A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Diseases of plants.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.

Karyotype identity of two subspecies of Eld's deer [Cervus eldi (Cervinae, Artiodactyla)] and its consequences for conservation. (1/277)

Among the three subspecies generally recognized within the Eld's deer (Cervus eldi)--C. e. eldi, C. e. thamin, and C. e. siamensis--C. e. siamensis is considered to be particularly endangered following its disappearance from a major portion of its original range. The only captive breeding population of this subspecies is in the zoological parks at the Paris Museum of Natural History. Taking into account its low effective population size (Ne = 7) and the increasing levels of inbreeding, the continued breeding of this "micropopulation" in isolation from closely related subspecies and in particular from C. e. thamin, which is much more common in zoos as well as in the nature, is questioned. As an initial step in determining if crosses between these subspecies could be performed without risk of outbreeding depression due, in part, to gross differences in their karyotypes, a comparative chromosome banding analysis (RBG-bands) of C. e. siamensis and C. e. thamin was undertaken. No chromosomal differences were identified between the taxa at the level of resolution obtained. The study suggests that, at least from a karyotypic perspective, no obvious differences delimit the two subspecies, and hybridization between endangered C. e. siamensis and C. e. thamin is not likely to lead to impaired fertility in hybrid animals.  (+info)

CFU-S(11) activity does not localize solely with the aorta in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. (2/277)

The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a potent hematopoietic site in the midgestation mouse conceptus and first contains colony-forming units-spleen day 11 (CFU-S(11)) at embryonic day 10 (E10). Because CFU-S(11) activity is present in the AGM region before the onset of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activity, CFU-S(11) activity in the complex developing vascular and urogenital regions of the AGM was localized. From E10 onward, CFU-S(11) activity is associated with the aortic vasculature, and is found also in the urogenital ridges (UGRs). Together with data obtained from organ explant cultures, in which up to a 16-fold increase in CFU-S(11) activity was observed, it was determined that CFU-S(11) can be increased autonomously both in vascular sites and in UGRs. Furthermore, CFU-S(11) activity is present in vitelline and umbilical vessels. This, together with the presence of CFU-S(11) in the UGRs 2 days before HSC activity, suggests both temporally and spatially distinct emergent sources of CFU-S(11). (Blood. 2000;96:2902-2904)  (+info)

Genes in the first and fourth inversions of the mouse t complex synergistically mediate sperm capacitation and interactions with the oocyte. (3/277)

The t haplotypes (t) are recent evolutionary derivatives of an alternate form of the mouse t complex region located at the proximal end of chromosome 17. This variant form of approximately 1% of the mouse genome is a source of mutations altering numerous sperm functions crucial for fertilization. Males that carry two t haplotypes (t/t) are invariably sterile. t haplotypes contain four inversions relative to the wild-type t complex (+), so that in matings involving a +/t heterozygote, t is usually transmitted as a single unit. However, rare recombinants have been recovered, which carry only part of the t genotype and express only some of the t-dependent phenotypes. Use of these partial t haplotypes in genetic crosses has resulted in the general location of the two major t male sterility factors, S1 and S2, within inversions 1 and 4, respectively. Since sterility can result from a plethora of sperm defects, we have made a detailed study of various functional parameters of sperm from mice carrying S1 or S2 heterozygously or homozygously or in combination. Both S1 and S2 contain mutations altering sperm functions, including motility, capacitation, binding to the zona pellucida, binding to the oocyte membrane, and penetration of the zona pellucida-free oocyte. Therefore it seems clear that each of these factors contains multiple genes contributing to sterility. Furthermore, our results indicate that genes within S1 interact with genes in S2 for all sperm functions examined. However, S1 and S2 genes affecting motility interact in a purely additive fashion, while S1 and S2 genes affecting most other sperm characteristics interact in a synergistic manner. Additionally, the patterns of synergism between S1 and S2 for abnormalities in capacitation, sperm-oolemma binding, and zona-free oocyte penetration are nearly identical. This suggests that these three defects are caused by mutation of the same gene within each sterility factor. These findings will not only be instrumental in matching the various t haplotype sperm defects to candidate genes for S1 and S2, but will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying t haplotype male sterility.  (+info)

The rate and the type of orthodontic tooth movement is influenced by bone turnover in a rat model. (4/277)

The influence of bone metabolism on both the rate and the type of orthodontic tooth movement was investigated. A rat model in which high (n = 16) and low (n = 17) bone turnover was pharmacologically induced was used. A non-pharmacologically treated group (n = 19) served as the control. A mesially directed constant single force of 25 cN was applied to the upper left first molar for a period of 3 weeks. The study was performed as a split-mouth design, the contralateral side of each animal serving as its control. The displacement of the molar crown was measured with an electronic calliper, while changes in inclination of the teeth were measured from micro-CT scans of the excised maxillae. The bone turnover significantly affected the rate of tooth movement. In the case of high turnover, the rate of tooth movement was increased while it was reduced in the case of low turnover. A controlled mesial tipping in all three groups was observed, but the actual location of the centre of rotation seemed to be influenced by the metabolic state of the bone. Based on the results it can be concluded that deviations in bone turnover influence the response to orthodontic forces, and should be taken into consideration when planning orthodontic treatment in patients with metabolic bone disease or those on chronic medication influencing bone metabolism.  (+info)

Group B Streptococcus induces apoptosis in macrophages. (5/277)

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a pathogen that has developed some strategies to resist host immune defenses. Because phagocytic killing is an important pathogenetic mechanism for bacteria, we investigated whether GBS induces apoptosis in murine macrophages. GBS type III strain COH31 r/s (GBS-III) first causes a defect in cell membrane permeability, then at 24 h, apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by several techniques based on morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. Cytochalasin D does not affect apoptosis, suggesting that GBS-III needs not be within the macrophage cytoplasm to promote apoptosis. Inhibition of host protein synthesis prevents apoptosis, whereas inhibition of caspase-1 or -3, does not. Therefore, GBS can trigger an apoptotic pathway independent of caspase-1 and -3, but dependent on protein synthesis. Inhibition of apoptosis by EGTA and PMA, and enhancement of apoptosis by calphostin C and GF109203X suggests that an increase in the cytosolic calcium level and protein kinase C activity status are important in GBS-induced apoptosis. Neither alteration of plasma membrane permeability nor apoptosis were induced by GBS grown in conditions impeding hemolysin expression or when we used dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, which inhibited GBS beta-hemolytic activity, suggesting that GBS beta-hemolysin could be involved in apoptosis. beta-Hemolysin, by causing membrane permeability defects, could allow calcium influx, which initiates macrophage apoptosis. GBS also induces apoptosis in human monocytes but not in tumor lines demonstrating the specificity of its activity. This study suggests that induction of macrophage apoptosis by GBS is a novel strategy to overcome host immune defenses.  (+info)

Rapid recruitment of neutrophils containing prestored IL-12 during microbial infection. (6/277)

Neutrophils are well known to rapidly migrate to foci of infection, where they exert microbicidal functions. We sought to determine whether neutrophils responding to in vivo infection with the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii were capable of IL-12 production as suggested by recent in vitro studies. Intraperitoneal infection induced a neutrophil influx by 4 h, accompanied by ex vivo IL-12 p40 and p70 release. Approximately 85% of the neutrophils displayed intracellular stores of IL-12, as determined by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Neutrophils from IFN-gamma knockout mice also expressed IL-12, ruling out an IFN-gamma-priming requirement. Neither infected nor uninfected peritoneal macrophages displayed intracellular IL-12, but these cells were strongly IL-10(+). Infection per se was unnecessary for IL-12 production because peritoneal and peripheral blood neutrophils from uninfected animals contained IL-12(+) populations. Expression of the granulocyte maturation marker Gr-1 (Ly-6G) was correlated with IL-12 production. Mice depleted of their granulocytes by mAb administration at the time of infection had decreased serum levels of IL-12 p40. These results suggest a model in which neutrophils with prestored IL-12 are rapidly mobilized to an infection site where they are triggered by the parasite to release cytokine. Our findings place neutrophils prominently in the cascade of early events leading to IL-12-dependent immunity to T. gondii.  (+info)

Pituitary neoplasia induced by expression of human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV, early genome in transgenic mice. (7/277)

In recent years, there has been mounting evidence pointing to the association of polyomaviruses with a wide range of human cancers. The human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV, infecting greater than 75% of the human population produces a regulatory protein named T-antigen which is expressed at the early phase of viral lytic infection and plays a critical role in completion of the viral life cycle. Furthermore, this protein has the ability to transform neural cells in vitro and its expression has been detected in several human neural-origin tumors. To further investigate the oncogenic potential of the JCV early protein in vivo, transgenic mice expressing JCV T-antigen under the control of its own promoter were generated. Nearly 50% of the animals developed large, solid masses within the base of the skull by 1 year of age. Evaluation of the location as well as histological and immunohistochemical data suggest that the tumors arise from the pituitary gland. As T-antigen is known to interact with several cell cycle regulators, the neoplasms were analysed for the presence of the tumor suppressor protein, p53. Immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis demonstrated overexpression of wild-type, but not mutant p53 within tumor tissue. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation established an interaction between p53 and T-antigen and overexpression of p53 downstream target protein, p21/WAF1. This report describes the analysis of inheritable pituitary adenomas induced by expression of the human polyomavirus, JCV T-antigen in transgenic mice where T-antigen disrupts the p53 pathway by binding to and sequestering wild-type p53. This animal model may serve as a useful tool to further evaluate mechanisms of tumorigenesis by JCV T-antigen.  (+info)

TGF-beta 1 and IFN-gamma direct macrophage activation by TNF-alpha to osteoclastic or cytocidal phenotype. (8/277)

TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE; also called receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), and TNFSF11) induces the differentiation of progenitors of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage into osteoclasts in the presence of M-CSF. Surprisingly, in view of its potent ability to induce inflammation and activate macrophage cytocidal function, TNF-alpha has also been found to induce osteoclast-like cells in vitro under similar conditions. This raises questions concerning both the nature of osteoclasts and the mechanism of lineage choice in mononuclear phagocytes. We found that, as with TRANCE, the macrophage deactivator TGF-beta(1) strongly promoted TNF-alpha-induced osteoclast-like cell formation from immature bone marrow macrophages. This was abolished by IFN-gamma. However, TRANCE did not share the ability of TNF-alpha to activate NO production or heighten respiratory burst potential by macrophages, or induce inflammation on s.c. injection into mice. This suggests that TGF-beta(1) promotes osteoclast formation not only by inhibiting cytocidal behavior, but also by actively directing TNF-alpha activation of precursors toward osteoclasts. The osteoclast appears to be an equivalent, alternative destiny for precursors to that of cytocidal macrophage, and may represent an activated variant of scavenger macrophage.  (+info)

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Pai exact la asta ma gandeam @@vis-a-vis, ca sunt sanse de 33%-50% ca acel cadru (Kona Jake the Snake) sa fie acum la tine.. [Cu regret te anunt, dar efectul scontat nu se transmite altui proprietar, vorba aia, omul sfiinteste locul]. Cat despre ciomby eu cred ca a pus o intrebare concreta. Motociclistii au evenimente in care isi sfintesc motoarele si comemoreaza prietenii disparuti. Si pe afara se practica asta, evident in lumea catolica, sfintirea motocicletelor si a bicicletelor deopotriva.. Procedura de binecuvantare a unor bunuri nu incumba proprietati magice obiectelor respective, asa ca atat cei care cred cat si cei ridiculizeaza asta, sunt deopotriva total dezinformati.. Dovada cea mai vie este ca desi ii primiti pe preoti in casa cu Boboteaza an de an, niciodata nu ati avut curiozitatea sa vedeti despre ce e vorba in rugaciunea care se spune. :) :). L.E. Acest topic chiar mi-a sugerat ideea de a comanda lui Han un paint pe cadru pe teme religioase si sfinte. Asta chiar ar fi ...
V-aţi săturat să faceţi piaţa, să apălaţi, să faceţi curăţenie şi să gatiţi, iar el să nu vă ajute deloc? Nu e uşor să-l convingeţi ...
Webster University Presents Embracing Diversity and Inclusion: Critical Conversations. A conference to be held on the Webster Groves campus, Feb. 29-March 1, 2016.
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ANAHEIM, Calif. -- The wait for Lenny Websters injured right ankle to heal will extend far beyond today, when the Orioles backup catcher becomes eligible to leave the disabled list.Webster
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2,100W @ 240V. Replacement For Part Numbers: CH202-871408-001, 871408, 202-871408, 571408-001, 571408001, SP2177. Replacement Bake (Bottom) Element Used In: House of Webster Country Charm Cast Iron Electric Stove. Therm Coil: 366R-3012-003/TC-10871408.
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Dr. Robert H. Hayes is seeking, by a suit now on trial before Judge Freedman and a jury in the Superior Court, to recover $50,000 damages from Dr. David Webster, President of the County ...
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Bromate (?), n. Chemistry|Chem. A salt of bromic acid.   © Webster 1913. Bromate (?), v.t. Medicine|Med. To combine or imp...
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The Power Supply in Package (PSiP) and Power Supply on Chip (PwrSoC) Market Outlook & Projections, 2019-2027 report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.coms offering.
Defi*cit (?), n. [Lit., it is wanting, 3d person pres. indic. of L. deficere, cf. F. deficit. See Defect.] Deficiency in amount o...
Phar`ma*colo*gy (?), n. [Gr. drug + -logy: cf. F. pharmacologie.] 1. Knowledge of drugs or medicines; the art of preparing medicin...
(n.) A peculiar affection or condition of the rays of light or heat, in consequence of which they exhibit different properties in different directions.
Rampancy [ RAMPANCY, n. [from rampant.] Excessive growth or practice; excessive prevalence; exuberance; extravagance; as the rampancy of vice. ]
A final briefing from DrugScope highlights the increased complexity and level of continued changing in commissioning drug and alcohol systems.
Per`i*gan`gli*onic (?), a. Anatomy|Anat. Surrounding a ganglion; as, the periganglionic glands of the frog.   © Webster 19...
Webster1913 is entirely correct. Even today, prophylactic is commonly used to mean any medicine that is given to prevent disease. It is also used for o...
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The village of Webster has historically served as the core of the town of Webster. The commercial section of the village dates back to 1812, when the first two buildings were constructed near the present four corners. One of these buildings was a store and the other a tavern. From this modest beginning, the community and its center began to grow, becoming the commercial, social, and educational center of the town. 1 The history of the village center reflects the changing economy of the community. The village core was originally an agricultural center and distribution point for the town. The junction of Ridge Road and Webster Nine-Mile Point Road, which connected shipping points on the Erie Canal and the New York Central Railroad with a small port on Lake Ontario, was referred to as the Village because of a concentration of population and businesses. The railroad at the north end of the village attracted dried or evaporated apple businesses and small wood-working industries. The Village ...
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SVN commit 1115532 by zhang: qwhatsthis M +4 -6 kstfitdialog.cpp M +3 -4 kstviewlabelwidget.cpp --- branches/work/kst/kst1kde4/kst/src/libkstapp/kstfitdialog.cpp #1115531:1115532 @@ -401,12 +401,10 @@ widget-,show(); if (!(*it)._description.isEmpty()) { -/* xxx - QWhatsThis::remove(label); - QWhatsThis::remove(widget); - QWhatsThis::add(label, (*it)._description); - QWhatsThis::add(widget, (*it)._description); -*/ + label-,setWhatsThis();; + widget-,setWhatsThis(); + label-,setWhatsThis((*it)._description); + widget-,setWhatsThis((*it)._description); } ++cnt; --- branches/work/kst/kst1kde4/kst/src/libkstapp/kstviewlabelwidget.cpp #1115531:1115532 @@ -18,7 +18,6 @@ #include ,QLabel, #include ,QString, #include ,QTextEdit, -#include ,QWhatsThis, #include ,QComboBox, #include kstviewlabelwidget.h @@ -38,9 +37,9 @@ connect(_scalars, SIGNAL(selectionChanged(const QString &)), this, SLOT(insertScalarInText(const QString &))); connect(_strings, SIGNAL(selectionChanged(const QString &)), this, ...
The Webster Group blog consists of news about The Webster Group and our employees, event industry news, event industry thought leadership, information on venues, and events that we manage.
Kaizen ephedrine is a popular weight loss supplement. But is it effective for burning excess fat & îmbunătăţirea energie? Mai important, is it legal to take?
Silvia-Adriana Ţicău (S&D), în scris. - Am votat pentru Deciziile Parlamentului European privind descărcarea de gestiune și privind închiderea conturilor pentru execuția bugetului Fundației Europene pentru Îmbunătățirea Condițiilor de Viață și de Muncă (FEICVM), prin care se acordă directorului FEICVM descărcarea de gestiune și prin care se aprobă închiderea conturilor FEICVM pentru execuția bugetului FEICVM aferent exercițiului financiar 2012. Am votat pentru Rezoluția Parlamentului European conținând observațiile care fac parte integrantă din decizia privind descărcarea de gestiune pentru execuția bugetului FEICVM aferent exercițiului financiar 2012. Bugetul definitiv al FEICVM aferent exercițiului financiar 2012 a fost de 21[nbsp ]430[nbsp ]000[nbsp ]EUR, ceea ce reprezintă o creștere de 4,03[nbsp ]% față de bugetul pentru 2011. Salutăm contribuția FEICVM la promovarea cunoștințelor privind condițiile de viață și de muncă în UE într-o perioadă ...
stock only wrote the gateway and does not have any control over the contents; see the Webster Gateway FAQ, and also the Back-end/database links and credits. ...
The Killing of Randy Webster - Louisiana parents (Hal Holbrook, Dixie Carter) find evidence of a planted gun in the case of their teenage son shot by...
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Paul Webster provides some history and context for the evolution of the Eclipse 4 project, and sketches out where it is going with the Eclipse Kepler (4.3) and Luna (4.4) releases in the future.
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Webster University is the only Tier 1, private, non-profit U.S.-based university with a network of international residential campuses.
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Webster HTTP Server - GET Buffer Overflow (Metasploit). CVE-2002-2268. Remote exploit for Windows platform. Tags: Metasploit Framework (MSF)
Hy*pertro*phy (?), n. [Gr. over, beyond + nourishment, fr. to nourish: cf. F. hypertrophie.] Medicine|Med. & Biology|Biol. A c...
oh Kool, I went to watch Brigadoon there a while back. Oh and when you see me, Ill be wearing eyeliner and mabye make up kinda like dan sperry. Its kool, I have a kind heart haha ...
As an undergraduate I studied zoology at Bristol University, and found I preferred to write about science than to actually do it. &
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A page for describing CharacterDerailment: Live-Action TV. Coronation Street has had several examples: Rosie Webster is currently a superficial ditz who can …
Wu, Xiangyang; Liu, Fang; Wells, Kym L.; Tan, Serena L. J.; Webster, Richard D.; Tan, Howe-Siang; Zhang, Dawei; Xing, Bengang; Yeow, Edwin K. L. ...
Wu, Xiangyang; Liu, Fang; Wells, Kym L.; Tan, Serena L. J.; Webster, Richard D.; Tan, Howe-Siang; Zhang, Dawei; Xing, Bengang; Yeow, Edwin K. L. ...
[Read online A Shift In The Light] epub author Patricia Glinton-Meicholas Å Shift | Definition of Shift by Merriam Webster Shift definition is to...
This is also a Japanese fancy mouse but an outbred strain in Europe. It is one of the first models used to test Mendelian ... "Unique inbred strain MSM/Ms established from the Japanese wild mouse". Experimental Animals. 58 (2): 123-134. doi:10.1538/ ... The strain is closely related to JF1 and genome analysis suggests that it was created from cross-breeding the JF1 with European ... Different strains such as MSM/Ms, JF1, Japanese waltzing mouse, C57BL/6J and MSKR exist following cross breeding with other ...
Therefore, the strains that were isolated from animals a few decades ago and went through multiple passages in eggs are less ... Parker JC, Whiteman MD, Richter CB (January 1978). "Susceptibility of inbred and outbred mouse strains to Sendai virus and ... All Sendai virus strains belong to the same serotype. The origin of many strains of SeV was described in 1978. Some strains ... Another strain is Tianjin strain, isolated in China in 2008. One of these strains was used for creation of replication ...
... is the tendency of outbred strains to exceed both inbred parents in fitness. Selective breeding of plants and animals, ... But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ... It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous ... Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for recessive alleles that are mildly harmful (or produce a trait that is undesirable from ...
The eight founder strains, combine strains that are wild-derived (with high genetic diversity) and historically significant ... Studies in cells and laboratory animals have shown that EDCs can cause adverse biological effects in animals, and low-level ... For instance, there is a population that is named Multi-parent and can be a Collaborative Cross (CC) or Diversity Outbred (DO ... The CC population consists of 83 inbred mouse strains that over many generations in labs came from the 8 founder strains. These ...
Like NOD mice, biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... and these rats are usually referred to as stocks rather than strains. The Wistar rat is an outbred albino rat. This breed was ... Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. ... Inbred strains are also available, but are not as commonly used as inbred mice. Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has ...
... a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. ... of animals displaying the EEG and behavioral characteristics of absence seizures, derived from an outbred Wistar colony and ... The development of two inbred strains from the same initial colony has appeared as a very powerful tool to study the possible ... These seizures were recorded on both sides of the brain, lasted about 20 sec and occurred when the animals were quiet. ...
Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ... Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... Wistar as a generic name for inbred strains such as Wistar-Kyoto, developed from the Wistar outbred strains. The Rat Genome ...
... outbred, and nonlinear mice. An article in The Scientist notes, "The difficulties associated with using animal models for human ... Normally, the skin color of the mice from which the host blastocysts are derived is different from that of the strain used to ... Animal testing Animal model BALB/c C57BL/6 Fe, Fi, Fo, Fum, and Phooey, five mice who orbited the Moon in 1972 Mouse models of ... What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195161960. ...
There are hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in ... Laboratory rat Animal testing Animal testing on rodents Animal model Animal Identification Fe, Fi, Fo, Fum, and Phooey, five ... Various mutant strains of mice have been created by a number of methods. A small selection from the many available strains ... "Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare: PHS Policy on Humane Care and Use of Laboratory Animals". Grants.nih.gov. Retrieved 2010- ...
They are an outbred strain that has an intact thymus and standard immune system.[better source needed] Hairless guinea pigs are ... Israeli, Hillary Gorman (11 March 1998). "Lab Animal Lecture". Archived from the original on 8 March 2016. "The Special Needs ... The modern strain of skinny pig originated from a cross between haired guinea pigs and a hairless lab strain. The hairless ... The Skinny pig or skinny is an almost hairless strain of guinea pig. Skinny pigs typically have hair on their muzzles, feet, ...
... outbred, and nonlinear mice. Some studies suggests that inadequate published data in animal testing may result in ... inbred mouse strain and the systematic generation of other inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a model ... Animals in space Animal testing Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on rodents Cellular model (numerical), e.g., ... In the U.S., the Animal Welfare Act of 1970 (see also Laboratory Animal Welfare Act) set standards for animal use and care in ...
... strains used in scientific research are primarily outbred strains. Aside from the common American or English stock, ... Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (1995). Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals (4th ed.). National Academies ... the two main outbred strains in laboratory use are the Hartley and Dunkin-Hartley; these English strains are albino, although ... CD-ROM] "tenjiku-nezumi - Meaning in Japanese , 天竺鼠 - Names of Animals in Japanese". animals.japanesewithanime.com. Retrieved ...
Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another one in Ottawa, Canada, an outbred strain ... Biobreeding rat also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ... They were originally derived from a Canadian colony of outbred Wistar rats that spontaneously develop hyperglycemia and ...
An easygoing animal, the Irish Wolfhound is quiet by nature. Wolfhounds often create a strong bond with their family and can ... Graham then outbred with the Duchess of Newcastle's Borzoi "Korotai", who had proved his wolf hunting ability in his native ... at the same time it is confidently believed that there are strains now existing that tracing back, more or less clearly, to the ... Scouler presented the "Notices of Animals which have disappeared from Ireland", with the wolfdog mentioned. Captain George ...
"Primary infections of Dipetalonema viteae in an outbred and five inbred strains of golden hamsters". Journal of Parasitology 64 ... The Indian Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry 8: 127-130 Sonin M D 1975 Filariata of animals and man and ... 87-91 M.D. Sonin "Filariata of Animals and man and diseases caused by them, Part 3, Filariidae, Onchocercinae". Fundamentals of ... Filarial infections in man, animals and mosquitoes on the Kenya coast". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine ...
"Newly Established Low Seizure Susceptible and Seizure-Prone Inbred Strains of Mongolian Gerbil". Experimental Animals. 52 (2): ... Brekke, Thomas D.; Steele, Katherine A.; Mulley, John F. (February 2018). "Inbred or Outbred? Genetic Diversity in Laboratory ... Eleven of these animals were subsequently sent to Tumblebrook Farm in the USA, with additional animals later sent to Charles ... "Animal Health Center Vets in Valdosta, GA". Animal Health Center Vets in Valdosta, GA. Retrieved 3 June 2018. "Gerbil FAQ". ...
The waterschlager canary strain is conspecific to the domestic canary but has been inbred by humans for its beautiful song. The ... Syrinx (bird anatomy) Bird vocalization Lateralization of brain function Animal communication Bioacoustics Larsen, O.N.; Goller ... outbred domestic canary, however, does not exhibit the strong lateralization of the waterschlager canary. Possibly explaining ... video of a cardinal singing Macaulay Library at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology is the world's largest collection of animal ...
Inbred strains and traditional outbred stocks have not been developed for laboratory zebrafish, and the genetic variability of ... Animal models, Stem cell research, Regenerative biomedicine, Animal models in neuroscience, Taxa named by Francis Buchanan- ... This strain can be adapted to 37 °C (99 °F) warm water and the absence of an immune system makes the use of patient derived ... Sex determination of common laboratory strains was shown to be a complex genetic trait, rather than to follow a simple ZW or XY ...
The use of inbred strains is also important for genetic studies in animal models, for example to distinguish genetic from ... individuals that were inbred showed significantly lower survival rates than outbred individuals during a severe winter weather ... Small animals such as cats and dogs may be sterilized, but in the case of large agricultural animals, such as cattle, culling ... However, in species such as horses, animals in wild or feral conditions often drive off the young of both sexes, thought to be ...
Its type strain is CS1T (= ATCC 49179T). It can be pathogenic. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is by far the best known ... Ferrero RL, Avé P, Radcliff FJ, Labigne A, Huerre MR (July 2000). "Outbred mice with long-term Helicobacter felis infection ... infectious diseases that are caused by pathogen that spread from animals to humans. It is important to diagnose H. felis and ... "Helicobacter felis" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Helicobacter felis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
... use of multiple stocks/strains of animals to obtain an estimate of the range in sensitivities due to genotype, complete ... Multireplicated Dose-Response Studies in Four Inbred Strains and One Outbred Stock of Mice". Toxicological Sciences. 19 (2): ... Joe Holson's research career has spanned a diverse range of test agents using a variety of experimental animal models and human ... Holson, Joseph F.; Desesso, John M.; Jacobson, Catherine F.; Farr, Craig H. (2000-07-01). "Appropriate use of animal models in ...
This is true both of animals and of the races of man. The Berbers of north Africa to-day are racially identical with the ... As such, because of Grant's well-connected and influential friends, he is often used to illustrate the strain of race-based ... by miscegenation and by being outbred by inferior stock taking advantage of the situation. Nordic theory was strongly embraced ...
Selection acts on outbred generations using increased diversity to adapt to the environment. This may result in greater fitness ... Many microorganisms are not easily obtainable as cultured strains in the laboratory, which would allow for identification and ... the study of animal behavior in relation to its ecology and evolutionary history. One behavior that molecular data has helped ...
The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity, and mouse strains with ... The oldest animals known so far are 15,000-year-old Antarctic sponges, which can reproduce both sexually and clonally. Clonal ... to have evaluated with respect to their effects on lifespan and age-related biomarkers in outbred mice. Previous age-related ... Evidence in both animals and humans suggests that resveratrol may be a caloric restriction mimetic. As of 2015[update], ...
In animal breeding, the progeny of a cross between breeds of the same species is called a crossbreed, whereas the progeny of a ... short tandem repeat (STR) See microsatellite. short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) shotgun sequencing silencer A sequence ... and the progeny is said to be outbred. Contrast inbreeding. outron A sequence near the 5'-end of a primary mRNA transcript that ... Hybrids may occur naturally or artificially, as during selective breeding of domesticated animals and plants. Reproductive ...
short tandem repeat (STR) See microsatellite. short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) shotgun sequencing silencer A sequence ... especially animal cells) resulting in the subsequent incorporation of the foreign DNA into the host genome or the non- ... and the progeny is said to be outbred. Contrast inbreeding. outron A sequence near the 5'-end of a primary mRNA transcript that ...
The animals were not merely illustrated out of an interest in the natural world. Each was imbued with meanings and acted as a ... Härke has posited a scenario in which the Anglo-Saxons, in expanding westward, outbred the Britons, eventually reaching a point ... putting the country and its leadership under strains as severe as they were long sustained. Raids began on a relatively small ... Some animals, such as lions or peacocks, would have been known in England only through descriptions in texts or through images ...
Guinea pigs are important animal models for human disease, and both outbred and inbred lines are utilized in biomedical ... Effect of parental age, parity, and pairing approach on reproduction in strain 13/N guinea pigs (Cavia porcellus). Genzer SC, ... a domestic animal per human rate of 0.8 animals/100,000 humans, and a domestic animal per dog rate of 6.6 animals/100,000 dogs ... Laboratory experiments have initiated MPXV infection in animals via respiratory routes. Some animal-to-animal respiratory ...
Characterization of virus isolated from the brain of an animal that died showed a variant strain of WNV most closely related to ... Groups of 10 weanling (18-19 days old) or young adult (4 weeks old) Swiss outbred CD1 mice were injected intraperitoneally with ... All animal procedures had received prior approval from The University of Queensland Animal Ethics Committee. ... Audsley M, Edmonds J, Liu W, Mokhonov V, Mokhonova E, Melian EB, Virulence determinants between New York 99 and Kunjin strains ...
Drug study: Antidepressant-like responses to lithium in males of 8 inbred mouse strains and 3 outbred stocks (2011). Can A, ... Gould1 animal documentation. ... All mice within each strain are represented in each group ... FST is used in 11 diverse strains in combination with different doses of lithium. Water exposure is one of the most anxiety ...
Fisher 344 and Brown Norway rats were more metabolically sensitive to the diet changes than outbred Sprague Dawley strain. The ... As expected, metabolites involved in lipid metabolism were changed in the animals maintained on a high fat diet compared to the ... Using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS) to assess the effect of age, high-fat diet, and rat strain on the liver ... Laboratory animals; Laboratory testing; Diet; Fats; Liquid chromatography; Mass spectrometry; Metabolic effects; Metabolic ...
... in some strains. In wild and outbred mice, the incidence of fibrosarcomas is 1%-6%. ... Both species are used extensively in research Mice and Rats as Laboratory Animals Histopathology of skin from a mouse infected ... Less cooperative animals need to be more firmly restrained. A common method for restraint of mice is scruffing, in which the ... Host animals should be treated with bathing and/or topical selamectin (15 mg/kg). The pets cage can be treated with ...
Strain:. Wistar. Remarks:. Crl:(WI) BR (outbred, SPF-quality). Details on species / strain selection:. Recognized by ... Animals fasted: Yes, overnight (maximum of 24 hours). - How many animals: all animals. - The following parameters were examined ... Animals fasted: yes, overnight (maximum of 24 hours). - How many animals: all animals. - The following parameters were examined ... of animals per sex per dose:. 10/sex/dose. Control animals:. yes, concurrent vehicle. Details on study design:. - Dose ...
Laboratory animals were immunised with the virosome-based PfCyRPA vaccine to determine its immunogenic properties and in ... This highly conserved protein among various geographical strains plays a key role in the red blood cell invasion process by P. ... All immune sera of both mouse strains were cross-reactive with PfCyRPA expressed by blood-stage P. falciparum schizonts, as ... Inbred (BALB/c) and outbred (NMRI) mice were immunised three times with a dose of 20 μg of PfCyRPA virosomes in intervals of ...
... with reported effects often stronger with outbred versus inbred animals. The Iqbal study did not assess phenotypic changes, ... In addition, no evidence in the literature or in this report shows that the JF1 strain is responsive to ED-induced phenotypic ... Recent work in bacteria, plants and animals has provided new evidence for the old idea that phenotypes acquired during a ... For this test, several inbred strains of mice were treated with agents that act as endocrine disruptors (EDs) - molecules that ...
They identified the inbred mouse strain C57BL/6 and the outbred strain CD-1 (ICR) as the most susceptible strains to local ... As not every animal species or strain is suitable for every existing experimental set up, picking the appropriate mouse (animal ... Role of TRPV1 and TRPA1 on 4-MH-Induced Ca2+-Increase in DRG Neurons in Three Different Mouse Strains In all mouse strains ... Figure 1. Strain differences in sensitivity to itch induced by 500 nmol/L 4-methylhistamine. Both BALB/c and NMRI mice did not ...
... test in lab animal on rats test number 3 ... inbred strains *Fisher 344*Lewis * what research are rats used ... outbred stains *Sprague-Dawley*Long Evan Wistor * ... ventilation rate in animals room for rats 10-15 air changes per ...
Strain:. other: Rat: Crl:WI(Han) (outbred, SPF-Quality). Nulliparous and non-pregnant females and untreated animals were used ... Animals fasted: Yes. - How many animals: 5 animals/sex/group. - Parameters were examined: Albumin, Total protein, Globulin [by ... Animals fasted: Yes. - How many animals: 5 animals/sex/group. - Parameters were examined: Total leukocyte count (WBC), ... TEST ANIMALS. - Source: Charles River Deutschland, Sulzfeld, Germany (This species and strain of rat has been recognized as ...
This is most likely due to the fact that we have used an outbred strain of guinea pigs. The peptides were also tested at 0.05 ... leprae and BCG-sensitized animals. To sensitize the animals two schemes were used: either a single dose of 5 x 10(9) irradiated ... Enterococcus durans A5-11 is a lactic acid bacteria strain isolated from traditional Mongolian airag cheese. This strain ... All animals, except those sensitized with P4 and P8, had positive DTH responses when the homologous peptide was used. Those ...
Animals, Genetically Modified. *Animals, Inbred Strains. *Animals, Laboratory. *Animals, Newborn. *Animals, Outbred Strains ... "Animals, Laboratory" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Animals, Laboratory" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by ... Atopy as a Modifier of the Relationships Between Endotoxin Exposure and Symptoms Among Laboratory Animal Workers. Ann Work Expo ...
  • Principal component analysis revealed that the influence of diet caused a greater variation in significantly changing metabolites than that of age for the Brown Norway and Fisher 344 strains, whereas diet had the greatest influence in the Sprague Dawley strain only at the 4-week time point. (cdc.gov)
  • The inbred Fisher 344 and Brown Norway rats were more metabolically sensitive to the diet changes than outbred Sprague Dawley strain. (cdc.gov)
  • Both the inbred Brown Norway and the outbred Sprague Dawley rat strains were included to study the influence of strain on the detection of toxicity. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The studied reproductive outcomes seemed more prone to disruption in the Sprague Dawley compared to the Brown Norway strain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Sprague Dawley rat is an outbred multipurpose breed of albino rat used extensively in medical research. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • The Sprague Dawley® outbred model was developed by Sprague Dawley, Inc. NIH received stock from Sprague Dawley, Inc in 1945. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • The SPRAGUE DAWLEY® rat aka SD, is an albino outbred rat with an elongated head and a tail that is longer than its body. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • Try out the SAS Sprague Dawley rat with our animal model evaluation program→ The employer, a Mr Sprague Dawley of the Upper 666th Pitcairns Fucken Parallel, was unavailable for comment via fucken Zoom. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • These considerations led us to design the present study, which was an investigation of the corticosterone response to CMS in two outbred rat strains--Sprague-Dawley and Long Evans. (aku.edu)
  • The optimal maintenance of guinea pig colonies, commercially and in research settings, relies on robust informed breeding programs, however, breeding data on specialized inbred strains are limited. (cdc.gov)
  • The diagnosis and treatment of pet mice and rats involves evaluation and care of an individual animal from a household, not the health management of rodents from a research colony. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Occurrence of ED-induced phenotypes varies among strains in both rats and mice and with the extent of inbreeding, with reported effects often stronger with outbred versus inbred animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One paper, The Case For Genetic Monitoring Of Mice And Rats Used In Biomedical Research , questions whether or not monitoring efforts have kept pace with the number of diverse mouse strains available. (rapidlab.com)
  • Exposure to GMA-SS welding fumes lowered sperm production in two strains of rats, whereas high fat diet lowered serum testosterone. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In lifespan studies of 2,242 rats of three strains, 32 neoplasms were identified in brain, meninges and pineal gland. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • At 7wk, HF-fed animals exhibited several immune alterations (blood leukocyte/neutrophil number, lymph node B-cell proportionality)-effects which were more pronounced in SD rats. (cdc.gov)
  • however, diet appeared to preferentially impact SD rats at this time point, as several inflammatory markers (lymph node cellularity, lung neutrophils) were further elevated in HF over Reg animals. (cdc.gov)
  • In BN rats, resolution of immune alterations was further compromised by HF diet, as many exposure-induced alterations in local/systemic immune markers were still evident in HF/WF animals at 24wk. (cdc.gov)
  • Presently this facility housed inbred strains Balb/c, C57/BL6, CBA/J, FVB, NOD SCID, Neo R Tg line, outbred CD1 and Wistar Rats and Rabbits. (niab.res.in)
  • The preclinical development of immunomodulatory compounds often begins with an observation in vitro , after which proof of therapeutic principle is obtained in animal models, usually in inbred strains of rats or mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Herein, we compared the two clades of MPXV via two routes of infection in the BALB/c and C57BL/6 inbred mice strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Taconic's inbred C57BL/6NTac and BALB/cAnNTac mice and outbred Swiss Webster mice are immediately available from our commercial production colonies at the Germ Free (GF) health standard . (taconic.com)
  • C57BL/6, also called Black 6 or B6, is the most commonly used inbred strain. (taconic.com)
  • The BXD platform is a recombinant inbred panel derived from the C57BL/6J "B6" and DBA/2J "D2" founder strains. (jax.org)
  • Among mouse strains, C57BL/6 is among the most sensitive to this diet-induced obesity (DIO). (jax.org)
  • Transgenic, knock-out, congenic and inbread strains are known for C57BL/6, A/J, BALB/c, SCID while the CD-1 is outbred as strain. (fibrinogens.com)
  • For this test, several inbred strains of mice were treated with agents that act as endocrine disruptors (EDs) - molecules that interfere with hormonal control of gene expression. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recombinant inbred (RI) strains, for example, are generated by first crossing several inbred strains together, then multiple lines are inbred to create a set of new inbred strains. (jax.org)
  • BALB/c is a commonly used, general purpose inbred strain with good reproductive performance. (taconic.com)
  • What is important with inbred and outbred mice strains is that they are well maintained. (rapidlab.com)
  • Each mouse in an outbred strain is genetically unique. (rapidlab.com)
  • This is a population of diverse animals with randomly segregating alleles, where each mouse is a genetically unique individual. (jax.org)
  • In 1902 Lucien Cuénot published the results of his experiments using mice which showed that Mendel's laws of inheritance were also valid for animals - results that were soon confirmed and extended to other species. (wikipedia.org)
  • lymphoid tissue, and digestive tract), which the animal model captures the It can be difficult to parse out concordance has often been ob- range of potential human response reasons for lack of tumour site con- served among different species after to the particular agent tested. (who.int)
  • Competing causes of mortali- or all of the animal species tested genetic variation, health status, life ty may prevent the development of experimentally. (who.int)
  • He has established animal facilities and managed colonies of laboratory rodents and lagomorphs (including transgenic, knock-out, athymic and severe combined immunodeficient strains) and larger species of bovine, caprine, porcine and canine. (niab.res.in)
  • In a healthy adult, the same microbial strains and species can colonize the gut for years, while the relative abundance of each member - in other words, community structure - is highly dynamic," said Peter Turnbaugh , PhD, an assistant professor of microbiology and immunology at UCSF, and the leader of the study. (ucsf.edu)
  • By experimentally infecting standardized laboratory animals with pathogenic microorganisms, scientists generate models of infection, which can be used under controlled conditions and can be manipulated in a way that would be impossible or ethically unacceptable in the target human species. (plos.org)
  • By comparing the responses to P. aeruginosa infection between an outbred mouse strain (Swiss Webster, SW) and a susceptible mouse strain (C57BL6/N), we found that the inherent neutrophil-killing abilities of these strains correlated with their susceptibility to infection. (nih.gov)
  • Swiss Webster is a general purpose outbred strain with excellent reproductive performance. (taconic.com)
  • Celecoxib (C), a COX-2 enzyme inhibitor, was administered at a 0.1% dose level in the diet of female Swiss Webster CFW outbred mice for life. (isharonline.org)
  • VPS, a hot water extract of the Coriolus versicolor mushroom, was given at a 2% dose level in the diet of female Swiss Webster CFW outbred mice in a serial sacrifice experiment. (isharonline.org)
  • In this serial sacrifice experiment, celecoxib (C) was administered at a 0.1% dose level, in the diet of female Swiss Webster CFW outbred mice. (isharonline.org)
  • [3] Together they generated the DBA (Dilute, Brown and non-Agouti) inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. (wikipedia.org)
  • Genetic contamination refers to the introduction of unintended new genes to a mouse strain. (rapidlab.com)
  • B6 is a versatile mouse strain. (taconic.com)
  • Ghly recombinant outbred populations which will be accustomed to discover unique genes associated along with the trait of curiosity. (dna-alkylating.com)
  • NONcNZO10/LtJ mice are a recombinant congenic line that was bred by JAX Professor Dr. Ed Leiter to specifically combine six diabetes susceptibility alleles derived from the obesity and diabetes-prone strain NZO/LtJ with two from diabetes-resistant and normally non-obese NON/ShiLtJ. (jax.org)
  • Some genes located on pRS218 were overly represented by NMEC strains compared to fecal E. coli isolated from healthy individuals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, a set of 204 genes were statistically differentially expressed between susceptible and resistant animals, and grouped them according to their predisposition to staphylococcal infection. (inra.fr)
  • On the contrary, over expression of genes involved in the IL1R pathway was observed in susceptible animals. (inra.fr)
  • The use of genetically defined inbred mouse strains, humanized mice, and gene knockout mice has enabled the research community to study the process of the way pathogens cause diseases, the role of specific host genes in controlling or promoting disease, and potential targets for prevention or identification of treatment for a variety of infectious agents. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Recent work in bacteria, plants and animals has provided new evidence for the old idea that phenotypes acquired during a lifetime can be passed to later generations, independently of DNA variation [ 1 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Absence of direct evidence for ED-induced phenotypes with these strains and protocols compromises clean interpretation of the results of this study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These new RI strains each represent a unique mosaic of the original founder genomes, and thus express unique phenotypes that can be used to answer a broad array of research questions. (jax.org)
  • Panels of BXD strains are used to discover new disease phenotypes or traits, or to model a diverse response to interventions. (jax.org)
  • Individual strains may be selected to model diseases, because individual BXD strains express unique phenotypes. (jax.org)
  • A haplotype association mapping approach was used with the inbred strains to allow characterization of their benzene absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion phenotypes. (nih.gov)
  • Outbred hairless mice ( Mus musculus , SKH-1 strain), orig- simultaneously as host to spirochete-infected ticks, even when inally purchased from Charles River Deutschland (Sulzfeld, Germany), were bred and maintained in the laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • The outbred nature and the closer anatomical, genetic, microbiological, physiological, and immunological similarity of nonhuman primates to humans may help to bridge the wide gap between inbred rodent strain models and the heterogeneous RA patient population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A maintenance charge is calculated according to the number of boxes maintained weekly for each rodent strain, plus any additional services provided. (wa.gov.au)
  • Guinea pigs are important animal models for human disease, and both outbred and inbred lines are utilized in biomedical research. (cdc.gov)
  • Of note, biomedical research with animals in itself presents an ethical dilemma between the expected benefit to humans and the potential harm caused to animals. (plos.org)
  • To assess how animal welfare and refinement have been considered in animal research on infection, we conducted an analysis of papers published on biomedical research on TB. (plos.org)
  • Similar to many other standard outbred mice used in biomedical research, J:ARC is derived from the CD-1(ICR) outbred stock, and has genetic contributions from NMRI/br, FVB/NJ, and SWR/J mice. (jax.org)
  • The Custom Strains department provides breeding and maintenance of customer-owned rodent strains, including inbred, hybrid, congenic and genetically modified strains. (wa.gov.au)
  • RI strains range from simple bi-parental crosses such as BXD to more complex multi-parental families such as Collaborative Cross (CC). (jax.org)
  • The answer to reduced genetic diversity may be to use populations specifically developed to provide wide genetic variability, such as the diversity outbred population or the partially inbred collaborative cross strains developed by the Jackson Laboratory . (dirnagl.com)
  • These compulsive-like mice exhibit heterogeneity in expression of compulsive-like and other adjunct behaviors that might serve as a valuable animal equivalent for examining the interactions of genetics, sex and environmental factors in influencing the pathophysiology of OCD. (frontiersin.org)
  • Here, we used outbred animals from a divergent selection based on susceptibility towards Staphylococcus infection to explore host immunogenetics.METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated how dendritic cells respond to heat-inactivated S. aureus and whether dendritic cells from animals showing different degrees of susceptibility had distinct gene expression profiles. (inra.fr)
  • The distinct transcriptional profiles of dendritic cells obtained from resistant and susceptible animals may explain susceptibility towards S. aureus infections in a broader context. (inra.fr)
  • Two diabetic strains whose diabetes and obesity develop from combinations of diabetes-susceptibility alleles are now available, and are becoming more widely used: NONcNZO10/LtJ ( 004456 ) and TALLYHO/JngJ ( 005314 ). (jax.org)
  • As a general rule, inbred mice tend to have longer gestation periods and smaller litters than outbred and hybrid mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • These studies provide valuable information regarding the reproductive characteristics of strain 13/N guinea pigs, and support a variety of breeding approaches without significant effects on breeding success. (cdc.gov)
  • One approach is to include multiple inbred strains with different characteristics (i.e. (jax.org)
  • Animals were exposed to one of two conditions--control or CMS--for 3 weeks during which body weight and fecal count were regularly monitored. (aku.edu)
  • Laboratory animals were immunised with the virosome-based Pf CyRPA vaccine to determine its immunogenic properties and in particular, its capacity to elicit parasite binding and growth-inhibitory antibodies. (nature.com)
  • However, extensive allelic polymorphism and redundancy in erythrocyte invasion pathways are limiting strain-transcending neutralisation by traditional merozoite candidate vaccine antigens, such as apical membrane antigen 1 (AMA1) and merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1). (nature.com)
  • In the study of infectious diseases, animal research continues to be of paramount importance to understand how the immune system, as well as other systems, responds to pathogens, as well as for developing and testing new drugs and vaccine candidates. (plos.org)
  • The goal of this work was to study the immunogenic and protective properties of the Vector-Flu vaccine in animal models. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • We have developed Vector-Flu, a live attenuated vaccine against pandemic influenza, based on the cold-adapted reassortant vaccine strain for LAIV, A/17/California/2009/38(H1N1), and produced in certified MDCK cells. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • A double immunization with the live MDCK-derived Vector-Flu influenza vaccine induced a high level of neutralizing antibodies in ferret serum both to the pandemic A/Chita/3/2009(H1N1) influenza virus strain, isolated in Russia, and to the pandemic A/California/7/2009(H1N1) strain. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • Theoretical estimates of protective antibody levels necessary for protecting humans from the disease caused by pandemic A/H1N1(2009) influenza virus, and the experimental data from animal models (ferrets and mice), suggest that the Vector-Flu vaccine is able to protect humans after a single immunization. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • Live influenza vaccines developed in the cell culture offer potential advantages because it is possible to produce a considerable amount of these vaccines over a short period, their use eliminate concerns about allergic reactions to egg proteins, and they allow the antigenic composition of the vaccine to be closer to the circulating influenza virus strains. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • In collaboration with the Institute of Experimental Medicine (St Petersburg, Russia), the State Research Centre for Virology and Biotechnology VECTOR (Novosibirsk, Russia), developed a live attenuated vaccine against pandemic influenza, Vector-Flu, derived from the cold-adapted A/17/California/2009/38(H1N1) vaccine strain and produced in the certified MDCK cells. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • The A/California/7/2009(H1N1) pandemic influenza virus strain was obtained from CDC (Atlanta, GA). The A/17/California/2009/38 (H1N1) vaccine strain was generated at the Institute of Experimental Medicine by reassortment of the cold-adapted attenuated A/Leningrad/134/17/57(H2N2) master donor virus with the A/California/7/2009(H1N1) pandemic strain. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • The goal of this study was to use liquid chromatography mass spectrometry to assess metabolic changes of two different diets in three distinct rat strains. (cdc.gov)
  • The results of this study showed that a high fat diet caused significant liver and metabolic changes compared to a regular diet in multiple rat strains. (cdc.gov)
  • The findings are in agreement with a recent human study by Turnbaugh and colleagues, in which gut microbes were rapidly and reproducibly altered when 10 participants were fed a vegan or animal-based diet. (ucsf.edu)
  • In the new study Turnbaugh's lab team included mice from five different inbred strains of mice, in which all members of a strain are genetically identical. (ucsf.edu)
  • The present study aims to identify the main sources of animal distress and to assess the possible implementation of refinement measures in experimental infection research, using mouse models of tuberculosis (TB) as a case study. (plos.org)
  • Ensuring your study animals have the most appropriate diet is critical to maintaining consistent, reliable research data. (envigo.com)
  • To investigate the relative fitness of QRSP, we conducted a competition study of a fluoroquinolone-susceptible clinical strain of S. pneumoniae (EF3030) with 2 of its fluoroquinolone-resistant isogenic mutants that had 2 common QRDR point mutation combinations. (cdc.gov)
  • For this study, naturally occurring fluoroquinolone resistance mutations were placed in the serotype 19F strain EF3030 by using established techniques (17). (cdc.gov)
  • are believed to serve as the best animal model for study of filovirus hemorrhagic fever based on the similar disease presentation as observed Temozolomide mouse for humans. (pimpathway.com)
  • The emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2019 has prompted animal models to study its pathology and develop an effective treatment. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • However, in my field (stroke research), which is particularly hit hard by the 'translational roadblock' I have not seen a single study making use of these strains. (dirnagl.com)
  • MPXV is endemic in the rain forests of Central and West Africa, causing sporadic outbreaks in remote villages, where it is believed to result from close contact between humans and animals living in the rain forests [2] - [4] . (cdc.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is a major pathogen of humans and animals and emerging antibiotic-resistant strains have further increased the concern of this health issue. (inra.fr)
  • A very common usage is in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the basis of most modern medical diagnostic testing in humans and animals. (fibrinogens.com)
  • In the past 20 years, studying the mechanisms of interaction between gut microbes and the immune system has become a new focus of research, in which germ-free animals have played an indispensable role as models for studying the mechanisms of how the gastrointestinal microbiome influences the host. (cyagen.com)
  • Germ-free animals are widely used in multiple fields in life sciences for advantages that include accurate test results, low animal dosage, high statistical value, and high long-term survival rate. (cyagen.com)
  • Cyagen has introduced a complete range of germ-free animal husbandry and testing programs from our partner and leading provider of research models, Taconic Biosciences. (cyagen.com)
  • Together, we have assembled an excellent germ-free (GF) animal technical team and established a standardized sterile animal feeding and breeding detection technology system. (cyagen.com)
  • With the purpose of providing a high-quality product and professional services to customers around the world, Cyagen has assembled its own teams of germ-free (GF) animal technicians and project managers. (cyagen.com)
  • to assure preservation of the Germ Free health standard of your animals during shipping, Taconic has designed and constructed a unique container system, the germ-free shipper . (taconic.com)
  • Also added to the mix were more than 200 "outbred" mice - bred to yield offspring with an abundance of easy-to-trace genetic diversity. (ucsf.edu)
  • Alternatively, outbred mice that intentionally avoid sibling mating such as the JAX Swiss Outbred ( J:ARC ) can be used to produce a population of mice with a modest amount of diversity, including randomly segregating heterozygous alleles. (jax.org)
  • A new generation of sophisticated diversity mice have been developed by breeding inbred strains together with advanced intercross breeding schemes. (jax.org)
  • Alternatively, crossing inbred strains together and then outbreeding maximizes diversity to create a heterogeneous stock. (jax.org)
  • The JAX Diversity Outbred (J:DO ) mice, for example, is a unique platform to test therapeutic interventions in a population that models the diversity seen in a human population. (jax.org)
  • BXD has a moderate level of diversity, with 6 million sequence variants across the entire panel of more than 150 unique strains. (jax.org)
  • With a moderate level of diversity from the two founder strains, BXD mice provide a simple platform to investigate the genetic basis of disease. (jax.org)
  • Inbred strains have individuals that are nearly identical due to generations of inbreeding. (rapidlab.com)
  • Mouse research is often performed in genetically-defined inbred mouse strains, where each mouse within a strain is virtually identical to one another. (jax.org)
  • No bovine derived animal products are used in any step of the fermentation or purification process. (vitacyte.com)
  • Researchers take significant steps to limit errors during animal research. (rapidlab.com)
  • Scientists, veterinarians, animal care personnel, and animal facility managers know that the specific strains of research animals they develop, use, care for, and house are genetically sound and truly representative of their assumed genotype or genetic background. (rapidlab.com)
  • Aim: Dwarf animal models can provide new models for aging research. (monicaperdomo.com)
  • It is focused to provide husbandry, enrichment, nutrition, veterinary care, technical and professional support to the scientific community of the Institute to facilitate research on animals. (niab.res.in)
  • Models of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in laboratory animals are important tools for research into pathogenic mechanisms and the development of effective, safe therapies. (biomedcentral.com)
  • There is growing concern over the welfare of animals used in research, in particular when these animals develop pathology. (plos.org)
  • Information on important research parameters, such as method for euthanasia or sex of the animals, were absent in a substantial number of papers. (plos.org)
  • The Three Rs principle (Replacement of animal experiments with alternative approaches, Reduction of animal numbers and Refinement to improve animal welfare [1] ) emerged as a way for scientists to ease this dilemma by developing research methods that decrease pain and distress. (plos.org)
  • Nevertheless, the use of animals in research is still controversial, with recent voices also questioning the translational validity into humans [2] , [3] . (plos.org)
  • At a point in time when research is increasingly challenged by a critical public, taking such questions seriously is essential if the scientific community is to be proactive in addressing the need for animal-based research and retaining public trust in this matter [4] . (plos.org)
  • Optimizing lab animal care and husbandry is critical to research success. (envigo.com)
  • While controlling for genetic variability can be helpful for mechanistic research, using a single inbred strain may limit the translatability of preclinical experimental findings. (jax.org)
  • However, various regulations and laws for the ethical use of animals in research are hampering the overall market growth. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Most rodent models of disease (in stroke research, anyway) use young, healthy male, inbred mouse strains kept under specific pathogen free (SPF) conditions, restricted antigen exposure in their environment, and on a diet optimized for maximum reproduction rates (high in antioxidants, trace elements and other supplements, etc. (dirnagl.com)
  • At week 12, the GMA-SS exposure induced pulmonary inflammation in both strains, without consistent changes in markers of systemic inflammation (CRP, MCP-1, IL-6 and TNFα). (biomedcentral.com)
  • With the emergence of new infectious diseases, the animal model has become a vital tool for studying disease mechanisms and developing therapeutics. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • First, a significant effect of CMS on corticosterone levels was evident at time 0 (prior to the application of the acute restraint stressor) in both strains. (aku.edu)
  • However, only in the Long Evans strain were CMS related values much less than that observed in the control group after restraint stress. (aku.edu)
  • To analyze this strain of WNV KUN , we conducted genomic sequencing, antigenic profiling, in vitro growth kinetics, and mouse virulence studies on virus isolates from diseased animals and mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
  • The plasmid-cured strain was significantly attenuated relative to the RS218 wild-type strain as determined in vitro by invasion potential to human cerebral microvascular endothelial cells and in vivo by mortalities, histopathological lesions in the brain tissue, and bacterial recovery from the cerebrospinal fluid of infected rat pups. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These 3 strains were analyzed by using an in vitro growth model, an in vivo nasopharyngeal colonization model, and an in vivo pneumonia model. (cdc.gov)
  • Obesity is one of the greatest risk factors linked to diabetes in humans, and similar to humans, some mouse strains become obese when fed high-fat or so-called "Western" diets. (jax.org)
  • To test this phenomena in mice and explore possible genetic basis of differential sensitivity, FST is used in 11 diverse strains in combination with different doses of lithium. (jax.org)
  • Intranasal immunization of mice induced levels of serum antibodies sufficient to protect them when aerosol-challenged with 100 infectious doses of A/Chita/3/2009(H1N1) strain. (peertechzpublications.com)
  • The state-of-the-art barrier-maintained laboratory animal facility at National Institute of Animal Biotechnology is established to conduct experiments using rodents and lagomorphs. (niab.res.in)
  • All strains are housed in our Custom Strains barrier area under SPF conditions. (wa.gov.au)
  • Our studies show that similar to previous animal studies, the Congo Basin strain of MPXV was more virulent than West African MPXV in both mouse strains as evidenced by clinical signs. (cdc.gov)
  • The strain that caused the US outbreak belonged to the West African clade, which clinical and epidemiological data has shown is associated with less severe disease [10] . (cdc.gov)
  • Dr. Jayant Hole completed his BVSc & AH (equivalent to DVM 2001) Nagpur Veterinary College (Dr PDKV University Akola) and M.V.Sc (Veterinary Clinical Medicine 2004) from Post Graduate Institute of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Akola under Maharashtra Animal and Fishery Science University, Nagpur. (niab.res.in)
  • Strains containing the GyrA: Ser81Phe, ParC: Ser79Phe double mutations, which are frequently seen in clinical QRSP, competed poorly with EF3030 in competitive colonization or competitive lung infections. (cdc.gov)
  • The strain containing the GyrA: Ser81Phe, ParC: Ser79Tyr double mutations, which is seen more frequently in laboratory-derived QRSP than in clinical QRSP, demonstrated reduced nasal colonization in competitive or noncompetitive lung infections. (cdc.gov)
  • It is the preferred strain for diet-induced obesity studies. (taconic.com)
  • Atopy as a Modifier of the Relationships Between Endotoxin Exposure and Symptoms Among Laboratory Animal Workers. (harvard.edu)
  • MPXV infection is thought to be acquired most commonly by direct percutaneous contact, mucosal or respiratory exposure to tissues or fluids of infected animals [5] . (cdc.gov)
  • The chronic unpredictable mild stress (CMS) is a paradigm developed in animals to model the relatively minor and unanticipated irritants that lead to a state of anhedonia in some individuals. (aku.edu)
  • Although this mouse model may not suffice as a model of human MPX disease, with an appropriate inbred mouse model, we can unravel many unknown aspects of MPX pathogenesis, including virulence factors, disease progression in rodent hosts, and viral shedding from infected animals. (cdc.gov)
  • It is of critical importance for preclinical safety testing that the selected animal model is sensitive to the pharmacological action of the tested drug and that the tissue distribution and pharmacological properties of the molecules targeted by the treatment are comparable to those observed in patients [ 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The JAX Swiss Outbred (J:ARC) model is a conventional outbred stock derived from Swiss mouse ancestors. (jax.org)
  • Scientists have used animals to model human diseases for over a hundred years. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • In WNV NSW2011 , this apparent increase in virulence over that of the prototype strain correlated with at least 2 known markers of WNV virulence that are not found in WNV KUN . (cdc.gov)
  • Dark and light cycle 12:12 hours for the normal physiological behaviour of the animals is maintained through automated DALI (Digitally accessible lighting interface) control system. (niab.res.in)
  • The animals also received either 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride (1,2-DMH) as ten weekly subcutaneous (s.c.) injections at 20 microg/g body weight or physiological saline (PS) as ten weekly s.c. injections at 0.01 ml/g body weight. (isharonline.org)
  • He has also completed a Certificate Course from the International Council for Laboratory Animal Science (ICLAS 2012) through the CSIR - Institute of Genomics and Integrative Biology, New Delhi, the Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA, Government of India, Utrecht University, the Netherlands. (niab.res.in)
  • It is with clean and dirty (service corridor concept and built in compliance with the guidelines of Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA). (niab.res.in)
  • The experiments conducted on animals at this facility are through the approval of Institutional Animal Ethics committee (IAEC). (niab.res.in)
  • Russell and Burch's concept of application of 3R Reduction, Refinement and Replacement in all experiments on animals are closely observed. (niab.res.in)
  • This facility is operational from August 2019 and conducting IAEC approved protocols for the experiments on animals. (niab.res.in)
  • The facility is registered with Committee for the Purpose of Control and Supervision of Experiments on Animals (CPCSEA), Ministry of Environment, Forests and climate change, Government of India Registration N.2063/GO/RBi/SL/19/CPCSEA dated 10.04.2019. (niab.res.in)
  • Known distribution of West Nile virus infection and disease caused by Kunjin strain (A) and distribution of encephalitis cases among equids (B), New South Wales, Australia, 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • Consistently, quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis revealed strain-specific and infection-induced alterations of neutrophil proteomes. (nih.gov)
  • Literature published between 1997 and 2009 was analysed, focusing on the welfare impact on the animals used and the implementation of refinement measures to reduce this impact. (plos.org)
  • Dr. Hole has more than a decade 15 years of experience in veterinary science and laboratory animal medicine. (niab.res.in)