Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Tilapia: A freshwater fish used as an experimental organism and for food. This genus of the family Cichlidae (CICHLIDS) inhabits Central and South America (one species extends north into Texas), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, and coastal India.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Bivalvia: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of mussels; clams; OYSTERS; COCKLES; and SCALLOPS. They are characterized by a bilaterally symmetrical hinged shell and a muscular foot used for burrowing and anchoring.Oncorhynchus mykiss: A large stout-bodied, sometimes anadromous, TROUT found in still and flowing waters of the Pacific coast from southern California to Alaska. It has a greenish back, a whitish belly, and pink, red, or lavender stripes on the sides, with usually a sprinkling of black dots. It is highly regarded as a sport and food fish. Its former name was Salmo gairdneri. The sea-run rainbow trouts are often called steelheads. Redband trouts refer to interior populations of rainbows.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.Protozoan Infections, Animal: Infections with unicellular organisms formerly members of the subkingdom Protozoa. The infections may be experimental or veterinary.Seawater: The salinated water of OCEANS AND SEAS that provides habitat for marine organisms.Fresh Water: Water containing no significant amounts of salts, such as water from RIVERS and LAKES.Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Fundulidae: Family of small, surface-dwelling fish that inhabit fresh and brackish waters, and coastal marine areas.Acclimatization: Adaptation to a new environment or to a change in the old.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Trout: Various fish of the family SALMONIDAE, usually smaller than salmon. They are mostly restricted to cool clear freshwater. Some are anadromous. They are highly regarded for their handsome colors, rich well-flavored flesh, and gameness as an angling fish. The genera Salvelinus, Salmo, and ONCORHYNCHUS have been introduced virtually throughout the world.Fish Proteins: Proteins obtained from species of fish (FISHES).Lobosea: A class of amoeboid EUKARYOTES that forms either filiform subpseudopodia or lobopodia. Characteristics include the absence of sorocarps, sporangia, or similar fruiting bodies. Lobosea were formerly members of the phylum Sarcomastigophora, subphylum Sarcodina, under the old five kingdom paradigm.AnguillaAquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypercapnia: A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.Dictyocaulus: Nematodes parasitic in the bronchi of herbivorous animals.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Dictyocaulus Infections: Infection with nematodes of the genus DICTYOCAULUS. In deer, cattle, sheep, and horses the bronchi are the site of infestation.Jealousy: An irrational reaction compounded of grief, loss of self-esteem, enmity against the rival and self criticism.Love: Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Book ImprintsFamous PersonsBiography as Topic: A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)WingNautilus: The sole genus in the family Nautilidae, order Nautilida, comprised of CEPHALOPODS with spiral external shells that are separated into chambers.ScotlandRaptors: BIRDS that hunt and kill other animals, especially higher vertebrates, for food. They include the FALCONIFORMES order, or diurnal birds of prey, comprised of EAGLES, falcons, HAWKS, and others, as well as the STRIGIFORMES order, or nocturnal birds of prey, which includes OWLS.Agricultural Workers' Diseases: Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.PseudouridineIntramolecular Transferases: Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl-, phospho-, amino- or other groups from one position within a molecule to another. EC 5.4.Chromans: Benzopyrans saturated in the 2 and 3 positions.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Histidinol-Phosphatase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of histidinol-phosphate to histidinol. One of the regulatory enzymes in histidine biosynthesis. EC 3.1.3.15.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.LatviaNIH 3T3 Cells: A continuous cell line of high contact-inhibition established from NIH Swiss mouse embryo cultures. The cells are useful for DNA transfection and transformation studies. (From ATCC [Internet]. Virginia: American Type Culture Collection; c2002 [cited 2002 Sept 26]. Available from http://www.atcc.org/)Frameshift Mutation: A type of mutation in which a number of NUCLEOTIDES deleted from or inserted into a protein coding sequence is not divisible by three, thereby causing an alteration in the READING FRAMES of the entire coding sequence downstream of the mutation. These mutations may be induced by certain types of MUTAGENS or may occur spontaneously.Founder Effect: A phenomenon that is observed when a small subgroup of a larger POPULATION establishes itself as a separate and isolated entity. The subgroup's GENE POOL carries only a fraction of the genetic diversity of the parental population resulting in an increased frequency of certain diseases in the subgroup, especially those diseases known to be autosomal recessive.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP4 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES. The receptor may also signal through the activation of PHOSPHATIDYLINOSITOL 3-KINASE.Receptors, Prostaglandin E, EP2 Subtype: A subtype of prostaglandin E receptors that specifically couples to GS ALPHA GTP-BINDING PROTEIN SUBUNITS and subsequently activates ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Bible: The book composed of writings generally accepted by Christians as inspired by God and of divine authority. (Webster, 3d ed)Naphazoline: An adrenergic vasoconstrictor agent used as a decongestant.Awards and PrizesReligion and Medicine: The interrelationship of medicine and religion.Ceremonial Behavior: A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.
  • Zebrafish larvae, ranging in age from 3 to 21 days postfertilization, were prevented from ventilating their gills and forced to rely on cutaneous processes by exposing them to one of two anaesthetics (tricaine methanesulphonate or phenoxyethanol) or by embedding their gills in agar. (biologists.org)
  • By this stage, larvae apparently are so dependent on gills for O 2 uptake that they suffocate before the effects of ionoregulatory impairment become apparent. (biologists.org)
  • RT-PCR, combined with in situ hybridization, revealed that Rhcg1 is first expressed in vacuolar-type H(+)-ATPase/mitochondrion-rich cells (vH-MRC) on the yolk sac of larvae at 3 days postfertilization (dpf) and later in vH-MRC-like cells in the gill at 4-5 dpf. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Salamander larvae have visible gills. (ct.gov)
  • The gill lesions included necrosis and desquamation of secondary lamellar epithelium, lifting up of epithelium, intraepithelial oedema, fusion of adjacent secondary lamellae, haemorrhage at primary lamellae, disorganization and rupture in seconder lamellae, hypertrophy and hyperplasia of epithelial cells. (biomedsearch.com)
  • However, bacterial gill disease has an important environmental component, and mechanical damage to gill epithelium, which may be caused by excessive crowding and debris in the water column, is believed to be an important predisposing factor. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • Vertebrates such as salamanders are also characterized by external gills, which in their case are filamentous structures that extend from the head region. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The vertebrate jaw, which characterizes all vertebrates aside from lamprey and hagfish, was modified from a single pair of gill arches. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The third mammalian middle-ear bone, the stapes, occurs in all terrestrial vertebrates, and is also derived from the gill arches. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Since these analogues are simple competitive inhibitors in many urea transport systems of higher vertebrates ( Marsh & Knepper, 1992 ), Wood, Pärt & Wright (1995) suggested that they acted to inhibit a "back-transport" retention mechanism in the gills, resulting in greater urea efflux. (peerj.com)
  • The findings support the idea that gills evolved before the last common ancestor of all vertebrates, helping facilitate a "lifestyle transition" from immobile filter-feeder to actively swimming predator. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The research, published today in the journal Current Biology , shows that gills develop from the same embryonic tissue in both jawed and jawless vertebrates - a lineage that split very early in our ancestral tree. (cam.ac.uk)
  • These "snapshots" of development led scientists to believe that gills were formed from different tissues: the internal 'endoderm' lining in jawless vertebrates, and the 'ectoderm' outer skin in the jawed. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Their experiment has now shown that the gills of jawed vertebrates emerge from the same internal lining cells as their jawless relatives. (cam.ac.uk)
  • The researchers say this is strong evidence that gills evolved just once, much earlier in evolutionary history - before the jawless divergence - and that the "crown ancestor" of all vertebrates was consequently a more anatomically complex creature. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Gills provided vertebrates with specialist breathing organs in their head, rather than having to respire exclusively through skin all over the body. (cam.ac.uk)
  • Previous studies have argued that either the basolateral or apical membranes provided the limiting permeability barrier, and/or that a back-transporter on the basolateral membranes of gill cells is responsible for urea retention. (peerj.com)
  • Boylan (1967) concluded that the lipid membranes in the gills were of unusual composition, resulting in exceptionally low permeability to urea, a conclusion based largely on changes in urea efflux rate with temperature. (peerj.com)
  • Another route might be through the fine membranes of the gills. (newscientist.com)
  • Scientists first described the stubby aquatic predator they named Tiktaalik in 2006, focusing on the anatomical features that showed its front fins were on their way to becoming limbs, and were capable of lifting the animal in a kind of push-up out of the ancient muck. (cleveland.com)
  • AE1 has been localized in the apical membrane of gill epithelial cells ( 53 ), mediating Cl − import correlated with HCO 3 − secretion. (physiology.org)
  • Both in vivo and in control saline perfusions containing 350 mmol L −1 urea, calculated intracellular urea concentrations in gill epithelial cells were close to extracellular concentrations. (peerj.com)
  • Parts of organs of different animals that reflect the development of the same or corresponding part of a remote ancestor in the animal world are called homologous, even if they do not serve the same function. (smc.edu)
  • The gill arches support tissue that includes the tiny blood vessels which carry in deoxygenated blood and carry away oxygenated blood, as well as the gill filaments, where gas exchange actually occurs. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The gill arches lie between the gill clefts, through which oxygenated water flows. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Water is forced into the mouth and out over the gills. (encyclopedia.com)
  • In this method, serial expansions and contractions of the mouth cavity and the opercular cavity occur, resulting in the continuous flow of water over the gills. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This forces water to flow over the gills into the opercular cavity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • While mammals' lungs work with air, which is 200,000 parts per million oxygen, a fish's gills are working with water, which is only up to 8 parts per million oxygen. (reference.com)
  • Urea efflux to the external water fell only non-significantly, and calculated gill intracellular urea concentration did not change when perfusate urea concentration was reduced from 350 to 175 mmol L −1 with osmotic compensation by 175 mmol L −1 mannitol. (peerj.com)
  • they enable water to exchange oxygen and ammonium as it circulates over the gills. (ikonet.com)
  • Further examination of the fossils shows a coordinated series of changes underway not just in the creature's limbs, but in its crocodile-like skull, neck and gills, all helping prepare it for a less aquatic, shallow-water lifestyle. (cleveland.com)
  • and environmental and endocrine factors controlling osmotic water fluxes in gills of Sarotherodon (tilapia) mossambicus. (elsevier.com)
  • These findings demonstrate a single origin of gills that likely corresponds with a key stage in vertebrate evolution: when some of our earliest relatives transitioned from filtering particles out of water pumped through static bodies to actively swimming through the oceans," says lead author Dr Andrew Gillis, a Royal Society University Research Fellow in Cambridge's Department of Zoology, and a Whitman Investigator at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, US. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This database, created in 2000, is updated every three months with newly published scientific articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research. (awionline.org)
  • The histopathological effects of malathion, an organophosphate pesticide, on the gill tissues in mosquitofish, Gambusia affinis, were determined by light microscope. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The gill filaments each have numerous secondary gill lamellae that further increase the surface area available for gas exchange. (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is caused by bacteria in the genus Flavobacterium and other closely related genera and is manifest by gill pathology (hyperplasia, clubbing of gill filaments) and subsequent mortality. (merckvetmanual.com)
  • In order to explore the mechanism of dopamine (DA) regulation, we investigated hemolymph neuroendocrine hormones, gill intracellular signaling pathways, ion and ammonia transporters, hemolymph osmolality and ammonia concentration in Litopenaeus vannamei after injection of 10 −7 and 10 −6 mol DA per shrimp. (biologists.org)
  • These results suggest that DA stimulates the secretion of CHH and inhibits the release of cortisol, which activates intracellular signaling factors to facilitate ion and ammonia transport across the gills, and may not affect intracellular acidification. (biologists.org)
  • Under symmetrical culture conditions (L15 media apical/L15 media basolateral), oPRL had no effect on transepithelial resistance, paracellular permeability (assessed with PEG-4000), or Na(+) and Cl(-) transport across both preparations of cultured gill epithelia. (nih.gov)
  • The present results provide new evidence that the apical membrane is the limiting factor in maintaining gill urea impermeability, and raise the prospect that a urea back-transporter, which can be competitively inhibited by thiourea and acetamide, operates at the apical membrane. (peerj.com)
  • 2016 ) First insights into the diversity of gill monogeneans of 'Gnathochromis' and Limnochromis (Teleostei, Cichlidae) in Burundi: do the parasites mirror host ecology and phylogenetic history? (peerj.com)
  • This is the 5th volume of selected discussions that took place on the electronic Laboratory Animal Refinement & Enrichment Forum between February 2016 and December 2019. (awionline.org)
  • large numbers of mitochondria-rich cells (ionocytes) appear on the gill well before there is any indication of secondary lamellae, the definitive adult gas-exchange structure. (biologists.org)
  • PHUKET, Thailand-- "It is with profound regret and unfathomable sadness that we announce the passing of Gill Dalley," the Soi Dog Foundation announced on February 13, 2017. (animals24-7.org)
  • Shortlisted for the UKLA 2017 Book Award Gill Lewis writes outstanding animal stories, and Gorilla Dawn is very good indeed. (lovereading4kids.co.uk)
  • In rainbow trout, for example, ionocytes were first observed on the gills 3 days before hatch, while secondary lamellae did not begin to differentiate until 8 days after hatch ( Rombough, 1999 ). (biologists.org)
  • Mouthpart that grasps food particles deposited on the gills and carries them to the mouth. (ikonet.com)
  • The physiological effects of ovine prolactin (oPRL) and recombinant rainbow trout prolactin (rbtPRL) on cultured gill epithelia derived from freshwater rainbow trout were assessed. (nih.gov)
  • Changes in protein and mRNA expression of Na(+),K(+)-ATPase in gills and pyloric caeca of brown trout were investigated on a detailed time course after transfer from freshwater to 25 ppt seawater (SW). (nih.gov)
  • Thus, SW acclimation in brown trout is characterised by a lasting decrease in overall NKIR cell abundance in the gill. (nih.gov)
  • Fresh off of discovering whirling disease for the first time in North Carolina, fisheries biologists with the N.C. Wildlife Resources Commission recently confirmed gill lice on rainbow trout in three North Carolina streams. (fws.gov)
  • This is the second time gill lice have been found in North Carolina trout. (fws.gov)
  • The gill lice confirmed this summer were found on rainbow trout in Haywood and Watauga counties. (fws.gov)
  • Grass carp and other minnows have pharyngeal teeth located in the throat that are modified from their gill arches for grinding. (visitflorida.com)
  • Animals and Environmental Fitness: Physiological and Biochemical Aspects of Adaptation and Ecology, Volume 2 contains the proceedings of the First Conference of the European Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry held in Liège, Belgium, on August 27-31, 1979. (elsevier.com)
  • Gill rakers that are fine and comb-like serve as filters for plankton or suspended particles, similar in mechanism to a whale's baleen. (reference.com)
  • There have been only a few studies on the mechanism of urea retention at the gills, all of them on the spiny dogfish Squalus acanthias . (peerj.com)
  • Although animals began diversifying beforehand, there were relatively few new appearances during these dramatic fluctuations in seafloor oxygenation. (pnas.org)
  • How these fluctuations relate to animal radiations is not well understood ( 4 , 7 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 11 ). (pnas.org)
  • Soil fertility and nutrient content is managed primarily with cultivation practices, crop rotations, and cover crops supplemented with animal and crop waste fertilizers. (aappublications.org)
  • Take a closer look at these encyclopedia books including information about animal habitats, behavior, and scientific classification. (seaworld.org)
  • The findings pull the invention of gills closer to the "active lifestyle" shift in our early ancestors: the evolution from passive filter feeders to self-propelled ocean swimmers. (cam.ac.uk)
  • At first glance, salamanders and lizards look a lot alike small animals with four legs, a tail, and a similar body shape. (ct.gov)
  • All of our animals are spayed/neutered, microchipped, vaccinated, tested for heartworms and negative (dogs only), FeLV/FIV tested (cats) and de-wormed. (adoptapet.com)
  • Paw Prints Animal Rescue (PPAR) is an all-volunteer nonprofit organization dedicated to reducing the population of homeless cats, kittens, dogs and puppies by maintaining two programs -- a Rescue and Adoption Program and a Feral Cat Management Program. (adoptapet.com)
  • Humans are part of the animal kingdom, but we are quite different from hummingbirds and house cats. (barnesandnoble.com)
  • By painstakingly removing the surrounding rock in which the Tiktaalik specimens were embedded, the researchers were able to study more features of an animal caught in transition, particularly in the skull and gill area. (cleveland.com)