Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Neonatology: A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Nurseries, Hospital: Hospital facilities which provide care for newborn infants.Intensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Erythroblastosis, Fetal: A condition characterized by the abnormal presence of ERYTHROBLASTS in the circulation of the FETUS or NEWBORNS. It is a disorder due to BLOOD GROUP INCOMPATIBILITY, such as the maternal alloimmunization by fetal antigen RH FACTORS leading to HEMOLYSIS of ERYTHROCYTES, hemolytic anemia (ANEMIA, HEMOLYTIC), general edema (HYDROPS FETALIS), and SEVERE JAUNDICE IN NEWBORN.Hearing Tests: Part of an ear examination that measures the ability of sound to reach the brain.Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in metabolic processes resulting from inborn genetic mutations that are inherited or acquired in utero.Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Transient Tachypnea of the Newborn: Abnormal increase in RESPIRATORY RATE in the newborn. It is self-limiting and attributed to the delayed fetal lung fluid clearance often in CAESAREAN SECTION delivery.Infant, Premature, DiseasesFetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Hypoxia-Ischemia, Brain: A disorder characterized by a reduction of oxygen in the blood combined with reduced blood flow (ISCHEMIA) to the brain from a localized obstruction of a cerebral artery or from systemic hypoperfusion. Prolonged hypoxia-ischemia is associated with ISCHEMIC ATTACK, TRANSIENT; BRAIN INFARCTION; BRAIN EDEMA; COMA; and other conditions.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Hyperbilirubinemia, Neonatal: Accumulation of BILIRUBIN, a breakdown product of HEME PROTEINS, in the BLOOD during the first weeks of life. This may lead to NEONATAL JAUNDICE. The excess bilirubin may exist in the unconjugated (indirect) or the conjugated (direct) form. The condition may be self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) or pathological with toxic levels of bilirubin.Blood Specimen Collection: The taking of a blood sample to determine its character as a whole, to identify levels of its component cells, chemicals, gases, or other constituents, to perform pathological examination, etc.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Meconium: The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Congenital Hypothyroidism: A condition in infancy or early childhood due to an in-utero deficiency of THYROID HORMONES that can be caused by genetic or environmental factors, such as thyroid dysgenesis or HYPOTHYROIDISM in infants of mothers treated with THIOURACIL during pregnancy. Endemic cretinism is the result of iodine deficiency. Clinical symptoms include severe MENTAL RETARDATION, impaired skeletal development, short stature, and MYXEDEMA.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Colostrum: The thin, yellow, serous fluid secreted by the mammary glands during pregnancy and immediately postpartum before lactation begins. It consists of immunologically active substances, white blood cells, water, protein, fat, and carbohydrates.Vitamin K Deficiency Bleeding: Hemorrhage caused by vitamin K deficiency.Immunity, Maternally-Acquired: Resistance to a disease-causing agent induced by the introduction of maternal immunity into the fetus by transplacental transfer or into the neonate through colostrum and milk.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Home Childbirth: Childbirth taking place in the home.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Hyperoxia: An abnormal increase in the amount of oxygen in the tissues and organs.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Phototherapy: Treatment of disease by exposure to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Umbilical Cord: The flexible rope-like structure that connects a developing FETUS to the PLACENTA in mammals. The cord contains blood vessels which carry oxygen and nutrients from the mother to the fetus and waste products away from the fetus.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.Acyl-CoA Dehydrogenase: A flavoprotein oxidoreductase that has specificity for medium-chain fatty acids. It forms a complex with ELECTRON TRANSFERRING FLAVOPROTEINS and conveys reducing equivalents to UBIQUINONE.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Phenylketonurias: A group of autosomal recessive disorders marked by a deficiency of the hepatic enzyme PHENYLALANINE HYDROXYLASE or less frequently by reduced activity of DIHYDROPTERIDINE REDUCTASE (i.e., atypical phenylketonuria). Classical phenylketonuria is caused by a severe deficiency of phenylalanine hydroxylase and presents in infancy with developmental delay; SEIZURES; skin HYPOPIGMENTATION; ECZEMA; and demyelination in the central nervous system. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p952).Delivery Rooms: Hospital units equipped for childbirth.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Animals, Suckling: Young, unweaned mammals. Refers to nursing animals whether nourished by their biological mother, foster mother, or bottle fed.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Genetic Testing: Detection of a MUTATION; GENOTYPE; KARYOTYPE; or specific ALLELES associated with genetic traits, heritable diseases, or predisposition to a disease, or that may lead to the disease in descendants. It includes prenatal genetic testing.Kangaroo-Mother Care Method: A method of continuously holding a partially wrapped baby to the chest, involving skin-to-skin contact. Originally it was a method of caring for LOW-BIRTH-WEIGHT INFANT in developing countries and is now more widespread in developed nations. Aside from encouraging breast feeding, the extra sleep that the infant gets assists in regulating body temperature, helps the baby conserve energy, and redirects calorie expenditures toward growth and weight gain.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Hearing Loss: A general term for the complete or partial loss of the ability to hear from one or both ears.Neonatal Abstinence Syndrome: Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Birth Injuries: Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.Anoxia: Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Fat Necrosis: A condition in which the death of adipose tissue results in neutral fats being split into fatty acids and glycerol.Neurogenesis: Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.Ductus Arteriosus: A fetal blood vessel connecting the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta.Syphilis, Congenital: Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.Exchange Transfusion, Whole Blood: Repetitive withdrawal of small amounts of blood and replacement with donor blood until a large proportion of the blood volume has been exchanged. Used in treatment of fetal erythroblastosis, hepatic coma, sickle cell anemia, disseminated intravascular coagulation, septicemia, burns, thrombotic thrombopenic purpura, and fulminant malaria.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Resuscitation: The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Kernicterus: A term used pathologically to describe BILIRUBIN staining of the BASAL GANGLIA; BRAIN STEM; and CEREBELLUM and clinically to describe a syndrome associated with HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Clinical features include athetosis, MUSCLE SPASTICITY or hypotonia, impaired vertical gaze, and DEAFNESS. Nonconjugated bilirubin enters the brain and acts as a neurotoxin, often in association with conditions that impair the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER (e.g., SEPSIS). This condition occurs primarily in neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN), but may rarely occur in adults. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p613)Milk, HumanOxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Toxoplasmosis, Congenital: Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Neonatal Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Amino Acid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Disorders affecting amino acid metabolism. The majority of these disorders are inherited and present in the neonatal period with metabolic disturbances (e.g., ACIDOSIS) and neurologic manifestations. They are present at birth, although they may not become symptomatic until later in life.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Umbilicus: The pit in the center of the ABDOMINAL WALL marking the point where the UMBILICAL CORD entered in the FETUS.Carnitine: A constituent of STRIATED MUSCLE and LIVER. It is an amino acid derivative and an essential cofactor for fatty acid metabolism.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Hyperbilirubinemia: A condition characterized by an abnormal increase of BILIRUBIN in the blood, which may result in JAUNDICE. Bilirubin, a breakdown product of HEME, is normally excreted in the BILE or further catabolized before excretion in the urine.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hyaline Membrane Disease: A respiratory distress syndrome in newborn infants, usually premature infants with insufficient PULMONARY SURFACTANTS. The disease is characterized by the formation of a HYALINE-like membrane lining the terminal respiratory airspaces (PULMONARY ALVEOLI) and subsequent collapse of the lung (PULMONARY ATELECTASIS).Heel: The back (or posterior) of the FOOT in PRIMATES, found behind the ANKLE and distal to the TOES.Otoacoustic Emissions, Spontaneous: Self-generated faint acoustic signals from the inner ear (COCHLEA) without external stimulation. These faint signals can be recorded in the EAR CANAL and are indications of active OUTER AUDITORY HAIR CELLS. Spontaneous otoacoustic emissions are found in all classes of land vertebrates.Mandatory Testing: Testing or screening required by federal, state, or local law or other agencies for the diagnosis of specified conditions. It is usually limited to specific populations such as categories of health care providers, members of the military, and prisoners or to specific situations such as premarital examinations or donor screening.Pia Mater: The innermost layer of the three meninges covering the brain and spinal cord. It is the fine vascular membrane that lies under the ARACHNOID and the DURA MATER.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Heart Defects, Congenital: Developmental abnormalities involving structures of the heart. These defects are present at birth but may be discovered later in life.Skin Care: Maintenance of the hygienic state of the skin under optimal conditions of cleanliness and comfort. Effective in skin care are proper washing, bathing, cleansing, and the use of soaps, detergents, oils, etc. In various disease states, therapeutic and protective solutions and ointments are useful. The care of the skin is particularly important in various occupations, in exposure to sunlight, in neonates, and in PRESSURE ULCER.Oximetry: The determination of oxygen-hemoglobin saturation of blood either by withdrawing a sample and passing it through a classical photoelectric oximeter or by electrodes attached to some translucent part of the body like finger, earlobe, or skin fold. It includes non-invasive oxygen monitoring by pulse oximetry.Meconium Aspiration Syndrome: A condition caused by inhalation of MECONIUM into the LUNG of FETUS or NEWBORN, usually due to vigorous respiratory movements during difficult PARTURITION or respiratory system abnormalities. Meconium aspirate may block small airways leading to difficulties in PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE and ASPIRATION PNEUMONIA.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Rh-Hr Blood-Group System: Erythrocyte isoantigens of the Rh (Rhesus) blood group system, the most complex of all human blood groups. The major antigen Rh or D is the most common cause of erythroblastosis fetalis.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Dentate Gyrus: GRAY MATTER situated above the GYRUS HIPPOCAMPI. It is composed of three layers. The molecular layer is continuous with the HIPPOCAMPUS in the hippocampal fissure. The granular layer consists of closely arranged spherical or oval neurons, called GRANULE CELLS, whose AXONS pass through the polymorphic layer ending on the DENDRITES of PYRAMIDAL CELLS in the hippocampus.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Galactosemias: A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)Pulmonary Artery: The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.Audiometry, Evoked Response: A form of electrophysiologic audiometry in which an analog computer is included in the circuit to average out ongoing or spontaneous brain wave activity. A characteristic pattern of response to a sound stimulus may then become evident. Evoked response audiometry is known also as electric response audiometry.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Asphyxia: A pathological condition caused by lack of oxygen, manifested in impending or actual cessation of life.Mice, Inbred C57BLStreptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.NepalCohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Hearing Disorders: Conditions that impair the transmission of auditory impulses and information from the level of the ear to the temporal cortices, including the sensorineural pathways.Hypoxia, Brain: A reduction in brain oxygen supply due to ANOXEMIA (a reduced amount of oxygen being carried in the blood by HEMOGLOBIN), or to a restriction of the blood supply to the brain, or both. Severe hypoxia is referred to as anoxia, and is a relatively common cause of injury to the central nervous system. Prolonged brain anoxia may lead to BRAIN DEATH or a PERSISTENT VEGETATIVE STATE. Histologically, this condition is characterized by neuronal loss which is most prominent in the HIPPOCAMPUS; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; CEREBELLUM; and inferior olives.BrazilFollow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pulmonary Surfactants: Substances and drugs that lower the SURFACE TENSION of the mucoid layer lining the PULMONARY ALVEOLI.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Sclerema Neonatorum: A severe, sometimes fatal, disorder of adipose tissue occurring chiefly in preterm or debilitated infants suffering from an underlying illness and manifested by a diffuse, nonpitting induration of the affected tissue. The skin becomes cold, yellowish, mottled, and inflexible.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Heterozygote Detection: Identification of genetic carriers for a given trait.Trypsinogen: The inactive proenzyme of trypsin secreted by the pancreas, activated in the duodenum via cleavage by enteropeptidase. (Stedman, 25th ed)Blood Gas Analysis: Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.Embryonic and Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.Sepsis: Systemic inflammatory response syndrome with a proven or suspected infectious etiology. When sepsis is associated with organ dysfunction distant from the site of infection, it is called severe sepsis. When sepsis is accompanied by HYPOTENSION despite adequate fluid infusion, it is called SEPTIC SHOCK.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Sweat: The fluid excreted by the SWEAT GLANDS. It consists of water containing sodium chloride, phosphate, urea, ammonia, and other waste products.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Vernix Caseosa: An unctuous substance composed of sebum and desquamated epithelial cells, which covers the skin of the fetus.Respiration: The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.Body Temperature: The measure of the level of heat of a human or animal.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Hearing Loss, Bilateral: Partial hearing loss in both ears.Abnormalities, MultipleHead: The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.Intestinal Atresia: Congenital obliteration of the lumen of the intestine, with the ILEUM involved in 50% of the cases and the JEJUNUM and DUODENUM following in frequency. It is the most frequent cause of INTESTINAL OBSTRUCTION in NEWBORNS. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Parental Consent: Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.Lysosomal Storage Diseases: Inborn errors of metabolism characterized by defects in specific lysosomal hydrolases and resulting in intracellular accumulation of unmetabolized substrates.Phlebotomy: The techniques used to draw blood from a vein for diagnostic purposes or for treatment of certain blood disorders such as erythrocytosis, hemochromatosis, polycythemia vera, and porphyria cutanea tarda.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)HLA-DRB3 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that includes over 50 allelic variants. The HLA-DRB3 beta-chain subtype is associated with HLA-DR52 serological subtype.Ophthalmia Neonatorum: Acute conjunctival inflammation in the newborn, usually caused by maternal gonococcal infection. The causative agent is NEISSERIA GONORRHOEAE. The baby's eyes are contaminated during passage through the birth canal.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Sus scrofa: A species of SWINE, in the family Suidae, comprising a number of subspecies including the domestic pig Sus scrofa domestica.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Perinatology: The branch of medicine dealing with the fetus and infant during the perinatal period. The perinatal period begins with the twenty-eighth week of gestation and ends twenty-eight days after birth. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Tandem Mass Spectrometry: A mass spectrometry technique using two (MS/MS) or more mass analyzers. With two in tandem, the precursor ions are mass-selected by a first mass analyzer, and focused into a collision region where they are then fragmented into product ions which are then characterized by a second mass analyzer. A variety of techniques are used to separate the compounds, ionize them, and introduce them to the first mass analyzer. For example, for in GC-MS/MS, GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY is involved in separating relatively small compounds by GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY prior to injecting them into an ionization chamber for the mass selection.Hexachlorophene: A chlorinated bisphenol antiseptic with a bacteriostatic action against Gram-positive organisms, but much less effective against Gram-negative organisms. It is mainly used in soaps and creams and is an ingredient of various preparations used for skin disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p797)HLA-DRB4 Chains: A subtype of HLA-DRB beta chains that is associated with the HLA-DR53 serological subtype.Infant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Child Health Services: Organized services to provide health care for children.Hypothermia, Induced: Abnormally low BODY TEMPERATURE that is intentionally induced in warm-blooded animals by artificial means. In humans, mild or moderate hypothermia has been used to reduce tissue damages, particularly after cardiac or spinal cord injuries and during subsequent surgeries.Pulmonary Alveoli: Small polyhedral outpouchings along the walls of the alveolar sacs, alveolar ducts and terminal bronchioles through the walls of which gas exchange between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood takes place.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Obstetric Labor Complications: Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.IndiaAmniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Lung Compliance: The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.

The role of colorstrum on the occurrence of immunoglobulin G subclasses and antibody production in neonatal goats. (1/22591)

Quantitative determinations of IgG1 and IgG2, in one group of colostrum-fed and one group of colostrum-deprived neonatal goats revealed that the occurrence of the IgG1 subclass preceeded that of the IgG2 in both cases. In the colostrum-fed animals the IgG2 appeared, on an average, in the fourth week of life whereas in the colostrum-deprived animals the IgG2 was detected as early as three weeks after birth. At the age of twelve weeks the mean concentrations for IgG, and IgG2 were higher in the animals deprived of colostrum. The immune response to human gamma globulin was studied in colostrum-fed and colostrum-deprived neonatal goats which were immunized at birth and again after four and eight weeks. Following the first two antigen administrations a significantly higher response was obtained in the colostrum-fed neonates. However, the third injection determined a similar response in both groups. A marked suppressive effect on the immune response was observed in colostrum-fed neonatal goats when specific antibodies were present in the colostrum after preimmunization of the mothers with human gamma globulin.  (+info)

Values of three coagulation screening tests of precolostral calves. (2/22591)

Prothrombin times, partial thromboplastin times and platelet counts were performed to determine normal values and to screen for coagulation defects of precolostral calves. The precolostral calves were in two groups: one group of a few calves was tested two years before the second larger group. The results for both groups were similar. The tests were performed on postcolostral calves and on mature cows to compare their values with those of precolostral calves. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the first group were 18.8 seconds and 54.8 seconds respectively. The mean values of prothrombin times and partial thromboplastin times of precolostral calves in the second group were 18.8 seconds and 50.8 seconds respectively. The mean platelet count was 422,400/cmm for the first group and 482,800/cmm for the second group.  (+info)

Perinatal nephropathies. (3/22591)

The purpose of this paper is to review the development of the mammalian kidney and to assess the influence that various perinatal manipulations may have on the developmental process either morphologically or functionally. Immature kidneys in general have less functional capacity than adult kidneys and a low rate of glomerular filtration, perhaps related to renal blood flow, which appears to limit the disposition of a fluid or solute load. Tubular reabsorption is also limited leading to the urinary loss of glucose, amino acids, bicarbonate and phosphate. Although the relatively low function of the immature kidney is a normal part of development, its capacity to respond under conditions of stress may be less adequate than in adults. An additional concern is that a variety of perinatal manipulations, such as the incidental or accidental ingestion of a chemical, may lead to varying degrees of altered morphogenesis or functional development of the kidney. Chemical induced renal anomalies may be of several types, but in typical teratology experiments hydronephrosis may be the most frequent observation. The functional consequences of these renal malformations may be lethal or inconsequential or while an animal may be able to survive and develop normally in the presence of a renal malformation, it is possible that a stressful situation would unmask a functional malformation which could compromise survival. Thus, some renal abnormalities may be subtle enough to go unnoticed without experimental tests. Without such tests it is impossible to evaluate the effect of functional alterations on successful adaptation.  (+info)

VEGF is required for growth and survival in neonatal mice. (4/22591)

We employed two independent approaches to inactivate the angiogenic protein VEGF in newborn mice: inducible, Cre-loxP- mediated gene targeting, or administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, a soluble VEGF receptor chimeric protein. Partial inhibition of VEGF achieved by inducible gene targeting resulted in increased mortality, stunted body growth and impaired organ development, most notably of the liver. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG, which achieves a higher degree of VEGF inhibition, resulted in nearly complete growth arrest and lethality. Ultrastructural analysis documented alterations in endothelial and other cell types. Histological and biochemical changes consistent with liver and renal failure were observed. Endothelial cells isolated from the liver of mFlt(1-3)-IgG-treated neonates demonstrated an increased apoptotic index, indicating that VEGF is required not only for proliferation but also for survival of endothelial cells. However, such treatment resulted in less significant alterations as the animal matured, and the dependence on VEGF was eventually lost some time after the fourth postnatal week. Administration of mFlt(1-3)-IgG to juvenile mice failed to induce apoptosis in liver endothelial cells. Thus, VEGF is essential for growth and survival in early postnatal life. However, in the fully developed animal, VEGF is likely to be involved primarily in active angiogenesis processes such as corpus luteum development.  (+info)

Explanations for the clinical and microscopic localization of lesions in pemphigus foliaceus and vulgaris. (5/22591)

Patients with pemphigus foliaceus (PF) have blisters on skin, but not mucous membranes, whereas patients with pemphigus vulgaris (PV) develop blisters on mucous membranes and/or skin. PF and PV blisters are due to loss of keratinocyte cell-cell adhesion in the superficial and deep epidermis, respectively. PF autoantibodies are directed against desmoglein (Dsg) 1; PV autoantibodies bind Dsg3 or both Dsg3 and Dsg1. In this study, we test the hypothesis that coexpression of Dsg1 and Dsg3 in keratinocytes protects against pathology due to antibody-induced dysfunction of either one alone. Using passive transfer of pemphigus IgG to normal and DSG3(null) neonatal mice, we show that in the areas of epidermis and mucous membrane that coexpress Dsg1 and Dsg3, antibodies against either desmoglein alone do not cause spontaneous blisters, but antibodies against both do. In areas (such as superficial epidermis of normal mice) where Dsg1 without Dsg3 is expressed, anti-Dsg1 antibodies alone can cause blisters. Thus, the anti-desmoglein antibody profiles in pemphigus sera and the normal tissue distributions of Dsg1 and Dsg3 determine the sites of blister formation. These studies suggest that pemphigus autoantibodies inhibit the adhesive function of desmoglein proteins, and demonstrate that either Dsg1 or Dsg3 alone is sufficient to maintain keratinocyte adhesion.  (+info)

C/EBPalpha regulates generation of C/EBPbeta isoforms through activation of specific proteolytic cleavage. (6/22591)

C/EBPalpha and C/EBPbeta are intronless genes that can produce several N-terminally truncated isoforms through the process of alternative translation initiation at downstream AUG codons. C/EBPbeta has been reported to produce four isoforms: full-length 38-kDa C/EBPbeta, 35-kDa LAP (liver-enriched transcriptional activator protein), 21-kDa LIP (liver-enriched transcriptional inhibitory protein), and a 14-kDa isoform. In this report, we investigated the mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms are generated in the liver and in cultured cells. Using an in vitro translation system, we found that LIP can be generated by two mechanisms: alternative translation and a novel mechanism-specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. Studies of mice in which the C/EBPalpha gene had been deleted (C/EBPalpha-/-) showed that the regulation of C/EBPbeta proteolysis is dependent on C/EBPalpha. The induction of C/EBPalpha in cultured cells leads to induced cleavage of C/EBPbeta to generate the LIP isoform. We characterized the cleavage activity in mouse liver extracts and found that the proteolytic cleavage activity is specific to prenatal and newborn livers, is sensitive to chymostatin, and is completely abolished in C/EBPalpha-/- animals. The lack of cleavage activity in the livers of C/EBPalpha-/- mice correlates with the decreased levels of LIP in the livers of these animals. Analysis of LIP production during liver regeneration showed that, in this system, the transient induction of LIP is dependent on the third AUG codon and most likely involves translational control. We propose that there are two mechanisms by which C/EBPbeta isoforms might be generated in the liver and in cultured cells: one that is determined by translation and a second that involves C/EBPalpha-dependent, specific proteolytic cleavage of full-length C/EBPbeta. The latter mechanism implicates C/EBPalpha in the regulation of posttranslational generation of the dominant negative C/EBPbeta isoform, LIP.  (+info)

Postnatal growth failure, short life span, and early onset of cellular senescence and subsequent immortalization in mice lacking the xeroderma pigmentosum group G gene. (7/22591)

The xeroderma pigmentosum group G (XP-G) gene (XPG) encodes a structure-specific DNA endonuclease that functions in nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP-G patients show various symptoms, ranging from mild cutaneous abnormalities to severe dermatological impairments. In some cases, patients exhibit growth failure and life-shortening and neurological dysfunctions, which are characteristics of Cockayne syndrome (CS). The known XPG protein function as the 3' nuclease in NER, however, cannot explain the development of CS in certain XP-G patients. To gain an insight into the functions of the XPG protein, we have generated and examined mice lacking xpg (the mouse counterpart of the human XPG gene) alleles. The xpg-deficient mice exhibited postnatal growth failure and underwent premature death. Since XPA-deficient mice, which are totally defective in NER, do not show such symptoms, our data indicate that XPG performs an additional function(s) besides its role in NER. Our in vitro studies showed that primary embryonic fibroblasts isolated from the xpg-deficient mice underwent premature senescence and exhibited the early onset of immortalization and accumulation of p53.  (+info)

Thyroid hormone effects on Krox-24 transcription in the post-natal mouse brain are developmentally regulated but are not correlated with mitosis. (8/22591)

Krox-24 (NGFI-A, Egr-1) is an immediate-early gene encoding a zinc finger transcription factor. As Krox-24 is expressed in brain areas showing post-natal neurogenesis during a thyroid hormone (T3)-sensitive period, we followed T3 effects on Krox-24 expression in newborn mice. We analysed whether regulation was associated with changes in mitotic activity in the subventricular zone and the cerebellum. In vivo T3-dependent Krox-24 transcription was studied by polyethylenimine-based gene transfer. T3 increased transcription from the Krox-24 promoter in both areas studied at post-natal day 2, but was without effect at day 6. An intact thyroid hormone response element (TRE) in the Krox-24 promoter was necessary for these inductions. These stage-dependent effects were also seen in endogenous Krox-24 mRNA levels: activation at day 2 and no effect at day 6. Moreover, similar results were obtained by examining beta-galactosidase expression in heterozygous mice in which one allele of the Krox-24 gene was disrupted with an inframe Lac-Z insertion. However, bromodeoxyuridine incorporation showed mitosis to continue through to day 6. We conclude first, that T3 activates Krox-24 transcription during early post-natal mitosis but that this effect is extinguished as development proceeds and second, loss of T3-dependent Krox-24 expression is not correlated with loss of mitotic activity.  (+info)

TY - JOUR. T1 - Neonatal injection of Lewis rats with recombinant Vβ8.2 induces T cell but not B cell tolerance and increased severity of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. AU - Vainiene, M.. AU - Burrows, G. G.. AU - Ariail, K.. AU - Robey, I.. AU - Vandenbark, A. A.. AU - Offner, H.. PY - 1996/1/1. Y1 - 1996/1/1. N2 - In Lewis rats with experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mediated by Vβ8.2 effector cells, anti-idiotypic T cells and antibodies could be boosted by injection of Vβ8.2 peptides, inducing both T cells and antibodies that reduced the severity and shortened the course of disease. However, EAE in Lewis rats is self-limiting, and we sought to determine if the anti-idiotypic response contributed to the natural recovery process. In a previous study, we found that adult tolerance induced to one of the regulatory idiotopes, Vβ8.2-44-54, caused worsening of EAE, implicating response to this epitope in recovery from EAE. However, neonatally-induced tolerance to ...
In todays edition we focus on the nutritional benefits of colostrum in mammal newborns such as calves, kids, lambs, puppies, piglets, foals, cubs, and pups.
The mammalian fetus affixed to the uterine wall in some ways resembles a homograft, but maternal homograft immunity even when specifically directed against her fetuses fails to destroy them. The placental barrier appears to be critical in protecting the fetus against maternal immunologic attack. In order to evaluate the means by which it affords protection, we have measured in rabbits the transfer of cytotoxic antibody from mother to fetus. When the offspring were not the specific targets for maternal antibody, we found titers of cytotoxic antibody in the newborn animals at or near maternal levels in 16 of 18 cases (89 per cent), demonstrating the ability of this antibody to cross the rabbit placenta. When the offspring were appropriate targets for antibody, however, 11 of 18 newborn animals (61 per cent) had no demonstrable titer. We believe that in these latter cases, antibody had become fixed to antigenic sites and thereby had been removed from the fetal circulation. There was, however, no ...
Besides the gross-out factor, however, there are other issues with this. First off, there is always a little concern that the dog will not take kindly to the boys matter-of-factly taking a toy out of his mouth. So far this hasnt been a problem, but it is always a worry. Secondly, the dog toys often have buttons and pieces that can come off and will not be safe for babies. Thirdly, the baby toys do not hold up to dog chewing, meaning our lovely set wood blocks that we searched for no less than 45 minutes at our local Target to find is now short about five blocks ...
Existing neonatal treatment intensity models can predict mortality and morbidity. Discriminatory performance as measured by the area under the receiver operating curve is poorest for long-term morbidity (0.59) and highest for in-hospital mortality in infants weighing 1000-1499 g for NTISS measured at 72 h post admission (0.958) [34, 39]. Calibration was reported by Gray et al. only who found a close agreement between observed and predicted in-hospital mortality by the Hosmer-Lemeshow test [19]. Using a variety of tests of statistical association rather than predictive performance, treatment intensity was found also to be associated with mortality, morbidity and resource utilisation [19, 35, 37, 39, 40].. Discriminatory performance of neonatal treatment intensity models for predicting in-hospital mortality measured by AUROC ranges from 0.749 to 0.958 [38, 39]. The recommended threshold for good discrimination is 0.8 [11]. The reported performance therefore suggests that the treatment scoring ...
In order to study the various trends and patterns prevailing in the concerned market, Fact.MR has included a new report titled "Fetal and Neonatal Heart Monitor Market" to its wide online database including upcoming trends and growth factors through 2018-2028. This research assessment offers a clear insight about the influential factors that are expected to transform the global market in the near future. The report studies the "Fetal and Neonatal Heart Monitor Market" worldwide, especially in North America, Europe, Southeast Asia, India and Other Regions with production, size, growth, revenue, consumption, import and export in these regions. The intelligent report also anticipates that the market would grow at a constructive CAGR until 2028.. Request for Sample of this Global Fetal and Neonatal Heart Monitor Market Research Report Here - https://www.factmr.com/connectus/sample?flag=S&rep_id=750. Preterm birth is one of the most prevalent cause of stillbirths, or fetal mortality, and neonatal ...
In this Application, we describe a protocol to generate highly purified and viable astrocytes from neonatal mouse brain tissue. - France
Pressure loads were applied to the right ventricles of newborn lambs and adult sheep by surgical narrowing of the lumen of the main pulmonary artery. Significant increases in right ventricular weight and in the diameter of the right coronary artery occurred in both age groups of animals, compared with corresponding control animals. The evidence suggests that the degree of increase in the arterial diameters, relative to the increase in ventricular muscle mass, is similar in both newborn and adult animals. However, the results suggest also that the capacity to respond to pressure loads, in terms of increased muscle mass, is relatively greater in the newborn animals than in the adults.. ...
The isolated perfused liver technique is the in vitro system most nearly comparable to the intact liver for experimental investigations on drug metabolism. The model currently used employs liver from different species, but only adults. For the first time, we have set up an experimental investigation involving perfusion of the liver of newborn animals. Using theophylline (TH) as tool drug, an in vivo/in vitro and adult/newborn disposition study was made in the rabbit. After a 10 mg/kg dose iv to adult rabbits and ip to rabbits at birth, the pharmacokinetic profile of TH was analyzed during liver perfusion at comparable TH concentrations in the medium. A few biochemical variables were recorded. No age-related differences were observed in the release of glutamic-oxalacetic transaminase and lactate dehydrogenase over the perfusion time. O2 consumption was higher in adults than in newborns, in accordance with the lower metabolic capacity of the neonatal liver, supported by the lower values of ...
Large populations (up to 600/cell) of spherical, electron-opaque granules ∼0.3 to 0.4 µ in diameter are characteristically found in muscle fibers of mammalian atria. They are absent in muscle fibers of the ventricles. The granules are concentrated in the sarcoplasmic core and occur in lesser numbers in the sarcoplasmic layers between myofibrils and under the plasma membrane. Their intimate association with a central voluminous Golgi complex and the frequent occurrence of material reminiscent of the granular content within the cisternae of the Golgi complex suggest that the latter is involved in the formation of the atrial granules. Atrial granules are larger and more numerous in smaller species (rat, mouse), and generally smaller and less numerous in larger mammals (dog, cat, human); they are absent from the atrial fibers of very young fetuses (rat) but are present in those of newborn animals. A small population of bodies containing glycogen particles and remnants of the endoplasmic reticulum ...
Functional testing showed that electrical stimulation of muscle fibers caused limbs to contract with 80% strength of what would be seen in newborn animals.
Great posts. Thanks. I am so glad to find this site for you have an appreciation for animals like I do. We were planning to buy 2 foxes from different sellers so we would be a propagator. It is the only way to keep some. Newborn animals is nothing new to us. We are used to around the clock care for new born animals. From dogs cats, llamas, horses, bot bellied pigs etc, etc. I fully understand the amount of work it will take to work with a fox. Although I do admit I lack the experience I do not lack the passion. We have to start some time and this is what the forum is for those who can not have more experience hands on. We do live in country so no ordinances or neighbors. The location of where I though of putting them is in a separate building which is on a slab of concrete. Has full plumbing and even a shower in there. After reading posts I plan of converting a window to an outdoor pen as well so they can have the best of both worlds. In the room I wasnplannin on filling it with dirt, woodchips, ...
Experience a busy spring day on a working 19th century farm! Help with spring planting in the large kitchen garden, sow oats in the fields or wash clothes in a washtub. Authentic demonstrations include blacksmithing, plowing with the horses and visiting newborn animals. Craft activities, shuttle rides to and from the Nature Center, refreshments and games make this a fun event.. This event is for all ages. Cost is $4 per person or $16 per family. Children ages 3 and younger are free. ...
Super 7+ Navel Dip is an umbilical cord dry-out and protective solution for newborn animals. This is a safe & effective alternative to strong iodine. The Navel Dip is NOT intended for use on wounds.
Find a Ole Miss Rebels NCAA Newborn Heart Short Sleeve Creeper at lids.com today! With our huge selection of Ole Miss Rebels gear, youll find what you need.
Intracerebral administration of recombinant adeno-associated vector (AAV) has been performed in several clinical trials. However, delivery into the brain requires multiple injections and is not efficient to target the spinal cord, thus limiting its applications. To assess widespread and less invasive strategies, we tested intravenous (IV) or intrathecal (that is, in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)) delivery of a rAAVrh10-egfp vector in adult and neonate rats and studied the effect of the age at injection on neurotropism. IV delivery is more efficient in neonates and targets predominantly Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and sensory neurons of the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. A single intra-CSF administration of AAVrh10, single strand or oversized self-complementary, is efficient for the targeting of neurons in the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, brainstem and spinal cord. Green fluorescent protein (GFP) expression is more widespread in neonates when compared with adults. More than 50% of motor
TY - JOUR. T1 - Abnormal maturation of cerebral cortex and behavioral deficit in adult rats after neonatal administration of antibodies to ganglioside.. AU - Kasarskis, Edward J.. AU - Karpiak, Stephen E.. AU - Rapport, Maurice M.. AU - Yu, Robert K.. AU - Bass, Norman H.. PY - 1981/1/1. Y1 - 1981/1/1. N2 - Five-day-old rats received a single injection (50 microliter) of antiserum to ganglioside into the cisterna magna and were compared to control animals injected with the antiserum which had been absorbed with pure GM1 ganglioside to remove the specific antibodies. Both groups showed normal rates of body growth. However, animals receiving antiganglioside serum had, at 60 days of age, impaired performance when tested on a complex learning task (DRL) as well as chemical and morphological alterations in the somatosensory cerebral cortex. Gross morphology and wet weight of whole brain were normal in both groups. Microchemical analysis of somatosensory isocortex revealed a normal content of total ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Plates 34A, 34B Lower Thoracic Section 1741 Total area: 1.6474 mm2Plates 35A, 35B Upper Lumbar Section 1821 Total area: 2.7717 mm2Plates 36A,
Video articles in JoVE about cranial nerves include Ocular Kinematics Measured by In Vitro Stimulation of the Cranial Nerves in the Turtle, Preparation of Rhythmically-active In Vitro Neonatal Rodent Brainstem-spinal Cord and Thin Slice, Intra-Operative Neural Monitoring of Thyroid Surgery in a Porcine Model, Imaging Calcium Responses in GFP-tagged Neurons of Hypothalamic Mouse Brain Slices, Combining Lipophilic dye, in situ Hybridization, Immunohistochemistry, and Histology, Slice Preparation, Organotypic Tissue Culturing and Luciferase Recording of Clock Gene Activity in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus, Biomarkers in an Animal Model for Revealing Neural, Hematologic, and Behavioral Correlates of PTSD, Primary Orthotopic Glioma Xenografts Recapitulate Infiltrative Growth and Isocitrate Dehydrogenase I Mutation, Preparation of Acute Hippocampal Slices from Rats and Transgenic Mice for the Study of Synaptic Alterations during Aging and Amyloid Pathology, Intranasal Delivery of
El objetivo de este protocolo es demostrar la preparación, cultivo, tratamiento e inmunotinción de los explantes cocleares murinos...
Colony stimulating factor-1 (CSF-1) regulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of mononuclear phagocytes. To determine whether CSF-1 plays a role in the perinatal development of these cells, CSF-1 protein and mRNA expression in tissues and serum from fetal/neonatal mice and their mothers was analyzed. As fetal/neonatal age increased, CSF-1 concentrations ...
From the evolutionary point of view it is quite interesting that often males and females are born in approximately similar numbers despite the fact stated by Rap, that you only need a few males to fertilize dozens of females, or even more. In many species this obviously has a lot to do with competition: the nature makes males to fight for their right to have offspring, thus ensuring that the best genes survive. But if so, why not make 2/3 males and 1/3 of females to make the competition even more fierce? Or make 1/3 males and 2/3 females simply to allow for more babies to be born. Also, human males are born at a slightly higher rate than females, is this because more males get themselves killed before they reach adult age ...
Oaktown Pup gonna give it to ya! After dancing to the latest Fetch! Pet Care Video Of the Week, youll know exactly what these talented pups are serving!
When you are feeling sore after giving birth, it is hard to even contemplate a poo. 10 expert tips to manage to your postnatal poos without pain.
This girl is in a high kill gas shelter - she gave birth to 9 pups soon after being brought in. Nothing like leaving her and the pups on a concrete floor - a blanket or a towel at least would be nice. Shes obviously scared to death. Please, please cross-post - this poor mom needs help fast for her and her babies ...
Sav-A-Caf Ultra Start Multi is a versatile multi-species colostrum supplement that is nutritionally complete. Provides 30 g protein from 100% pure Bovine colostrum.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cell formation in the cortical layers of the developing human cerebellum. AU - Ábrahám, H.. AU - Tornóczky, T.. AU - Kosztolányi, G.. AU - Séress, L.. PY - 2001/2/1. Y1 - 2001/2/1. N2 - Cell proliferation has been studied in the human cerebellar cortex between the 24th gestational week and the 12th postnatal month. Intensive cell formation has been found in the external granular layer (EGL) of the human cerebellum, where the highest cell proliferation rate occurs between the 28th and 34th gestational weeks. This is followed by a gradual decrease that lasts up to the eighth postnatal month. As late in development as the fifth postnatal month, still 30% of cells of the EGL are labeled with the monoclonal antibody Ki-67, which is specific for dividing cells. The width of the EGL remained unchanged from the 28th gestational week to the end of the first postnatal month, when it starts to decrease and completely disappears by the 11th postnatal month. Large number of Ki-67 labeled ...
The purpose of this study was to gain more information on the structure of different layers of renal arteryand comparing these structures in post-natal male and female sheep. To do so, right and left renal arteries of6 adult and 6 newborn animals were dissected; the middle parts of arteries were only collected. After tissueprocessing using paraffin embedding method, 5-6-μm sections were cut and stained with haematoxylin andeosin, green Massons trichrome and Verhoeffs elastic fiber methods. Three layers were identified in thewall of artery in both sexes. In tunica media the number of rows of circular smooth muscle cells was 15-25rows in newborn and 30-40 in adult sheep. External elastic membrane was visible in adult and wasstructurally thinner than the internal membrane. Tunica adventitia was visible in all samples and collagenfibers and smooth muscles bundle were distinguished. The existence of these muscle bundles in externallayer of renal artery was not reported previously in domestic animals and
Fact.MR has adopted multi-disciplinary approach to shed light on the evolution of the global Fetal and Neonatal Heart Monitor market during the historical period of 2013 - 2017. The study presents a deep-dive assessment of the current growth dynamics, major avenues in the estimation year of 2018, and key prospects over the forecast period 2018 - 2028.. Extensive rounds of primary and a comprehensive secondary research have been leveraged by the analysts at Fact.MR to arrive at various estimations and projections of the FETAL AND NEONATAL HEART MONITOR market, both at global and regional levels. The analysts have used numerous industry-wide prominent business intelligence tools to consolidate facts, figures, and market data into revenue estimations and projections in the FETAL AND NEONATAL HEART MONITOR market.. Global sales of fetal and neonatal heart monitors are likely to surpass 261,000 units in 2018, with rising adoption in the US driving sales. Cardiotocographs remain the highest selling ...
T cell development is under tight control of the thymic microenvironment. In turn, the integrity of the thymic microenvironment depends on the physical presence of developing T lymphocytes, a phenomenon designated thymic crosstalk. We previously reported, using a novel mouse strain which has defects in both the thymic medina and cortex, that the induction of thymic cortex by bone marrow (BM) or fetal liver-derived T cell progenitors could be achieved on day 16 or 17 of gestation, but could not be induced in adulthood. Here, we further define the time window for this induction by prothymocytes. We first show that the induction of thymic cortex can be achieved during the neonatal stage. In 2 to 4 day post-partal neonates, BM injection could fully reconstituted the thymic structure and T cell compartments. Mice more than 4 days old showed decreased susceptibility to reconstitution. After 8 days, the susceptibility diminished. Next, we tested whether the induction could be obtained by prothymocytes
Ian Tizzard (From Proceedings Ruvasa Congress 2016). When a mammal is born, it emerges from the sterile uterus into an environment where it is immediately exposed to a host of microorganisms. Its surfaces acquire a complex microbial flora within hours. If it is to survive, the newborn animal must be able to control this microbial invasion. In practice, the adaptive immune system takes some time to become fully functional, and innate mechanisms are responsible for the initial resistance to infection. In the domestic mammals, the adaptive immune system is fully developed at birth but cannot function at adult levels for several weeks. The complete development of adaptive immunity depends on antigenic stimulation. Thus, newborn mammals are vulnerable to infection for the first few weeks of life. They need assistance in defending themselves at this time. This temporary help is provided by the mother in the form of antibodies from colostrum and milk. The passive transfer of immunity from mother to ...
Due to the special growth and developmental characteristics of newborn infants, VILI is thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of neonatal chronic lung disease, which has an adverse effect on the survival rate and the quality of life for newborns with ALI/ARDS. To study newborn ALI/ARDS, newborn animals, such as piglets,5,6 rats,7 and rabbits,8 have been used as animal models. Because the organ development, lung volume, and birth weight of newborn piglets resemble those of newborn infants, the current study used induced ALI/ARDS in newborn piglets.. One of the aims in this study was to compare the histopathological features of the lung damage in gravitation-dependent and gravitation-nondependent regions. Compared to the gravitation-nondependent region, the gravitation-dependent region displayed increased lung swelling and hemorrhaging, and damage to the alveolar integrity and organization. We observed increased inflammatory cell infiltration, edema formation, and hemorrhages, ...
A light-and electron-microscopic study of pig hepatocytes from late prenatal to early neonatal animals shows changes which reflect an increasing rate of synthetic activity. The granular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in the prenatal pig hepatocyte is situated along the periphery of the cytoplasm and in the region immediately surrounding the nucleus. Mitochondria are most abundant in the area adjacent to the nucleus, while the Golgi complex is generally located in the region of the bile canaliculus. The remaining portion of the hepatocyte is occupied with glycogen. A few hours after birth the hepatocyte increases about twofold in size with the nucleus shifting from a peripheral to a more centrally located position. The glycogen decreases quickly coincident with a rapid increase in the amount of granular ER and the dispersion of the mitochondria throughout the cell. The Golgi complex becomes distended and numerous vesicles appear in its immediate vicinity containing a moderately dense material. ...
Durvet Soluble Colostrum Powder designed to assist in the replacement of colostrum in deficient and newborn calves, sheep and goats. Dried colostrum provides a source of maternal antibodies and protein; lactobacillus organisms assist in the establishment of beneficial microflora in newborn animals.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Copper in fetal and neonatal development.. AU - Hurley, L. S.. AU - Keen, Carl L. AU - Lönnerdal, B.. PY - 1980. Y1 - 1980. N2 - The essentially of copper for normal fetal and neonatal development has been well documented, although copper metabolism during this period is poorly understood. The dietary requirement for copper is influenced by genetic background. The neurological phenotypic characteristics of the mutant gene quaking (qk) in mice resemble in part those of copper-deficient animals. Supplementation of the maternal diet with copper during pregnancy and lactation, or during lactation alone, greatly reduced the frequency of tremors characteristic of these mutants, and brought the otherwise low copper concentrations in the brain to normal. Prenatal copper supplementation of crinkled (cr) mice increased neonatal survival and produced nearly normal development of skin and hair. Non-supplemented cr/cr mice showed anaemia at 21 days of age which disappeared later. Similarly, ...
It has been speculated whether the metabolism of the pre-implantation embryo may be reflected on the pregnancy and characteristics of the newborn animal. The present study investigated whether respiration rates of individual embryos were correlated with gestation length, type of parturition, birth weight, sex, and viability of the offspring. In-vivo embryos (n = 47) were recovered on day 7 from 11 superovulated and inseminated Holstein-Friesian cows and embryonic respiration rates were measured individually by nanorespirometry. The embryos were classified according to morphological quality (I, II, III), stage of development, and diameter and were subsequently transferred individually (n = 43) to synchronized recipients. Gestation length of the recipients (n = 22) was calculated and the type of parturition (no assistance, light traction, heavy traction, or caesarean section) recorded. Sex, weight, and condition of the calves at birth (weak, normal, or very active) were also assessed. Results were ...
Transport systems for organic compounds are immature in the kidney of most newborn animals. Measured in vitro, uptake of p-aminohippuric acid (PAH) into renal cortical slices is low in tissue from 2-week-old rabbits, peaks at 4 weeks and declines to adult levels. To minimize limitations encountered with the slice technique, a separated tubule preparation was employed to estimate transport. Segments of proximal tubules were prepared by incubating renal cortex in 0.375% collagenase-Ringer solution. The tubules were washed, filtered, suspended in a Ringer-acetate solution containing dilute PAH, oxygenated and incubated at 25°C. The tubules from young animals consumed oxygen to the same extent as those from adult. Intracellular concentrations of sodium and potassium were similar at each age tested. Maximal PAH uptake (T/M ratio) was Obtained after approximately 30 minutes of incubation in tissue from animals of all ages. Adult T/M ratios were significantly higher in the presence of acetate. The ...
Science/Animal: CBD prevented the brain from damage due to lack of oxygen in newborns. In a study with rats administration of CBD prevented newborn animals from the consequences of lack of oxygen supply, namely disturbance of myelination of nerve cells and associated functional impairment.. Health Research Institute Puerta de Hierro Majadahonda, Madrid, Spain.. Ceprián M, et al. Front Pharmacol. 2019;10:1131.. Science/ Cells: How CBD reduces inflammation of brain cells. Studies of microglia cells showed that CBD exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by, among other things, antioxidant effects on the microglia.. The authors wrote that these results "further confirm that CBD can have therapeutic effect under conditions where neuro-inflammatory processes are present.". Sorbonne, your Cerveau and the Moelle épinière (ICM), Paris, France Institute.. Dos-Santos-Pereira M, et al. Glia, 24. October 2019. Science / Animal: CBD can be useful in Parkinsons disease and tardive dyskinesia The repeated ...
Cells and virus preparation. Transformed fetal liver cells, bone marrow cells, and tumor-derived cell lines were maintained in RPMI medium containing 10% FCS, 100 U/ml penicillin/streptomycin, and 5 μM β-mercaptoethanol. A010 cells that produce an ecotropic replication-deficient form of the Abelson virus were maintained in DMEM containing 10% FCS and 100 U/ml penicillin/streptomycin. Viral supernatant was prepared as previously described (49).. Mice and infection of neonatal mice with A-MuLV. TYK2-/- mice were described previously (25) and were backcrossed to C57BL/6 for 8 generations. Nude mice were purchased from the Institut für Labortierkunde und Genetik (Himberg, Austria).. For the infection of newborn animals, TYK2+/- were bred with TYK2-/- animals. Hence, every litter contained TYK2+/- and TYK2-/- animals to ensure appropriate controls. We initially started the in vivo transformation experiments by intercrossing TYK2+/- and TYK2+/- mice and analyzed leukemia/lymphoma formation in all 3 ...
Cerebral hypoxia-ischemia in human infants presents a complex clinical problem in that no standardized treatment currently exists. With an understanding of the cellular and metabolic changes brought about during hypoxia-ischemia in the immature brain, researchers can better understand the course of damage caused by ischemia. Such damage was induced in young rats in an attempt to learn more about the mechanisms of hypoxia-ischemia. Seven-day-old rat pups underwent permanent unilateral carotid artery ligation and then were exposed to systemic hypoxia. At 15 days of postnatal age, researchers used neuropathologic analysis, gross examination, and staining of brain slices to assess the severity of damage from hypoxia-ischemia. Hypoxic preconditioning appeared to reduce or prevent tissue damage during a subsequent hypoxic-ischemic event.
Pilot is healing great. He has lost weight, and sports an 88lb figure. Hes working on muscle-building and range-of-motion in his rehab program.. Melody has had an evaluation by our favorite neurologist Dr. Stevenson. Melody has had some changes in her behavior patterns that are concerning. Knowing that she is already epileptic, there is a worry that something is changing in her brain. Well keep you updated on what the tests show.. And, lets not forget the cats~. Scooter has had four rectal prolapses in the last 3 weeks. Once again, were trying to find the right balance of medications to keep this at bay. Its probably due to grooming and too much hair ingestion, so it will hopefully end soon!. MeiLi had a severe episode of respiratory trouble. She became so stuffed up that she actually went into respiratory arrest early one morning ~ and yes, you can rescue breathe for a kitty! Like a newborn animal who needs stimulation to breathe, I gently hung her upside down and swung her (not as violent ...
rotavirus: Any of a group of wheel-shaped, RNA-contained viruses that cause gastroenteritis, especially in infants and newborn animals.
The story of a gorilla, from birth to adulthood, photographed on location in the wild by an award-winning American photographer, who specialises in work with newborn animals. The text will show all the aspects of the animals life in the wild, accompanied by close-up pictures of the family group in its natural habitat. A spread at the back of the book will give further conservation information, including useful websites ...
Controlled Iodine Spray is indicated for use in cattle, horses, swine and sheep as a topical antiseptic for use prior to surgical procedures such as castrating and docking; for ringworm and foot rot; for application to the navel of newborn animals; and for minor cuts, teat sores, bruises and abrasions ...
We have investigated the dynamics of meiotic prophase I in neonatal ovaries from different wild rodent species, from a laboratory strain ofMus musculus and
For some time it has been thought that antigenic challenge in neonatal life is a tolerogenic rather than immunogenic event. Reexamination of the classic neonatal tolerance experiments of Billingham, Brent, and Medawar showed that tolerance is not an intrinsic property of the newborn immune system, but that the nature of the antigen-presenting cell determines whether the outcome is neonatal tolerance or immunization.
Animals and reagents. Newborn Sprague-Dawley rats (18-20 g) were supplied by the Animal Center of Guangzhou Medical University. Rats were housed and used in accordance with our institutional guidelines for animal care and the Guide for Animal Care of the National Institutes of Health. Dulbeccos modified Eagles medium (DMEM), fetal bovine serum (FBS), and TRIzol were purchased from Gibco BRL (USA). Trypsin was obtained from Amersco (USA). Alpha-sarcomeric actin was purchased from Santa Cruz Biotechnology (USA). The SYBR®GreenPCR Master Mix was obtained from Applied Biosystems (USA). The Thermo ScriptRT-PCR kit was purchased from Invitrogen (USA). [3H]-leucine (Leu) was obtained from the China Institute of Atomic Energy (China) and recombinant Ang II and HGF were purchased from Sigma (Germany).. Primary cardiomyocyte culture. Rat neonatal ventricular cardiomyocytes were prepared as previously described, with some modifications (17). The cells were suspended in DMEM containing 10% FBS and 0.1 mM ...
One strategy we are undertaking to advance this work is to characterize the antigen-presenting environment in pre- and post-natal life, with the focus on defining factors that dictate whether exposure to allergen in early life induces T cell sensitization or tolerance. The thinking is that in certain circumstances, T cell sensitization can occur in utero or in early post-natal life and that factors responsible for these circumstances have increased in the past 20 years. It has been proposed that this could explain the increased incidence of asthma and other inflammatory diseases. The challenge for scientists is to identify factors that control this process, with the ultimate goal of developing therapeutic strategies to reverse the progressive increase in disease. Our studies are focused on antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells (DCs) or macrophages, as they are known to direct the T cell responses to antigen throughout life, presumably including the pre- and post-natal period. In ...
An animal's exposure to the antigens of a different member of the same or similar species is allostimulation, and the tissue is ...
Animal Behaviour. 61: 297-303. doi:10.1006/anbe.2000.1574. Hudson, Peter; Newborn, David (1990). "Brood defence in a precocial ... While animals performing distraction displays are rarely documented as being killed, risks to the displaying animal do exist. ... However, animals may also imitate the behavior of a small rodent or alternative prey item for the predator; imitate young or ... The displaying animal was killed by the second predator. Additionally, it has been shown that some predators are "smart," or ...
As part of animal conservation (The Three Rs (animals)), live animals, as well as post mortem porcine tissues, contribute to ... Rohde Parfet, K.A.; Gonyou, H.W. (1991). "Attraction of newborn piglets to auditory, visual, olfactory and tactile stimuli". ... The domestic pig, both as a live animal and source of post mortem tissues, is one of the most valuable animal models used in ... Houpt, K.A., (1998). Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists. 3rd edition. Iowa State University Press ...
Other animalsEdit. See also: List of animal names. In English the term "calf" is used by extension for the young of various ... may be used until the animal is a yearling. The birth of a calf is known as calving. A calf that has lost its mother is an ... Newborn calf.. Charolais calves which were transferred, as embryos, into their Angus and Hereford recipient mothers. ...
Newborn male mice are distinguished from newborn females by noting the greater anogenital distance and larger genital papilla ... Mice without fur are easier for the animal to consume; however, mice with fur may be more convincing as animal feed. These ... They can also be manipulated in ways that are illegal with humans, although animal rights activists often object. A knockout ... Mice are common experimental animals in laboratory research of biology and psychology fields primarily because they are mammals ...
These animals reach a length of 40 to 80 cm and a weight of 5 to 15 kg, with males generally larger than females. A bulge over ... Newborns usually have a golden-yellow fur. The mother shares responsibilities of rearing the young with the other females (" ... They live in groups of five to 20 animals, mostly in harems, i.e. a single male with several females. Young males must leave ... If the mother dies, another female adopts the young animal. Lutungs are weaned in the latter half of their first year, and ...
The newborn animal must receive colostrum within 6 hours of being born for maximal absorption of colostral antibodies to occur ... Colostrum is crucial for newborn farm animals. They receive no passive transfer of immunity via the placenta before birth, so ... Newborns have very immature and small digestive systems, and colostrum delivers its nutrients in a very concentrated low-volume ... Weaver, L. T., Wadd, N., Taylor, C. E., Greenwell, J. and Toms, G. L. (June 1991). "The ontogeny of serum IgA in the newborn". ...
4-IPO has, similar to humans, a toxic effect on animals. It is toxic to livestock and many laboratory animals. Male rabbits, ... 4-IPO can also threaten newborn calves. If they become exposed to 4-IPO it increases their susceptibility to bovine ... One of the 4-IPO metabolites is toxic to the lungs, liver and kidney in humans and animals. This metabolite can covalently bind ...
... or to communicate with other animals. Many animals both groom themselves and eat or drink by licking. Grooming: Animals ... Mammals typically lick their offspring clean immediately after birth; in many species this is necessary to free the newborn ... This provides the animal with positive feedback from the licking, and subsequent addiction to the behaviour. Animals in ... Many animals use licking as a submissive or appeasement signal in dominance hierarchies. Thermoregulation: Some animals use ...
Newborn cottontails are particularly vulnerable to these attacks. Cottontail lagomorphs use burrows vacated by other animals. ... Juvenile cottontail standing in anticipation of food Cottontails are very sociable animals within their peer group Male desert ...
Kumar, Ajay (14 September 2007). "Newborn Hippo cheers animal lovers at Patna Zoo". indiatraveltimes.com. India Travel Times. ... Breeding captive wild animals is a difficult challenge that the zoo has met with some notable success. The great one-horned ... "Patna zoo to get 14 new animals - The Times of India". The Times Of India. "Lone Patna zoo elephant to be shifted to ... The zoo is currently home to over 800 animals of about 110 species, including tiger, leopard, clouded leopard, hippopotamus, ...
This outraged many animal experts, who tried to dispel this myth. Arnold Sameroff, ed. Organization and Stability in Newborn ... "A newborn already has nine months of experience when she is born," Dr. Brazelton notes. "She is capable of controlling her ... The Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale (NBAS) looks at a wide range of behaviors and is suitable for examining newborns and ... assesses not only the physical and neurological responses of newborns, but also their emotional well being and individual ...
In animal husbandryEdit. Colostrum is crucial for newborn farm animals. They receive no passive transfer of immunity via the ... The newborn animal must receive colostrum within 6 hours of being born for maximal absorption of colostral antibodies to occur ... Xu RJ (1996). "Development of the newborn GI tract and its relation to colostrum/milk intake: a review". Reprod. Fertil. Dev. 8 ... Newborns have very immature and small digestive systems, and colostrum delivers its nutrients in a very concentrated low-volume ...
He has immunity to 70 different poisons and also has an animal-like sense of smell. He adopts a Battle Wolf's newborn pup and ... Sunny has an animal partner, a juvenile Mother Snake named Quinn. He and the other Four Heavenly Kings were trained by Ichiryū ... He uses the skulls of animals as shoulder pads and has some kind of interest with eyeballs since he wears a necklace of them, ... She also has an animal partner named Babu, that is a large beast known as a Bubble Knuckle. Cumin (クミン, Kumin) Voiced by: ...
Animal Welfare Vol. 5. Berlin: Springer Verlag. pp. 21-35. *^ Fraser, A.F. and D.M/ Broom. 1990. Farm Animal Welfare and ... Decreased health in the new born calf will negatively impact the quality of the replacement herd.[10] There is also evidence ... Animal welfare[edit]. The practice of dairy production in a factory farm environment has been criticized by animal welfare ... Young, B. A. (1981). "Cold Stress as it Affects Animal Production". Journal of Animal Science. 52 (1): 154-163. doi:10.2527/ ...
... s are used in different kinds of livestock farming to dry newborn animals, such as piglets. The use of a good ... However, some desiccants have a very high pH-level, which can be harmful for an animal's skin.[citation needed] ... desiccant can help them dry quicker and save energy, which can be crucial for the animal's development. Another use is to ...
E.I. Goldenthal (1971). "A compilation of LD50 values in newborn and adult animals". Toxicol. Appl. Pharmacol. 18 (1): 185-207 ...
Newborn animals are well-developed and immediately able to stand; they are fully active after 30 minutes. The young stand on ... They are rather trusting but delicate animals. They feed on fallen fruits, aquatic plants, buds, leaves, shrubs and grasses. ...
Models of newborn animals are frequently manufactured by the company. "FurReal Cat popular for the 2002 holiday season" FurReal ... FurReal is noted for its animatronic replications of creatures and domestic animals as an alternative to live pets, or ...
For example, the rate of neurogenesis in aged animals is predictive of memory. However, new born cells in aged animals are ... show markedly decreased levels of newborn neurons. Interestingly, under chronic stress conditions, the elevation of newborn ... Many of the newborn dentate gyrus neurons die shortly after they are born, but a number of them become functionally integrated ... In fact, newborn neurons are more excitable than older neurons due to a differential expression of GABA receptors. A plausible ...
Armoured Animals. UKTV.. *^ Boitani, L. (1984). Simon & Schuster's Guide to Mammals. Simon & Schuster, Touchstone Books. ISBN ... The Indian rhino's single horn is present in both males and females, but not on newborn calves. The horn is pure keratin, like ... Jerdon, T. C. (1867). The Mammals of India: a Natural History of all the animals known to inhabit Continental India. Roorkee: ... It has a human figure at the centre seated on a platform and the human figure is surrounded by four wild animals: an elephant ...
In animals, infanticide involves the killing of young offspring by a mature animal of the same species, and is studied in ... Maternal infanticide occurs when newborn offspring are killed by their mother. This is sometimes seen in pigs, a behavior known ... They are a social animal, living in groups that consist of a single dominant male and multiple females. The dominant male has a ... Both male and female parents have been observed to do this, as well as sterile worker castes in some eusocial animals. ...
As part of animal conservation (The Three Rs (animals)), these animals contribute to the reduction methods for animal research ... doi:10.1016/0304-3762(80)90026-7. Rohde Parfet, K.A.; Gonyou, H.W. (1991). "Attraction of newborn piglets to auditory, visual, ... The domestic pig, both as a live animal and source of post-mortem tissues, is one of the most valuable animal models used in ... doi:10.1016/s0168-1591(98)00100-2. Houpt, K.A., (1998). Domestic Animal Behavior for Veterinarians and Animal Scientists. 3rd ...
Journal of animal science, 86(14 Suppl), p.E246-58. Shackleton, D. & Shank, C., 1984. A review of the social behavior of feral ... Newborn lambs and their dams: the interaction that leads to sucking. Advances in the Study of Behavior, 22, p.239-268. Poindron ... Journal of Animal Science, 58(2), p.500. Sèbe, F. et al., 2010. Early vocal recognition of mother by lambs: contribution of low ... Most animals displaying maternal instincts will care for any infant introduced to the nest. In contrast to this, selective ...
"Animals. 2019-11-19. Retrieved 2020-05-30.. *^ "African Wildlife Foundation". Awf.org. 2012-06-20. Archived from the original ... Each newborn weighs less than half an ounce. For the first three days, the infant is kept in constant contact with the mother. ... Their diet is a mixture of insects and other small animals, fruit, and tree gums.[7] They have pectinate (comb-like) incisors ... According to some accounts, the name "bush baby" comes from either the animal's cries or its appearance. The Ghanaian name ...
Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive - carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores ... Newborn babies do not eat adult foods. They survive solely on breast milk or formula.[12] Small amounts of pureed food are ... Physiologically, animals must be able to obtain both energy and nutrients from plant and animal materials to be considered ... Other animals[edit]. Mammals[edit]. This section is transcluded from Mammal#Feeding. (edit , history) ...
... to protect her newborns from the dangers that lurk in the Florida Everglades. ... Animal Mothers: Newborn Gators. Watch how this protective alligator mother uses her "Jaws of Love" to protect her newborns from ... Animal Mothers: Newborn Gators. Watch how this protective alligator mother uses her "Jaws of Love" to protect her newborns from ... Watch how this protective alligator mother uses her "Jaws of Love" to protect her newborns from the dangers that lurk in the ...
Animals. Animals (Charles River Italia, Calco, VA, Italy) were housed in a temperature-controlled facility (. °C) on a 12/12 h ... Myo-Inositol Safety in Pregnancy: From Preimplantation Development to Newborn Animals. Nilay Kuşcu,1 Mariano Bizzarri,2 and ... newborn animals were weighed, checked for gross abnormalities, and left to be nursed by their moms until weaning. Preweaning ... Animal Treatment and Zygote Collection. Female mice were hormonally induced by intraperitoneal injections of 5 IU pregnant mare ...
If a mother cat has died or is otherwise unable or unwilling to care for her newborn kittens, special care must be taken to ... If you find yourself in a surrogate role, youll need to know some basic guidelines to help you give your newborn kittens their ... A vet can give you the supplies youll need for feeding, and can check the animals for disease, parasites, and other conditions ... Newborn Kittens. Kitten Care 101: Taking Care of Orphaned Newborn kittens. If a mother cat has died or is otherwise unable or ...
... - I put off til the last minute making something for the baby shower this past Sunday and ... Craftster Community > CLOTHING > Clothing for Kids: Completed Projects (Moderator: meleriffic) > Zoo Animals Newborn Dress! ... Craftster Community > CLOTHING > Clothing for Kids: Completed Projects (Moderator: meleriffic) > Zoo Animals Newborn Dress! ...
Pollock credits Olives easy-access toy storage for keeping the nursery in order. "Its crazy how many things a baby can accumulate," she remarks. "I feel like she is always getting gifts or new toys or books, and every night before she goes to sleep, we pick up all her toys and put them back in their place. Being able to end the day with her room in order makes it ready for us to have even more fun the next day.". ...
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Tag Archives: animal nursery. Animal instinct. Posted on August 1, 2017 by pnmag ... Posted in Baby Buzz, Babyspace, Homepage Slider , Tagged animal nursery, babyspace, girl nursery, Lacey Major, nursery, nursery ...
One of two newborn pandas is held up by a caretaker on July 11 at the Wolong National Nature Reserve in southwest Chinas ... Tiny newborn panda. One of two newborn pandas is held up by a caretaker on July 11 at the Wolong National Nature Reserve in ... Tiny newborn panda. One of two newborn pandas is held up by a caretaker on July 11 at the Wolong National Nature Reserve in ... 16 dont-miss animal photos from July. By: Catie Leary on July 30, 2012, 6:11 p.m.. ...
Browse by Risk factor: Animals, Newborn (1 article). % of records by year: 1965 2017 ...
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... they are not the only animals to perform math skills. ... Newborn Chicks Added to List of Animals That Know Math. April ... Click here to learn about efforts by the U.S. Navy to enlist animals intelligence to catch terrorists. ... "that animals might be evolutionarily endowed with an ability to track and manipulate numbers, rather than picking up their ... they are not the only animals with innate math skills. ... The Royal Society: Proceedings B: Arithmetic in newborn chicks ...
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Staff regularly care for newborn animals at the zoo. Friday. Nov 2, 2012 at 12:01 AM Nov 2, 2012 at 4:00 AM ... could actually house a little Goeldis monkey or another small animal in need of some TLC.. Confused? Theres no need to be. ...
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  • The aim of this study was to evaluate genome-wide DNA methylation and gene expression in the livers of newborn rats exposed to maternal protein restriction. (plos.org)
  • Altobelli G, Bogdarina IG, Stupka E, Clark AJL, Langley-Evans S (2013) Genome-Wide Methylation and Gene Expression Changes in Newborn Rats following Maternal Protein Restriction and Reversal by Folic Acid. (plos.org)
  • An animal study compared a PPHN Sprague-Dawley rat model to healthy newborn control rats. (medsci.org)
  • Baby hippos, hedgehogs, rats, octopuses, foxes: 20 unbelievably cute and unusual baby animals that will make you go 'squeee! (pinterest.com)
  • Because of the risks the drug poses to newborns, the decision was made at the start of 2017 that it shouldn't be given to pregnant women for either migraine prevention or epilepsy, certainly when other treatments are possible, the ministry told Haaretz. (haaretz.com)
  • Tang Z, Jiang M, Ou-yang Z, Wu H, Dong S, Hei M. High mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1) as biomarker in hypoxia-induced persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn: a clinical and in vivo pilot study. (medsci.org)
  • Newborns with perinatal asphyxia often develop persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN). (medsci.org)
  • In addition to hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn (PPHN) is not uncommon in newborns with perinatal asphyxia. (medsci.org)
  • Results obtained provide evidence that myo-Ins induces cellular pathways involving Akt and show that (a) exposure of preimplantation embryos to myo-Ins increases the number of blastocysts available for uterine transfer and of delivered animals and (b) the developmental patterns of mice obtained from embryos cultured in the presence or absence of myo-Ins, up to three weeks of age, overlap. (hindawi.com)
  • Reports on an animal study finding that links anabolic steroids to brain changes in adolescent female mice, changes that can potentially lead to steroid abuse. (drugabuse.gov)
  • Newborn mice can regenerate their own heart tissue following heart damage. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • 55cmFull BodySilicone Reborn GirlBaby Doll Toy Lifelike Newborn Princess Babies Doll FashionKids ChildBrinquedos BatheToy Product Description Size: About 55-57cm from head to toe, there may be slight difference depends measurement method. (dhgate.com)
  • Of course, green toys are great for older babies, but during the newborn stage, they come in a distant second to your TLC. (inhabitat.com)
  • I love the baby animals. (craftster.org)
  • Redditor banpeisf was worried how his corgi Wilbur would react when a newborn baby joined the family. (time.com)
  • Newly Monkey Trying To Drink Milk, Comely Baby Baba animal Monkey - Duration: 10 minutes. (youtube.com)
  • Cutest Newborn Baby Monkey, Comely Baby Handy - Duration: 10 minutes. (youtube.com)
  • Newly Baby hug Mom Nearly All Time, Cutest Newborn Baby Monkey - Duration: 5 minutes, 19 seconds. (youtube.com)
  • Grab Cutest animal Baby Monkey, Newly Baby Monkey Crying Loudly - Duration: 10 minutes. (youtube.com)
  • Cutest Baby Monkey, Gorgeous Newborn Today - Duration: 11 minutes. (youtube.com)
  • Although I am not a big fan of dress animal up, I won't mind seeing cute baby animals be photoshoped into fully-dressed human bodies. (designswan.com)
  • Baby animals are cute and they becomes even cuter when they are paired with their parent. (designswan.com)
  • Most animals are quite cute at their baby stage, same for the fox. (designswan.com)
  • When you just look at below pictures and without reading the title, you probably think these are some adorable baby animals. (designswan.com)
  • 24 Adorable Baby Animal Photos To Increase Your Productivity. (care2.com)
  • P.S. If you're not into the science of "why," just scroll down for the photos of adorable baby animals. (care2.com)
  • They performed this task both before and after being shown a photograph of a baby animal , an adult animal , or a pleasant food item . (care2.com)
  • Amazingly, the students who looked at the baby animal photos showed a significant improvement both in how many times they completed the task, and in how accurate they were (see chart at left)! (care2.com)
  • The scientists theorize that this may be because caring for baby animals (nurturance) requires very tender treatment of the animals, as well as "careful attention to the targets physical and mental states as well as vigilance against possible threats to the targets. (care2.com)
  • Thus, it may be possible that simply looking at photos of baby animals invokes similar productive, attentive behaviors as the ones we would have if we were caring for the animals in person! (care2.com)
  • Well, if science says so… then it's only proper that you should take a few minutes out of your day to boost your productivity by looking at some adorable baby animal photos. (care2.com)
  • Now that you've done all that hard, productivity-boosting work of looking at cute baby animals, you're ready to go back to your day, with your attention focused and your motor skills boosted! (care2.com)
  • Matt Keely Baby Girls Princess Bowknot Shoes Newborn Infant Soft Sole PU. (ebay.fr)
  • Baby gear galore is marketed to inexperienced moms- and dads-to-be who simply want what's best for their newborn - and if told an item is a 'must-have,' many add it to the nursery, which may already be overflowing with items that will end up being of little to no use. (inhabitat.com)
  • Most new parents assume they need to find the latest and greatest educational toys and videos to turn their newborn into a genius, but the best way to engage and bond with your baby is to interact with him in an animated fashion. (inhabitat.com)
  • While flea removal is essential, it is also a delicate process, because commercial flea treatment can also be fatal for newborns and puppies under 6 weeks of age. (alcornpets.com)
  • A tiny newborn swaddled in rainbow cloth, surrounded by more than 1,600 shots, the image alone is enough to pull at your heartstrings but when you hear the story behind it, it's no wonder this photo is going viral. (boredpanda.com)
  • But when they are tiny newborns, slip their cute little toes into socks to keep their feet warm. (inhabitat.com)
  • Susceptibility of new born and adult laboratory animals to Chikungunya virus. (bvsalud.org)
  • Designed to meet the special needs of pharmacologists, toxicologists, pathologists, and other biomedical researchers working with laboratory animals. (fishersci.com)
  • Farrow X1 chicken egg yolk globulin is administered orally to newborn pigs within 12 hours of birth and significantly improves piglet survival rates. (thepigsite.com)
  • In this study, we examined apoptosis, proliferation, migration, and survival of newborn cells in the young (2 weeks), young-adult (6 weeks), middle-aged (12 months), and old (24 months) rat DG. (nih.gov)
  • Available from Newborn to Adult! (redlollipopboutique.com)
  • A large body of evidence from human and animal studies demonstrates that the maternal diet during pregnancy can programme physiological and metabolic functions in the developing fetus, effectively determining susceptibility to later disease. (plos.org)
  • Understanding the physiology of suffering in animals is crucial in assessing animal welfare. (wiley.com)
  • Written by an expert in applied welfare aspects of physiology, this book is the first to address the physiological aspects of suffering in animals. (wiley.com)
  • Sherwood L, Klandorf H and Yancey P (2012) Animal Physiology: From Genes to Organisms Cengage Learning, p. 150. (wikipedia.org)
  • Modern dairy shelters provide the five freedoms of animal welfare that are essential to cow comfort and animal husbandry. (dairyherd.com)
  • Dehorning is a common and necessary practice in dairy production, but it's not a procedure that should be taken lightly in terms of animal well-being. (dairyherd.com)
  • As controls, blood serum samples were collected from the umbilical arteries of healthy full-term newborns born in our hospital during the same period. (medsci.org)
  • Serum HMGB1 levels were significantly elevated in newborns with PPHN, compared to those in healthy controls, and decreased dramatically after PPHN resolution. (medsci.org)
  • A traumatic birth can leave newborns struggling to get off to a healthy and vigorous start. (dairyherd.com)
  • We could say that in the farms, we are using farm animals for our own benefit in many ways, one of these benefits is the milk that we take from the cows and other animals, and how we used it. (hubpages.com)
  • As you know, in our last article we were talking about what I was doing in our small family farm when I was young, we were talking about spring when all animals have their offspring's and at the end we were talking about the cows and the milk that they produce. (hubpages.com)
  • At Revival Animal Health, we offer high-quality pet formulas and feeding accessories to help your newborn animals grow strong, even without mom's milk. (revivalanimal.com)
  • By utilising the advancements made in human health, we will be able to improve animal welfare and productivity. (thepigsite.com)
  • This book is part of the UFAW/Wiley-Blackwell Animal Welfare Book Series. (wiley.com)
  • This major series of books produced in collaboration between UFAW (The Universities Federation for Animal Welfare), and Wiley-Blackwell provides an authoritative source of information on worldwide developments, current thinking and best practice in the field of animal welfare science and technology. (wiley.com)