Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mice, Inbred DBAChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred C3HQuantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Mice, Inbred AKRPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Inbred AInbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Mice, Inbred CBAAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rats, Inbred BNNucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Animals, LaboratoryBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Animals, Congenic: Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Mice, Inbred NZBGenome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Animals, Inbred Strains: Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Oryzias: The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Rats, Inbred LewKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Mice, Inbred ICRDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Observation of marking-like behavior, marking behavior, and growth of the scent gland in young Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) of an inbred strain. (1/135)

A marking-like behavior (defined by authors), a marking behavior, and growth of the scent glands were observed in young Mongolian gerbils of an inbred strain. In males and females, a marking-like behavior, in which animals rub their abdominal scent glands on the floor, began to be seen at the age of 19 days and could be seen in almost all the gerbils at 22 days of age during the suckling period. The frequency of this behavior was highest at 60 days of age (males: 17.9/10 min, females: 15.4/10 min) and there was no sex difference. Marking behavior, in which animals rub their abdominal scent glands on small protruding objects, began to be seen at the age of 40 days in males and 50 days in females. The frequency of this behavior tended to increase until 90 days of age in males (13.7/10 min), but the levels were low (2.5-5.0/10 min) in females. The values in the male group therefore tended to be higher than that in the female group. Macroscopic scent gland pads were clearly observed at the age of 30 days in males, but not until 45 days of age in females. At the age of 45-90 days, the length of the scent gland pad in males and females was 2.1-2.8 and 1.6-1.7 cm, respectively and the width was 0.3-0.5 in males and 0.2-0.3 cm in females. During this period, the length and depth of the pads in males were significantly greater than those in females (p < 0.05). Histological examination of the structure of the scent glands after the age of 45 days showed that the development of clusters of acinar cells in females occurred much later than that in males, but the basic structure of these glands was similar in both sexes. These results suggest that the marking-like behavior was manifested although during the period when the scent glands had not yet developed, whereas true marking behavior first occurred when the glands were moderately well developed.  (+info)

Serum biochemical values in two inbred strains of mastomys (Praomys coucha). (2/135)

Serum samples collected from 119 (72 male and 47 female) mastomys (Praomys coucha) of 2 specific-pathogen-free inbred strains (RI4 and RI7) were analyzed for 12 serum biochemical parameters. Sex-related differences (p < 0.01) were noted in alkaline phosphatase and glucose; the both higher in females than in males. Age-related changes (p < 0.01) were observed in total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase, with higher values for the first three parameters in the older group (200-250 days of age) than in the younger group (90-140 days of age). Four out of 12 parameters showed strain-related differences (p < 0.01), consistent with the large amount of genetic heterogeneity reported in this species. These serum biochemical reference values should provide information for the use of mastomys in laboratory research.  (+info)

Characterization of early follicular cDNA library suggests evidence for genetic polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108 of Bombyx mori. (3/135)

Recent work towards the completion of a saturated molecular genetic linkage map for the lepidopteran silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28), has provided evidence for existing polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108. Two inbred parental strains, p50 and C108, were crossed to produce the F1 (P/C) hybrid offspring. The populations used in this project were comprised of a combination of 29 F2 (F1 x F1) and 31 reciprocal backcross (P/C x C/C, P/C x P/P) progeny. All restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for the initial analysis were hybridized with anonymous probes derived from a random early follicular cDNA (Rcf) library from Bombyx. A total of 19 Rcf probes were selected as showing scorable codominant polymorphic patterns when screened against F2 and backcross DNAs digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI, HindIII, or PstI, and Southern blotted to nylon membranes for hybridization. Of the newly reported Rcf probes, 7 (37%) were characterized as producing 'simple' polymorphic patterns, while 12 (63%) were characterized as producing 'complex' polymorphic patterns. Further characterization of the complex patterns subdivided this group into two general classes: polymorphisms that contained an additional allele, and multiple bands that contained an easily scored two banded polymorphism. Because the extra allele class was limited to the (P/C x C/C) backcross progeny, it is suggested that the inbred parental strain C108 harbors polymorphic loci that are inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. A genetic analysis discussing plausible origins and maintenance of these polymorphisms is presented.  (+info)

Trigonocephaly in rabbits with familial interfrontal suture synostosis: the multiple effects of premature single-suture fusion. (4/135)

Previous studies from our laboratory have characterized the craniofacial morphology and growth patterns of an inbred strain of rabbits with autosomal dominant coronal suture synostosis. A number of rabbit perinates from this colony have been collected sporadically over a 5-year period with premature interfrontal suture synostosis. The present study describes the very early onset of craniofacial dysmorphology of these rabbits and compares them to similar-aged normal control rabbits. A total of 40 perinatal New Zealand White rabbits were used in the present study. Twenty-one comprised the sample with interfrontal suture synostosis and ranged in age from 27 to 38 days postconception (term = 31 days) with a mean age of 33.53 days (+/-2.84 days). Nineteen rabbits served as age-matched, normal controls (mean age = 33.05 days +/-2.79 days). Lateral and dorsoventral radiographs were collected from each rabbit. The radiographs were traced, computer digitized, and 12 craniofacial measurements, angles, and indices were obtained. Mean measures were compared using an unpaired Student's t-test. All synostosed rabbits were stillborn or died shortly after birth. Grossly, these rabbits exhibited extreme frontal bossing, trigonocephaly with sagittal keeling, and midfacial shortening. No somatic anomalies were noted. Radiographically, rabbits with interfrontal suture synostosis had significantly (P < 0.05) narrower bifrontal widths, shorter cranial vault lengths, kyphotic cranial base angles, and different cranial vault indices (shapes) compared to controls. Results reveal severe and early pathological and compensatory cranial vault changes associated with premature interfrontal suture synostosis in this rabbit model. The 100% mortality rate noted in this condition may be related to the inheritance of a lethal genetic mutation or to neural compression from reduced intracranial volume. Results are discussed in light of current pathogenic hypotheses for human infants with premature metopic suture synostosis.  (+info)

Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo cryopreservation and rederivation of rat and mouse models. (5/135)

The efficiency of embryo banking for rat and mouse models of human disease and normal biological processes depends on the ease of obtaining embryos. Authors report on the effect of genotype on embryo production and rederivation. In an effort to establish banks of cryopreserved embryos, they provide two databases for comparing banking efficiency: one that contains the embryo collection results from approximately 11,000 rat embryo donors (111 models) and another that contains the embryo collection results from 4,023 mouse embryo donors (57 induced mutant models). The genotype of donor females affected the efficiency of embryo collection in two ways. First, the proportion of females yielding embryos varied markedly among genotypes (rats: 16-100 %, mean =71 %; mice: 24-95 %, mean =65 %). Second, the mean number of embryos recovered from females yielding embryos varied considerably (rats: 4-10.6, mean =7.8; mice 5.3-32.2, mean =13.7). Genotype also affected the efficiency of rederivation of banked rat and mouse embryos models by embryo transfer. For rats, thawed embryos (n =684) from 33 genotypes were transferred into 66 recipient females (pregnancy rate, 78 %). The average rate of developing live newborns for individual rat genotypes was 30 % with a range of 10 to 58 %. For mice, thawed embryos (n =2,064) from 59 genotypes were transferred into 119 pseudopregnant females (pregnancy rate: 76 %). The average rate of development of individual mouse genotypes was 33 % with a range of 11 to 53 %. This analysis demonstrates that genotype is an important consideration when planning embryo banking programs.  (+info)

NK and T cells constitute two major, functionally distinct intestinal epithelial lymphocyte subsets in the chicken. (6/135)

Non-mammalian NK cells have not been characterized in detail; however, their analysis is essential for the understanding of the NK cell receptor phylogeny. As a first step towards defining chicken NK cells, several tissues were screened for the presence of NK cells, phenotypically defined as CD8(+) cells lacking T- or B-lineage specific markers. By this criteria, approximately 30% of CD8(+) intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), but <1% of splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes were defined as NK cells. These CD8(+)CD3(-) IEL were used for the generation of the 28-4 mAb, immunoprecipitating a 35-kDa glycoprotein with a 28-kDa protein core. The CD3 and 28-4 mAb were used to separate IEL into CD3(+) IEL T cells and 28-4(+) cells, both co-expressing the CD8 antigen. During ontogeny, 28-4(+) cells were abundant in the IEL and in the embryonic spleen, where two subsets could be distinguished according to their CD8 and c-kit expression. Most importantly, 28-4(+) IEL lysed NK-sensitive targets, whereas intestinal T cells did not have any spontaneous cytolytic activity. These results define two major, phenotypically and functionally distinct IEL subpopulations, and imply an important role of NK cells in the mucosal immune system.  (+info)

Construction of a BAC library derived from the inbred Hd-rR strain of the teleost fish, Oryzias latipes. (7/135)

A large insert genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from the inbred Hd-rR strain of the medaka, Oryzias latipes. Approximately 92,000 clones were gridded on high-density replica filters. Insert analysis of randomly selected clones indicated a mean insert size of 210 kb and predicted a 24 times coverage of the medaka genome. The library was hybridized with a single locus DNA fragment, and the resulting positive clones were characterized and shown to be compatible with a 24-fold redundant library. This first large insert genomic library of the medaka should increase the speed of genomic analyses for this fish species.  (+info)

Porcine endogenous retrovirus transmission characteristics of an inbred herd of miniature swine. (8/135)

Here we report the identification of inbred miniature swine that failed to produce human-tropic replication-competent porcine endogenous retroviruses (HTRC PERVs), using in vitro coculture assays. When HTRC PERVs were isolated from transmitting animals, all were recombinant viruses, with the receptor-binding domain of PERV-A combining with PERV-C-related sequences.  (+info)

*Genetic purging

It is also important in animal breeding and, of course, in conservation genetics, because inbreeding depression may be a ... A new phenomenon revealed from a genetic study of 43 strains ofSaccharomyces cerevisiae derived from natural fermentation of ... In brief, Due to purging, inbreeding depression is not proportional to the standard measure of inbreeding (Wright's inbreeding ... Inbreeding depression caused by overdominance cannot be purged, but seems to be a minor cause of overall inbreeding depression ...

*Skin grafting

... animals of a single inbred strain; isograft or syngraft). Allogeneic: The donor and recipient are of the same species (human→ ... Two layers of skin created from animal sources has been found to be useful in venous leg ulcers. Autologous: The donor skin is ... When grafts are taken from other animals, they are known as heterografts or xenografts. By definition, they are temporary ...

*Michael Festing

He has written books cataloguing laboratory animals, including International Index of Laboratory Animals and Inbred Strains in ... He is one of 19 members of the UK's Animal Procedures Committee, which advises the Home Secretary on matters related to animal ... Nonetheless, Festing has been criticized by the animal rights movement for his investment in companies that engage in animal ... the use of animals in medical experiments in the UK. Festing is the author of over 200 scientific papers on laboratory animal ...

*Laboratory mouse

BALB/c mice are distributed globally and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. BALB/c ... Laboratory rat Animal testing Animal testing on rodents Animal model Animal Identification Mouse models of colorectal and ... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... There are hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in ...

*Laboratory Syrian hamster

Several inbred strains of hamsters have been developed as animal models for human forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. The gene ... In 2014 in the United States, animal research used about 120,000 hamsters, which was 14.6% of the total research animal use ( ... of the total animal research participants in the United States covered by the Animal Welfare Act. Since 1972 the use of ... which is of interest in the study of animal behavior. Scientific studies of animal welfare concerning captive golden hamsters ...

*BALB/c

... and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. The founding animals of the strain were ... Animal model Animal testing on rodents C57BL/6 Jackson Laboratory's mouse strains Taconic Bioscience's BALB/c model "BALB/c". ... According to Michael Festing's Inbred Strains of Mice, BALB/c substrains are "particularly well known for the production of ... Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. Potter M. History of the BALB/c family, pp 1-5. In: The BALB/ ...

*Inbred strain

Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... use Backcrossing Linebreeding Recombinant inbred strain Coisogenic strain Congenic strain Inbreeding depression Inbreeding ... Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ...

*List of MeSH codes (B01)

... animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.040.500 --- mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520 --- animals, inbred strains MeSH B01.050. ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.157.520.300 --- mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.157.520.318 --- mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.157.760.080 --- rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.157.760.090 --- rats, inbred bb MeSH B01.050.157.760. ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.300 --- mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.318 --- mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050. ...

*Coisogenic strain

... heterozygous animals should be used to breed with the original inbred strain. Full-sib mating are used to maintain coisogenic ... Coisogenic strains may also occur through a spontaneous mutation that occurs in an inbred strain. To create a coisogenic strain ... Coisogenic strains are one type of inbred strain that differs by a mutation at a single locus and all of the other loci are ... There are numerous ways to create an inbred strain and each of these strains are unique. Genetically engineered mice can be ...

*Obligate parasite

Effects of Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata on exploratory behaviour of an inbred mouse strain. Laboratory Animal ... Kilner, R. M., & Davies, N. B. (1999). How selfish is a cuckoo chick? Animal Behaviour 58:797-808. Sledge, M.F., Dani, F.R., ... Obligate parasitism is exhibited in a range of organisms, with examples in viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They ... Poulin, R. (1995) "Adaptive" changes in the behaviour of parasitized animals: A critical review. International Journal for ...

*Alberto Oliverio

Experiments on Recombinant Inbred strains (With D.W. Bailey) 1973 Associate professor of animal psychology, School of ... Has edited 6 books on animal behavior and behavioral genetics and is the author of many books on memory, brain and behavior. ... Studies on learning and memory in inbred mice (With D. Bovet and J.L. McGaugh). 1967-70 Research Pharmacologist, University of ...

*Recombinant inbred strain

... potential applications in quantitative genomics and animal breeding". Mammalian Genome. 17 (6): 548-564. doi:10.1007/s00335-005 ... Recombinant inbred strains or lines were first developed using inbred strains of mice but are now used to study a wide range of ... In the case of a typical mouse recombinant inbred strain made by crossing maternal strain BALB/cBy (C) with paternal strain ... pairs of the F2 progeny are then mated to establish inbred strains through long-term inbreeding. Families of recombinant inbred ...

*GAERS

... a fully inbred strain of rats, with 100% of animals displaying the EEG and behavioral characteristics of absence seizures, ... The development of two inbred strains from the same initial colony has appeared as a very powerful tool to study the possible ... a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. ... These seizures were recorded on both sides of the brain, lasted about 20 sec and occurred when the animals were quiet. ...

*Albinism in biology

Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits), but populations of ... Examples of pet mammals artificially selected for albinism Intentionally bred albinistic strains of some animal species are ... Animals that show iridescence include mother of pearl seashells, fish, and peacocks. These are just a few examples of animals ... Furthermore, albino animals may be excluded from families or other groups, or rejected as mates. The novelty of albino animals ...

*Laboratory rat

Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been ... Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune ... Krinke, George J. (June 15, 2000). "History, Strains and Models". The Laboratory Rat (Handbook of Experimental Animals). ...

*Biobreeding rat

Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another one in Ottawa, Canada, an outbred strain ... Biobreeding rat also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ...

*Heterosis

... is the tendency of outbred strains to exceed both inbred parents in fitness. Selective breeding of plants and animals, ... But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ... Inbreeding depression is the loss of fitness due to loss of genetic diversity. Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for ... It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous ...

*Uteroglobin

... human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to ... Putative functions are: Immunomodulation Progesterone binding: weak in some animals, especially weak in humans. (Note: UGB is ... The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to ... However contrary to the animal model claims, ...

*Nippostrongylus brasiliensis

The availability of inbred and mutant mouse strains can be advantageous when examining the genetic basis of murine ... This worm is a widely studied parasite due to its simple life-cycle and its ability to be used in animal models. It has a life- ... Animal models of N. brasiliensis infections can lead to a better understanding of the basic biology of the immune response and ... Animal model of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosmoides polygyrus. Current Protocols in Immunology Chapter 19. Lisa M. ...

*FVB Mice

FVB is an albino, inbred mouse strain that is named after its susceptibility to Friend leukemia virus B. This strain was ... Some sudden deaths are observed in younger animals, but most die at 15 months or older. Two years is a common life expectancy ... A derivative strain called sighted FVB was developed from this strain via backcrossing. The full name of this strain is FVB. ... 1991). FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 88(6 ...

*Tawny-bellied cotton rat

Other factors that make the species a desirable test subject are the existence of inbred strains, ease of handling, and ... This is an upgrade over the previous animal models of other small rodents and rabbits. Cotton rats combine the best traits of ... The degree of infection may be increased by altering the co-receptors on the animal's cells, which would improve the ... Ahi, Alwynelle S. (1982). "Evidence of use of vibrissae in swimming in Sigmodon fulviventer". Animal Behaviour. 30: 1203-1206. ...

*Peter L. Hurd

Digit ratio (2D:4D) and behavioral differences between inbred mouse strains. Genes, Brain & Behavior 4: 318-323. Hurd PL, ... Animal Behaviour 56: 749--753. Hurd, PL; Enquist, M. 2001. Threat display in birds. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 931-942. ... Animal Behaviour 70: 1155-1170. Hurd PL. 2006. Resource holding potential, subjective resource value, and game theoretical ... Many studies on both human, and non-human, animals suggest that inter-individual variation in adult aggressiveness is largely ...

*Alexander Fleming Biomedical Sciences Research Center

Its main activity is the reproduction and maintenance of mice stocks either of inbred strains or genetically engineered mice, ... Fleming's Animal house (certified with ISO 9001) provides husbandry of animals and services to the biomedical research ... The Animal House has a capacity to house more than 20,000 mice and is currently the largest Mouse Unit in Greece in terms of ... Fleming operates its own Animal House, which can house up to 20,000 mice and has its own complete mouse histopathology unit. ...

*Strain (biology)

Strains are used in laboratory experiments. Mouse strains can be inbred, mutated or genetically engineered, while rat strains ... A mouse or a rat strain is a group of animals that is genetically uniform. ... Coli Genetic Stock Center EcoliWiki E. coli strain index International Mouse Strain Resource (IMSR) Rat strain index. ... The rice plants in the strain can be bred to other rice strains or cultivars, and if desirable plants are produced, these are ...

*National Institute of Nutrition, Hyderabad

NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. It has ... The National Centre for Laboratory Animal Science (to be integrated into the National Animal Resource Facility for Biomedical ... Developed obese and diabetic mutant rat models: WNIN/GR-Ob, WNIN/Ob, WNIN/Ob-IGT, to serve as pre-clinical animal models in ... Genome Valley National Animal Resource Facility for Biomedical Research Central Drugs Standard Control Organization " ...

*Donald F. Jones

"The Attainment of Homozygosity in Inbred Strains of Maize.", Genetics (published Sep 1924), 9 (5), pp. 405-18, PMC 1200833 , ... "Unisexual Maize Plants and Their Bearing on Sex Differentiation in Other Plants and in Animals.", Genetics (published Nov 1934 ... In Jones' method, four inbred corn lines are used. The seed from two initial crosses are used to grow up parental hybrids for ... Until Jones invented the double-cross method, the yield from the parent lines (the inbreds) was insufficient to allow practical ...

*Diet-induced obesity model

West, D. B.; Boozer, C. N.; Moody, D. L.; Atkinson, R. L. (1992-06-01). "Dietary obesity in nine inbred mouse strains". The ... The diet-induced obesity model (DIO model) is an animal model used to study obesity using animals that have obesity caused by ... Furthermore, the strain and sex of the rodent impacts the response to the model. Some common mouse strains show large ... This has led to cases of studies that used the same strain of mice concluding that the strain is prone to becoming obese in one ...
French Dairy Giant Buys Siggis Skyr, Dairy Vietnam,Dairy cow,Silage,Fresh milk,Milking parlour,Milking machine,Grass,Irrigation,Fertigation,TMR feeds,Concentrate,Livestock feeds,Livestock housing,60 days post calving first on heat,Abortion,AI,Anti inflammatory,Anti pyretic,Antibiotic,Arthritis,Back on heat if not pregnant,Bloated,Blood parasite,Body score,Bran,Calf breeding pen,Calf, Calve,Calving,Hernia,Hobble,In Doubt,Insemination,Internal Bleeding,Intestine,Inventory,Lactation,Lactation peak,Low body score,Male Calf,Mastitis,Milk meter,Milk production yield,Milk recording,Milk tank,Milking Cow,Milking Palour,Molasses,Mucus,Mung bean,Navel Infection,No heat,Non-Pregnant cows,On heat,Ovary,Ovulation,Palm Kernel,Pea,Peanut Hulls,Polio-myelitis,Polygastric,Post calving,Pregnancy,Pregnancy check,Pregnancy Cow,Pregnant cows,Premix,Protein,Protein content,Protocol,Respiration,Rice bran,Ruminate,Rye Straw,Sand for stall,Semen,Silage,Soya bean,Spraying to control tick,stall,Teat cup liner,Teat dipping,Tick
Prenatal losses are a complex problem. Pregnancy requires orchestrated communication between the embryo and the uterus that includes secretions from the embryo to signal pregnancy recognition and secretion and remodelling from the uterine epithelium. Most of these losses are characterized by asynchronization between embryo and uterus. To better understand possible causes, an analysis was conducted of gene expression of a set of transcripts related to maternal recognition and establishment of rabbit pregnancy (uteroglobin, SCGB1A1; integrin 1, ITGA1; interferon-, IFNG; vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF) in oviduct and uterine tissue at 16, 72 or 144 h post-ovulation and insemination. In the oviduct tissue, a significant decrease in the level of SCGB1A1 mRNA expression was observed from 144 h post-ovulation. In the case of ITGA1, the transcript abundance was initially lower, but mRNA expression increased significantly at 72 and 144 h post-ovulation. For IFNG, a huge decrease was observed ...
An outbreak of swine pox on a pig farm in Ibadan, Nigeria is reported. Diagnosis was based on clinical and pathological signs and the observation of poxvirus particles in a serum sample. Neonatal deaths were common in the outbreak. Indigenous pigs did not show any sign of the disease even though mixed breeds were kept in the same pens. It is suggested that indigenous pigs were probably carriers of the swine pox virus.. ...
Cation channels of sperm (CatSper) are sperm-specific calcium channels with identified roles in the regulation of sperm function in humans, mice, and horses. We sought to employ a comparative genomics approach to identify conserved CATSPER genes in the bovine genome, and profile their expression in reproductive tissue. We hypothesized that CATSPER proteins expressed in bull testicular tissue mediates sperm hyperactivation and their rheotactic response in the reproductive tract of the cow. Bioinformatic analysis identified all four known CATSPER genes (CATSPER 1-4) in the bovine genome, and profiling by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction identified site-specific variation in messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression for all four genes along the reproductive tract of the bull ...
You can definitely culture/treat/breed on the same cycle. It does depend upon the turn-around time of the culture (if the cytology is positive), but in our practice we do our own cultures and antibiotic sensitivities. If the cytology is negative (which should NOT be a send out test, you should have results within a few minutes) then away you go with breeding. Remember that you can breed a mare that has an infection and still treat her AFTER breeding. In fact, you can treat up to 3 days post-ovulation and usually that is enough time to clear the infection. We most commonly treat and breed on the same cycle and the pregnancy rate is excellent (as long as there isnt something else going on ...
Dairy cattle breeds have been subjected over the last fifty years to intense artificial selection towards improvement of milk production traits. In this study, we performed a whole genome scan for differentiation using 42,486 SNPs in the three major French dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde) to identify the main physiological pathways and regions which were affected by this selection. After analyzing the population structure, we estimated FST within and across the three breeds for each SNP under a pure drift model. We further considered two different strategies to evaluate the effect of selection at the genome level. First, smoothing FST values over each chromosome with a local variable bandwidth kernel estimator allowed identifying 13 highly significant regions subjected to strong and/or recent positive selection. Some of them contained genes within which causal variants with strong effect on milk production traits (GHR) or coloration (MC1R) have already been reported. To ...
Cloperastine hydrochloride 14984-68-0 safety info, Cloperastine hydrochloride chemical safety search, Chemical Cloperastine hydrochloride safety technical specifications ect.
We can see from these ideas that our individual constitution and its tendencies must be considered in the evolution our Yoga practice.. A group of students could present a myriad of combinations when considered from an Āyurveda viewpoint. Therefore in proposing a practice we must consider the person as the primary focus rather than the technique or posture.. It is difficult to say that a particular practice suits all conditions or individuals. We can see that for some people a particular practice may aggravate a particular principle and therefore add to an already existing imbalance. Or the same practice at certain times may disturb rather than support.. For example for some female students I have proposed four different practices according to the phases of the monthly menstrual cycle. We have the pre-ovulation, the post-ovulation, the pre-menstrual and the menstrual aspects of the monthly rhythm each with their own characteristics and impact on the way that we experience our inner and outer ...
Embattled French dairy group Lactalis is to extend the recall of products from its Craon factory in north-west France that is implicated in a salmonella outbreak that has engulfed the worlds number three dairy group and a number of the countrys retailers. related to Baby food, Health & wellness, Lactalis,
A basic chocolate flavour flan type dessert. A french dairy flan is a custard like product, different to English flan which is like a sponge ...
ORGANISMS are subject to conditions of genetic variation, and yet their morphological development is often robust to such challenges. Hence, developmental outcomes are rendered uniform even in the face of variable conditions of existence. The relationship between this developmental robustness and phenotypic variation in natural populations has long been remarked upon, and Waddington (1942) coined the word canalization to describe the process. As development becomes more robust, less phenotypic variation is observed among individuals in a population (Scharloo 1991; de Visser et al. 2003; Siegal and Leu 2014). This has implications not only for the relationship between genotype and phenotype, but also for evolution (Gibson and Wagner 2000; Gibson and Dworkin 2004; Wagner 2012). In one sense, robustness inhibits evolvability since it suppresses the phenotypic variation that selection acts upon. However, when a phenotype is robust to the effects of mutations, then genetic variation can potentially ...
Many of the siRNA loci are associated with transposons and repeated sequence structures in the genome. These genetic elements are highly polymorphic between genotypes and exhibit significant variation between related species. It is conceivable that part of the phenotypic variation between related genotypes or species is due to the effects of these polymorphic siRNA loci. We are exploring this possibility in tomato with the aim of using siRNAs as markers in breeding programmes. It may also be possible to select for variation in small RNA loci or to manipulate the expression of these loci in order to achieve improvement in the crop ...
ABSTRACT. Twelve pony mares were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group and inseminated with fresh, raw semen from a single stallion of known fertility in a cross-over trial design. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound 12-14 days post-ovulation and then terminated by administration of a luteolytic dose of cloprostenol. Treatment mares received a uterine instillation of 100 ml of electrochemically activated (ECA) saline 4-12 hours post-insemination. Control mares received no treatment post-insemination. Per cycle pregnancy rate was 58.3 % in the control group and 50 % in the treatment group. There was no statistical difference (P = 1.000) in pregnancy rate between the 2 groups. The principles of ECA and applications of ECA saline are discussed.. Key words: electrochemical, endometritis, fresh semen, mare, saline. ...
If they were of childbearing potential must have: had a negative pregnancy test with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU/mL within 10 to 14 days and again within 24 hours prior to starting Cycle 1 of lenalidomide; either agreed to practice true abstinence, when this was in line with the preferred and usual lifestyle of the participant. (Periodic abstinence [eg, calendar, ovulation, symptothermal, post-ovulation methods] and withdrawal were not acceptable methods of contraception.) OR begun 2 reliable methods of birth control (1 highly effective method and 1 additional effective method) at the same time, at least 28 days before starting study treatment through 90 days after the last dose of study treatment; and agreed to ongoing pregnancy testing AND must have also adhered to the guidelines of the RevAssist program (US participants), RevAid program (Canadian participants), iAccess program (Australian participants), RevMate program (Japanese participants) or The Lenalidomide Pregnancy Risk ...
Phenotypes within species are not fixed and instead have significant levels of natural genetic variation that distinguishes individuals. This includes traits ranging from development and metabolism to pathogen resistance, with selection often maintaining the underlying genetic variation (Hopper, 1999; Veening et al., 2008). Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of complex quantitative traits is an important goal in genetics with wide-ranging ramifications across the scientific community. Unfortunately, this effort is complicated by the fact that most phenotypic variation is quantitative and polygenic with at least binary interactions with the environment, development, and second site genetic variation. This variation is further complicated by higher-order interaction among these factors (Falconer and Mackay, 1996; Lynch and Walsh, 1998; Wentzell and Kliebenstein, 2008). Thus, there is a desire to begin identifying the molecular systems controlling these interactions, likely requiring ...
BioAssay record AID 476833 submitted by ChEMBL: Toxicity in FVB mouse assessed as effect on hematocrit at 50 mg/kg, po administered 5 times per week for 2 weeks measured during test.
QIU-LING, Li et al. Association of polymorphism of the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene with milk production traits in Chinese Holstein. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2010, vol.40, n.2. ISSN 2221-4062.. Protein degradation in bovine milk affects the quality of dairy products. Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) can protect vulnerable elastic tissues from degradation by neutrophil elastase. The aim of this study was to assess the association of polymorphisms in bovine AAT gene with milk yield and milk composition in Chinese Holstein. Traits analyzed were fat percentage, protein percentage, 305-day milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS). Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) and allele specific-polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) methods were used to genotype five loci in coding regions of the sequence, including position 5504, 5609, 5624, 5747 and 8178 in Chinese Holstein. The five mutations were all silent ...
This study investigated the relationships among parities and variance components in each parity for female fertility traits in Chinese Holsteins. In addition, the present study estimated genetic and phenotypic correlations between heifer traits and between cow traits. The results obtained from the present study will be useful for genetic evaluations in dairy cattle breeding programs, particularly for developing a routine genetic evaluation system for female fertility traits in Chinese Holstein population.. The average performances of fertility traits in the present study were similar to those of other populations in general [6, 12, 22]. It was also observed that all the fertility performances of heifers were better than those of cows, consistent with previous studies [23]. The differences in the reproductive physiology between maiden heifers and cows could be caused by first calving and the negative energy balance resulting from high milk yield [13]. In addition, the larger amount of censored ...
Women of child-bearing potential, defined as all women physiologically capable of becoming pregnant, must have a negative serum pregnancy test before initiation of study treatment and must also use highly effective methods of contraception while enrolled in the study. The use of highly effective contraception should continue for at least 14 days after the last dose of study treatment or until the last day of TFR/TFR-2, or for the duration of a monthly cycle of oral contraception, whichever is longer. Acceptable forms of highly effective contraception methods include:. a. Total abstinence (when this is in line with the preferred and usual lifestyle of the patient. Periodic abstinence (e.g., calendar, ovulation, symptothermal, post-ovulation methods) and withdrawal are not acceptable methods of contraception and male/female sterilization defined as:. ...
My dwarf hamster, Skrump, seems to have an infected scent gland. I have tried putting warm water on a q-tip and cleaning it off, and Ive also tried p
This is my first bunny! Shes been with me for a little more then 2 months now Today I noticed that my bun smelled pretty bad so I checked her scent glands and noticed some crustation around the area. I cleaned it with warm water and notice that o...
In this study, we provide a strong evidence for the significant associations of UGDH, with 2 milk production traits in a Chinese Holstein cattle population. Moreover, we demonstrated that the SNPs Ex1-1 and Ex11-1 in exonic regions of UGDH are two functional polymorphisms in which A allele of SNP Ex1-1 and T allele of SNP Ex11-1 cause lower expression level of UGDH compared with the G and C allele respectively. Together, our findings not only confirmed our early finding that a QTL located in the 1.5-Mb region between BMS483 and MNB-209 for milk yield and protein yield[14], but also strongly suggest that the SNPs Ex1-1 and Ex11-1 in UGDH might be QTN responsible for this QTL.. Previously, we mapped a QTL near BMS470 with effects on milk production traits with daughter design using 14 microsatellites on bovine chromosome 6 in a Chinese Holstein population involving 26 paternal half-sib families with 2356 daughters[8, 9]. By increasing the marker density with 17 microsatellite markers spanning from ...
Three levels of dietary crude protein (8.6, 11.4, and 17.2) were fed to 24 pony mares to determine the effects on the estrous cycle, conception rate, and serum progesterone concentrations. Mares were allotted into three treatment groups designated as low protein (LP), medium protein (MP), and high protein (HP). Following estrous synchronization with progesterone and prostaglandin F₂∞, dietary protein at the levels investigated, did not affect (P ,.05) estrous synchronization, length of estrus, the number of days to ovulation, or the number of inseminations per conception. Conception rate following two cycles tended (P, .05) to be higher in the MP (87%) group than the LP (50%) or HP {57%) fed groups. Serum progesterone concentrations were affected (P ,.05) by diet with levels of 6.5±.8, 7.9±.8, and 10.3±.8 ng/ml progesterone (least squares means±SE) in the LP, MP, and HP fed groups respectively. Serum progesterone on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 post-ovulation tended (P =.12) to be higher in ...
Nuclear maturation of the mouse oocyte becomes arrested in metaphase of the second meiotic division (MII). Fertilization or parthenogenetic activation induces meiotic completion, chromosomal decondensation and formation of a pronucleus. This completion of meiosis is probably triggered by a transient increase in cytosolic calcium ions. When activated just after ovulation by a low concentration of the calcium ionophore A23187, the majority of the mouse oocytes go through a metaphase to anaphase transition and extrude their second polar body but they do not proceed into interphase; instead their chromatids remain condensed and a microtubular metaphase spindle reforms (metaphase III). However, a high percentage of these oocytes will undergo a true parthenogenetic activation assessed by the formation of a pronucleus, when exposed to a higher concentration of the calcium ionophore. The capacity of the mouse oocyte to pass into metaphase III is lost with increasing time post-ovulation. Direct ...
Milk performance (protein and fat content) and milk fatty acids (FA) profile of dairy cows under supplementation with two sources of concentrate, oilseeds (C, cottonseed) at two levels, low (5kg DM/cow/day) and high (7 kg DM/cow/day), and cereal grains (B, barley) at high rate (7 kg DM/cow/day), were studied in three herds (n=36) of spring calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (200 days in milk). Animals were randomly assigned to one of three indoors (n=12) silage feeding regimes (C5, C7 and B7), using a TMR (total mixed ration) basal diet, containing 70-80% silage (grass: maize, 36: 64) and 30-20% concentrate. Daily milk yield (MY) was higher (P|0.001) at high level of supplementation (B7, 18.1andC7, 17.9 kg/cow/day, respectively) compared to low level (C5, 15.7 kg/cow/day), and dairy cows at the highest level of concentrate showed the highest (P|0.05) body weight (B7, 605 and C7, 598, respectively). Milk protein content was lower (P|0.05) in the high level of cottonseed (C7, 30.7 g/kg DM) than in the
Abstract:Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the scent gland secretions of male and female Middle American burrowing pythons (Loxocemus bicolor) revealed the presence of over 300 components including cholesterol, fatty acids, glyceryl monoalkyl ethers, and alcohols. The fatty acids, over 100 of which were identified, constitute most of the compounds in the secretions and show the greatest structural diversity. They include saturated and unsaturated, unbranched and mono-, di-, and trimethyl-branched compounds ranging in carbon-chain length from 13 to 24. The glyceryl monoethers possess saturated or unsaturated, straight or methyl-branched alkyl chains ranging in carbon-chain length from 13 to 24. Alcohols, which have not previously been reported from the scent glands, possess straight, chiefly saturated carbon chains ranging in length from 13 to 24. Sex or individual differences in secretion composition were not observed. Compounds in the scent gland secretions of L. bicolor may deter
Peoc' h, R., 1984: Contribution to the study of the determinism of fanning for ventilation, and with scent gland exposed, in honeybees
The Buša cattle (or also Busha; Bos brachyeros europeus) is a small native breed of cattle with numerous strains found throughout southern parts of former Yugoslavia (Dinaric Alps). It belongs to the group of the shorthorn cattle. The animals are unicoloured brown. They are small: the height at the withers is 100-110 cm. Cows weigh 180-250 kg, and bulls weigh c. 300 kg. Buša heifers are backward; they become sexually mature only with two years. The calves are very small: their birth weight is about 15 kg. The breeds fertility is between 85 and 90%. Females stay fertile until an age of twelve years. The life span of the animal is about twenty years. Bušas are used as draft animals, and for beef and milk production. Although their work capacity is modest, the animals are disease-resistant, well-adapted to harsh climate, and require little food. The milk performance is 700-800 l per annum. The milk contains about 4-6% milk fat. Bušas and their cross breeds are widespread over the former ...
Quadricuspid pulmonary valve with likely associated prominance of the main pulmonary artery. MPA prominence may be due to component of pulmonic stenosis and re
Rowan Purelife British Sheep Breeds Boucle Yarn - 223 - Detailed Description. Rowan Purelife British Sheep Breeds Boucle Yarn - 223 is available now at Jimmy Beans Wool with Free U.S. Flat Rate shipping for orders over $75, $4 U.S. Flat Rate shipping on all other orders!
Small reference populations limit the accuracy of genomic prediction in numerically small breeds, such like Danish Jersey. The objective of this study was to investigate two approaches to improve genomic prediction by increasing size of reference population in Danish Jersey. The first approach was to include North American Jersey bulls in Danish Jersey reference population. The second was to genotype cows and use them as reference animals. The validation of genomic prediction was carried out on bulls and cows, respectively. In validation on bulls, about 300 Danish bulls (depending on traits) born in 2005 and later were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1050 Danish bulls, (2) about 1050 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls. In validation on cows, about 3000 Danish cows from 87 young half-sib families were used as validation data, and the reference populations were: (1) about 1250 Danish bulls, (2) about 1250 Danish bulls and about 1150 US bulls, (3) about 1250 ...
Scientists have identified and created a map of more than 400,000 insertions and deletions (INDELs) in the human genome that signal a little-explored type of genetic difference among individuals. INDELS are an alternative form of natural genetic variation that differs from the much-studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Both types of variation are likely to have a major impact on human health and susceptibility to disease.
Soon after the cloning of the human H4R (Oda et al., 2000), rat, mouse, and guinea pig orthologs were reported as well (Liu et al., 2001). Mouse H4R shows a substantial lower affinity for H4R agonists, like histamine, VUF 8430 (Lim et al., 2006), and clozapine, whereas the H4R antagonist JNJ 7777120 does not distinguish between the human and mouse H4R (Thurmond et al., 2004; this study). Considering the relative low homology between the human and mouse H4R protein sequences (67%), the observed pharmacological differences between human and mouse H4Rs are not surprising. Despite the fact that such species differences might hamper preclinical evaluation of H4R ligands, such a natural genetic variation also offers an opportunity to investigate receptor-ligand interactions.. In this study, we employed a chimeric receptor approach to localize receptor domains that could be responsible for the observed pharmacological differences between the human and mouse H4Rs. Such an approach has been proven to be ...
Cats rub against people not only to be affectionate but also to mark out its territory with scent glands around its face. The tail area and paws also carry the cats scent :) ...
Whitetail bucks have seven different scent glands that could be important to you as a hunter. Do you know where they are and what they do?
Micropigs, genetically modified miniature swine that started out as lab-experiment creations, are now being sold as desirable animal accessories in China. |a href=http://www.gizmodo.co.uk/2015/10/mutated-micropigs-will-soon-be-sold-as-pets/|Read more |||/a|
Abstract: Decreased conception rate of dairy cows in the summer is mainly associated with the deleterious effects of environmental thermal stress on the female reproductive tract. Here, we suggest that decreased reproductive performance might be partially due to inferior-quality semen. Semen from five representative bulls was collected in summer (August to September) and winter (December to January) and evaluated with a computerized sperm-quality analyzer for bulls (SQA-Vb). No seasonal effect was found in fresh ejaculate, but sperm examined post-thawing showed lower velocity, motility and progressive motility (P,0.04) in summer vs. winter samples. Element concentrations in the seminal plasma, determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, differed between seasons, with higher (P,0.01) concentration values of K, Mg, Na and S elements in winter vs. summer samples. Therefore, season-induced alterations in seminal plasma element concentration should be taken into account ...
Epilac Lowfat Yogurt Powder 48 features in Epi Ingredients SoFlexi powdered mix, which is aimed at the food-to-go market.. The powder can be used in a wide variety of foods, such as ice cream, frozen yogurt, and fillings and icings for bakery products, Epi said.. Same bacteria as in yogurt​. It contains the same live bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus​ and Lactobacillus bulgaricus​) as the ones found in yogurt, which are claimed to help balance the gut flora and strengthen the immune system.. Epi said that regardless of the chosen application, Epilac Lowfat Yogurt Powder 48 brings "natural acidity"​ and a "pleasant yogurt flavour as well as a smooth creamy texture"​ to the end product.. SoFlexi is the first product in Epis SoUnik range, designed to showcase its ingredients offer.. Epi is the dry ingredients division of French dairy co-operative Laïta.. Please click ​here​​ to sign-up for our free monthly Food Ingredients, Health & Nutrition (FIHN) newsletter. ...
At any given time point, the precise developmental stage among plants grown under the same environmental condition is heterogeneous. As rosette area variation is the combinatory variation of leaf initiation (development) and leaf expansion (growth), a clear definition of growth trait requires a separation of growth from development. To normalize the developmental scale for genetic analysis, we defined rosette developmental stages (Boyes et al. 2001) according to images taken at noon. Reliable rosette area estimation could only be obtained for the interval between when the seedlings were thinned to a single plant per pot and when they grew beyond the pot edges. Therefore, we focused on the developmental timeframe between the beginning of the day, when the fourth true leaf was 10 pixels long (approximately, stage 1.04) and the end of the day, when the tenth true leaf was about 10 pixels long (stage 1.10).. We first examined the developmental stage variation for a training set, which included five ...
First, a number of transcripts had distinct transcriptional activity between the two lines of mice at all time points. For example, FVB mice had consistently four- to eight-fold higher expression of the adenosine A2B receptor gene (Adora2b).. Second, a group of genes, although consistently overexpressed in FVB mice compared to SW mice, also exhibited different expression as a function of time during infection. The Sorting nexin gene (Snx6; overexpressed in FVB mice by 16- to 31-fold compared with SW mice) had increased expression at 4 dpi by approximately 2-fold in both lines of mice. However, at 9 dpi, expression of Snx6 remained elevated in FVB mice, but returned to normal in SW mice. Another example was proton-dependent high affinity oligopeptide transporter Pept2 (Slc15a2), which was overexpressed in FVB mice by 15- to 51-fold. Slc15a2 was upregulated in infected SW mice by 2-fold at 4 dpi and downregulated by 4-fold at 9 dpi, whereas in infected FVB mice its expression decreased by 11-fold ...
News analysis Scientists may never be able to work out whether pesticides caused a mass spawning of two-headed fish larvae in a popular Australian holiday region.. A Queensland government taskforce was last week established to investigate recent reports of deformities found on a fish farm in Noosa, near Brisbane, and claims that sprays from nearby farms were to blame.. Queenslands chief veterinary officer, Dr Ron Glanville, says the deformities are "highly unlikely" to be due to natural genetic variation, but getting to the bottom of what caused them is no simple matter.. "As far as we know that was a one-off event and it may or may not happen again. You cant actually diagnose something in retrospect," he says.. "If it doesnt happen again we may never get an answer to what happened.". In October last year fish health expert, Dr Matt Landos, reported to authorities, on behalf of a fish hatchery in Noosa, problems that had occurred in three different species of fish over the past two and half ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word about Biochemical Society Transactions.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address.. ...
Compare the results von Frisch obtained in his experiments 1 and 3 (September 17 and 19). Whether the scent gland was open or closed made no difference in the pattern of recruitment at the two stations - at the feeding station compared to a station 30 meters away from that station. Furthermore, the station 30 meters distant from the feeding station received more recruits than the feeding station itself. That result contradicts expectations, both of the Nasanov gland attraction hypothesis and of the dance language hypothesis.. Results from von Frischs experiments 2 and 4 reveal further discrepancies. On both of those days (September 18 and 20) the results agreed with predictions that one might make on the basis of the dance language hypothesis, but they contradicted results obtained on the other two days (September 17 and 19). Note also that these September 18 and 20 experiments were run with the feeding station in the opposite direction from the hive. A difference in influences of wind could ...
Staddon B.W., Thorne M.J. and Knight D.W. (1987) The scent glands and their chemicals in the aposematic cotton harlequin bug, tectocoris-diophthalmus (Heteroptera: Scutelleridae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 35 3: 227-234. doi:10.1071/ZO9870227 ...
Bacteria in hyenas scent glands may be the key controllers of communication.The results, featured in the current issue of Scientific Reports, show a clear relationship between the diversity of hyena clans and the distinct microbial communities that reside in their scent glands, said Kevin Theis, the papers lead author and MSU postdoctoral researcher.
Uniquely selected breeds bred over thousands of years of domestication in a wide range of environments have been declared extinct over the last century. Still more breeds are at risk of becoming extinct and the rate continues to accelerate. Assessing the current status and possible future dynamics of livestock breeds is therefore a critical step in the management of Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR). This study applies a qualitative approach to comprehensively analyze cattle genetic resources in selected countries in order to better understand the risk status of cattle breeds and those that need to be considered extinct and/or quasi-extant. The status of each breed, i.e., not at risk, critical, endangered and extinct, was verified using information available at the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) web site, as well as cattle statistics (where available) and a breed survey. In most examples, breeds listed as extinct have played important roles in the development of new breeds, and
Uniquely selected breeds bred over thousands of years of domestication in a wide range of environments have been declared extinct over the last century. Still more breeds are at risk of becoming extinct and the rate continues to accelerate. Assessing the current status and possible future dynamics of livestock breeds is therefore a critical step in the management of Animal Genetic Resources (AnGR). This study applies a qualitative approach to comprehensively analyze cattle genetic resources in selected countries in order to better understand the risk status of cattle breeds and those that need to be considered extinct and/or quasi-extant. The status of each breed, i.e., not at risk, critical, endangered and extinct, was verified using information available at the Domestic Animal Diversity Information System (DAD-IS) web site, as well as cattle statistics (where available) and a breed survey. In most examples, breeds listed as extinct have played important roles in the development of new breeds, and
Rt dropped below 1 in June or July and rebounded to above 1 around September, probably driven by a new cohort of susceptible children entering kindergartens and the increase in contact rates among children in the new school year. Whether your child loves or hates bath time, it has to be done. Call your doctor if symptoms get worse or you have any concerns (for example, if symptoms are not getting better as you would expect). The distribution was quite similar to the one gathered by Cano Garcinuño et al.1; cloperastine is the leading drug, used for more than half a century, with central and antihistaminic action, of which clinical efficiency in paediatrics has not been adequately studied.5,34 In turn, dextromethorphan is one of the most used for children, as reflected in a survey conducted in the Basque region,34 and it was second in frequency in our sample. Personal medical records will be taken by investigators and inspectors, who will promise to keep that secret. Children are often excluded ...
In all three scenarios the highest gains in accuracy are found for a segment size of 100 markers, implying that using smaller segments gives a stronger advantage from the location specific priors. Furthermore, significant results are only found in two cases: the largest and smallest segments. For the largest segment size of 3000 markers, it is surprising that the increase in accuracy is significant although larger gains in accuracy are seen for smaller segments. However, this could be an artifact of the test chosen for the significance. With a large segment size the added information becomes very unspecific which could lead to results more similar to those obtained from the regular BayesR method. With a high correlation between DGVs from the two methods, the Hotelling Williams t-test would cause even small differences in accuracy to be significant.. The different scaling factors (weights) applied to the parameters in the Dirichlet priors, seems to make little or no difference on the accuracy of ...
Cleanliness is one the biggest draws of living with cats. So, if you start to detect a bad odor from your cat, you need to take notice. In most cases, foul feline smells are a sign that something is seriously wrong. ...
The pelts of Swakara sheep breed of Namibia are famous for their lustrous features and are unmatched in quality across the globe. These pelts occur in four subpopulations of white, grey, black and brown. The white pelt is ...
After our miniature pigs post last week, an astute Zooillogix reader reminded us that there already are mini-pigs native to India. Weighing only about 10-20lbs, the Pygmy Hog is critically endangered with less than two hundred thought to be left in the wild. Once native to India, Bhutan and Nepal, these little guys were thought…. ...
The key factor to progress in plant breeding is the number of genotypes that can be evaluated phenotypically (Cooper et al. 2014b). Unfortunately, field testing is slow and costly, forcing breeders to limit the number of genotypes that is phenotyped. Genomic prediction offers the potential to alleviate this limitation, allowing to broaden the pool of genotypes for selection, and thereby increasing selection intensity (Crossa et al. 2013; Windhausen et al. 2012) and efficiency of breeding programs (Heffner et al. 2010; Crossa et al. 2013; Windhausen et al. 2012; Hickey et al. 2014; Longin et al. 2015).. In genomic selection, genome-enabled genotypic or breeding values are calculated from genomic prediction models as sums of effects for large numbers of markers, often without explicitly testing individual marker-trait associations (Meuwissen et al. 2001). Genomic prediction models are developed for a target population of genotypes (TPG). The TPG describes the full collection of existing and future ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! Author(s): Scarpa, Riccardo & Ruto, Eric S. K. & Kristjanson, Patti & Radeny, Maren & Drucker, Adam G. & Rege, John E. O.. 2003 Abstract: No abstract is available for this item.
Genomic prediction of breeding values when modeling genotype × environment interaction using pedigree and dense molecular markers. 2012. Burgueño, J.; Campos, G. de los; Weigel, K.; Crossa, J.. Crop Science 52 (2): 707-719. DOI: 10.2135/cropsci2011.06. ...
Holstein Association USA is the worlds largest dairy cattle breed organization, offering information services to all dairy producers. The Holstein Association offers dairy cattle identification, genetic evaluation, type evaluation, mating programs and inbreeding management programs to improve dairy herd management.
Casey received her B.A. in 2004 from the Arizona International College at the University of Arizona where she concentrated in Math and Science. She then received her Ph.D. from UCLA in Human Genetics from the laboratory of Dr. Aldons (Jake) Lusis. In the Lusis Lab, Casey demonstrated that gene regulation in human endothelial cells is genetically and environmentally determined. She then completed her postdoctoral research at UCSD in the laboratory of Dr. Christopher Glass. There, Casey used natural genetic variation between inbred mouse strains to demonstrate the hierarchical and collaborative nature of enhancer activity in gene regulation. Throughout her training, Casey became very interested in the interdependence between genetic sequence and molecular traits, which is the foundation of her ongoing research.. In 2016, Casey accepted a position as an Assistant Professor in the Department of Cellular and Molecular Medicine and BIO5 Fellow at the University of Arizona. Her research program uses ...
Without genomic prediction, breeders must grow all possible crosses in the field to select the best cross (hybrid). For example, for 1000 inbred parents, the total number of crosses would be 499500.. "It is impossible to grow these many crosses in the field," Xu said. "However, with the genomic prediction technology, we can grow only, say, 500 crosses, then predict all the 499500 potential crosses, and select the best crosses based on the predicted values of these hybrids.". Xu noted that genomic prediction is particularly useful for predicting hybrids because hybrid DNA sequences are determined by their inbred parents.. "More cost-saving can be achieved because we do not need to measure the DNA sequences of the hybrids," he said. "Knowing the genotypes of the parents makes it possible to immediately know the genotype of the hybrid. Indeed, there is no need to measure the genotype of the hybrid. It is fully predicted by the model.". When the researchers incorporated "dominance" and "epistasis" ...
America has developed a number of domestic animal breeds. The American Blackbelly sheep is a hybrid. This exotic-looking breed is what is known as a hair breed. Instead of having wool it has hair although it does grow some wool in winter. Rather than wait to be shorn, it very conveniently sheds its wool in the spring. The American Blackbelly is sometimes called the Barbado sheep. This is not the same breed as the Barbados Blackbelly.
In the early 1900s, the Teeswater had a brush with extinction. This is due to the Wensleydale breed increasing in popularity, and the Teeswater sharply decreasing. The breed only survived due to several farmers keeping Teeswater rams to cross with hill sheep ewes. Today, the value of these rams for cross-breeding is better-known, and they have become more prevalent, although still rare.. The first Teeswaters born in the United States were recorded in 1997.. ...
WARNING This post goes into detail about processing, no pictures but does have graphic details about cleaning chickens.. I have been helping out on the table on chicken days this year. The evisceration process is fairly routine after you get the hang of it. Take off the scent gland, loosen the windpipe, make a few cuts, loosen every thing up, grab what you can and pull. Since you are working blind, not being able to see the inside of the bird before it is cleaned, there is a lot of gazing off and letting you hand do all interpreting of whats going on. You get a feel for whats what. After somewhere between 50 and 100 birds I have done, there is a degree of comfort in knowing what you are going to feel and what this experience is going to be. This last week I had two surprises.. I am a jumpy person anyway, but when you put your hand into a chicken and feel something that isnt supposed to be there, or is not normal, if you are me, you jump back and act like someone just jump out of a closet to ...
Why do cats rub themselves against people and things? Cats can be very touchy-feely at times. They would rub their cheeks on your legs before rubbing their bodies against your legs. But why do they do this? Why do cats rub themselves against you? There are scent glands ...

Mouse model for malignant juvenile ovarian granulosa cell tumors. by W G. Beamer, K L. Shultz et al.Mouse model for malignant juvenile ovarian granulosa cell tumors." by W G. Beamer, K L. Shultz et al.

Disease-Models-Animal, Female, Granulosa-Cell-Tumor: ge, pa, Human, Mice, Mice-Inbred-Strains, Ovarian-Neoplasms: ge, pa ...
more infohttps://mouseion.jax.org/stfb1990_1999/1160/

A potential animal model for studying CF heterozygote advantage: Genetic variation in theophylline-inducible colonic chloride...A potential animal model for studying CF heterozygote advantage: Genetic variation in theophylline-inducible colonic chloride...

T2 - Genetic variation in theophylline-inducible colonic chloride currents among inbred strains of mice ... Genetic variation in theophylline-inducible colonic chloride currents among inbred strains of mice. ... from various inbred strains of mice. We found lower theophylline-induced Cl- secretion in the DBA 2J than in the C57BL 6J ... from various inbred strains of mice. We found lower theophylline-induced Cl- secretion in the DBA 2J than in the C57BL 6J ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/publications/a-potential-animal-model-for-studying-cf-heterozygote-advantage-g-2

the feminist critique of sciencethe feminist critique of science

animals (inbred strains of , mice). Selecting one sex was simply one more method for removing , confounding variables, and male ...
more infohttp://www.bio.net/bionet/mm/womenbio/1995-September/002967.html

Genetics Glossary: Growth, Genetics and HormonesGenetics Glossary: Growth, Genetics and Hormones

F1 hybrids The first generation of animals generated from 2 different inbred strains. These animals are genetically identical ... inbred mouse strain A strain of mice that has been maintained by successive brother to sister matings over many generations, e. ... congenic mouse strain A strain that differs from another in the region containing 1 genetic locus.. ... outbred mouse strains Strains of mice propagated by nonstandardized matings. These mice retain substantial genetic variability. ...
more infohttps://www.kumc.edu/gec/gloss.html

Rodents | Encyclopedia.comRodents | Encyclopedia.com

Two of these species, rats and mice, are the most commonly used animal models for aging research. ... a large group of biologically similar animals that includes rats, mice, and beavers. ... However, at this point the differences between the animals within the inbred strain are very slight. The animals are as ... Inbred strains are the most commonly used examples of such control. Inbred strains are the result of at least twenty ...
more infohttps://www.encyclopedia.com/plants-and-animals/animals/vertebrate-zoology/rodents

Fetal Valproate Syndrome with Limb Defects: An Indian Case ReportFetal Valproate Syndrome with Limb Defects: An Indian Case Report

Some animal studies using inbred strains of mice suggested genetic background for the risk of teratogenicity [8]. Study by Dean ...
more infohttps://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripe/2016/3495910/

10 Genetic Markers in Social Science Research: Opportunities and Pitfalls--George P. Vogler and Gerald E. McClearn | Biosocial...10 Genetic Markers in Social Science Research: Opportunities and Pitfalls--George P. Vogler and Gerald E. McClearn | Biosocial...

The animals of an inbred strain are approximately uniform genetically, and different inbred strains differ genetically from ... animals of one strain (C57BL/6) were totally unaffected by differences in rearing environment; animals of the other strain (DBA ... Blizard and Randt (1974), for example, reared two inbred strains of mice under one of three housing conditionsâ standard caging ... In each of five inbred strains, two groups were established, one being fed a normal control diet and the other a diet enriched ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/11939/chapter/14

Inbred Strains - Nomura Siam InternationalInbred Strains - Nomura Siam International

... to provide one-stop service for the laboratory animal field. ... Animals *MCBC Animals *Mouse *Closed Colonies. *Inbred Strains ...
more infohttp://nomura-siam.com/en/animal-categories/inbred-strains/

The Immune Effects of an African Traditional Energy Tonic in In Vitro and In Vivo ModelsThe Immune Effects of an African Traditional Energy Tonic in In Vitro and In Vivo Models

These can include inbred strains of animals with known susceptibility of infection, autoimmune disease, and cancer. In vitro ... Animal ethics approval was received from the University of Pretorias Animal Ethics Committee (reference number: T011-13). ... mg/kg: 5 animals per dose) and the dose levels were determined by the experiment to be performed. The traditional medicine ... Animals were fasted (food withheld but not water) overnight prior to dosing [15]. For acute toxicity studies, rats were ...
more infohttp://pubmedcentralcanada.ca/pmcc/articles/PMC5376944/

Robert Hitzemann - Publications
     - Oregon Health & Science UniversityRobert Hitzemann - Publications - Oregon Health & Science University

Inbred Strains Animals Gene Knockout Techniques Chromosome Mapping Quantitative Trait Loci Alcoholism ... Boudreau, E., Chen, G., Li, X., Buck, K., Hitzemann, R. & Hickman, D., Jan 2010, In : Lab Animal. 39, 1, p. 23-25 3 p.. ... Splicing landscape of the eight collaborative cross founder strains. Zheng, C., Wilmot, B., Walter, N. A. R., Oberbeck, D., ... Modeling the diagnostic criteria for alcohol dependence with genetic animal models.. Crabbe, J. J., Kendler, K. S. & Hitzemann ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/robert-hitzemann/publications/

Quantitative trait legal definition of quantitative traitQuantitative trait legal definition of quantitative trait

... inbred animal strains; recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains; quantitative traits; quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping; ... Discovering genes involved in alcohol dependence and other alcohol responses role of animal models: role of animal models ... multiple cross mapping (MCM); heterogeneous stock (HS) mapping; microsatellite mapping; animal models. Quantitative trait locus ...
more infohttp://legal-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/quantitative+trait

Systematic Assessment of Well-Being in Mice for Procedures Using General Anesthesia | Protocol (Translated to Norwegian)Systematic Assessment of Well-Being in Mice for Procedures Using General Anesthesia | Protocol (Translated to Norwegian)

Bains, R. S., et al. Analysis of individual mouse activity in group housed animals of different inbred strains using a novel ... 1Institute of Animal Welfare, Animal Behavior and Laboratory Animal Science, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie ... Boissy, A., et al. Assessment of positive emotions in animals to improve their welfare. Physiol Behav. 92, (3), 375-397 (2007). ... Hawkins, P., et al. A guide to defining and implementing protocols for the welfare assessment of laboratory animals: eleventh ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/57046/systematisk-vurdering-velvre-i-mus-for-prosedyrer-som-bruker-general?language=Norwegian

Systematic Assessment of Well-Being in Mice for Procedures Using General Anesthesia | ProtocolSystematic Assessment of Well-Being in Mice for Procedures Using General Anesthesia | Protocol

Bains, R. S., et al. Analysis of individual mouse activity in group housed animals of different inbred strains using a novel ... 1Institute of Animal Welfare, Animal Behavior and Laboratory Animal Science, Department of Veterinary Medicine, Freie ... some animal experiments are still needed to conduct research that will protect human and animal health. Thus, if an animal ... When there is no alternative to animal experimentation, the total number of laboratory animals used should be the minimum ...
more infohttps://www.jove.com/video/57046/systematic-assessment-well-being-mice-for-procedures-using-general

Nurr1:RXRα heterodimer activation as monotherapy for Parkinsons disease | PNASNurr1:RXRα heterodimer activation as monotherapy for Parkinson's disease | PNAS

Animals (male C57BL/6N inbred strain, obtained from Charles River Laboratories) at age 10 wk (n = 5 per group) were weighed and ... Animals.. Mice were housed at the Animal Care Facilities of the Academy of Athens in a pathogen-free room under a controlled ... Experimenters were blinded to the animal groups for all animal experiments and analyses. ... and all animal procedures were approved by the Academy of Athens Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (certified with ...
more infohttps://www.pnas.org/content/114/15/3999.long

Combinations of Nondiabetic Parental Genomes Elicit Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Mouse SMXA Recombinant Inbred Strains |...Combinations of Nondiabetic Parental Genomes Elicit Impaired Glucose Tolerance in Mouse SMXA Recombinant Inbred Strains |...

Animals.. Male mice of parental (SM/J, A/J) strains, (SM/J × A/J)F1 mice, and 19 SMXA RI strains were obtained from The ... Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are derived by inbreeding different sets of F2 progeny from a cross between two inbred strains ... Festing MF: Origins and characteristics of inbred strains of mice. In Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. ... Belknap JK: Effect of within-strain sample size on QTL detection and mapping using recombinant inbred mouse strains. Behav ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/52/1/180

Does the prenatal bisphenol A exposure alter DNA methylation levels in the mouse hippocampus?: An analysis using a high...Does the prenatal bisphenol A exposure alter DNA methylation levels in the mouse hippocampus?: An analysis using a high...

... it is preferable to use inbred strain animals to exclude genetic variation among individuals in the analysis of epigenomic ... kg/day, by oral) to the mother rats of inbred Fisher 344 strain Therefore, differences in ADME values among strains may did not ... kg/day, by oral) to the mother rats of inbred Fisher 344 strain Therefore, differences in ADME values among strains may did not ... it is preferable to use inbred strain animals to exclude genetic variation among individuals in the analysis of epigenomic ...
more infohttps://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer_journal/does-the-prenatal-bisphenol-a-exposure-alter-dna-methylation-levels-in-HMizYIy4Bp

Allow Quotes - 45 quotes on Allow Science Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist QuotesAllow Quotes - 45 quotes on Allow Science Quotes - Dictionary of Science Quotations and Scientist Quotes

... they focus their research on inbred strains of genetically homogeneous laboratory animals from which, to the maximum extent ... Science quotes on: , Accept (192) , Acceptance (53) , Actively (3) , Activity (210) , Adequately (3) , Affect (19) , Animal ( ... Science quotes on: , Accommodation (9) , Adequacy (9) , Adjustment (21) , All (4107) , Anatomical (3) , Animal (617) , Catch ( ... Science quotes on: , Admirable (19) , Animal (617) , Approach (108) , Become (815) , Biological (137) , Biologist (69) , ...
more infohttps://todayinsci.com/QuotationsCategories/A_Cat/Allow-Quotations.htm

Islet Transplantation | SpringerLinkIslet Transplantation | SpringerLink

... or the use of immunologically privileged sites or highly inbred strains of experimental animals. However, pancreatic ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4684-2325-9_21

Identification of Genetic Regions of Importance for Reproductive Performance in Female Mice | GeneticsIdentification of Genetic Regions of Importance for Reproductive Performance in Female Mice | Genetics

Most scientists who have worked with mice in different animal houses have experienced that the same inbred strains can show ... The NFR/N strain is an example of an inbred high-breeder strain, while common C57BL strains normally produce lower numbers of ... The high-breeder mouse strain we used is the inbred NFR/N mouse (MHC haplotype H-2q), which has extraordinary good breeding ... blood insulin and lipid levels in the SMXA recombinant inbred strains and the QTL analysis. Exp. Anim. 49: 217-224. ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/173/2/901

Skin grafting - WikipediaSkin grafting - Wikipedia

... animals of a single inbred strain; isograft or syngraft). Allogeneic: The donor and recipient are of the same species (human→ ... Two layers of skin created from animal sources has been found to be useful in venous leg ulcers. Autologous: The donor skin is ... When grafts are taken from other animals, they are known as heterografts or xenografts. By definition, they are temporary ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skin_grafting

Michael Festing - WikipediaMichael Festing - Wikipedia

He has written books cataloguing laboratory animals, including International Index of Laboratory Animals and Inbred Strains in ... He is one of 19 members of the UKs Animal Procedures Committee, which advises the Home Secretary on matters related to animal ... Nonetheless, Festing has been criticized by the animal rights movement for his investment in companies that engage in animal ... the use of animals in medical experiments in the UK. Festing is the author of over 200 scientific papers on laboratory animal ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Festing

Resources  | Free Full-Text | Recent Research Progress and Potential Uses of the Amphibian Xenopus as a Biomedical and...Resources | Free Full-Text | Recent Research Progress and Potential Uses of the Amphibian Xenopus as a Biomedical and...

laevis animal inbred strains, gynogenetic clones, and cell lines, coupled with a powerful and continuously improving reverse ... indicating that this strain is truly inbred. Although the F strain is MHC homozygous, it is not fully inbred and minor H Ag are ... In summary, the availability of MHC-defined clones, inbred MHC homozygote animal strains, and cell lines coupled with a well- ... Definition of X. laevis strains. Name (MHC genotype). Cell lines. Partially inbred, MHC homozygous strains. F (f/f). Thymic ...
more infohttp://www.mdpi.com/2079-9276/2/3/167/htm

Frontiers | The Synergistic Enhancing-Memory Effect of Donepezil and S 38093 (a Histamine H3 Antagonist) Is Mediated by...Frontiers | The Synergistic Enhancing-Memory Effect of Donepezil and S 38093 (a Histamine H3 Antagonist) Is Mediated by...

... observed in these brain areas in vehicle-treated middle-aged animals. Overall, the effects of drug combinations on pCREB in the ... observed in these brain areas in vehicle-treated middle-aged animals. Overall, the effects of drug combinations on pCREB in the ... Animals. Animals were 12 months-old mice of the C57/Bl6 inbred strain obtained from Charles River (LArbresle, France). They ... At the end of the acquisition phase, mice returned in the animals room for 24 h. Animals retained for the test phase in the ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fphar.2016.00492/full

Animal HealthAnimal Health

... clinical medicine and pathology groups and is designed to ensure the health and well-being of our animal colonies by routine ... Our Animal Health Program is composed of importation, diagnostic, ... JAX provides you comprehensive resources to understand appropriate nomenclature for mouse strains including inbred, substrains ... Animal Health Program The Animal Health Program at JAX ensures the health of our mouse colonies by preventing the entry of ...
more infohttps://www.jax.org/jax-mice-and-services/customer-support/customer-service/animal-health/

A General Bayesian Approach to Analyzing Diallel Crosses of Inbred Strains | GeneticsA General Bayesian Approach to Analyzing Diallel Crosses of Inbred Strains | Genetics

This diallel had no inbred animals. Posterior distributions for parameters relating to inbreeding (collected in the rightmost ... "inbreed.overall"; B) and strain-specific effects of additive genetics ("additive"; a), inbreeding ("inbreed"; b), and parent-of ... implies that the inbred penalty is constant across strains. Modeling heterosis, either as an inbred or a dominance effect, ... If we considered mother strain j and father strain k to be independent draws from a pool of J strains, and gender of the ...
more infohttp://www.genetics.org/content/190/2/413.full
  • When the parents are diploid, sexed, and inbred, the diallel can characterize aggregate effects of genetic background on a phenotype, revealing effects of strain dosage, heterosis, parent of origin, epistasis, and sex-specific versions thereof. (genetics.org)
  • Subsequently, in experimental animal stu- Bisphenol A (BPA), an endocrine disruptor, has still been the dies, exposureofpregnantanimals to BPA ata low focusofattentionofscientistsinthe fieldofenvironmental doses (2-20 μg/kg) altered the development of male health since the last century. (deepdyve.com)
  • Therefore, in order to maximize the detection of toxicities, animals are treated with very high doses of chemicals. (centerforethicalscience.org)
  • We present a general Bayesian model for analyzing diallel data on dioecious diploid inbred strains that cleanly decomposes the observed patterns of variation into biologically intuitive components, simultaneously models and accommodates outliers, and provides shrinkage estimates of effects that automatically incorporate uncertainty due to imbalance, missing data, and small sample size. (genetics.org)
  • QTL mapping analyses in these model animals identified several QTLs that influenced glucose tolerance, blood glucose concentration, serum insulin concentration, and parameters that define glucose homeostasis. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A new test using protozoa - single-celled organisms - has been developed by U.K. researchers, who say it has "great potential" for reducing the use of animals to determine the safety of cosmetics. (centerforethicalscience.org)
  • He has a particular interest in improving the design of animal experiments, particularly in the area of toxicology testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diallel originated in animal and plant breeding as an extension of the idea that, from a breeding perspective, you should judge the value of an individual by the phenotypes of its offspring ( Christie and Shattuck 1992 and references therein). (genetics.org)
  • Two layers of skin created from animal sources has been found to be useful in venous leg ulcers. (wikipedia.org)
  • He is one of 19 members of the UK's Animal Procedures Committee, which advises the Home Secretary on matters related to animal testing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nonetheless, Festing has been criticized by the animal rights movement for his investment in companies that engage in animal testing, which according to the Animal Procedures Committee register of members' interests, includes AstraZeneca, GlaxoSmithKline, Alizyme, Akambis, Cambridge Antibody, Shire Pharmaceuticals, and Celltech. (wikipedia.org)
  • This allows researchers to determine how much of a trait is genetically determined (remains the same across members of the strain) and how much is learned or environmentally influenced (can differ between members of the strain). (sparknotes.com)
  • Procter & Gamble scientists announce a milestone having developed the first non-animal alternative method for skin allergy testing approved by European authority. (centerforethicalscience.org)
  • Because they are large, complex animals with long life spans they are very expensive to maintain. (encyclopedia.com)
  • We demonstrated that the memory-enhancing effect of the S 38093 and Donepezil combination is mediated by its action on the septo-hippocampal circuitry, since it canceled out the reduction of CREB phosphorylation (pCREB) observed in these brain areas in vehicle-treated middle-aged animals. (frontiersin.org)