Salmon: Fish of the genera ONCORHYNCHUS and Salmo in the family SALMONIDAE. They are anadromous game fish, frequenting the coastal waters of both the North Atlantic and Pacific. They are known for their gameness as a sport fish and for the quality of their flesh as a table fish. (Webster, 3d ed).Salmo salar: A commercially important species of SALMON in the family SALMONIDAE, order SALMONIFORMES, which occurs in the North Atlantic.United States Food and Drug Administration: An agency of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to maintaining standards of quality of foods, drugs, therapeutic devices, etc.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Isavirus: A genus in the family ORTHOMYXOVIRIDAE containing one species: Infectious salmon anemia virus.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Ross River virus: A species of ALPHAVIRUS associated with epidemic EXANTHEMA and polyarthritis in Australia.Radio Waves: Electromagnetic waves with frequencies between about 3 kilohertz (very low frequency - VLF) and 300,000 megahertz (extremely high frequency - EHF). They are used in television and radio broadcasting, land and satellite communications systems, radionavigation, radiolocation, and DIATHERMY. The highest frequency radio waves are MICROWAVES.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.Eating Disorders: A group of disorders characterized by physiological and psychological disturbances in appetite or food intake.HandwritingWriting: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Radio Frequency Identification Device: Machine readable patient or equipment identification device using radio frequency from 125 kHz to 5.8 Ghz.Muscle Cramp: A sustained and usually painful contraction of muscle fibers. This may occur as an isolated phenomenon or as a manifestation of an underlying disease process (e.g., UREMIA; HYPOTHYROIDISM; MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; etc.). (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1398)Literature, ModernEating: The consumption of edible substances.Music: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Language Arts: Skills in the use of language which lead to proficiency in written or spoken communication.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Tuberculosis, Bovine: An infection of cattle caused by MYCOBACTERIUM BOVIS. It is transmissible to man and other animals.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cattle Diseases: Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.Tuberculosis Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent or treat TUBERCULOSIS.Tuberculosis: Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.Pandemics: Epidemics of infectious disease that have spread to many countries, often more than one continent, and usually affecting a large number of people.Mycobacterium bovis: The bovine variety of the tubercle bacillus. It is called also Mycobacterium tuberculosis var. bovis.Portraits as Topic: Graphic representations, especially of the face, of real persons, usually posed, living or dead. (From Thesaurus for Graphic Materials II, p540, 1995)Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Product Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.DNA, Recombinant: Biologically active DNA which has been formed by the in vitro joining of segments of DNA from different sources. It includes the recombination joint or edge of a heteroduplex region where two recombining DNA molecules are connected.Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Tissue Engineering: Generating tissue in vitro for clinical applications, such as replacing wounded tissues or impaired organs. The use of TISSUE SCAFFOLDING enables the generation of complex multi-layered tissues and tissue structures.European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)Food, Genetically Modified: Food derived from genetically modified organisms (ORGANISMS, GENETICALLY MODIFIED).Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.United StatesMedlinePlus: NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.Animal Care Committees: Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).Organisms, Genetically Modified: Organisms whose GENOME has been changed by a GENETIC ENGINEERING technique.

Transcriptional repression by the Drosophila giant protein: cis element positioning provides an alternative means of interpreting an effector gradient. (1/8283)

Early developmental patterning of the Drosophila embryo is driven by the activities of a diverse set of maternally and zygotically derived transcription factors, including repressors encoded by gap genes such as Kruppel, knirps, giant and the mesoderm-specific snail. The mechanism of repression by gap transcription factors is not well understood at a molecular level. Initial characterization of these transcription factors suggests that they act as short-range repressors, interfering with the activity of enhancer or promoter elements 50 to 100 bp away. To better understand the molecular mechanism of short-range repression, we have investigated the properties of the Giant gap protein. We tested the ability of endogenous Giant to repress when bound close to the transcriptional initiation site and found that Giant effectively represses a heterologous promoter when binding sites are located at -55 bp with respect to the start of transcription. Consistent with its role as a short-range repressor, as the binding sites are moved to more distal locations, repression is diminished. Rather than exhibiting a sharp 'step-function' drop-off in activity, however, repression is progressively restricted to areas of highest Giant concentration. Less than a two-fold difference in Giant protein concentration is sufficient to determine a change in transcriptional status of a target gene. This effect demonstrates that Giant protein gradients can be differentially interpreted by target promoters, depending on the exact location of the Giant binding sites within the gene. Thus, in addition to binding site affinity and number, cis element positioning within a promoter can affect the response of a gene to a repressor gradient. We also demonstrate that a chimeric Gal4-Giant protein lacking the basic/zipper domain can specifically repress reporter genes, suggesting that the Giant effector domain is an autonomous repression domain.  (+info)

A conserved motif in goosecoid mediates groucho-dependent repression in Drosophila embryos. (2/8283)

Surprisingly small peptide motifs can confer critical biological functions. One example is the WRPW tetrapeptide present in the Hairy family of transcriptional repressors, which mediates recruitment of the Groucho (Gro) corepressor to target promoters. We recently showed that Engrailed (En) is another repressor that requires association with Gro for its function. En lacks a WRPW motif; instead, it contains another short conserved sequence, the En homology region 1 (eh1)/GEH motif, that is likely to play a role in tethering Gro to the promoter. Here, we characterize a repressor domain from the Goosecoid (Gsc) developmental regulator that includes an eh1/GEH-like motif. We demonstrate that this domain (GscR) mediates efficient repression in Drosophila blastoderm embryos and that repression by GscR requires Gro function. GscR and Gro interact in vitro, and the eh1/GEH motif is necessary and sufficient for the interaction and for in vivo repression. Because WRPW- and eh1/GEH-like motifs are present in different proteins and in many organisms, the results suggest that interactions between short peptides and Gro represent a widespread mechanism of repression. Finally, we investigate whether Gro is part of a stable multiprotein complex in the nucleus. Our results indicate that Gro does not form stable associations with other proteins but that it may be able to assemble into homomultimeric complexes.  (+info)

Inhibition of doxorubicin toxicity in cultured neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes with elevated metallothionein levels. (3/8283)

Controversial results have been reported regarding whether metallothionein (MT) functions in doxorubicin (DOX) detoxification in the heart. To determine unequivocally the role of MT in cardiac protection against the toxicity of DOX, ventricular cardiomyocytes isolated from 1- to 3-day neonatal transgenic mice with high levels of cardiac MT and from nontransgenic control animals were applied. On the 6th day of culturing, MT concentrations in the transgenic cardiomyocytes were about 2-fold higher than those in the nontransgenic cells. DOX was added directly into the cultures. Compared with nontransgenic controls, transgenic cardiomyocytes displayed a significant (p <.05) resistance to DOX cytotoxicity, as measured by morphological alterations, cell viability, and lactate dehydrogenase leakage from the cells. This cytoprotective effect of MT correlated with its inhibition of DOX-induced lipid peroxidation. These observations demonstrate unequivocally that elevation of MT concentrations in the cardiomyocytes of 2-fold higher than normal provides efficient protection against DOX toxicity.  (+info)

Human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-beta): mammary gland specific expression and production in transgenic rabbits. (4/8283)

Transgenic rabbits carrying gene constructs encoding human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-beta) cDNA were generated. Expression of hNGF-beta mRNA was restricted to the mammary gland of lactating rabbits. Western Blot analysis revealed a polypeptide of 13.2 kDa in the milk of transgenic animals. hNGF-beta was purified from the milk by a two-step chromatographic procedure. Electrospray mass spectroscopy analysis of purified hNGF-beta depicted a molecular weight of 13,261 Da per subunit. The biological activity of the hNGF-beta was tested using PC12W2 cells and cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from chicken embryos. Crude defatted milk from transgenic animals and purified hNGF-beta demonstrated full biological activity when compared to commercial recombinant hNGF-beta.  (+info)

Aging-specific expression of Drosophila hsp22. (5/8283)

hsp22 is among the least abundantly expressed Drosophila heat shock (hs) genes during both development and heat stress. In contrast, hsp22 was found to be the most abundantly expressed hs gene during Drosophila aging. During aging, hsp22 RNA was induced 60-fold in the head, with somewhat lower level induction in abdomen and thorax. Induction of the other hs gene RNAs was 150-fold, with particularly abundant expression in eye tissue. Aging-specific induction of hsp22 was reproduced by hsp22:lacZ fusion reporter constructs in transgenic flies. Analysis of specific promoter mutations in transgenic flies indicated that functional heat shock response elements are required for hsp22 induction during aging. Finally, comparison of hsp22 RNA and protein expression patterns suggests that aging-specific expression of hsp22 is regulated at both the transcriptional and the posttranscriptional levels. Aging-specific induction of hsp22 is discussed with regard to current evolutionary theories of aging.  (+info)

Transgenic rabbits as models for atherosclerosis research. (6/8283)

Several characteristics of the rabbit make it an excellent model for the study of lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerosis. New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits have low plasma total cholesterol concentrations, high cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity, low hepatic lipase (HL) activity, and lack an analogue of human apolipoprotein (apo) A-II, providing a unique system in which to assess the effects of human transgenes on plasma lipoproteins and atherosclerosis susceptibility. Additionally, rabbit models of human lipoprotein disorders, such as the Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic (WHHL) and St. Thomas' Hospital strains, models of familial hypercholesterolemia and familial combined hyperlipidemia, respectively, allow for the assessment of candidate genes for potential use in the treatment of dyslipoproteinemic patients. To date, transgenes for human apo(a), apoA-I, apoB, apoE2, apoE3, HL, and lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), as well as for rabbit apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic poly-peptide 1 (APOBEC-1), have been expressed in NZW rabbits, whereas only those for human apoA-I and LCAT have been introduced into the WHHL background. All of these transgenes have been shown to have significant effects on plasma lipoprotein concentrations. In both NZW and WHHL rabbits, human apoA-I expression was associated with a significant reduction in the extent of aortic atherosclerosis, which was similarly the case for LCAT in rabbits having at least one functional LDL receptor allele. Conversely, expression of apoE2 in NZW rabbits caused increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis. These studies provide new insights into the mechanisms responsible for the development of atherosclerosis, emphasizing the strength of the rabbit model in cardiovascular disease research.  (+info)

Production of donor-derived offspring by transfer of primordial germ cells in Japanese quail. (7/8283)

We transfused concentrated primordial germ cells (PGCs) of the black strain (D: homozygous for the autosomal incomplete dominant gene, D) of quail into the embryos of the wild-type plumage strain (WP: d+/d+) of quail. The recipient quail were raised until sexual maturity and a progeny test of the putative germline chimeras was performed to examine the donor gamete-derived offspring (D/d+). Thirty-one percent (36/115) of the transfused quail hatched and 21 (13 females and 8 males) of them reached maturity. Five females and 2 males were germline chimeras producing donor gamete-derived offspring. Transmission rates of the donor derived gametes in the chimeric females and males were 1.8-8.3% and 2.6-63.0%, respectively. Germline chimeric and the other putative chimeric males were also test-mated with females from the sex-linked imperfect albino strain (AL: d+/d+, al/W, where al indicates the sex-linked imperfect albino gene on the Z chromosome, and W indicates the W chromosome) for autosexing of W-bearing spermatozoa: No albino offspring were born.  (+info)

The Caenorhabditis elegans lim-6 LIM homeobox gene regulates neurite outgrowth and function of particular GABAergic neurons. (8/8283)

We describe here the functional analysis of the C. elegans LIM homeobox gene lim-6, the ortholog of the mammalian Lmx-1a and b genes that regulate limb, CNS, kidney and eye development. lim-6 is expressed in a small number of sensory-, inter- and motorneurons, in epithelial cells of the uterus and in the excretory system. Loss of lim-6 function affects late events in the differentiation of two classes of GABAergic motorneurons which control rhythmic enteric muscle contraction. lim-6 is required to specify the correct axon morphology of these neurons and also regulates expression of glutamic acid decarboxylase, the rate limiting enzyme of GABA synthesis in these neurons. Moreover, lim-6 gene activity and GABA signaling regulate neuroendocrine outputs of the nervous system. In the chemosensory system lim-6 regulates the asymmetric expression of a probable chemosensory receptor. lim-6 is also required in epithelial cells for uterine morphogenesis. We compare the function of lim-6 to those of other LIM homeobox genes in C. elegans and suggest that LIM homeobox genes share the common theme of controlling terminal neural differentiation steps that when disrupted lead to specific neuroanatomical and neural function defects.  (+info)

*Genetically modified organism

EFSA (2012). Genetically modified animals Europe: EFSA Murray, Joo (20). Genetically modified animals. Canada: Brainwaving ... "Coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-modified (non GM) crops: Are the two main property rights regimes equivalent ... Genetically modified (genetically engineered) animals are becoming more vital to the discovery and development of cures and ... Genetically modified crops (GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified ...

*Genetically modified sperm

Animals From Genetically Modified Sperm Genetically modified sperm in fish Manzini, S.; Vargiolu, A.; Stehle, I.; Bacci, M.; ... Genetically modified sperm (GM sperm) is sperm that has undergone genetic modification for biomedical purposes, including the ... GM sperm is not frequently used in humans but has been extensively tested and studied in animals. This type of modification of ... "Regulations of Genetically Engineered Animals". U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Food and Drug Administration. Retrieved 10 ...

*Genetically modified mouse

Genetically modified mice are commonly used for research or as animal models of human diseases, and are also used for research ... "Background: Cloned and Genetically Modified Animals". Center for Genetics and Society. April 14, 2005. Hofker, Marten H.; ... In 1974 Rudolf Jaenisch created the first genetically modified animal by inserting a DNA virus into an early-stage mouse embryo ... A genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) is a mouse that has had its genome altered through the use of genetic engineering ...

*Genetically modified fish

There is much doubt among the public about genetically modified animals in general. It is believed that the acceptance of GM ... making it the first genetically modified animal to be approved for human consumption. Some GM fish that have been created have ... They became the first genetically modified animal to become publicly available as a pet when introduced for sale in 2003. They ... It is the first genetically modified animal to be approved for human consumption. The fish is essentially an Atlantic salmon ...

*Genetically modified livestock

It is the first genetically modified animal to be approved for human consumption. The fish is essentially a GM Atlantic salmon ... "Genetically modified cows produce 'human' milk" Classical Medicine Journal (14 April 2010). "Genetically modified cows ... Genetically modified livestock (GM livestock) are organisms from the group of cattle, sheep, pigs, goats, birds, horses and ... Some opponents of the GM salmon have dubbed it the "Frankenfish". Genetically modified triploid fish have been used to stock ...

*Genetically modified food

... of cotton produced in the US were genetically modified strains. The first genetically modified animal to be approved for food ... Genetically modified crops Genetically modified food controversies Genetically modified organisms List of genetically modified ... The genetically modified foods controversy consists of a set of disputes over the use of food made from genetically modified ... Genetically modified foods or GM foods, also known as genetically engineered foods or bioengineered foods, are foods produced ...

*GloFish

... which has jurisdiction over all genetically modified (GM) animals, including fluorescent zebra fish, since they consider the ... "Genetically Engineered Animals". fda.gov. "Regulation of Genetically Engineered Animals Containing Heritable Recombinant DNA ... It is sold only in the United States, where it remains the only genetically modified animal to be publicly available. The ... Although not originally developed for the ornamental fish trade, it is one of the first genetically modified animals to become ...

*Transgene

Genetically modified mice are the most common animal model for transgenic research. Transgenic mice are currently being used to ... Oncomice are another genetically modified mouse species created by inserting transgenes that increase the animal's ... "Background: Cloned and Genetically Modified Animals". Center for Genetics and Society. April 14, 2005. "Knockout Mice". ... Transgenic or genetically modified organisms, be they bacteria, viruses or fungi, serve all kinds of research purposes. ...

*Regulation of genetic engineering

Transgenic animals have genetically modified DNA. Animals are different from plants in a variety of ways-biology, life cycles, ... McHughen A, Smyth S (2008). "US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or ... www.thecanadianencyclopedia.com/articles/genetically-modified-foods. Genetically Modified Food. Agriculture - Department of ... "The Regulation of Genetically Modified Foods". John Davison (2010)"GM plants: Science, politics and EC regulations" Plant ...

*Genetic engineering

... model animals and the production of agricultural or pharmaceutical products. The genetically modified animals include animals ... is the creation and use of genetically modified crops or genetically modified livestock to produce genetically modified food. ... The Regulation of Genetically Modified Food Glossary definition of Genetically Modified: "An organism, such as a plant, animal ... Genetically modified mice are the most common genetically engineered animal model. They have been used to study and model ...

*Oxitec

"Genetically Engineered Animals - Oxitec Mosquito". US Food and Drug Administration; Animal and Veterinary. 2017-02-05. ... Julia Paoli: Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Pave the Way for Dengue Fever Prevention, Nature Publishing Group, 15 September ... Genetically modified organism Sterile insect technique The Oxitec approach. Oxitech Cookson, Clive (23 April 2015). "'Lethal ... Oxitec is working to develop a genetically modified version of Aedes aegypti to help control the transmission of mosquito borne ...

*Organic farming

Genetically modified seeds and animals are excluded. While organic is fundamentally different from conventional because of the ... Genetically modified organisms, nanomaterials, human sewage sludge, plant growth regulators, hormones, and antibiotic use in ... A key characteristic of organic farming is the rejection of genetically engineered plants and animals. On 19 October 1998, ... Although GMOs are excluded from organic farming, there is concern that the pollen from genetically modified crops is ...

*ATryn

... is the first medicine produced using genetically engineered animals. GTC states that one genetically modified goat can ... Larkin, Catherine (February 6, 2009). "GTC Drug Is First From Genetically Engineered Animals". Bloomberg. Retrieved February 7 ... It is made from the milk of goats that have been genetically modified to produce human antithrombin, a plasma protein with ... "HSUS Position Statement: Genetic Engineering of Animals". Archived from the original on December 3, 2008. Soler E, Thépot D, ...

*Basel Declaration

Disease models in genetically modified animals are mainly in rodents, such as mice and rats. However, they cannot adequately ... Genetically modified animals represent an important instrument of modern biomedical research. In many cases, species higher on ... They see the following advantages in the use of genetically modified organisms in animal experiments: Possibility of developing ... Research in animal models using mammals, such as even-toed ungulates (especially for animal health) and in very rare cases also ...

*Nuttelex

Its margarines are made without animal products or genetically modified ingredients. The original Nuttelex used to contain nuts ...

*International Center for Technology Assessment

Also, the introduction of genetically modified plants and animals is of concern. Crops engineered to produce pharmaceuticals ( ... of nanotechnology Environmental implications of nanotechnology Health implications of nanotechnology Genetically modified food ...

*Genetic engineering techniques

In animals, the most widely used are growth hormone genes. Finally, genetically modified viruses (such as retroviruses and ... Plants and animals have been genetically modified for research, agricultural and medical applications. In plants, the most ... The gene to be inserted into the genetically modified organism must be combined with other genetic elements in order for it to ... Further tests are carried out on the resulting genetically modified organism to ensure stable integration, inheritance and ...

*Genetic engineering in North America

The Regulation of Genetically Modified Food Glossary definition of Genetically Modified: "An organism, such as a plant, animal ... A 'GMO' is a genetically modified organism.", Retrieved 2 November 2012. "The Regulation of Genetically Modified Foods". Staff ... McHughen A, Smyth S (2008). "US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or ... including genetically modified food plants. The EPA regulates genetically modified plants with pesticide properties, as well as ...

*2015 in science

A report by scientists, ethicists and policy experts from the Hinxton Group states that research into genetically modified ... "FDA takes several actions involving genetically engineered plants and animals for food". FDA. 19 November 2015. Retrieved 20 ... 19 November - For the first time, the FDA approves genetically modified salmon for human consumption. 20 November - Doctors use ... "PNAS: The tardigrade (water bear), the only known animal that can survive in the vacuum of space, has the most foreign DNA of ...

*History of genetic engineering

The first genetically modified animal was a mouse created in 1974 by Rudolf Jaenisch. In 1983 an antibiotic resistant gene was ... Genetically modified microbial enzymes were the first application of genetically modified organisms in food production and were ... McHughen A, Smyth S (2008). "US regulatory system for genetically modified [genetically modified organism (GMO), rDNA or ... The first genetically modified animal to be commercialised was the GloFish, a Zebra fish with a fluorescent gene added that ...

*Pseudorabies

Research on SuHV1 in pigs has pioneered animal disease control with genetically modified vaccines. SuHV1 is now used in model ... ISBN 0-12-253056-X. Mettenleiter (2008). "Molecular Biology of Animal Herpesviruses". Animal Viruses: Molecular Biology. ... In susceptible animals other than swine, infection is usually fatal, and the affected animals most often show intense pruritus ... The modified live virus replicates at the site of injection and in regional lymph nodes. Vaccine virus is shed in such low ...

*Huntington's disease

In animals genetically modified to exhibit HD, several functions of HTT have been found. In these animals, HTT is important for ... Research is conducted using in vitro methods, animal models and human volunteers. Animal models are critical for understanding ... Rollin BE (2006). "The Regulation of Animal Research and the Emergence of Animal Ethics: A Conceptual History". Theoretical ... Animals with chemically induced brain injury exhibit HD-like symptoms and were initially used, but they did not mimic the ...

*Friends of the Earth (US)

It is the first type of animal genetically engineered specifically for human consumption. The nanotechnology campaign favors ... sciences portal Energy portal Biodiversity Earth Science Ecology Environmentalism Genetically modified organisms Global warming ... Friends of the Earth U.S. also campaigned against the release of genetically engineered mosquitoes in Key West, Florida, and ... Related efforts advocate for labeling and stricter regulation of genetically engineered food, or GMOs. Friends of the Earth U.S ...

*Safe trade

Genetically modified organisms, imported animals) across the borders of ecoregions, to preserve their natural wild biodiversity ... there is some concern that spreading a virulent organism among animals would be an effective way to attack humans, damage ...

*Federal Ethics Committee on Non-Human Biotechnology

Gene Technology for Food - Ethical considerations for the marketing of genetically modified foodstuffs and animal feed, 2003. ... Release of genetically modified plants - ethical requirements, 2012. Ethical treatment of fish, 2014. Freedom of research and ... concerning a more concrete definition of the dignity of creation with regard to animals, 2001. Patents on Animals and Plants - ... Research on Primates - an Ethical Evaluation, Report by the Swiss Committee on Animal Experiments (SCAE) and the Swiss Ethics ...

*Politicization of science

They have claimed that progressives have had these kinds of issues with policies involving genetically modified foods, ... vaccination, overpopulation, use of animals in research, nuclear energy, and other topics. Both mainstream climatologists and ... The report accuses the administration of modifying performance measures for abstinence-based programs to make them look more ...
It has been more than 20 years since the first batch of transgenic fish was produced. Five stable germ-line transmitted growth hormone (GH) transgenic fish lines have been generated. This paper reviews the mechanisms of integration and gene targeting of the transgene, as well as the viability, reproduction and transgenic approaches for the reproductive containment of GH-transgenic fish. Further, we propose that it should be necessary to do the following studies, in particularly, of the breeding of transgenic fish: to assess the fitness of transgenic fish in an aqueous environment with a large space and a complex structure; and to develop a controllable on-off strategy of reproduction in transgenic fish ...
Vol 9: Zebrafish Transgenic Line huORFZ Is an Effective Living Bioindicator for Detecting Environmental Toxicants.. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Because Ras signaling is frequently activated by major hepatocellular carcinoma etiological factors, a transgenic zebrafish constitutively expressing the krasV12 oncogene in the liver was previously generated by our laboratory. Although this model depicted and uncovered the conservation between zebrafish and human liver tumorigenesis, the low tumor incidence and early mortality limit its use for further studies of tumor progression and inhibition. Here, we employed a mifepristone-inducible transgenic system to achieve inducible krasV12 expression in the liver. The system consisted of two transgenic lines: the liver-driver line had a liver-specific fabp10 promoter to produce the LexPR chimeric transactivator, and the Ras-effector line contained a LexA-binding site to control EGFP-krasV12 expression. In double-transgenic zebrafish (driver-effector) embryos and adults, we demonstrated mifepristone-inducible EGFP-krasV12 expression in the liver. Robust and homogeneous liver tumors developed in 100% ...
View Notes - Week One from ANTH 2020 at Colorado. of their lives Fight Against Death Donor Transplants Transgenic Pigs • (hyper)Acute Immune Response Fetal Tissues • Blastocyst • Totipotent
Non-coding DNA conservation across species has been often used as a predictor for transcriptional enhancer activity. However, only a few systematic analyses of the function of these highly conserved non-coding regions (HCNRs) have been performed. Here we use zebrafish transgenic assays to perform a systematic study of 113 HCNRs from human chromosome 16. By comparing transient and stable transgenesis, we show that the first method is highly inefficient, leading to 40% of false positives and 20% of false negatives. When analyzed in stable transgenic lines, a great majority of HCNRs were active in the central nervous system, although some of them drove expression in other organs such as the eye and the excretory system. Finally, by testing a fraction of the HCNRs lacking enhancer activity for in vivo insulator activity, we find that 20% of them may contain enhancer-blocking function. Altogether our data indicate that HCNRs may contain different types of cis-regulatory activity, including enhancer,
TT-RIIP International Course, TRANSGENIC TECHNOLOGIES in MODELING HUMAN DISEASES: Principles, Associated Technologies, Animal Management and Ethics, 5-13 June 2017, Athens, ...
Alex Palazzo has a little post on the "brainbow mouse", created using some of the transgenic methods mentioned by amenestic in a post a while back. Each individual neuron in a given mouse brain expresses a random combination of fluorescent proteins, allowing analysis with the naked eye. Pretty amazing stuff ...
P-glycoproteins can cause multidrug resistance in mammalian tumor cells by active extrusion of cytotoxic drugs. The natural function of these evolutionarily conserved, membrane-bound ATP binding transport proteins is unknown. In mammals, P-glycoproteins are abundantly present in organs associated with the digestive tract. We have studied the tissue-specific expression of Caenorhabditis elegans P-glycoprotein genes pgp-1 and pgp-3 by transformation of nematodes with pgp-lacZ gene fusion constructs in which the promoter area of the pgp genes was fused to the coding region of lacZ. Expression of pgp-1 and pgp-3, as inferred from pgp-lacZ transgenic nematodes, was confined to the intestinal cells. The expression patterns of both genes were virtually indistinguishable. Quantitative analysis of pgp mRNA levels during development showed that pgp-1, -2, and -3 were expressed throughout the life cycle of C.elegans, albeit with some variation indicating developmental regulation. The expression of P-glycoprotein
Most of the studies performed to understand intracellular Aβ aggregation and amyloid formation have been done using in vitro systems. Therefore, neither the in vivo mechanisms of amyloid formation nor the factors required for this process have been established [15]. In the present work, we evaluated intrinsic and extrinsic factors in the aggregation of Aβ peptides constitutively overexpressed in muscle cells of Caenorhabditis elegans. Under our experimental conditions, we found that Aβ peptide carrying the Arctic (E22G) or the NIC mutation (V18A) did form few ThS-positive aggregates compared to Aβwt. The results obtained with the NIC (V18A) variant are in agreement with previously published in vitro data [14]. This mutation is expected to favor the α helix over the β sheet conformation, which would cause a decrease in amyloidosis [14]. However, the results obtained with the Arctic mutation (E22G) are at variance with the literature [50]. The initial delay in the formation of aggregates is ...
Cell cycle analysis of transgenic zebrafish embryos expressing PCNA-CB. (A) Overview of the dorsal midbrain of a wnt1:gal4,UAS:GFP (green); UAS:PCNA-CB (magenta
BioAssay record AID 620365 submitted by ChEMBL: Antiangiogenic activity in fli-1:enhanced GFP expressing transgenic zebrafish embryo assessed as inhibition of neovacularisation at 5 uM after 24 hrs relative to control.
The study is the first to document the rise of mutations that make mosquitoes resistant to a gene drive, due to natural selection. These findings will allow researchers to make better predictions of how a gene drive will proceed and to improve the design of future gene drives to decrease the likelihood of resistance.. Tony Nolan adds: Reducing the numbers of mosquito vectors has been the most effective tool to date for the control of malaria, so self-sustaining gene drives designed with this purpose have great potential. However gene drives are not a silver bullet and just like antibiotics can select for resistance in bacteria, gene drives can be susceptible to resistance at their target site. The novelty of this study is not that resistance emerges - we have been planning strategies to deal with this from the start - but that it documents the way it emerges and the way it is selected over generations. This work will help a lot in planning for and managing the emergence of ...
In August, the first cloned pig with Alzheimers disease will be born in Denmark.. Responsible for this breakthrough are scientists from the universities of Copenhagen and Århus, Denmark in their effort towards finding a cure for Alzheimers disease.. The said pigs have been genetically modified to function as animal models for Alzheimers disease - a brain disorder suffered by an approximately 24 million people globally.. According to Ingrid Brück Bøgh from the Department of Large Animal Sciences, University of Copenhagen:. "In the light of the intense focus on medical research at the University of Copenhagen and the continuous expansion of the pharmaceutical industry in Denmark, the ability to produce transgenic pig models for human diseases is a major prerequisite for future progress in this area.. The upcoming birth of these transgenic pig models constitutes a fantastic success for us. It is also a demonstration of the excellent cross-disciplinary collaboration between the experts at both ...
One of the main concerns over gene drive is its potential long‐term effects. The designated effects on the targeted populations will be fast-within a few years-while long‐term effects on ecosystems may take decades to appear and are extremely unpredictable. The time frame of gene drive perfectly fits the economic development strategies dominant today in agribusiness, with a focus on short‐term return on investments and disdain for long‐term issues. The current economical system based on productivity, yields, monoculture, and extractivism [7] is a perfect match for the operating mode of gene drive. In addition, agri‐food industry decision centers are rarely located near the production sites. They will be inclined to disregard the ecological long‐term risks as they only concern local human populations in their exploited lands. Gene drive then becomes an issue of environmental justice.. The scarce use of gene drive, if concerted, cautious and controlled, may not cause any ecological ...
One of the main concerns over gene drive is its potential long‐term effects. The designated effects on the targeted populations will be fast-within a few years-while long‐term effects on ecosystems may take decades to appear and are extremely unpredictable. The time frame of gene drive perfectly fits the economic development strategies dominant today in agribusiness, with a focus on short‐term return on investments and disdain for long‐term issues. The current economical system based on productivity, yields, monoculture, and extractivism [7] is a perfect match for the operating mode of gene drive. In addition, agri‐food industry decision centers are rarely located near the production sites. They will be inclined to disregard the ecological long‐term risks as they only concern local human populations in their exploited lands. Gene drive then becomes an issue of environmental justice.. The scarce use of gene drive, if concerted, cautious and controlled, may not cause any ecological ...
During vertebrate embryogenesis, the cranial neural crest (CNC) forms at the neural plate border and subsequently migrates and differentiates into many types of cells. The transcription factor Snai2, which is induced by canonical Wnt signaling to be expressed in the early CNC, is pivotal for CNC induction and migration in Xenopus. However, snai2 expression is silenced during CNC migration, and its roles at later developmental stages remain unclear. We generated a transgenic X. tropicalis line that expresses enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) driven by the snai2 promoter/enhancer, and observed eGFP expression not only in the pre-migratory and migrating CNC, but also the differentiating CNC. This transgenic line can be used directly to detect deficiencies in CNC development at various stages, including subtle perturbation of CNC differentiation. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry confirm that Snai2 is re-expressed in the differentiating CNC. Using a separate transgenic Wnt reporter line
BioAssay record AID 653187 submitted by ChEMBL: Toxicity in transgenic zebrafish larvae harboring Fli-1 gene assessed as maximum tolerated dosage after 24 hrs.
Transgenic animals have become valuable tools for both research and applied purposes. The current method of gene transfer, microinjection, which is widely used in transgenic mouse production, has only had limited success in producing transgenic animals of larger or higher species. Here, we report a linker based sperm-mediated gene transfer method (LB-SMGT) that greatly improves the production efficiency of large transgenic animals. The linker protein, a monoclonal antibody (mAb C), is reactive to a surface antigen on sperm of all tested species including pig, mouse, chicken, cow, goat, sheep, and human. mAb C is a basic protein that binds to DNA through ionic interaction allowing exogenous DNA to be linked specifically to sperm. After fertilization of the egg, the DNA is shown to be successfully integrated into the genome of viable pig and mouse offspring with germ-line transfer to the F1 generation at a highly efficient rate: 37.5% of pigs and 33% of mice. The integration is demonstrated again by FISH
Behrendorff, N, Behrendorff, J, Wall, A, Scott, E and Thorn, P (2011). A Novel Transgenic Zebrafish Model for Studying Secretion in the Exocrine Pancreas. In: Abstracts of Papers Submitted to the 42nd Annual Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association. 42nd Annual Meeting of the American Pancreatic Association, Chicago, IL, United States, (1314-1314). 2-5 November 2011. doi:10.1097/MPA.0b013e318232ea83 ...
He has led the movement to shine the spotlight," says Marc Lipsitch, an epidemiologist at Harvard University involved in biosafety issues. "Its not that common to be at the beginning of your career and already be thinking of the moral, ethical, and policy implications.". A gene drive is a genetic addition made to a mosquito or other organism that is able to spread through a population of animals in the wild and potentially act as a doomsday gadget, driving it out of existence. The technology presents challenges not only because it could extinguish a species but because by its very nature it can spread widely, including as the result of a lab accident.. "This is the perfect example of a technology that needs to be community-guided from the beginning," says Esvelt. "Its meaningless to talk about engaging the public in science if science is still going to develop the product and then say, What do you think?". Esvelt says hes started a new project, called Responsive Science, along with MIT ...
Gene drive systems distort the rule that there is a 50:50 chance of a gene copy being passed on. This promotes the inheritance of a particular copy of a gene from the parent to offspring. When coupled to a genetic trait that affects an individuals survival or ability to reproduce, it becomes a powerful tool that can be used for population control or even local elimination.
In lab populations of genetically engineered mosquitoes, mutations arose that blocked the gene drive’s spread and restored female fertility.
Public fears and concerns towards transgenic plant or animal have been there for years even though the scientific expects in China, at least, acclaimed that they are safe. The reason why people are afraid of transgenic technology and furthermore reject it is that public people dont know it at all, or have limited understanding.. You must have read lots of articles explaining why transgenic technology is safe, or on the other hand, dangerous. And here I believe current products of transgenic technology in your daily life are safe and healthy, because most of them are protein product indeed. It is the exogenous genes are translocated and expressed in the host, but the outcome is protein according to the known central dogma, hence the protein cannot hybridize with your genome so that you will not be mutated to Rice-Man. No need to panic.. ...
Transgenic mosquitoes that could eradicate malaria. Unfortunately, it is potentially the most hazardous genetically modified organism (GMO) to have be
Energy homeostasis is accomplished through a highly integrated and redundant neurohumoral system. Recently, novel molecular mediators and regulatory pathways for feeding and body weight regulation have been identified in the brain and the periphery. Because of the multitude and complexity of disturbances in energy intake, expenditure, and partitioning that are associated with obesity, it has been difficult to determine which abnormalities are causative versus less important phenomena that are consequences of the altered neuroendocrine and metabolic milieu. Transgenic technology has provided new opportunities to modify the complex body weight-regulating system and to assess the relative importance of the individual components. Observations of mutant mice have shed new light on the understanding of energy homeostasis equation. Once created, transgenic animal models may be useful in assessing the efficacy or determining the mode of action of potential new therapeutic agents. However, the ...
Use of transgenic Aedes aegypti in Brazil: risk perception and assessment. Andrade et al. (2016) Bulletin of the World Health Organization. Article ID: BLT.16.173377 ...
Advances in single-cell technologies have revealed vast differences between cells once thought to be in the same category, calling into question how we define cell type in the first place ...
Zebrafish have been widely used as a model system for studying developmental processes, but in the last decade, they have also emerged as a valuable system for modeling human disease. The development and function of zebrafish organs are strikingly similar to those of humans, and the ease of creating mutant or transgenic fish has facilitated the generation of disease models. Here, we highlight the use of zebrafish for defining disease pathways and for discovering new therapies. ...
091011 - Animais Transg nicos: Conceito, Metodologias e Aplica es - Transgenic animals: concept, methodologies and applications | Veterinaria.org . La primera comunidad veterinaria de habla hispana con presencia en Espa a y Am rica del Sur.
Hello, I am interested to know if anyone out there is using delta 2-3 embryos as recipients for transgenic constructs, on a routine basis? If so, are there any important alterations to standard injection protocols to consider (other than the obvious omission of helper plasmid) ? Thank you. Per.Kylsten at mibi.su.se ...
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary xenotransplantation is currently limited by hyperacute rejection mediated in part by xenoreactive natural antibody and complement. Transgenic swine organs that express the human complement regulatory protein CD59 have demonstrat
J. Pathol. 163:2155-2164. , 2001, Amyloid p protein forms ion channels: implications for Alzheimers disease pathophysiology. FASEB J. 15: 2433-2444. -C, Hall, D. , Mathis, C. , 2001, Visualization of fibrillar amyloid deposits in living, transgenic Caenorhabditis elegans animals using the sensitive amyloid dye, X-34. Neurobiol Aging 22:217-226. , 2004, Single chain variable fragments against B-amyloid (AB) can The Contribution of Microscopy to the Study of Alzheimers Disease 39 inhibit AB aggregation and prevent AB-induced neurotoxicity. Interestingly, a rapidly-formed but transient nanocrystalhne from of a 14-amino acid Ap peptide has been described by Otzen and Oliveberg (2004). Using TEM these workers showed that the nanocrystalline form of this peptide leads to the formation of a tangled aggregate (hours) and amyloid fibres (days). 2 Ap protofilaments Definition of the P-sheet-containing protofilament that can be formed by Ap and several other fibril-forming amyloidogenic peptides is by no ...
Our lab studies the alternative splicing of pre-mRNAs. In Drosophila, alternative splicing plays a central role in sex determination. We have been using the sex-determination system to study factors that influence alternative splicing and to determine the mechanisms by which they do so. Several of the proteins we are studying belong to the serine/arginine-rich (SR) family of splicing factors. These proteins usually bind to sequences located within exons, known as exonic splicing enhancers (ESEs) and activate nearby splice sites. We have found that an SR factors can repress splicing when bound within an intron. Using in vitro splicing assays and Drosophila genetics we are determining how splicing activation and repression differ. A second interest of the lab is in genetic models for muscular dystrophy. Recently we have developed a transgenic Drosophila model for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) a poorly understood late-onset disease that affects specific muscle groups in humans. We ...
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This study has demonstrated that microparticle bombardment is a simple and efficient technique for generating stable transgenic lines in C. elegans. We have found that a substantial proportion of the transgenic lines generated by microparticle bombardment contain a low number of copies of the transforming DNA integrated into a chromosome, resulting in stable transmission of the transgenic DNA over many generations. A critical factor in the success of this microparticle bombardment transformation strategy is the use of a selectable cotransformation marker to identify rare transformed animals within the population of bombarded animals and their descendants. For the experiments described in this article, we bombarded unc-119 mutants with plasmids containing an unc-119 rescuing fragment and were able to identify transformed animals based on their ability to survive starvation and on their non-Unc phenotype.. In some cases, the unc-119 gene may be an unsuitable cotransformation marker due to ...
Regulating transgenic technology in China: Law, regulation, and public policy. Yinliang Liu Dr. of Laws, M.S. (Biology), Associate Professor Vice Director, Institute of IP Law Director, Bio-Law Research Center China University of Political Science and Law 3 December 2007. Outline. Slideshow 449280 by tirza
Confocal micrograph of the brain of a transgenic zebrafish embryo. Some neurons express the green fluorescent protein (GFP) - shown in green under the...
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Not everyone is convinced that this optimistic view is warranted. "Its a false security," said Ethan Bier, a geneticist at the University of California, San Diego. He said that while such a strategy is important to study, he worries that researchers will be fooled into thinking that forms of resistance offer "more of a buffer and safety net than they do.". And while mathematical models are helpful, researchers stress that models cant replace actual experimentation. Ecological systems are just too complicated. "We have no experience engineering systems that are going to evolve outside of our control. We have never done that before," Esvelt said. "So thats why a lot of these modeling studies are important-they can give us a handle on what might happen. But Im also hesitant to rely on modeling and trying to predict in advance when systems are so complicated.". Messer hopes to put his theoretical work into a real-world setting, at least in the lab. He is currently directing a gene drive ...
Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) was first used as a marker of protein expression in vivo 18 years ago, heralding the beginning of what became known as the Green Revolution. Since then, there has been an explosion in the number of transgenic lines in existence, and these transgenic tools are now being applied to skeletal research. Advances in transgenesis are also leading to increasing use of new model organisms for studying skeletogenesis. Such new models include the small teleosts zebrafish and medaka, which due to their optical translucency offer imaging possibilities in the live animals. In this review, we will introduce a number of recent advances in genetic engineering and transgenesis and the new genetic tools that are currently being developed. We will provide examples of how zebrafish and medaka transgenic lines are helping us to understand the behaviour of skeletal cells in vivo. Finally, we will discuss future prospects for the application of transgenic technology to skeletal research.
Penn State and Agariger, Inc. have patented the technology of making new transgenic mushrooms, which have increased hope of using mushrooms for the mass
Transgenic mice and methods of preparing such mice are disclosed. The mice exhibit decreased platelet counts and/or megakaryocyte leukemia.
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LONDON (Reuters) - Rodents have joined mosquitoes in the cross-hairs of scientists working on a next-generation genetic technology known as "gene drive" to control pests.. Researchers in Scotland said on Tuesday they had developed two different ways to disrupt female fertility in rats and mice, building on a similar approach that has already been tested in the lab to eliminate malaria-carrying mosquitoes.. So-called gene drives push engineered genes through multiple generations by over-riding normal biological processes, so that all offspring carry two copies. Usually, animals would receive one copy of a gene from the mother and one from the father.. The technique is extremely powerful but also controversial, since such genetically engineered organisms could have an irreversible impact on the ecosystem.. Concerns about the proliferation of mutant species have led some to call for a gene drive ban, but Bruce Whitelaw of the University of Edinburghs Roslin Institute believes that would be short ...
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Naturally occurring mutations involving the nervous system have provided virtually all of our current understanding of the genetic regulation of neural development (Caviness and Rakic, 1978). The difficulty of isolating the corresponding genes, however, has precluded a molecular analysis of these mutants. Insertional mutagenesis, induced by microinjection of DNA into fertilized ova to produce transgenic animals, provides a molecular tag that marks the site of the mutational event. In this article, we describe a transgenic neurological mutation, designated wocko (Wo), which disrupts the development of the inner ear. These mutant mice display a dominant behavioral phenotype that consists of circling, hyperactivity, and head tossing, reminiscent of the shaker/waltzer class of mutants, and they display a recessive homozygous sublethal phenotype. Anatomical analyses showed that both structural and neural components of the vestibular system were disrupted, while analyses of mutant fetuses showed that ...
This laboratory manual, published in cooperation with the International Society for Transgenic Technology (ISTT), provides almost all current methods that can be applied to the creation and analysis o
A postdoctoral position is available at the University of California, San Francisco, to analyze transgenic zebrafish that model neurodegenerative diseases. Required skills include: histology and immunohistochemistry, familiarity with brain anatomy, and molecular biology. Prior experience with zebrafish is desirable but not essential. Please email CV and three letters of reference to: Su Guo suguo at itsa.ucsf.edu ...
Background. Transgenic animal technology includes the process of inserting functional foreign genes into animals and using them as a tool to research intricate biological processes. Transgenic Animals are animals that have DNA introduced into their cells artificially. These animals become important instruments in exploring regulation of various genetic pathways, gene expression* and cellular processes. By inserting a gene into a live organism, scientists can explore the function of this gene in various environments. Transgenic animals serve a variety of different functions, proving them to be powerful research tools.Transgenic animals can serve as distinctive models for disease, and are made specifically to answer precise biological questions. ...
Engineered synthetic species-like barriers were recently described by Maselko et al (2017) in Nature Communications and the work has interesting implications for genetic control strategies and gene drive containment. There is an ever-increasing interest in manipulating natural populations using genetic […]. Read More ». ...
Words that start with transgenes, Unscrambled words that start with transgenes, Words starting with transgenes, Words that begin with transgenes, Words beginning with transgenes, Words with the prefix transgenes
Summary: We report generation of stable transgenic lines of the ascidian Ciona savignyi carrying a Ciona intestinalis-Brachyury-promoter/Green Fluorescent Protein-reporter (Ci-Bra-GFP) construct. The transgenic lines were made using a technique in which the endonuclease I-SceI was coinjected into fertilized eggs with a transgene construct containing flanking recognition sites for I-SceI. Two founder animals, out of 12 F0 adults tested, were found to transmit the transgene to their offspring (F1s) at frequencies of 42% and 23%. The transgene was further inherited by the F2 in a Mendelian fashion and displayed nonmosaic expression, indicating integration into the genome. The Mendelian inheritance and the absence of mosaicism persisted through the F3 and F4 generations. Southern blot analyses showed that the transgene was organized in tandem arrays of no more than 10 copies. Using these Ci-Bra-GFP transgenics, we describe cellular movements and shape changes involved in notochord morphogenesis in ...
Purpose: Old astrocyte specifically induced substance (OASIS) is a putative endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress sensor in astrocytes with a mechanism of activation that is similar to ATF6. In this study we investigated the effect of overexpression of OASIS in photoreceptor cells death induced by ER stress.. Methods: We generated a transgenic zebrafish line of OASIS using the tol2 transposon system by which we can express any exogenous genes in fish rod photoreceptors. We measured the cell viability by two methods, counting photoreceptor cells (PRC) numbers and TUNEL assay. ER stress was induced by 1ug/ml of tunicamycin. We investigated the expression levels of unfolded protein response (UPR) genes in OASIS transgenic and wild type (wt) fish. From 3 to 7 days after fertilization (dpf), mRNA expression levels were tested by RT-PCR.. Results: OASIS mRNA expression was detected in eye of 7 dpf embryo in both transgenic embryo and wt. Unexpectedly, photoreceptor cell viability of OASIS transgenic ...
Transgenic rats with components of the human RAS provide an opportunity for the study of the human RAS and human renin inhibitors in a rodent model readily suitable for physiological experimentation. We used transgenic rats with a high overexpression of human angiotensinogen19 to study the formation of angiotensin peptides at the level of the vascular wall. Our data show that human angiotensinogen is present at the vascular wall in these rats. Furthermore, human renin can be taken up from the circulation and remains active much longer than its presence in the circulation would explain. Even after its disappearance from the circulation, the enzyme continued to cleave human angiotensinogen locally in the tissues, resulting in the release of Ang I and II. The enzymatic activity of human renin was promptly inhibited by a specific human renin inhibitor.. The species specificity of the renin-angiotensinogen interaction does not allow the study of human angiotensinogen or renin in rats.19 Specific ...
Transgenic pigs have been produced which express a short interfering RNA (siRNA) and consequently have reduced susceptibility to infection with foot-and-mouth disease virus.
BACKGROUND: Melanoma is the most deadly form of skin cancer. Expression of oncogenic BRAF or NRAS, which are frequently mutated in human melanomas, promote the formation of nevi but are not sufficient for tumorigenesis. Even with germline mutated p53, these engineered melanomas present with variable onset and pathology, implicating additional somatic mutations in a multi-hit tumorigenic process. RESULTS: To decipher the genetics of these melanomas, we sequence the protein coding exons of 53 primary melanomas generated from several BRAF(V600E) or NRAS(Q61K) driven transgenic zebrafish lines. We find that engineered zebrafish melanomas show an overall low mutation burden, which has a strong, inverse association with the number of initiating germline drivers. Although tumors reveal distinct mutation spectrums, they show mostly C | T transitions without UV light exposure, and enrichment of mutations in melanogenesis, p53 and MAPK signaling. Importantly, a recurrent amplification occurring with pre
Macquarie University researchers have developed the first zebrafish model of the neurodegenerative Machado-Joseph Disease - and have used this model to test drugs that could potentially be used to treat the disease, which disproportionately affects Indigenous Australians.. Machado-Joseph Disease, or spinocerebellar ataxia-3, is a hereditary disease caused by a gene mutation, which leads to a progressive loss of muscle control and movement. Most people living with MJD are wheelchair bound and need constant support within 15 years of symptoms first emerging.. Researchers gave the zebrafish the human disease-causing gene, creating the first transgenic zebrafish model of MJD, allowing them to compare the movement, pathology and lifespan of fish carrying the healthy version of the human gene to those with the disease-causing version.. "Zebrafish are small and transparent, allowing us to see how a disease develops. Being able to use zebrafish to model MJD is a great win for those of us working to ...
The dopamine transporter (DAT) plays a pivotal role in maintaining optimal dopamine signaling. DAT-overactivity has been linked to various neuropsychiatric disorders yet so far the direct pathological consequences of it has not been fully assessed. We here generated a transgenic rat model that via pronuclear microinjection overexpresses the DAT gene. Our results demonstrate that DAT-overexpression induces multiple neurobiological effects that exceeded the expected alterations in the corticostriatal dopamine system. Furthermore, transgenic rats specifically exhibited behavioral and pharmaco-therapeutic profiles phenotypic of repetitive disorders. Together our findings suggest that the DAT rat model will constitute a valuable tool for further investigations into the pathological influence of DAT overexpression on neural systems relevant to neuropsychiatric disorders.. ...
Neuroblastoma is a developmental tumor that arises in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system and accounts for 10% of all cancer-related deaths in children. The anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene is mutationally activated in a subset of primary neuroblastomas, including those with MYCN gene amplification, suggesting pathogenic cooperation. Because the mechanism underlying this cooperation is unclear, we generated a novel transgenic zebrafish model that overexpresses human MYCN and activated ALK in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system to analyze their interaction. The expression of MYCN in this model induces neuroblastomas in the inter-renal gland, the zebrafish analogue of the adrenal medulla, which is the site of origin observed in approximately half of childhood neuroblastomas. Furthermore, the tumors resemble human neuroblastomas histologically, immunohistochemically and ultrastructurally. Concomitant expression of activated ALK with MYCN in this model profoundly accelerates the ...
Animal models have been used to examine the development of the classic phenotypic findings of LVH, myocyte disarray and interstitial fibrosis. In a transgenic rabbit model of HCM (β-MyHC-Q403), myocyte disarray occurred before cellular hypertrophy and fibrosis (10). The transgenic rabbit model is interesting because beta-myosin heavy chain is the predominant protein, as in humans; this is unlike in mice, in which alpha-myosin heavy chain is the predominant protein. With respect to imaging findings, a reduction in septal and lateral systolic and diastolic mitral annulus velocities was the earliest observation when transgenic mutant animals were compared with nontransgenic or wild-type animals (11). Interestingly, myocardial velocities were not related to disarray, hypertrophy, or collagen volume fraction. Conversely, reduced calcium sensitivity of myofibrillar ATPase activity was detected in these animals at the same time abnormal myocardial function was observed by imaging. With disease ...
Courtesy Permits for non-regulated organisms. Biotechnology Regulatory Services (BRS) issues courtesy permits for non-regulated organisms upon request in order to facilitate their movement, which might otherwise be impeded because of the similarity of the organism to other regulated organisms. A genetically engineered organism is considered a "regulated article" if the donor organism, recipient organism, vector or vector agent used in engineering the organism belongs to one of the taxonomic groups listed in 7 CFR part 340 and is also a plant pest, or if there is a reason to believe it is a plant pest. Since most transgenic Drosophila developed for research purposes do not contain genetic sequences from plant pests and are themselves not considered plant pests, most transgenic Drosophila do not require permits from BRS for their movement. However, shipments manifested as "fruit flies" have recently raised agricultural and environmental concerns because this common name also refers to plant pests ...
The preparation of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins is one of the major challenges of biotechnology. Mammalian cells are required for a number of proteins which must be modified posttranscriptionally. Animal cell lines cultured in fermentors are presently the major source of complex proteins. The milk of transgenic animals proved to be a possible source of pharmaceutical proteins and one of them, human antithrombin III, has been approved by the EU (EMEA) and US (FDA) medicament agencies. Several species are being implemented for this purpose. Rabbits are one of these species. It offers several advantages: low cost to produce transgenic founders, rapid reproduction, easy and cheap scaling up, easy breeding in pathogen-free conditions and insensitivity to prion diseases. Rabbits are thus an efficient tool to prepare several kilograms of a recombinant protein per year. ...
My lab uses zebrafish as a model to study myelination in the development central nervous system. The small size, optical transparency, relative simplicity, and rapid development of zebrafish embryos are properties that allow direct observation of entire developmental (or repair) events as they occur in live animals. We have developed a non-invasive transgenic method to induce demyelination in zebrafish and have also generated a suite of tools to visualise myelin and myelinated axons at high-resolution in live zebrafish, which allows us to observe cellular, sub-cellular and molecular behaviours during myelination, demyelination, and remyelination as they occur in a living animal. Zebrafish are well established as a powerful system with which to identify new genes required for biological events. In a genetic screen carried out at Stanford University I identified new roles for genes with known involvement in myelination, established zebrafish models of human disease, and identified new genes ...
The Megason lab is interested in how the program contained in the genome is executed during development to turn an egg into an embryo. We use confocal/2-photon imaging of living, transgenic zebrafish embryos to watch biological circuits function in vivo and use these data in cell-based, quantitative modeling.
MicroRNAs are a well-studied class of non-coding RNA and are known to regulate developmental processes in eukaryotes. Their role in key biological processes such as vasculature development has attracted interest. However, a comprehensive understanding of molecular regulation of angiogenesis and vascular integrity during development remains less explored. Here we identified miRNAs involved in the development and maintenance of vasculature in zebrafish embryos using a reverse genetics approach. Using a combination of bioinformatics predictions and literature based evidences we mined over 701 Human and 329 Zebrafish miRNAs to derive a list of 29 miRNAs targeting vascular specific genes in zebrafish. We shortlisted eight miRNAs and investigated their potential role in regulating vascular development in zebrafish transgenic model. In this screen we identified three miRNAs, namely miR-1, miR-144 and miR-142a-3p that have the potential to influence vascular development in zebrafish. We show that miR-142a-3p
Abstract. To develop transgenic lines for conditional expression of desired genes in rats, we generated several lines of the transgenic rats carrying the tetracycline-controlled transactivator (tTA) gene. Using a vigorous, ubiquitous promoter to drive the tTA transgene, we obtained widespread expression of tTA in various tissues. Expression of tTA was sufficient to strongly activate its reporter gene, but was below the toxicity threshold. We examined the dynamics of Doxycycline (Dox)-regulated gene expression in transgenic rats. In the two transmittable lines, tTA-mediated activation of the reporter gene was fully subject to regulation by Dox. Dox dose-dependently suppressed tTA-activated gene expression. The washout time for the effects of Dox was dose-dependent. We tested a complex regime of Dox administration to determine the optimal effectiveness and washout duration. Dox was administered at a high dose (500 μg/ml in drinking water) for two days to reach the effective concentration, and ...
Introduction. Abbreviations and Acronyms. 1. FROM THE GENE TO THE TRANSGENIC ANIMAL.. Genome composition.. Gene structure.. The number of genes in genomes.. The major techniques of genetic engineering.. The systematic description of genomes.. Classical genetic selection.. Experimental mutation in genomes.. 2. TECHNIQUES FOR CLONING AND TRANSGENESIS.. Cloning.. Gene therapy.. Techniques of animal transgenesis.. 3. APPLICATIONS OF CLONING AND TRANSGENESIS.. Applications of animal cloning.. Applications of animal transgenesis.. 4. LIMITS AND RISKS OF CLONING, GENE THERAPY AND TRANSGENESIS.. Limits and risks of cloning.. Limits and risks of gene therapy.. Limits and risks of transgenesis.. Conclusion and Perspectives.. References.. Index. ...
Video articles in JoVE about rats transgenic include Preparation of Acute Hippocampal Slices from Rats and Transgenic Mice for the Study of Synaptic Alterations during Aging and Amyloid Pathology, Generation of Topically Transgenic Rats by In utero Electroporation and In vivo Bioluminescence Screening, The Double-H Maze: A Robust Behavioral Test for Learning and Memory in Rodents, Motor and Hippocampal Dependent Spatial Learning and Reference Memory Assessment in a Transgenic Rat Model of Alzheimers Disease with Stroke, Non-restraining EEG Radiotelemetry: Epidural and Deep Intracerebral Stereotaxic EEG Electrode Placement, Barnes Maze Testing Strategies with Small and Large Rodent Models, Establishment of a Valuable Mimic of Alzheimers Disease in Rat Animal Model by Intracerebroventricular Injection of Composited Amyloid Beta Protein, Electroconvulsive Seizures in Rats and Fractionation of Their Hippocampi to Examine Seizure-induced Changes in Postsynaptic Density Proteins, Adapting
J Mol Med (Berl). 2010 Jul;88(7):653-64. doi: 10.1007/s00109-010-0610-9. Epub 2010 Mar 26. Research Support, Non-U.S. Govt; Review
Gene drive systems are sensitive to the evolution of resistance in the form of polymorphisms in the guide RNAs target DNA sequence. Champer et al. (2017) have recently reported on their exploration of how Cas9 expression patterns as well as different genetic backgrounds impact the evolution of resistance to a gene drive system in Drosophila melanogaster.. Homing-based gene drive systems depend upon a high rate of Homology-Directed-DNA-Repair (HDR) following target site cleavage. When and where Cas9 cleavage occurs can impact the proportion of repair events that result from Non Homologous End Joining (NHEJ) and HDR. For example, if cleavage and repair occur in gametes then one would expect NHEJ-based repair to occur since there would be no homologous chromosome upon which HDR would depend.. Champer et al. created two Cas9-based drive systems; one in which Cas9 expression was regulated by the promoter from vasa and the other in which Cas9 expression was regulated by the promoter from nanos. Both ...
Oxford Global are proud to present the 2nd Genome Editing USA Congress, 2nd Annual Advances in Transgenic Congress USA and Synthetic Biology USA Congress taking place on 10-11 May 2018, Boston USA
Crossing of transposase and transposon transgenic mice yields experimental mice in which the transposon is mobilizing in the soma due to the presence of both transposase and transposons. Singly transgenic littermates serve as controls. Crossing T2/Onc2 transgenics to Rosa26SB11 transgenics resulted in 5.6% to 12.5% doubly transgenic offspring depending on the T2/Onc2 concatomer used. The observed sub-Mendelian ratio of genotypes was due to high rates of embryonic lethality in double transgenics. All T2/Onc2;Rosa26SB11 mice that survived to birth were moribund by 114 days of age. Twenty-three of 24 mice developed hematopoietic malignancies (mainly T-cell lymphoma) and 2 mice developed medulloblastomas. In addition to frank neoplasia, 4 mice also had hyperplasia of the intestine or pituitary gland ( 15). These results contrast to experiments using the lower-copy T2/Onc concatomers and CAGGS-SB10 transposase in which doubly transgenic mice had life spans comparable with controls. Although somatic ...
Study obesity, lipodystrophy, polyglucosan disorders, type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes, bone-mineral metabolic disorders or muscle glycogen disorders, etc.
Mouse models for hepatitis, nephritis, bowel disease, such as systemic lupus erythematosus, arthritis, allergy, hepatitis, leishmaniasis or chlamydial infection.
In general, gene expression (in terms of mRNA production) should be proportional to the number of copies of the gene present in the genome. If multiple alleles of a gene are present, the expression of each should be similar. So for a gene with 2 alleles (call them A and a), the level of expression in an animal homozygous for A would be 2(A) (since it has 2 copies of the allele, assuming it got one from the father and one from the mother). A heterozygote would show levels of expression of 1(A) + 1(a), and a homozygote for a would be 2(a). This should hold true for genes introduced by transgenic methods as well, assuming that your transgene is present in similar numbers as the complementary endogenous gene, and that it did not insert into a genomic location that somehow inhibits it from being expressed. Keep in mind that this is a rather idealized explanation and there are a number of things that are not taken into account. If, for example, the function of the product of gene A is to stimulate ...
Officials from the FBI to the United Nations bioweapons office are concerned enough about gene drives that they are scrambling to get ahead of them.
words that start with drosophila, words starting with drosophila, words that begin with drosophila, words beginning with drosophila
The health relevance of Drosophila as a model system extends beyond conserved human genes. This report describes testing compounds in mosquito, Drosophila and human cells in an effort to identify compounds that kill mosquitoes without affecting related insects like fruit flies, or humans ...
Systems Pharmacology and Translational Therapeutics involves the discovery of new drugs, the investigation of how drugs work and the use of drugs to probe mechanisms of disease that spans the most fundamental aspects of basic research, through transgenic animal models, to clinical investigation.
We have used somatic brain transgenic technology to deliver the BRI2 and BRI2-Aβ1-40 transgenes to the brains of APP mouse models. The studies with BRI2-Aβ1-40 confirmed previous studies obtained using conventional transgenic mice expressing BRI2-Aβ1-40 (McGowan et al., 2005; Kim et al., 2007). Thus, the somatic brain transgenic BRI2-Aβ1-40 studies provide additional validation for this rapid cost-effective method of manipulating gene expression in the brain (Levites et al., 2006b).. The novel result from these studies was the finding that BRI2 suppresses Aβ deposition in APP CRND8 transgenic mice to an extent equivalent to Aβ1-40. Although it is not possible to completely rule out subtle effects on Aβ generation that could influence deposition, we found no evidence that the suppressive effect was mediated by alterations in APP processing or Aβ production. Instead, we find that the suppressive effect of BRI2 is likely to be mediated by inhibition of Aβ aggregation by the secreted ...
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MyElimu is a website that brings together students from all over Tanzania as they discuss various subjects and academic matters from O Level to A Level.
Are Carbs Really the Culprit . . . Is Cutting Them The Answer? Would you like to lose weight quickly? Do you presently consume breads, pastas, and an occasional donut? OK, just stop. You will lose weight. When the scale is used as a gauge, cutting carbs may be the most effective way to drop…
مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 78876 - ترجمه نشده - موضوع : الگوریتم های تکاملی - 10 صفحه - سال انتشار : 2014 - منبع : الزویر ساینس دایرکت
Courtship suppression is an associative conditioning procedure in Drosophila melanogaster that is ethologically based and capable of being tested on individual flies. We have expanded the range of the courtship conditioning by developing an excitatory procedure in which male flies learn to associate a novel odor with the courtship stimulating cues of virgin females. Wild-type males normally court other mature males very little, but following training, the odor alone is able to elicit increased levels of courtship towards an object male. Flies expressing an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) were previously shown to have no retention one hour after training in the courtship suppression task, as manifested in their persistent courting of a virgin female. A possible trivial explanation for this response is that the CaMKII-inhibited fly strains (ala1 and ala2) were merely hyperactive courters. The poor performance of these mutants in the new excitatory conditioning ...
Humanised fruit fly models are transgenic Drosophila melanogaster strains expressing human genes. Specifically, we study the characteristics of fly models expressing human genes involved in neurological disorders such as Alzheimers and Parkinsons Diseases (AD and PD). Interestingly, these Drosophila neurodegenerative disease models show a high degree of conservation in the fundamental biological pathways and in the molecular, genetic and pathophysiological aspects of neurodegenerative human diseases. These characteristics explain why Drosophila models have paved the way for the development of initial fast screening for potential drug candidates in vivo, and represent also a promising tool for biomedical research in neuroscience ...
Purpose : The purpose of the current study is to determine in-depth functions of selected transcripts that are enriched in rod photoreceptors, in order to gain insights into intrinsic mechanisms underlying rod development and regeneration. Methods : We used a transgenic zebrafish line (XOPS:eGFP) in which rod photoreceptors express green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a model organism for this study. RNA-seq of FACS-sorted dissociated retinal cells was performed to identify differentially expressed (in GFP+ vs. GFP- cells) transcripts with FDR , 0.01. Selected rod-specific genes were prioritized for further qRT-PCR and in situ hybridization studies at different life stages of the zebrafish, and for qRT-PCR studies of rods that regenerated after widespread chemical lesioning of the retina. The rxrγa gene was of particular interest as its transcript was enriched in rods, while previous studies in mouse indicated roles in cone determination. Therefore, a new rxrγa mutant line was created by ...
Massachusetts General Hospital Background: Cleft lip and/or palate (CL/P) is the most frequent craniofacial birth defect. Transcription factor IRF6 has been confirmed as a key locus for syndromic and non-syndromic CL/P. In order to understand irf6 function during palate development and its role in cleft malformation, we are generating transgenic irf6 reporter line for use in mechanistic analysis.. Methods: A 7.185 kb zebrafish irf6 promoter sequence was amplified from the irf6 bacterial artificial chromosome. The Tg:irf6:eGFP transgenic animal was generated using Gateway system, with Tol2 transposase mediating germline integration. Progeny of stable transgenic lines were analyzed by compound and confocal microscopy.. Results: Expression of irf6 was detected at single cell stage, confirming the presence of irf6 as a maternal transcript (Figure. 1). Irf6 expression continued throughout gastrulation, then localized in the otic placode and migrating cranial neural crest cells. Later in ...
Lorraine Lacovitti, Xiaotao Wei, Jingli Cai, Eric W. Kostuk, Ruihe Lin, Alexander Gorodinsky, Philip Roman, Gretchen Kusek, Sonal S. Das, Audrey Dufour, Terina N. Martinez, and Kuldip D. Dave. Parkinson disease (PD) is the second leading neurodegenerative disease in the US. As there is no known cause or cure for PD, researchers continue to investigate disease mechanisms and potential new therapies in cell culture and in animal models of PD. In PD, one of the most profoundly affected neuronal populations is the tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-expressing dopaminergic (DA) neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). These DA-producing neurons undergo degeneration while neighboring DA-producing cells of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) are largely spared. To aid in these studies, The Michael J. Fox Foundation (MJFF) partnered with Thomas Jefferson University and Taconic Inc. to generate new transgenic rat lines carrying the human TH gene promoter driving EGFP using a 11 kb construct used ...
Transgenic rats have been used as model animals for human diseases and organ transplantation and as animal bioreactors for protein production. In general, transgenic rats are produced by pronuclear microinjection of exogenous DNA. Improvement of post-injection survival has been achieved by micro-vibration of the injection pipette. The promoter region, structural gene, chain length and strand ends of the exogenous DNA are not involved in the production efficiency of transgenic rats. Exogenous DNA prepared at 5 μg/ml seemed to be better integrated than lower and higher concentrations. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) has been successfully achieved in rats using a piezo-driven injection pipette. The ICSI technique has not only been applied to rescue infertile male strains but also to produce transgenic rats. The optimal DNA concentration for the ICSI-tg method (0.1 to 0.5 μg/ml) is lower than that for the conventional pronuclear microinjection. Production efficiency was improved when the ...
The fears and concerns. Powerful tools can create or destroy as well as have unintended consequences. CRISPR/Cas9 could potentially be used to edit germ cells or embryos, thus changing an organisms entire genetic heritage. Some researchers are looking to impose regulations or some sort of moratorium so that the technology wouldnt be used to create "designer babies." Last April, Chinese researchers reported doing modifications to non-viable human embryos that stirred geneticists in other countries to call for a slowdown in this kind of work.. Others worry about an application of the technology called gene drives - genes engineered to break normal rules of inheritance so that changes get passed across generations. Gene drives have the potential of modifying mosquitoes, for example, in such a way that diseases like malaria could be eliminated entirely, but could rogue gene drives have unexpected consequences? Could bacteria or viruses, for example, pick up gene drives, and pass them around the ...
One aspect of research in our laboratory is directed toward a detailed understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which vertebrate organisms develop from single-celled embryos into complex organisms. This research utilizes zebrafish as a model organism. Advantages of the zebrafish include fecundity, an optically clear, rapidly developing embryo, and the opportunity to experimentally manipulate fertilization and development so as to produce parthenogenetic or haploid offspring. In addition, a full genomic sequence is available. A technique of central importance is the production of transgenic zebrafish via the direct microinjection of cloned genes into fish embryos. Transgenic zebrafish possessing recombinant gfp and rfp marker genes are being generated for a variety of purposes, including 1) basic research into recombination mechanisms and transgenesis strategies, 2) the study of transgene inheritance patterns, and 3) the analysis of altered gene expression and its phenotypic ...
Immunoblot analysis of transgenic parasites expressing different EBA-175 mutant proteins. Proteins from synchronized parasite cultures were separated by SDS-PAG
Transgenesis is the process of introducing an exogenous gene-called a transgene-into a living organism so that the organism will exhibit a new property and transmit that property to its offspring. Transgenesis can be facilitated by liposomes, enzymes, plasmid vectors, viral vectors, pronuclear injection, protoplast fusion, and ballistic DNA injection. Transgenesis can occur in nature. Transgenic organisms are able to express foreign genes because the genetic code is similar for all organisms. This means that a specific DNA sequence will code for the same protein in all organisms. Due to this similarity in protein sequence, scientists can cut DNA at these common protein points and add other genes. An example of this is the "super mice" of the 1980s. These mice were able to produce the human protein tPA to treat blood clots. The most common type of transgenesis research is done with bacteria and viruses which are able to replicate foreign DNA. The plasmid DNA is cut using restriction enzymes, ...
Accreditation: The University of Florida College of Medicine is accredited by the Accreditation Council for Continuing Medical Education to provide continuing medical education for physicians.. Credit: The University of Florida College of Medicine designates this enduring material for a maximum of 1 AMA PRA Category 1 Credit™. Physicians should claim only the credit commensurate with the extent of their participation in the activity.. Release Date: February 11, 2016. Expiration Date: February 11, 2017. ...
TT2013, will be held in Guangzhou/ Canton, P.R. China, on February 25-27, 2013, immediately after the Chinese New Year festival, at the Baiyun International Convention Center. The TT2013 meeting is organized by Professor Ming Zhao from Southern Medical University, Guangzhou. Following the meeting, a 3-day workshop about hands-on practical technicals will take place in Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou (February 28 - March 2). Professor Wenhao Xu , director of Gene Targeting and Transgenic Facility, University of Virginia, will give the lectures on piezo injection, laser-assisted application, mouse colony management, etc ...
Free resource for searching and exporting immune epitopes. Includes more than 95% of all published infectious disease, allergy, autoimmune, and transplant epitope data.
The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans responds to infection by the pathogenic fungus Drechmeria coniospora by increasing the expression of genes encoding antimicrobial peptides; among these are several genes in the nlp family (the nlp-29 cluster) whose induction depends on a cell-autonomous p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. Zugasti and Ewbank explored the generalizability of this response by investigating the regulation of a group of genes in the caenacin (cnc) family (the cnc-2 cluster) that are structurally and phylogenetically related to the nlp genes and are also induced by D. coniospora infection. Transgenic worms with additional copies of cnc-2 cluster genes showed increased survival after D. coniospora infection compared with wild-type worms, consistent with a role in antifungal defense, but failed to show increased resistance to bacterial pathogens. Five of six cnc-2 cluster genes were induced by D. coniospora infection; however, unlike the nlp genes, ...
The report, entitled "Xenotransplantation of Transgenic Pig Myelin Forming Cells Promotes Axonal Regeneration and Restores Conduction Across the transected spinal cord," is based on research conducted in the laboratories of Dr. Jeffrey D. Kocsis of the Department of Neurology, Yale University School of Medicine, and Dr. William L. Fodor, Senior Director of Xenotransplantation at Alexion Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and their colleagues. ...
Prolyl 4-hydroxylase (P4H) is a heterotetramer enzyme consisting of alpha-subunits (P4Halpha) and beta-subunits (P4Hbeta), and is required for collagen biosynthesis. Previously, we generated transgenic silkworms that produced human type III collagen fragments (mini-collagens) in the posterior silk gland (PSG). However, prolyl 4-hydroxylation did not occur on the mini-collagens, because in spite of an abundant expression of P4Hbeta in PSGs, P4Halpha expression was quite low there, thus resulting in an insufficient activity of P4H. In this study we aimed at generating hybrid transgenic silkworms whose PSGs are capable of producing mini-collagens and enough P4H for their prolyl 4-hydroxylation. Isolated PSGs were bombarded with fibroin L-chain gene promoter-driven vectors containing Bombyx mori P4Halpha (BmP4Halpha) cDNAs and were transplanted into the hemolymphatic cavity. The P4H activity in the PSG cells significantly increased, indicating that the expressed BmP4Halpha formed active tetramers with
To date, unequivocal neuroanatomical features have been demonstrated neither for sporadic nor for familial schizophrenia. Here, we investigated the neuroanatomical changes in a transgenic rat model for a subset of sporadic chronic mental illness (CMI), which modestly overexpresses human full-length, non-mutant Disrupted-in-Schizophrenia 1 (DISC1), and for which aberrant dopamine homeostasis consistent with some schizophrenia phenotypes has previously been reported. Neuroanatomical analysis revealed a reduced density of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra and reduced dopaminergic fibres in the striatum. Parvalbumin-positive interneuron occurrence in the somatosensory cortex was shifted from layers II/III to V/VI, and the number of calbindin-positive interneurons was slightly decreased. Reduced corpus callosum thickness confirmed trend-level observations from in vivo MRI and voxel-wise tensor based morphometry. These neuroanatomical changes help explain functional phenotypes of this ...
Over the last few decades, scientists have witnessed a significant decline in worldwide amphibian populations. Many factors have been suggested to contribute to this decline, including endocrine disruption (by endocrine disrupting compounds or EDCs). Many anthropogenic chemicals have the potential to interfere with an organisms endocrine system, acting either as receptor agonists or antagonists, or by altering hormone metabolism. To determine the effects of EDCs, we must know an organisms normal functioning state. Thyroid hormone (TH) is the inducer of amphibian metamorphosis, the process of converting a tadpole into a frog. Sex steroid hormones, such as androgens (testosterone, and dihydrotestosterone), drive the development of secondary sexual characteristics after metamorphosis is initiated. Important interactions between TH and androgens have been demonstrated in various vertebrates, although the precise mechanism is unknown. The objective of this research is to investigate the nature of ...
Aktogen Limited is a Cambridge University start-up company founded in 2003 by Dr. Zoltan Asztalos who has more than fifteen years experience in fruit fly behaviour genetics.. Aktogen offers behaviour and genetic services for fruit fly, Drosophila melanogaster laboratories, as well as pharmaceutical companies.. Aktogen has particular experience in behaviour tests from as simple as locomotion to learning and memory measurements.. The company also offers services to generate transgenic Drosophila strains, including making custom designed genetic constructs and embryo transformation.. Aktogen aims to accelerate the discovery of drug targets and drugs for the treatment of human CNS disorders. Drosophila offers a wealth of genetic tools and complex behaviour for the identification of the inherited components of CNS disorders. Aktogen has an edge in developing automated fruit fly behaviour systems to effectively test complex behaviour (e.g. non-associative learning, habituation and sensitization) that ...
During development, sensory neurons in the olfactory epithelium extend axons into the olfactory bulb. The earliest axons to enter the bulb terminate onto distinct neuropilar condensations called protoglomeruli. Protoglomeruli are thought to segregate into individual glomeruli later in development. The three day old larval zebrafish olfactory bulb contains 12 stereotyped, identifiable protoglomeruli, rendering it a good system to investigate mechanisms of initial axonal targeting in the bulb. In this thesis, I describe the generation of transgenic zebrafish lines in which neurons expressing odorant receptors along with the olfactory marker protein (OMP), V2R vomeronasal receptors along with the transient receptor potential channel2 (TRPC2) or the odorant receptor OR111-7 are selectively labeled. OMP and TRPC2 expressing neurons innervate multiple, non-overlapping protoglomeruli. Transgenic neurons expressing OR111-7:IRES:Gal4; UAS:Citrine transgenes primarily target a single protoglomerulus, the central

Genetically modified organism - WikipediaGenetically modified organism - Wikipedia

EFSA (2012). Genetically modified animals Europe: EFSA Murray, Joo (20). Genetically modified animals. Canada: Brainwaving ... "Coexistence of genetically modified (GM) and non-modified (non GM) crops: Are the two main property rights regimes equivalent ... Genetically modified (genetically engineered) animals are becoming more vital to the discovery and development of cures and ... Genetically modified crops (GM crops, or biotech crops) are plants used in agriculture, the DNA of which has been modified ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_organism

Genetically modified mouse - WikipediaGenetically modified mouse - Wikipedia

Genetically modified mice are commonly used for research or as animal models of human diseases, and are also used for research ... "Background: Cloned and Genetically Modified Animals". Center for Genetics and Society. April 14, 2005. Hofker, Marten H.; ... In 1974 Rudolf Jaenisch created the first genetically modified animal by inserting a DNA virus into an early-stage mouse embryo ... A genetically modified mouse (Mus musculus) is a mouse that has had its genome altered through the use of genetic engineering ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetically_modified_mouse

Monsantos GM corn MON863 shows kidney, liver toxicity in animal studiesMonsanto's GM corn MON863 shows kidney, liver toxicity in animal studies

A variety of genetically modified corn was found to cause signs of hormonal changes and liver and kidney toxicity in rats. All ... liver toxicity in animal studies. by David Gutierrez, staff writer A variety of genetically modified corn that was approved for ... I find it interesting that the FDA believes U.S. consumers should not be allowed to know which foods are genetically modified ... The rats who ate modified corn were found to exhibit signs of liver and kidney toxicity, as well as signs of hormonal changes. ...
more infohttps://www.naturalnews.com/z021784_GM_corn_genetically_modified_foods.html

Stop the Government deregulating genetically modified animals - Friends of the Earth AustraliaStop the Government deregulating genetically modified animals - Friends of the Earth Australia

Anyone from amateur biohackers, to industry, to terror groups would be free to use them to genetically modify plants, animals ... techniques in animals, plants and microbes.. If the Office of the Gene Technology Regulator (OGTR) deregulates these new GM ... commissioned by the Austrian and Norwegian governments concluded that not enough is known about the risks posed by these new GM ...
more infohttps://www.foe.org.au/_stop_the_government_deregulating_genetically_modified_animals

Genetically Modified Mice starring the Mighty Mouse - DnaTube.com - Scientific Video and Animation SiteGenetically Modified Mice starring the Mighty Mouse - DnaTube.com - Scientific Video and Animation Site

This is a mighty mouse which is genetically modified. ... Genetically Modified Animals - Deformed, .... 04:00 , 10815 ... Tags: Mighty Mouse Genetically Modified Mice Uploaded by: NicolaTesla ( Send Message ) on 17-11-2010. Dnatube suggest users to ... Genetically Modified Mice starring the Mighty Mouse The human being will stop at nothing in experimentation and the latest fad ...
more infohttps://www.dnatube.com/video/5596/Genetically-Modified-Mice-starring-the-Mighty-Mouse

National Day of Action Against Genetically Modified Foods - EcoWatchNational Day of Action Against Genetically Modified Foods - EcoWatch

national parks glaciers glacier national park endangered species wildlife animals insects pollution ... A growing number of studies, however, link genetically modified foods to a host of health issues, including obesity and ... Visit EcoWatchs GENETICALLY MODIFIED ORGANISM page for more related news on this topic. ... "Recent studies reinforce what scientists and doctors have been saying for years: genetically modified organisms are not safe, ...
more infohttps://www.ecowatch.com/national-day-of-action-against-genetically-modified-foods-1881647394.html

Genetically Modified Organisms ( Gmo ) - 988 Words | BartlebyGenetically Modified Organisms ( Gmo ) - 988 Words | Bartleby

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are one the most hotly contested topics in the food industry due to the potential ... Are Genetically. 966 Words , 4 Pages. Genetically Modified Organisms, or GMOs, are genetically modified plants, animals, or ... Genetically Modified Organisms ( Gmo ). 1665 Words , 7 Pages. *. Genetically Modified Organisms, Or Gmos, Are Genetically. 966 ... Later on, they grow into genetically modified (GM) foods. Genetically Modified Organism (GMO) A GMO is a plant-based organism, ...
more infohttps://www.bartleby.com/essay/Genetically-Modified-Organisms-Gmo-P3YNJJF3VGXYW

Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects | The National Academies PressSafety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects | The National Academies Press

Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods by the Institute of Medicine and National Research Council for free. ... Subreport: Methods and Mechanisms of Genetic Manipulation and Cloning of Animals. 217-236. ... for detecting unintended changes in food and assessing the potential for adverse health effects from genetically modified ... Safety of Genetically Engineered Foods: Approaches to Assessing Unintended Health Effects (2004) Consensus Study Report ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/catalog/10977/safety-of-genetically-engineered-foods-approaches-to-assessing-unintended-health

List of genetically modified crops - WikipediaList of genetically modified crops - Wikipedia

Separate approval is generally required to use GM crops in food for human consumption or as animal feed.[2][3] ... 4 Approved genetically modified crops that have not yet been cultivated. *5 Genetically modified crops by country *5.1 See also ... was genetically modified in some way. Seventeen countries grew a total of 55.2 million hectares of genetically modified maize ... Genetically modified crops by countryEdit. Country GM food Ha grown in 2014[44]. ...
more infohttps://cc.bingj.com/cache.aspx?q=british+food+scientists+who+studied+gmo+potatos+list+in+india&d=4595589317990744&mkt=en-US&setlang=en-US&w=up2SJ_uqO1sp1TnaS2hVvt5WXCGyGIpm

Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences - Keyword GM-maize
	Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences - Keyword GM-maize

A four-generation feeding study with genetically modified (Bt) maize in laying hens. I. Halle, G. Flachowsky ... Environmental benefits of genetically modified crops: Global and European perspectives on their ability to reduce pesticide use ... The journal has been published by the Kielanowski Institute of Animal Physiology and Nutrition, Polish Academy of Sciences ( ... and language correction of manuscripts published in Journal of Animal and Feed Sciences are financed in the years 2018-2019 by ...
more infohttp://www.jafs.com.pl/Keyword-GM-maize/92649

FDA OKs genetically modified salmon for human consumptionFDA OKs genetically modified salmon for human consumption

Washington - The Food and Drug Administration on Thursday approved genetically modified salmon, the first such altered animal ... FDA OKs genetically modified salmon for human consumption. Associated Press Published 9:54 a.m. ET Nov. 19, 2015 ... FDA OKs genetically modified salmon for human consumption. The Obama administration has stalled for more than five years on ... FDA OKs genetically modified salmon for human consumption The Obama administration has stalled for more than five years on ...
more infohttps://www.detroitnews.com/story/news/nation/2015/11/19/fda-genetically-modified-salmon/76041000/

GM cow produces allergy-free milk  › News in Science (ABC Science)GM cow produces allergy-free milk › News in Science (ABC Science)

Researchers have genetically engineered a cow to produce milk free of the protein that causes allergies in children. ... Modified milk New Zealand researchers have genetically engineered a cow to produce milk free of the protein that causes ... The animals were being kept in containment systems and the milk is only used for analytical purposes. ... You might also be interested in Gm Technology *24 A Jurassic World of science fiction ...
more infohttps://www.abc.net.au/science/articles/2012/10/02/3601916.htm

HUGE LIST OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED GROCERY FRANKENFOODS- - 12160 Social NetworkHUGE LIST OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED GROCERY FRANKENFOODS- - 12160 Social Network

Here is the list of Genetically Modified Foods - get ready to clean out your pantry! baby food Nabisco (Phillip Morris) ... GENETICALLY ENGINEERED INGREDIENTS Delicious Brands (Parmalat) Animal Crackers Ginger Snaps Fig Bars Oatmeal Sugar-Free Duplex ... HUGE LIST OF GENETICALLY MODIFIED GROCERY FRANKENFOODS-. *Posted by mystery on January 31, 2013 at 8:53pm in Current News/ ... A company letter states that they are in the process of converting to non-genetically modified "proteins" in all products. ...
more infohttp://12160.info/forum/topics/huge-list-of-genetically-modified-grocery-frankenfoods?id=2649739%3ATopic%3A1108623&page=6

Must Pay for GM Seeds? - SkepticoMust Pay for GM Seeds? - Skeptico

Its one of the arguments the anti genetic engineering people frequently put forward as a reason we should not plant GM crops. ... Genetically Modified GMO Food, the Great Scandal by Jeffrey Dach MD. http://jeffreydach.com/2008/08/14/genetically-modified-gmo ... Is this not contradictory? You say in one paragraph that the food was fed to lab animals, but then say that GM foods have not ... the larger GM companies have sued farmers that have had non-GM crops. cross-pollinated by GM strains, or have had GM plants set ...
more infohttps://skeptico.blogs.com/skeptico/2008/08/must-pay-for-gm-seeds.html?cid=127904060

Must Pay for GM Seeds? - SkepticoMust Pay for GM Seeds? - Skeptico

Its one of the arguments the anti genetic engineering people frequently put forward as a reason we should not plant GM crops. ... Genetically Modified GMO Food, the Great Scandal by Jeffrey Dach MD. http://jeffreydach.com/2008/08/14/genetically-modified-gmo ... Is this not contradictory? You say in one paragraph that the food was fed to lab animals, but then say that GM foods have not ... the larger GM companies have sued farmers that have had non-GM crops. cross-pollinated by GM strains, or have had GM plants set ...
more infohttps://skeptico.blogs.com/skeptico/2008/08/must-pay-for-gm-seeds.html?cid=128005710

Genetically Modified AnimalGenetically Modified Animal

Farm Tools/Machines Fertilizers/Chemicals Fish/Sea Foods flour Flowers Fruits Genetically Modified Animal Genetically Modified ... Agro Medicals Anti - Pets/Animals Anti - Weeds Dairy/Dairy Products Farm Lands ...
more infohttps://www.agromarche.org/product-tag/genetically-modified-animal/

Meeting Report:  Advances in the Generation of Genetically Modified (GM) Animal Models - LEGACY ISTT blogMeeting Report: Advances in the Generation of Genetically Modified (GM) Animal Models - LEGACY ISTT blog

GM) Animal Models. The International Course and Mini-Symposium: Advances in the Generation of Genetically Modified (BM) Animal ... organized the International Course and Symposium on Advances in the Generation of Genetically Modified (GM) Animal Models, ... Meeting Report: Advances in the Generation of Genetically Modified ( ... along with members of their teams at the Institut Pasteur de Montevideo and the Instituto de Reproduccion Animal de Uruguay, ...
more infohttp://www.montonerin.es/isttlegacy/isttblog/2015/11/13/meeting-report-advances-in-the-generation-of-genetically-modified-gm-animal-models/

Pigs Fed GM Diet Experience Significant Health ProblemsPigs Fed GM Diet Experience Significant Health Problems

Scientists have found that pigs fed a diet of GM corn and soy experienced numerous adverse health effects, says new hard- ... "In some cases, animals eating GM crops are very aggressive. This is not surprising, given the scale of stomach irritation and ... One French GMO study concluded that rats fed a lifelong diet consisting of genetically modified corn suffered serious ... According to a new groundbreaking report analyzing the effects of GM feed on animals, scientists have found that pigs fed a ...
more infohttps://naturalsociety.com/groundbreaking-pigs-fed-gm-diet-experience-significant-health-problems/

A Scientist Has a Solution to Antibiotic Resistance-Genetically Modified Maggots - VICEA Scientist Has a Solution to Antibiotic Resistance-Genetically Modified Maggots - VICE

And patients can be surprisingly receptive, said Scott, who hopes to do a study of his GM maggots in lab animals next, and ... A Scientist Has a Solution to Antibiotic Resistance-Genetically Modified Maggots. Wound-munching bugs could be the future of ... One scientist is making genetically-modified maggots that pump out human growth factor, which could help treat and sterilize ... "Were modifying [insect] strains so they carry genes that are lethal to female flies, but not male," he said. The males still ...
more infohttps://www.vice.com/en_us/article/vv7bej/a-scientist-has-a-solution-to-antibiotic-resistancegenetically-modified-maggots-max-scott

Genetically Modified Foods: More Reason to Avoid Them; Why They Threaten Organic Agriculture | The Alliance for Natural HealthGenetically Modified Foods: More Reason to Avoid Them; Why They Threaten Organic Agriculture | The Alliance for Natural Health

CAUSE DESTRUCTION OF THE HUMAN BODY AS WELL AS THE BODIES OF ANIMALS…... IT WILL EVEN EFFECT THE PEOPLE WHO DESIGNED THESE ... If you doubt that Genetically Modified (GM) foods threaten your body, here is a recent report from Russian biologists. They ... not produce that is not genetically modified produce that is not, I repeat not modified so that our bodies can use the goodness ... Genetically Modified Foods: More Reason to Avoid Them; Why They Threaten Organic Agriculture May 11, 2010 ...
more infohttps://anh-usa.org/genetically-modified-food-more-reason-to-avoid-them-and-why-they-threaten-organic-agriculture/?replytocom=3666

Last minute stocking stuffers for nörds | ScienceBlogsLast minute stocking stuffers for nörds | ScienceBlogs

GMAs? Genetically modified animals. Beagles (Hercules, left, and Tangou, right) genetically-modified to be more muscular. ...
more infohttps://scienceblogs.com/catdynamics/2016/12/24/last-minute-stocking-stuffers-for-nords

GeneWatch UK - GM insectsGeneWatch UK - GM insects

GM animalsGM insects GeneWatch UK PR: Planned releases of genetically modified (GM) fruit flies should be halted until food ... GeneWatch UK today called for a moratorium on proposed releases of genetically modified (GM) fruit flies and other agricultural ... including GM insects (1). EFSA failed to include any information about GM insects in the food chain in its consultation, ... UK company Oxitec applied to make mass experimental releases of millions of male GM olive fruit flies in Spain and GM ...
more infohttp://genewatch.org/article.shtml?als%5Bcid%5D=566989&als%5Bitemid%5D=573179

GeneWatch UK - GM insectsGeneWatch UK - GM insects

GM animalsGM insects GeneWatch UK Press Release: GM mosquito risks still not properly assessed (10th August 2012). In a new ... GeneWatch UK highlights numerous errors and omissions in the risk assessment process for genetically modified (GM) mosquitoes. ... The GM mosquitoes do breed and most die at the larval stage: the extent to which their offspring survive to adulthood is one of ... 1) Oxitecs Genetically Modified Mosquitoes: Ongoing Concerns. GeneWatch UK Briefing. Available on: http://www.genewatch.org/ ...
more infohttp://genewatch.org/article.shtml?als%5Bcid%5D=566989&als%5Bitemid%5D=571049

Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Could Fight ZikaGenetically Modified Mosquitoes Could Fight Zika

When the modified bugs mate with female mosquitoes, the offspring wont survive to adulthood. ... The FDA has been reviewing Oxitecs application for use of its technology as an investigational new animal drug. Its ... "The genetically modified male has to mate with a wild female, and the wild female has to bite us in order to lay eggs," she ... Genetically Modified Mosquitoes Could Fight Zika. By Reuters On 8/6/16 at 9:34 AM EDT ...
more infohttps://www.newsweek.com/genetically-modified-mosquitoes-fight-zika-487971

Search Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill EducationSearch Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education

Genetically modified organisms (GMOs) are microorganisms, plants, or animals that have been… ... Genetically modified organism (GMO). An organism that has had its genetic material manipulated or altered in a laboratory ...
more infohttps://www.accessscience.com/search?topics=Botany&topics=Military+Science&topics=Health+Sciences&topics=Navigation&start=0&%3Bstart=0&%3Bamp%3BsearchStr=Marine+ecology&%3Bamp%3BrootID=794558&%3Bamp%3Brows=10&%3Bamp%3Btypes=Video+%2F+Animation&%3Bamp%3Btypes=Biography&rows=100
  • The EU has established a legal framework regulating GM food and feed derived products as well as the release of living GMOs into the environment in order to ensure a high level of protection of human and animal health, and the environment. (europa.eu)
  • EFSA's role is to independently assess and provide scientific advice to risk managers on any possible risks of GMOs for human and animal health and the environment and to propose appropriate measures to mitigate the risks. (europa.eu)
  • The basic assumption of this type of comparative assessment, which is required under current EU legislation for all GMOs submitted for market authorisation, is that food and feed from conventionally-bred animals have a history of safe use and therefore can serve as a baseline for the risk assessment of food and feed derived from GM animals. (europa.eu)
  • The basic assumption of the comparative assessment, which is the risk assessment approach for all GMOs laid down in EU legislation, is that non-GM animals serve as a baseline with respect to environmental safety. (thefishsite.com)
  • There have been some experiments involving inserting animal genes into plants, but none of those experiments have resulted in GMOs that are being grown for food anywhere. (2beeyoung.com)
  • Most GMOs on the market use genes from microorganisms or other plants, and in the case of some GMO animals, they contain genes from other (or the same) animals. (2beeyoung.com)
  • And we're talking 'mad-scientist' GMOs here - animals that boast genetic traits utterly impossible to create in nature. (natureworldnews.com)
  • GMOs are used to produce many medications and genetically modified foods and are widely used in scientific research and the production of other goods. (wikipedia.org)
  • The world's appetite for meat is increasing and there are a lot of problems with the livestock industry beyond the animal suffering issue. (mynorthwest.com)
  • The review, led by UC Davis animal scientist Alison Van Eenennaam, examined nearly 30 years of livestock-feeding studies that represent more than 100 billion animals. (wattagnet.com)
  • Titled " Prevalence and Impacts of Genetically Engineered Feedstuffs on Livestock Populations ," the review article is now available online in open-access form through the American Society of Animal Science. (wattagnet.com)
  • Therefore, proposed labeling of animal products from livestock and poultry that have eaten GE feed would require supply-chain segregation and traceability, as the products themselves would not differ in any way that could be detected. (wattagnet.com)
  • The first transgenic livestock were produced in 1985 and the first animal to synthesise transgenic proteins in their milk were mice, engineered to produce human tissue plasminogen activator in 1987. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ruppy the Glowing Puppy is a little different - she's the world's first transgenic dog which means she produces 'a fluorescent protein that glows red under ultraviolet light ,' whereas most bioluminescent animals glow a blue or green when with UV light. (ranker.com)
  • In 1974 Rudolf Jaenisch created a transgenic mouse by introducing foreign DNA into its embryo, making it the world's first transgenic animal. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, as a proactive measure, the European Commission has asked EFSA to develop comprehensive risk assessment guidelines that would be used by companies and risk assessment bodies to evaluate the possible risks for food and feed safety, the environment as well as related animal health and welfare aspects. (europa.eu)
  • Acting on the Commission's request, EFSA has developed two separate guidance documents for the risk assessment of GM animals. (europa.eu)
  • This guidance document, published in January 2012, outlines specific data requirements and the methodology to be followed for risk assessment should applications for food and feed derived from GM animals be submitted for market authorisation in the EU. (europa.eu)
  • The risk assessment approach compares GM animals and derived food and feed with their respective conventional counterparts, integrating food and feed safety as well as animal health and welfare aspects. (europa.eu)
  • In May 2013, EFSA published its guidance on the environmental risk assessment (ERA) of GM animals. (europa.eu)
  • EFSA concluded that a risk assessment of GM animals should include three major aspects. (europa.eu)
  • The risk assessment is based on a comparative approach between GM and non-GM animals. (thefishsite.com)
  • In this context, and in anticipation of potential future applications for introduction on the EU market, the European Commission requested EFSA to develop comprehensive guidance for the safety assessment of food and feed derived from GM animals (including animal health and welfare aspects) and for the environmental risk assessment of GM animals. (thefishsite.com)
  • The present draft guidance document on the environmental risk assessment of GM animals addresses the remaining part of the request from the European Commission. (thefishsite.com)
  • This document provides guidance for the risk assessment of food and feed containing, consisting of or produced from genetically modified (GM) animals, as well as for the health and welfare assessment of these animals, within the framework of Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 on GM food and feed. (europa.eu)
  • The health status of a food/feed producing animal has traditionally been considered as an important indicator of the safety of derived foods/feed and therefore comparative analysis of the phenotypic characteristics of the GM animal with the traditionally-bred animal, including health and physiological parameters, is considered an important component in the risk assessment. (europa.eu)
  • The document does not cover the environmental risk assessment of GM animals, which will be addressed in stand-alone guidance under development by the EFSA GMO Panel. (europa.eu)
  • In 1987, the ice-minus strain of Pseudomonas syringae became the first genetically modified organism to be released into the environment when a strawberry field and a potato field in California were sprayed with it. (wikipedia.org)
  • Under EU legislation, applications for the authorisation of GM animals must contain a detailed PMEM plan which defines how potential unanticipated adverse effects on the environment will be monitored. (thefishsite.com)
  • The guidance gives recommendations for the post-market monitoring and surveillance (PMM) of GM animals and derived food and feed. (europa.eu)
  • The document provides guidance to applicants and risk assessors on how to conduct an ERA of living GM animals to be placed on the EU market according to Regulation (EC) No 1829/2003 (EC, 2003) or Directive 2001/18/EC (EC, 2001). (europa.eu)
  • Additionally, the draft guidance document describes several generic, cross-cutting considerations that need to be accounted for throughout the whole ERA, for example aspects such as the long-term effects of GM animals, the analysis of uncertainties and the choice of an appropriate comparator (the non-GM animal with which the GM animal is compared during the safety evaluation). (thefishsite.com)
  • In the final chapter of the draft guidance document, recommendations are made for the post-market environmental monitoring (PMEM) of GM animals. (thefishsite.com)
  • Work is being done to produce medical solutions from plants using animal gene makers but mostly for bio-medical benefits The following is a excerpt from a clear explanation of what is going on with GMO technology in our foods vs the hysteria concerning "Frakin-plants or insects such as", etc. (2beeyoung.com)
  • Several international organisations, including FAO/WHO and the United States Food and Drug Administration, have already published guidelines for the safety assessment of these animals and their derived products. (europa.eu)
  • The review study also found that scientific studies have detected no differences in the nutritional makeup of the meat, milk or other food products derived from animals that ate genetically engineered feed. (wattagnet.com)
  • Studies have continually shown that the milk, meat and eggs derived from animals that have consumed GE feed are indistinguishable from the products derived from animals fed a non-GE diet," Van Eenennaam said. (wattagnet.com)
  • Unbelievable Animals There are more than 8 million species walking, swimming, and flying around Planet Earth. (ranker.com)
  • Thus the ERA of GM animals involves collecting, assessing and, where appropriate, generating information about the GM animal to determine, on a case-by case basis, its impact on the environment in comparison with non-GM animals. (thefishsite.com)
  • It aims to modify specific characteristics of an animal or introduce a new trait, such as disease resistance or enhanced growth. (europa.eu)
  • Gene targeting and transgenesis in the mouse provides a means to modify the mammalian genome and the cardiac motor protein complement. (revespcardiol.org)
  • Individual identification of GM animals is essential to improve safety and traceability, as well as to fulfill the present and future expectations of producers, consumers, and authorities. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The technology has advanced rapidly in recent years and in some non-EU countries regulators are already evaluating GM animals, both in terms of food/feed and environmental safety. (thefishsite.com)
  • Taconic's extensive experience in outsourced, in vivo project management assures on-time, on-budget delivery of your animal model. (taconic.com)
  • Taconic is a fully-licensed provider of genetically-engineered animal model generation services, able to partner with you at any stage of the model design process. (taconic.com)
  • If you are involved with the use of genetically modified or cloned animals, you may have been using the Guidelines for the generation, breeding, care and use of genetically modified and cloned animals for scientific purposes (2007) (the GM Guidelines). (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Many of the recommendations in the GM Guidelines have been incorporated into the 8th edition of the Australian code for the care and use of animals for scientific purposes (2013) (the Code). (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • We have also extracted the appendices from the GM Guidelines that may continue to be useful. (nhmrc.gov.au)
  • Our results contribute to the control and prevention of bovine tuberculosis and provide a previously unidentified insight into breeding animals for disease resistance," the researchers concluded in their report. (natureworldnews.com)
  • Bioluminescent GMO animals aren't something new for science. (ranker.com)
  • It will appear in print and open-access in the October issue of the Journal of Animal Science. (wattagnet.com)
  • Collaborating on the study was co-author Amy E. Young in the UC Davis Department of Animal Science. (wattagnet.com)
  • Although GM sperm has the potential to detect and treat genetic diseases, it will likely take many years for successful use in patients. (wikipedia.org)
  • To avoid international trade disruptions, it is critical that the regulatory approval process for genetically engineered products be established in countries importing these feeds at the same time that regulatory approvals are passed in the countries that are major exporters of animal feed," Van Eenennaam said. (wattagnet.com)
  • The assessment strategy seeks to deploy appropriate approaches to compare GM animals and derived food and feed with their respective comparators. (europa.eu)
  • Aging stands out as a complex trait, because events that occur in old animals are not under strong natural selection. (isharonline.org)