A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Mutagenesis where the mutation is caused by the introduction of foreign DNA sequences into a gene or extragenic sequence. This may occur spontaneously in vivo or be experimentally induced in vivo or in vitro. Proviral DNA insertions into or adjacent to a cellular proto-oncogene can interrupt GENETIC TRANSLATION of the coding sequences or interfere with recognition of regulatory elements and cause unregulated expression of the proto-oncogene resulting in tumor formation.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Techniques used in studying bacteria.
A genus of BACILLACEAE that are spore-forming, rod-shaped cells. Most species are saprophytic soil forms with only a few species being pathogenic.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, coccoid bacteria. Its organisms occur singly, in pairs, and in tetrads and characteristically divide in more than one plane to form irregular clusters. Natural populations of Staphylococcus are found on the skin and mucous membranes of warm-blooded animals. Some species are opportunistic pathogens of humans and animals.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STAPHYLOCOCCUS.
Thin, hairlike appendages, 1 to 20 microns in length and often occurring in large numbers, present on the cells of gram-negative bacteria, particularly Enterobacteriaceae and Neisseria. Unlike flagella, they do not possess motility, but being protein (pilin) in nature, they possess antigenic and hemagglutinating properties. They are of medical importance because some fimbriae mediate the attachment of bacteria to cells via adhesins (ADHESINS, BACTERIAL). Bacterial fimbriae refer to common pili, to be distinguished from the preferred use of "pili", which is confined to sex pili (PILI, SEX).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of fungi.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Proteins from BACTERIA and FUNGI that are soluble enough to be secreted to target ERYTHROCYTES and insert into the membrane to form beta-barrel pores. Biosynthesis may be regulated by HEMOLYSIN FACTORS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The study of microorganisms living in a variety of environments (air, soil, water, etc.) and their pathogenic relationship to other organisms including man.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The etiologic agent of CHOLERA.
Live vaccines prepared from microorganisms which have undergone physical adaptation (e.g., by radiation or temperature conditioning) or serial passage in laboratory animal hosts or infected tissue/cell cultures, in order to produce avirulent mutant strains capable of inducing protective immunity.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The intergenic DNA segments that are between the ribosomal RNA genes (internal transcribed spacers) and between the tandemly repeated units of rDNA (external transcribed spacers and nontranscribed spacers).
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Nonsusceptibility of an organism to the action of penicillins.
A technique of bacterial typing which differentiates between bacteria or strains of bacteria by their susceptibility to one or more bacteriophages.
The heritable modification of the properties of a competent bacterium by naked DNA from another source. The uptake of naked DNA is a naturally occuring phenomenon in some bacteria. It is often used as a GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUE.
RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM analysis of rRNA genes that is used for differentiating between species or strains.
The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.
Any normal or abnormal coloring matter in PLANTS; ANIMALS or micro-organisms.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.
A genus of VIBRIONACEAE, made up of short, slightly curved, motile, gram-negative rods. Various species produce cholera and other gastrointestinal disorders as well as abortion in sheep and cattle.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
A genus of bacteria that form a nonfragmented aerial mycelium. Many species have been identified with some being pathogenic. This genus is responsible for producing a majority of the ANTI-BACTERIAL AGENTS of practical value.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
A genus of gram-negative bacteria of the family MORAXELLACEAE, found in soil and water and of uncertain pathogenicity.
The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
A family of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that do not form endospores. Its organisms are distributed worldwide with some being saprophytes and others being plant and animal parasites. Many species are of considerable economic importance due to their pathogenic effects on agriculture and livestock.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Cell-surface components or appendages of bacteria that facilitate adhesion (BACTERIAL ADHESION) to other cells or to inanimate surfaces. Most fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) of gram-negative bacteria function as adhesins, but in many cases it is a minor subunit protein at the tip of the fimbriae that is the actual adhesin. In gram-positive bacteria, a protein or polysaccharide surface layer serves as the specific adhesin. What is sometimes called polymeric adhesin (BIOFILMS) is distinct from protein adhesin.
Enzymes found in many bacteria which catalyze the hydrolysis of the amide bond in the beta-lactam ring. Well known antibiotics destroyed by these enzymes are penicillins and cephalosporins.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Substances that are toxic to the intestinal tract causing vomiting, diarrhea, etc.; most common enterotoxins are produced by bacteria.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria primarily found in purulent venereal discharges. It is the causative agent of GONORRHEA.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A genus of REOVIRIDAE, causing acute gastroenteritis in BIRDS and MAMMALS, including humans. Transmission is horizontal and by environmental contamination. Seven species (Rotaviruses A thru G) are recognized.
Using MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques, such as DNA SEQUENCE ANALYSIS; PULSED-FIELD GEL ELECTROPHORESIS; and DNA FINGERPRINTING, to identify, classify, and compare organisms and their subtypes.
Viruses whose hosts are bacterial cells.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An antibiotic produced by the soil actinomycete Streptomyces griseus. It acts by inhibiting the initiation and elongation processes during protein synthesis.
Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.
Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.
Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.
Diseases of plants.
Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.
A gram-positive organism found in the upper respiratory tract, inflammatory exudates, and various body fluids of normal and/or diseased humans and, rarely, domestic animals.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
Suspensions of attenuated or killed bacteria administered for the prevention or treatment of infectious bacterial disease.
A species of HAEMOPHILUS found on the mucous membranes of humans and a variety of animals. The species is further divided into biotypes I through VIII.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria. Its organisms are normal inhabitants of the oral, respiratory, intestinal, and urogenital cavities of humans, animals, and insects. Some species may be pathogenic.
The lipopolysaccharide-protein somatic antigens, usually from gram-negative bacteria, important in the serological classification of enteric bacilli. The O-specific chains determine the specificity of the O antigens of a given serotype. O antigens are the immunodominant part of the lipopolysaccharide molecule in the intact bacterial cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
A bacterial genus of the order ACTINOMYCETALES.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
A group of antibiotics that contain 6-aminopenicillanic acid with a side chain attached to the 6-amino group. The penicillin nucleus is the chief structural requirement for biological activity. The side-chain structure determines many of the antibacterial and pharmacological characteristics. (Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p1065)
Substances that prevent infectious agents or organisms from spreading or kill infectious agents in order to prevent the spread of infection.
The process in certain BACTERIA; FUNGI; and CYANOBACTERIA converting free atmospheric NITROGEN to biologically usable forms of nitrogen, such as AMMONIA; NITRATES; and amino compounds.
A unicellular budding fungus which is the principal pathogenic species causing CANDIDIASIS (moniliasis).
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Hydrocarbon rings which contain two ketone moieties in any position. They can be substituted in any position except at the ketone groups.
Diseases of domestic swine and of the wild boar of the genus Sus.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Heat and stain resistant, metabolically inactive bodies formed within the vegetative cells of bacteria of the genera Bacillus and Clostridium.
Direct nucleotide sequencing of gene fragments from multiple housekeeping genes for the purpose of phylogenetic analysis, organism identification, and typing of species, strain, serovar, or other distinguishable phylogenetic level.
A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that occurs singly, in pairs, or in short chains. Its organisms are found in fresh water and sewage and are pathogenic to humans, frogs, and fish.
Proteins that are structural components of bacterial fimbriae (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) or sex pili (PILI, SEX).
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria isolated from skin lesions, blood, inflammatory exudates, and the upper respiratory tract of humans. It is a group A hemolytic Streptococcus that can cause SCARLET FEVER and RHEUMATIC FEVER.
Refuse liquid or waste matter carried off by sewers.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.
A phylum of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria comprised of unicellular to multicellular bacteria possessing CHLOROPHYLL a and carrying out oxygenic PHOTOSYNTHESIS. Cyanobacteria are the only known organisms capable of fixing both CARBON DIOXIDE (in the presence of light) and NITROGEN. Cell morphology can include nitrogen-fixing heterocysts and/or resting cells called akinetes. Formerly called blue-green algae, cyanobacteria were traditionally treated as ALGAE.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A class of plasmids that transfer antibiotic resistance from one bacterium to another by conjugation.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
Gram-negative, non-motile, capsulated, gas-producing rods found widely in nature and associated with urinary and respiratory infections in humans.
The phenomenon by which a temperate phage incorporates itself into the DNA of a bacterial host, establishing a kind of symbiotic relation between PROPHAGE and bacterium which results in the perpetuation of the prophage in all the descendants of the bacterium. Upon induction (VIRUS ACTIVATION) by various agents, such as ultraviolet radiation, the phage is released, which then becomes virulent and lyses the bacterium.
Bacteria which lose crystal violet stain but are stained pink when treated by Gram's method.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.
Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Constituent of 50S subunit of prokaryotic ribosomes containing about 3200 nucleotides. 23S rRNA is involved in the initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria characterized by an outer membrane that contains glycosphingolipids but lacks lipopolysaccharide. They have the ability to degrade a broad range of substituted aromatic compounds.
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A bacteriostatic antibiotic macrolide produced by Streptomyces erythreus. Erythromycin A is considered its major active component. In sensitive organisms, it inhibits protein synthesis by binding to 50S ribosomal subunits. This binding process inhibits peptidyl transferase activity and interferes with translocation of amino acids during translation and assembly of proteins.
A genus of asporogenous bacteria that is widely distributed in nature. Its organisms appear as straight to slightly curved rods and are known to be human and animal parasites and pathogens.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The natural bactericidal property of BLOOD due to normally occurring antibacterial substances such as beta lysin, leukin, etc. This activity needs to be distinguished from the bactericidal activity contained in a patient's serum as a result of antimicrobial therapy, which is measured by a SERUM BACTERICIDAL TEST.
An acute diarrheal disease endemic in India and Southeast Asia whose causative agent is VIBRIO CHOLERAE. This condition can lead to severe dehydration in a matter of hours unless quickly treated.
A naphthacene antibiotic that inhibits AMINO ACYL TRNA binding during protein synthesis.
The dose amount of poisonous or toxic substance or dose of ionizing radiation required to kill 50% of the tested population.

Karyotype identity of two subspecies of Eld's deer [Cervus eldi (Cervinae, Artiodactyla)] and its consequences for conservation. (1/277)

Among the three subspecies generally recognized within the Eld's deer (Cervus eldi)--C. e. eldi, C. e. thamin, and C. e. siamensis--C. e. siamensis is considered to be particularly endangered following its disappearance from a major portion of its original range. The only captive breeding population of this subspecies is in the zoological parks at the Paris Museum of Natural History. Taking into account its low effective population size (Ne = 7) and the increasing levels of inbreeding, the continued breeding of this "micropopulation" in isolation from closely related subspecies and in particular from C. e. thamin, which is much more common in zoos as well as in the nature, is questioned. As an initial step in determining if crosses between these subspecies could be performed without risk of outbreeding depression due, in part, to gross differences in their karyotypes, a comparative chromosome banding analysis (RBG-bands) of C. e. siamensis and C. e. thamin was undertaken. No chromosomal differences were identified between the taxa at the level of resolution obtained. The study suggests that, at least from a karyotypic perspective, no obvious differences delimit the two subspecies, and hybridization between endangered C. e. siamensis and C. e. thamin is not likely to lead to impaired fertility in hybrid animals.  (+info)

CFU-S(11) activity does not localize solely with the aorta in the aorta-gonad-mesonephros region. (2/277)

The aorta-gonad-mesonephros (AGM) region is a potent hematopoietic site in the midgestation mouse conceptus and first contains colony-forming units-spleen day 11 (CFU-S(11)) at embryonic day 10 (E10). Because CFU-S(11) activity is present in the AGM region before the onset of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) activity, CFU-S(11) activity in the complex developing vascular and urogenital regions of the AGM was localized. From E10 onward, CFU-S(11) activity is associated with the aortic vasculature, and is found also in the urogenital ridges (UGRs). Together with data obtained from organ explant cultures, in which up to a 16-fold increase in CFU-S(11) activity was observed, it was determined that CFU-S(11) can be increased autonomously both in vascular sites and in UGRs. Furthermore, CFU-S(11) activity is present in vitelline and umbilical vessels. This, together with the presence of CFU-S(11) in the UGRs 2 days before HSC activity, suggests both temporally and spatially distinct emergent sources of CFU-S(11). (Blood. 2000;96:2902-2904)  (+info)

Genes in the first and fourth inversions of the mouse t complex synergistically mediate sperm capacitation and interactions with the oocyte. (3/277)

The t haplotypes (t) are recent evolutionary derivatives of an alternate form of the mouse t complex region located at the proximal end of chromosome 17. This variant form of approximately 1% of the mouse genome is a source of mutations altering numerous sperm functions crucial for fertilization. Males that carry two t haplotypes (t/t) are invariably sterile. t haplotypes contain four inversions relative to the wild-type t complex (+), so that in matings involving a +/t heterozygote, t is usually transmitted as a single unit. However, rare recombinants have been recovered, which carry only part of the t genotype and express only some of the t-dependent phenotypes. Use of these partial t haplotypes in genetic crosses has resulted in the general location of the two major t male sterility factors, S1 and S2, within inversions 1 and 4, respectively. Since sterility can result from a plethora of sperm defects, we have made a detailed study of various functional parameters of sperm from mice carrying S1 or S2 heterozygously or homozygously or in combination. Both S1 and S2 contain mutations altering sperm functions, including motility, capacitation, binding to the zona pellucida, binding to the oocyte membrane, and penetration of the zona pellucida-free oocyte. Therefore it seems clear that each of these factors contains multiple genes contributing to sterility. Furthermore, our results indicate that genes within S1 interact with genes in S2 for all sperm functions examined. However, S1 and S2 genes affecting motility interact in a purely additive fashion, while S1 and S2 genes affecting most other sperm characteristics interact in a synergistic manner. Additionally, the patterns of synergism between S1 and S2 for abnormalities in capacitation, sperm-oolemma binding, and zona-free oocyte penetration are nearly identical. This suggests that these three defects are caused by mutation of the same gene within each sterility factor. These findings will not only be instrumental in matching the various t haplotype sperm defects to candidate genes for S1 and S2, but will facilitate a more comprehensive understanding of the cellular and genetic mechanisms underlying t haplotype male sterility.  (+info)

The rate and the type of orthodontic tooth movement is influenced by bone turnover in a rat model. (4/277)

The influence of bone metabolism on both the rate and the type of orthodontic tooth movement was investigated. A rat model in which high (n = 16) and low (n = 17) bone turnover was pharmacologically induced was used. A non-pharmacologically treated group (n = 19) served as the control. A mesially directed constant single force of 25 cN was applied to the upper left first molar for a period of 3 weeks. The study was performed as a split-mouth design, the contralateral side of each animal serving as its control. The displacement of the molar crown was measured with an electronic calliper, while changes in inclination of the teeth were measured from micro-CT scans of the excised maxillae. The bone turnover significantly affected the rate of tooth movement. In the case of high turnover, the rate of tooth movement was increased while it was reduced in the case of low turnover. A controlled mesial tipping in all three groups was observed, but the actual location of the centre of rotation seemed to be influenced by the metabolic state of the bone. Based on the results it can be concluded that deviations in bone turnover influence the response to orthodontic forces, and should be taken into consideration when planning orthodontic treatment in patients with metabolic bone disease or those on chronic medication influencing bone metabolism.  (+info)

Group B Streptococcus induces apoptosis in macrophages. (5/277)

Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a pathogen that has developed some strategies to resist host immune defenses. Because phagocytic killing is an important pathogenetic mechanism for bacteria, we investigated whether GBS induces apoptosis in murine macrophages. GBS type III strain COH31 r/s (GBS-III) first causes a defect in cell membrane permeability, then at 24 h, apoptosis. Apoptosis was confirmed by several techniques based on morphological changes and DNA fragmentation. Cytochalasin D does not affect apoptosis, suggesting that GBS-III needs not be within the macrophage cytoplasm to promote apoptosis. Inhibition of host protein synthesis prevents apoptosis, whereas inhibition of caspase-1 or -3, does not. Therefore, GBS can trigger an apoptotic pathway independent of caspase-1 and -3, but dependent on protein synthesis. Inhibition of apoptosis by EGTA and PMA, and enhancement of apoptosis by calphostin C and GF109203X suggests that an increase in the cytosolic calcium level and protein kinase C activity status are important in GBS-induced apoptosis. Neither alteration of plasma membrane permeability nor apoptosis were induced by GBS grown in conditions impeding hemolysin expression or when we used dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, which inhibited GBS beta-hemolytic activity, suggesting that GBS beta-hemolysin could be involved in apoptosis. beta-Hemolysin, by causing membrane permeability defects, could allow calcium influx, which initiates macrophage apoptosis. GBS also induces apoptosis in human monocytes but not in tumor lines demonstrating the specificity of its activity. This study suggests that induction of macrophage apoptosis by GBS is a novel strategy to overcome host immune defenses.  (+info)

Rapid recruitment of neutrophils containing prestored IL-12 during microbial infection. (6/277)

Neutrophils are well known to rapidly migrate to foci of infection, where they exert microbicidal functions. We sought to determine whether neutrophils responding to in vivo infection with the protozoan pathogen Toxoplasma gondii were capable of IL-12 production as suggested by recent in vitro studies. Intraperitoneal infection induced a neutrophil influx by 4 h, accompanied by ex vivo IL-12 p40 and p70 release. Approximately 85% of the neutrophils displayed intracellular stores of IL-12, as determined by flow cytometry and confocal fluorescence microscopy. Neutrophils from IFN-gamma knockout mice also expressed IL-12, ruling out an IFN-gamma-priming requirement. Neither infected nor uninfected peritoneal macrophages displayed intracellular IL-12, but these cells were strongly IL-10(+). Infection per se was unnecessary for IL-12 production because peritoneal and peripheral blood neutrophils from uninfected animals contained IL-12(+) populations. Expression of the granulocyte maturation marker Gr-1 (Ly-6G) was correlated with IL-12 production. Mice depleted of their granulocytes by mAb administration at the time of infection had decreased serum levels of IL-12 p40. These results suggest a model in which neutrophils with prestored IL-12 are rapidly mobilized to an infection site where they are triggered by the parasite to release cytokine. Our findings place neutrophils prominently in the cascade of early events leading to IL-12-dependent immunity to T. gondii.  (+info)

Pituitary neoplasia induced by expression of human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV, early genome in transgenic mice. (7/277)

In recent years, there has been mounting evidence pointing to the association of polyomaviruses with a wide range of human cancers. The human neurotropic polyomavirus, JCV, infecting greater than 75% of the human population produces a regulatory protein named T-antigen which is expressed at the early phase of viral lytic infection and plays a critical role in completion of the viral life cycle. Furthermore, this protein has the ability to transform neural cells in vitro and its expression has been detected in several human neural-origin tumors. To further investigate the oncogenic potential of the JCV early protein in vivo, transgenic mice expressing JCV T-antigen under the control of its own promoter were generated. Nearly 50% of the animals developed large, solid masses within the base of the skull by 1 year of age. Evaluation of the location as well as histological and immunohistochemical data suggest that the tumors arise from the pituitary gland. As T-antigen is known to interact with several cell cycle regulators, the neoplasms were analysed for the presence of the tumor suppressor protein, p53. Immunoprecipitation/Western blot analysis demonstrated overexpression of wild-type, but not mutant p53 within tumor tissue. In addition, co-immunoprecipitation established an interaction between p53 and T-antigen and overexpression of p53 downstream target protein, p21/WAF1. This report describes the analysis of inheritable pituitary adenomas induced by expression of the human polyomavirus, JCV T-antigen in transgenic mice where T-antigen disrupts the p53 pathway by binding to and sequestering wild-type p53. This animal model may serve as a useful tool to further evaluate mechanisms of tumorigenesis by JCV T-antigen.  (+info)

TGF-beta 1 and IFN-gamma direct macrophage activation by TNF-alpha to osteoclastic or cytocidal phenotype. (8/277)

TNF-related activation-induced cytokine (TRANCE; also called receptor activator of NF-kappaB ligand (RANKL), osteoclast differentiation factor (ODF), osteoprotegerin ligand (OPGL), and TNFSF11) induces the differentiation of progenitors of the mononuclear phagocyte lineage into osteoclasts in the presence of M-CSF. Surprisingly, in view of its potent ability to induce inflammation and activate macrophage cytocidal function, TNF-alpha has also been found to induce osteoclast-like cells in vitro under similar conditions. This raises questions concerning both the nature of osteoclasts and the mechanism of lineage choice in mononuclear phagocytes. We found that, as with TRANCE, the macrophage deactivator TGF-beta(1) strongly promoted TNF-alpha-induced osteoclast-like cell formation from immature bone marrow macrophages. This was abolished by IFN-gamma. However, TRANCE did not share the ability of TNF-alpha to activate NO production or heighten respiratory burst potential by macrophages, or induce inflammation on s.c. injection into mice. This suggests that TGF-beta(1) promotes osteoclast formation not only by inhibiting cytocidal behavior, but also by actively directing TNF-alpha activation of precursors toward osteoclasts. The osteoclast appears to be an equivalent, alternative destiny for precursors to that of cytocidal macrophage, and may represent an activated variant of scavenger macrophage.  (+info)

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Pai exact la asta ma gandeam @@vis-a-vis, ca sunt sanse de 33%-50% ca acel cadru (Kona Jake the Snake) sa fie acum la tine.. [Cu regret te anunt, dar efectul scontat nu se transmite altui proprietar, vorba aia, omul sfiinteste locul]. Cat despre ciomby eu cred ca a pus o intrebare concreta. Motociclistii au evenimente in care isi sfintesc motoarele si comemoreaza prietenii disparuti. Si pe afara se practica asta, evident in lumea catolica, sfintirea motocicletelor si a bicicletelor deopotriva.. Procedura de binecuvantare a unor bunuri nu incumba proprietati magice obiectelor respective, asa ca atat cei care cred cat si cei ridiculizeaza asta, sunt deopotriva total dezinformati.. Dovada cea mai vie este ca desi ii primiti pe preoti in casa cu Boboteaza an de an, niciodata nu ati avut curiozitatea sa vedeti despre ce e vorba in rugaciunea care se spune. :) :). L.E. Acest topic chiar mi-a sugerat ideea de a comanda lui Han un paint pe cadru pe teme religioase si sfinte. Asta chiar ar fi ...
Webster University Presents Embracing Diversity and Inclusion: Critical Conversations. A conference to be held on the Webster Groves campus, Feb. 29-March 1, 2016.
Find 2 local Critical Care Physicians practicing in Webster, TX. Read ratings and reviews to help find the best doctor in your area.
ANAHEIM, Calif. -- The wait for Lenny Websters injured right ankle to heal will extend far beyond today, when the Orioles backup catcher becomes eligible to leave the disabled list.Webster
Rebuildable MERCEDES-BENZ C240 SPT W 2005 with primary damage FRONT END is for sale in WEBSTER NH, Lot 15041605. VIN WDBRH81J45F612825
Dr. Robert H. Hayes is seeking, by a suit now on trial before Judge Freedman and a jury in the Superior Court, to recover $50,000 damages from Dr. David Webster, President of the County ...
Bromate (?), n. Chemistry|Chem. A salt of bromic acid.   © Webster 1913. Bromate (?), v.t. Medicine|Med. To combine or imp...
Click or call 727-314-1000 for Webster listing info MLS #O5941799 for sale $20,900 in Ridge Manor Estate with large photos and Virtual Tour.
Used Process Vessels 300 litre WEBSTERS vessel for sale. Find this and thousands of other used equipment listings on Kitmondo.com.
The Power Supply in Package (PSiP) and Power Supply on Chip (PwrSoC) Market Outlook & Projections, 2019-2027 report has been added to ResearchAndMarkets.coms offering.
Defi*cit (?), n. [Lit., it is wanting, 3d person pres. indic. of L. deficere, cf. F. deficit. See Defect.] Deficiency in amount o...
Phar`ma*colo*gy (?), n. [Gr. drug + -logy: cf. F. pharmacologie.] 1. Knowledge of drugs or medicines; the art of preparing medicin...
(n.) A peculiar affection or condition of the rays of light or heat, in consequence of which they exhibit different properties in different directions.
Rampancy [ RAMPANCY, n. [from rampant.] Excessive growth or practice; excessive prevalence; exuberance; extravagance; as the rampancy of vice. ]
A final briefing from DrugScope highlights the increased complexity and level of continued changing in commissioning drug and alcohol systems.
Per`i*gan`gli*onic (?), a. Anatomy|Anat. Surrounding a ganglion; as, the periganglionic glands of the frog.   © Webster 19...
Webster1913 is entirely correct. Even today, prophylactic is commonly used to mean any medicine that is given to prevent disease. It is also used for o...
We are the official destination for Nike Kayvon Webster Big & Tall Jersey. Make sure youre supporting the Niners Kayvon Webster Jerseys or T-Shirts from our Broncos Store. Unrivaled selection of Elite Limited Game Kayvon Webster Jerseys, Apparel, Gear and Memorabilia For Mens Womens Kids Youth Kayvon Webster Fans. Whatever Kayvon Webster Gear you choose, its all officially licensed and ready to ship.
The village of Webster has historically served as the core of the town of Webster. The commercial section of the village dates back to 1812, when the first two buildings were constructed near the present four corners. One of these buildings was a store and the other a tavern. From this modest beginning, the community and its center began to grow, becoming the commercial, social, and educational center of the town. 1 The history of the village center reflects the changing economy of the community. The village core was originally an agricultural center and distribution point for the town. The junction of Ridge Road and Webster Nine-Mile Point Road, which connected shipping points on the Erie Canal and the New York Central Railroad with a small port on Lake Ontario, was referred to as the Village because of a concentration of population and businesses. The railroad at the north end of the village attracted dried or evaporated apple businesses and small wood-working industries. The Village ...
Contact 2100 Webster Street Care Center at 4155214480. 2100 Webster Street Care Center is located at 2100 Webster Street, San Francisco CA 94115 and is part of the Sutter Health Network.
Find South Webster medical facilities using FSN Hospitals including contact information for rehabs, assisted-living centers, clinics, hospitals and medical centers in South Webster, OH
Kaizen ephedrine is a popular weight loss supplement. But is it effective for burning excess fat & îmbunătăţirea energie? Mai important, is it legal to take?
stock only wrote the gateway and does not have any control over the contents; see the Webster Gateway FAQ, and also the Back-end/database links and credits. ...
The Killing of Randy Webster - Louisiana parents (Hal Holbrook, Dixie Carter) find evidence of a planted gun in the case of their teenage son shot by...
There are many health and medical professionals in Webster, SD offering discounts and coupons on plastic surgery, weight loss, dental exams, and pain management.
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Paul Webster provides some history and context for the evolution of the Eclipse 4 project, and sketches out where it is going with the Eclipse Kepler (4.3) and Luna (4.4) releases in the future.
Connect with Dr. Lee Webster, Ophthalmology, Muskegon, MI. Video chat, send a message, ask a text question, or make a virtual appointment on the doctors Virtual Practice on HealthTap.
Webster University is the only Tier 1, private, non-profit U.S.-based university with a network of international residential campuses.
Visit Healthgrades for information on Dr. Bryan Webster, MD Find Phone & Address information, medical practice history, affiliated hospitals and more.
3517 Webster St, Omaha, NE 68131 - 4 beds, 1 baths, 1,600 sq. ft, Single Family Residence. Get property and neighborhood info and see similar homes for sale. (#193612978)
Shop our Vertigo Losing Perspective Ring from Stephen Websters Mens Collection. Losing all perspective with the 18K yellow gold with black spinel.
Webster HTTP Server - GET Buffer Overflow (Metasploit). CVE-2002-2268. Remote exploit for Windows platform. Tags: Metasploit Framework (MSF)
Hy*pertro*phy (?), n. [Gr. over, beyond + nourishment, fr. to nourish: cf. F. hypertrophie.] Medicine|Med. & Biology|Biol. A c...
As an undergraduate I studied zoology at Bristol University, and found I preferred to write about science than to actually do it. &
Lopata de zapada KST 40 combisistem Gardena disponibil la Raki. Cumpara Lopata de zapada KST 40 combisistem Gardena cu numai 78,97 lei.
A page for describing CharacterDerailment: Live-Action TV. Coronation Street has had several examples: Rosie Webster is currently a superficial ditz who can …
Wu, Xiangyang; Liu, Fang; Wells, Kym L.; Tan, Serena L. J.; Webster, Richard D.; Tan, Howe-Siang; Zhang, Dawei; Xing, Bengang; Yeow, Edwin K. L. ...
Wu, Xiangyang; Liu, Fang; Wells, Kym L.; Tan, Serena L. J.; Webster, Richard D.; Tan, Howe-Siang; Zhang, Dawei; Xing, Bengang; Yeow, Edwin K. L. ...
... TEANECK N.J. May 21 2013 iRea...Alexay elaborated The Emerging companies need timely information abo... They have also remarked that its helpful to benchmark best practices...Pharma ChemOutsourcing is now in its 7 th year and takes pla...,Emerging,Pharma,at,ChemOutsourcing,2013,in,Record,Numbers,for,Upcoming,September,Show,medicine,advanced medical technology,medical laboratory technology,medical device technology,latest medical technology,Health
Looking for online definition of Webster, John in the Medical Dictionary? Webster, John explanation free. What is Webster, John? Meaning of Webster, John medical term. What does Webster, John mean?
Feline Ear Issues in Webster, MA. Animal Hospital of Webster is your local Veterinarian in Webster serving all of your needs. Call us today at 508-943-1704 for an appointment.
Webster LUK Site is an alcohol and drug treatment facility found at 251 Main Street in Webster, Massachusetts. The center uses major approaches to treatment of Individual Alcohol Counseling, Family Focused Therapy, Cognitive-Based Therapy. The center also offers these services in the following settings: Outpatient Rehab. Webster LUK Site also provides clients with several special programs tailored to the specific needs of clients, such as: Court Ordered Outpatient Drug Treatment. Finally, Webster LUK Site also allows the following types of payment: Private Pay, Medicaid Covered Treatment, Private Insurance for Drug Rehab. ...
The Webster Lite 2: 24 Pneumatic Tyre Inner Tube is a part for the Webster Lite 2 SP rear wheel. High quality and durable. Shop today.
Get information, facts, and pictures about Stone & Webster, Inc. at Encyclopedia.com. Make research projects and school reports about Stone & Webster, Inc. easy with credible articles from our FREE, online encyclopedia and dictionary.
MANCHESTER - The woman who drove Myles Webster to the West Side the night Webster is accused of shooting Manchester Police officer Daniel Doherty testified Thursday morning that Webster fired a gun while in her vehicle that day.
Gideon Mwiti Irea lost his life at a Nairobi clinic while awaiting treatment for diabetes complications Source: Standard Digital
id:6780,bid:23377,uid:0,title:Mixed feelings,username:flowerflyby,rating:3,pros:Convenient hours,cons:Staff lack bedside manner,description:This animal hospital has late night and weekend hours making it ideal in case of emergency. It is also less expensive than a pet emergency clinic. I have only taken my animals there during emergencies. The vets were great but the desk staff and techs not so much. Twice however, I have gone in with injured animals that I have simply found and had a more positive experience with the staff, they were actually kind and helpful those times.,date_added:1226559405,date_modified:null,is_external:1,external_site_name:zootoo,external_site_url:null,external_user_profile:null,status:1},{id:6779,bid:23377,uid:0,title:Saved my dog!,username:drkennethnoisewater,rating:5,pros:helpful,cons:none,description:When my dog was very ill the vets at Webster were able to diagnose his illness ...
Kayvon Webster 2018 player profile, game log, season stats, career stats, recent news If you play fantasy sports, get breaking news and immerse yourself in the ultimate fan experience.
Do you wish your relationship with your mother was stronger, or are you looking to establish boundaries with your mother?. Join Ash this week for a unique conversation with Bethany Webster, a writer, speaker, and coach, all about healing your mother wound. Whether you are very close with your mother or are looking to resolve tension in your relationship, Bethany has powerful insight into how to be authentic together and heal any unspoken wounds with your mother.. The unique relationship we have with our moms can be hard to navigate. Bethany and Ash walk through the ways to identify what you want to resolve in your relationship and how your mother wound has impacted other aspects of your life.. Communication with your mother, especially when things are tumultuous, can feel sticky, Bethany offers powerful examples for how to address any problems or discuss emotional topics in a safe way.. Dont forget to stick around for the post episode notes with Ash, you dont want to miss this!. In This ...
This is the New Webster Project, and we sell English words at $1 per letter, so you can redefine it to your own website. Just search, click, and buy it. Secure payment, smooth transaction, and immediate activation upon payment success!. ...
This is the New Webster Project, and we sell English words at $1 per letter, so you can redefine it to your own website. Just search, click, and buy it. Secure payment, smooth transaction, and immediate activation upon payment success!. ...
Dr. Liqiang Wang, MD is a Anatomic & Clinical Pathology Specialist in Webster, TX. Be sure to call ahead with Dr. Wang to book an appointment.
This offers a common websters spanish to english crossword puzzles level 3 stopped for source who Is great assistance and game. He came This is the ideological 6The price as security ( BDB 991, KB 1407, Qal IMPERFECT, cf. Deuteronomy 5:15 does another piece for the light for total crops, even ongoing decades as in Exod. This rhetoric is supported in such random futures, statistically in the sixty-five review of reference. 3:7-4:11 and its M of bar.
Amazon.com: Pan [4K Ultra HD + Blu-ray + Digital HD]: Greg Berlanti, Tim Lewis, Sarah Schechter, Paul Webster, Joe Wright, Hugh Jackman, Garrett Hedlund, Rooney Mara, Levi Miller, Amanda Seyfried, Adeel Akhtar, Taejoo Na, Nonso Anozie, Kathy Burke, Kurt Egyiawan, Lewis MacDougall, Jack Charles, Jason Fuchs: Movies & TV
Webster University offers a semester study program in Leiden that is comprised of two sessions lasting 8 weeks each. Students usually take 2-3...
*****Important 2012 Turkey Trot Update***** We will be capping the race this year at 5272 runners. Make sure you register early to secure your spot. If you b...
Spring Orientation at Webster University Geneva brought new students from all over the world to our campus in Bellevue, Switzerland.
Watered [ WATERED, pp. Overspread or sprinkled with water; made wet; supplied with water; made lustrous by being wet and calendered. ]
August 2017 - April 2021. In this position I worked to foster a mutually beneficial relationship between Webster University and the City of Webster Groves. I also developed and implemented a strategic institutional brand campaign with an advertising budget of more than$70,000 to raise awareness of positive attributes of the University to the community and higher-education industry. I also coordinated the planning and execution of a three-day diversity & inclusion conference, which draws more than1,000 attendees from across the region. ...
Date: May 14, 2016. Length: 5K, 1 Mile Walk. Start Time: 7:00pm. Location: Parkview Lodge, Webster Park - Webster, NY (map). ...
We have decades of experience treating post-intensive care syndrome. Our coordinated, specialized care is designed to meet your specific medical needs.
Emergency Coordinator - Bud Holman (WA4ASJ). Asst. Emergency Coordinator - Willie Thompson (KB5FKG). Public Information Officer - Gary L. Webster (N1PZB). Webmaster - Gary L. Webster (N1PZB). SkyWarn Coordinator - Wayne Burkett (KA1VRF). Asst. SkyWarn Coordinator - Danny Vinson (KK4JMO). ...
Theres no need for the service to take further action. If this service has not had a CQC inspection since it registered with us, our judgement may be based on our assessment of declarations and evidence supplied by the service ...
Dear Kst developers, I have finally found the way to test my cdf plugin that uses an external lib. After some fiddling around with Makefile.am files and the like and looking at the lffio datasource, I managed to add the appropriate kstdata_cdf_la_LIBADD flag somewhere. I could probably not do it again, but at least it runs now :-) Once the thing is ready for commit, someone will have to integrate it properly, but for now it needs more testing... When I select a cdf file in the first step of the datawizard, the understands_cdf function picks it up, and I can see the list of variables in the following page of the wizard. I select the ones Im interested in, and proceed through the last steps. I can then see a progress dialog... before kst crashes ! Using some traces (with cout, probably not the right way but I dont know how to use kdDebug), I found out that the CdfSource::readField method is always called with a starting number of 0 and a number of values to read of -1. I guess thats not the way ...
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed) . ...
Dr Stuart Bloom and Dr George Webster review what is on offer when maximum doses of medical treatment no longer relieve GORD symptoms
Therefore, the strains that were isolated from animals a few decades ago and went through multiple passages in eggs are less ... Parker JC, Whiteman MD, Richter CB (January 1978). "Susceptibility of inbred and outbred mouse strains to Sendai virus and ... All Sendai virus strains belong to the same serotype. The origin of many strains of SeV was described in 1978. Some strains ... Another strain is Tianjin strain, isolated in China in 2008. One of these strains was used for creation of replication ...
... is the tendency of outbred strains to exceed both inbred parents in fitness. Selective breeding of plants and animals, ... But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ... It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous ... Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for recessive alleles that are mildly harmful (or produce a trait that is undesirable from ...
These mice while both from the same 8 founder strains, have distinct differences. The 8 founder strains, combine strains that ... Studies in cells and laboratory animals have shown that EDCs can cause adverse biological effects in animals, and low-level ... For instance, there is a population that is named Multi-parent and can be a Collaborative Cross (CC) or Diversity Outbred (DO ... The CC population consists of 83 inbred mouse strains that over many generations in labs came from the 8 founder strains. These ...
... a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. ... of animals displaying the EEG and behavioral characteristics of absence seizures, derived from an outbred Wistar colony and ... The development of two inbred strains from the same initial colony has appeared as a very powerful tool to study the possible ... These seizures were recorded on both sides of the brain, lasted about 20 sec and occurred when the animals were quiet. ...
... outbred, and nonlinear mice. An article in The Scientist notes, "The difficulties associated with using animal models for human ... Normally, the skin color of the mice from which the host blastocysts are derived is different from that of the strain used to ... Animal Testing Animal model BALB/c C57BL/6 Mouse models of colorectal and intestinal cancer Preclinical imaging Rat Park ... What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press. ISBN 9780195161960. ...
Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ... Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... Wistar as a generic name for inbred strains such as Wistar-Kyoto, developed from the Wistar outbred strains. The Rat Genome ...
Mice without fur are easier for the animal to consume; however, mice with fur may be more convincing as animal feed. These ... However, certain strains have been known to be quite temperamental. Mice and rats have the same organs in the same places, with ... As a general rule, inbred mice tend to have longer gestation periods and smaller litters than outbred and hybrid mice. The ... The most well known strain, the white lab mouse, has more uniform traits that are appropriate to its use in research. The ...
They are an outbred strain that has an intact thymus and standard immune system.[better source needed] Hairless guinea pigs are ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Israeli, Hillary Gorman (11 March 1998). "Lab Animal Lecture". Archived from the ... The hairless strain that it is most likely related to was a spontaneous genetic mutation that was first identified at ... The modern breed of skinny pig originated from a cross between haired guinea pigs and a hairless lab strain. ...
... outbred, and nonlinear mice. Some studies suggests that inadequate published data in animal testing may result in ... inbred mouse strain and the systematic generation of other inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a model ... Animals in space Animal testing Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on rodents Cellular model (numerical), e.g., ... In the U.S., the Animal Welfare Act of 1970 (see also Laboratory Animal Welfare Act) set standards for animal use and care in ...
Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... "Outbred Stocks".. *^ Clause, B. T. (1998). "The Wistar Institute Archives: Rats (Not Mice) and History", Mendel Newsletter ... Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344,[8] Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats ... "Sprague Dawley Outbred Rat". Harlan Laboratories. Retrieved 2012-10-25.. *^ Wallace Hayes A (March 2014). "Editor in Chief of ...
Like NOD mice, biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... and these rats are usually referred to as stocks rather than strains. The Wistar rat is an outbred albino rat. This breed was ... Other common strains are the Sprague Dawley, Fischer 344, Holtzman albino strains, Long-Evans, and Lister black hooded rats. ... Inbred strains are also available, but are not as commonly used as inbred mice. Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has ...
For an outbreed a "huge shaggy dog" was added, which may have possibly been a Tibetan Mastiff. The famous English Mastiff " ... An easygoing animal, the Irish Wolfhound is quiet by nature. Wolfhounds often create a strong bond with their family and can ... at the same time it is confidently believed that there are strains now existing that tracing back, more or less clearly, to the ... Priester; McKay, F. W. (1980). "The Occurrence of Tumors in Domestic Animals". Journal of the National Cancer Institute (54): 1 ...
Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another one in Ottawa, Canada, an outbred strain ... Biobreeding rat also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ... They were originally derived from a Canadian colony of outbred Wistar rats that spontaneously develop hyperglycemia and ...
... strains used in scientific research are primarily outbred strains. Aside from the common American or English stock, ... Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (1995). Nutrient Requirements of Laboratory Animals (4th ed.). National Academies ... the two main outbred strains in laboratory use are the Hartley and Dunkin-Hartley; these English strains are albino, although ... CD-ROM] "tenjiku-nezumi - Meaning in Japanese , 天竺鼠 - Names of Animals in Japanese". animals.japanesewithanime.com. Retrieved ...
"Newly Established Low Seizure Susceptible and Seizure-Prone Inbred Strains of Mongolian Gerbil". Experimental Animals. 52 (2): ... Brekke, Thomas D.; Steele, Katherine A.; Mulley, John F. (February 2018). "Inbred or Outbred? Genetic Diversity in Laboratory ... Eleven of these animals were subsequently sent to Tumblebrook Farm in the USA, with additional animals later sent to Charles ... "Animal Health Center Vets in Valdosta, GA". Animal Health Center Vets in Valdosta, GA. Retrieved 3 June 2018. "Gerbil FAQ". ...
The waterschlager canary strain is conspecific to the domestic canary but has been inbred by humans for its beautiful song. The ... Syrinx (bird anatomy) Bird vocalization Lateralization of brain function Animal communication Bioacoustics Larsen, O.N.; Goller ... outbred domestic canary, however, does not exhibit the strong lateralization of the waterschlager canary. Possibly explaining ... video of a cardinal singing Macaulay Library at the Cornell Lab of Ornithology is the world's largest collection of animal ...
"Primary infections of Dipetalonema viteae in an outbred and five inbred strains of golden hamsters". Journal of Parasitology 64 ... The Indian Journal of Veterinary Science and Animal Husbandry 8: 127-130 Sonin M D 1975 Filariata of animals and man and ... 87-91 M.D. Sonin "Filariata of Animals and man and diseases caused by them, Part 3, Filariidae, Onchocercinae". Fundamentals of ... Filarial infections in man, animals and mosquitoes on the Kenya coast". Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine ...
The use of inbred strains is also important for genetic studies in animal models, for example to distinguish genetic from ... individuals that were inbred showed significantly lower survival rates than outbred individuals during a severe winter weather ... Small animals such as cats and dogs may be sterilized, but in the case of large agricultural animals, such as cattle, culling ... However, in species such as horses, animals in wild or feral conditions often drive off the young of both sexes, thought to be ...
Inbred strains and traditional outbred stocks have not been developed for laboratory zebrafish, and the genetic variability of ... Zebrafish is also an excellent animal model to study congenital muscular dystrophies including CMD Type 1 A (CMD 1A) caused by ... This strain can be adapted to 37 °C warm water and the absence of an immune system makes the use of patient derived xenografts ... The fluorescent strains are tradenamed GloFish; other cultivated varieties include "golden", "sandy", "longfin" and "leopard". ...
Its type strain is CS1T (= ATCC 49179T). It can be pathogenic. Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is by far the best known ... Ferrero RL, Avé P, Radcliff FJ, Labigne A, Huerre MR (July 2000). "Outbred mice with long-term Helicobacter felis infection ... infectious diseases that are caused by pathogen that spread from animals to humans. It is important to diagnose H. felis and ... "Helicobacter felis" at the Encyclopedia of Life Type strain of Helicobacter felis at BacDive - the Bacterial Diversity ...
Laboratory animalsEdit. Systematic inbreeding and maintenance of inbred strains of laboratory mice and rats is of great ... individuals that were inbred showed significantly lower survival rates than outbred individuals during a severe winter weather ... AnimalsEdit. Wild animalsEdit. Few studies have found evidence of regular incest avoidance in mammals but banded mongooses are ... Small animals such as cats and dogs may be sterilized, but in the case of large agricultural animals, such as cattle, culling ...
... use of multiple stocks/strains of animals to obtain an estimate of the range in sensitivities due to genotype, complete ... Multireplicated Dose-Response Studies in Four Inbred Strains and One Outbred Stock of Mice". Toxicological Sciences. 19 (2): ... Joe Holson's research career has spanned a diverse range of test agents using a variety of experimental animal models and human ... Holson, Joseph F.; Desesso, John M.; Jacobson, Catherine F.; Farr, Craig H. (2000-07-01). "Appropriate use of animal models in ...
Selection acts on outbred generations using increased diversity to adapt to the environment. This may result in greater fitness ... Many microorganisms are not easily obtainable as cultured strains in the laboratory, which would allow for identification and ... the study of animal behavior in relation to its ecology and evolutionary history. One behavior that molecular data has helped ...
This is true both of animals and of the races of man. The Berbers of north Africa to-day are racially identical with the ... As such, because of Grant's well-connected and influential friends, he is often used to illustrate the strain of race-based ... by miscegenation and by being outbred by inferior stock taking advantage of the situation. The book passed through multiple ... As a conservationist, Grant is credited with the saving of many different species of animals, founding many different ...
The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity, and mouse strains with ... Guerin, J (2004). "Emerging area of aging research: long-lived animals with "negligible senescence"". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1019 (1 ... to have evaluated with respect to their effects on lifespan and age-related biomarkers in outbred mice.[168] Previous age- ... Evidence in both animals and humans suggests that resveratrol may be a caloric restriction mimetic.[157] ...
The studied mouse strains with decreased GH signalling showed between 20% and 68% increased longevity, and mouse strains with ... The oldest animals known so far are 15,000-year-old Antarctic sponges, which can reproduce both sexually and clonally. Clonal ... to have evaluated with respect to their effects on lifespan and age-related biomarkers in outbred mice. Previous age-related ... Evidence in both animals and humans suggests that resveratrol may be a caloric restriction mimetic. As of 2015[update], ...
The animals were not merely illustrated out of an interest in the natural world. Each was imbued with meanings and acted as a ... Härke has posited a scenario in which the Anglo-Saxons, in expanding westward, outbred the Britons, eventually reaching a point ... putting the country and its leadership under strains as severe as they were long sustained. Raids began on a relatively small ... Some animals, such as lions or peacocks, would have been known in England only through descriptions in texts or through images ...
... conceived as a platform for the integration of phenotype data collected on a defined collection of 40 inbred mouse strains--the ... Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred data resources in the Mouse Phenome Database Mamm Genome. 2015 Oct;26(9-10):511-20. ... Advances in the development of mouse populations lead to an expanded role of the Mouse Phenome Database to encompass new strain ... panels and inbred strain crosses. The recent introduction of the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred mice, which share an ...
CDR outbred strain; timed pregnant females obtained from Charles River, Wilmington, MA]. The animals were killed by cervical ... For the present study, cells were classified as type II hair cells if they lackedg K,L and were from animals P7 or older. In ...
... derived from an eight-way cross of inbred strains. These tests either evoke unlearned (black-white box, BWB-; novel-cage ... Animals, Outbred Strains * Anxiety / genetics * Anxiety / physiopathology* * Association Learning / physiology * Avoidance ... derived from an eight-way cross of inbred strains. These tests either evoke unlearned (black-white box, BWB-; novel-cage ...
Animals. Animals, Outbred Strains. Behavior, Animal / physiology*. Cognition. Exploratory Behavior / physiology*. Genetics, ... As in our previous work, we used the degree of rearing activity in a novel open field to assign male adult outbred Wistar rats ...
Inbred Strains of Mice: SWV. SWV Inbr (Bc) 73. Albino: A,c, plus unknown dilution gene. Origin: Outbred animals from Defense ... INBRED STRAINS OF MICE. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing. MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,. University of ... Animal Depot, Univ. Brit. Columbia. Inbreeding started in 1959. Develops nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with a progressive and ... Hackman R. M. and Hurley L. S. (1983) Interaction of dietary zinc, genetic strain, and acetazolamide in teratogenesis in mice. ...
... the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has b... ... The species, strain, and breed of the animal and individual ... Animal Environment, Housing, and Management: A respected resource for decades, ... Outbred animals are widely used in biomedical research. Founding populations should be large enough to ensure the long-term ... Noise produced by animals and animal care activities is inherent in the operation of an animal facility (Pfaff and Stecker 1976 ...
Strain:. other: Crl:WI(Han) (outbred, SPF-Quality). Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. Untreated, ... Strain:. other: Crl:WI(Han) (outbred, SPF-Quality). Details on species / strain selection:. Untreated, nulliparous, non- ... Animals fasted: Yes for F0, o/n (with a maximum of 24h). - How many animals: all F0 animals; 2 pups per litter of F1. - ... Animals fasted: Yes for F0,, o/n (with a maximum of 24h). - How many animals: all F0 animals; 2 pups per litter of F1. - ...
US/Japan meetings on laboratory animal science have been held virtually every year since 1980 under the US/Japan Cooperative Pr ... Concept for Establishment of Rat Outbred Global Standard Strains 65-76 * Necessity of Genetic and Microbiologic Quality Network ... The support and sponsorship of NCRR (P40 RR 11611) in the United States and the Central Institute for Experimental Animals in ... Genetic Evaluation of Outbred Rats from the Breeders Perspective 51-64 * ...
Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a popular vertebrate model organism largely deployed using outbred laboratory animals. The non- ... Genome of Zebrafish Wild-type Strain(ASWT) Abstract:. ... Genome of Zebrafish Wild-type Strain(ASWT). *Zebrafish ...
Details on test animals or test system and environmental conditions:. TEST ANIMALS. - Strain: Crl:WI(Han) (outbred, SPF-Quality ... of animals per sex per dose:. 5. Control animals:. yes, concurrent vehicle. Dose descriptor:. NOAEL. Effect level:. 1 000 mg/kg ... of animals per sex per dose:. 22 females. Control animals:. yes, concurrent vehicle. Details on study design:. - Dose selection ... Strain:. Wistar. Sex:. male/female. Route of administration:. oral: gavage. Vehicle:. other: PEG 400. Details on mating ...
RML mice represent an outbred strain that has been maintained at RML since 1937. Mice were tested for infection by serology, ... Experimental Mouse-Tick Infectious Cycle. All animal experiments were performed in accordance with the guidelines of the ... Bacterial Strains and Growth Conditions. B. burgdorferi B31-A3 is an infectious clone that was derived from B31 MI (12). It ... Mice infected with B31-A3 and ospC7/ospC +4 strains mounted typical and similar immune responses to OspC, P39 [used as a marker ...
Strain:. Sprague-Dawley. Details on test animals and environmental conditions:. Test System. Species: Sprague-Dawley CD ( ... outbred, SPF-quality). Rationale: Specified by the international guidelines as a recommended test system. Source: Charles River ... The animals were housed in groups of 3 animals prior to the pairing and afterwards the animals were housed individually in ... of animals per sex per dose:. 30 pregnant females per dose group.. Control animals:. yes, concurrent vehicle. Details on study ...
Charles Rivers portfolio includes inbred and outbred nude mice. They are particularly useful for tumor studies, due to their ... Charles River immunodeficient animal models are produced in flexible-film and semi-rigid isolators. This approach provides the ... These strains give insight into multiple forms of immune deficiencies. Charles River offers multiple immunodeficient mice, such ... Our portfolio includes inbred and outbred athymic nude mice.. Charles River maintains five different live nude mouse model ...
Partial-body exposure and the use of outbred strains of animals should also be considered; these simulate a more realistic ... Pilot studies in the selected species and strain are highly encouraged. Due to FDA Animal Rule requirements for testing of MCMs ... The FDA Animal Rule (9) was used for the approval of filgrastim (Neupogen, 2015; Amgen®, Thousand Oaks, CA),2 pegfilgrastim ( ... To assess the efficacy of a GF/cytokine, the chosen animal model must be appropriate for the proposed mechanism of action. ...
Animals. The mice used in this study were derived from Charles River Laboratories outbred CD-1 strain. All animals were ... Femaledb animals of this strain were obese and hyperinsulinemic, but only slightly hyperglycemic, in contrast to the sustained ... TheLepr db-NCSU mutation exhibits sexual dimorphism in the CD-1 outbred strain, produces a phenotype in CD-1 females unlike ... This sexual dimorphism is not present in the C57BLKS/J strain, with obese animals of both sexes being hyperglycemic with ...
... animals, insects and plants. Here, we demonstrate that highly virulent Mycoplasma mycoides subspecies capri (Mmc) can be fully ... In vitro characterization showed that this mutant was similar to its parental strain in terms of its doubling time, even though ... In vitro characterization showed that this mutant was similar to its parental strain in terms of its doubling time, even though ... A novel in vivo challenge model in goats revealed that the wild-type parental strain caused marked necrotizing inflammation at ...
The genetic background of the transgenic HD rat is derived from the Sprague Dawley strain (outbred). A 12 h light/dark cycle ... On each session, the same random order was used for all the animals. For half of the animals in each group (transgenic and wild ... Electrophysiological assessment of prefrontostriatal synaptic function in transgenic animals. Animals and surgery.. This series ... Although a trend for a slight delay in learning the task was observed in the transgenic animals compared with the wt animals, ...
... is the tendency of outbred strains to exceed both inbred parents in fitness. ... Major histocompatibility complex in animals[edit]. One example of where particular genes may be important in vertebrate animals ... But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ... It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous ...
... than replicates from outbred animals (such as macaque and human; rs = 0.68 to 0.77, P , 0.0001; fig. S2C). Within each species ... ORs expressed at different levels in inbred strains of mice have greater numbers of single-nucleotide polymorphism upstream of ... WOM samples originated from animals that were humanely euthanized because of noninfection related animal welfare reasons (e.g ... Brown Norway rat (R. norvegicus). Ten-week-old male (n = 3) animals were maintained in accordance with the U.K. Home Office ...
Wildtype animals were of the outbred Ekkwill (EK) strain. Mutant and transgenic stocks of nacrew2, csf1r, kitb5 mutant and ... We are grateful to D. Parichy for probes and mutant strains; J. Rawls for discussions; J. Burris and A. Eastes for animal care ... P.W.K. analyzed pigmentation during regeneration in wild-type and transgenic animals. D.H. generated transgenic animals. K.D.P ... B,C) Wild-type and hsp70:v-ras animals were given a daily 36°C HS for 5 days following amputation. Active Ras hyperpigments ...
The present paper evaluates the inclusion of a standard strain or outbred stock in multi-strain behavioral phenotyping ... As potential standards, the F344 inbred strain and an outbred stock of Long Evans were tested with three other inbred strains. ... McClearn, G. E. 1997Heterogeneous reference populations in animal model research in agingILAR J.38119123Google Scholar ... The present paper evaluates the inclusion of a standard strain or outbred stock in multi-strain behavioral phenotyping ...
Cui, S., Chesson, C. & Hope, R. Genetic variation within and between strains of outbred Swiss mice. Lab. Animals 27, 116-123 ( ... STR. D32. 2. y STR/1. D33. 2. y STS. D83. 2. y STU. A38. 2. y STUD. D76. 10. ? STX/Le. B138. 2. ? SUMS. D29. 2. ? SWJ. A4. 2. ... Table 1 - Key to the Chart of Strain Genealogies. Strain. Diagram reference. Reference. Extant 101. B8. 2. y 102. B9. 2. y ... Kluge, R., Meyer, J. & Rapp, K.G. Genetic characterization of the mouse strains of the Institute for Animal Breeding of the ...
Virulence model of pulmonary aspergillosis.Outbred male mice (strain CD1, 20 to 28 g; Charles Rivers Breeders) were used for ... Virulence tests in the model using cortisone-treated animals did not, however, reveal any attenuation in virulence for a prtTΔ ... Strains, media, and growth conditions.For general cloning procedures the bacterial strain Escherichia coli DH5α was used (56), ... Δ deletion strain and the reconstituted strain when grown in the presence of BSA and peptone reveals the almost-complete ...
... identical strain; 20-28 mo) were from the National Institute on Aging animal colonies. All animals were fed Purina rodent chow ... Rats (Fischer 344, virgin male, outbred albino) (3-5 mo) were obtained from Simonsen Laboratories (Gilroy, CA). Old rats ( ... All animals were acclimatized at the Northwest Animal Facilities at the University of California at Berkeley for at least 1 ... Results show that ALCAR+LA significantly improved ambulatory activity in young and old animals. For the young animals, the ...
Animal models of impaired sensorimotor gating, as assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, have demonstrated clear ... I. Apomorphine effects on startle gating in albino and hooded outbred rat strains and their F1 and N2 progeny. ... For animal models to remain relevant in the search for schizophrenia therapeutics, they will need to focus less on what is ... Animal models of impaired sensorimotor gating, as assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, have demonstrated clear ...
... of animals, some of them with anti-DNA specificity. Furthermore, all animals treated with heavy metals developed toxic ... To accomplish our goal, the animals were treated with the following ionic metals: HgCl,sub,2,/sub,, CuSO,sub,4,/sub,, AgNO,sub, ... we observed in this particular strain high sensitivity to heavy metals injuries; therefore, this animal model was used to ... also lower doses of mercuric chloride administrated to outbreed Wistar rats resulted in renal toxicity [7]. We used inbred Long ...
Epe and colleagues infected four inbred strains of mice and one outbred strain and reported the presence of Toxocara larvae in ... 1999). New animal model for human ocular toxocariasis: ophthalmoscopic observation. Br. J. Ophthalmol. 83, 967-972. ... 1) Variability in parasite burden between outbred and inbred strains and within a range of inbred strains. The difficulty in ... BALB/c mice were selected as the susceptible strain and NIH mice were deemed to be resistant. The choice of strains was ...
Until now, most laboratory mouse strains were inbred or outbred from a small group of founder animals. Thus, mapping complex ... Vertebrate Animals. The committee will evaluate the involvement of live vertebrate animals as part of the scientific assessment ... strains, ages, sex, and total number to be used; (2) justifications for the use of animals versus alternative models and for ... inter-strain susceptibility to toxicity for many exposures may likely be due to strain-specific epigenetic events in response ...
Two inbred mouse strains may prove useful for studying the interaction between maternal care and mood disorders. BALB/c (BALB) ... mice are considered an anxious strain in comparison to C57BL/6 (B6) mice in behavioral models of anxiety. These strain ... These strain differences are most often attributed to genetics but may also be due to environment and gene by environment ... BALB/c (BALB) mice are considered an anxious strain in comparison to C57BL/6 (B6) mice in behavioral models of anxiety. ...
Therefore, the strains that were isolated from animals a few decades ago and went through multiple passages in eggs are less ... Parker JC, Whiteman MD, Richter CB (January 1978). "Susceptibility of inbred and outbred mouse strains to Sendai virus and ... All Sendai virus strains belong to the same serotype. The origin of many strains of SeV was described in 1978. Some strains ... Another strain is Tianjin strain, isolated in China in 2008. One of these strains was used for creation of replication ...
  • The recent introduction of the Collaborative Cross and Diversity Outbred mice, which share an extensive pool of genetic variation from eight founder inbred strains, presents new opportunities and challenges for community data resources. (nih.gov)
  • We have identified a new, spontaneous mutation resulting in obesity and diabetes in a colony of CD-1 outbred mice, Mus musculus domesticus . (physiology.org)
  • Well characterized in the late 1960s and early 1970s, mice with ob and db mutations are obese and often diabetic depending on diet and strain background ( 13 , 14 , 18 ). (physiology.org)
  • Leptin normally holds NPY levels in check, and mice with an effective lack of leptin may lack the inhibitory regulation present in normal animals. (physiology.org)
  • Nude mice were the first immunocompromised mouse strain to be used in cancer research. (criver.com)
  • Our portfolio includes inbred and outbred athymic nude mice. (criver.com)
  • Treatment of both strains with exogenous IFN before and during viral infection led to an increase in survival time in C57BL/6 mice, but all animals of both strains ultimately succumb to SeV caused disease. (wikipedia.org)
  • The inclusion of a 'standard strain or stock' in phenotyping protocols involving multiple inbred strains or lines of rats, mice and flies has obvious advantages by providing a reference point for inter-laboratory comparisons. (springer.com)
  • The mice are maintained as an outbred stock. (taconic.com)
  • Toxocara larval burdens vary between individual outbred mice receiving the same inocula, suggesting a role for immunity in the establishment of cerebral infection. (biologists.org)
  • Differential cytokine expression and other brain injury-associated biomarkers have been observed in infected versus uninfected outbred and inbred mice. (biologists.org)
  • Mice provide a useful, replicable animal model with significant applicability and ease of manipulation. (biologists.org)
  • BALB/c (BALB) mice are considered an anxious strain in comparison to C57BL/6 (B6) mice in behavioral models of anxiety. (frontiersin.org)
  • There is lack of consensus over what range of animals is encompassed by the term mouse (plural mice ). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • In all but the most restrictive use of the term (genus Mus ), the main distinction between mice and rats is a matter of size, with relatively smaller animals, perhaps 12 centimeters (5 inches) or less, considered as mice and similarly looking animals that are larger designated as rats. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • However, the order Rodentia (phylum Chordata ) contains over 2,000 species and about 30 families (Myers 2000), many of which contain some animals that may be referred to as mice. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Narrower definitions variously recognize mice as small, rat-like animals within the Muridae family, or within the Muridae and Cricetidae families, or within these two families and additional rodent families. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When these mice are used in conjunction with a Cre recombinase-expressing strain, successful Cre-mediated excision results in the constitutive expression of the Smo/EYFP fusion gene (monitored by using EYFP-specific fluorescence protocols) and unrestrained Hedgehog signaling in Cre-expressing tissues. (jax.org)
  • The resulting chimeric animals were bred to C57BL/6 and outbred Swiss Webster mice. (jax.org)
  • Vaccination of mice with deF1 DNA conferred protection against subcutaneous infection with the virulent Y. pestis Kimberley53 strain, even at challenge amounts as high as 4,000 50% lethal doses. (asm.org)
  • The therapeutic effect of sodium stibogluconate, amphotericin B, and metronidazole was studied in an experimental Leishmania tropica infection in outbred white mice inoculated 28, 14, or 0 days previously in the nose and foot pad. (ajtmh.org)
  • In mice infected 2 weeks earlier, and especially in animals infected when treatment was started, sodium stibogluconate and amphotericin B prevented or delayed development of lesions during or after the period of treatment. (ajtmh.org)
  • Results of treatment with sodium stibogluconate in BALB/c mice were similar to those observed with the outbred mice. (ajtmh.org)
  • Two different strains of mice (AKR and NMRI-IVIC) were inoculated intraperitoneally with the virulent Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi , and then treated with the lysosomotropic ethidium bromide-DNA complex, according to several different treatment schedules. (ajtmh.org)
  • Resultant mice were originally crossed with outbred ICR or CD1 animals, then backcrossed to C57BL/6. (jax.org)
  • There are a wide variety of animal models used in drug discovery including, but not limited to Drosophila, C. elegans , mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, cats and non-human primates. (taconic.com)
  • For these reasons and others 95% of all animal studies use mice. (taconic.com)
  • 38% of all mice used in drug discovery are outbred mice, produced from the mating of unrelated individual mice. (taconic.com)
  • Even with influenza strains that are highly pathogenic in humans and lethal to mice and ferrets at relatively low doses, guinea pigs might exhibit at most only mild listlessness. (guinealynx.info)
  • The type I lineage has been shown to exclusively contain those strains of T. gondii that are acutely virulent in laboratory mice ( 43 , 49 ). (asm.org)
  • The lethal dose of type I strains in outbred mice is estimated to be a single organism based on limiting dilution studies, whereas types II and III have 50% lethal dose that are ∼4 logs higher than this. (asm.org)
  • Finally, we report on the construction of the first T. vivax recombinant strain that stably expresses a foreign gene that maintains its infectivity in immunocompetent mice. (plos.org)
  • Furthermore, newborn animal models, including mice and hamsters 17 , are also not ideal for studying human SFTSV pathogenesis as the majority of human patients with severe symptoms and increased mortality were more than 50 years of age 19 . (nature.com)
  • All serotype 1a isolates were further examined for acriflavine resistance and their genotypes to discriminate them from the attenuated live vaccine strain, defined as serotype 1a, which is resistant to 0.02% acriflavine and which shows low levels of pathogenicity in mice. (asm.org)
  • Specific lesion was induced by inoculation of pathogenic borreliae into footpad of outbred ddY mice. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Publications] Toshiyuki Masuzawa: 'Experimental Borrelia burgdorferi infection of outbred mice' Journal of Clinical Microbiology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The method exploits the high level of historical recombination present in a heterogeneous stock (HS), an outbred population of mice derived from known founder strains. (genetics.org)
  • For example, by breeding congenic mice derived from a cross of the two inbred strains used to detect the QTL, recombination can be used to reduce the size of the chromosomal region containing the QTL. (genetics.org)
  • The DO mice, on the other hand, are being maintained as an outbred stock. (jax.org)
  • Combinations of genetic loci that are discovered in the DO mice can be replicated in CC strains or in their reproducible F1 progeny. (jax.org)
  • Eight- to twelve-week-old female outbred mice (ICR strain) were obtained from Harlan Sprague Dawley (Indianapolis, Ind. (asm.org)
  • Earlier immunogenetic studies using inbred, congenic, mutant, knockout, and transgenic mice demonstrated definitively that the L d gene confers protection against T. gondii parasite burden in the brain and against encephalitis following peroral infection with encysted bradyzoites of the Me49 strain of T. gondii ( 3 , 4 , 5 , 6 , 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • The above-mentioned in vitro studies all examined the response of splenic effector cells derived from mice immunized with a temperature-sensitive mutant of the non-cyst-forming RH strain of T. gondii and expanded these effectors using cells infected with UV- or gamma-irradiated attenuated RH tachyzoites. (jimmunol.org)
  • DBA 2J mice, in which secondary glaucoma develops, displayed a slower decay of fluorescence at 18 months of age than age-matched unaffected animals. (arvojournals.org)
  • After footpad inoculation of outbred mice and many inbred strains, such as BALB/c, ECTV rapidly spreads through the regional LNs to the blood to reach the liver and spleen. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Charles River's inbred mice are bred under the IGS program to help minimize subline divergence due to genetic drift and prevent genetic contamination by mismatings with other strains. (criver.com)
  • Breeding outbred mice can be challenging. (criver.com)
  • Outbred mice need to maintain diversity at the level of the individual while standardizing multiple production colonies that are geographically separated so that each colony has the same range of genetic variation. (criver.com)
  • Hybrid mice are created by crossing two inbred strains. (criver.com)
  • This crossbreeding produces hybrid mice that are more resistant to sickness, have increased survival rate under stress, live longer, and have larger litters than the parental strains. (criver.com)
  • Genetically altered mice are rodents in which specific genes have been modified to create models of human and animal diseases. (criver.com)
  • Progenitor cell proliferation rates in mice were strain-dependent. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A transgenic animal model of obesity and diabetes, the db/db mice made by a point mutation of leptin receptor gene also showed anxietylike behaviour [ 13 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Now, in a study published July 4, 2016 in Nature Genetics , Palmer's team used 1,200 outbred mice, which are more similar to a natural population, to test a new cost-effective technique to search for specific genes linked with 66 different physical and behavioral traits. (eurekalert.org)
  • These strain differences are most often attributed to genetics but may also be due to environment and gene by environment interactions. (frontiersin.org)
  • Characterization of these two mouse inbred strains over the course of pregnancy and in the postpartum period for behavioral and neuroendocrine changes may provide useful information by which to inform human studies, leading to advances in our understanding of the etiology of anxiety and depression and the role of genetics and the environment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Charles River stocks and strains are managed under the International Genetic Standardization (IGS) program, a unique program designed to manage the health and genetics of outbred and inbred strains on a global basis, ensuring that researchers worldwide have access to standardized models, regardless of the production location. (criver.com)
  • But progress hasn't been so great in animal genetics. (eurekalert.org)
  • Certain combinations of alleles that can be obtained by crossing two inbred strains are advantageous in the heterozygote . (wikipedia.org)
  • One solution may be to use outbred rather than inbred crosses, such as a genetically heterogeneous stock (HS) derived from eight inbred strains and outbred for a number of generations prior to the experiment ( M c C learn and M eredith 1970 ). (genetics.org)
  • The Diversity Outbred (DO) is a heterogeneous stock derived from the same eight founder strains as the Collaborative Cross (CC) inbred strains: A/J, C57BL/6J, 129S1/SvImJ, NOD/ShiLtJ, NZO/HlLtJ, CAST/EiJ, PWK/PhJ, and WSB/EiJ. (jax.org)
  • The C57BL/6 (B6) and 129 mouse strains, known as naturally resistant to mousepox, also become infected but are able to control spread to and replication in the liver by rapidly mounting effective innate and adaptive immune responses that, together, control the virus ( Esteban and Buller, 2005 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Expert advice might be sought for special requirements associated with the experiment or animal subject (for example, hazardous-agent use, behavioral studies, and immunocompromised animals, farm animals, and nontraditional laboratory species). (nap.edu)
  • Furthermore, the present study provides the first behavioral and electrophysiological evidence of a presymptomatic alteration of prefrontostriatal processing in an animal model for Huntington disease and suggests that supra-second timing may be the earliest cognitive dysfunction in HD. (jneurosci.org)
  • The present paper evaluates the inclusion of a standard strain or outbred stock in multi-strain behavioral phenotyping protocols to perform the same role as the external standard in biochemical assay procedures. (springer.com)
  • The rat represents an important animal model that, in many respects, is superior to the mouse for dissecting behavioral, cardiovascular and other physiological pathologies relevant to humans. (plos.org)
  • For more than a century the rat has been an important animal model, which is superior in many respects to the mouse, for example for behavioral, cardiovascular and other physiological studies. (plos.org)
  • The laboratory rat thrives in captivity, and its domestication has produced many inbred and outbred lines that are used for different purposes, including medical trials and behavioral studies. (elifesciences.org)
  • We have extensively characterized the two strains and found divergent behavioral profiles for cocaine-related behaviors including initial locomotor sensitivity to cocaine. (easychair.org)
  • An animal model to study behavioral, neuroendocrine, and genetic concomitants of trait anxiety including psychopathology should represent a good approximation to score symptoms of anxiety disorders and possibly comorbid depression ( 4 - 6 ). (mcponline.org)
  • 2003 ) provided evidence, by irradiation of the hippocampus, that hippocampal neurogenesis is required to achieve the behavioral effects of antidepressants in animal models. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Anxiety-related behaviors were evaluated across various tests in a large sample (n=787, both sexes) of genetically heterogeneous (N/Nih-HS) rats, derived from an eight-way cross of inbred strains. (nih.gov)
  • Within each lineage, all strains are thought to be genetically identical except for random mutations that have occurred since their recent origin. (asm.org)
  • A drawback of the DO is that each animal is genetically unique and thus not reproducible. (jax.org)
  • Research into the role of microbiota in health and disease has increased during the past decade due to the development of genetically engineered mutant animal models. (criver.com)
  • Mycoplasmas are the smallest free-living organisms and cause a number of economically important diseases affecting humans, animals, insects, and plants. (frontiersin.org)
  • It typically infects rodents and it is not pathogenic for humans or domestic animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • SeV has several features that are important in a vector for a successful vaccine: the virus does not integrate into the host genome, it does not undergo genetic recombination, it replicates only in the cytoplasm without DNA intermediates or a nuclear phase and it is not causing any disease in humans or domestic animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • There are no scientific studies, which were performed using modern detection methods, which would identify SeV as an infectious and decease causative for humans or domestic animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Autoimmunity induced by metallic ions was previously described in experimental animals and humans suffering from chronic intoxication by heavy metals. (hindawi.com)
  • Referring to any procedure or experiment where, from start to finish, no whole animals, cells, or samples have been used in the methodology -using strictly humans or alternatives means. (frame.org.uk)
  • Animals used in experiments to represent either humans or other animals (e.g. rats with high blood pressure may be used to try to learn more about the condition in humans). (frame.org.uk)
  • F1 is an extremely immunogenic protein in both animals and humans. (asm.org)
  • The use of animal models in research resulted in the advancement of knowledge for how diseases affect animals and humans. (taconic.com)
  • The effect is demonstrated in more than one animal species expected to react with a response predictive for humans, unless the effect is demonstrated in a single animal species that represents a sufficiently well-characterized animal model for predicting the response in humans. (taconic.com)
  • The animal study endpoint is clearly related to the desired benefit in humans, generally the enhancement of survival or prevention of major morbidity. (taconic.com)
  • The data or information on the kinetics and pharmacodynamics of the product or other relevant data or information, in animals and humans, allows selection of an effective dose in humans. (taconic.com)
  • In Australia, Murray Valley encephalitis virus (MVEV) and West Nile virus (WNV) Kunjin (KUN) strain are the main etiologic agents of arboviral encephalitis in humans, which usually occurs as isolated sporadic cases or occasional small outbreaks, mainly in northwestern Australia and rarely in southern regions ( Figure 1 , panel A) ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Data from uncontrolled studies on out bred animals (i.e., humans) must be compared to those obtained from controlled studies on defined strains. (springer.com)
  • The present study investigated the diagnostic potential of two Mycobacterium tuberculosis -specific antigens (ESAT-6 and CFP10) in experimental animals as well as during natural infection in humans and cattle. (asm.org)
  • The AIDS epidemic and the appearance of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis have contributed to the resurgence of TB in humans. (asm.org)
  • Validated invasive and noninvasive methods can provide this complementary information in eyes of many experimental animals and humans, but application of many of these techniques to the mouse is limited by the small size of the eye. (arvojournals.org)
  • Collectively, the results from expression studies in humans and preclinical studies in animals support the hypothesis that COX-2 plays an important role in TCC development and progression (21) . (aacrjournals.org)
  • A novel in vivo challenge model in goats revealed that the wild-type parental strain caused marked necrotizing inflammation at the site of inoculation, septicemia and all animals reached endpoint criteria within 6 days after experimental infection. (frontiersin.org)
  • citation needed] Inbred and outbred mouse and rat strains have very different susceptibility to Sendai virus infection. (wikipedia.org)
  • Visualization of SeV infection in live animals demonstrates this difference. (wikipedia.org)
  • We will review the pathogenesis of Junín virus in various animal models and the role of innate and adaptive immunity during infection. (mdpi.com)
  • Known distribution of West Nile virus infection and disease caused by Kunjin strain (A) and distribution of encephalitis cases among equids (B), New South Wales, Australia, 2011. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, the development of an animal model that mimics severe/fatal human SFTS is crucial for understanding the pathogenesis of SFTSV and host immune response to its infection to facilitate the development of medical countermeasures, including vaccines and therapeutics. (nature.com)
  • In this study, we examined the susceptibilities of four different inbred mouse strains and an outbred ferret model ( Mustela putorius furo ) to SFTSV infection, with separate studies for young adult and aged animals, to establish an animal model of this disease. (nature.com)
  • A second strain of L. monocytogenes (CM [serotype 1/2b]) exhibited little ability to cause systemic infection following i.g. inoculation and was not significantly enhanced by administration of sodium bicarbonate. (asm.org)
  • It is noteworthy that the L d gene has only been demonstrated to mediate resistance to the cyst-forming Me49 strain of T. gondii and has never been shown to play any role during infection with the RH strain of T. gondii . (jimmunol.org)
  • As in our previous work, we used the degree of rearing activity in a novel open field to assign male adult outbred Wistar rats into those with high versus low rearing activity (HRA/LRA rats). (biomedsearch.com)
  • An a prenatal developmental toxicity study performed according to OECD TG 414 mated female Wistar rats were assigned to four dose groups, each containing twenty-two animals. (europa.eu)
  • also lower doses of mercuric chloride administrated to outbreed Wistar rats resulted in renal toxicity [ 7 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The succesfully paired animals replaced non-pregnant rats of the 1st delivery in group 2 and 3. (europa.eu)
  • Results from the heterozygous animals mostly fell between wild-type and homozygous transgenic rats. (jneurosci.org)
  • Fujita, O., Annen, Y., Kitaoka, A. 1994 Tsukuba High- and Low-Emotional strains of rats (Rattus norvegicus): an overview Behav. (springer.com)
  • moreover, the improvement was significantly greater ( P = 0.03) in old versus young animals and also greater when compared with old rats fed ALCAR or LA alone. (pnas.org)
  • Derivation of induced pluripotent stem cells from rats (riPS) opens the opportunity for gene targeting in specific rat strains, as well as for the development of new protocols for the treatment of different degenerative diseases. (plos.org)
  • Resuming studies of wild rats would give the opportunity to not only 'refresh' genetic lines and create new highly specialized strains, but also document the many changes that have taken place in wild populations since most laboratory lines were first obtained. (elifesciences.org)
  • The inbred Fisher 344 and Brown Norway rats were more metabolically sensitive to the diet changes than outbred Sprague Dawley strain. (cdc.gov)
  • 6 - 8 Preferential use of rats in pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic studies emphasizes the importance of calcium monitoring in tissues of this model animal. (asnjournals.org)
  • The Mouse Phenome Database was originally conceived as a platform for the integration of phenotype data collected on a defined collection of 40 inbred mouse strains--the "phenome panel. (nih.gov)
  • Advances in the development of mouse populations lead to an expanded role of the Mouse Phenome Database to encompass new strain panels and inbred strain crosses. (nih.gov)
  • The Mouse Phenome Database provides a framework for retrieval, integration, analysis, and display of these data, enabling them to be evaluated in the context of existing data from standard inbred strains. (nih.gov)
  • Here we report the identification and phenotypic characterization of a new spontaneous mutation of the db gene, Lepr db-NCSU , in an outbred CD-1 mouse. (physiology.org)
  • Most strikingly, the deletant strain is not attenuated in virulence when tested in a leukopenic mouse model, which makes a strong case for reconsidering any impact of secreted proteases in pulmonary aspergillosis. (asm.org)
  • Until now, most laboratory mouse strains were inbred or outbred from a small group of founder animals. (nih.gov)
  • Two inbred mouse strains may prove useful for studying the interaction between maternal care and mood disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • The remainder of this article will assume the more narrow, scientifically restricted definition of a mouse as being any animal within the genus Mus , unless otherwise stated. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • For example, the Oxford English Dictionary (Simpson and Weiner 1989) and the Concise Encyclopedia Britannica Online (2007) asserts that any small animal in the family Muridae is a mouse. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • When used in conjunction with a Cre recombinase-expressing strain, successful Cre-mediated excision results in the constitutive expression of mouse smoothened homolog (Drosophila) and unrestrained Hedgehog signaling in Cre-expressing tissues. (jax.org)
  • For example, when crossed to a strain expressing tamoxifen inducible Cre recombinase in developing embryos (see Stock No. 004453 ), in neural progenitor cells (see Stock No. 007684 ), in cells that received positive hedgehog signalling (see Stock No. 007913 ), or in cells that express Shh (see Stock No. 005623 ), this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of tumorigenic potential in the hedgehog pathway. (jax.org)
  • When bred to a strain expressing Cre recombinase in the central nervous system(see Stock No. 004600 for example), this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of progenitor cell involvement in the development of medulloblastomas. (jax.org)
  • When bred to a strain expressing Cre recombinase in midbrain/dorsal spinal cord (see Stock No. 007807 or 009107 for example), this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of craniofacial development. (jax.org)
  • When bred to a strain expressing Cre recombinase in oligodendrycytes (see Stock No. 011103 for example), this mutant mouse strain may be useful in studies of oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelination. (jax.org)
  • This response was not limited to specific mouse strains or to the mode of DNA administration, though gene gun-mediated vaccination was by far more effective than intramuscular needle injection. (asm.org)
  • This mouse model for certain strains of Leishmania may be useful for experimental therapy studies. (ajtmh.org)
  • Finally, we discuss the pros and cons of genetic variation induced by mutagens compared to that found in existing mouse strains and lines. (nervenet.org)
  • This conditional transgenic strain expresses Cre/Esr1 from the mouse Pdx1 promoter. (jax.org)
  • When using the Pdx1-CreER mouse strain in a publication, please cite the originating article(s) and include JAX stock #024968 in your Materials and Methods section. (jax.org)
  • This mouse papillomavirus provides, for the first time, the opportunity to study papillomavirus infections in the context of a small common laboratory animal for which abundant reagents are available and for which many strains exist. (mdpi.com)
  • Specifically, we discuss viral pathogenesis in cutaneous and mucosal tissues as well as in different mouse strains, immune responses to the virus, and local host-restricted factors that may be involved in MmuPV1 infections and associated disease progression. (mdpi.com)
  • Over the years, a number of rodent papillomaviruses have been isolated, cloned and sequenced but none of them infected laboratory mouse strains [ 2 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • This led to the mouse being used as the sole animal model for ES-cell based gene targeting techniques and for the establishment of tissue replacement therapies. (plos.org)
  • When grafted beneath the renal capsule of athymic mouse hosts, all of the tumor-derived cell strains consistently formed tumors. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies in mouse models for WNV pathogenesis showed that WNV NSW2011 is substantially more neuroinvasive than the prototype WNV KUN strain. (cdc.gov)
  • To analyze this strain of WNV KUN , we conducted genomic sequencing, antigenic profiling, in vitro growth kinetics, and mouse virulence studies on virus isolates from diseased animals and mosquitoes. (cdc.gov)
  • Next generation sequencing (NGS) data was generated for MLVs from two wild caught Mus musculus domesticus (from mainland France and Corsica) and for inbred laboratory mouse strains C3H, LP/J and SJL. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different MLVs are able to infect different hosts, i.e., they have different host specificity: xenotropic MLV ( Xmv ) elements have a broad host range but are unable to infect laboratory mouse host strains, while polytropic MLV elements have a more restricted host range but are able to infect house mouse strains [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Mouse Trap: Can One Lab Animal Cure Every Disease? (slate.com)
  • Our laboratory is using a relatively new eight-way recombinant inbred mouse population, the Collaborative Cross (CC), which offers increased genetic and phenotypic diversity over traditional inbred mouse strains. (easychair.org)
  • We detected strong transmission ratio distortion in the Diversity Outbred (DO) mouse population on chromosome 2, caused by meiotic drive favoring transmission of the WSB/EiJ allele at the R2d2 locus. (g3journal.org)
  • Multi-parent populations (MPPs) such as the Diversity Outbred (DO) mouse population provide high mapping precision due to the accumulation of recombination events across multiple breeding generations. (g3journal.org)
  • The other protein that exhibited a qualitative difference of unknown nature between the two mouse strains is enolase phosphatase. (mcponline.org)
  • Mouse models have been successfully used to validate drug targets, and to determine efficacious and safe dosage levels for human and animal treatments. (criver.com)
  • When animals were treated 48 hours after intraperitoneal inoculation with three intraperitoneal doses of EB-DNA no parasitemia was detected, even after 11 weeks, confirming previous results. (ajtmh.org)
  • Intradermal inoculation of lepromatous patients with the C-44 vaccine strain of ICRC resulted in lepromin conversion from negativity to positivity in 57.7% and 91% of lepromatous leprosy (LL) and borderline lepromatous (BL) patients respectively. (scirp.org)
  • Principal component analysis revealed that the influence of diet caused a greater variation in significantly changing metabolites than that of age for the Brown Norway and Fisher 344 strains, whereas diet had the greatest influence in the Sprague Dawley strain only at the 4-week time point. (cdc.gov)
  • Multi-parent populations (MPPs) capture and maintain the genetic diversity from multiple inbred founder strains to provide a resource for high-resolution genetic mapping through the accumulation of recombination events over many generations. (g3journal.org)
  • The researchers mated the transgenic worms with wild-type animals and selected for offspring that still expressed high levels of sir2. (the-scientist.com)
  • Numerous inbred and outbred rat strains are used in different fields of research, and transgenic technologies are well developed in this species. (plos.org)
  • Because diabetic symptoms vary greatly among strains, other genes seem to play important interacting roles as well. (physiology.org)
  • Cross protection was not found among strains having different antigens of Osp A and B. Furthermore, Borrelia strains corresponding to endemic area are necessary for vaccine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This raised the possibility that either the L d gene effector function is only important in resistance against certain strains of T. gondii or, alternatively, that the L d gene exerts its effect during cyst formation. (jimmunol.org)
  • There was no immunocytochemically detectable expression of androgen (AR), α-estrogen (ERα), or progesterone (PR) receptors by the parental BPH-1 cell line or by any of the tumor-derived cell strains. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The use of bioluminescence imaging to demonstrate proper establishment of tumor grafts and criteria for random segregation of animals into study groups are also discussed. (jove.com)
  • Two chimeric peptide vaccines, MVF HER-2 316-339 and MVF HER-2 485-503 induced high levels of Abs in outbred rabbits, which inhibited tumor cell growth. (jimmunol.org)
  • Animals should be housed with a goal of maximizing species-specific behaviors and minimizing stress-induced behaviors. (nap.edu)
  • The environment in which animals are maintained should be appropriate to the species, its life history, and its intended use. (nap.edu)
  • Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanosoma congolense are the main parasite species responsible for Animal African Trypanosomosis (AAT) or Nagana . (plos.org)
  • The proteins generated significant excitement when earlier studies showed they could increase lifespan in several animal species, but several groups' inability to repeat the results raised doubts about the finding. (the-scientist.com)
  • Taken together, the studies created a compelling story: cutting calories activates a sirtuin pathway, which extends lifespan in many animal species. (the-scientist.com)
  • These results highlight, for the first time, the rational design, construction and complete attenuation of a Mycoplasma strain via synthetic genomics tools. (frontiersin.org)
  • Historical recombination turns each HS chromosome into a fine-grained mosaic of the founder strain haplotypes. (genetics.org)
  • Second, the HS can be used only to fine map QTL that segregate in crosses between the eight founder strains. (genetics.org)
  • The distorted region harbors thousands of polymorphisms derived from the seven non-WSB founder strains and many of these would be lost if the sweep was allowed to continue. (g3journal.org)
  • Zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a popular vertebrate model organism largely deployed using outbred laboratory animals. (google.com)
  • In contrast to the paucity of data on paratenic hosts in the wild, a substantial body of literature has been published on experimental infections of Toxocara in a range of laboratory animals. (biologists.org)
  • Prostate cancer is a slowly developing disease of aging men and dogs and has an extremely low incidence of spontaneous occurrence in laboratory animals. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The animal studies were conducted in accordance with the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals of the Government of Bavaria. (mcponline.org)
  • The increasing prevalence of these diseases in the human population makes the genetic and phenotypic characterizations of these mutant animals a leading area of interest in the biomedical community. (physiology.org)
  • These findings illustrate that dramatic phenotypic changes can arise in laboratory strains, emphasizing the need for comparison with recent clinical isolates. (asm.org)
  • These cell strains, which are all derived from a common nontumorigenic progenitor, represent a useful resource for examining genetic and phenotypic changes during carcinogenesis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • We identified two CC strains that are phenotypic outliers novelty-induced locomotion - a trait previously shown to predict addiction-related behaviors. (easychair.org)
  • Charles River maintains a global portfolio of high quality immunodeficient animal models with varying levels of immunodeficiency and phenotypic characteristics. (criver.com)
  • The same phenotype-dependent difference was also found in red blood cells with normal and cross-mated animals showing intermediate expression profiles of glyoxalase-I. Another protein that showed a different mobility during two-dimensional gel electrophoresis was identified as enolase phosphatase. (mcponline.org)
  • The technique of selective bidirectional breeding enhances the representation of genetic material associated with a particular trait shifting the animals' phenotype bidirectionally from the strain mean ( 13 ). (mcponline.org)
  • We are utilizing a unique rat population: the N/NIH heterogeneous stock (HS), which is derived from 8 deeply sequenced inbred rat strains and has been maintained as an outbred population for more than 80 generations. (easychair.org)
  • IT is relatively straightforward to map quantitative trait loci (QTL) that segregate in crosses between two inbred strains, but identifying the responsible molecular variant is very taxing, largely because of the difficulties of resolving loci into intervals small enough to identify genes ( F lint and M ott 2001 ). (genetics.org)
  • That's because researchers have mostly been using crosses between inbred strains, making it impossible to pinpoint specific genomic regions or individual genes associated with a trait. (eurekalert.org)
  • In our analysis of NGS-generated data, we overcome these challenges by using a clustering approach to determine the distribution of MLVs in two wild-caught and three inbred laboratory strains of M. musculus . (biomedcentral.com)
  • Eight hundred Erysipelothrix strains isolated between 1992 and 2002 from swine with erysipelas in Japan were serotyped. (asm.org)
  • As described previously ( 2 ) we used over 250 animals from more than 25 litters of the outbred Swiss CD1 strain (Charles River, Sulzfeld, Germany) as a starting point for selective and bidirectional breeding for anxiety-related behavior on the EPM at the age of 7 weeks. (mcponline.org)
  • The pursuit and use of experimental methods that refrain from and/or replace the use of animals as test subjects. (frame.org.uk)
  • Comparison of different passages of the RH strain that have been propagated differently over the intervening time period revealed that the commonly used clonal line called RH-ERP was not representative of natural isolates of the type I lineage. (asm.org)
  • Of the serotype 1a isolates, 64.6% were acriflavine resistant, with 98.4% of these acriflavine-resistant strains having been isolated from animals with chronic arthritis. (asm.org)
  • It was active against ceftazidime-susceptible strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and against Enterobacteriaceae except Proteus vulgaris and some isolates producing extended-spectrum β-lactamases. (asm.org)
  • Except for some standard strains (American Type Culture Collection strains), the isolates used in the in vitro experiments were clinical isolates obtained from various, mainly European, Japanese, and American, hospitals over a 10-year period, except MRS, for which fresh clinical isolates from 1996 were employed. (asm.org)
  • The animal toxicity studies recommended in this chapter are designed to determine whether a test food ingredient has early developmental effects that may increase the incidence of cancers and/or chronic disease outcomes (e.g., altered glucose tolerance, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disorders) when administered in regularly repeated oral doses for the duration of the study in the test animals. (fda.gov)
  • The incidence of acriflavine-resistant strains of the distinctive RAPD type 1-2 was markedly higher than that of the other RAPD types and serotypes. (asm.org)
  • Although the incidence of strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus epidermidis (MRSE), and other MRS varies from country to country and from hospital to hospital ( 3 , 5 ), it has been steadily increasing worldwide in the last decade ( 10 , 18 , 19 ). (asm.org)
  • T. gondii infects a wide range of warm-blooded animals and, while not part of the natural transmission, human infections can lead to severe disease in immunocompromised individuals ( 19 ). (asm.org)
  • L d -restricted killing is critically dependent on the strain of T. gondii and is observed with all the derivatives of type II strains tested, but not with a type I strain. (jimmunol.org)
  • This model provided an impetus for community data sharing, and integration was readily achieved through the reproducible genotypes of the phenome panel strains. (nih.gov)
  • The NMRI outbred model was developed by Lynch et al. (taconic.com)
  • We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. (medsci.org)
  • Though they (and all guinea pigs) are naturally susceptible, "The main drawback of the guinea pig model for influenza research is the lack of disease signs exhibited by infected animals. (guinealynx.info)
  • This is owing to the lack of an animal model that displays a similar clinical manifestation pattern and high mortality in response to this virus. (nature.com)
  • This animal model was useful in research for developingvaccine. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Animal model of human disease: acrodermatitis enteropathica, zinc malabsorption. (springer.com)
  • Which Animal Model is Right for Your Study? (criver.com)
  • The Charles River Animal Model Evaluation Program allows you to assess the quality and compatibility of our animal models before making a commitment. (criver.com)
  • This is a system that could be used to discover genes associated with any complex trait a researcher is interested in, in any animal model," Palmer said. (eurekalert.org)
  • This theory is buttressed by the observation that caloric restriction, the only known regimen to increase mean life span in animals, maintains mitochondrial function and lowers oxidant production ( 7 , 8 , 10 - 12 ). (pnas.org)
  • Outbred breeding maintains genetic diversity. (taconic.com)
  • At a later symptomatic age, animals were impaired in their temporal discriminative behavior. (jneurosci.org)
  • Henderson, N. D. 1980 Effects of early experience upon the behavior of animals: the second twenty-five years of research Simmel, E. C. eds. (springer.com)
  • Metabolic syndrome animals spontaneously developed anxiety-like behavior. (ijpsonline.com)
  • This tamoxifen-inducible Pdx1 -Cre/Esr1 strain may be used to create conditional pancreatic cell knockouts when crossed with strains carrying floxed alleles. (jax.org)
  • By randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis, almost all the acriflavine-resistant serotype 1a strains showed the 253-bp band characteristic of vaccine strains and were easily discriminated from all 113 strains of acriflavine-sensitive serotype 1a strains from animals with acute and subacute swine erysipelas. (asm.org)
  • L. monocytogenes strain EGD (serotype 1/2a) has been previously used and reported on by our laboratory ( 3 , 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Strain CM (serotype 1/2b), which was obtained from the culture collection of the Food Research Institute (Madison, Wis. (asm.org)
  • Deletion of the F1 gene does not abolish virulence but leads to a delay in onset of the disease in animal models. (asm.org)
  • It has been suggested that the virulence of type I strains may be due to continuous laboratory passage ( 12 ). (asm.org)
  • In WNV NSW2011 , this apparent increase in virulence over that of the prototype strain correlated with at least 2 known markers of WNV virulence that are not found in WNV KUN . (cdc.gov)
  • Additional studies are needed to determine the relationship of the WNV NSW2011 strain to currently and previously circulating WNV KUN strains and to confirm the cause of the increased virulence of this emerging WNV strain. (cdc.gov)
  • As potential standards, the F344 inbred strain and an outbred stock of Long Evans were tested with three other inbred strains. (springer.com)
  • In vitro characterization showed that this mutant was similar to its parental strain in terms of its doubling time, even though 10% of the genome content were removed. (frontiersin.org)
  • QTL detection is performed by a standard genome scan with ~100 markers and fine mapping by typing the same animals using densely spaced markers over those candidate regions detected by the scan. (genetics.org)
  • Origin: Outbred animals from Defense Research Bd. (jax.org)
  • Studies of animal stress show that it stimulates the development of cancers of viral origin and exacerbates their growth, while inhibiting the development and progression of chemically induced cancers. (cancernetwork.com)
  • Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for recessive alleles that are mildly harmful (or produce a trait that is undesirable from the standpoint of the breeder). (wikipedia.org)
  • These strains give insight into multiple forms of immune deficiencies. (criver.com)
  • Furthermore, all animals treated with heavy metals developed toxic glomerulonephritis with immune complex deposition along the mesangium and membranes. (hindawi.com)
  • As examples, this strain may be useful in studies of tumorigenic potential in the hedgehog pathway, progenitor cell involvement in the development of medulloblastomas, craniofacial development, thalamic development, and of oligodendrocyte maturation and CNS myelination when used in combination with specific cre-expressing strains. (jax.org)
  • Even so, other preclinical studies of mammary carcinogenic models failed to see any effect of metformin when the animals were fed a low fat diet and exhibited no metabolic dysfunction ( 10, 11 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Trypanosoma vivax is one of the most common parasites responsible for animal trypanosomosis, and although this disease is widespread in Africa and Latin America, very few studies have been conducted on the parasite's biology. (plos.org)
  • I began to realize that the 'control' animals used for research studies throughout the world are couch potatoes," he tells me. (slate.com)
  • In particular several studies have shown that manipulating animals to expend more or less energy generate the expected effects on lifespan (particularly when the subjects are ectotherms). (biologists.org)
  • Epithelial cells isolated from these tumors were established as cell strains in culture. (aacrjournals.org)
  • These were predominantly poorly or moderately differentiated squamous or adenosquamous tumors, similar in organization to the primary tumors from which the cell strains were derived. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The manifestation of anxiety in a number of psychiatric disorders such as generalized anxiety disorder, depression, panic attacks, phobias, obsessive-compulsive disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder ( 3 ) highlights the importance of gaining a better understanding of associated reliable biomarkers in proper animal models. (mcponline.org)
  • The corticosterone level in metabolic syndrome and anxiety-induced animals were higher than controls. (ijpsonline.com)
  • Obesity, induced by carbohydrate diet followed by induction of stress may promote the development of anxiety-like behaviour compared to animals on normal diet [ 12 ]. (ijpsonline.com)
  • It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous at many loci. (wikipedia.org)
  • We performed genetic mapping in a F2 intercross population derived from the CC strain with low cocaine locomotor activation and identified three significant quantitative trait loci (QTL). (easychair.org)
  • By contrast, for a similar QTL detection experiment in an F 2 cross, markers spaced every 20 cM and genotyped on a few hundred animals will suffice. (genetics.org)
  • Bacterial Strains and Growth Conditions. (pnas.org)
  • Bacterial strains. (asm.org)
  • The RH-ERP variant also showed enhanced extracellular survival, faster growth, and decreased differentiation compared to the prototype type I strain GT1. (asm.org)
  • Charles River immunodeficient animal models are produced in flexible-film and semi-rigid isolators . (criver.com)
  • The establishment and characterization of a series of cell strains derived from the nontumorigenic BPH-1 human prostatic epithelial cell line is described. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Any in vivo or in vitro research conducted on non-human animals or their cells and/or tissues. (frame.org.uk)
  • The cell strains continued to express both basal- and luminal-type cytokeratins in vivo . (aacrjournals.org)
  • The BPH1 CAFTD strains formed colonies in soft agar, whereas the parental BPH-1 cells and the BPH1 TETD sublines did not. (aacrjournals.org)
  • The virus is infectious for many cancer cell lines (see below), has oncolytic properties demonstrated in animal models and in naturally-occurring cancers in animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal Models of Deficient Sensorimotor Gating in Schizophrenia: Are They Still Relevant? (springer.com)
  • Animal models of impaired sensorimotor gating, as assessed by prepulse inhibition (PPI) of startle, have demonstrated clear validity at face, predictive, and construct levels for schizophrenia therapeutics, neurophysiological endophenotypes, and potential causative insults for this group of disorders. (springer.com)
  • For animal models to remain relevant in the search for schizophrenia therapeutics, they will need to focus less on what is valid and focus more on what is useful. (springer.com)
  • We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. (medsci.org)
  • We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. (medsci.org)
  • We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. (medsci.org)
  • Early identification of drugs that will fail testing in higher level animal models or clinical trials, lowers the over-all cost of drug development. (taconic.com)
  • The FDA relies on data generated from animal models to assess efficacy and safety of new drug entities. (taconic.com)
  • Animal models have provided significant mechanistic insights into both physiology and disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Less clear is the value of animal models as part of the preclinical development of new treatments for disease. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The use of animal models such as Drosophila melanogaster and Caenorhabditis elegans has provided considerable advancement in understanding Egf receptor functions in development and physiology [ 4 - 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • One such mAb, 4D5 or its humanized counterpart, herceptin, directed against the extracellular domain of HER-2 has been used to treat HER-2-associated cancers effectively in both animal models and cancer patients ( 10 , 11 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Proper housing and management of animal facilities are essential to animal well-being, to the quality of research data and teaching or testing programs in which animals are used, and to the health and safety of personnel. (nap.edu)
  • The following sections discuss some considerations of the physical environment related to common research animals. (nap.edu)
  • Specified how and where animals can be used for scientific research and testing, and also required that scientists using animals provided yearly reports for the British Government. (frame.org.uk)
  • Therefore, systematic reviews and meta-analyses of animal-based research are poor tools for attempting to reach conclusions regarding human interventions. (medsci.org)
  • The Foundation for Biomedical Research website has a table listing the animals behind top drugs and a comprehensive summary of how animal testing and research has advanced human health. (taconic.com)
  • The use of animals in biomedical research dates back to approximately the 6th-5th century BC with more prominent references in the writings of Aristotle, Diocles, Praxagoras in the 4th century BC and Erasistratus and Herophilus in the 4th-3rd century BC 1 . (taconic.com)
  • The guinea pig most commonly used for influenza virus research is the outbred Hartley strain. (guinealynx.info)
  • At the National Institute on Aging, as at every major research center, the animals are grouped in plastic cages the size of large shoeboxes, topped with a wire lid and a food hopper that's never empty of pellets. (slate.com)
  • Indian Cancer Research Centre (ICRC) bacillus strain (C-44), a candidate vaccine against leprosy is cultured in vitro in Dubos medium enriched with amino acids and human serum. (scirp.org)
  • This is in contrast to the mutant strain, which caused no clinical signs nor pathomorphological lesions. (frontiersin.org)