Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Mice, Inbred DBAChromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Inbred C3HQuantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Mice, Inbred AKRPhenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Mice, Inbred AInbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Muridae: A family of the order Rodentia containing 250 genera including the two genera Mus (MICE) and Rattus (RATS), from which the laboratory inbred strains are developed. The fifteen subfamilies are SIGMODONTINAE (New World mice and rats), CRICETINAE, Spalacinae, Myospalacinae, Lophiomyinae, ARVICOLINAE, Platacanthomyinae, Nesomyinae, Otomyinae, Rhizomyinae, GERBILLINAE, Dendromurinae, Cricetomyinae, MURINAE (Old World mice and rats), and Hydromyinae.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Mice, Inbred BALB CGenetics, Behavioral: The experimental study of the relationship between the genotype of an organism and its behavior. The scope includes the effects of genes on simple sensory processes to complex organization of the nervous system.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Animals, Outbred Strains: Animals that are generated from breeding two genetically dissimilar strains of the same species.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Disease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Mice, Inbred CBAAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Flurothyl: A convulsant primarily used in experimental animals. It was formerly used to induce convulsions as a alternative to electroshock therapy.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Virulence: The degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of microorganisms or viruses as indicated by case fatality rates and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The pathogenic capacity of an organism is determined by its VIRULENCE FACTORS.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Rats, Inbred BNNucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Microbial Sensitivity Tests: Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Animals, LaboratoryBehavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Serotyping: Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.H-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Animals, Congenic: Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Rodent Diseases: Diseases of rodents of the order RODENTIA. This term includes diseases of Sciuridae (squirrels), Geomyidae (gophers), Heteromyidae (pouched mice), Castoridae (beavers), Cricetidae (rats and mice), Muridae (Old World rats and mice), Erethizontidae (porcupines), and Caviidae (guinea pigs).Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Scent Glands: Exocrine glands in animals which secrete scents which either repel or attract other animals, e.g. perianal glands of skunks, anal glands of weasels, musk glands of foxes, ventral glands of wood rats, and dorsal glands of peccaries.Chimera: An individual that contains cell populations derived from different zygotes.Drug Resistance, Microbial: The ability of microorganisms, especially bacteria, to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Animals, Wild: Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Mice, Inbred NZBGenome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Antigens, Bacterial: Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide: A single nucleotide variation in a genetic sequence that occurs at appreciable frequency in the population.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Animals, Inbred Strains: Animals produced by the mating of progeny over multiple generations. The resultant strain of animals is virtually identical genotypically. Highly inbred animal lines allow the study of certain traits in a relatively pure form. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Urethane: Antineoplastic agent that is also used as a veterinary anesthetic. It has also been used as an intermediate in organic synthesis. Urethane is suspected to be a carcinogen.Genes, Dominant: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE both in the homozygous and the heterozygous state.Genetics: The branch of science concerned with the means and consequences of transmission and generation of the components of biological inheritance. (Stedman, 26th ed)DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Granulosa Cell Tumor: A neoplasm composed entirely of GRANULOSA CELLS, occurring mostly in the OVARY. In the adult form, it may contain some THECA CELLS. This tumor often produces ESTRADIOL and INHIBIN. The excess estrogen exposure can lead to other malignancies in women and PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY in girls. In rare cases, granulosa cell tumors have been identified in the TESTES.Hair Color: Color of hair or fur.Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field: Gel electrophoresis in which the direction of the electric field is changed periodically. This technique is similar to other electrophoretic methods normally used to separate double-stranded DNA molecules ranging in size up to tens of thousands of base-pairs. However, by alternating the electric field direction one is able to separate DNA molecules up to several million base-pairs in length.Genes, Regulator: Genes which regulate or circumscribe the activity of other genes; specifically, genes which code for PROTEINS or RNAs which have GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION functions.Saccharin: Flavoring agent and non-nutritive sweetener.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Breeding: The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.Oryzias: The only genus in the family Oryziinae, order BELONIFORMES. Oryzias are egg-layers; other fish of the same order are livebearers. Oryzias are used extensively in testing carcinogens.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Inheritance Patterns: The different ways GENES and their ALLELES interact during the transmission of genetic traits that effect the outcome of GENE EXPRESSION.Immune Sera: Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Staphylococcus aureus: Potentially pathogenic bacteria found in nasal membranes, skin, hair follicles, and perineum of warm-blooded animals. They may cause a wide range of infections and intoxications.Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Methylcholanthrene: A carcinogen that is often used in experimental cancer studies.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Virulence Factors: Those components of an organism that determine its capacity to cause disease but are not required for its viability per se. Two classes have been characterized: TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL and surface adhesion molecules that effect the ability of the microorganism to invade and colonize a host. (From Davis et al., Microbiology, 4th ed. p486)Water Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in water. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Pseudomonas: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. Some species are pathogenic for humans, animals, and plants.Drug Resistance, Bacterial: The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Taste Threshold: The minimum concentration at which taste sensitivity to a particular substance or food can be perceived.Sprains and Strains: A collective term for muscle and ligament injuries without dislocation or fracture. A sprain is a joint injury in which some of the fibers of a supporting ligament are ruptured but the continuity of the ligament remains intact. A strain is an overstretching or overexertion of some part of the musculature.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Immunization: Deliberate stimulation of the host's immune response. ACTIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of ANTIGENS or IMMUNOLOGIC ADJUVANTS. PASSIVE IMMUNIZATION involves administration of IMMUNE SERA or LYMPHOCYTES or their extracts (e.g., transfer factor, immune RNA) or transplantation of immunocompetent cell producing tissue (thymus or bone marrow).DNA Transposable Elements: Discrete segments of DNA which can excise and reintegrate to another site in the genome. Most are inactive, i.e., have not been found to exist outside the integrated state. DNA transposable elements include bacterial IS (insertion sequence) elements, Tn elements, the maize controlling elements Ac and Ds, Drosophila P, gypsy, and pogo elements, the human Tigger elements and the Tc and mariner elements which are found throughout the animal kingdom.Escherichia coli Infections: Infections with bacteria of the species ESCHERICHIA COLI.Evoked Potentials, Auditory, Brain Stem: Electrical waves in the CEREBRAL CORTEX generated by BRAIN STEM structures in response to auditory click stimuli. These are found to be abnormal in many patients with CEREBELLOPONTINE ANGLE lesions, MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, or other DEMYELINATING DISEASES.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Ethylnitrosourea: A nitrosourea compound with alkylating, carcinogenic, and mutagenic properties.Bacterial Toxins: Toxic substances formed in or elaborated by bacteria; they are usually proteins with high molecular weight and antigenicity; some are used as antibiotics and some to skin test for the presence of or susceptibility to certain diseases.Bacterial Outer Membrane Proteins: Proteins isolated from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria.Rats, Inbred LewKidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Diet, Atherogenic: A diet that contributes to the development and acceleration of ATHEROGENESIS.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Actinomycetales: An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Taste: The ability to detect chemicals through gustatory receptors in the mouth, including those on the TONGUE; the PALATE; the PHARYNX; and the EPIGLOTTIS.Histocompatibility: The degree of antigenic similarity between the tissues of different individuals, which determines the acceptance or rejection of allografts.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.DNA Probes: Species- or subspecies-specific DNA (including COMPLEMENTARY DNA; conserved genes, whole chromosomes, or whole genomes) used in hybridization studies in order to identify microorganisms, to measure DNA-DNA homologies, to group subspecies, etc. The DNA probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the DNA probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin. The use of DNA probes provides a specific, sensitive, rapid, and inexpensive replacement for cell culture techniques for diagnosing infections.Chromosomes, Bacterial: Structures within the nucleus of bacterial cells consisting of or containing DNA, which carry genetic information essential to the cell.Antibody Specificity: The property of antibodies which enables them to react with some ANTIGENIC DETERMINANTS and not with others. Specificity is dependent on chemical composition, physical forces, and molecular structure at the binding site.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Sweetening Agents: Substances that sweeten food, beverages, medications, etc., such as sugar, saccharine or other low-calorie synthetic products. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A species of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens (wound, burn, and urinary tract infections). It is also found widely distributed in soil and water. P. aeruginosa is a major agent of nosocomial infection.Exploratory Behavior: The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.Conjugation, Genetic: A parasexual process in BACTERIA; ALGAE; FUNGI; and ciliate EUKARYOTA for achieving exchange of chromosome material during fusion of two cells. In bacteria, this is a uni-directional transfer of genetic material; in protozoa it is a bi-directional exchange. In algae and fungi, it is a form of sexual reproduction, with the union of male and female gametes.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Mice, Neurologic Mutants: Mice which carry mutant genes for neurologic defects or abnormalities.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Molecular Epidemiology: The application of molecular biology to the answering of epidemiological questions. The examination of patterns of changes in DNA to implicate particular carcinogens and the use of molecular markers to predict which individuals are at highest risk for a disease are common examples.Stereotyped Behavior: Relatively invariant mode of behavior elicited or determined by a particular situation; may be verbal, postural, or expressive.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Repetitive Sequences, Nucleic Acid: Sequences of DNA or RNA that occur in multiple copies. There are several types: INTERSPERSED REPETITIVE SEQUENCES are copies of transposable elements (DNA TRANSPOSABLE ELEMENTS or RETROELEMENTS) dispersed throughout the genome. TERMINAL REPEAT SEQUENCES flank both ends of another sequence, for example, the long terminal repeats (LTRs) on RETROVIRUSES. Variations may be direct repeats, those occurring in the same direction, or inverted repeats, those opposite to each other in direction. TANDEM REPEAT SEQUENCES are copies which lie adjacent to each other, direct or inverted (INVERTED REPEAT SEQUENCES).Proviruses: Duplex DNA sequences in eukaryotic chromosomes, corresponding to the genome of a virus, that are transmitted from one cell generation to the next without causing lysis of the host. Proviruses are often associated with neoplastic cell transformation and are key features of retrovirus biology.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Mice, Inbred ICRDisease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Selection, Genetic: Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Genes, Recessive: Genes that influence the PHENOTYPE only in the homozygous state.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Ataxia: Impairment of the ability to perform smoothly coordinated voluntary movements. This condition may affect the limbs, trunk, eyes, pharynx, larynx, and other structures. Ataxia may result from impaired sensory or motor function. Sensory ataxia may result from posterior column injury or PERIPHERAL NERVE DISEASES. Motor ataxia may be associated with CEREBELLAR DISEASES; CEREBRAL CORTEX diseases; THALAMIC DISEASES; BASAL GANGLIA DISEASES; injury to the RED NUCLEUS; and other conditions.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.

Observation of marking-like behavior, marking behavior, and growth of the scent gland in young Mongolian gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) of an inbred strain. (1/135)

A marking-like behavior (defined by authors), a marking behavior, and growth of the scent glands were observed in young Mongolian gerbils of an inbred strain. In males and females, a marking-like behavior, in which animals rub their abdominal scent glands on the floor, began to be seen at the age of 19 days and could be seen in almost all the gerbils at 22 days of age during the suckling period. The frequency of this behavior was highest at 60 days of age (males: 17.9/10 min, females: 15.4/10 min) and there was no sex difference. Marking behavior, in which animals rub their abdominal scent glands on small protruding objects, began to be seen at the age of 40 days in males and 50 days in females. The frequency of this behavior tended to increase until 90 days of age in males (13.7/10 min), but the levels were low (2.5-5.0/10 min) in females. The values in the male group therefore tended to be higher than that in the female group. Macroscopic scent gland pads were clearly observed at the age of 30 days in males, but not until 45 days of age in females. At the age of 45-90 days, the length of the scent gland pad in males and females was 2.1-2.8 and 1.6-1.7 cm, respectively and the width was 0.3-0.5 in males and 0.2-0.3 cm in females. During this period, the length and depth of the pads in males were significantly greater than those in females (p < 0.05). Histological examination of the structure of the scent glands after the age of 45 days showed that the development of clusters of acinar cells in females occurred much later than that in males, but the basic structure of these glands was similar in both sexes. These results suggest that the marking-like behavior was manifested although during the period when the scent glands had not yet developed, whereas true marking behavior first occurred when the glands were moderately well developed.  (+info)

Serum biochemical values in two inbred strains of mastomys (Praomys coucha). (2/135)

Serum samples collected from 119 (72 male and 47 female) mastomys (Praomys coucha) of 2 specific-pathogen-free inbred strains (RI4 and RI7) were analyzed for 12 serum biochemical parameters. Sex-related differences (p < 0.01) were noted in alkaline phosphatase and glucose; the both higher in females than in males. Age-related changes (p < 0.01) were observed in total protein, albumin, total cholesterol, and alkaline phosphatase, with higher values for the first three parameters in the older group (200-250 days of age) than in the younger group (90-140 days of age). Four out of 12 parameters showed strain-related differences (p < 0.01), consistent with the large amount of genetic heterogeneity reported in this species. These serum biochemical reference values should provide information for the use of mastomys in laboratory research.  (+info)

Characterization of early follicular cDNA library suggests evidence for genetic polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108 of Bombyx mori. (3/135)

Recent work towards the completion of a saturated molecular genetic linkage map for the lepidopteran silkworm, Bombyx mori (n = 28), has provided evidence for existing polymorphisms in the inbred strain C108. Two inbred parental strains, p50 and C108, were crossed to produce the F1 (P/C) hybrid offspring. The populations used in this project were comprised of a combination of 29 F2 (F1 x F1) and 31 reciprocal backcross (P/C x C/C, P/C x P/P) progeny. All restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) for the initial analysis were hybridized with anonymous probes derived from a random early follicular cDNA (Rcf) library from Bombyx. A total of 19 Rcf probes were selected as showing scorable codominant polymorphic patterns when screened against F2 and backcross DNAs digested with the restriction enzymes EcoRI, HindIII, or PstI, and Southern blotted to nylon membranes for hybridization. Of the newly reported Rcf probes, 7 (37%) were characterized as producing 'simple' polymorphic patterns, while 12 (63%) were characterized as producing 'complex' polymorphic patterns. Further characterization of the complex patterns subdivided this group into two general classes: polymorphisms that contained an additional allele, and multiple bands that contained an easily scored two banded polymorphism. Because the extra allele class was limited to the (P/C x C/C) backcross progeny, it is suggested that the inbred parental strain C108 harbors polymorphic loci that are inherited in a simple Mendelian fashion. A genetic analysis discussing plausible origins and maintenance of these polymorphisms is presented.  (+info)

Trigonocephaly in rabbits with familial interfrontal suture synostosis: the multiple effects of premature single-suture fusion. (4/135)

Previous studies from our laboratory have characterized the craniofacial morphology and growth patterns of an inbred strain of rabbits with autosomal dominant coronal suture synostosis. A number of rabbit perinates from this colony have been collected sporadically over a 5-year period with premature interfrontal suture synostosis. The present study describes the very early onset of craniofacial dysmorphology of these rabbits and compares them to similar-aged normal control rabbits. A total of 40 perinatal New Zealand White rabbits were used in the present study. Twenty-one comprised the sample with interfrontal suture synostosis and ranged in age from 27 to 38 days postconception (term = 31 days) with a mean age of 33.53 days (+/-2.84 days). Nineteen rabbits served as age-matched, normal controls (mean age = 33.05 days +/-2.79 days). Lateral and dorsoventral radiographs were collected from each rabbit. The radiographs were traced, computer digitized, and 12 craniofacial measurements, angles, and indices were obtained. Mean measures were compared using an unpaired Student's t-test. All synostosed rabbits were stillborn or died shortly after birth. Grossly, these rabbits exhibited extreme frontal bossing, trigonocephaly with sagittal keeling, and midfacial shortening. No somatic anomalies were noted. Radiographically, rabbits with interfrontal suture synostosis had significantly (P < 0.05) narrower bifrontal widths, shorter cranial vault lengths, kyphotic cranial base angles, and different cranial vault indices (shapes) compared to controls. Results reveal severe and early pathological and compensatory cranial vault changes associated with premature interfrontal suture synostosis in this rabbit model. The 100% mortality rate noted in this condition may be related to the inheritance of a lethal genetic mutation or to neural compression from reduced intracranial volume. Results are discussed in light of current pathogenic hypotheses for human infants with premature metopic suture synostosis.  (+info)

Factors affecting the efficiency of embryo cryopreservation and rederivation of rat and mouse models. (5/135)

The efficiency of embryo banking for rat and mouse models of human disease and normal biological processes depends on the ease of obtaining embryos. Authors report on the effect of genotype on embryo production and rederivation. In an effort to establish banks of cryopreserved embryos, they provide two databases for comparing banking efficiency: one that contains the embryo collection results from approximately 11,000 rat embryo donors (111 models) and another that contains the embryo collection results from 4,023 mouse embryo donors (57 induced mutant models). The genotype of donor females affected the efficiency of embryo collection in two ways. First, the proportion of females yielding embryos varied markedly among genotypes (rats: 16-100 %, mean =71 %; mice: 24-95 %, mean =65 %). Second, the mean number of embryos recovered from females yielding embryos varied considerably (rats: 4-10.6, mean =7.8; mice 5.3-32.2, mean =13.7). Genotype also affected the efficiency of rederivation of banked rat and mouse embryos models by embryo transfer. For rats, thawed embryos (n =684) from 33 genotypes were transferred into 66 recipient females (pregnancy rate, 78 %). The average rate of developing live newborns for individual rat genotypes was 30 % with a range of 10 to 58 %. For mice, thawed embryos (n =2,064) from 59 genotypes were transferred into 119 pseudopregnant females (pregnancy rate: 76 %). The average rate of development of individual mouse genotypes was 33 % with a range of 11 to 53 %. This analysis demonstrates that genotype is an important consideration when planning embryo banking programs.  (+info)

NK and T cells constitute two major, functionally distinct intestinal epithelial lymphocyte subsets in the chicken. (6/135)

Non-mammalian NK cells have not been characterized in detail; however, their analysis is essential for the understanding of the NK cell receptor phylogeny. As a first step towards defining chicken NK cells, several tissues were screened for the presence of NK cells, phenotypically defined as CD8(+) cells lacking T- or B-lineage specific markers. By this criteria, approximately 30% of CD8(+) intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL), but <1% of splenocytes or peripheral blood lymphocytes were defined as NK cells. These CD8(+)CD3(-) IEL were used for the generation of the 28-4 mAb, immunoprecipitating a 35-kDa glycoprotein with a 28-kDa protein core. The CD3 and 28-4 mAb were used to separate IEL into CD3(+) IEL T cells and 28-4(+) cells, both co-expressing the CD8 antigen. During ontogeny, 28-4(+) cells were abundant in the IEL and in the embryonic spleen, where two subsets could be distinguished according to their CD8 and c-kit expression. Most importantly, 28-4(+) IEL lysed NK-sensitive targets, whereas intestinal T cells did not have any spontaneous cytolytic activity. These results define two major, phenotypically and functionally distinct IEL subpopulations, and imply an important role of NK cells in the mucosal immune system.  (+info)

Construction of a BAC library derived from the inbred Hd-rR strain of the teleost fish, Oryzias latipes. (7/135)

A large insert genomic bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) library was constructed from the inbred Hd-rR strain of the medaka, Oryzias latipes. Approximately 92,000 clones were gridded on high-density replica filters. Insert analysis of randomly selected clones indicated a mean insert size of 210 kb and predicted a 24 times coverage of the medaka genome. The library was hybridized with a single locus DNA fragment, and the resulting positive clones were characterized and shown to be compatible with a 24-fold redundant library. This first large insert genomic library of the medaka should increase the speed of genomic analyses for this fish species.  (+info)

Porcine endogenous retrovirus transmission characteristics of an inbred herd of miniature swine. (8/135)

Here we report the identification of inbred miniature swine that failed to produce human-tropic replication-competent porcine endogenous retroviruses (HTRC PERVs), using in vitro coculture assays. When HTRC PERVs were isolated from transmitting animals, all were recombinant viruses, with the receptor-binding domain of PERV-A combining with PERV-C-related sequences.  (+info)

Sequencing and variation identification. Twenty-four animals representing twenty-two pig breeds were individually resequenced (Additional file 1: Figure S1 and Table S1). The average effective sequencing depth was 17.54× and genomic coverage was 94.74% (Additional file 1: Figure S2 and Table S2), resulting in a high-quality resequencing resource for pigs. To these data, we integrated publically-available genomic data from seven pigs of wild and commercial European and Chinese breeds (Additional file 1: Table S1). The combined dataset had 14.09 billion high-quality raw reads (1281.12 Gb raw bases, ,90% Q30 bases) (Additional file 1: Figure S3).. A strict quality-filter pipeline resulted in 19 685 697 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from 31 pigs (Additional file 1: Table S4). Of these SNPs, 13 430 360 (68.22%) were in intergenic regions, 1 223 834 (6.22%) were 5-Kb upstream or downstream of gene regions, and 5 031 503 (25.56%) were within gene regions. The last group contained 46 618 ...
French Dairy Giant Buys Siggis Skyr, Dairy Vietnam,Dairy cow,Silage,Fresh milk,Milking parlour,Milking machine,Grass,Irrigation,Fertigation,TMR feeds,Concentrate,Livestock feeds,Livestock housing,60 days post calving first on heat,Abortion,AI,Anti inflammatory,Anti pyretic,Antibiotic,Arthritis,Back on heat if not pregnant,Bloated,Blood parasite,Body score,Bran,Calf breeding pen,Calf, Calve,Calving,Hernia,Hobble,In Doubt,Insemination,Internal Bleeding,Intestine,Inventory,Lactation,Lactation peak,Low body score,Male Calf,Mastitis,Milk meter,Milk production yield,Milk recording,Milk tank,Milking Cow,Milking Palour,Molasses,Mucus,Mung bean,Navel Infection,No heat,Non-Pregnant cows,On heat,Ovary,Ovulation,Palm Kernel,Pea,Peanut Hulls,Polio-myelitis,Polygastric,Post calving,Pregnancy,Pregnancy check,Pregnancy Cow,Pregnant cows,Premix,Protein,Protein content,Protocol,Respiration,Rice bran,Ruminate,Rye Straw,Sand for stall,Semen,Silage,Soya bean,Spraying to control tick,stall,Teat cup liner,Teat dipping,Tick
Prenatal losses are a complex problem. Pregnancy requires orchestrated communication between the embryo and the uterus that includes secretions from the embryo to signal pregnancy recognition and secretion and remodelling from the uterine epithelium. Most of these losses are characterized by asynchronization between embryo and uterus. To better understand possible causes, an analysis was conducted of gene expression of a set of transcripts related to maternal recognition and establishment of rabbit pregnancy (uteroglobin, SCGB1A1; integrin 1, ITGA1; interferon-, IFNG; vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF) in oviduct and uterine tissue at 16, 72 or 144 h post-ovulation and insemination. In the oviduct tissue, a significant decrease in the level of SCGB1A1 mRNA expression was observed from 144 h post-ovulation. In the case of ITGA1, the transcript abundance was initially lower, but mRNA expression increased significantly at 72 and 144 h post-ovulation. For IFNG, a huge decrease was observed ...
1. HuZL, ParkCA, WuXL, ReecyJM (2013) Animal QTLdb: an improved database tool for livestock animal QTL/association data dissemination in the post-genome era. Nucleic Acids Research 41: D871-D879.. 2. RenJ, MaoH, ZhangZ, XiaoS, DingN, et al. (2011) A 6-bp deletion in the TYRP1 gene causes the brown colouration phenotype in Chinese indigenous pigs. Heredity (Edinb) 106: 862-868.. 3. RubinCJ, ZodyMC, ErikssonJ, MeadowsJR, SherwoodE, et al. (2010) Whole-genome resequencing reveals loci under selection during chicken domestication. Nature 464: 587-591.. 4. RubinCJ, MegensHJ, Martinez BarrioA, MaqboolK, SayyabS, et al. (2012) Strong signatures of selection in the domestic pig genome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109: 19529-19536.. 5. AnderssonL, GeorgesM (2004) Domestic-animal genomics: deciphering the genetics of complex traits. Nat Rev Genet 5: 202-212.. 6. GeorgesM (2007) Mapping, fine Mapping, and molecular dissection of quantitative trait loci in domestic animals. Annu Rev Genomics Hum Genet 8: ...
An outbreak of swine pox on a pig farm in Ibadan, Nigeria is reported. Diagnosis was based on clinical and pathological signs and the observation of poxvirus particles in a serum sample. Neonatal deaths were common in the outbreak. Indigenous pigs did not show any sign of the disease even though mixed breeds were kept in the same pens. It is suggested that indigenous pigs were probably carriers of the swine pox virus.. ...
Cation channels of sperm (CatSper) are sperm-specific calcium channels with identified roles in the regulation of sperm function in humans, mice, and horses. We sought to employ a comparative genomics approach to identify conserved CATSPER genes in the bovine genome, and profile their expression in reproductive tissue. We hypothesized that CATSPER proteins expressed in bull testicular tissue mediates sperm hyperactivation and their rheotactic response in the reproductive tract of the cow. Bioinformatic analysis identified all four known CATSPER genes (CATSPER 1-4) in the bovine genome, and profiling by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction identified site-specific variation in messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) expression for all four genes along the reproductive tract of the bull ...
You can definitely culture/treat/breed on the same cycle. It does depend upon the turn-around time of the culture (if the cytology is positive), but in our practice we do our own cultures and antibiotic sensitivities. If the cytology is negative (which should NOT be a send out test, you should have results within a few minutes) then away you go with breeding. Remember that you can breed a mare that has an infection and still treat her AFTER breeding. In fact, you can treat up to 3 days post-ovulation and usually that is enough time to clear the infection. We most commonly treat and breed on the same cycle and the pregnancy rate is excellent (as long as there isnt something else going on ...
Dairy cattle breeds have been subjected over the last fifty years to intense artificial selection towards improvement of milk production traits. In this study, we performed a whole genome scan for differentiation using 42,486 SNPs in the three major French dairy cattle breeds (Holstein, Normande and Montbéliarde) to identify the main physiological pathways and regions which were affected by this selection. After analyzing the population structure, we estimated FST within and across the three breeds for each SNP under a pure drift model. We further considered two different strategies to evaluate the effect of selection at the genome level. First, smoothing FST values over each chromosome with a local variable bandwidth kernel estimator allowed identifying 13 highly significant regions subjected to strong and/or recent positive selection. Some of them contained genes within which causal variants with strong effect on milk production traits (GHR) or coloration (MC1R) have already been reported. To ...
Busch, B., 1969: Studies on serum transferrin types of German Black Pied cattle (DDR). 3. Relationships between serum transferrin types and milk performance traits
Cloperastine hydrochloride 14984-68-0 safety info, Cloperastine hydrochloride chemical safety search, Chemical Cloperastine hydrochloride safety technical specifications ect.
Human genetic variation is expected to play a central role in personalized medicine. Yet only a fraction of the natural genetic variation that is harbored by humans has been discovered to date. Here we report almost 2 million small insertions and deletions (INDELs) that range from 1 bp to 10,000 bp …
We can see from these ideas that our individual constitution and its tendencies must be considered in the evolution our Yoga practice.. A group of students could present a myriad of combinations when considered from an Āyurveda viewpoint. Therefore in proposing a practice we must consider the person as the primary focus rather than the technique or posture.. It is difficult to say that a particular practice suits all conditions or individuals. We can see that for some people a particular practice may aggravate a particular principle and therefore add to an already existing imbalance. Or the same practice at certain times may disturb rather than support.. For example for some female students I have proposed four different practices according to the phases of the monthly menstrual cycle. We have the pre-ovulation, the post-ovulation, the pre-menstrual and the menstrual aspects of the monthly rhythm each with their own characteristics and impact on the way that we experience our inner and outer ...
Embattled French dairy group Lactalis is to extend the recall of products from its Craon factory in north-west France that is implicated in a salmonella outbreak that has engulfed the worlds number three dairy group and a number of the countrys retailers. related to Baby food, Health & wellness, Lactalis,
Dr. Stéphane Vidry is Senior Scientific Project Manager with ILSI Europe. Having joined ILSI Europe in 2006, he is in charge of the coordination of ILSI Europe scientific Portfolio and was the coordinator of the European Commission-funded project "BRAFO" (Benefit Risk Assessment for Foods). He has a wide experience in project management especially in the field of risk-benefit assessment of foods and in the field of nutrition and health. Prior to joining ILSI Europe, Dr Vidry worked for 3 years for a French dairy company, focusing on dairy active peptides before joining as scientific project manager the European Commissions Joint Research Centre (Seville, Spain). Dr Vidry obtained a PhD in food sciences (specialty in nutrition) at the University of Sciences of Montpellier, France.. ...
A French dairy producer has admitted that the company may have been producing contaminated infant milk powder for well over a decade.
A basic chocolate flavour flan type dessert. A french dairy flan is a custard like product, different to English flan which is like a sponge ...
JOHANNESBURG (Reuters) - Aspen Pharmacare |APNJ.J| is selling its global infant formula business to French dairy group Lactalis for 12.9 billion rand ($864.5 million), the
Groupe Danone, the French dairy and water giant, has said that it expects to achieve above-market growth in all of its business sectors next year, despite worsening economic conditions. related to Water, Danone, Groupe Danone, Evian,
We have previously identified 11 promising candidate genes for milk composition traits by resequencing the whole genomes of 8 Holstein bulls with extremely high and low estimated breeding values for milk protein and fat percentages (high and low groups), including FCGR2B, CENPE, RETSAT, ACSBG2, NFKB2, TBC1D1, NLK, MAP3K1, SLC30A2, ANGPT1 and UGDH those contained 25 indels between high and low groups. In this study, the purpose was to further examine whether these candidates have significant genetic effects on milk protein and fat traits. With PCR product sequencing, 13 indels identified by whole genome resequencing were successfully genotyped. With association analysis in 769 Chinese Holstein cows, we found that the indel in FCGR2B was significantly associated with milk yield, protein yield and protein percentage (P = 0.0041 to 0.0297); five indels in CENPE and one indel in MAP3K1 were markedly relevant to milk yield, fat yield and protein yield (P | 0.0001 to 0.0073); polymorphism in RETSAT was
ABSTRACT. Twelve pony mares were randomly assigned to either a control or a treatment group and inseminated with fresh, raw semen from a single stallion of known fertility in a cross-over trial design. Pregnancy was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound 12-14 days post-ovulation and then terminated by administration of a luteolytic dose of cloprostenol. Treatment mares received a uterine instillation of 100 ml of electrochemically activated (ECA) saline 4-12 hours post-insemination. Control mares received no treatment post-insemination. Per cycle pregnancy rate was 58.3 % in the control group and 50 % in the treatment group. There was no statistical difference (P = 1.000) in pregnancy rate between the 2 groups. The principles of ECA and applications of ECA saline are discussed.. Key words: electrochemical, endometritis, fresh semen, mare, saline. ...
If they were of childbearing potential must have: had a negative pregnancy test with a sensitivity of at least 25 mIU/mL within 10 to 14 days and again within 24 hours prior to starting Cycle 1 of lenalidomide; either agreed to practice true abstinence, when this was in line with the preferred and usual lifestyle of the participant. (Periodic abstinence [eg, calendar, ovulation, symptothermal, post-ovulation methods] and withdrawal were not acceptable methods of contraception.) OR begun 2 reliable methods of birth control (1 highly effective method and 1 additional effective method) at the same time, at least 28 days before starting study treatment through 90 days after the last dose of study treatment; and agreed to ongoing pregnancy testing AND must have also adhered to the guidelines of the RevAssist program (US participants), RevAid program (Canadian participants), iAccess program (Australian participants), RevMate program (Japanese participants) or The Lenalidomide Pregnancy Risk ...
Murcielago is one of our genomics Holstein bulls with registration number IT019991821891 and pedigree PACKARD x JEDI x COMMANDER.
Phenotypes within species are not fixed and instead have significant levels of natural genetic variation that distinguishes individuals. This includes traits ranging from development and metabolism to pathogen resistance, with selection often maintaining the underlying genetic variation (Hopper, 1999; Veening et al., 2008). Understanding the molecular and genetic basis of complex quantitative traits is an important goal in genetics with wide-ranging ramifications across the scientific community. Unfortunately, this effort is complicated by the fact that most phenotypic variation is quantitative and polygenic with at least binary interactions with the environment, development, and second site genetic variation. This variation is further complicated by higher-order interaction among these factors (Falconer and Mackay, 1996; Lynch and Walsh, 1998; Wentzell and Kliebenstein, 2008). Thus, there is a desire to begin identifying the molecular systems controlling these interactions, likely requiring ...
The asymmetric dominance effect (ADE) occurs when the introduction of a partially dominated decoy option increases the choice share of its dominating alter
BioAssay record AID 476833 submitted by ChEMBL: Toxicity in FVB mouse assessed as effect on hematocrit at 50 mg/kg, po administered 5 times per week for 2 weeks measured during test.
QIU-LING, Li et al. Association of polymorphism of the alpha 1-antitrypsin gene with milk production traits in Chinese Holstein. S. Afr. j. anim. sci. [online]. 2010, vol.40, n.2. ISSN 2221-4062.. Protein degradation in bovine milk affects the quality of dairy products. Alpha 1-antitrypsin (AAT) can protect vulnerable elastic tissues from degradation by neutrophil elastase. The aim of this study was to assess the association of polymorphisms in bovine AAT gene with milk yield and milk composition in Chinese Holstein. Traits analyzed were fat percentage, protein percentage, 305-day milk yield and somatic cell score (SCS). Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP), created restriction site-polymerase chain reaction (CRS-PCR) and allele specific-polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR) methods were used to genotype five loci in coding regions of the sequence, including position 5504, 5609, 5624, 5747 and 8178 in Chinese Holstein. The five mutations were all silent ...
This study investigated the relationships among parities and variance components in each parity for female fertility traits in Chinese Holsteins. In addition, the present study estimated genetic and phenotypic correlations between heifer traits and between cow traits. The results obtained from the present study will be useful for genetic evaluations in dairy cattle breeding programs, particularly for developing a routine genetic evaluation system for female fertility traits in Chinese Holstein population.. The average performances of fertility traits in the present study were similar to those of other populations in general [6, 12, 22]. It was also observed that all the fertility performances of heifers were better than those of cows, consistent with previous studies [23]. The differences in the reproductive physiology between maiden heifers and cows could be caused by first calving and the negative energy balance resulting from high milk yield [13]. In addition, the larger amount of censored ...
We aimed to identify QTL for serum electrolyte traits by performing a GWAS of calcium, chloride, sodium, potassium and magnesium ion concentrations in Chinese Holstein cattle. We detected five SNPs that had significant associations with calcium ion concentrations and identified GATA2 from Bos taurus chromosome (BTA)22 as having the highest significance. Among the genes with significant results, we speculate that TMEM123 might be related to calcium channel proteins according to the functions of the TMEM family. ...
This is my first bunny! Shes been with me for a little more then 2 months now Today I noticed that my bun smelled pretty bad so I checked her scent glands and noticed some crustation around the area. I cleaned it with warm water and notice that o...
The Genetics Society of America (GSA), founded in 1931, is the professional membership organization for scientific researchers and educators in the field of genetics. Our members work to advance knowledge in the basic mechanisms of inheritance, from the molecular to the population level.. Online ISSN: 2160-1836. ...
About Ausline Cattle the Breed, Ausline Cattle Association incorporates the Redline Cattle Association | goals of a realistic, viable, small, not miniature, breed of cattle
In this study, we provide a strong evidence for the significant associations of UGDH, with 2 milk production traits in a Chinese Holstein cattle population. Moreover, we demonstrated that the SNPs Ex1-1 and Ex11-1 in exonic regions of UGDH are two functional polymorphisms in which A allele of SNP Ex1-1 and T allele of SNP Ex11-1 cause lower expression level of UGDH compared with the G and C allele respectively. Together, our findings not only confirmed our early finding that a QTL located in the 1.5-Mb region between BMS483 and MNB-209 for milk yield and protein yield[14], but also strongly suggest that the SNPs Ex1-1 and Ex11-1 in UGDH might be QTN responsible for this QTL.. Previously, we mapped a QTL near BMS470 with effects on milk production traits with daughter design using 14 microsatellites on bovine chromosome 6 in a Chinese Holstein population involving 26 paternal half-sib families with 2356 daughters[8, 9]. By increasing the marker density with 17 microsatellite markers spanning from ...
Three levels of dietary crude protein (8.6, 11.4, and 17.2) were fed to 24 pony mares to determine the effects on the estrous cycle, conception rate, and serum progesterone concentrations. Mares were allotted into three treatment groups designated as low protein (LP), medium protein (MP), and high protein (HP). Following estrous synchronization with progesterone and prostaglandin F₂∞, dietary protein at the levels investigated, did not affect (P ,.05) estrous synchronization, length of estrus, the number of days to ovulation, or the number of inseminations per conception. Conception rate following two cycles tended (P, .05) to be higher in the MP (87%) group than the LP (50%) or HP {57%) fed groups. Serum progesterone concentrations were affected (P ,.05) by diet with levels of 6.5±.8, 7.9±.8, and 10.3±.8 ng/ml progesterone (least squares means±SE) in the LP, MP, and HP fed groups respectively. Serum progesterone on days 4, 8, 12, and 16 post-ovulation tended (P =.12) to be higher in ...
Background: A molecular process based genotype-to-phenotype map will ultimately enable us to predict how genetic variation among individuals results in phenotypic alterations. Building such a map is, however, far from straightforward. It requires understanding how molecular variation reshapes developmental and metabolic networks, and how the functional state of these networks modifies phenotypes in genotype specific way. We focus on the latter problem by describing genetic variation in transcript levels of genes in the InR/TOR pathway among 72 Drosophila melanogaster genotypes. Results: We observe tight co-variance in transcript levels of genes not known to influence each other through direct transcriptional control. We summarize transcriptome variation with factor analyses, and observe strong co-variance of gene expression within the dFOXO-branch and within the TOR-branch of the pathway. Finally, we investigate whether major axes of transcriptome variation shape phenotypes expected to be influenced
Need conveniently organized info about Sheep Breeds ? Discover Best of the Webs top-rated listings. From the corporate boardroom and Wall Street to the commercial enterprises of retailing, banking services and other means of production, youll find comprehensive websites from every economic discipline.
Milk performance (protein and fat content) and milk fatty acids (FA) profile of dairy cows under supplementation with two sources of concentrate, oilseeds (C, cottonseed) at two levels, low (5kg DM/cow/day) and high (7 kg DM/cow/day), and cereal grains (B, barley) at high rate (7 kg DM/cow/day), were studied in three herds (n=36) of spring calving Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (200 days in milk). Animals were randomly assigned to one of three indoors (n=12) silage feeding regimes (C5, C7 and B7), using a TMR (total mixed ration) basal diet, containing 70-80% silage (grass: maize, 36: 64) and 30-20% concentrate. Daily milk yield (MY) was higher (P|0.001) at high level of supplementation (B7, 18.1andC7, 17.9 kg/cow/day, respectively) compared to low level (C5, 15.7 kg/cow/day), and dairy cows at the highest level of concentrate showed the highest (P|0.05) body weight (B7, 605 and C7, 598, respectively). Milk protein content was lower (P|0.05) in the high level of cottonseed (C7, 30.7 g/kg DM) than in the
Abstract:Analysis by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry of the scent gland secretions of male and female Middle American burrowing pythons (Loxocemus bicolor) revealed the presence of over 300 components including cholesterol, fatty acids, glyceryl monoalkyl ethers, and alcohols. The fatty acids, over 100 of which were identified, constitute most of the compounds in the secretions and show the greatest structural diversity. They include saturated and unsaturated, unbranched and mono-, di-, and trimethyl-branched compounds ranging in carbon-chain length from 13 to 24. The glyceryl monoethers possess saturated or unsaturated, straight or methyl-branched alkyl chains ranging in carbon-chain length from 13 to 24. Alcohols, which have not previously been reported from the scent glands, possess straight, chiefly saturated carbon chains ranging in length from 13 to 24. Sex or individual differences in secretion composition were not observed. Compounds in the scent gland secretions of L. bicolor may deter
Peoc' h, R., 1984: Contribution to the study of the determinism of fanning for ventilation, and with scent gland exposed, in honeybees
The Buša cattle (or also Busha; Bos brachyeros europeus) is a small native breed of cattle with numerous strains found throughout southern parts of former Yugoslavia (Dinaric Alps). It belongs to the group of the shorthorn cattle. The animals are unicoloured brown. They are small: the height at the withers is 100-110 cm. Cows weigh 180-250 kg, and bulls weigh c. 300 kg. Buša heifers are backward; they become sexually mature only with two years. The calves are very small: their birth weight is about 15 kg. The breeds fertility is between 85 and 90%. Females stay fertile until an age of twelve years. The life span of the animal is about twenty years. Bušas are used as draft animals, and for beef and milk production. Although their work capacity is modest, the animals are disease-resistant, well-adapted to harsh climate, and require little food. The milk performance is 700-800 l per annum. The milk contains about 4-6% milk fat. Bušas and their cross breeds are widespread over the former ...
Quadricuspid pulmonary valve with likely associated prominance of the main pulmonary artery. MPA prominence may be due to component of pulmonic stenosis and re
Rowan Purelife British Sheep Breeds Boucle Yarn - 223 - Detailed Description. Rowan Purelife British Sheep Breeds Boucle Yarn - 223 is available now at Jimmy Beans Wool with Free U.S. Flat Rate shipping for orders over $75, $4 U.S. Flat Rate shipping on all other orders!
Scientists have identified and created a map of more than 400,000 insertions and deletions (INDELs) in the human genome that signal a little-explored type of genetic difference among individuals. INDELS are an alternative form of natural genetic variation that differs from the much-studied single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Both types of variation are likely to have a major impact on human health and susceptibility to disease.
Dolan sheep are a very rare breed that apparently sells for up to $2 million in China. Buyers are sheep breeding millionaires who want the Dolan for a pet
Cats rub against people not only to be affectionate but also to mark out its territory with scent glands around its face. The tail area and paws also carry the cats scent :) ...
Whitetail bucks have seven different scent glands that could be important to you as a hunter. Do you know where they are and what they do?
Micropigs, genetically modified miniature swine that started out as lab-experiment creations, are now being sold as desirable animal accessories in China. |a href=http://www.gizmodo.co.uk/2015/10/mutated-micropigs-will-soon-be-sold-as-pets/|Read more |||/a|
Abstract: Decreased conception rate of dairy cows in the summer is mainly associated with the deleterious effects of environmental thermal stress on the female reproductive tract. Here, we suggest that decreased reproductive performance might be partially due to inferior-quality semen. Semen from five representative bulls was collected in summer (August to September) and winter (December to January) and evaluated with a computerized sperm-quality analyzer for bulls (SQA-Vb). No seasonal effect was found in fresh ejaculate, but sperm examined post-thawing showed lower velocity, motility and progressive motility (P,0.04) in summer vs. winter samples. Element concentrations in the seminal plasma, determined by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, differed between seasons, with higher (P,0.01) concentration values of K, Mg, Na and S elements in winter vs. summer samples. Therefore, season-induced alterations in seminal plasma element concentration should be taken into account ...
Epilac Lowfat Yogurt Powder 48 features in Epi Ingredients SoFlexi powdered mix, which is aimed at the food-to-go market.. The powder can be used in a wide variety of foods, such as ice cream, frozen yogurt, and fillings and icings for bakery products, Epi said.. Same bacteria as in yogurt​. It contains the same live bacteria (Streptococcus thermophilus​ and Lactobacillus bulgaricus​) as the ones found in yogurt, which are claimed to help balance the gut flora and strengthen the immune system.. Epi said that regardless of the chosen application, Epilac Lowfat Yogurt Powder 48 brings "natural acidity"​ and a "pleasant yogurt flavour as well as a smooth creamy texture"​ to the end product.. SoFlexi is the first product in Epis SoUnik range, designed to showcase its ingredients offer.. Epi is the dry ingredients division of French dairy co-operative Laïta.. Please click ​here​​ to sign-up for our free monthly Food Ingredients, Health & Nutrition (FIHN) newsletter. ...
Characteristic findings are:. Retrusion of forehead and supraorbital rim on affected side. Orbit on affected side is higher positioned than the other orbit. Height of the palpebral fissure is larger of the affect eye. Deviated nose. The ear on the affected side has a lower position compared to contralateral ...
First, a number of transcripts had distinct transcriptional activity between the two lines of mice at all time points. For example, FVB mice had consistently four- to eight-fold higher expression of the adenosine A2B receptor gene (Adora2b).. Second, a group of genes, although consistently overexpressed in FVB mice compared to SW mice, also exhibited different expression as a function of time during infection. The Sorting nexin gene (Snx6; overexpressed in FVB mice by 16- to 31-fold compared with SW mice) had increased expression at 4 dpi by approximately 2-fold in both lines of mice. However, at 9 dpi, expression of Snx6 remained elevated in FVB mice, but returned to normal in SW mice. Another example was proton-dependent high affinity oligopeptide transporter Pept2 (Slc15a2), which was overexpressed in FVB mice by 15- to 51-fold. Slc15a2 was upregulated in infected SW mice by 2-fold at 4 dpi and downregulated by 4-fold at 9 dpi, whereas in infected FVB mice its expression decreased by 11-fold ...
Effects of Aspiculuris tetraptera and Syphacia obvelata on exploratory behaviour of an inbred mouse strain. Laboratory Animal ... Kilner, R. M., & Davies, N. B. (1999). How selfish is a cuckoo chick? Animal Behaviour 58:797-808. Sledge, M.F., Dani, F.R., ... Obligate parasitism is exhibited in a range of organisms, with examples in viruses, bacteria, fungi, plants, and animals. They ... Poulin, R. (1995) "Adaptive" changes in the behaviour of parasitized animals: A critical review. International Journal for ...
Several inbred strains of hamsters have been developed as animal models for human forms of dilated cardiomyopathy. The gene ... In 2014 in the United States, animal research used about 120,000 hamsters, which was 14.6% of the total research animal use ( ... of the total animal research participants in the United States covered by the Animal Welfare Act. Since 1972 the use of ... which is of interest in the study of animal behavior. Scientific studies of animal welfare concerning captive golden hamsters ...
... animals of a single inbred strain; isograft or syngraft). Allogeneic: The donor and recipient are of the same species (human→ ... Two layers of skin created from animal sources has been found to be useful in venous leg ulcers. Autologous: The donor skin is ... When grafts are taken from other animals, they are known as heterografts or xenografts. By definition, they are temporary ...
He has written books cataloguing laboratory animals, including International Index of Laboratory Animals and Inbred Strains in ... He is one of 19 members of the UK's Animal Procedures Committee, which advises the Home Secretary on matters related to animal ... Nonetheless, Festing has been criticized by the animal rights movement for his investment in companies that engage in animal ... the use of animals in medical experiments in the UK. Festing is the author of over 200 scientific papers on laboratory animal ...
FVB is an albino, inbred mouse strain that is named after its susceptibility to Friend leukemia virus B. This strain was ... Some sudden deaths are observed in younger animals, but most die at 15 months or older. Two years is a common life expectancy ... A derivative strain called sighted FVB was developed from this strain via backcrossing. The full name of this strain is FVB. ... 1991). FVB/N: an inbred mouse strain preferable for transgenic analyses. Proceedings Of The National Academy Of Sciences, 88(6 ...
But overdominance implies that yields on an inbred strain should decrease as inbred strains are selected for the performance of ... Major histocompatibility complex in animals[edit]. One example of where particular genes may be important in vertebrate animals ... Inbreeding depression is the loss of fitness due to loss of genetic diversity. Inbred strains tend to be homozygous for ... It attributes the poor performance of inbred strains to loss of genetic diversity, with the strains becoming purely homozygous ...
Experiments on Recombinant Inbred strains (With D.W. Bailey) 1973 Associate professor of animal psychology, School of ... Has edited 6 books on animal behavior and behavioral genetics and is the author of many books on memory, brain and behavior. ... Studies on learning and memory in inbred mice (With D. Bovet and J.L. McGaugh). 1967-70 Research Pharmacologist, University of ...
Other factors that make the species a desirable test subject are the existence of inbred strains, ease of handling, and ... This is an upgrade over the previous animal models of other small rodents and rabbits. Cotton rats combine the best traits of ... The degree of infection may be increased by altering the co-receptors on the animal's cells, which would improve the ... Ahi, Alwynelle S. (1982). "Evidence of use of vibrissae in swimming in Sigmodon fulviventer". Animal Behaviour. 30: 1203-1206. ...
The availability of inbred and mutant mouse strains can be advantageous when examining the genetic basis of murine ... This worm is a widely studied parasite due to its simple life-cycle and its ability to be used in animal models. It has a life- ... Animal models of N. brasiliensis infections can lead to a better understanding of the basic biology of the immune response and ... Animal model of Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Heligmosmoides polygyrus. Current Protocols in Immunology Chapter 19. Lisa M. ...
Like the NOD mice, BB rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features of ... One in Worcester, Massachusetts, has been inbred and known as BBDP/Wor and another one in Ottawa, Canada, an outbred strain ... Biobreeding rat also known as the BB or BBDP rat is an inbred laboratory rat strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune Type ...
Digit ratio (2D:4D) and behavioral differences between inbred mouse strains. Genes, Brain & Behavior 4: 318-323. Hurd PL, ... Animal Behaviour 56: 749--753. Hurd, PL; Enquist, M. 2001. Threat display in birds. Canadian Journal of Zoology 79: 931-942. ... Animal Behaviour 70: 1155-1170. Hurd PL. 2006. Resource holding potential, subjective resource value, and game theoretical ... Many studies on both human, and non-human, animals suggest that inter-individual variation in adult aggressiveness is largely ...
BALB/c mice are distributed globally and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. BALB/c ... Laboratory rat Animal testing Animal testing on rodents Animal model Animal Identification Mouse models of colorectal and ... inbred mouse strain and initiated the systematic generation of inbred strains. The mouse has since been used extensively as a ... There are hundreds of established inbred, outbred, and transgenic strains. A strain, in reference to rodents, is a group in ...
Inbred strains are also available but are not as commonly used as inbred mice Much of the genome of Rattus norvegicus has been ... Like NOD mice, Biobreeding rats are used as an animal model for Type 1 diabetes. The strain re-capitulates many of the features ... Biobreeding diabetes-prone rat (a.k.a. biobreeding rat or BBDP rat) is an inbred strain that spontaneously develops autoimmune ... Krinke, George J. (June 15, 2000). "History, Strains and Models". The Laboratory Rat (Handbook of Experimental Animals). ...
... and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. The founding animals of the strain were ... Animal model Animal testing on rodents C57BL/6 Jackson Laboratory's mouse strains Taconic Bioscience's BALB/c model "BALB/c". ... According to Michael Festing's Inbred Strains of Mice, BALB/c substrains are "particularly well known for the production of ... Inbred Strains of Mice. Jackson Laboratory. Retrieved 2007-04-16. Potter M. History of the BALB/c family, pp 1-5. In: The BALB/ ...
Familiar albino animals include in-bred strains of laboratory animals (rats, mice, guinea-pigs and rabbits), but populations of ... Examples of pet mammals artificially selected for albinism Intentionally bred albinistic strains of some animal species are ... Animals that show iridescence include mother of pearl seashells, fish, and peacocks. These are just a few examples of animals ... Furthermore, albino animals may be excluded from families or other groups, or rejected as mates. The novelty of albino animals ...
... a fully inbred strain of rats, with 100% of animals displaying the EEG and behavioral characteristics of absence seizures, ... The development of two inbred strains from the same initial colony has appeared as a very powerful tool to study the possible ... a strain of non epileptic control animals selected from the same initial breeding colony of Wistar rats and called the NEC. ... These seizures were recorded on both sides of the brain, lasted about 20 sec and occurred when the animals were quiet. ...
NCLAS also came into the limelight due to the WNIN/Ob obese rat strain which is the heaviest inbred rat model available. It has ... The National Centre for Laboratory Animal Science (to be integrated into the National Animal Resource Facility for Biomedical ... Developed obese and diabetic mutant rat models: WNIN/GR-Ob, WNIN/Ob, WNIN/Ob-IGT, to serve as pre-clinical animal models in ... Genome Valley National Animal Resource Facility for Biomedical Research Central Drugs Standard Control Organization " ...
... human genetic data might suggest that the effect may be indirect Uteroglobin knockout mice on the inbred 129 strain appear to ... Putative functions are: Immunomodulation Progesterone binding: weak in some animals, especially weak in humans. (Note: UGB is ... The uteroglobulin knockout mice on the inbred C57Bl6 strain develop Goodpasture's syndrome like glomerulopathy due to ... However contrary to the animal model claims, ...
... animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.040.500 --- mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520 --- animals, inbred strains MeSH B01.050. ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.157.520.300 --- mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.157.520.318 --- mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050.157.520. ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.157.760.080 --- rats, inbred aci MeSH B01.050.157.760.090 --- rats, inbred bb MeSH B01.050.157.760. ... inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.300 --- mice, inbred a MeSH B01.050.199.520.520.318 --- mice, inbred akr MeSH B01.050. ...
Its main activity is the reproduction and maintenance of mice stocks either of inbred strains or genetically engineered mice, ... Fleming's Animal house (certified with ISO 9001) provides husbandry of animals and services to the biomedical research ... The Animal House has a capacity to house more than 20,000 mice and is currently the largest Mouse Unit in Greece in terms of ... Fleming operates its own Animal House, which can house up to 20,000 mice and has its own complete mouse histopathology unit. ...
West, D. B.; Boozer, C. N.; Moody, D. L.; Atkinson, R. L. (1992-06-01). "Dietary obesity in nine inbred mouse strains". The ... The diet-induced obesity model (DIO model) is an animal model used to study obesity using animals that have obesity caused by ... Furthermore, the strain and sex of the rodent impacts the response to the model. Some common mouse strains show large ... This has led to cases of studies that used the same strain of mice concluding that the strain is prone to becoming obese in one ...
By 1937, only 13 stallions had been used, and the Estonian horse was becoming inbred due to the scarcity of strains. This led ... With a few animals left on the mainland, the breed was eventually revived with the help of a new breeding program, and the ... In 2005, 25 animals of the breed were imported to Sweden to recreate the genetically closely related, extinct Öland Horse. The ... and many Estonian Horses were crossbred with heavier draft horses to create stronger animals. The first documents concerning ...
... heterozygous animals should be used to breed with the original inbred strain. Full-sib mating are used to maintain coisogenic ... Coisogenic strains may also occur through a spontaneous mutation that occurs in an inbred strain. To create a coisogenic strain ... Coisogenic strains are one type of inbred strain that differs by a mutation at a single locus and all of the other loci are ... There are numerous ways to create an inbred strain and each of these strains are unique. Genetically engineered mice can be ...
Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... use Backcrossing Linebreeding Recombinant inbred strain Coisogenic strain Congenic strain Inbreeding depression Inbreeding ... Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ...
The medaka supplied by NIBB include standard strains, wild stocks, inbred strains, related species and spontaneous and induced ... experimental animals and plants, cells, DNA, and other genetic resources) widely used as tools in life science research. To The ...
... animal teeth, and claws. The women often wore headbands of dyed deer hair or wampum. They painted their skin skirts or ... The practice effectively prevented inbreeding, even among individuals whose kinship was obscure or unknown. This means that a ... and western militia were frequently strained. The tensions were worsened by the American government's policy of recruiting some ... beating thigh bones on their palms to drive animals to the river, where they could be killed easily. Other methods of hunting ...
Disease-Models-Animal, Female, Granulosa-Cell-Tumor: ge, pa, Human, Mice, Mice-Inbred-Strains, Ovarian-Neoplasms: ge, pa ...
Animals.. Male mice of parental (SM/J, A/J) strains, (SM/J × A/J)F1 mice, and 19 SMXA RI strains were obtained from The ... Recombinant inbred (RI) strains are derived by inbreeding different sets of F2 progeny from a cross between two inbred strains ... Festing MF: Origins and characteristics of inbred strains of mice. In Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse. ... Belknap JK: Effect of within-strain sample size on QTL detection and mapping using recombinant inbred mouse strains. Behav ...
Animals * Autistic Disorder / physiopathology * Autistic Disorder / psychology* * Disease Models, Animal * Exploratory Behavior ... Five inbred strains of mice were tested, C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, FVB/NJ, A/J and B6129PF2/J hybrids. Four strains showed significant ... Sociability and preference for social novelty in five inbred strains: an approach to assess autistic-like behavior in mice ... The exception was A/J, a strain that demonstrated a preference for the central chamber. Results are discussed in terms of ...
N = 16-18 animals per sex/strain. The lowest density is given a value of 1.0 and all other densities are relative to that. Mean ... Effects of housing density in five inbred strains of mice.. Morgan JL1, Svenson KL1, Lake JP1, Zhang W1, Stearns TM1, Marion MA ... N = 16-18 animals per sex/strain. The lowest density is given a value of 1.0 and all other densities are relative to that. Mean ... N = 16-18 animals per sex/strain. The lowest density is given a value of 1.0 and all other densities are relative to that. Mean ...
T2 - Genetic variation in theophylline-inducible colonic chloride currents among inbred strains of mice ... Genetic variation in theophylline-inducible colonic chloride currents among inbred strains of mice. ... from various inbred strains of mice. We found lower theophylline-induced Cl- secretion in the DBA 2J than in the C57BL 6J ... from various inbred strains of mice. We found lower theophylline-induced Cl- secretion in the DBA 2J than in the C57BL 6J ...
Several strains and substrains mirrored the high and low responses of B6 and A/J. Assessment of 26 AXB/BXA recombinant inbred ( ... Assessment of 26 AXB/BXA recombinant inbred (RI) mouse strains identified 23 strains with a low (A/J-like), high (B6-like), or ... Mapping lipopolysaccharide response loci in mice using recombinant inbred and congenic strains Genomics. 1999 Nov 15;62(1):34- ... Several strains and substrains mirrored the high and low responses of B6 and A/J. ...
This diallel had no inbred animals. Posterior distributions for parameters relating to inbreeding (collected in the rightmost ... "inbreed.overall"; B) and strain-specific effects of additive genetics ("additive"; a), inbreeding ("inbreed"; b), and parent-of ... implies that the inbred penalty is constant across strains. Modeling heterosis, either as an inbred or a dominance effect, ... If we considered mother strain j and father strain k to be independent draws from a pool of J strains, and gender of the ...
Chemical clues to the earliest animal fossils. *. Working Life. Afraid to fail? Reach out ... Hemoglobin Solubility and α-Chain Structure in Crosses between Two Inbred Mouse Strains ... Hemoglobin Solubility and α-Chain Structure in Crosses between Two Inbred Mouse Strains ... Hemoglobin Solubility and α-Chain Structure in Crosses between Two Inbred Mouse Strains ...
All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation. ... Inbred Strains" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Mice, Inbred Strains" was a major or minor topic ... "Mice, Inbred Strains" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Mice, Inbred Strains" by people in Profiles. ...
After anesthesia with ketamine/xylazine, a suspension of 2 × 103 focus forming units of the mouse-adapted IAV strain A/Puerto ... Hematological parameters have not received much attention in small animal models of infection, particularly at very early time ... Interestingly, it appears that even in the C57BL/6J strain, using approx. 10-12 animals per time point might suffice to study ... This is consistent with previous knowledge that hematological parameters may differ among inbred mouse strains [12] and lends ...
Siegmund, A. & Wotjak, C.T. (2006) Toward an animal model of posttraumatic stress disorder. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1071, 324-334.. ... Strain differences in behavioral inhibition in a Go/No-go task demonstrated using 15 inbred mouse strains. Alcohol Clin Exp Res ... Schimanski, L.A., Ali, D.W., Baker, G.B. & Nguyen, P.V. (2007) Impaired hippocampal LTP in inbred mouse strains can be rescued ... Milner, L.C. & Crabbe, J.C. (2008) Three murine anxiety models: results from multiple inbred strain comparisons. Genes Brain ...
... laboratory animal veterinarians, students, and others interested in these species. The standard reference on the pathogenesis ... Common Inbred Strains, 3. Genomic Considerations for the Pathologist, 4. Anatomic Features, 5 ... He has over 20 years of experience in laboratory animal pathology.. Dean H. Percy, DVM, MSc, PhD, Dipl. ACVP, is Professor ... He has over 40 years of experience in laboratory animal pathology.. Stephen M. Griffey, DVM, PhD, is Clinical Professor of ...
Inbred strains (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... Such strains are useful in the analysis of variance within an inbred strain or between inbred strains because any differences ... use Backcrossing Linebreeding Recombinant inbred strain Coisogenic strain Congenic strain Inbreeding depression Inbreeding ... Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ...
Inbred strains Is the Subject Area "Inbred strains" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Animal signaling and communication Is the Subject Area "Animal signaling and communication" applicable to this article? Yes. No ... Domestic animals Is the Subject Area "Domestic animals" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ... Animal behavior Is the Subject Area "Animal behavior" applicable to this article? Yes. No. ...
In the past 15 yr, different kinds of MPP have been established in plants and animals, such as nested association mapping ... Joint Analysis of Strain and Parent-of-Origin Effects for Recombinant Inbred Intercrosses Generated from Multiparent ... Joint Analysis of Strain and Parent-of-Origin Effects for Recombinant Inbred Intercrosses Generated from Multiparent ... Joint Analysis of Strain and Parent-of-Origin Effects for Recombinant Inbred Intercrosses Generated from Multiparent ...
Traditionally, recombinant inbred (RI) strains are formed by crossing animals of two inbred strains, followed by 20 or more ... 4. Strains Made from Multiple Inbred Strains. 4.1 Recombinant Inbred Strains. 4.2 Collaborative Cross Strains. 4.3 Mixed Inbred ... 4.3 Mixed Inbred Strains. Incipient inbred stocks or inbred strains that are derived from up to three parental strains (one of ... 3. Inbred Strains and Hybrids. 3.1 Definition 3.2 Nomenclature of Inbred Strains. 3.3 Indication of Inbreeding 3.4 Substrains. ...
Inbred Strains of Mice: SWV. SWV Inbr (Bc) 73. Albino: A,c, plus unknown dilution gene. Origin: Outbred animals from Defense ... INBRED STRAINS OF MICE. Updated 9 Apr. 1998. Michael FW Festing. MRC Toxicology Unit, Hodgkin Building,. University of ... Animal Depot, Univ. Brit. Columbia. Inbreeding started in 1959. Develops nephrogenic diabetes insipidus with a progressive and ... Hackman R. M. and Hurley L. S. (1983) Interaction of dietary zinc, genetic strain, and acetazolamide in teratogenesis in mice. ...
Animals. Seven-week-old male inbred mice were received from the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME, USA) (A/J, C3H/HeJ, C57BL/ ... because the genealogy and DNA-level variation across different strains are well known. We investigated whether inbred strains ... Relationships of inbred mouse strains. (a) A phylogenetic tree based on the fraction of allelic differences across 12,473 loci ... Atchley WR, Fitch W: Genetic affinities of inbred mouse strains of uncertain origin. Mol Biol Evol. 1993, 10: 1150-1169.PubMed ...
An inbred strain of mice (e.g., BALB/C mice) or rabbits is immunized with the protein using a standard adjuvant, such as ... cancer-free animals. A control sample can also be obtained from normal tissue from the animal that has cancer or is suspected ... without removal from the animal. Typically, a "biological sample" will contain cells from the animal, but the term can also ... methods of enhancing the ability of an animals immune system to destroy cancer cells within the animal. Numerous such methods ...
Animal Models. *. Inbred and Recombinant Inbred Strains of MICE. *. Congenic Strains. *. Other Species ... ASBMR (2008) Chapter 9. Animal Models: Allelic Determinants for BMD, in Primer on the Metabolic Bone Diseases and Disorders of ...
... the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has b... ... Genetic Monitoring of Inbred Strains of Rats. New York: Gustav ... Animal Environment, Housing, and Management: A respected resource for decades, ... Rules for the nomenclature of inbred strains. Pp.368-372 in Genetic Variants and Strains of the Laboratory Mouse, M. C. Green. ... Noise produced by animals and animal care activities is inherent in the operation of an animal facility (Pfaff and Stecker 1976 ...
Mice repository offers the greatest variety of inbred, hybrid and mutant mice in the industry, a high percentage of which are ... Active strain donation program imports hundreds of new strains annually. Unsurpassed animal health. All JAX® Mice colonies are ... The Jackson Laboratory offers the greatest variety of inbred, hybrid and mutant mice in the industry. ... Moreover, among our selected 50 most popular strains, 38 (~ 75%) are available from opportunistic pathogen-free rooms. No other ...
Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison. View ORCID ProfileCorey T ... Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison ... Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison ... Germline murine immunoglobulin IGHV genes in wild-derived and classical inbred strains: a comparison ...
animals (inbred strains of , mice). Selecting one sex was simply one more method for removing , confounding variables, and male ...
Learn how the set of hypertensive and hypotensive strains was created and their main characteristics. ... Animal Behavior 20:10-12.. Militzer, K. And E. Wecker. 1986. Behavior associated alopecia areata in mice. Laboratory Animals 20 ... Hypertensive and hypotensive inbred strains. By G. Schlager, Professor, Genetics Program, University of Kansas and Carol C. ... Laboratory Animals 15:309-312.. Thornburg, L. P., H. D. Stowe and J. R. Pick. 1973. The pathogenesis of the alopecia due to ...
  • The genetic analysis of a multifactorial disease in experimental animals such as mice and rats is much more revealing than that of a similar disease in human subjects. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Doses were chosen that reduced blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in TG(m REN 2)27 rats to values comparable to those measured in control animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • Between 1992 and 2000, 21papers 1-21 were published that used rats from inbred colonies in Melbourne and Tokyo thatwere believed to be of the Donryu (DRY) strain. (ahajournals.org)
  • These rats were thought tohave been the same strain as DRY used by Dr Tanase in early breedingexperiments in relation to blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats(SHR). (ahajournals.org)
  • Recently, Dr Tanaseindicated that the animals supplied to Melbourne and Tokyo that had beenlabeled as DRY were instead likely to be F344 rats. (ahajournals.org)
  • Rodents are members of the order Rodentia, a large group of biologically similar animals that includes rats, mice, and beavers. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Two of these species, rats and mice, are the most commonly used animal models for aging research. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The range of animal models used in aging research is very wide and includes very small nematode worms ( Caenorhabditis elegans ), fruit flies (Drosophila melanogaster), rats, mice, dogs, monkeys, and chimpanzees. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Genetic crosses involving multiple inbred lines are hugely powerful for genetic experiments, but true inbred strains of mammals are rare outside of "model" rodents such as mice and rats. (g3journal.org)
  • Genetic (inbred) models of this disorder in rats have been used to examine mechanisms, comorbidities, and antiabsence drugs. (jneurosci.org)
  • To test this hypothesis, we used operant conditioning in male rats to determine whether outbred strains, Sprague Dawley and Long-Evans, and/or the inbred WAG/Rij strain (a rat model of heritable human absence epilepsy) could exercise voluntary control over these epileptiform events. (jneurosci.org)
  • We discovered that both inbred and outbred rats could shorten the duration of SWDs to obtain a reward. (jneurosci.org)
  • SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Our evidence that inbred and outbred rats learn to control the duration of spike-wave discharges (SWDs) suggests a voluntary behavior with maintenance of consciousness. (jneurosci.org)
  • To investigate histological similarities and differences in PV cardiomyocyte localization and distribution, we performed comparative light and electron microscopic studies on humans, rats and mice, and generated a transgenic mouse strain. (medsci.org)
  • In all but the most restrictive use of the term (genus Mus ), the main distinction between mice and rats is a matter of size, with relatively smaller animals, perhaps 12 centimeters (5 inches) or less, considered as mice and similarly looking animals that are larger designated as rats. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
  • Inbred from a single pair of SsN line rats obtained from Harlan Sprague Dawley (Alabama colony). (mcw.edu)
  • In addition, targeted disruption of the IL-4 gene in BALB/c mice causes these animals, which are otherwise susceptible to infection with L. major , to become highly resistant to these organisms (19). (scielo.br)
  • However (and surprisingly), genetic disruption of the IL-4 gene of BALB/c mice can also generate animals that are as susceptible to infection with L. major as are wild-type conventional BALB/c mice (20). (scielo.br)
  • The reasons for this discrepancy depend on some circumstances such as infection with particular L. major sub-strains, due to the fact that IL-4 and/or IL-4 receptor signaling is not required to promote Th2 cell development and susceptibility in BALB/c mice (21). (scielo.br)
  • Three inbred strains with different origins were used, these were CPBs (Balb), CBA and C 57 Black. (brillonline.com)
  • To evaluate the effect of increased mouse density in a cage, mice were housed at the density recommended by the 1996 Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and at densities that were approximately 2, 2.6, and 3 times greater. (nih.gov)
  • The Jackson Laboratory offers the greatest variety of inbred, hybrid and mutant mice in the industry. (jax.org)
  • Jackson Laboratory has additional features to maintaining mice, one can order mice that have been altered with genetic tools such as Gal4/UAS or CRISPR, meaning that even if the strain does not currently exist, you can still obtain a line of mouse that is useful to your research. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Jackson Laboratory is committed to setting quality standards in animal care and ensuring that these standards are maintained throughout all of our mouse colonies. (jax.org)
  • Two hundred and fifty Mus musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) inbred mice from two animal houses in the State of Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil, were divided in two groups (A, B) according to their source. (scielo.br)
  • Due to its similarity of skin anatomy and physiology, the pig appears to be a well-suited animal model for preclinical studies of skin analog transplantations. (bioportfolio.com)
  • Hematological parameters have not received much attention in small animal models of infection, particularly at very early time points. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Certain plants including the genetic model organism Arabidopsis thaliana naturally self pollinate, which makes it quite easy to create inbred strains in the laboratory (other plants, including important genetic models such as Maize require transfer of pollen from one flower to another). (wikipedia.org)
  • The use of animal models for research is controversial. (encyclopedia.com)
  • As a result, the use of appropriate animal models is essential. (dovepress.com)
  • The quest for seizure mechanisms can provide insights into overall brain functions and consciousness, and animal models of epilepsy will continue to promote the progress of both epilepsy and neurophysiology research. (dovepress.com)
  • In the present review, we summarize some of the most frequently used rodent animal models of TLE and other epileptic disorders, highlighting induction methods and manifestations as well as major uses and limitations. (dovepress.com)
  • 2 , 4 , 5 Unfortunately, animal models of chronic epilepsy are not widely used because of time constraints and costs. (dovepress.com)
  • The etiologic factors involved in the development and progression of SSc are still unclear thus, study of animal models of the disease is likely to provide valuable information about its pathogenesis and allow identification of potentially effective therapeutic approaches. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the urgency to develop and implement novel approaches capable of preventing HIV transmission, this process has been hindered by the lack of adequate small animal models for preclinical efficacy and safety testing. (nih.gov)
  • Animal models of spontaneous diabetes and epidemiological data in the human challenge the obligatory role of environmental factors in triggering diabetes development. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Animal models also indicate that pathological modifications of the islets are required for full-blown diabetes to develop. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Animal models are indispensable for the study of C. trachomatis infections and the development and evaluation of candidate vaccines. (asm.org)
  • Animal models enable to test tissue-engineered skin as w. (bioportfolio.com)
  • The transient and paroxysmal appearance of SWDs with associated immobility and rhythmic facial movements has led to the belief that SWDs represent a hallmark of seizures in both inbred genetic (i.e., absence) and acquired (post-traumatic) models of epilepsy. (jneurosci.org)
  • We outline recent criticisms of animal-based research, namely that animal models are failing to predict human responses. (medsci.org)
  • We then examine the assumption that animal models can predict human outcomes to perturbations such as disease or drugs, even under the best of circumstances. (medsci.org)
  • We examine the use of animal models in light of empirical evidence comparing human outcomes to those from animal models, complexity theory, and evolutionary biology. (medsci.org)
  • We conclude that even if legitimate criticisms of animal models were addressed, through standardization of protocols and systematic reviews, the animal model would still fail as a predictive modality for human response to drugs and disease. (medsci.org)
  • 2003 ) provided evidence, by irradiation of the hippocampus, that hippocampal neurogenesis is required to achieve the behavioral effects of antidepressants in animal models. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Fortunately, the availability of inbred strains of mice has allowed for some testing of this hypothesis via animal models of simulated space flight. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Genetic Background Categories In terms of their genetic background, Dr. Perez divided animal models into four basic categories. (taconic.com)
  • Animal models developed from heterogeneous stock and enriched via selection, as presented here, often generate extreme values for traits of interest and may prove more useful than current models for uncovering genetic underpinnings. (physiology.org)
  • Our research utilizes genetic animal models to study simple and complex addiction-related traits. (ohsu.edu)
  • Selective breeding of plants and animals, including hybridization, began long before there was an understanding of underlying scientific principles. (wikipedia.org)
  • The availability of numerous mouse strains that differ in susceptibility to atherosclerosis provides an experimental method for identifying the role of various cellular components in atherogenesis. (ahajournals.org)
  • Two inbred rat strains have been selected: the BN/hsdCpb which is characterised by a relatively low fertility and the GK/mol, a model susceptible for the development of non-insulin dependant diabetes (diabetes type II). (orgprints.org)
  • Mouse strain names should be registered through the Mouse Genome Database (MGD) at http://www.informatics.jax.org/mgihome/submissions/amsp_submission.cgi . (jax.org)
  • Rat strain names should be registered through the Rat Genome Database (RGD) at http://rgd.mcw.edu/tools/strains/strainRegistrationIndex.cgi . (jax.org)
  • The only exception is that the Y chromosome and the mitochondrial genome, both of which are inherited intact from the paternal and maternal strain, respectively. (wikipedia.org)
  • abstract = "We have used Ussing chambers to measure chloride secretion by colonic segments (mucosa, muscularis, and serosa) from various inbred strains of mice. (elsevier.com)
  • Gene expression profiles of five brain regions in six inbred mouse strains were studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We investigated whether inbred strains that are closely related have gene expression profiles that on average resemble each other more than strains that are distantly related. (biomedcentral.com)
  • To evaluate the loss-of-function and gain-of-function effects of the gene of interest, animal behaviors are often examined. (frontiersin.org)
  • We recently utilized the services of the OHSU transgenic core to replace a mutated gene with the common form of the same and demonstrated reversal of several methamphetamine-related phenotypes in animals with this single gene change. (ohsu.edu)
  • This strain exhibits a naturally occurring null mutation of the group IIa sPLA 2 gene, providing a clear contrast for the effects of the transgene. (ahajournals.org)
  • The sPLA 2 transgenic mice were produced by microinjection of a 6.2-kb Hin dIII restriction fragment containing the human secretory PLA 2 gene into (B6×SJL)F2 hybrid embryos, which were transferred to strain ICR recipients and developed to term according to standard protocols. (ahajournals.org)
  • All JAX ® Mice colonies are routinely monitored to ensure their health via our JAX® Mice Animal Health Program . (jax.org)
  • The Animal Health Program at JAX ensures the health of our mouse colonies by preventing the entry of pathogens and minimizing opportunities. (jax.org)
  • Disregard for the levels of genetic diversity in an animal colony may result in a failure to replicate results if a different colony is used to repeat an experiment, as different colonies may have fixed alternative variants. (g3journal.org)
  • To ensure that MLNs were taken from mice still infected with wild-type S. typhimurium, we monitored the course of infection in 129sv mice using a noninvasive method that detects bacterial signal in live animals in a semi-quantitative manner, IVIS (31). (nih.gov)