Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.
Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.
A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.
Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.
An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.
The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.
The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.
Color of hair or fur.
Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.
Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.
Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.
Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The selection of one food over another.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.
A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).
Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.
Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.
Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.
Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.
The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.
Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.
The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.
Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.
The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.
Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).
Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.
Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.
Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.
Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The type species of BETARETROVIRUS commonly latent in mice. It causes mammary adenocarcinoma in a genetically susceptible strain of mice when the appropriate hormonal influences operate.

Observation of marking-like behavior, marking behavior, and growth of the scent gland in young Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) of an inbred strain. (1/135)

A marking-like behavior (defined by authors), a marking behavior, and growth of the scent glands were observed in young Mongolian gerbils of an inbred strain. In males and females, a marking-like behavior, in which animals rub their abdominal scent glands on the floor, began to be seen at the age of 19 days and could be seen in almost all the gerbils at 22 days of age during the suckling period. The frequency of this behavior was highest at 60 days of age (males: 17.9/10 min, females: 15.4/10 min) and there was no sex difference. Marking behavior, in which animals rub their abdominal scent glands on small protruding objects, began to be seen at the age of 40 days in males and 50 days in females. The frequency of this behavior tended to increase until 90 days of age in males (13.7/10 min), but the levels were low (2.5-5.0/10 min) in females. The values in the male group therefore tended to be higher than that in the female group. Macroscopic scent gland pads were clearly observed at the age of 30 days in males, but not until 45 days of age in females. At the age of 45-90 days, the length of the scent gland pad in males and females was 2.1-2.8 and 1.6-1.7 cm, respectively and the width was 0.3-0.5 in males and 0.2-0.3 cm in females. During this period, the length and depth of the pads in males were significantly greater than those in females (p < 0.05). Histological examination of the structure of the scent glands after the age of 45 days showed that the development of clusters of acinar cells in females occurred much later than that in males, but the basic structure of these glands was similar in both sexes. These results suggest that the marking-like behavior was manifested although during the period when the scent glands had not yet developed, whereas true marking behavior first occurred when the glands were moderately well developed.  (+info)

Serum biochemical values in two inbred strains of mastomys (Praomys coucha). (2/135)

Serum samples collected from 119 (72 male and 47 female) mastomys (Praomys coucha) of 2 specific-pathogen-free inbred strains (RI4 and RI7) were analyzed for 12 serum biochemical parameters. Sex-related differences (p < 0.01) were noted in alkaline phosphatase and glucose; the both higher in females than in males. Age-related changes (p < 0.01) were observed in total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase, with higher values for the first three parameters in the older group (200-250 days of age) than in the younger group (90-140 days of age). Four out of 12 parameters showed strain-related differences (p < 0.01), consistent with the large amount of genetic heterogeneity reported in this species. These serum biochemical reference values should provide information for the use of mastomys in laboratory research.  (+info)

Characterization of early follicular cDNA library suggests evidence for genetic polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108 of Bombyx mori. (3/135)

Recent work towards the completion of a saturated molecular genetic linkage map for the lepidopteran silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28), has provided evidence for existing polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108. Two inbred parental strains, p50 and C108, were crossed to produce the F1 (P/C) hybrid offspring. The populations used in this project were comprised of a combination of 29 F2 (F1 x F1) and 31 reciprocal backcross (P/C x C/C, P/C x P/P) progeny. All restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for the initial analysis were hybridized with anonymous probes derived from a random early follicular cDNA (Rcf) library from Bombyx. A total of 19 Rcf probes were selected as showing scorable codominant polymorphic patterns when screened against F2 and backcross DNAs digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI, HindIII, or PstI, and Southern blotted to nylon membranes for hybridization. Of the newly reported Rcf probes, 7 (37%) were characterized as producing 'simple' polymorphic patterns, while 12 (63%) were characterized as producing 'complex' polymorphic patterns. Further characterization of the complex patterns subdivided this group into two general classes: polymorphisms that contained an additional allele, and multiple bands that contained an easily scored two banded polymorphism. Because the extra allele class was limited to the (P/C x C/C) backcross progeny, it is suggested that the inbred parental strain C108 harbors polymorphic loci that are inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. A genetic analysis discussing plausible origins and maintenance of these polymorphisms is presented.  (+info)

Trigonocephaly in rabbits with familial interfrontal suture synostosis: the multiple effects of premature single-suture fusion. (4/135)

Previous studies from our laboratory have characterized the craniofacial morphology and growth patterns of an inbred strain of rabbits with autosomal dominant coronal suture synostosis. A number of rabbit perinates from this colony have been collected sporadically over a 5-year period with premature interfrontal suture synostosis. The present study describes the very early onset of craniofacial dysmorphology of these rabbits and compares them to similar-aged normal control rabbits. A total of 40 perinatal New Zealand White rabbits were used in the present study. Twenty-one comprised the sample with interfrontal suture synostosis and ranged in age from 27 to 38 days postconception (term = 31 days) with a mean age of 33.53 days (+/-2.84 days). Nineteen rabbits served as age-matched, normal controls (mean age = 33.05 days +/-2.79 days). Lateral and dorsoventral radiographs were collected from each rabbit. The radiographs were traced, computer digitized, and 12 craniofacial measurements, angles, and indices were obtained. Mean measures were compared using an unpaired Student's t-test. All synostosed rabbits were stillborn or died shortly after birth. Grossly, these rabbits exhibited extreme frontal bossing, trigonocephaly with sagittal keeling, and midfacial shortening. No somatic anomalies were noted. Radiographically, rabbits with interfrontal suture synostosis had significantly (P < 0.05) narrower bifrontal widths, shorter cranial vault lengths, kyphotic cranial base angles, and different cranial vault indices (shapes) compared to controls. Results reveal severe and early pathological and compensatory cranial vault changes associated with premature interfrontal suture synostosis in this rabbit model. The 100% mortality rate noted in this condition may be related to the inheritance of a lethal genetic mutation or to neural compression from reduced intracranial volume. Results are discussed in light of current pathogenic hypotheses for human infants with premature metopic suture synostosis.  (+info)

Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo cryopreservation and rederivation of rat and mouse models. (5/135)

The efficiency of embryo banking for rat and mouse models of human disease and normal biological processes depends on the ease of obtaining embryos. Authors report on the effect of genotype on embryo production and rederivation. In an effort to establish banks of cryopreserved embryos, they provide two databases for comparing banking efficiency: one that contains the embryo collection results from approximately 11,000 rat embryo donors (111 models) and another that contains the embryo collection results from 4,023 mouse embryo donors (57 induced mutant models). The genotype of donor females affected the efficiency of embryo collection in two ways. First, the proportion of females yielding embryos varied markedly among genotypes (rats: 16-100 %, mean =71 %; mice: 24-95 %, mean =65 %). Second, the mean number of embryos recovered from females yielding embryos varied considerably (rats: 4-10.6, mean =7.8; mice 5.3-32.2, mean =13.7). Genotype also affected the efficiency of rederivation of banked rat and mouse embryos models by embryo transfer. For rats, thawed embryos (n =684) from 33 genotypes were transferred into 66 recipient females (pregnancy rate, 78 %). The average rate of developing live newborns for individual rat genotypes was 30 % with a range of 10 to 58 %. For mice, thawed embryos (n =2,064) from 59 genotypes were transferred into 119 pseudopregnant females (pregnancy rate: 76 %). The average rate of development of individual mouse genotypes was 33 % with a range of 11 to 53 %. This analysis demonstrates that genotype is an important consideration when planning embryo banking programs.  (+info)

NK and T cells constitute two major, functionally distinct intestinal epithelial lymphocyte subsets in the chicken. (6/135)

Non-mammalian NK cells have not been characterized in detail; however, their analysis is essential for the understanding of the NK cell receptor phylogeny. As a first step towards defining chicken NK cells, several tissues were screened for the presence of NK cells, phenotypically defined as CD8(+) cells lacking T- or B-lineage specific markers. By this criteria, approximately 30% of CD8(+) intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), but <1% of splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes were defined as NK cells. These CD8(+)CD3(-) IEL were used for the generation of the 28-4 mAb, immunoprecipitating a 35-kDa glycoprotein with a 28-kDa protein core. The CD3 and 28-4 mAb were used to separate IEL into CD3(+) IEL T cells and 28-4(+) cells, both co-expressing the CD8 antigen. During ontogeny, 28-4(+) cells were abundant in the IEL and in the embryonic spleen, where two subsets could be distinguished according to their CD8 and c-kit expression. Most importantly, 28-4(+) IEL lysed NK-sensitive targets, whereas intestinal T cells did not have any spontaneous cytolytic activity. These results define two major, phenotypically and functionally distinct IEL subpopulations, and imply an important role of NK cells in the mucosal immune system.  (+info)

Construction of a BAC library derived from the inbred Hd-rR strain of the teleost fish, Oryzias latipes. (7/135)

A large insert genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from the inbred Hd-rR strain of the medaka, Oryzias latipes. Approximately 92,000 clones were gridded on high-density replica filters. Insert analysis of randomly selected clones indicated a mean insert size of 210 kb and predicted a 24 times coverage of the medaka genome. The library was hybridized with a single locus DNA fragment, and the resulting positive clones were characterized and shown to be compatible with a 24-fold redundant library. This first large insert genomic library of the medaka should increase the speed of genomic analyses for this fish species.  (+info)

Porcine endogenous retrovirus transmission characteristics of an inbred herd of miniature swine. (8/135)

Here we report the identification of inbred miniature swine that failed to produce human-tropic replication-competent porcine endogenous retroviruses (HTRC PERVs), using in vitro coculture assays. When HTRC PERVs were isolated from transmitting animals, all were recombinant viruses, with the receptor-binding domain of PERV-A combining with PERV-C-related sequences.  (+info)

There are several types of disease susceptibility, including:

1. Genetic predisposition: This refers to the inherent tendency of an individual to develop a particular disease due to their genetic makeup. For example, some families may have a higher risk of developing certain diseases such as cancer or heart disease due to inherited genetic mutations.
2. Environmental susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to exposure to environmental factors such as pollutants, toxins, or infectious agents. For example, someone who lives in an area with high levels of air pollution may be more susceptible to developing respiratory problems.
3. Lifestyle susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to unhealthy lifestyle choices such as smoking, lack of exercise, or poor diet. For example, someone who smokes and is overweight may be more susceptible to developing heart disease or lung cancer.
4. Immune system susceptibility: This refers to the increased risk of developing a disease due to an impaired immune system. For example, people with autoimmune disorders such as HIV/AIDS or rheumatoid arthritis may be more susceptible to opportunistic infections.

Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals who are at risk of developing certain diseases and provide preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression. Additionally, genetic testing can help identify individuals with a high risk of developing certain diseases, allowing for earlier diagnosis and treatment.

In summary, disease susceptibility refers to the predisposition of an individual to develop a particular disease or condition due to various factors such as genetics, environment, lifestyle choices, and immune system function. Understanding disease susceptibility can help healthcare providers identify individuals at risk and provide appropriate preventive measures or early intervention to reduce the risk of disease progression.

1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.

2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.

3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.

4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.

5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.

6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.

7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.

8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.

9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.

10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.

1. Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS): This is a severe respiratory disease caused by the hantavirus, which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms of HPS can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and difficulty breathing.
2. Leptospirosis: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Leptospira, which is found in the urine of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes).
3. Rat-bite fever: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Streptobacillus moniliformis, which is found in the saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes.
4. Lymphocytic choriomeningitis (LCM): This is a viral infection caused by the lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV), which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and meningitis (inflammation of the membranes surrounding the brain and spinal cord).
5. Tularemia: This is a bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Francisella tularensis, which is found in the urine and saliva of infected rodents. Symptoms can include fever, headache, muscle pain, and swollen lymph nodes.

These are just a few examples of the many diseases that can be transmitted to humans through contact with rodents. It is important to take precautions when handling or removing rodents, as they can pose a serious health risk. If you suspect that you have been exposed to a rodent-borne disease, it is important to seek medical attention as soon as possible.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

Body weight is an important health indicator, as it can affect an individual's risk for certain medical conditions, such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. Maintaining a healthy body weight is essential for overall health and well-being, and there are many ways to do so, including a balanced diet, regular exercise, and other lifestyle changes.

There are several ways to measure body weight, including:

1. Scale: This is the most common method of measuring body weight, and it involves standing on a scale that displays the individual's weight in kg or lb.
2. Body fat calipers: These are used to measure body fat percentage by pinching the skin at specific points on the body.
3. Skinfold measurements: This method involves measuring the thickness of the skin folds at specific points on the body to estimate body fat percentage.
4. Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA): This is a non-invasive method that uses electrical impulses to measure body fat percentage.
5. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA): This is a more accurate method of measuring body composition, including bone density and body fat percentage.

It's important to note that body weight can fluctuate throughout the day due to factors such as water retention, so it's best to measure body weight at the same time each day for the most accurate results. Additionally, it's important to use a reliable scale or measuring tool to ensure accurate measurements.

The tumor usually grows slowly and may not cause any symptoms in its early stages. However, as it progresses, it can cause abdominal pain, bloating, and irregular vaginal bleeding. GCTs are generally diagnosed through a combination of pelvic examination, imaging studies such as ultrasound or computed tomography (CT), and biopsy.

There are several subtypes of GCT, including:

1. Granulosa cell tumor with stromal element (GCT-SE): This is the most common type of GCT and accounts for about 70% of all cases. It is characterized by the presence of stromal cells, which are connective tissue cells that provide support and structure to the tumor.
2. Granulosa cell tumor without stromal element (GCT-wSE): This type of GCT lacks stromal cells and accounts for about 30% of all cases. It tends to be more aggressive than GCT-SE and is more likely to spread to other parts of the body.
3. Mucinous granulosa cell tumor (MGCT): This is a rare subtype of GCT that produces mucin, a type of protein that is found in the ovary. MGCTs tend to be slower-growing than other types of GCT and have a better prognosis.

Treatment for GCT typically involves surgery to remove the tumor, followed by radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy to destroy any remaining cancer cells. The prognosis for GCT is generally good, with a 5-year survival rate of about 80% for women with early-stage disease. However, the prognosis can be poorer for women with more advanced stages of the disease.

In summary, granulosa cell tumor is a rare type of ovarian cancer that originates from the granulosa cells of the ovary. It can present in different forms and has a good prognosis if treated early. Treatment typically involves surgery, radiation therapy, and/or chemotherapy.

A sprain is a stretch or tear of a ligament, which is a fibrous connective tissue that connects bones to other bones and provides stability to joints. Sprains often occur when the joint is subjected to excessive stress or movement, such as during a fall or sudden twisting motion. The most common sprains are those that affect the wrist, knee, and ankle joints.

A strain, on the other hand, is a stretch or tear of a muscle or a tendon, which is a fibrous cord that connects muscles to bones. Strains can occur due to overuse, sudden movement, or injury. The most common strains are those that affect the hamstring, calf, and back muscles.

The main difference between sprains and strains is the location of the injury. Sprains affect the ligaments, while strains affect the muscles or tendons. Additionally, sprains often cause joint instability and swelling, while strains may cause pain, bruising, and limited mobility.

Treatment for sprains and strains is similar and may include rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE) to reduce inflammation and relieve pain. Physical therapy exercises may also be recommended to improve strength and range of motion. In severe cases, surgery may be required to repair the damaged tissue.

Prevention is key in avoiding sprains and strains. This can be achieved by maintaining proper posture, warming up before physical activity, wearing appropriate protective gear during sports, and gradually increasing exercise intensity and duration. Proper training and technique can also help reduce the risk of injury.

Overall, while sprains and strains share some similarities, they are distinct injuries that require different approaches to treatment and prevention. Understanding the differences between these two conditions is essential for proper diagnosis, treatment, and recovery.

Here are some common types of E. coli infections:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): E. coli is a leading cause of UTIs, which occur when bacteria enter the urinary tract and cause inflammation. Symptoms include frequent urination, burning during urination, and cloudy or strong-smelling urine.
2. Diarrheal infections: E. coli can cause diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever if consumed through contaminated food or water. In severe cases, this type of infection can lead to dehydration and even death, particularly in young children and the elderly.
3. Septicemia (bloodstream infections): If E. coli bacteria enter the bloodstream, they can cause septicemia, a life-threatening condition that requires immediate medical attention. Symptoms include fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.
4. Meningitis: In rare cases, E. coli infections can spread to the meninges, the protective membranes covering the brain and spinal cord, causing meningitis. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment with antibiotics and supportive care.
5. Hemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS): E. coli infections can sometimes cause HUS, a condition where the bacteria destroy red blood cells, leading to anemia, kidney failure, and other complications. HUS is most common in young children and can be fatal if not treated promptly.

Preventing E. coli infections primarily involves practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands regularly, especially after using the bathroom or before handling food. It's also essential to cook meat thoroughly, especially ground beef, to avoid cross-contamination with other foods. Avoiding unpasteurized dairy products and drinking contaminated water can also help prevent E. coli infections.

If you suspect an E. coli infection, seek medical attention immediately. Your healthcare provider may perform a urine test or a stool culture to confirm the diagnosis and determine the appropriate treatment. In mild cases, symptoms may resolve on their own within a few days, but antibiotics may be necessary for more severe infections. It's essential to stay hydrated and follow your healthcare provider's recommendations to ensure a full recovery.

Examples of experimental leukemias include:

1. X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA): A rare inherited disorder that leads to a lack of antibody production and an increased risk of infections.
2. Diamond-Blackfan anemia (DBA): A rare inherited disorder characterized by a failure of red blood cells to mature in the bone marrow.
3. Fanconi anemia: A rare inherited disorder that leads to a defect in DNA repair and an increased risk of cancer, particularly leukemia.
4. Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT): A rare inherited disorder characterized by progressive loss of coordination, balance, and speech, as well as an increased risk of cancer, particularly lymphoma.
5. Down syndrome: A genetic disorder caused by an extra copy of chromosome 21, which increases the risk of developing leukemia, particularly acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

These experimental leukemias are often used in research studies to better understand the biology of leukemia and to develop new treatments.

There are several types of ataxia, each with different symptoms and causes. Some common forms of ataxia include:

1. Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA): This is the most common form of ataxia and is caused by a degeneration of the cerebellum and spinal cord. It can cause progressive weakness, loss of coordination, and difficulty with speaking and swallowing.
2. Friedreich's ataxia: This is the second most common form of ataxia and is caused by a deficiency of vitamin E in the body. It can cause weakness in the legs, difficulty walking, and problems with speech and language.
3. Ataxia-telangiectasia (AT): This is a rare form of ataxia that is caused by a gene mutation. It can cause progressive weakness, loss of coordination, and an increased risk of developing cancer.
4. Acute cerebellar ataxia: This is a sudden and temporary form of ataxia that can be caused by a variety of factors such as infections, injuries, or certain medications.
5. Drug-induced ataxia: Certain medications can cause ataxia as a side effect.
6. Vitamin deficiency ataxia: Deficiencies in vitamins such as vitamin B12 or folate can cause ataxia.
7. Metabolic disorders: Certain metabolic disorders such as hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, and hypoglycemia can cause ataxia.
8. Stroke or brain injury: Ataxia can be a result of a stroke or brain injury.
9. Multiple system atrophy (MSA): This is a rare progressive neurodegenerative disorder that can cause ataxia, parkinsonism, and autonomic dysfunction.
10. Spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA): This is a group of rare genetic disorders that can cause progressive cerebellar ataxia, muscle wasting, and other signs and symptoms.

It's important to note that this is not an exhaustive list and there may be other causes of ataxia not mentioned here. If you suspect you or someone you know may have ataxia, it is important to consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Staphylococcal infections can be classified into two categories:

1. Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) - This type of infection is resistant to many antibiotics and can cause severe skin infections, pneumonia, bloodstream infections and surgical site infections.

2. Methicillin-Sensitive Staphylococcus Aureus (MSSA) - This type of infection is not resistant to antibiotics and can cause milder skin infections, respiratory tract infections, sinusitis and food poisoning.

Staphylococcal infections are caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria which can enter the body through various means such as:

1. Skin cuts or open wounds
2. Respiratory tract infections
3. Contaminated food and water
4. Healthcare-associated infections
5. Surgical site infections

Symptoms of Staphylococcal infections may vary depending on the type of infection and severity, but they can include:

1. Skin redness and swelling
2. Increased pain or tenderness
3. Warmth or redness in the affected area
4. Pus or discharge
5. Fever and chills
6. Swollen lymph nodes
7. Shortness of breath

Diagnosis of Staphylococcal infections is based on physical examination, medical history, laboratory tests such as blood cultures, and imaging studies such as X-rays or CT scans.

Treatment of Staphylococcal infections depends on the type of infection and severity, but may include:

1. Antibiotics to fight the infection
2. Drainage of abscesses or pus collection
3. Wound care and debridement
4. Supportive care such as intravenous fluids, oxygen therapy, and pain management
5. Surgical intervention in severe cases.

Preventive measures for Staphylococcal infections include:

1. Good hand hygiene practices
2. Proper cleaning and disinfection of surfaces and equipment
3. Avoiding close contact with people who have Staphylococcal infections
4. Covering wounds and open sores
5. Proper sterilization and disinfection of medical equipment.

It is important to note that MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) is a type of Staphylococcal infection that is resistant to many antibiotics, and can be difficult to treat. Therefore, early diagnosis and aggressive treatment are crucial to prevent complications and improve outcomes.

There are several types of diarrhea, including:

1. Acute diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is short-term and usually resolves on its own within a few days. It can be caused by a viral or bacterial infection, food poisoning, or medication side effects.
2. Chronic diarrhea: This type of diarrhea persists for more than 4 weeks and can be caused by a variety of conditions, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), or celiac disease.
3. Diarrhea-predominant IBS: This type of diarrhea is characterized by frequent, loose stools and abdominal pain or discomfort. It can be caused by a variety of factors, including stress, hormonal changes, and certain foods.
4. Infectious diarrhea: This type of diarrhea is caused by a bacterial, viral, or parasitic infection and can be spread through contaminated food and water, close contact with an infected person, or by consuming contaminated food.

Symptoms of diarrhea may include:

* Frequent, loose, and watery stools
* Abdominal cramps and pain
* Bloating and gas
* Nausea and vomiting
* Fever and chills
* Headache
* Fatigue and weakness

Diagnosis of diarrhea is typically made through a physical examination, medical history, and laboratory tests to rule out other potential causes of the symptoms. Treatment for diarrhea depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, anti-diarrheal medications, fluid replacement, and dietary changes. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat any complications.

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Practicing good hygiene, such as washing hands frequently and thoroughly, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick
* Properly storing and cooking food to prevent contamination
* Drinking safe water and avoiding contaminated water sources
* Avoiding raw or undercooked meat, poultry, and seafood
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea

Complications of diarrhea can include:

* Dehydration: Diarrhea can lead to a loss of fluids and electrolytes, which can cause dehydration. Severe dehydration can be life-threatening and requires immediate medical attention.
* Electrolyte imbalance: Diarrhea can also cause an imbalance of electrolytes in the body, which can lead to serious complications.
* Inflammation of the intestines: Prolonged diarrhea can cause inflammation of the intestines, which can lead to abdominal pain and other complications.
* Infections: Diarrhea can be a symptom of an infection, such as a bacterial or viral infection. If left untreated, these infections can lead to serious complications.
* Malnutrition: Prolonged diarrhea can lead to malnutrition and weight loss, which can have long-term effects on health and development.

Treatment of diarrhea will depend on the underlying cause, but may include:

* Fluid replacement: Drinking plenty of fluids to prevent dehydration and replace lost electrolytes.
* Anti-diarrheal medications: Over-the-counter or prescription medications to slow down bowel movements and reduce diarrhea.
* Antibiotics: If the diarrhea is caused by a bacterial infection, antibiotics may be prescribed to treat the infection.
* Rest: Getting plenty of rest to allow the body to recover from the illness.
* Dietary changes: Avoiding certain foods or making dietary changes to help manage symptoms and prevent future episodes of diarrhea.

It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any of the following:

* Severe diarrhea that lasts for more than 3 days
* Diarrhea that is accompanied by fever, blood in the stool, or abdominal pain
* Diarrhea that is severe enough to cause dehydration or electrolyte imbalances
* Diarrhea that is not responding to treatment

Prevention of diarrhea includes:

* Good hand hygiene: Washing your hands frequently, especially after using the bathroom or before preparing food.
* Safe food handling: Cooking and storing food properly to prevent contamination.
* Avoiding close contact with people who are sick.
* Getting vaccinated against infections that can cause diarrhea, such as rotavirus.

Overall, while diarrhea can be uncomfortable and disruptive, it is usually a minor illness that can be treated at home with over-the-counter medications and plenty of fluids. However, if you experience severe or persistent diarrhea, it is important to seek medical attention to rule out any underlying conditions that may require more formal treatment.

There are many different types of seizures, each with its own unique set of symptoms. Some common types of seizures include:

1. Generalized seizures: These seizures affect both sides of the brain and can cause a range of symptoms, including convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
2. Focal seizures: These seizures affect only one part of the brain and can cause more specific symptoms, such as weakness or numbness in a limb, or changes in sensation or vision.
3. Tonic-clonic seizures: These seizures are also known as grand mal seizures and can cause convulsions, loss of consciousness, and muscle stiffness.
4. Absence seizures: These seizures are also known as petit mal seizures and can cause a brief loss of consciousness or staring spell.
5. Myoclonic seizures: These seizures can cause sudden, brief muscle jerks or twitches.
6. Atonic seizures: These seizures can cause a sudden loss of muscle tone, which can lead to falls or drops.
7. Lennox-Gastaut syndrome: This is a rare and severe form of epilepsy that can cause multiple types of seizures, including tonic, atonic, and myoclonic seizures.

Seizures can be diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests such as electroencephalography (EEG) or imaging studies. Treatment for seizures usually involves anticonvulsant medications, but in some cases, surgery or other interventions may be necessary.

Overall, seizures are a complex and multifaceted symptom that can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life. It is important to seek medical attention if you or someone you know is experiencing seizures, as early diagnosis and treatment can help to improve outcomes and reduce the risk of complications.

Types of experimental neoplasms include:

* Xenografts: tumors that are transplanted into animals from another species, often humans.
* Transgenic tumors: tumors that are created by introducing cancer-causing genes into an animal's genome.
* Chemically-induced tumors: tumors that are caused by exposure to certain chemicals or drugs.

The use of experimental neoplasms in research has led to significant advances in our understanding of cancer biology and the development of new treatments for the disease. However, the use of animals in cancer research is a controversial topic and alternatives to animal models are being developed and implemented.

There are several types of lymphoma, including:

1. Hodgkin lymphoma: This is a type of lymphoma that originates in the white blood cells called Reed-Sternberg cells. It is characterized by the presence of giant cells with multiple nucleoli.
2. Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL): This is a type of lymphoma that does not meet the criteria for Hodgkin lymphoma. There are many subtypes of NHL, each with its own unique characteristics and behaviors.
3. Cutaneous lymphoma: This type of lymphoma affects the skin and can take several forms, including cutaneous B-cell lymphoma and cutaneous T-cell lymphoma.
4. Primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma: This is a rare type of lymphoma that develops in the brain or spinal cord.
5. Post-transplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD): This is a type of lymphoma that develops in people who have undergone an organ transplant, often as a result of immunosuppressive therapy.

The symptoms of lymphoma can vary depending on the type and location of the cancer. Some common symptoms include:

* Swollen lymph nodes
* Fever
* Fatigue
* Weight loss
* Night sweats
* Itching

Lymphoma is diagnosed through a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as CT scans or PET scans), and biopsies. Treatment options for lymphoma depend on the type and stage of the cancer, and may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, immunotherapy, or stem cell transplantation.

Overall, lymphoma is a complex and diverse group of cancers that can affect people of all ages and backgrounds. While it can be challenging to diagnose and treat, advances in medical technology and research have improved the outlook for many patients with lymphoma.

Examples of autoimmune diseases include:

1. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA): A condition where the immune system attacks the joints, leading to inflammation, pain, and joint damage.
2. Lupus: A condition where the immune system attacks various body parts, including the skin, joints, and organs.
3. Hashimoto's thyroiditis: A condition where the immune system attacks the thyroid gland, leading to hypothyroidism.
4. Multiple sclerosis (MS): A condition where the immune system attacks the protective covering of nerve fibers in the central nervous system, leading to communication problems between the brain and the rest of the body.
5. Type 1 diabetes: A condition where the immune system attacks the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas, leading to high blood sugar levels.
6. Guillain-Barré syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the nerves, leading to muscle weakness and paralysis.
7. Psoriasis: A condition where the immune system attacks the skin, leading to red, scaly patches.
8. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis: Conditions where the immune system attacks the digestive tract, leading to inflammation and damage to the gut.
9. Sjögren's syndrome: A condition where the immune system attacks the glands that produce tears and saliva, leading to dry eyes and mouth.
10. Vasculitis: A condition where the immune system attacks the blood vessels, leading to inflammation and damage to the blood vessels.

The symptoms of autoimmune diseases vary depending on the specific disease and the organs or tissues affected. Common symptoms include fatigue, fever, joint pain, skin rashes, and swollen lymph nodes. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves medication to suppress the immune system and reduce inflammation, as well as lifestyle changes such as dietary changes and stress management techniques.

Some common types of streptococcal infections include:

1. Strep throat (pharyngitis): an infection of the throat and tonsils that can cause fever, sore throat, and swollen lymph nodes.
2. Sinusitis: an infection of the sinuses (air-filled cavities in the skull) that can cause headache, facial pain, and nasal congestion.
3. Pneumonia: an infection of the lungs that can cause cough, fever, chills, and shortness of breath.
4. Cellulitis: an infection of the skin and underlying tissue that can cause redness, swelling, and warmth over the affected area.
5. Endocarditis: an infection of the heart valves, which can cause fever, fatigue, and swelling in the legs and abdomen.
6. Meningitis: an infection of the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord that can cause fever, headache, stiff neck, and confusion.
7. Septicemia (blood poisoning): an infection of the bloodstream that can cause fever, chills, rapid heart rate, and low blood pressure.

Streptococcal infections are usually treated with antibiotics, which can help clear the infection and prevent complications. In some cases, hospitalization may be necessary to monitor and treat the infection.

Prevention measures for streptococcal infections include:

1. Good hygiene practices, such as washing hands frequently, especially after contact with someone who is sick.
2. Avoiding close contact with people who have streptococcal infections.
3. Keeping wounds and cuts clean and covered to prevent bacterial entry.
4. Practicing safe sex to prevent the spread of streptococcal infections through sexual contact.
5. Getting vaccinated against streptococcus pneumoniae, which can help prevent pneumonia and other infections caused by this bacterium.

It is important to seek medical attention if you suspect you or someone else may have a streptococcal infection, as early diagnosis and treatment can help prevent complications and improve outcomes.

* Anxiety
* Depression
* Fatigue
* Insomnia
* Muscle and bone pain
* Nausea and vomiting
* Seizures (in severe cases)
* Sweating
* Tremors

The specific symptoms of substance withdrawal syndrome can vary depending on the substance being withdrawn from, but some common symptoms include:

* Alcohol: tremors, anxiety, insomnia, nausea and vomiting, headaches, and seizures
* Opioids: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, muscle aches, sweating, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, and depression
* Benzodiazepines: withdrawal symptoms can include anxiety, insomnia, tremors, and seizures

The diagnosis of substance withdrawal syndrome is typically made based on the patient's history of substance use and the presence of withdrawal symptoms. A healthcare provider may also order laboratory tests to rule out other conditions that may be causing the symptoms. Treatment for substance withdrawal syndrome usually involves supportive care, such as rest, hydration, and pain management, as well as medication to manage withdrawal symptoms. In some cases, medical professionals may also recommend a gradual tapering of the substance over a period of time to minimize withdrawal symptoms.

It is important for individuals who are experiencing withdrawal symptoms to seek medical attention as soon as possible, as untreated withdrawal can lead to serious complications, such as seizures and dehydration. With appropriate treatment, most individuals with substance withdrawal syndrome can recover fully and successfully overcome their addiction.

Arteriosclerosis can affect any artery in the body, but it is most commonly seen in the arteries of the heart, brain, and legs. It is a common condition that affects millions of people worldwide and is often associated with aging and other factors such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes, and smoking.

There are several types of arteriosclerosis, including:

1. Atherosclerosis: This is the most common type of arteriosclerosis and occurs when plaque builds up inside the arteries.
2. Arteriolosclerosis: This type affects the small arteries in the body and can cause decreased blood flow to organs such as the kidneys and brain.
3. Medial sclerosis: This type affects the middle layer of the artery wall and can cause stiffness and narrowing of the arteries.
4. Intimal sclerosis: This type occurs when plaque builds up inside the innermost layer of the artery wall, causing it to become thick and less flexible.

Symptoms of arteriosclerosis can include chest pain, shortness of breath, leg pain or cramping during exercise, and numbness or weakness in the limbs. Treatment for arteriosclerosis may include lifestyle changes such as a healthy diet and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower blood pressure and cholesterol levels. In severe cases, surgery may be necessary to open up or bypass blocked arteries.

A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:

1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.

It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.

The symptoms of cholera include:

1. Diarrhea: Cholera causes profuse, watery diarrhea that can last for several days.
2. Dehydration: The loss of fluids and electrolytes due to diarrhea can lead to severe dehydration, which can be life-threatening if not treated promptly.
3. Nausea and vomiting: Cholera patients may experience nausea and vomiting, especially in the early stages of the disease.
4. Abdominal cramps: The abdomen may become tender and painful due to the inflammation caused by the bacteria.
5. Low-grade fever: Some patients with cholera may experience a mild fever, typically less than 102°F (39°C).

Cholera is spread through the fecal-oral route, which means that it is transmitted when someone ingests food or water contaminated with the bacteria. The disease can also be spread by direct contact with infected fecal matter, such as through poor hygiene practices or inadequate waste disposal.

There are several ways to diagnose cholera, including:

1. Stool test: A stool sample can be tested for the presence of Vibrio cholerae using a microscope or a rapid diagnostic test (RDT).
2. Blood test: A blood test can detect the presence of antibodies against Vibrio cholerae, which can indicate that the patient has been infected with the bacteria.
3. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of dehydration and other symptoms of cholera.

Treatment of cholera typically involves replacing lost fluids and electrolytes through oral rehydration therapy (ORT) or intravenous fluids. Antibiotics may also be given to shorten the duration of diarrhea and reduce the risk of complications. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to provide more intensive treatment.

Prevention of cholera involves maintaining good hygiene practices, such as washing hands with soap and water, and avoiding consumption of contaminated food and water. Vaccines are also available to protect against cholera, particularly for people living in areas where the disease is common.

In conclusion, cholera is a highly infectious disease that can cause severe dehydration and even death if left untreated. Early diagnosis and treatment are critical to preventing complications and reducing the risk of transmission. Prevention measures such as vaccination and good hygiene practices can also help control the spread of the disease.

Some common poultry diseases include:

1. Avian influenza (bird flu): A highly contagious viral disease that affects birds and can be transmitted to humans.
2. Newcastle disease: A viral disease that causes respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms in birds.
3. Infectious bronchitis: A viral disease that causes respiratory symptoms in birds.
4. Marek's disease: A viral disease that affects the nervous system of birds.
5. Coccidiosis: A parasitic disease caused by the Eimeria protozoa, which can cause diarrhea and weight loss in birds.
6. Chicken anemia virus: A viral disease that causes anemia and weakened immune systems in chickens.
7. Fowl pox: A viral disease that causes skin lesions and other symptoms in birds.
8. Avian encephalomyelitis (AE): A viral disease that affects the brain and spinal cord of birds, causing neurological symptoms such as paralysis and death.
9. Mycoplasmosis: A bacterial disease caused by the Mycoplasma bacteria, which can cause respiratory and other symptoms in birds.
10. Aspergillosis: A fungal disease that affects the respiratory system of birds, causing symptoms such as coughing and difficulty breathing.

Poultry diseases can have a significant impact on bird health and productivity, and can also be transmitted to humans in some cases. It is important for poultry farmers and owners to monitor their flocks closely and take steps to prevent the spread of disease, such as providing clean water and feed, maintaining good hygiene, and vaccinating birds against certain diseases.

In medicine, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure. This type of transmission can occur in various settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities, where patients with compromised immune systems are more susceptible to infection.

Cross-infection can occur through a variety of means, including:

1. Person-to-person contact: Direct contact with an infected individual, such as touching, hugging, or shaking hands.
2. Contaminated surfaces and objects: Touching contaminated surfaces or objects that have been touched by an infected individual, such as doorknobs, furniture, or medical equipment.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhaling droplets or aerosolized particles that contain the infectious agent, such as during coughing or sneezing.
4. Contaminated food and water: Consuming food or drinks that have been handled by an infected individual or contaminated with the infectious agent.
5. Insect vectors: Mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects can transmit infections through their bites.

Cross-infection is a significant concern in healthcare settings, as it can lead to outbreaks of nosocomial infections (infections acquired in hospitals) and can spread rapidly among patients, healthcare workers, and visitors. To prevent cross-infection, healthcare providers use strict infection control measures, such as wearing personal protective equipment (PPE), thoroughly cleaning and disinfecting surfaces, and implementing isolation precautions for infected individuals.

In summary, cross-infection refers to the transmission of an infectious agent from one individual or source to another, often through direct contact or indirect exposure in healthcare settings. Preventing cross-infection is essential to maintaining a safe and healthy environment for patients, healthcare workers, and visitors.

Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.

Types of Cattle Diseases

There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:

1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms of Cattle Diseases

The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:

1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy

Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases

Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.

Prevention of Cattle Diseases

Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:

1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.

It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.

Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.

By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.

There are two types of hypertension:

1. Primary Hypertension: This type of hypertension has no identifiable cause and is also known as essential hypertension. It accounts for about 90% of all cases of hypertension.
2. Secondary Hypertension: This type of hypertension is caused by an underlying medical condition or medication. It accounts for about 10% of all cases of hypertension.

Some common causes of secondary hypertension include:

* Kidney disease
* Adrenal gland disorders
* Hormonal imbalances
* Certain medications
* Sleep apnea
* Cocaine use

There are also several risk factors for hypertension, including:

* Age (the risk increases with age)
* Family history of hypertension
* Obesity
* Lack of exercise
* High sodium intake
* Low potassium intake
* Stress

Hypertension is often asymptomatic, and it can cause damage to the blood vessels and organs over time. Some potential complications of hypertension include:

* Heart disease (e.g., heart attacks, heart failure)
* Stroke
* Kidney disease (e.g., chronic kidney disease, end-stage renal disease)
* Vision loss (e.g., retinopathy)
* Peripheral artery disease

Hypertension is typically diagnosed through blood pressure readings taken over a period of time. Treatment for hypertension may include lifestyle changes (e.g., diet, exercise, stress management), medications, or a combination of both. The goal of treatment is to reduce the risk of complications and improve quality of life.

The symptoms of rotavirus infection can range from mild to severe and may include:

* Diarrhea
* Vomiting
* Fever
* Abdominal pain
* Dehydration
* Loss of appetite
* Weight loss

In severe cases, rotavirus infection can lead to complications such as:

* Dehydration
* Malnutrition
* Electrolyte imbalance
* Acute kidney injury
* Septicemia
* Death (rare)

The diagnosis of rotavirus infection is based on a combination of clinical symptoms, laboratory tests, and medical imaging. Laboratory tests may include:

* Stool testing for the presence of rotavirus antigens or genetic material
* Blood testing for signs of dehydration or electrolyte imbalance

There is no specific treatment for rotavirus infection, but rather supportive care to manage symptoms and prevent complications. This may include:

* Fluid replacement therapy to prevent dehydration
* Anti-diarrheal medications to slow down bowel movements
* Pain management with medication
* Rest and hydration

Prevention is key in managing rotavirus infections. Vaccines are available to protect against rotavirus infection, and good hygiene practices such as frequent handwashing and avoiding close contact with people who are sick can also help prevent the spread of the virus.

Overall, while rotavirus infections can be severe and potentially life-threatening, with proper supportive care and prevention measures, most children recover fully within a few days to a week.

The bacteria are naturally found in warm seawater and can enter the body through cuts or scrapes on the skin while swimming or playing near the water. People with weakened immune systems, such as those with liver cirrhosis, cancer, or HIV/AIDS, are at a higher risk of developing Vibrio infections.

Types of Vibrio Infections

There are several types of Vibrio bacteria that can cause infections, including:

Vibrio vulnificus: This type of bacteria is found in warm coastal waters and can infect people who have open wounds or weakened immune systems. Vibrio vulnificus infections can be severe and can lead to bloodstream infections, septicemia, and even death.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus: This type of bacteria is found in tropical and subtropical waters and can cause gastrointestinal illness, including diarrhea, abdominal cramps, and fever. In severe cases, Vibrio parahaemolyticus infections can lead to bloodstream infections and other serious complications.

Vibrio alginolyticus: This type of bacteria is found in warm coastal waters and can cause gastrointestinal illness, including diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Vibrio alginolyticus infections are generally less severe than those caused by other types of Vibrio bacteria.

Prevention and Treatment

Preventing Vibrio infections is essential for people who have weakened immune systems or who engage in activities that increase their risk of developing an infection, such as swimming in warm coastal waters. Prevention measures include:

Wound care: People with open wounds should avoid swimming in warm coastal waters until the wounds are fully healed.

Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked seafood: Raw or undercooked seafood can be a source of Vibrio bacteria, so it's essential to cook seafood thoroughly before eating it.

Using proper first aid: If you experience an injury while swimming in warm coastal waters, clean the wound thoroughly and seek medical attention promptly.

Treatment for Vibrio infections depends on the severity of the infection and may include antibiotics, supportive care, such as intravenous fluids and oxygen therapy, and surgical intervention if necessary. In severe cases, hospitalization may be required.

Preventing and treating Vibrio infections is essential for people who engage in activities that increase their risk of developing an infection. By taking preventive measures and seeking prompt medical attention if symptoms develop, you can reduce the risk of serious complications from these infections.

Pseudomonas infections are challenging to treat due to the bacteria's ability to develop resistance against antibiotics. The treatment typically involves a combination of antibiotics and other supportive therapies, such as oxygen therapy or mechanical ventilation, to manage symptoms and prevent complications. In some cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to remove infected tissue or repair damaged organs.

Symptoms of campylobacter infections include:

* Diarrhea (often bloody)
* Fever
* Abdominal pain and cramping
* Nausea and vomiting
* Headache
* Fatigue
* Muscle pain

Transmission of campylobacter infections can occur through the fecal-oral route, contaminated food or water, or direct contact with an infected animal or person. Risk factors for developing a campylobacter infection include eating undercooked poultry, unpasteurized dairy products, and untreated water.

Diagnosis of campylobacter infections typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, laboratory testing, and medical imaging. Laboratory tests may include culture isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), or immunological assays to detect the presence of Campylobacter bacteria.

Treatment of campylobacter infections typically involves antibiotics such as macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and ceftriaxone. In severe cases, hospitalization may be necessary to manage complications such as dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, or sepsis.

Prevention of campylobacter infections includes proper handling and cooking of food, especially poultry, good hygiene practices, and safe water consumption. Vaccines are also being developed to prevent campylobacter infections in animals and humans.

Overall, campylobacter infections can cause a wide range of illnesses, from mild to severe, and proper diagnosis, treatment, and prevention measures are essential to reduce the risk of complications and death.

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"Newly Established Low Seizure Susceptible and Seizure-Prone Inbred Strains of Mongolian Gerbil". Experimental Animals. 52 (2): ... Eleven of these animals were subsequently sent to Tumblebrook Farm in the USA, with additional animals later sent to Charles ... "Animal Health Center Vets in Valdosta, GA". Animal Health Center Vets in Valdosta, GA. Retrieved 3 June 2018. "Gerbil FAQ". ... The animal is used in science and kept as a small house pet. Their use in science dates back to the latter half of the 19th ...
FVB is an albino, inbred laboratory mouse strain that is named after its susceptibility to Friend leukemia virus B. This strain ... Animals bred for albinism on a large scale, Laboratory mouse strains). ... A derivative strain called sighted FVB was developed from this strain via backcrossing. The full name of this strain is FVB. ... 1991). FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 88(6 ...
Therefore, the strains that were isolated from animals a few decades ago and went through multiple passages in eggs are less ... Parker JC, Whiteman MD, Richter CB (January 1978). "Susceptibility of inbred and outbred mouse strains to Sendai virus and ... All Sendai virus strains belong to the same serotype. The origin of many strains of SeV was described in 1978. Some strains ... Another strain is Tianjin strain, isolated in China in 2008. One of these strains was used for creation of replication ...
... animals of a single inbred strain; isograft or syngraft). Allogeneic: The donor and recipient are of the same species (human→ ... Two layers of skin created from animal sources has been found to be useful in venous leg ulcers. Grafts can be classified by ... "Healing Animals With Fish Skins". UC Davis. September 17, 2018. Barret-Nerin, Juan; Herndon, David N. (2004). Principles and ... When grafts are taken from other animals, they are known as heterografts or xenografts. By definition, they are temporary ...
He has written books cataloguing laboratory animals, including International Index of Laboratory Animals and Inbred Strains in ... He is one of 19 members of the UK's Animal Procedures Committee, which advises the Home Secretary on matters related to animal ... Nonetheless, Festing has been criticized by the animal rights movement for his investment in companies that engage in animal ... the use of animals in medical experiments in the UK. Festing is the author of over 200 scientific papers on laboratory animal ...
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and behavioral differences between inbred mouse strains. Genes, Brain & Behavior 4: 318-323. Hurd PL, ... Animal Behaviour 56: 749--753. Hurd, PL; Enquist, M. 2001. Threat display in birds. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 931-942. ... Animal Behaviour 70: 1155-1170. Hurd PL. 2006. Resource holding potential, subjective resource value, and game theoretical ... Many studies on both human, and non-human, animals suggest that inter-individual variation in adult aggressiveness is largely ...
If the paternal allele is compatible, meaning the male is not carrying an inbred strain (ex. DDK female x non-DDK male), the ... In nature, animals can ill afford to devote costly resources for little or no reward, ergo, mating strategies have evolved to ... and eventually deterioration of the embryo when females with the phenotype mate with males who carry other inbred strains. ... Genetic color polymorphisms are genetically defined color forms between animals of the same species. For the most part, color ...
... heterozygous animals should be used to breed with the original inbred strain. Full-sib mating are used to maintain coisogenic ... Coisogenic strains may also occur through a spontaneous mutation that occurs in an inbred strain. To create a coisogenic strain ... Coisogenic strains are one type of inbred strain that differs by a mutation at a single locus and all of the other loci are ... There are numerous ways to create an inbred strain and each of these strains are unique. Genetically engineered mice can be ...
The availability of inbred and mutant mouse strains can be advantageous when examining the genetic basis of murine ... Animal models of N. brasiliensis infections can lead to a better understanding of the basic biology of the immune response and ... This worm is a widely studied parasite due to its simple lifecycle and its ability to be used in animal models. Its lifecycle ... Animal model of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosmoides polygyrus. Current Protocols in Immunology Chapter 19. Lisa M. ...
Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another one in Ottawa, Canada, an outbred strain ... Biobreeding rat also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ...
Inbred strains are also available, but are not as commonly used as inbred mice. Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has ... Like NOD mice, biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... The biobreeding rat (a.k.a. the biobreeding diabetes-prone rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops ... "Rat Genome", Nature Rat Genome Database, Medical College of Wisconsin Index of Inbred Rat Strains database, Jacskson Laboratory ...
... human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to ... Putative functions are: Immunomodulation Progesterone binding: weak in some animals, especially weak in humans. (Note: UGB is ... The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to ... However contrary to the animal model claims, ...
... animals, congenic MeSH B01. - mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520 - animals, inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520 ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.157.520.300 - mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.157.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.157.520.338 ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.157.760.080 - rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.157.760.090 - rats, inbred bb MeSH B01.050.157.760.110 ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.300 - mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.318 - mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050. ...
NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. It has ... The National Centre for Laboratory Animal Science (to be integrated into the National Animal Resource Facility for Biomedical ... Management and Experimentation using laboratory animals in biomedical research. It started as a unit called Laboratory Animal ... On 5 January 2016, the NCLAS is merged with NARF-BR and the former Unit becomes the NIN-animal facility. The scientists of ...
... inbred mouse strain and the systematic generation of other inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a model ... Animals in space Animal testing Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on rodents Cellular model (numerical), e.g., ... In the U.S., the Animal Welfare Act of 1970 (see also Laboratory Animal Welfare Act) set standards for animal use and care in ... Animal models serving in research may have an existing, inbred or induced disease or injury that is similar to a human ...
West, D. B.; Boozer, C. N.; Moody, D. L.; Atkinson, R. L. (1992-06-01). "Dietary obesity in nine inbred mouse strains". The ... The diet-induced obesity model (DIO model) is an animal model used to study obesity using animals that have obesity caused by ... Furthermore, the strain and sex of the rodent impacts the response to the model. Some common mouse strains show large ... This has led to cases of studies that used the same strain of mice concluding that the strain is prone to becoming obese in one ...
Since most laboratory strains are inbred, outcrossing of the homozygous mutated individual with a polymorphic strain is ... In animals, the individuals making up the two testing groups are usually produced by a cross between two siblings heterozygous ...
In mice, large differences in learning ability exist among different inbred strains. These differences appear to be correlated ... It is believed that performance of animals in one type of maze cannot be generalized to other mazes because all mazes require ... Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2012, Animal testing mazes, Behavioral neuroscience). ... Animal Behavior Processes. 2 (2): 97-116. doi:10.1037/0097-7403.2.2.97. Lenck-Santini PP, Save E, Poucet B (2001). "Place-cell ...
Crossing any particular pair of inbred strains may or may not result in superior offspring. The parent strains used are ... "Seedsheets". Saturday, 22 May 2021 Paul Conkin (2008). "5.4 Plant and Animal Breeding". A Revolution Down on the Farm. ... Controlled hybrids provide very uniform characteristics because they are produced by crossing two inbred strains. Elite inbred ... that are relatively good for inbred plants. Hybrids are chosen to improve the characteristics of the resulting plants, such as ...
... a two generation breeding protocol that starts by generating a hybrid offspring between two inbred strains, one of them ... The decision marks the first time a genetically modified animal has been approved to enter the United States food supply. The ... AquAdvantage salmon are the first genetically engineered animals approved for human consumption in the United States and Canada ... other amounts found in other common animal products such as organic cow milk. A concern with genetic engineering is that ...
... or deliberately inbred mouse strains which are histocompatible. An individual's immune response of passive immunity is "faster ... Patients who are immunized with the antibodies from animals may develop serum sickness due to the proteins from the immune ... Shibasaburo and von Behring immunized guinea pigs with the blood products from animals that had recovered from diphtheria and ... If a neonatal animal does not receive adequate amounts of colostrum prior to gut closure, it does not have a sufficient amount ...
Paylor R, Crawley JN (July 1997). "Inbred strain differences in prepulse inhibition of the mouse startle response". ... Certain surgical procedures also disrupt PPI in animals, helping to unravel the underlying circuitry. Many animal studies of ... Possible hearing impairment must be taken into account, as, for example, several strains of mice develop high frequency hearing ... Swerdlow NR, Geyer MA (1998). "Using an animal model of deficient sensorimotor gating to study the pathophysiology and new ...
... and gave it the strain name mouse hepatitis virus (MHV)-JHM. MHV is now the most studied coronavirus in animals other than ... "Acute and chronic changes in the microcirculation of the liver in inbred strains of mice following infection with mouse ... Enterotropic strains include mouse hepatitis virus (MHV) strains D, Y, RI, and DVIM, whereas polytropic strains, such as JHM ... It is the most studied coronavirus in animals other than humans, and has been used as an animal disease model for many ...
... like an F2 or Recombinant inbred strains/lines (RILs). To scan for QTLs regions in a genome, a gene map based on linkage have ... In animal and plant breeding, the use of markers in selection aiming for breeding, mainly the molecular ones, collaborated to ... As an example, consider groups of similar animals (mice, for example) under two different diet systems. The research question ... for animals, or the total leaf area, for a plant, for example. It is not possible to take the measures from all the elements of ...
in channel catfish have focused primarily on inbred lines and farm strains of relevance to the aquaculture of this species. For ... Younger channel catfish are more consistently omnivorous, eating a large variety of plants and animals. The channel catfish is ... Schoonover D. "Ictalurus punctatus Catfish". Animal Diversity Web, Museum of Zoology. University of Michigan. Retrieved 22 ...
NOD/Shi inbred strain, 2) SCID, 3) IL-2Rγnull. These include: Reduced innate immunity derived from a NOD inbred strain, which ... developed by Central Institute for Experimental Animals (CIEA) in 2000. The NOG mouse accepts heterologous cells much more ... The NOD/Shi inbred strain was first discovered by Makino et al. as autoimmune non-obese-type diabetes mice. Lack of functional ... Kikutani, H.; Makino, S. (1992). The murine autoimmune diabetes model: NOD and related strains. Adv Immunol. Advances in ...
"Sociability and preference for social novelty in five inbred strains: An approach to assess autistic-like behavior in mice". ... and leading to ethical problems because of the unnecessary use of live animals for flawed studies. These standards are ... Academic Search Premier Biological Abstracts BIOSIS Previews CSA Animal Behavior Abstracts CSA Biological Sciences Database CSA ...
The incidence is high enough that several strains of Golden Hamster have been developed to serve as animal models in clinical ... due in no small part to their being highly inbred. ... Small Animal Practice. 36 (6): 1325-43, vii-viii. doi:10.1016/j ... A computation model of volumetric, isotropic, and cardiac wall growth predicts the relationship between cardiac strains (e.g. ... Ross J (March 2002). "Dilated cardiomyopathy: concepts derived from gene deficient and transgenic animal models". Circulation ...
... to create a strain more suitable for meat production. The historical Spanish strain, bred from animals selected from the main ... traditional Spanish genetic lines to ensure the conservation of a purebred lineage, exhibits signs of inbreeding. Before the ... It has been attacked by animal rights and animal welfare activists, with PETA running a campaign against the practice in 2004. ... The three Merino strains that founded the world's Merino flocks are the Royal Escurial flocks, the Negretti and the Paula. ...
... using animal models. He continued his studies of small intestine transplantation under a Wellcome Trust travelling fellowship ... and wild strains of the aforementioned viruses) results in ileal lymphoid nodular hyperplasia, chronic colitis and pervasive ... "Monocyte/macrophage procoagulant activity as a measure of immune responsiveness in Lewis and brown Norway inbred rats. ...
The following animals appeared in Aquarium of the Dead, a spinoff of the Zoombies series. They are all animals on exhibit at ... The VM2 viral strain originated in Europe and managed to become a global pandemic within the course of the month of its ... presumably due to inbreeding, most of them are deformed. Their members include Callum (portrayed by Vaz Andreas), Magnus ( ... These animals capture Sinbad and his crew to feed to their young only for them to fight them off and flee into a cave. The Cave ...
The use of inbred strains is also important for genetic studies in animal models, for example to distinguish genetic from ... Systematic inbreeding and maintenance of inbred strains of laboratory mice and rats is of great importance for biomedical ... 2006). "Selection and Inbreeding Depression: Effects of Inbreeding Rate and Inbreeding Environment". Evolution. 60 (5): 1014- ... 6 Although there are several examples of inbred populations of wild animals, the negative consequences of this inbreeding are ...
... potential applications in quantitative genomics and animal breeding". Mammalian Genome. 17 (6): 548-564. doi:10.1007/s00335-005 ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ...
The last word in ignorance is the man who says of an animal or plant: "What good is it?" If the land mechanism as a whole is ... This sudden demographic loss in bee numbers is placing a strain on the agricultural sector. The cause behind the massive ... inbreeding depression, and minimum population viability) of rare or endangered species. Conservation biology is concerned with ... Some animals, such as amphibians with their semi-permeable skin and linkages to wetlands, have an acute sensitivity to ...
"The Attainment of Homozygosity in Inbred Strains of Maize.", Genetics (published September 1924), vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 405-418, ... "Unisexual Maize Plants and Their Bearing on Sex Differentiation in Other Plants and in Animals.", Genetics (published November ... In Jones' method, four inbred corn lines are used. The seed from two initial crosses are used to grow up parental hybrids for ... Until Jones invented the double-cross method, the yield from the parent lines (the inbreds) was insufficient to allow practical ...
Some strains are reared only for exhibition at poultry shows. N. Moula, M. Jacquet, A. Verelst, N. Antoine-Moussiaux, F. Farnir ... Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed January ... J.-M. Larivière, J. Detilleux, P. Leroy (2011). Estimates of inbreeding rates in forty traditional Belgian chicken breeds ... Domestic Animal Diversity Information System of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Accessed January ...
"White Tigers Are All Inbred, Cross Eyed and Suffer Greatly". Big Cat Rescue. 25 November 2008. Retrieved 1 January 2020. Turner ... Animal Genetics. 36 (2): 119-126. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2052.2005.01253.x. ISSN 0268-9146. PMID 15771720. Imes, D. L.; Geary, L. A ... Patched Tabbies and Calicos Archived 5 October 2011 at the Wayback Machine Strain, GM (2015). "The Genetics of Deafness in ... Animal Genetics. 48 (1): 127-128. doi:10.1111/age.12503. PMID 27634063. Yu, Y.; Grahn, R. A.; Lyons, L. A. (4 February 2019). " ...
... may be bred selectively among inbred strains to create a recombinant congenic strain. This might be done to isolate an ... Normally this is performed with sedated animals but sometimes it is performed on awake animals engaged in a behavioral event, ... QTL mapping - The influence of a gene in some behavior can be statistically inferred by studying inbred strains of some species ... Single-unit recording - A method whereby an electrode is introduced into the brain of a living animal to detect electrical ...
Her first work in the lab helped to elucidate the sequence diversity of 20 inbred mouse strains based on substitutions, ... team explored the genome-wide methylation patterns in mouse sperm in controls versus developmentally vitamin D depleted animals ... "Genetic and Haplotype Diversity Among Wild-Derived Mouse Inbred Strains". Genome Research. 14 (10a): 1880-1887. doi:10.1101/gr. ... Genetic and haplotype diversity among wild-derived mouse inbred strains. Genome Research, 2004 Oct;14:1880-1887. PMID 15466288 ...
2009). "Evaluation of population variation at 17 autosomal STR and 16 Y-STR haplotype loci in Croatians". Forensic Science ... 2008). "restricted access Effects of Isolation and Inbreeding on Human Quantitative Traits: An Example of Biochemical Markers ... Neolithic migration of a population from Anatolia who brought with them domestication of wild animals and plants. Specifically ... has been based on STR analysis (8 and 10 loci, respectively) and recent studies clearly indicate that the STR-based age ...
Like other animals, Drosophila is associated with various bacteria in its gut. The fly gut microbiota or microbiome seems to ... The S. poulsonii strain of Drosophila neotestacea protects its host from parasitic wasps and nematodes using toxins that ... which allows for the detection and expelling of sperm that reduces inbreeding possibilities. Manier et al. 2013 has categorized ... D. melanogaster is a popular experimental animal because it is easily cultured en masse out of the wild, has a short generation ...
Certain stereotypical ideas of inbred tribal traits of some sub-tribes or even main tribes have gained currency, e.g., "A ... He rejected negotiations in order to engage in military posturing, and ignored problems that strained their relations. Sandeman ... who was supported by an annual tax of one lamb and one calf on all those who raised those animals. Neeka served as a judge and ... Overseas employment has improved the standard of living without prejudice to the inbred unwritten tribal code and tenacious ...
... may refer to: Strain (biology), variants of plants, viruses or bacteria; or an inbred animal used for experimental ... Look up strain or straining in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... also called a denomination Strain (surname) Strain (manga), a ... Strain theory (disambiguation) Strainer, a type of sieve used to separate solids from liquids, e.g. in cooking The Strain ( ... a series of musical phrases that create a distinct melody of a piece Strain (album), a 2004 album by Flesh Field Strain: ...
... is the most important protein source for feed farm animals (that in turn yields animal protein for human consumption). ... Strains that continue nodal development after flowering are termed "indeterminates" and are best suited to climates with longer ... Chinese landraces were found to have a slightly higher diversity than inbred lines by Li et al. 2010. Specific locus amplified ... For best results, though, an inoculum of the correct strain of bacteria should be mixed with the soybean (or any legume) seed ...
Although animals are thought to be more mobile than plants, pollen and seeds may be carried great distances by animals, water ... When gene flow is impeded, there can be an increase in inbreeding, measured by the inbreeding coefficient (F) within a ... This was demonstrated in the lab with two bottleneck strains of Drosophila melanogaster, in which crosses between the two ... The population is so strongly isolated that lack of gene flow has led to high rates of inbreeding. The level of gene flow among ...
By 1937, only 13 stallions had been used, and the Estonian horse was becoming inbred due to the scarcity of strains. This led ... With a few animals left on the mainland, the breed was eventually revived with the help of a new breeding program, and the ... In 2005, 25 animals of the breed were imported to Sweden to recreate the genetically closely related, extinct Öland Horse. The ... FAO animal production and health paper 65. Rome: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. ISBN 9251025827. ...
Four wild strains from Africa were crossed with four farmed strains from the Philippines. This strain is currently farmed in ... The explanation for this is its low heritability together with the fact that the trait cannot be measured on live animals and ... inbreeding and cannibalism (PDF). Wageningen: Wageningen UR. pp. 150 pp. ISBN 90-8504-540-1. "Research & Advocacy". gaalliance. ... Once a high performing tilapia strain (or strains) has been developed, the establishment of satellite hatcheries will increase ...
The domesticated strain as was more uniform in its orientation, but the wild strains were larger and propagated faster. The ... The domestication of animals is the relationship between animals and humans who have influence on their "care" and reproduction ... variability can readily be lost by inbreeding, selection against undesired traits, or genetic drift, while in Drosophila, ... Selection of animals for visible "desirable" traits may have undesired consequences. Captive and domesticated animals often ...
Shaw, JJ (1988). "Animal reservoirs of Leishmania in different ecological situations and their importance in the epidemiology ... DNA sequencing of different geographical strains indicates that the protozoan complex can be classified into two valid taxa, L ... "Genomic confirmation of hybridisation and recent inbreeding in a vector-isolated Leishmania population". PLOS Genet. 10 (1): ... but is practically useless in Africa because of low effectiveness in the African strain of the parasite. Further, amphotericin ...
Each of these chemicals either has a reaction to how the animal acts, or how the species body is formed to benefit their mating ... Females of other strains show no similar conditional sex ratio behaviours. Researchers find that these behaviours are indeed ... in which mutations are allowed to drift to fixation in inbred lines, to study the effect of spontaneous mutations on phenotype ... Ethology, the study of animal behaviour, has been a topic of interest since the 1930s. The pioneers of the field include Dutch ...
Annual Review of Animal Biosciences. Annual Reviews. 7 (1): 499-519. doi:10.1146/annurev-animal-020518-115056. ISSN 2165-8102. ... Small populations that survive within such fragments are often susceptible to inbreeding, genetic drift, or extinction due to ... Retallick, Richard W. R.; Miera, Verma (2007). "Strain differences in the amphibian chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis and ... and that declines in amphibian populations and species indicate that other groups of animals and plants will soon be at risk. ...
By 1979, researchers had generated 10 inbred strains. These inbred lines made medaka a model species for scientific research in ... They are seasonal breeding animals and usually lay eggs between spring and summer. They prefer to lay eggs around water grass ... Currently, 456 commercial strains are documented and available for fishkeeping. Medaka are not only kept as pets but also ... There are also many mutations that show up in medaka at random, for example, a mutant strain that lacks scales, and one with ...
Animal hides were stretched over the frame, which was covered with sod. As accommodations for long hunting trips, the Thule ... According to a popular theory, these traditions reduced the danger of inbreeding and resulting population bottleneck in small ... Consequently, new patterns of behavior arose, which put enormous strain on family ties. The adjustment to totally different ... The colder climate of the period and the resulting decline in animals as game meant that the Inuit were forced to abandon their ...
In early experiments on cell-mediated cytotoxicity against tumor target cells, both in cancer patients and animal models, ... Smith HJ (December 1966). "Antigenicity of carcinogen-induced and spontaneous tumours in inbred mice". British Journal of ... several strains of mice (including BALB/c mice) and in three common monkey species. In addition to natural killer cells being ... "Peptide-specific recognition of human cytomegalovirus strains controls adaptive natural killer cells". Nature Immunology. 19 (5 ...
White tigers which were a mixture of the Rewa and Odisha strains, born at the Nandankanan Zoo, were non-inbred. A white tiger ... A zoo needs lot of water to meet the need of animals, cleaning of animals sheds and for various other purposes. The then Range ... These white tigers are therefore referred to as the Odisha strain, as opposed to the Rewa strain, of white tigers founded by ... To help involve the general public in animal conservation and raise money, the zoo started the Adopt-an-Animal programme in ...
... inbred animals, hybrid animals, and closed colonies. Each type is used in animal experimentation in ways that maximize the ... Laboratory animals may be divided into three major genetic types: ... Inbred Strains. Almost no genetic differences can be found between any two animals within a particular inbred strain. Therefore ... Hybrid Animals. In laboratory animal science, hybrid animals are usually obtained by mating among different inbred strains. ...
Inbred Strains; Pulmonary Brosis; Silica; Silicosis ... Laboratory animals; Animals; Animal studies; Collagen fibrils; ... We exposed C57B1/6 and 129 strains of mice by aerosol to cristobalite silica (70 mg/m3, 12 days, 5 hours/day) or sham-air and ... Terms: silica OR silicosis And Not animals And Not rats 526 - 526 of 888 Bibliographic entries ...
... some question for mouse inbred or recombinant inbred strains.. Thank you. ... I applaud the NIA for future support of developing new preclinical animal models for the study of different aspects of AD. I ... NIH funding initiatives for marmosets and other new animal models are coming soon. Youll also hear more in future blogs from ... There is a critical need for alternative animal models that naturally develop diseases commonly observed in humans and can be ...
Aging study: Grip strength and gait analysis in 32 inbred strains of mice (2008). Seburn KL, Xing S, Burgess RW With: Schultz D ... Seburn2 animal documentation. ...
Inbred Strains; Orchiectomy; Sarcopenia/drug therapy*; Sarcopenia/metabolism; Sex Characteristics* ... MeSH Terms: Aging/drug effects*; Animals; Diet; Estradiol/administration & dosage; Estradiol/pharmacology*; Female; Longevity/ ...
The availability of genetically-defined inbred strains of rats and rabbits is also limited. Therefore, it is essential that ... Research progress is greatly hampered by the lack of animal models that can be used to study normal and abnormal processes ... Full Text HL-93-15-H CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE GENES IN ANIMAL MODELS NIH GUIDE, Volume 21, Number 37, October 16, 1992 RFA: HL-93 ... This Request for Applications (RFA), Cardiovascular Disease Genes in Animal Models, is related to the priority area of heart ...
Development and Characterization of Animal Models for Aging Research (R21) PA-10-015. NIA ... Studies using inbred and hybrid strains of rats and mice have made significant contributions to the foundation of biology of ... proposed use of the animals, and species, strains, ages, sex, and numbers to be used; 2) justifications for the use of animals ... Use of Animals in Research: Recipients of PHS support for activities involving live, vertebrate animals must comply with PHS ...
... recombinant inbred mice (BXD RI strains), and inbred strains of mice. They used a meta-analysis to pool the results and then ... Animals that received GDNF were less likely than animals that received a control injection to reacquire ethanol lever pressing ... Studies using small animal models of alcohol use will benefit greatly from the use of non-invasive brain imaging techniques to ... Lis talk was entitled "Research on Animal Models of Alcoholism.". Office of National Drug Control Policy On September 5, Dr. ...
... a young student bred the animal that became the workhorse of science, the laboratory mouse ... The "Mouse Man", as he was known on campus, was trying to create the first inbred lab animal - a strain of mouse whose genes ... In the third year of his degree, in 1909, he created the first inbred strain of mouse, providing researchers with a homogeneous ... We are all indebted to those inbred mice and their descendants, which have helped researchers develop treatments for a wide ...
Mice, Inbred Strains * Time Factors Substances * Disks Large Homolog 4 Protein * Dlg4 protein, mouse ... Animals * Brain Injuries / complications* * Brain Injuries / metabolism * Cerebral Cortex / injuries* * Cerebral Cortex / ...
Inbred Animal Strains Inbred Strain of Animal Inbred Strains of Animals Inbred Strains, Animal Previous Indexing. Inbreeding ( ... Animals, Inbred Strains [B01.] * Animals, Congenic [B01.] * Mice, Inbred Strains [B01.050. ... Animals, Inbred Strains Preferred Concept UI. M0026972. Scope Note. Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple ... The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain ...
You need inbred animals that havent been exposed to the virus and you need sarcomas, which you extract in a certain way by ... You would take an inbred strain of rats or mice--rats is what they started with, I think, as I recall--and you take those, and ... Baker: Where did he get the inbred strains?. Depue: Well, thats where the story is. So, we-- The first thing I said to him, ... So this was a pretty pure inbreeding situation, it seemed to me. And I tried to go out and, of course, I was met by guns trying ...
... most often knock-in of a penetrant human disease-associated mutation in an inbred mouse strain; (2) Inbreeding of a model ... or for basic follow-up investigations relevant to disease mechanisms in animals or animal cells. ... To avoid confusion, we suggest use of the term experimental system in place of the term animal model, or disease model. ... In fact, the field has learned the hard lesson that efficacy against an end-point in an animal cannot be expected to predict ...
Standard inbred laboratory mice are resistant to MPXV infection, and the absence of a small animal model of mpox has made it ... Moss and his colleagues identified a strain of wild-derived, inbred lab mouse (CAST/EiJ) and determined that these mice can be ... Virulence differences of mpox (monkeypox) virus clades I, IIa, and IIb.1 in a small animal model. PNAS DOI: 10.1073/pnas. ... Genome sequencing revealed that the strain causing the current outbreak, clade IIb, differs from two historic clades; clade I, ...
An ideal animal model for the study of a human disease is one which utilizes a route of infection that mimics the natural ... Identification of wild-derived inbred mouse strains highly susceptible to monkeypox virus infection for use as small animal ... Additionally, the animal model should have a mode(s) of transmission that mimics human cases. The development of small animal ... Monkeypox Virus in Animals: Current Knowledge of Viral Transmission and Pathogenesis in Wild Animal Reservoirs and Captive ...
What are inbred strains?. Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a ... Are inbred animals isogenic in nature?. Some inbred strains have been bred for over 150 generations, leaving individuals in the ... What is inbred mouse strain?. Inbred mouse strains are defined as colonies produced by a minimum of 20 generations of brother- ... Why are inbred strains susceptible to genetic drift?. Inbred strains, because they are small populations of homozygous ...
End+/- mice have also been generated on an inbred 129/Ola background (same strain as ES cells) by mating of the chimeras with ... Sick animals were first recognized by ruffled fur, weight loss, and visible ear telangiectases. We observed 14 affected End+/- ... To determine if the 129/Ola strain was associated with the disease phenotype, we generated End+/- mice on this inbred ... However, 5 out of 10 End+/- inbred 129/Ola mice showed visible telangiectases on the ears and 3 had nosebleeds, when observed ...
Susceptibility of inbred and F1 hybrid strains to noise-induced hearing loss. ... NIOSH-Author; Laboratory-animals; Noise-induced-hearing-loss; Ear-disorders; Hearing-loss; Age-factors; Hearing-threshold; ... The findings demonstrated the advantages of using inbred and F1 hybrid strains of mice which are genetically well defined, ... The inbred CBA/CaJ (CB) and hybrid CBB6F1 strains of mice exhibited only temporary threshold shift with rapid recovery after ...
Inbred Strain 13 guinea pigs almost uniformly die of disease after LASV infection with the prototypic 1976 Josiah strain ... Experienced CDC veterinarians or animal health technicians assessed animal health. Animals were humanely euthanized with ... 6 animals). Four animals infected with LASV-Josiah served as unvaccinated controls in parallel studies (24). All animals were ... 5/9 animals) and bulbar conjunctiva (5/9 animals) and occasionally in new vessels forming at the peripheral cornea (5/9 animals ...
... the study in question used only one inbred strain of mouse, whereas comparing several strains could have yielded useful data ... The Jackson Laboratory is working to improve experimental standards for animal-based research. This includes developing new ...
... and metabolomic studies of inbred mouse strains have shown that gut microbiota may play an active role in the development of ... Animal studies have recently shown that intestinal microbial communities can influence traits, ...
... Wild-type animals, albinos and inbred strains. Large stocks of these animals mean that we can almost ... The Xenopus tropicalis "wild-type" stocks that are normally supplied are of the Nigerian strain and are inbred for 7 ... We can also supply Ivory Coast, TGA blue strains and the more inbred Nigerians. ... The main "house" Xenopus laevis stock, has a mixed background, and has been inbred in house for over 14 years. We also stock ...
Animals, Congenic B1. B1. Animals, Inbred Strains B1.50.50.157 Ankyrin Repeat G2.111.570.790.709.600. ... Inbred OLETF B1. Rats, Inbred SHR B1. Rats, Inbred Strains B1. Rats, Inbred WF ... Inbred NZB B1. Mice, Inbred SENCAR B1. Mice, Inbred Strains B1. Microarray ... Inbred A B1. Mice, Inbred AKR B1. Mice, Inbred BALB C B1. Mice, Inbred C3H ...
Animals Inbred Strain Animals Inbred Strains Inbred Animal Strain Inbred Animal Strains Inbred Strain of Animal Inbred Strain, ... Inbred Strains Animal Inbred Strains Animals Inbred Strains of Animals Inbred Strains, Animal Strain, Animal Inbred Strain, ... Animals Inbred Strain. Animals Inbred Strains. Inbred Animal Strain. Inbred Animal Strains. Inbred Strain of Animal. Inbred ... Inbred Strains Animal. Inbred Strains Animals. Inbred Strains of Animals. Inbred Strains, Animal. Strain, Animal Inbred. Strain ...
  • The inbred C57BL/6J-mice (B6) and hybrid B6D2F1-mice demonstrated extensive permanent threshold shift and subsequent onset of AHL. (
  • Classically, these congenic strains are made by backcrossing random carriers to the desired inbred strain. (
  • Dr. Moss and his colleagues identified a strain of wild-derived, inbred lab mouse (CAST/EiJ) and determined that these mice can be infected with MPXV. (
  • Identification of wild-derived inbred mouse strains highly susceptible to monkeypox virus infection for use as small animal models. (
  • Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. (
  • We have evaluated whether a genetically-selected rat model, the Roman high-avoidance inbred strain (RHA-I), displays PPI deficits as compared with its Roman low-avoidance (RLA-I) counterpart and the genetically heterogeneous NIH-HS rat stock. (
  • Many types of research are also performed by utilizing strain differences in responses such as sensitivity and resistance. (
  • Laboratory animals may be divided into three major genetic types: inbred animals, hybrid animals, and closed colonies. (
  • Almost no genetic differences can be found between any two animals within a particular inbred strain. (
  • However, because there are major genetic differences from one inbred strain to another (for example, in responses to drugs) there may be completely different results (such as a high response level in one strain and a low level in another). (
  • Examples of this research include biochemical studies on substances that cause strain differences such as proteins and enzymes and genetic studies on strain differences. (
  • Gene polymorphism is maintained in closed colonies, and the genotypes of individual animals are known to differ based on genetic testing ( Katoh and others 1998 ). (
  • Standard inbred laboratory mice are resistant to MPXV infection, and the absence of a small animal model of mpox has made it difficult to study how genetic differences contribute to observed differences in virulence. (
  • The authors conclude that the major differences observed for permanent threshold shift in the B6 and B6D2F1-mice and the minimal temporary threshold shifts in the CB and CBB6F1-mice support the hypothesis for a major genetic difference among these strains. (
  • The genetic background of the host animal exerts great influence on the tumor frequency and/or the resultant latency of a particular transgene or mutation, as well as the systemic host immune responses. (
  • To maximize the use of animal models, genetic technologies for more species need to be developed, technologies for mice need to be enhanced to allow simultaneous mutation of multiple genes so that complex diseases are more effectively modeled, outbred strains need to be increasingly utilized, and zebrafish mutants should be more systematically phenotyped. (
  • These animal models resemble human skin cancer development, in that genetic changes caused by carcinogens and pro‑inflammatory cytokines, and simultaneous inflammation sustained by pro‑inflammatory cytokines and chemokines favor tumor progression. (
  • Less well understood, though, is whether individuals are recognised through variation in cues that arise incidentally from a wide variety of genetic and non-genetic differences between individuals, or whether animals evolve distinctive polymorphic signals to advertise identity reliably. (
  • Virulence differences of mpox (monkeypox) virus clades I, IIa, and IIb.1 in a small animal model. (
  • Clear dose and strain differences in beryllium -induced lymphogranulomatus nodules were observed. (
  • There are important strain differences in view of the histological type, development and clinical evolution of the skin tumor, differences reported decades ago and confirmed by our hands‑on experience. (
  • In the MEST, 21 different inbred mouse strains were utilized to see if they would exhibit varying hypersensitivity responses to Be. (
  • Animal studies have recently shown that intestinal microbial communities can influence traits, and metabolomic studies of inbred mouse strains have shown that gut microbiota may play an active role in the development of complex dysmetabolic phenotypes, such as susceptibility to insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. (
  • After careful examination of signals from our mapping of baboons, and separately of the inbred mouse cross, we have come to the startling finding, with high levels of statistical significance rarely matched by other GWAS on this subject, that neither Bmp nor FGF genes are involved in head-shape development! (
  • Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (
  • The overarching goal of the program would be to develop new animal models for the analysis of complex traits. (
  • The findings demonstrated the advantages of using inbred and F1 hybrid strains of mice which are genetically well defined, numerous and readily available. (
  • Each type is used in animal experimentation in ways that maximize the application of its characteristics. (
  • In animals that exhibited clinical signs but survived infection, eyes had little to no inflammation and no LASV immunostaining 6 weeks after infection. (
  • Inbred Strain 13 guinea pigs almost uniformly die of disease after LASV infection with the prototypic 1976 Josiah strain without requiring serial adaptation ( 18 ). (
  • To investigate ocular manifestations of LASV infection in animals that died of or survived infection, we collected samples from animals infected with either LASV-Josiah or LASV-NJ2015. (
  • It is probably not possible for humans to acquire a Sterne strain infection by the respiratory or oral route. (
  • While it is highly unlikely that the Sterne strain will result in infection, cutaneous anthrax can be successfully treated with antimicrobial agents, making it improbable that a localized infection can become severe or fatal. (
  • In each case, marker loci across the genome were typed on all animals and the GWAS-like approach was taken to identify markers in genome areas in which variation was associated with various head dimensions (as shown in the figure). (
  • The ability to identify individual conspecifics reliably allows animals to adjust their social responses according to information gained from previous encounters with those individuals [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • The development of small animal models for the study of monkeypox virus (MPXV) has been quite extensive for the relatively short period of time this pathogen has been known, although only a few of these models have been used to study anti-poxvirus agents. (
  • We will review those MPXV small animal models that have been developed thus far for the study of therapeutic agents. (
  • Routine manipulation of the strain in a microbiology laboratory is not likely to result in exposure. (
  • Therefore, use of inbred animals generates better stability and reproducibility of results than closed colony animals in all types of animal experiments. (
  • This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding. (
  • Individual animal data were not submitted. (
  • In our work, we are using head shape data on a huge set of baboons who are deceased members of a huge and completely known genealogy housed in Texas, and a large study of over 1000 mice from a well-controlled cross between two inbred parental strains. (
  • The SJL/J strain appeared to exhibit one of the greatest hypersensitivity responses with a 37.7% increase over the baseline ear thickness in the Be/Be group compared with a 2.6% increase in the control group. (
  • The resulting organism is attenuated, meaning its virulence and the ability to cause illness in people or animals have been reduced. (
  • In mice, the attenuated strains possess a low degree of virulence, due to toxin production. (
  • Second, the Sterne strain might regain pXO2 and revert to capsule production, resulting in wild-type virulence. (
  • No reversion to virulence has been seen in the Sterne strain since its discovery in 1937. (
  • Monkeypox disease transmission in an experimental setting: prairie dog animal model. (
  • Overall, in this model, LASV antigen was restricted to the anterior uvea and was associated with mild chronic inflammation in animals with severe disease but was not detected in survivors. (
  • No human disease due to anthrax caused by the Sterne strain has been reported. (
  • The cause of mammary tumors is unknown in any species except mice, in which an oncornavirus is causative in certain inbred strains. (
  • No species, much less a single inbred strain, should be expected to be "broadly applicable" to model all diseases, and nature offers a wide range of phenotypes of interest, which may be more comparable to what is observed in human diseases. (
  • In the aspiration study, seven inbred strains aspirated either 20µg, 35µg, or 50µg of beryllium metal powder or water vehicle monthly. (
  • Third, our work promotes the study of cellular division in prokaryotes and in protist mitosis to illuminate the evolutionary origin of the soma and germen division, traditionally studied in animals. (
  • Compared with normal wild type strains which produce both the toxin and the capsule, the Sterne strain is relatively avirulent, however immunization using the Sterne strain is able to stimulate a protective immune response. (
  • By convening a meeting of experts in major chronic diseases (CVD, cancer, inflammation, neurodegeneration) and evolutionary biologists / animal researchers, the program could stimulate fruitful discussion of those models that are most worthy of further development and of the opportunities for enhancing mutagenesis methods in mice. (
  • 2833SPEGUIC) and conducted in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals ( 20 ). (
  • Animal models of schizophrenia-relevant symptoms are increasingly important for progress in our understanding of the neurobiological basis of the disorder and for discovering novel and more specific treatments. (
  • Can the Sterne strain cause infections in people? (
  • Theoretically, there are two mechanisms by which the Sterne strain may cause anthrax. (
  • 1-3 The toxin causes occasional losses observed among animals receiving a full dose of vaccine. (
  • Light models used in animal studies are surrogates for LAN and shiftwork human exposures. (
  • His presentation was entitled "Animal Models in Alcohol Research: What are We Modeling? (
  • Dr. Li's talk was entitled "Research on Animal Models of Alcoholism. (
  • Drugs and environmental conditions can be tested using these animal models. (
  • Bacillus anthracis is a spore-forming bacterium that causes anthrax in humans and animals. (
  • Experiments also typically require fewer numbers of these animals, which is an important advantage with respect to animal welfare. (
  • Tumors with a significant increase in growth, incidence, multiplicity, and /or decrease in latency are listed according to animal model and light schedule. (
  • Additionally, the animal model should have a mode(s) of transmission that mimics human cases. (
  • The inbred CBA/CaJ (CB) and hybrid CBB6F1 strains of mice exhibited only temporary threshold shift with rapid recovery after exposure to 110 decibels for 1 or 2 hours, and they exhibited no evidence of any AHL. (
  • Animal scents are characterised by considerable molecular complexity, potentially communicating a wide range of information about both the current metabolic and social status of a scent owner and its identity [ 14 , 15 ]. (
  • The killed vaccine was derived from the Edmonston strain, which was originally isolated in 1954 (Enders and Peebles, 1954). (
  • The initial vaccine was derived from the Edmonston strain, which was attenuated by serial passage in various tissue cultures and ultimately grown in chicken embryo cells. (
  • The Sterne strain, discovered in the 1930s, has naturally lost its pXO2 plasmid, and consequently its ability to produce a capsule. (