Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Neonatology: A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Erythroblastosis, Fetal: A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn: Abnormal increase in RESPIRATORY RATE in the newborn. It is self-limiting and attributed to the delayed fetal lung fluid clearance often in CAESAREAN SECTION delivery.Infant, Premature, DiseasesFetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal: Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Congenital Hypothyroidism: A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding: Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Kangaroo-Mother Care Method: A method of continuously holding a partially wrapped baby to the chest, involving skin-to-skin contact. Originally it was a method of caring for LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANT in developing countries and is now more widespread in developed nations. Aside from encouraging breast feeding, the extra sleep that the infant gets assists in regulating body temperature, helps the baby conserve energy, and redirects calorie expenditures toward growth and weight gain.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Fat Necrosis: A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Ductus Arteriosus: A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.Syphilis, Congenital: Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Kernicterus: A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)Milk, HumanOxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Toxoplasmosis, Congenital: Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Neonatal Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Umbilicus: The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Mandatory Testing: Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Skin Care: Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: A condition caused by inhalation of MECONIUM into the LUNG of FETUS or NEWBORN, usually due to vigorous respiratory movements during difficult PARTURITION or respiratory system abnormalities. Meconium aspirate may block small airways leading to difficulties in PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE and ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Rh-Hr Blood-Group System: Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Dentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Galactosemias: A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Mice, Inbred C57BLStreptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.NepalCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.BrazilFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sclerema Neonatorum: A severe, sometimes fatal, disorder of adipose tissue occurring chiefly in preterm or debilitated infants suffering from an underlying illness and manifested by a diffuse, nonpitting induration of the affected tissue. The skin becomes cold, yellowish, mottled, and inflexible.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sweat: The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Vernix Caseosa: An unctuous substance composed of sebum and desquamated epithelial cells, which covers the skin of the fetus.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Hearing Loss, Bilateral: Partial hearing loss in both ears.Abnormalities, MultipleHead: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Intestinal Atresia: Congenital obliteration of the lumen of the intestine, with the ILEUM involved in 50% of the cases and the JEJUNUM and DUODENUM following in frequency. It is the most frequent cause of INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION in NEWBORNS. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)HLA-DRB3 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over 50 allelic variants. The HLA-DRB3 beta-chain subtype is associated with HLA-DR52 serological subtype.Ophthalmia Neonatorum: Acute conjunctival inflammation in the newborn, usually caused by maternal gonococcal infection. The causative agent is NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Hexachlorophene: A chlorinated bisphenol antiseptic with a bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive organisms, but much less effective against Gram-negative organisms. It is mainly used in soaps and creams and is an ingredient of various preparations used for skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)HLA-DRB4 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that is associated with the HLA-DR53 serological subtype.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.IndiaAmniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

The role of colorstrum on the occurrence of immunoglobulin G subclasses and antibody production in neonatal goats. (1/22591)

Quantitative determinations of IgG1 and IgG2, in one group of colostrum-fed and one group of colostrum-deprived neonatal goats revealed that the occurrence of the IgG1 subclass preceeded that of the IgG2 in both cases. In the colostrum-fed animals the IgG2 appeared, on an average, in the fourth week of life whereas in the colostrum-deprived animals the IgG2 was detected as early as three weeks after birth. At the age of twelve weeks the mean concentrations for IgG, and IgG2 were higher in the animals deprived of colostrum. The immune response to human gamma globulin was studied in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal goats which were immunized at birth and again after four and eight weeks. Following the first two antigen administrations a significantly higher response was obtained in the colostrum-fed neonates. However, the third injection determined a similar response in both groups. A marked suppressive effect on the immune response was observed in colostrum-fed neonatal goats when specific antibodies were present in the colostrum after preimmunization of the mothers with human gamma globulin.  (+info)

Values of three coagulation screening tests of precolostral calves. (2/22591)

Prothrombin times, partial thromboplastin times and platelet counts were performed to determine normal values and to screen for coagulation defects of precolostral calves. The precolostral calves were in two groups: one group of a few calves was tested two years before the second larger group. The results for both groups were similar. The tests were performed on postcolostral calves and on mature cows to compare their values with those of precolostral calves. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the first group were 18.8 seconds and 54.8 seconds respectively. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the second group were 18.8 seconds and 50.8 seconds respectively. The mean platelet count was 422,400/cmm for the first group and 482,800/cmm for the second group.  (+info)

Perinatal nephropathies. (3/22591)

The purpose of this paper is to review the development of the mammalian kidney and to assess the influence that various perinatal manipulations may have on the developmental process either morphologically or functionally. Immature kidneys in general have less functional capacity than adult kidneys and a low rate of glomerular filtration, perhaps related to renal blood flow, which appears to limit the disposition of a fluid or solute load. Tubular reabsorption is also limited leading to the urinary loss of glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate and phosphate. Although the relatively low function of the immature kidney is a normal part of development, its capacity to respond under conditions of stress may be less adequate than in adults. An additional concern is that a variety of perinatal manipulations, such as the incidental or accidental ingestion of a chemical, may lead to varying degrees of altered morphogenesis or functional development of the kidney. Chemical induced renal anomalies may be of several types, but in typical teratology experiments hydronephrosis may be the most frequent observation. The functional consequences of these renal malformations may be lethal or inconsequential or while an animal may be able to survive and develop normally in the presence of a renal malformation, it is possible that a stressful situation would unmask a functional malformation which could compromise survival. Thus, some renal abnormalities may be subtle enough to go unnoticed without experimental tests. Without such tests it is impossible to evaluate the effect of functional alterations on successful adaptation.  (+info)

VEGF is required for growth and survival in neonatal mice. (4/22591)

We employed two independent approaches to inactivate the angiogenic protein VEGF in newborn mice: inducible, Cre-loxP- mediated gene targeting, or administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, a soluble VEGF receptor chimeric protein. Partial inhibition of VEGF achieved by inducible gene targeting resulted in increased mortality, stunted body growth and impaired organ development, most notably of the liver. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, which achieves a higher degree of VEGF inhibition, resulted in nearly complete growth arrest and lethality. Ultrastructural analysis documented alterations in endothelial and other cell types. Histological and biochemical changes consistent with liver and renal failure were observed. Endothelial cells isolated from the liver of mFlt(1-3)-IgG-treated neonates demonstrated an increased apoptotic index, indicating that VEGF is required not only for proliferation but also for survival of endothelial cells. However, such treatment resulted in less significant alterations as the animal matured, and the dependence on VEGF was eventually lost some time after the fourth postnatal week. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG to juvenile mice failed to induce apoptosis in liver endothelial cells. Thus, VEGF is essential for growth and survival in early postnatal life. However, in the fully developed animal, VEGF is likely to be involved primarily in active angiogenesis processes such as corpus luteum development.  (+info)

Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris. (5/22591)

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

C/EBPalpha regulates generation of C/EBPbeta isoforms through activation of specific proteolytic cleavage. (6/22591)

C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are intronless genes that can produce several N-terminally truncated isoforms through the process of alternative translation initiation at downstream AUG codons. C/EBPbeta has been reported to produce four isoforms: full-length 38-kDa C/EBPbeta, 35-kDa LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein), 21-kDa LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein), and a 14-kDa isoform. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms are generated in the liver and in cultured cells. Using an in vitro translation system, we found that LIP can be generated by two mechanisms: alternative translation and a novel mechanism-specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. Studies of mice in which the C/EBPalpha gene had been deleted (C/EBPalpha-/-) showed that the regulation of C/EBPbeta proteolysis is dependent on C/EBPalpha. The induction of C/EBPalpha in cultured cells leads to induced cleavage of C/EBPbeta to generate the LIP isoform. We characterized the cleavage activity in mouse liver extracts and found that the proteolytic cleavage activity is specific to prenatal and newborn livers, is sensitive to chymostatin, and is completely abolished in C/EBPalpha-/- animals. The lack of cleavage activity in the livers of C/EBPalpha-/- mice correlates with the decreased levels of LIP in the livers of these animals. Analysis of LIP production during liver regeneration showed that, in this system, the transient induction of LIP is dependent on the third AUG codon and most likely involves translational control. We propose that there are two mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms might be generated in the liver and in cultured cells: one that is determined by translation and a second that involves C/EBPalpha-dependent, specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. The latter mechanism implicates C/EBPalpha in the regulation of posttranslational generation of the dominant negative C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP.  (+info)

Postnatal growth failure, short life span, and early onset of cellular senescence and subsequent immortalization in mice lacking the xeroderma pigmentosum group G gene. (7/22591)

The xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XP-G) gene (XPG) encodes a structure-specific DNA endonuclease that functions in nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP-G patients show various symptoms, ranging from mild cutaneous abnormalities to severe dermatological impairments. In some cases, patients exhibit growth failure and life-shortening and neurological dysfunctions, which are characteristics of Cockayne syndrome (CS). The known XPG protein function as the 3' nuclease in NER, however, cannot explain the development of CS in certain XP-G patients. To gain an insight into the functions of the XPG protein, we have generated and examined mice lacking xpg (the mouse counterpart of the human XPG gene) alleles. The xpg-deficient mice exhibited postnatal growth failure and underwent premature death. Since XPA-deficient mice, which are totally defective in NER, do not show such symptoms, our data indicate that XPG performs an additional function(s) besides its role in NER. Our in vitro studies showed that primary embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the xpg-deficient mice underwent premature senescence and exhibited the early onset of immortalization and accumulation of p53.  (+info)

Thyroid hormone effects on Krox-24 transcription in the post-natal mouse brain are developmentally regulated but are not correlated with mitosis. (8/22591)

Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1) is an immediate-early gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor. As Krox-24 is expressed in brain areas showing post-natal neurogenesis during a thyroid hormone (T3)-sensitive period, we followed T3 effects on Krox-24 expression in newborn mice. We analysed whether regulation was associated with changes in mitotic activity in the subventricular zone and the cerebellum. In vivo T3-dependent Krox-24 transcription was studied by polyethylenimine-based gene transfer. T3 increased transcription from the Krox-24 promoter in both areas studied at post-natal day 2, but was without effect at day 6. An intact thyroid hormone response element (TRE) in the Krox-24 promoter was necessary for these inductions. These stage-dependent effects were also seen in endogenous Krox-24 mRNA levels: activation at day 2 and no effect at day 6. Moreover, similar results were obtained by examining beta-galactosidase expression in heterozygous mice in which one allele of the Krox-24 gene was disrupted with an inframe Lac-Z insertion. However, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation showed mitosis to continue through to day 6. We conclude first, that T3 activates Krox-24 transcription during early post-natal mitosis but that this effect is extinguished as development proceeds and second, loss of T3-dependent Krox-24 expression is not correlated with loss of mitotic activity.  (+info)

*Greater mouse-deer

Newborn animals are well-developed and immediately able to stand; they are fully active after 30 minutes. The young stand on ... They are rather trusting but delicate animals. They feed on fallen fruits, aquatic plants, buds, leaves, shrubs and grasses. ...

*FurReal Friends

Models of newborn animals are frequently manufactured by the company. "FurReal Cat popular for the 2002 holiday season" FurReal ... FurReal is noted for its animatronic replications of creatures and domestic animals as an alternative to live pets, or ...

*Akabane virus

Malformation of the joints, brain, spine and jaw are common in affected newborn animals. Abortion may also occur if damage to ... Akabane virus does not, as far as is known, cause any overt sign of disease, in either young or adult animals. Its effect is on ... It has been shown that animals that have been infected with Akabane virus are found mostly in those parts of Australia which ... If these cattle have not previously been infected (often the younger animals) then it can be expected that the disease will ...

*Indian pangolin

The newborn animals have open eyes, and soft scales with protruding hairs between them. The mother pangolin carries her young ... The animal can be found in grasslands and secondary forests, and is well adapted to desert regions as it is believed to have a ... Longevity of this animal in captivity can exceed 19 years.[citation needed] These pangolins are not often observed in the wild ... During the animal's mating period, females and males may share the same burrow and show some diurnal activities. Males have ...

*Newborn calf (hieroglyph)

The hieroglyph represents any newborn animal, and specifically the calf as the hieroglyph. In Egyptian hieroglyphs, the ... Budge's vocabulary dictionary for the Book of the Dead has about thirty entries that start with newborn calf, "iu". They relate ... The Newborn calf (hieroglyph) is Gardiner's sign listed no. E9, in the series of mammals. ... Newborn...Ka Note: On the Palermo Stone all the hieroglyphs face in the other direction (Gardiner signs are only facing left, ...

*Inca Empire

The Inca called newborn infants wawa, a term that they also used for newborn animals. This term was used for all newborn beings ... They lacked animals to ride and draft animals that could pull wagons and plows... [They] lacked the knowledge of iron and steel ... They wrapped tight cloth straps around the heads of newborns to shape their soft skulls into a more conical form, thus ... Their armor included:[citation needed] Helmets made of wood, copper, bronze, cane, or animal skin; some were adorned with ...

*Desiccant

... s are used in different kinds of livestock farming to dry newborn animals, such as piglets. The use of a good ... However, some desiccants have a very high pH-level, which can be harmful for an animal's skin.[citation needed] Desiccants are ... desiccant can help them dry quicker and save energy, which can be crucial for the animal's development. Another use is to ...

*Heptachlor

Higher doses of Heptachlor when exposed to newborn animals caused decrease in body weight and death. The U.S. EPA MCL for ... Animals exposed to Heptachlor epoxide during gestation and infancy are found to have changes in nervous system and immune ... thus it tends to accumulate in the body fat of humans and animals. Heptachlor epoxide is more likely to be found in the ...

*Colostrum

The newborn animal must receive colostrum within 6 hours of being born for maximal absorption of colostral antibodies to occur ... Colostrum is crucial for newborn farm animals. They receive no passive transfer of immunity via the placenta before birth, so ... Newborns have very immature and small digestive systems, and colostrum delivers its nutrients in a very concentrated low-volume ... Weaver, L. T., Wadd, N., Taylor, C. E., Greenwell, J. and Toms, G. L. (June 1991). "The ontogeny of serum IgA in the newborn". ...

*Surili

Newborn animals are white colored and have a black strip at the back, although some have a cross-shaped mark. By one year the ... They live in groups of up to 21 animals (average 10 or fewer animals in most species) consisting of a male, several females, ...

*King vulture

Principally a carrion eater, there are isolated reports of it killing and eating injured animals, newborn calves and small ... 3613 (1). doi:10.11646/zootaxa.3613.1.3. Day, David (1981): The Doomsday Book of Animals: Ebury, London/Viking, New York. ISBN ... Ormiston, D. "Sarcoramphus papa". Animal Diversity Web. Retrieved 11 September 2007. de Roy, Tui (1998). "King of the Jungle". ... Tozzer, Alfred Marston; Glover Morrill Allen (1910). Animal Figures in the Maya Codices. Harvard University. "King Vulture". ...

*Red imported fire ants in Australia

According to the Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, fire ants kill farm animals and crops, with newborn ... Pets and domestic animals can also be stung and injured, and may have allergic reactions or be blinded by exposure to venom. ... Fire ants also invade the food and water supplies of animals and deter them from feeding and drinking, leading to starvation ... Fire ants are very aggressive and feed voraciously on ground dwelling animals, such as insects, frogs, reptiles, birds and ...

*Jerusalem Biblical Zoo

... letting the animals multiply and sending family members to other zoos is unwise, according to veterinarians. Newborn animals ... Through its Aharon Shulov Fund for the Study of Animals in Captivity, it also provides grants for research on animal welfare ... There is also an animal-themed jungle gym for children and a sculpture garden containing 23 phantasmagorical animal sculptures ... and a quarantine unit where incoming animals and zoo animals being sent to other zoos are tested for diseases. This medical ...

*Foot-and-mouth disease

... especially in newborn animals. Some infected ruminants remain asymptomatic carriers, but they nonetheless carry FMDV and may be ... The same strain was used at the nearby Institute for Animal Health and Merial Animal Health Ltd at Pirbright, 2.5 miles (4.0 km ... The FMD virus can be transmitted in a number of ways, including close-contact animal-to-animal spread, long-distance aerosol ... despite this being a frequently nonfatal disease for adult animals (2-5% mortality), though young animals can have a high ...

*American black bear

When initially emerging from hibernation, they will seek to feed on carrion from winter-killed animals and newborn ungulates. ... However, animal rights activism over the last decade has slowed the harvest of these animals; therefore the lard from black ... Wolf packs typically kill black bears when the large animals are in their hibernation cycle. There is at least one record of a ... Although black bears do not often engage in active predation of other large animals for much of the year, the species will ...

*National Zoological Gardens of Sri Lanka

The number of introduced and newborn animal species changes with the time due to death, animal exchanges with other zoos and ... Its sprawling areas are host to a variety of animals and birds. The zoo exhibits animals but also places an emphasis on animal ... Ongoing animal breeding program is helpful for increasing the population of some animal species in the zoo and it also ... Every year the zoo exchanges some of its animals with other zoos worldwide to enlarge the diversity of its animals and ...

*Sanjay Gandhi Jaivik Udyan

Kumar, Ajay (14 September 2007). "Newborn Hippo cheers animal lovers at Patna Zoo". indiatraveltimes.com. India Travel Times. ... Breeding captive wild animals is a difficult challenge that the zoo has met with some notable success. The great one-horned ... "Patna zoo to get 14 new animals - The Times of India". The Times Of India. "Lone Patna zoo elephant to be shifted to ... The zoo is currently home to over 800 animals of about 110 species, including tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, hippopotamus, ...

*Benzquinamide

E.I. Goldenthal (1971). "A compilation of LD50 values in newborn and adult animals". Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 18 (1): 185-207 ...

*Infanticide in carnivores

In zoology, this commonly refers to the killing and in some cases consumption of newborn animals by either a parent or an ...

*Cochliomyia hominivorax

... such as in wounds and the navels of newborn animals. The larvae hatch and burrow into the surrounding tissue as they feed. If ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) California Department of Food and Agriculture Animal Health Branch (January 2000 ... Screw-worm females lay 250-500 eggs in the exposed flesh of warm-blooded animals, including humans, ... eat the living tissue of warm-blooded animals. It is present in the New World tropics. There are five species of Cochliomyia ...

*Thermoregulation in humans

Brown fat is specialized for this purpose, and is abundant in newborns and animals that hibernate. Adjusting the human body ... This is a primary reason why animals store up food in the winter.[citation needed] In addition to heat production by shivering ... Shivering is more effective than exercise at producing heat because the animal (includes humans) remains still. This means that ... During low-intensity shivering, animals shiver constantly at a low level for months during cold conditions. During high- ...

*Agriculture in Thailand

... survival rates of newborn animals, and immune system impacts. Climate change has and will continue to harm rice yields. A study ...

*Chymosin

It is produced by newborn ruminant animals in the lining of the abomasum to curdle the milk they ingest, allowing a longer ... Chymosin is produced by gastric chief cells in young ruminants and some other newborn animals to curdle the milk they ingest, ... FPC contains the identical chymosin as the animal source, but produced in a more efficient way. FPC products have been on the ... FPC contains only chymosin B, achieving a high degree of purity compared with animal rennet. FPC can deliver several benefits ...

*Infanticide in rodents

... and in zoology this is often the termination or consumption of newborn animals by either a parent or an unrelated adult. In ...

*Dopamine hypothesis of schizophrenia

... or making brain lesions in newborn animals, or delivering animals abnormally by Caesarian section, all induce a marked ... Recent evidence on a variety of animal models of psychosis, such as sensitization of animal behaviour by amphetamine, or ... Some animal models of psychosis are similar to those for addiction - displaying increased locomotor activity. For those female ... Mice with only 5% of the normal levels of NMDAR's expressed schizophrenic like behaviors seen in animal models of schizophrenia ...

*Hibernation

Other animals able to survive long periods with no or very little oxygen include the goldfish, the red-eared slider turtle, the ... nurturing environment for their newborns. While hibernation has long been studied in rodents, namely ground squirrels, no ... Before entering hibernation, animals need to store enough energy to last through the entire winter. Larger species become ... Although research in the 1990s hinted at the ability to induce torpor in animals by injection of blood taken from a hibernating ...
An essay on the connexion of life with respiration in newborn animals: or an experimental inquiry into the phenomena attending the life and death of animals brought forth in different ...
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Lets be honest! It is impossible to keep ones poker face when seeing a hairy, puffy, cute little animal. And all the same, the sight of a giant creature - 10 INCREDIBLE NEWBORN ANIMALS
The mammalian fetus affixed to the uterine wall in some ways resembles a homograft, but maternal homograft immunity even when specifically directed against her fetuses fails to destroy them. The placental barrier appears to be critical in protecting the fetus against maternal immunologic attack. In order to evaluate the means by which it affords protection, we have measured in rabbits the transfer of cytotoxic antibody from mother to fetus. When the offspring were not the specific targets for maternal antibody, we found titers of cytotoxic antibody in the newborn animals at or near maternal levels in 16 of 18 cases (89 per cent), demonstrating the ability of this antibody to cross the rabbit placenta. When the offspring were appropriate targets for antibody, however, 11 of 18 newborn animals (61 per cent) had no demonstrable titer. We believe that in these latter cases, antibody had become fixed to antigenic sites and thereby had been removed from the fetal circulation. There was, however, no ...
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Besides the gross-out factor, however, there are other issues with this. First off, there is always a little concern that the dog will not take kindly to the boys matter-of-factly taking a toy out of his mouth. So far this hasnt been a problem, but it is always a worry. Secondly, the dog toys often have buttons and pieces that can come off and will not be safe for babies. Thirdly, the baby toys do not hold up to dog chewing, meaning our lovely set wood blocks that we searched for no less than 45 minutes at our local Target to find is now short about five blocks ...
Existing neonatal treatment intensity models can predict mortality and morbidity. Discriminatory performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating curve is poorest for long-term morbidity (0.59) and highest for in-hospital mortality in infants weighing 1000-1499 g for NTISS measured at 72 h post admission (0.958) [34, 39]. Calibration was reported by Gray et al. only who found a close agreement between observed and predicted in-hospital mortality by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test [19]. Using a variety of tests of statistical association rather than predictive performance, treatment intensity was found also to be associated with mortality, morbidity and resource utilisation [19, 35, 37, 39, 40].. Discriminatory performance of neonatal treatment intensity models for predicting in-hospital mortality measured by AUROC ranges from 0.749 to 0.958 [38, 39]. The recommended threshold for good discrimination is 0.8 [11]. The reported performance therefore suggests that the treatment scoring ...
Prolonged exposure to hyperoxia can result in significant lung injury, although newborn animals are more oxygen-tolerant than adults. Mechanisms affording tolerance to the newborn are incompletely understood. This study examined the hypothesis that e
Pressure loads were applied to the right ventricles of newborn lambs and adult sheep by surgical narrowing of the lumen of the main pulmonary artery. Significant increases in right ventricular weight and in the diameter of the right coronary artery occurred in both age groups of animals, compared with corresponding control animals. The evidence suggests that the degree of increase in the arterial diameters, relative to the increase in ventricular muscle mass, is similar in both newborn and adult animals. However, the results suggest also that the capacity to respond to pressure loads, in terms of increased muscle mass, is relatively greater in the newborn animals than in the adults.. ...
The isolated perfused liver technique is the in vitro system most nearly comparable to the intact liver for experimental investigations on drug metabolism. The model currently used employs liver from different species, but only adults. For the first time, we have set up an experimental investigation involving perfusion of the liver of newborn animals. Using theophylline (TH) as tool drug, an in vivo/in vitro and adult/newborn disposition study was made in the rabbit. After a 10 mg/kg dose iv to adult rabbits and ip to rabbits at birth, the pharmacokinetic profile of TH was analyzed during liver perfusion at comparable TH concentrations in the medium. A few biochemical variables were recorded. No age-related differences were observed in the release of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase over the perfusion time. O2 consumption was higher in adults than in newborns, in accordance with the lower metabolic capacity of the neonatal liver, supported by the lower values of ...
As emphasized, absorption of intact proteins occurs only in a few circumstances. In the first place, very few proteins get through the gauntlet of soluble and membrane-bound proteases intact. Second, "normal" enterocytes do not have transporters to carry proteins across the plasma membrane and they certainly cannot permeate tight junctions. One important exception to these general statements is that for a very few days after birth, neonates have the ability to absorb intact proteins. This ability, which is rapidly lost, is of immense importance because it allows the newborn animal to acquire passive immunity by absorbing immunoglobulins in colostral milk. In constrast to humans and rodents, there is no significant transfer of antibodies across the placenta in many animals (cattle, sheep, horses and pigs to name a few), and the young are born without circulating antibodies. If fed colostrum during the first day or so after birth, they absorb large quantities of immunoglobulins and acquire a ...
Large populations (up to 600/cell) of spherical, electron-opaque granules ∼0.3 to 0.4 µ in diameter are characteristically found in muscle fibers of mammalian atria. They are absent in muscle fibers of the ventricles. The granules are concentrated in the sarcoplasmic core and occur in lesser numbers in the sarcoplasmic layers between myofibrils and under the plasma membrane. Their intimate association with a central voluminous Golgi complex and the frequent occurrence of material reminiscent of the granular content within the cisternae of the Golgi complex suggest that the latter is involved in the formation of the atrial granules. Atrial granules are larger and more numerous in smaller species (rat, mouse), and generally smaller and less numerous in larger mammals (dog, cat, human); they are absent from the atrial fibers of very young fetuses (rat) but are present in those of newborn animals. A small population of bodies containing glycogen particles and remnants of the endoplasmic reticulum ...
Functional testing showed that electrical stimulation of muscle fibers caused limbs to contract with 80% strength of what would be seen in newborn animals.
Great posts. Thanks. I am so glad to find this site for you have an appreciation for animals like I do. We were planning to buy 2 foxes from different sellers so we would be a propagator. It is the only way to keep some. Newborn animals is nothing new to us. We are used to around the clock care for new born animals. From dogs cats, llamas, horses, bot bellied pigs etc, etc. I fully understand the amount of work it will take to work with a fox. Although I do admit I lack the experience I do not lack the passion. We have to start some time and this is what the forum is for those who can not have more experience hands on. We do live in country so no ordinances or neighbors. The location of where I though of putting them is in a separate building which is on a slab of concrete. Has full plumbing and even a shower in there. After reading posts I plan of converting a window to an outdoor pen as well so they can have the best of both worlds. In the room I wasnplannin on filling it with dirt, woodchips, ...
Experience a busy spring day on a working 19th century farm! Help with spring planting in the large kitchen garden, sow oats in the fields or wash clothes in a washtub. Authentic demonstrations include blacksmithing, plowing with the horses and visiting newborn animals. Craft activities, shuttle rides to and from the Nature Center, refreshments and games make this a fun event.. This event is for all ages. Cost is $4 per person or $16 per family. Children ages 3 and younger are free. ...
Super 7+ Navel Dip is an umbilical cord dry-out and protective solution for newborn animals. This is a safe & effective alternative to strong iodine. The Navel Dip is NOT intended for use on wounds.
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Abnormal maturation of cerebral cortex and behavioral deficit in adult rats after neonatal administration of antibodies to ganglioside.. AU - Kasarskis, Edward J.. AU - Karpiak, Stephen E.. AU - Rapport, Maurice M.. AU - Yu, Robert K.. AU - Bass, Norman H.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - Five-day-old rats received a single injection (50 microliter) of antiserum to ganglioside into the cisterna magna and were compared to control animals injected with the antiserum which had been absorbed with pure GM1 ganglioside to remove the specific antibodies. Both groups showed normal rates of body growth. However, animals receiving antiganglioside serum had, at 60 days of age, impaired performance when tested on a complex learning task (DRL) as well as chemical and morphological alterations in the somatosensory cerebral cortex. Gross morphology and wet weight of whole brain were normal in both groups. Microchemical analysis of somatosensory isocortex revealed a normal content of total ...
Neonatal animals have heightened susceptibility to infectious agents and are at increased risk for the development of allergic diseases, such as asthma. Experimental studies using animal models have been quite useful for beginning to identify the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying these sensitivities. In particular, results from murine neonatal models indicate that developmental regulation of multiple immune cell types contributes to the typically poor responses of neonates to pathogenic microorganisms. Surprisingly, however, animal studies have also revealed that responses at mucosal surfaces in early life may be protective against primary or secondary disease. Our understanding of the molecular events underlying these processes is less well developed. Emerging evidence indicates that the functional properties of neonatal immune cells and the subsequent maturation of the immune system in ontogeny may be regulated by epigenetic phenomena. Here, we review recent findings from our group ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Video articles in JoVE about cranial nerves include Ocular Kinematics Measured by In Vitro Stimulation of the Cranial Nerves in the Turtle, Preparation of Rhythmically-active In Vitro Neonatal Rodent Brainstem-spinal Cord and Thin Slice, Intra-Operative Neural Monitoring of Thyroid Surgery in a Porcine Model, Imaging Calcium Responses in GFP-tagged Neurons of Hypothalamic Mouse Brain Slices, Combining Lipophilic dye, in situ Hybridization, Immunohistochemistry, and Histology, Slice Preparation, Organotypic Tissue Culturing and Luciferase Recording of Clock Gene Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Biomarkers in an Animal Model for Revealing Neural, Hematologic, and Behavioral Correlates of PTSD, Primary Orthotopic Glioma Xenografts Recapitulate Infiltrative Growth and Isocitrate Dehydrogenase I Mutation, Preparation of Acute Hippocampal Slices from Rats and Transgenic Mice for the Study of Synaptic Alterations during Aging and Amyloid Pathology, Intranasal Delivery of
Of the 2.9 million newborn deaths that occurred in 2012, close to half of them occurred within the first 24 hours after birth. Many of these deaths occurred in babies born too early and too small, babies with infections, or babies asphyxiated around the time of delivery. Labour, birth and the immediate postnatal period are the most critical for newborn and maternal survival. Unfortunately, the majority of mothers and newborns in low- and middle-income countries do not receive optimal care during these periods. Basic care for all newborns should include promoting and supporting early and exclusive breastfeeding, keeping the baby warm, increasing hand washing and providing hygienic umbilical cord and skin care, identifying conditions requiring additional care and counselling on when to take a newborn to a health facility. Newborns and their mothers should be examined for danger signs at home visits. At the same time, families should be counselled on identification of these danger signs and the ...
It is well known that close contact between mums and babies at night makes it easier to establish breastfeeding, and to continue breastfeeding for longer. Close contact allows the baby to suckle more frequently, which helps with initiation of breastfeeding, and also with establishing a good long-term milk supply. While we know that close contact is good for breastfeeding, some people have concerns about mums and babies sharing a bed, especially in the immediate postnatal period when mums may have had pain relief potentially affecting their awareness of the baby. Our previous research demonstrated that using a side-car crib instead of a stand-alone bassinette resulted in mums and babies interacting in the same way as if they were sharing the same bed. They also breastfed for significantly longer - more than twice as many side-car mums than standalone crib mums were still breastfeeding at 16 weeks. We wanted to find out if we would still obtain this result when the side-car cribs were used on ...
Pulmonary circulatory transition at birth is thought to be regulated, at least in part, by release of NO from eNOS (1, 11, 18, 19, 27). Maturational changes in the regulation of pulmonary vascular tone by NO have been described in a number of species, including rat (10, 26, 36, 49), pig (24), lamb (23, 38), baboon (41), and human (30, 31). Prior publications comparing fetal and postnatal expression of eNOS have demonstrated an increase in NOS expression during gestation that is maximal shortly before or at the time of birth (26, 36) with a subsequent decline postnatally to the low levels observed in adults (36, 47, 49). These studies have been limited by an experimental approach that used whole lung homogenates, cultured endothelial cells, or large conduit pulmonary arteries; the contribution of eNOS from PRA has not been previously addressed.. Novel findings in this study are that physical interactions between Hsp90 and eNOS mature over the first 2 wk of life in PRA. Moreover, we provide ...
Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) regulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes. To determine whether CSF-1 plays a role in the perinatal development of these cells, CSF-1 protein and mRNA expression in tissues and serum from fetal/neonatal mice and their mothers was analyzed. As fetal/neonatal age increased, CSF-1 concentrations ...
From the evolutionary point of view it is quite interesting that often males and females are born in approximately similar numbers despite the fact stated by Rap, that you only need a few males to fertilize dozens of females, or even more. In many species this obviously has a lot to do with competition: the nature makes males to fight for their right to have offspring, thus ensuring that the best genes survive. But if so, why not make 2/3 males and 1/3 of females to make the competition even more fierce? Or make 1/3 males and 2/3 females simply to allow for more babies to be born. Also, human males are born at a slightly higher rate than females, is this because more males get themselves killed before they reach adult age ...
Oaktown Pup gonna give it to ya! After dancing to the latest Fetch! Pet Care Video Of the Week, youll know exactly what these talented pups are serving!
This girl is in a high kill gas shelter - she gave birth to 9 pups soon after being brought in. Nothing like leaving her and the pups on a concrete floor - a blanket or a towel at least would be nice. Shes obviously scared to death. Please, please cross-post - this poor mom needs help fast for her and her babies ...
Sav-A-Caf® Ultra Start® Multi is a versatile multi-species colostrum supplement that is nutritionally complete. Provides 30 g protein from 100% pure Bovine colostrum.
Pain in infancy can have lifelong effects. In rodents, tissue injury in a critical neonatal period leaves the nociceptive system primed, such that pain sensitivity to tissue injury in adult life is significantly increased. Importantly, adult baseline nociception is not increased by this early pain history; only the hyperalgesia that follows tissue injury is enhanced. Despite the importance of early-life noxious experiences in shaping pain maturation, our understanding of the synaptic basis of this developmental plasticity lags well behind that of other sensory systems, such as the visual system.. Li and Baccei have made an important step in this field in this elegant study of synaptic function in mature spinal nociceptive circuits following neonatal tissue damage. The data show that early injury increases the chance of long-term potentiation (LTP) of the afferent synapses onto adult lamina I projection neurons. This was demonstrated by analyzing spike timing-dependent LTP (t-STP), a synaptic ...
The purpose of this study was to gain more information on the structure of different layers of renal arteryand comparing these structures in post-natal male and female sheep. To do so, right and left renal arteries of6 adult and 6 newborn animals were dissected; the middle parts of arteries were only collected. After tissueprocessing using paraffin embedding method, 5-6-μm sections were cut and stained with haematoxylin andeosin, green Massons trichrome and Verhoeffs elastic fiber methods. Three layers were identified in thewall of artery in both sexes. In tunica media the number of rows of circular smooth muscle cells was 15-25rows in newborn and 30-40 in adult sheep. External elastic membrane was visible in adult and wasstructurally thinner than the internal membrane. Tunica adventitia was visible in all samples and collagenfibers and smooth muscles bundle were distinguished. The existence of these muscle bundles in externallayer of renal artery was not reported previously in domestic animals and
Ian Tizzard (From Proceedings Ruvasa Congress 2016). When a mammal is born, it emerges from the sterile uterus into an environment where it is immediately exposed to a host of microorganisms. Its surfaces acquire a complex microbial flora within hours. If it is to survive, the newborn animal must be able to control this microbial invasion. In practice, the adaptive immune system takes some time to become fully functional, and innate mechanisms are responsible for the initial resistance to infection. In the domestic mammals, the adaptive immune system is fully developed at birth but cannot function at adult levels for several weeks. The complete development of adaptive immunity depends on antigenic stimulation. Thus, newborn mammals are vulnerable to infection for the first few weeks of life. They need assistance in defending themselves at this time. This temporary help is provided by the mother in the form of antibodies from colostrum and milk. The passive transfer of immunity from mother to ...
Due to the special growth and developmental characteristics of newborn infants, VILI is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neonatal chronic lung disease, which has an adverse effect on the survival rate and the quality of life for newborns with ALI/ARDS. To study newborn ALI/ARDS, newborn animals, such as piglets,5,6 rats,7 and rabbits,8 have been used as animal models. Because the organ development, lung volume, and birth weight of newborn piglets resemble those of newborn infants, the current study used induced ALI/ARDS in newborn piglets.. One of the aims in this study was to compare the histopathological features of the lung damage in gravitation-dependent and gravitation-nondependent regions. Compared to the gravitation-nondependent region, the gravitation-dependent region displayed increased lung swelling and hemorrhaging, and damage to the alveolar integrity and organization. We observed increased inflammatory cell infiltration, edema formation, and hemorrhages, ...
A light-and electron-microscopic study of pig hepatocytes from late prenatal to early neonatal animals shows changes which reflect an increasing rate of synthetic activity. The granular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the prenatal pig hepatocyte is situated along the periphery of the cytoplasm and in the region immediately surrounding the nucleus. Mitochondria are most abundant in the area adjacent to the nucleus, while the Golgi complex is generally located in the region of the bile canaliculus. The remaining portion of the hepatocyte is occupied with glycogen. A few hours after birth the hepatocyte increases about twofold in size with the nucleus shifting from a peripheral to a more centrally located position. The glycogen decreases quickly coincident with a rapid increase in the amount of granular ER and the dispersion of the mitochondria throughout the cell. The Golgi complex becomes distended and numerous vesicles appear in its immediate vicinity containing a moderately dense material. ...
Durvet Soluble Colostrum Powder designed to assist in the replacement of colostrum in deficient and newborn calves, sheep and goats. Dried colostrum provides a source of maternal antibodies and protein; lactobacillus organisms assist in the establishment of beneficial microflora in newborn animals.
It has been speculated whether the metabolism of the pre-implantation embryo may be reflected on the pregnancy and characteristics of the newborn animal. The present study investigated whether respiration rates of individual embryos were correlated with gestation length, type of parturition, birth weight, sex, and viability of the offspring. In-vivo embryos (n = 47) were recovered on day 7 from 11 superovulated and inseminated Holstein-Friesian cows and embryonic respiration rates were measured individually by nanorespirometry. The embryos were classified according to morphological quality (I, II, III), stage of development, and diameter and were subsequently transferred individually (n = 43) to synchronized recipients. Gestation length of the recipients (n = 22) was calculated and the type of parturition (no assistance, light traction, heavy traction, or caesarean section) recorded. Sex, weight, and condition of the calves at birth (weak, normal, or very active) were also assessed. Results were ...
Transport systems for organic compounds are immature in the kidney of most newborn animals. Measured in vitro, uptake of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) into renal cortical slices is low in tissue from 2-week-old rabbits, peaks at 4 weeks and declines to adult levels. To minimize limitations encountered with the slice technique, a separated tubule preparation was employed to estimate transport. Segments of proximal tubules were prepared by incubating renal cortex in 0.375% collagenase-Ringer solution. The tubules were washed, filtered, suspended in a Ringer-acetate solution containing dilute PAH, oxygenated and incubated at 25°C. The tubules from young animals consumed oxygen to the same extent as those from adult. Intracellular concentrations of sodium and potassium were similar at each age tested. Maximal PAH uptake (T/M ratio) was Obtained after approximately 30 minutes of incubation in tissue from animals of all ages. Adult T/M ratios were significantly higher in the presence of acetate. The ...
Cells and virus preparation. Transformed fetal liver cells, bone marrow cells, and tumor-derived cell lines were maintained in RPMI medium containing 10% FCS, 100 U/ml penicillin/streptomycin, and 5 μM β-mercaptoethanol. A010 cells that produce an ecotropic replication-deficient form of the Abelson virus were maintained in DMEM containing 10% FCS and 100 U/ml penicillin/streptomycin. Viral supernatant was prepared as previously described (49).. Mice and infection of neonatal mice with A-MuLV. TYK2-/- mice were described previously (25) and were backcrossed to C57BL/6 for 8 generations. Nude mice were purchased from the Institut für Labortierkunde und Genetik (Himberg, Austria).. For the infection of newborn animals, TYK2+/- were bred with TYK2-/- animals. Hence, every litter contained TYK2+/- and TYK2-/- animals to ensure appropriate controls. We initially started the in vivo transformation experiments by intercrossing TYK2+/- and TYK2+/- mice and analyzed leukemia/lymphoma formation in all 3 ...
Human infants, like other newborn animals and hibernating rodents, are endowed with a built-in central heating system: Mitochondrial proton gradients are uncoupled from ATP production in brown adipose tissue, so chemical energy is converted directly into heat, which protects against the vicissitudes of an uncertain environment. Uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1), which is present only in brown adipose tissue, is critical for thermogenesis. Piglets, though, are unusual in this regard, as they lack this kind of fat and rely instead on shivering as a way to stay warm.. Berg et al. looked for and, surprisingly, found UCP1 sequences in preliminary pig genome data. But closer examination revealed that the gene is peppered with small errors and is missing exons 3 to 5, a deletion that they also found in other species of pig, wild boar, and hog, and that almost certainly renders the gene useless. The pig UCP1 sequences have randomly drifted away from those of other closely related animals, further evidence ...
Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in human infants presents a complex clinical problem in that no standardized treatment currently exists. With an understanding of the cellular and metabolic changes brought about during hypoxia-ischemia in the immature brain, researchers can better understand the course of damage caused by ischemia. Such damage was induced in young rats in an attempt to learn more about the mechanisms of hypoxia-ischemia. Seven-day-old rat pups underwent permanent unilateral carotid artery ligation and then were exposed to systemic hypoxia. At 15 days of postnatal age, researchers used neuropathologic analysis, gross examination, and staining of brain slices to assess the severity of damage from hypoxia-ischemia. Hypoxic preconditioning appeared to reduce or prevent tissue damage during a subsequent hypoxic-ischemic event.
rotavirus: Any of a group of wheel-shaped, RNA-contained viruses that cause gastroenteritis, especially in infants and newborn animals.
The story of a gorilla, from birth to adulthood, photographed on location in the wild by an award-winning American photographer, who specialises in work with newborn animals. The text will show all the aspects of the animals life in the wild, accompanied by close-up pictures of the family group in its natural habitat. A spread at the back of the book will give further conservation information, including useful websites ...
Controlled Iodine Spray is indicated for use in cattle, horses, swine and sheep as a topical antiseptic for use prior to surgical procedures such as castrating and docking; for ringworm and foot rot; for application to the navel of newborn animals; and for minor cuts, teat sores, bruises and abrasions ...
Animals and reagents. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats (18-20 g) were supplied by the Animal Center of Guangzhou Medical University. Rats were housed and used in accordance with our institutional guidelines for animal care and the Guide for Animal Care of the National Institutes of Health. Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium (DMEM), fetal bovine serum (FBS), and TRIzol were purchased from Gibco BRL (USA). Trypsin was obtained from Amersco (USA). Alpha-sarcomeric actin was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (USA). The SYBR®GreenPCR Master Mix was obtained from Applied Biosystems (USA). The Thermo ScriptRT-PCR kit was purchased from Invitrogen (USA). [3H]-leucine (Leu) was obtained from the China Institute of Atomic Energy (China) and recombinant Ang II and HGF were purchased from Sigma (Germany).. Primary cardiomyocyte culture. Rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes were prepared as previously described, with some modifications (17). The cells were suspended in DMEM containing 10% FBS and 0.1 mM ...
One strategy we are undertaking to advance this work is to characterize the antigen-presenting environment in pre- and post-natal life, with the focus on defining factors that dictate whether exposure to allergen in early life induces T cell sensitization or tolerance. The thinking is that in certain circumstances, T cell sensitization can occur in utero or in early post-natal life and that factors responsible for these circumstances have increased in the past 20 years. It has been proposed that this could explain the increased incidence of asthma and other inflammatory diseases. The challenge for scientists is to identify factors that control this process, with the ultimate goal of developing therapeutic strategies to reverse the progressive increase in disease. Our studies are focused on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages, as they are known to direct the T cell responses to antigen throughout life, presumably including the pre- and post-natal period. In ...
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Effects of prenatal exposure to 2,4-D/2,4,5-T mixture on postnatal changes in rat brain glutamate, GABA, protein, and nucleic acid levels. by Fouad Kasim Mohammad et al.
Journal Article: Neural Stem Cells Expressing bFGF Reduce Brain Damage and Restore Sensorimotor Function after Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia. Ye, Qingsong, Wu, Yanqing, Wu, Jiamin, Zou, Shuang, Al-Zaazaai, Ali Ahmed, Zhang, Hongyu, Shi, Hongxue, Xie, Ling, Liu, Yanlong, Xu, Ke, He, Huacheng, Zhang, Fabiao, Ji, Yiming, He, Yan and Xiao, Jian (2017) Neural Stem Cells Expressing bFGF Reduce Brain Damage and Restore Sensorimotor Function after Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia. Cellular physiology and biochemistry : international journal of experimental cellular physiology, biochemistry, and pharmacology, 45 1: 108-118. doi:10.1159/000486226. ...
The level of Fc receptor rosette-forming lymphocytes (Fc-RFL) was examined in spleen and lymph node cell suspension from neonatal DA and BN rats inoculated within 24 hr of birth with either allogeneic L (experimental) or syngeneic (control) lymphoid cells. In addition, these levels were compared to fetal and neonatal animals that received no injection. The indicator cells (EA) were sheep erythrocytes sensitized with one-half concentration of the highest dilution of rabbit anti-sheep erythrocyte IgG(A) which agglutinated an equal amount of 1% suspension of E. Care was taken to exclude scoring macrophages by injecting colloidal carbon at least 1 hr before killing the test animals. The spleen of 19-day DA fetal rats exhibited a level of 19.3% Fc-RFL, similar to that of animals having received adult syngeneic cells at birth (40.0%) by day 7. Thereafter the level of Fc-RFL did not vary appreciably between these two groups. However, as early as 2 days after inoculation there was a significantly greater
, Newborn Calf Serum - 100mL, GTX73196, Applications: Blocking, ELISA, ICC/IF, IHC, WB; Blocking, ELISA, Immunocytochemistry/ Immunofluorescence (ICC/IF), Immunohistochemistry (IHC), Western Blot (WB); CrossReactivity:
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Although some invertebrates can regrow parts of their hearts after damage, that has not been known to be possible for mammals. Until now, that is. Hesham Sadek and his colleagues from the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center have observed heart regeneration in newborn mice.. The researchers removed 15% of the heart tissue from newborn mice. To their surprise, the infant mice were able to regrow the tissue. The resultant hearts looked and performed exactly like normal hearts. This ability was retained until the mice were seven days old, at which point they lost the capacity to grow new heart muscle. To put that in perspective, mice reach maturity between 6 to 8 weeks and can live for two or three years. Thus, the ability to fix heart problems continues for a large part of the mouses childhood.. The scientists believe that the infant mices cardiomyocytes, the beating cells of the heart, can stop beating and divide, repairing the damage. The next step is to figure out whether adult ...
Chronic kidney disease affects more than 10% of the population. Programming studies have examined the interrelationship between environmental factors and differences in morbidity and mortality between individuals. A number of important principles has been identified, namely permanent structural modifications of organs and cells, long lasting adjustments of endocrine regulatory circuits, as well as altered gene transcription. Risk factors include intrauterine deficiencies by disturbed placental function or maternal malnutrition, prematurity, intrauterine and postnatal stress, intrauterine and postnatal overnutrition, as well as dietary dysbalances in postnatal life. This mini-review discusses critical developmental periods and long term sequelae of renal programming in humans and presents studies examining the underlying mechanisms as well as interventional approaches to
Maturational differences in lung NF-κB activation and their role in tolerance to hyperoxia: Neonatal rodents are more tolerant to hyperoxia than adults. We dete
This is a guide about caring for kittens. Newborn kittens need a lot of extra care. Caring for them properly will help ensure that they grow into healthy adult cats.
vaginal delivery cried after 5-7 min but the immediate postnatal period was uneventful. At 3 month of age, he presented with fever and diarrhea.
Caring for newborn kittens is a great responsibility that can be quite easy, enjoyable and rewarding if you know what to do. This guide will help.
Caring for newborn kittens is a great responsibility that can be quite easy, enjoyable and rewarding if you know what to do. This guide will help.
Effective neonatal immunization of human beings has proven challenging. results CHIR-265 may possess essential implications for immunization of human being babies. Newborns are at risk for exposure to many infectious diseases, yet vaccination generally is not carried out until 2C3 months of age, owing to the immaturity of the neonatal immune system (1). In particular, B cell responses are weak and preferentially generate IgM/IgG1 antibody isotypes, and cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses are CHIR-265 poor (see ref. 2). In addition, maternally derived antibodies can interfere with the vaccine (3C6). Young mice are useful models to test immunization strategies for newborn humans since their response to protein antigens has similar limitations (7). Although it has been thought that immunization early in life would induce immunological tolerance (8C11), humoral responses have been induced in newborn mice against a variety of antigens (12C14). This recently has been shown to depend on an ...
I was first surprised by how friendly, welcoming, and open the LoTurco lab was. The graduate students and other undergrads were very open to sharing and explaining their research. One graduate student scheduled time for me to observe an analysis using the microscopy labs TEM (Transmission Electron Microscope), and another let me observe her calcium imaging and stimulation in the brains of neonatal mice. I was also surprised by how willing they were to help me when I was unsure of exactly how to use a certain device, and how eager they were to discuss the topics of papers I had questions about.. Im fascinated by all aspects of the brain - especially its development, functioning, and regulation - so all the projects the lab is working on interested me. I was particularly interested in one students work with calcium imaging in the development of neonatal mice brains. The study involves the dissection and subsequent stimulation of mice brains, analyzing calcium signaling in response to various ...
Animals. Ntn1+/-, Cx40-GFP, flk1-GFP, mTmG, Sm22-Cre, TH-Cre, and Dccfl/fl mice were described previously (21-23, 29, 30, 56, 57). L. Miquerol (UMR 7288, Marseille, France) provided Cx40-GFP mice. Ntn1fl/fl mice were generated by Ozgene. LoxP sites were inserted on both sides of exon 3 of the mouse Ntn1 gene, which contained the initiation codons for netrin-1 full-length and short nucleolar forms (58). Cre recombination and exon 3 deletion are predicted to produce a misfolded protein truncated of its 353 N-terminal amino acids, lacking the signal peptide and first 2 laminin EGF-like domains.. Neonatal mouse injections. At day P1, P2 wild-type pups on a CD1 background (n = 6 per group) received intraperitoneal injections of 20 μg/g anti-netrin-1 antibody, 2.5 μg/g anti-DCC antibody (Calbiochem), or vehicle PBS. Neonatal pups were collected for analysis at day P3. The Dccfl/fl TH-CreER mice were injected with 100 μg 4-OHT at P0, and tissues were collected at P3. For gain-of-function ...
Within the embryonic/fetal development program, skin is of major importance. Much of the activity in skin development is centered around formation of the epidermis, which ultimately generates the stratum corneum. The present article touches the surface of the structure and function of neonatal skin.
At birth, some infants are already saddled with brains that carry features of Alzheimers disease and schizophrenia. Newborns who carry certain versions of genes already show brain shrinkage reminiscent of that in adults with brain illnesses, a study of 272 newborn babies reveals.. ...
... : Cardiovascular transcription factor expression in isolated neonatal sheep cell clones. Neonatal sheep cardiovascular cell clones shown were tested by PCR for expression of Isl 1 and GATA-4. All seven clones expressed transcripts for Isl1 (A, Isl1 size=131bp) and a proportion of these clones expressed transcripts for GATA-4 (B, GATA-4 size=188bp ...
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Olive oil plays a key role in foetal development during pregnancy and a shortage may have pernicious effects on the baby"s subsequent development. It has been demonstrated that the post-natal development of babies of mothers who consumed olive oil when pregnant is better in terms of height, weight, behaviour and psychomotor reflexes. The foetus needs ...
Most marine fish larvae tend to live in surface or near-surface waters, while adult fish inhabit largely different environments. The different habitats require two different body shapes, leading to larvae that look very different from their adult counterparts.. ...
Most marine fish larvae tend to live in surface or near-surface waters, while adult fish inhabit largely different environments. The different habitats require two different body shapes, leading to larvae that look very different from their adult counterparts.. ...
Male mice are not natural-born fathers. Males that have never mated respond with aggression to chemical signals from newborn mice pups, whereas those that have fathered pups are more nurturing, a new study finds.
Puppies love and bond to one another in a way even more than they bond to their mother or us. The siblings form their first "pack", although a true pack of canines is quite a different structure since it involves non-kin and overtones of sexuality that these little guys lack. So the Puppy Pack is more of a play group--and in some ways, it is the nostalgic youth that we all seek: no responsibilities, plenty of warmth and novelty, strong ties to your fellow creatures, sleeping piles, an abundance of food, virtually no imposed rules (!), etc. Whats not to like about this ...
Subjects: Wistar rats. Chemical: Dioxin (TCDD). Low doses tested: 1.0 μg/kg bw. Route of administration: dissolved in corn oil and administered orally. Exposure duration: gestational day 15 - single dose (comparable to human prenatal development from approximately day 1 of week 6 to day 1 of week 7). Age of measurement: gestational day 20, post-natal days 21, 49, 56, 70, 91, 98, and 10 and 13 weeks of age ...
The profitability of a sheep enterprise depends on the number of lambs sold either for meat or as breeding stock. The number raised to market is a reflection of the complete management of the flock throughout the year. One of the critical points in this management cycle is lambing.
Your precious newborn will stand out with the cutest hat in the Nursery! This Pink and White Newborn Hospital Beanie is perfect for your newborn. It has a matching Pink and White Bow for the perfect touch! (Light Pink ribbon shown) Great for her first hospital pictures or to keep her
It can be disconcerting to see what may look like an infection on your babys skin. Newborns are prone to a variety of rashes, but staph itself does not...
Because some potential problems arent readily seen at birth, all newborns are tested for certain conditions, including metabolic disorders.
I have 2 pups (1male 1 female) left from a litter whelped in April. Sire is NC Shadows Attitude Dam is Daughter of HonkyTonk Highrise. Both pups are mar
Kinetic analysis of virus titers in newborn inoculated CBA/J mice. Spleens from neonatally infected mice were harvested, homogenized, and titered for polyoma vi
Ive been delighted to see the mighty Mumsnet launch a campaign to improve postnatal care in hospitals. Women with postnatal PTSD often mention poor postnatal care as a contributing factor. After a traumatic birth in which you have nearly died, or your baby has nearly died, or you have lost several pints of blood, or…
(a) Developmental changes in the proportions of GABAergic and glycinergic synaptic activity in various areas of the central nervous system. (b) Examples of ind
A newborns growth and development is measured from the moment of birth. Find out if your babys size is normal, and what to expect as your baby grows.
A newborns growth and development is measured from the moment of birth. Find out if your babys size is normal, and what to expect as your baby grows.
Regardless of where they are born in the United States, nearly all newborns now receive mandated screening for many life-threatening disorders.
Your newborn sleeping on side or rolling to their tummy? Many new moms asked me this question and Im trying to give you a clear answer on this post.
As medical records become electronic, one important category was left out: Newborn screening, meaning treatment for congenital conditions has been delayed.
Any ideas on best way to describe what jitteriness is in a newborn??? Thats such a vague term.... Thanks for any help you can offer me!!
According to Stratistics MRC, the Global Newborn Screening market is accounted for $495.50 million in 2015 and is expected to reach $1,307.65 million by 20
A baby mouse is called a mouse pup or a pinky. The term pup is more commonly used. The term pinky is typically used to refer to baby mice that are sold as feed for pet...
Long periods can be a nuisance, or it can indicate a serious problem. Learn about the causes and treatment of excessive menstrual bleeding.
We get a lot of questions at Scarleteen from folks who are worried about periods that are MIA (missing in action, for us civilians). Sometimes theres a pregnancy concern, and sometimes not; but even if youre not sexually active, a missing period can be worrying.
How to Ask About Getting Your Period. Getting your period can be a scary and uncertain time in your life. Some girls get ridiculed for starting their periods, but it is truly a natural process that happens to millions of girls and women...
Sometimes life can bring us to a point where we need to do our past healing work. Going back into our pasts can be painful, but this is where need to go in order to be set free.
A July 2005 study by the Environmental Working Group tested newborns for the largest number of chemicals ever. The analysis found an average of 200 industr
I am starting my second week on P-Plex running 20/20/30/30/30.. I have nolva for PCT but I want to know when, if any, is a proper time to take an anti-
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity during the perinatal period, and currently no therapeutic drug is available. Minocycline, an antibiotic, has recently been shown to have neuroprotective effects distinct from its antimicrobial effect in several neurological disorders including ischemic brain injury. We examined the effect of minocycline on neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury by using histologic scoring in both mouse and rat models. Mouse (C57Bl/6) and rat (SD) pups were exposed to a unilateral hypoxic-ischemic insult at 8 and 7 days of age, respectively. Minocycline hydrochloride was administered according to protocols that were reported to provide neuroprotection in adult or neonatal rats. Seven days after the insult, we examined brain injury in Nissl stained sections. Although minocycline ameliorated brain injury in the developing rat, it increased injury in the developing mouse. This detrimental effect in the mouse was consistent across ...
The new findings of the present study are: (1) perinatal nicotine exposure significantly increases brain vulnerability to HI injury in male rat pups, but not in female pups; (2) this heightened vulnerability is associated with sex-specific reprogramming of AT1R and AT2R expression patterns in the developing brain; (3) both AT1R and AT2R are implicated in the pathogenesis of HI brain injury and exhibit the neuroprotective effect in neonatal brains; (4) downregulation of AT2R in the developing brain plays a causal role in nicotine-induced, heightened brain vulnerability to HI injury in neonatal rats; and (5) increased methylation of CpG locus 3 bases upstream of TATA-box at the AT2R promoter is a mechanism of nicotine-mediated AT2R gene repression.. The present finding that perinatal nicotine exposure increased brain HI injury in neonates is novel and suggests a risk factor of maternal cigarette smoking in heightened brain HIE vulnerability in newborns. The nicotine dose used in the present study ...
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic insults are a significant cause of pediatric encephalopathy, developmental delays, and spastic cerebral palsy. Although the developing brains plasticity allows for remarkable self-repair, severe disruption of normal myelination and cortical development upon neonatal brain injury are likely to generate life-persisting sensory-motor and cognitive deficits in the growing child. Currently, no treatments are available that can address the long-term consequences. Thus, regenerative medicine appears as a promising avenue to help restore normal developmental processes in affected infants. Stem cell therapy has proven effective in promoting functional recovery in animal models of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injury and therefore represents a hopeful therapy for this unmet medical condition. Neural stem cells derived from pluripotent stem cells or fetal tissues as well as umbilical cord blood and mesenchymal stem cells have all shown initial success in improving functional ...
The present study investigated the involvement of capsaicin-sensitive sensory neurons on salt intake control in the rat, following capsaicin neonatal treatment. Capsaicin did not affect salt appetite induced by intramuscular injection of deoxycorticosterone enantate, or by intracranial injection of renin. Moreover, it did not alter salt preference of rats given access to a variety of NaCl concentrations, or the need-free salt intake of multidepleted male rats. On the other hand, in response to furosemide-induced sodium depletion, the salt intake of capsaicin-treated rats was lower than that of controls. However, furosemide-induced Na+ excretion of capsaicin-treated rats proved to be lower than that of controls, thus suggesting that difference in salt intake might be secondary to lower sensitivity of capsaicin-treated rats to the natriuretic action of furosemide. Salt intake is known to be influenced by sensory information from the oral cavity, from the liver and from the intravascular ...
October 2013 Enrollment Update: The healthy control enrollment has been filled and is now closed. The study is still enrolling eligible infants with SMA.. Aim 1. To establish the validity of putative physiological SMA biomarkers in the immediate postnatal period. A longitudinal, natural history examination of physiological markers of muscle innervation will be performed in healthy and SMA infants. The first week of life is the ideal first time point, with visits occurring at scheduled visits up to the age two. Compound motor action potential (CMAP) amplitude and electrical impedance myography (EIM) will be examined and will be correlated with motor function. Each of these is associated with muscle innervation and provides information on the number and function of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord, the cellular target of SMA therapeutic interventions. This trial will establish the natural history of these putative SMA biomarkers as the disease evolves in affected infants. Moreover, our ...
Adult rats with SHAM or neonatal ventral hippocampal lesions were given cocaine (15 mg/kg per day for 5 days) or saline injections, followed 7 days later by natural reward-conditioned learning. Over ten daily sessions, water-restricted rats were assessed for durations of head entries into a magazine during random water presentations, a conditioning stimulus phase predictive of the water reward, and an "inappropriate" phase when conditioning stimuli were absent and reward presentation would be delayed. ...
ENDOCRINE CHANGES AND CIRCULATING INSULIN-LIKE GROWTH FACTORS IN NEWBORN CALVES FED COLOSTRUM, MILK OR MILK REPLACER Colostrum;Insulin-like Growth Factors;Hormones;Calf;Gastrointestinal Tract; To examine whether colostral growth factors are transferred to the general circulation, concentrations of plasma cortisol, insulin, prolactin, growth hormone, insulin-like growth factors(IGFs) -I and -II, IGF-binding proteins(IGFBPs) and total protein were measured in newborn calves fed colostrums, milk of milk replacer before and after feeding at 12 h intervals during the first two days after birth. Plasma protein concentrations increased with time after than in milk- or milk replacer-fed calves. The mean protein concentration was greater in colostrum-fed than in milk- or milk replacer-fed calves. Plasma cortisol levels transiently declined after each feeding regardless of the type of diet, while insulin levels tended to increase. Mean concentrations of these hormones did not differ between dietary groups, nor
Many studies have documented the relationship between adverse early experience and the development of psychiatric disorders. Understanding the mental health consequences of perinatal stressors is crucial to preventative treatment. Neonatal maternal separation in the rat is a good model system for assessing the effects of adverse early experience, and eyeblink conditioning is a good model for studying the relationship between neonatal stress and adult learning and memory. Previously, I showed that daily neonatal maternal separation (1h/day on postnatal days 2-14) increases plasma corticosterone levels during the first and second postnatal week. Further, I showed that neonatal maternal separation impairs adult eyeblink conditioning and produces a correlated increase in glucocorticoid receptor expression in the posterior interpositus nucleus of the cerebellum. My dissertation research is focused on characterizing the role of glucocorticoids in this effect. I measured cerebellar glucocorticoid ...
Once the pancreas has exhausted The content of these images is not meant to Causes Of Diabetes Webmd Treat Diabetic Neuropathy ::The 3 Step Trick that Reverses Diabetes Permanently in As Little as 11 Days.[ CAUSES OF DIABETES WEBMD Type 1 diabetes affects all ethnic and to devise ways in which these might be introduced into the body without provoking their Can Drinking Alcohol Cause Diabetes :: What Diabetes Insipidus CAN DRINKING ALCOHOL CAUSE DIABETES ] The REAL cause of Diabetes (and the solution) DIABETES AND HONEY ] The REAL cause of Diabetes (and the solution) Diabetic Foot Problems In Canada A5500 Diabetic Shoe Read More; Xylitol And Diabetes Alpha cells in Pancreas to get stimulated. Bad Mergentheim Diabetes Haak Gangrene Can Cause the diagnostic criteria for gestational diabetes mellitus diabetes testers high blood sugar treatment natural Read More; hartz pet nursing bottle for newborn animals. Prevention Of Cereal Ischemia-induced Memory Deficits By The non-insulin diabetes medicines ...
Previous studies have reported that the α1-adrenergic system can activate spinal rhythm generators belonging to the central respiratory network. In order to analyse α1-adrenergic effects on both cranial and spinal motoneuronal activity, phenylephrine (1-800 μm) was applied to in vitro preparations of neonatal rat brainstem-spinal cord. High concentration of phenylephrine superfusion exerted multiple effects on spinal cervical outputs (C2-C6), consisting of a lengthening of respiratory period and an increase in inspiratory burst duration. Furthermore, in 55% of cases a slow motor rhythm recorded from the same spinal outputs was superimposed on the inspiratory activity. However, this phenylephrine-induced slow motor rhythm generated at the spinal level was observed neither in inspiratory cranial nerves (glossopharyngeal, vagal and hypoglossal outputs) nor in phrenic nerves. Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were carried out on cervical motoneurons (C4-C5), to determine first which motoneurons ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dentate development in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures from p35 knockout mice. AU - Wenzel, H. Jürgen. AU - Tamse, Catherine T.. AU - Schwartzkroin, Philip A. PY - 2006/12. Y1 - 2006/12. N2 - Abnormal brain development, induced by genetic influences or resulting from a perinatal trauma, has been recognized as a cause of seizure disorders. To understand how and when these structural abnormalities form, and how they are involved in epileptogenesis, it is important to generate and investigate animal models. We have studied one such model, a mouse in which deletion of the p35 gene (p35-/-) gives rise to both structural disorganization and seizure-like function. We now report that aberrant dentate development can be recognized in the organotypic hippocampal slice culture preparation generated from p35-/- mouse pups. In these p35-/- cultures, an abnormally high proportion of dentate granule cells migrates into the hilus and molecular layer, and develops aberrant dendritic and ...

Zoo Animals Newborn Dress! - CLOTHINGZoo Animals Newborn Dress! - CLOTHING

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Myo-Inositol Safety in Pregnancy: From Preimplantation Development to Newborn AnimalsMyo-Inositol Safety in Pregnancy: From Preimplantation Development to Newborn Animals

Animals. Animals (Charles River Italia, Calco, VA, Italy) were housed in a temperature-controlled facility (. °C) on a 12/12 h ... Myo-Inositol Safety in Pregnancy: From Preimplantation Development to Newborn Animals. Nilay Kuşcu,1 Mariano Bizzarri,2 and ... newborn animals were weighed, checked for gross abnormalities, and left to be nursed by their moms until weaning. Preweaning ... Animal Treatment and Zygote Collection. Female mice were hormonally induced by intraperitoneal injections of 5 IU pregnant mare ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/ije/2016/2413857/

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Staff regularly care for newborn animals at the zoo - Lifestyle - The Garden City Telegram - Garden City, KSStaff regularly care for newborn animals at the zoo - Lifestyle - The Garden City Telegram - Garden City, KS

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newborn animals Archives - Animal Fact Guidenewborn animals Archives - Animal Fact Guide

Posted in Baby Animals, Zoos and Aquariums , Tagged Baby Animals, baby giraffe, Busch Gardens, florida, newborn animals, Tampa ... cute animals, cute baby animals, cute giraffe, funny giraffe, giraffe, giraffe calf, giraffes, newborn animals, taronga western ... Posted in Animal Photos, Baby Animals, Zoos and Aquariums , Tagged australia, Australian zoo, Baby Animals, baby giraffe, ... Tagged Baby Animals, denver zoo, Endangered Species, newborn animals, red panda, zoos ...
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Newborn Kittens | Interesting AnimalsNewborn Kittens | Interesting Animals

If a mother cat has died or is otherwise unable or unwilling to care for her newborn kittens, special care must be taken to ... If you find yourself in a surrogate role, youll need to know some basic guidelines to help you give your newborn kittens their ... A vet can give you the supplies youll need for feeding, and can check the animals for disease, parasites, and other conditions ... Newborn Kittens. Kitten Care 101: Taking Care of Orphaned Newborn kittens. If a mother cat has died or is otherwise unable or ...
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Cadence Science Reusable Animal Feeding Needles: Newborn Straight; 22 gaCadence Science Reusable Animal Feeding Needles: Newborn Straight; 22 ga

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Crochet Baby Owl Hat Beanie Animal Newborn Infant Toddler Child Adult  - Red Lollipop BoutiqueCrochet Baby Owl Hat Beanie Animal Newborn Infant Toddler Child Adult - Red Lollipop Boutique

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Animal instinct - Pregnancy & Newborn MagazinePregnancy & Newborn MagazineAnimal instinct - Pregnancy & Newborn MagazinePregnancy & Newborn Magazine

Pollock credits Olives easy-access toy storage for keeping the nursery in order. "Its crazy how many things a baby can accumulate," she remarks. "I feel like she is always getting gifts or new toys or books, and every night before she goes to sleep, we pick up all her toys and put them back in their place. Being able to end the day with her room in order makes it ready for us to have even more fun the next day.". ...
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Canary Database: Browse by Risk factor: Animals, NewbornCanary Database: Browse by Risk factor: Animals, Newborn

Browse by Risk factor: Animals, Newborn (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
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Twofer Tots: NAFTA - Newborn Animal Free Toy AgreementTwofer Tots: NAFTA - Newborn Animal Free Toy Agreement

Today, however, I would like to discuss the Newborn-Animal Free Toy Agreement.. Help! Our Superyard has finally expanded to ... I constantly scour the floor for splinters, bits of stuffed animal stuffing, shards of chewed plastic, resin eyeballs just the ...
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Pink Lamb Newborn/infant Costume - Animal Baby CostumesPink Lamb Newborn/infant Costume - Animal Baby Costumes

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animal nursery Archives - Pregnancy & Newborn MagazinePregnancy & Newborn Magazineanimal nursery Archives - Pregnancy & Newborn MagazinePregnancy & Newborn Magazine

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Tiny newborn panda | 16 dont-miss animal photos from July | MNN - Mother Nature NetworkTiny newborn panda | 16 don't-miss animal photos from July | MNN - Mother Nature Network

One of two newborn pandas is held up by a caretaker on July 11 at the Wolong National Nature Reserve in southwest Chinas ... Tiny newborn panda. One of two newborn pandas is held up by a caretaker on July 11 at the Wolong National Nature Reserve in ... Tiny newborn panda. One of two newborn pandas is held up by a caretaker on July 11 at the Wolong National Nature Reserve in ... 16 dont-miss animal photos from July. By: Catie Leary on July 30, 2012, 6:11 p.m.. ...
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Newborn Chicks Added to List of Animals That Know MathNewborn Chicks Added to List of Animals That Know Math

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Tonka 1986 Pound Puppies BLACK & WHITE PUPPY Newborn 7 Plush STUFFED ANIMAL Toy - Ad#: 5081155 - AddowayTonka 1986 Pound Puppies BLACK & WHITE PUPPY Newborn 7' Plush STUFFED ANIMAL Toy - Ad#: 5081155 - Addoway

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Baby and Toddler Blankets | Personalized Gifts for Newborns and Infants | Monogrammed Animal-Themed Baby Shower GiftsBaby and Toddler Blankets | Personalized Gifts for Newborns and Infants | Monogrammed Animal-Themed Baby Shower Gifts

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  • Results obtained provide evidence that myo-Ins induces cellular pathways involving Akt and show that (a) exposure of preimplantation embryos to myo-Ins increases the number of blastocysts available for uterine transfer and of delivered animals and (b) the developmental patterns of mice obtained from embryos cultured in the presence or absence of myo-Ins, up to three weeks of age, overlap. (hindawi.com)
  • If a mother cat has died or is otherwise unable or unwilling to care for her newborn kittens, special care must be taken to ensure their survival. (interestinganimals.net)
  • You can indulge this instinctive need by providing a moistened cloth on the tip of our finger and allowing the newborn kitten(s) to suckle several times per day. (interestinganimals.net)
  • FurReal is noted for its animatronic replications of creatures and domestic animals as an alternative to live pets, or emulating the behaviors of pets commonly desired by children including horses, cats, and dogs. (wikipedia.org)
  • I constantly scour the floor for splinters, bits of stuffed animal stuffing, shards of chewed plastic, resin eyeballs just the right size for swallowing, etc. (blogspot.com)