswt-genome

NMRI Outbred Mouse Model  | Taconic BiosciencesNMRI Outbred Mouse Model | Taconic Biosciences

NMRI mice are an outbred strain commonly used as controls in selection experiments and as experimental animals in biology, ... This could be done by carrying out the animal tests on a sample of five to ten inbred strains. The advantages of this strategy ... The toxicological testing of a compound in a single stock of outbred animals can be said to be equivalent, genetically, to ... The NMRI outbred model was developed by Lynch et al. Poiley of the National Institutes of Health received stock from Lynch in ...
more infohttps://www.taconic.com/mouse-model/nmri

Animal Models of Deficient Sensorimotor Gating in Schizophrenia: Are They Still Relevant? | SpringerLinkAnimal Models of Deficient Sensorimotor Gating in Schizophrenia: Are They Still Relevant? | SpringerLink

Animal models of impaired sensorimotor gating, as assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, have demonstrated clear ... I. Apomorphine effects on startle gating in albino and hooded outbred rat strains and their F1 and N2 progeny. ... For animal models to remain relevant in the search for schizophrenia therapeutics, they will need to focus less on what is ... Animal models of impaired sensorimotor gating, as assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, have demonstrated clear ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/7854_2015_5012

Plus itPlus it

Animals.. Embryos were obtained from a local outbred SD rat strain with an increased incidence of congenital malformations in ... The Animal Ethical Committee of the Medical Faculty of Uppsala University approved the research protocol, including all ... Kissane JM, Robins E: The fluorometric measurement of deoxyribonucleic acid in animal tissues with special reference to the ... are increased in offspring of diabetic animals. Increased thiol oxidation from diamine exposure yields embryonic ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/52/5/1222
  • These data suggest that changes in the quality of the Wistar strain provided to researchers by a commercial supplier have impacted substantially upon age-related outcomes. (wordpress.com)
  • These animals enlarge their organs also in the adult life period and can regenerate lost appendages and organs, which is in sharp contrast to mammals and most insects. (blogspot.com)
  • Because of the complex nature of the protocol, animal genome engineering experiments are difficult to perform in individual laboratories, and are typically performed in centralized cores, where highly trained personnel offer genome engineering services on a day-to-day basis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The development of methods that circumvent such complex steps enables animal genome engineering technologies to be performed by many more laboratories, not just cores. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro characterization showed that this mutant was similar to its parental strain in terms of its doubling time, even though 10% of the genome content were removed. (frontiersin.org)
  • The definition of an epigenetic effect is seeing differences in some phenotype (outward appearance of a trait) in an organism among isogenic (genetically-identical) animals. (blogspot.com)
  • Some inbred strains have been bred for over 150 generations, leaving individuals in the population to be isogenic in nature. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because diabetic symptoms vary greatly among strains, other genes seem to play important interacting roles as well. (physiology.org)
  • Referring to any procedure or experiment where, from start to finish, no whole animals, cells, or samples have been used in the methodology -using strictly humans or alternatives means. (frame.org.uk)
  • this very uniformity means that fewer individuals are required to produce results with the same level of statistical significance when an inbred line is used in comparison to an outbred line in the same experiment Breeding of inbred strains is often towards specific phenotypes of interest such as behavioural traits like alcohol preference or physical traits like aging. (wikipedia.org)
  • Determination of whether increased NT neurotransmission mediates the clinically relevant behavioral effects of antipsychotic drugs requires the use of animal models relevant to the clinical efficacy of antipsychotic drugs. (jneurosci.org)
  • Since 1985, IMBB maintains a self-contained Cell Culture Facility that houses all equipment needed for the growth, maintenance, and analysis of animal cells. (forth.gr)
  • Animal Models of Deficient Sensorimotor Gating in Schizophrenia: Are They Still Relevant? (springer.com)
  • Animal models of impaired sensorimotor gating, as assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, have demonstrated clear validity at face, predictive, and construct levels for schizophrenia therapeutics, neurophysiological endophenotypes, and potential causative insults for this group of disorders. (springer.com)
  • But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of their hybrid crosses, as the proportion of harmful recessives in the inbred population rises. (wikipedia.org)
  • or any small, rat -like animal of diverse rodent (Rodentia) families (including Muridae , Cricetidae , and sometimes Heteromyidae and others). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • The reduced incidence of commonly observed markers of ageing in rodent models suggests a need for extension of age-related studies in these animals and questions the validity of using studies of lengths 12-18 months that were previously considered adequate for the induction of age-related decline. (wordpress.com)
  • We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. (medsci.org)
  • The NMRI outbred model was developed by Lynch et al. (taconic.com)
  • A novel in vivo challenge model in goats revealed that the wild-type parental strain caused marked necrotizing inflammation at the site of inoculation, septicemia and all animals reached endpoint criteria within 6 days after experimental infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • One of the key strengths of using inbred strains as a model is that strains are readily available for whatever study one is performing and that there are resources such as the Jackson Laboratory, and Flybase, where one can look up strains with specific phenotypes or genotypes, from among inbred lines, recombinant lines, and Coisogenic strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Multi-parent populations (MPPs) such as the Diversity Outbred (DO) mouse population provide high mapping precision due to the accumulation of recombination events across multiple breeding generations. (g3journal.org)
  • This is great news for the animals obviously, but not so good for the researchers interested in age-dependent disease processes. (wordpress.com)
  • This is in contrast to the mutant strain, which caused no clinical signs nor pathomorphological lesions. (frontiersin.org)
  • In addition, because the animals are genetically identical, epigenetics and epigenomics may be a powerful niche where these clone crayfish can prove their utility. (blogspot.com)
  • The efficiency of i -GONAD is comparable to that of traditional microinjection methods, which rely on ex vivo handling of zygotes and require recipient animals for embryo transfer. (biomedcentral.com)
  • which is true of inbred strains, since they normally have at least 98.6% similarity by generation 20. (wikipedia.org)
  • It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to a high percentage of these harmful recessives. (wikipedia.org)
  • Selective breeding of plants and animals, including hybridization, began long before there was an understanding of underlying scientific principles. (wikipedia.org)
  • These results highlight, for the first time, the rational design, construction and complete attenuation of a Mycoplasma strain via synthetic genomics tools. (frontiersin.org)
  • Growth charts are provided only as a guide, if a specific weight criteria is needed please order animals by weight. (taconic.com)
  • We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. (medsci.org)
  • Previous studies have demonstrated clear evidence of age-related disease at 18 months of age, with studies only continuing past this point if taking animals to natural death. (wordpress.com)