Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.
Inbreed BN (Brown Norway) rats are a strain of laboratory rats that are specifically bred for research purposes, characterized by their uniform genetic makeup and susceptibility to various diseases, which makes them ideal models for studying human physiology and pathophysiology.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
Inbred BALB/c mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical to each other, making them useful for scientific research and experiments due to their consistent genetic background and predictable responses to various stimuli or treatments.
Inbred DBA mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are genetically identical and share specific characteristics, including a high incidence of deafness, coat color (black and white), and susceptibility to certain diseases, which make them useful for research purposes in biomedical studies.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Inbred C3H mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to maintain a high degree of genetic uniformity and share specific genetic characteristics, including susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes them valuable for biomedical research purposes.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Inbred strain A mice are genetically identical descendants of a single founder mouse, produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, primarily used in biomedical research for their genetic uniformity and experimental reproducibility.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Inbred NZB mice are a strain of laboratory mice that spontaneously develop an autoimmune disease similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), characterized by the production of autoantibodies, immune complex deposition, and glomerulonephritis.
Inbred AKR mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are homozygous at all gene loci and have a high incidence of developing certain diseases, such as leukemia and autoimmune disorders, making them useful for research purposes in biomedicine.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
'Rats, Inbred Lew' is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research, known for its consistent genetic background and susceptibility to certain diseases, which makes it an ideal model for studying the genetic basis of complex traits and disease processes.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Sodium chloride used in foods.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
Inbred CBA mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to be genetically identical and uniform, which makes them useful for scientific research, particularly in the areas of immunology and cancer.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.
Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.
Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The selection of one food over another.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
A strain of mice widely studied as a model for cystic fibrosis. These mice are generated from embryonic stem cells in which the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is inactivated by gene targeting. As a result, all mice have one copy of this altered gene in all their tissues. Mice homozygous for the disrupted gene exhibit many features common to young cystic fibrosis patients, including failure to thrive, meconium ileus, and alteration of mucous and serous glands.
F344 rats are an inbred strain of albino laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background, which facilitates the study of disease mechanisms and therapeutic interventions.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Enlargement of the spleen.

T cell reconstitution of BB/W rats after the initiation of insulitis precipitates the onset of diabetes. (1/252)

One of the diabetes susceptibility genes of the BB/W (Biobreeding/Worcester) rat maps to the lyp locus on chromosome 4. The BB/W lyp allele is responsible for a severe peripheral T lymphopenia. Correction of this lymphopenia by transfer of normal, histocompatible T cells prevents diabetes, providing T cell reconstitution is initiated before insulitis. We have analyzed this time-dependent regulation of the diabetogenic process by normal T cells. We demonstrate that T cell reconstitution after the initiation of insulitis precipitates the onset of diabetes through the recruitment of donor T cells to the autoimmune process. This inability of normal T cells to regulate primed diabetogenic BB/W T cells and their own autoreactive potential were observed when normal T cells outnumbered pathogenic T cells by approximately 1000-fold. Analysis of donor-derived T cells recovered from BB/W rats that were reconstituted before insulitis, and hence protected from diabetes, demonstrates that early T cell reconstitution of BB/W rats does not result in a long term physical or functional depletion of islet cell-specific T cell precursors among donor cells or in the expansion of T cells that can regulate the activation and expansion of diabetogenic T cells.  (+info)

Genetics of Cd36 and the clustering of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in spontaneous hypertension. (2/252)

Disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism have been reported to cluster in patients with essential hypertension and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). A deletion in the Cd36 gene on chromosome 4 has recently been implicated in defective carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in isolated adipocytes from SHRs. However, the role of Cd36 and chromosome 4 in the control of blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk factors in SHRs is unknown. In the SHR. BN-Il6/Npy congenic strain, we have found that transfer of a segment of chromosome 4 (including Cd36) from the Brown Norway (BN) rat onto the SHR background induces reductions in blood pressure and ameliorates dietary-induced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These results demonstrate that a single chromosome region can influence a broad spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors involved in the hypertension metabolic syndrome. However, analysis of Cd36 genotypes in the SHR and stroke-prone SHR strains indicates that the deletion variant of Cd36 was not critical to the initial selection for hypertension in the SHR model. Thus, the ability of chromosome 4 to influence multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, may depend on linkage of Cd36 to other genes trapped within the differential segment of the SHR. BN-Il6/Npy strain.  (+info)

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein induces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the "resistant" Brown Norway rat: disease susceptibility is determined by MHC and MHC-linked effects on the B cell response. (3/252)

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by active immunization with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is an Ab-mediated, T cell-dependent autoimmune disease that replicates the inflammatory demyelinating pathology of multiple sclerosis. We report that disease susceptibility and severity are determined by MHC and MHC-linked effects on the MOG-specific B cell response that mediate severe clinical EAE in the EAE-resistant Brown Norway (BN) rat. Immunization with the extracellular domain of MOG in CFA induced fulminant clinical disease associated with widespread demyelination and with an inflammatory infiltrate containing large numbers of polymorphonuclear cells and eosinophils within 10 days of immunization. To analyze the effects of the MHC (RT1 system) we compared BN (RT1 n) rats with Lewis (LEW) (RT1 l) and two reciprocal MHC congenic strains, LEW.1N (RT1n) and BN.1L (RT1 l). This comparison revealed that disease severity and clinical course were strongly influenced by the MHC haplotype that modulated the pathogenic MOG-specific autoantibody response. The intra-MHC recombinant congenic strain LEW.1R38 demonstrated that gene loci located both within the centromeric segment of the MHC containing classical class I and class II genes and within the telomeric RT1.M region containing the MOG gene are involved in determining Ab production and disease susceptibility. This study indicates that the current T cell-centered interpretation of MHC-mediated effects on disease susceptibility must be reassessed in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases in which autoantibody is involved in disease pathogenesis.  (+info)

Pathological and immunological findings of athymic nude and congenic wild type BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Neospora caninum. (4/252)

Neospora is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that causes abortions and neuromuscular disorders in a wide variety of mammals. Japanese bovine isolate JPA1 was inoculated intraperitoneally into BALB/c nu/ nu (athymic nude) and BALB/c (congenic wild type) female mice to examine the distribution of parasites and resistance mechanisms to Neospora infection. All the athymic nude mice died within 28 days after intraperitoneal injection of 2 x 10(5) JPA1 tachyzoites, whereas all the congenic wild type mice survived without exhibiting any clinical signs. Tachyzoites were identified in the uterus and pancreas and later spread to many other organs. Most tachyzoites identified in the necrotic foci were localized in the epithelium of the venules and capillaries. Nude mice developed high level of serum interferon-gamma and interleukin-6 as infection proceeded. Inflammatory response to Neospora infection might be mediated by Th1-type dependent cellular immunity.  (+info)

C6 produced by macrophages contributes to cardiac allograft rejection. (5/252)

The terminal components of complement C5b-C9 can cause significant injury to cardiac allografts. Using C6-deficient rats, we have found that the rejection of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I-incompatible PVG.R8 (RT1.A(a)B(u)) cardiac allografts by PVG.1U (RT1.A(u)B(u)) recipients is particularly dependent on C6. This model was selected to determine whether tissue injury results from C6 produced by macrophages, which are a conspicuous component of infiltrates in rejecting transplants. We demonstrated that high levels of C6 mRNA are expressed in isolated populations of macrophages. The relevance of macrophage-produced C6 to cardiac allograft injury was investigated by transplanting hearts from PVG. R8 (C6-) donors to PVG.1U (C6-) rats which had been reconstituted with bone marrow from PVG.1U (C6+) rats as the sole source of C6. Hearts grafted to hosts after C6 reconstitution by bone marrow transplantation underwent rejection characterized by deposition of IgG and complement on the vascular endothelium together with extensive intravascular aggregates of P-selectin-positive platelets. At the time of acute rejection, the cardiac allografts contained extensive perivascular and interstitial macrophage infiltrates. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization demonstrated high levels of C6 mRNA in the macrophage-laden transplants. C6 protein levels were also increased in the circulation during rejection. To determine the relative contribution to cardiac allograft rejection of the low levels of circulating C6 produced systemically by macrophages, C6 containing serum was passively transferred to PVG.1U (C6-) recipients of PVG.R8 (C6-) hearts. This reconstituted the C6 levels to about 3 to 6% of normal values, but failed to induce allograft rejection. In control PVG.1U (C6-) recipients that were reconstituted with bone marrow from PVG.1U (C6-) donors, C6 levels remained undetectable and PVG.R8 cardiac allografts were not rejected. These results indicate that C6 produced by macrophages can cause significant tissue damage.  (+info)

Congenic substitution mapping excludes Sa as a candidate gene locus for a blood pressure quantitative trait locus on rat chromosome 1. (6/252)

Previously, linkage analysis in several experimental crosses between hypertensive rat strains and their contrasting reference strains have identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for blood pressure on rat chromosome 1 (Chr 1) spanning the Sa gene locus. In this study, we report the further dissection of this Chr 1 blood pressure QTL with congenic substitution mapping. To address whether the Sa gene represents a candidate gene for the Chr 1 blood pressure QTL, congenic strains were developed by introgressing high blood pressure QTL alleles from the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) into the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY-1) reference strain. Congenic animals carrying a chromosomal segment from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats between genetic markers Mt1pa and D1Rat200 (including the Sa gene locus) show a significant increase in basal systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto progenitors (P<0.001, respectively), whereas congenic animals carrying a subfragment of this Chr 1 region defined by markers Mt1pa and D1Rat57 (also spanning the Sa gene) do not show elevated basal blood pressure levels (P=0.83 and P=0.9, respectively). Similar results were obtained for NaCl-induced blood pressure values. Thus, the blood pressure QTL on Chr 1 is located centromeric to the Sa gene locus in a region that is syntenic to human chromosome 11p15.4-p15.3. This region excludes the Sa as a blood pressure-elevating candidate gene locus on the basis of congenic substitution mapping approaches.  (+info)

Naturally anergic and suppressive CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells as a functionally and phenotypically distinct immunoregulatory T cell subpopulation. (7/252)

A CD4(+) T cell subpopulation defined by the expression levels of a particular cell surface molecule (e.g. CD5, CD45RB, CD25, CD62L or CD38) bears an autoimmune-preventive activity in various animal models. Here we show that the expression of CD25 is highly specific, when compared with other molecules, in delineating the autoimmune-preventive immunoregulatory CD4(+) T cell population. Furthermore, although CD25 is an activation marker for T cells, the following findings indicate that immunoregulatory CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells are functionally distinct from activated or anergy-induced T cells derived from CD25(-)CD4(+) T cells. First, the former are autoimmune-preventive in vivo, naturally unresponsive (anergic) to TCR stimulation in vitro and, upon TCR stimulation, able to suppress the activation/proliferation of other T cells, whereas the latter scarcely exhibit the in vivo autoimmune-preventive activity or the in vitro suppressive activity. Second, such activated or anergy-induced CD25(-) spleen cells produce various autoimmune diseases when transferred to syngeneic athymic nude mice, whereas similarly treated normal spleen cells, which include CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells, do not. Third, upon polyclonal T cell stimulation, CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells express CD25 at higher levels and more persistently than CD25(-)CD4(+) T cell-derived activated T cells; moreover, when the stimulation is ceased, the former revert to the original levels of CD25 expression, whereas the latter lose the expression. These results collectively indicate that naturally anergic and suppressive CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells present in normal naive mice are functionally and phenotypically stable, distinct from other T cells, and play a key role in maintaining immunologic self-tolerance.  (+info)

Insulin-degrading enzyme identified as a candidate diabetes susceptibility gene in GK rats. (8/252)

Genetic analysis of the diabetic GK rat has revealed several diabetes susceptibility loci. Congenic strains have been established for the major diabetes locus, Niddm1, by transfer of GK alleles onto the genome of the normoglycemic F344 rat. Niddm1 was dissected into two subloci, physically separated in the congenic strains Niddm1b and Niddm1i, each with at least one disease susceptibility gene. Here we have mapped Niddm1b to 1 cM by genetic and pathophysiological characterization of new congenic substrains for the locus. The gene encoding insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE:) was located to this 1 cM region, and the two amino acid substitutions (H18R and A890V) identified in the GK allele reduced insulin-degrading activity by 31% in transfected cells. However, when the H18R and A890V variants were studied separately, no effects were observed, demonstrating a synergistic effect of the two variants on insulin degradation. No effect on insulin degradation was observed in cell lysates, indicating that the effect is coupled to receptor-mediated internalization of insulin. Congenic rats with the IDE: GK allele displayed post-prandial hyperglycemia, reduced lipogenesis in fat cells, blunted insulin-stimulated glucose transmembrane uptake and reduced insulin degradation in isolated muscle. Analysis of additional rat strains demonstrated that the dysfunctional IDE: allele was unique to GK. These data point to an important role for IDE: in the diabetic phenotype in GK.  (+info)

Congenic animals are genetically identical organisms, except for a specific genetic locus or region that has been intentionally altered. In the context of animal research, congenic animals are created through selective breeding to transfer a particular gene or genes from one strain to another while keeping the rest of the genetic background as similar as possible.

The process involves repeatedly backcrossing the offspring of the initial cross between two strains to one of the parental strains for several generations, followed by brother-sister mating to establish a congenic strain. The resulting congenic animals share more than 99% of their genetic material with the recipient strain but carry the donor strain's gene(s) at the specific locus of interest.

Congenic animal models are essential tools in biomedical research, as they allow researchers to study the effects of a particular gene or genetic variant while minimizing the influence of other genetic factors. These models help isolate the contribution of a single gene to a phenotype, disease susceptibility, or drug response, facilitating a better understanding of complex biological processes and potential therapeutic interventions.

Congenic mice are strains that have been developed through a specific breeding process to be genetically identical, except for a small region of interest (ROI) that has been introgressed from a donor strain. This is achieved by repeatedly backcrossing the donor ROI onto the genetic background of a recipient strain for many generations, followed by intercrossing within the resulting congenic line to ensure homozygosity of the ROI.

The goal of creating congenic mice is to study the effects of a specific gene or genomic region while minimizing the influence of other genetic differences between strains. This allows researchers to investigate the relationship between genotype and phenotype more accurately, which can be particularly useful in biomedical research for understanding complex traits, diseases, and potential therapeutic targets.

Mammalian chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of mammalian cells, consisting of DNA, hist proteins, and RNA. They carry genetic information that is essential for the development and function of all living organisms. In mammals, each cell contains 23 pairs of chromosomes, for a total of 46 chromosomes, with one set inherited from the mother and the other from the father.

The chromosomes are typically visualized during cell division, where they condense and become visible under a microscope. Each chromosome is composed of two identical arms, separated by a constriction called the centromere. The short arm of the chromosome is labeled as "p," while the long arm is labeled as "q."

Mammalian chromosomes play a critical role in the transmission of genetic information from one generation to the next and are essential for maintaining the stability and integrity of the genome. Abnormalities in the number or structure of mammalian chromosomes can lead to various genetic disorders, including Down syndrome, Turner syndrome, and Klinefelter syndrome.

"Genetic crosses" refer to the breeding of individuals with different genetic characteristics to produce offspring with specific combinations of traits. This process is commonly used in genetics research to study the inheritance patterns and function of specific genes.

There are several types of genetic crosses, including:

1. Monohybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of a single gene or trait.
2. Dihybrid cross: A cross between two individuals that differ in the expression of two genes or traits.
3. Backcross: A cross between an individual from a hybrid population and one of its parental lines.
4. Testcross: A cross between an individual with unknown genotype and a homozygous recessive individual.
5. Reciprocal cross: A cross in which the male and female parents are reversed to determine if there is any effect of sex on the expression of the trait.

These genetic crosses help researchers to understand the mode of inheritance, linkage, recombination, and other genetic phenomena.

Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) are regions of the genome that are associated with variation in quantitative traits, which are traits that vary continuously in a population and are influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors. QTLs can help to explain how genetic variations contribute to differences in complex traits such as height, blood pressure, or disease susceptibility.

Quantitative trait loci are identified through statistical analysis of genetic markers and trait values in experimental crosses between genetically distinct individuals, such as strains of mice or plants. The location of a QTL is inferred based on the pattern of linkage disequilibrium between genetic markers and the trait of interest. Once a QTL has been identified, further analysis can be conducted to identify the specific gene or genes responsible for the variation in the trait.

It's important to note that QTLs are not themselves genes, but rather genomic regions that contain one or more genes that contribute to the variation in a quantitative trait. Additionally, because QTLs are identified through statistical analysis, they represent probabilistic estimates of the location of genetic factors influencing a trait and may encompass large genomic regions containing multiple genes. Therefore, additional research is often required to fine-map and identify the specific genes responsible for the variation in the trait.

Chromosome mapping, also known as physical mapping, is the process of determining the location and order of specific genes or genetic markers on a chromosome. This is typically done by using various laboratory techniques to identify landmarks along the chromosome, such as restriction enzyme cutting sites or patterns of DNA sequence repeats. The resulting map provides important information about the organization and structure of the genome, and can be used for a variety of purposes, including identifying the location of genes associated with genetic diseases, studying evolutionary relationships between organisms, and developing genetic markers for use in breeding or forensic applications.

Inbred strains of mice are defined as lines of mice that have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 consecutive generations. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the mice of an inbred strain are genetically identical to one another, with the exception of spontaneous mutations.

Inbred strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research due to their genetic uniformity and stability, which makes them useful for studying the genetic basis of various traits, diseases, and biological processes. They also provide a consistent and reproducible experimental system, as compared to outbred or genetically heterogeneous populations.

Some commonly used inbred strains of mice include C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, DBA/2J, and 129SvEv. Each strain has its own unique genetic background and phenotypic characteristics, which can influence the results of experiments. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate inbred strain for a given research question.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

'Rats, Inbred Dahl' are a strain of laboratory rats that have been selectively bred for research purposes. They were first developed by Dr. Lewis L. Dahl in the 1960s at the University of Colorado School of Medicine. These rats are known for their susceptibility to develop high blood pressure (hypertension) and related cardiovascular diseases, making them a valuable model for studying hypertension and its complications.

Inbred Dahl rats are typically divided into two main strains: the Dahl Salt-Sensitive (SS/JrHsdMcwi or SS) rat and the Dahl Salt-Resistant (SR/JrHsdMcwi or SR) rat. When fed a high-salt diet, the SS rats develop severe hypertension, kidney damage, and cardiac hypertrophy, while the SR rats are relatively resistant to these effects.

The Inbred Dahl rats have contributed significantly to our understanding of the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of hypertension and related disorders. They continue to be widely used in biomedical research today.

"Rats, Inbred BN" are a strain of laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) that have been inbred for many generations to maintain a high level of genetic consistency and uniformity within the strain. The "BN" designation refers to the place where they were first developed, Bratislava, Czechoslovakia (now Slovakia).

These rats are often used in biomedical research because their genetic homogeneity makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on health and disease. They have been widely used as a model organism to study various physiological and pathophysiological processes, including hypertension, kidney function, immunology, and neuroscience.

Inbred BN rats are known for their low renin-angiotensin system activity, which makes them a useful model for studying hypertension and related disorders. They also have a unique sensitivity to dietary protein, making them a valuable tool for studying the relationship between diet and kidney function.

Overall, Inbred BN rats are an important tool in biomedical research, providing researchers with a consistent and well-characterized model organism for studying various aspects of human health and disease.

H-2 antigens are a group of cell surface proteins found in mice that play a critical role in the immune system. They are similar to the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex in humans and are involved in the presentation of peptide antigens to T cells, which is a crucial step in the adaptive immune response.

The H-2 antigens are encoded by a cluster of genes located on chromosome 17 in mice. They are highly polymorphic, meaning that there are many different variations of these proteins circulating in the population. This genetic diversity allows for a wide range of potential peptide antigens to be presented to T cells, thereby enhancing the ability of the immune system to recognize and respond to a variety of pathogens.

The H-2 antigens are divided into two classes based on their function and structure. Class I H-2 antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells and consist of a heavy chain, a light chain, and a peptide fragment. They present endogenous peptides, such as those derived from viruses that infect the cell, to CD8+ T cells.

Class II H-2 antigens, on the other hand, are found primarily on professional antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages. They consist of an alpha chain and a beta chain and present exogenous peptides, such as those derived from bacteria that have been engulfed by the cell, to CD4+ T cells.

Overall, H-2 antigens are essential components of the mouse immune system, allowing for the recognition and elimination of pathogens and infected cells.

Inbred NOD (Nonobese Diabetic) mice are a strain of laboratory mice that are genetically predisposed to develop autoimmune diabetes. This strain was originally developed in Japan and has been widely used as an animal model for studying type 1 diabetes and its complications.

NOD mice typically develop diabetes spontaneously at around 12-14 weeks of age, although the onset and severity of the disease can vary between individual mice. The disease is caused by a breakdown in immune tolerance, leading to an autoimmune attack on the insulin-producing beta cells of the pancreas.

Inbred NOD mice are highly valuable for research purposes because they exhibit many of the same genetic and immunological features as human patients with type 1 diabetes. By studying these mice, researchers can gain insights into the underlying mechanisms of the disease and develop new treatments and therapies.

Genetic linkage is the phenomenon where two or more genetic loci (locations on a chromosome) tend to be inherited together because they are close to each other on the same chromosome. This occurs during the process of sexual reproduction, where homologous chromosomes pair up and exchange genetic material through a process called crossing over.

The closer two loci are to each other on a chromosome, the lower the probability that they will be separated by a crossover event. As a result, they are more likely to be inherited together and are said to be linked. The degree of linkage between two loci can be measured by their recombination frequency, which is the percentage of meiotic events in which a crossover occurs between them.

Linkage analysis is an important tool in genetic research, as it allows researchers to identify and map genes that are associated with specific traits or diseases. By analyzing patterns of linkage between markers (identifiable DNA sequences) and phenotypes (observable traits), researchers can infer the location of genes that contribute to those traits or diseases on chromosomes.

The Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) is a group of cell surface proteins in vertebrates that play a central role in the adaptive immune system. They are responsible for presenting peptide antigens to T-cells, which helps the immune system distinguish between self and non-self. The MHC is divided into two classes:

1. MHC Class I: These proteins present endogenous (intracellular) peptides to CD8+ T-cells (cytotoxic T-cells). The MHC class I molecule consists of a heavy chain and a light chain, together with an antigenic peptide.

2. MHC Class II: These proteins present exogenous (extracellular) peptides to CD4+ T-cells (helper T-cells). The MHC class II molecule is composed of two heavy chains and two light chains, together with an antigenic peptide.

MHC genes are highly polymorphic, meaning there are many different alleles within a population. This diversity allows for better recognition and presentation of various pathogens, leading to a more robust immune response. The term "histocompatibility" refers to the compatibility between donor and recipient MHC molecules in tissue transplantation. Incompatible MHC molecules can lead to rejection of the transplanted tissue due to an activated immune response against the foreign MHC antigens.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

BALB/c is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The strain was developed at the Institute of Cancer Research in London by Henry Baldwin and his colleagues in the 1920s, and it has since become one of the most commonly used inbred strains in the world.

BALB/c mice are characterized by their black coat color, which is determined by a recessive allele at the tyrosinase locus. They are also known for their docile and friendly temperament, making them easy to handle and work with in the laboratory.

One of the key features of BALB/c mice that makes them useful for research is their susceptibility to certain types of tumors and immune responses. For example, they are highly susceptible to developing mammary tumors, which can be induced by chemical carcinogens or viral infection. They also have a strong Th2-biased immune response, which makes them useful models for studying allergic diseases and asthma.

BALB/c mice are also commonly used in studies of genetics, neuroscience, behavior, and infectious diseases. Because they are an inbred strain, they have a uniform genetic background, which makes it easier to control for genetic factors in experiments. Additionally, because they have been bred in the laboratory for many generations, they are highly standardized and reproducible, making them ideal subjects for scientific research.

'DBA' is an abbreviation for 'Database of Genotypes and Phenotypes,' but in the context of "Inbred DBA mice," it refers to a specific strain of laboratory mice that have been inbred for many generations. The DBA strain is one of the oldest inbred strains, and it was established in 1909 by C.C. Little at the Bussey Institute of Harvard University.

The "Inbred DBA" mice are genetically identical mice that have been produced by brother-sister matings for more than 20 generations. This extensive inbreeding results in a homozygous population, where all members of the strain have the same genetic makeup. The DBA strain is further divided into several sub-strains, including DBA/1, DBA/2, and DBA/J, among others.

DBA mice are known for their black coat color, which can fade to gray with age, and they exhibit a range of phenotypic traits that make them useful for research purposes. For example, DBA mice have a high incidence of retinal degeneration, making them a valuable model for studying eye diseases. They also show differences in behavior, immune response, and susceptibility to various diseases compared to other inbred strains.

In summary, "Inbred DBA" mice are a specific strain of laboratory mice that have been inbred for many generations, resulting in a genetically identical population with distinct phenotypic traits. They are widely used in biomedical research to study various diseases and biological processes.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Genetic markers are specific segments of DNA that are used in genetic mapping and genotyping to identify specific genetic locations, diseases, or traits. They can be composed of short tandem repeats (STRs), single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs), or variable number tandem repeats (VNTRs). These markers are useful in various fields such as genetic research, medical diagnostics, forensic science, and breeding programs. They can help to track inheritance patterns, identify genetic predispositions to diseases, and solve crimes by linking biological evidence to suspects or victims.

'C3H' is the name of an inbred strain of laboratory mice that was developed at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The mice are characterized by their uniform genetic background and have been widely used in biomedical research for many decades.

The C3H strain is particularly notable for its susceptibility to certain types of cancer, including mammary tumors and lymphomas. It also has a high incidence of age-related macular degeneration and other eye diseases. The strain is often used in studies of immunology, genetics, and carcinogenesis.

Like all inbred strains, the C3H mice are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, which leads to a high degree of genetic uniformity within the strain. This makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease susceptibility and other traits. However, it also means that they may not always be representative of the genetic diversity found in outbred populations, including humans.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

Inbred A mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among individuals within the strain, making them useful for research purposes where a consistent genetic background is desired. The Inbred A strain is maintained through continued brother-sister mating. It's important to note that while these mice are called "Inbred A," the designation does not refer to any specific medical condition or characteristic. Instead, it refers to the breeding practices used to create and maintain this particular strain of laboratory mice.

Disease susceptibility, also known as genetic predisposition or genetic susceptibility, refers to the increased likelihood or risk of developing a particular disease due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations. These genetic factors can make an individual more vulnerable to certain diseases compared to those who do not have these genetic changes.

It is important to note that having a genetic predisposition does not guarantee that a person will definitely develop the disease. Other factors, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and additional genetic variations, can influence whether or not the disease will manifest. In some cases, early detection and intervention may help reduce the risk or delay the onset of the disease in individuals with a known genetic susceptibility.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

'NZB mice' is a term used to refer to an inbred strain of laboratory mice that are genetically identical to each other and have been used extensively in biomedical research. The 'NZB' designation stands for "New Zealand Black," which refers to the coat color of these mice.

NZB mice are known to spontaneously develop an autoimmune disease that is similar to human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), a chronic inflammatory disorder caused by an overactive immune system. This makes them a valuable model for studying the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to the development of SLE, as well as for testing new therapies and treatments.

It's important to note that while NZB mice are an inbred strain, they may still exhibit some variability in their disease phenotype due to genetic modifiers or environmental influences. Therefore, researchers often use large cohorts of mice and standardized experimental conditions to ensure the reproducibility and reliability of their findings.

'Inbred AKR mice' is a strain of laboratory mice used in biomedical research. The 'AKR' designation stands for "Akita Radioactive," referring to the location where this strain was first developed in Akita, Japan. These mice are inbred, meaning that they have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a genetically homogeneous population with minimal genetic variation.

Inbred AKR mice are known for their susceptibility to certain types of leukemia and lymphoma, making them valuable models for studying these diseases and testing potential therapies. They also develop age-related cataracts and have a higher incidence of diabetes than some other strains.

It is important to note that while inbred AKR mice are widely used in research, their genetic uniformity may limit the applicability of findings to more genetically diverse human populations.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A quantitative trait is a phenotypic characteristic that can be measured and displays continuous variation, meaning it can take on any value within a range. Examples include height, blood pressure, or biochemical measurements like cholesterol levels. These traits are usually influenced by the combined effects of multiple genes (polygenic inheritance) as well as environmental factors.

Heritability, in the context of genetics, refers to the proportion of variation in a trait that can be attributed to genetic differences among individuals in a population. It is estimated using statistical methods and ranges from 0 to 1, with higher values indicating a greater contribution of genetics to the observed phenotypic variance.

Therefore, a heritable quantitative trait would be a phenotype that shows continuous variation, influenced by multiple genes and environmental factors, and for which a significant portion of the observed variation can be attributed to genetic differences among individuals in a population.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rats, Mutant Strains" is not a recognized medical term or concept. It may be a term used in science fiction, gaming, or other non-medical contexts to refer to genetically modified rats with altered characteristics. However, in the field of medical research, scientists do conduct studies using various strains of lab rats, some of which have been selectively bred or genetically modified to exhibit specific traits, but these are not referred to as "mutant strains." If you have any questions related to medical definitions or concepts, I'd be happy to help with those!

I'm happy to help! "Rats, Inbred Lew" is a specific strain of laboratory rats that have been inbred for research purposes. The "Lew" part of the name refers to the location where they were first developed, the Lewis Institute in Lake Bluff, Illinois, USA.

Inbreeding is a process of mating closely related individuals over many generations to create a genetically homogeneous population. This results in a high degree of genetic similarity among members of the strain, making them ideal for use as experimental models because any differences observed between individuals are more likely to be due to the experimental manipulation rather than genetic variation.

Inbred Lew rats have been widely used in biomedical research, particularly in studies related to hypertension and cardiovascular disease. They exhibit a number of unique characteristics that make them useful for these types of studies, including their susceptibility to developing high blood pressure when fed a high-salt diet or given certain drugs.

It's important to note that while inbred strains like Lew rats can be very useful tools for researchers, they are not perfect models for human disease. Because they have been bred in a controlled environment and selected for specific traits, they may not respond to experimental manipulations in the same way that humans or other animals would. Therefore, it's important to interpret findings from these studies with caution and consider multiple lines of evidence before drawing any firm conclusions.

Immunoglobulin allotypes refer to the genetic variations in the constant region of immunoglobulins (antibodies) that are caused by differences in the amino acid sequences. These variations are determined by specific alleles at polymorphic loci on chromosome 14 and 22, which are inherited in a Mendelian fashion.

Immunoglobulin allotypes can be used as markers for ancestry, immune response, and the identification of tissue types in transplantation. They also play a role in the regulation of the immune response and can affect the affinity and specificity of antibodies.

It's important to note that while immunoglobulin allotypes are inherited and do not change over an individual's lifetime, they should not be confused with immunoglobulin isotypes (IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM) which refer to the different classes of antibodies that have distinct structures and functions.

A "mutant strain of mice" in a medical context refers to genetically engineered mice that have specific genetic mutations introduced into their DNA. These mutations can be designed to mimic certain human diseases or conditions, allowing researchers to study the underlying biological mechanisms and test potential therapies in a controlled laboratory setting.

Mutant strains of mice are created through various techniques, including embryonic stem cell manipulation, gene editing technologies such as CRISPR-Cas9, and radiation-induced mutagenesis. These methods allow scientists to introduce specific genetic changes into the mouse genome, resulting in mice that exhibit altered physiological or behavioral traits.

These strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research because their short lifespan, small size, and high reproductive rate make them an ideal model organism for studying human diseases. Additionally, the mouse genome has been well-characterized, and many genetic tools and resources are available to researchers working with these animals.

Examples of mutant strains of mice include those that carry mutations in genes associated with cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, metabolic diseases, and immunological conditions. These mice provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of human diseases and help advance our understanding of potential therapeutic interventions.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Histocompatibility antigens, also known as human leukocyte antigens (HLAs), are proteins found on the surface of most cells in the body. They play a critical role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between "self" and "non-self" cells. Histocompatibility antigens are encoded by a group of genes called the major histocompatibility complex (MHC).

There are two main types of histocompatibility antigens: class I and class II. Class I antigens are found on almost all nucleated cells, while class II antigens are primarily expressed on immune cells such as B cells, macrophages, and dendritic cells. These antigens present pieces of proteins (peptides) from both inside and outside the cell to T-cells, a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in the immune response.

When foreign peptides are presented to T-cells by histocompatibility antigens, it triggers an immune response aimed at eliminating the threat. This is why histocompatibility antigens are so important in organ transplantation - if the donor's and recipient's antigens do not match closely enough, the recipient's immune system may recognize the transplanted organ as foreign and attack it.

Understanding the role of histocompatibility antigens has been crucial in developing techniques for matching donors and recipients in organ transplantation, as well as in diagnosing and treating various autoimmune diseases and cancers.

Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the destruction of insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas, leading to an absolute deficiency of insulin. This results in an inability to regulate blood glucose levels, causing hyperglycemia (high blood sugar). Type 1 diabetes typically presents in childhood or early adulthood, although it can develop at any age. It is usually managed with regular insulin injections or the use of an insulin pump, along with monitoring of blood glucose levels and adjustments to diet and physical activity. Uncontrolled type 1 diabetes can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, nerve damage, blindness, and cardiovascular disease.

Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC) Class II genes are a group of genes that encode cell surface proteins responsible for presenting peptide antigens to CD4+ T cells, which are crucial in the adaptive immune response. These proteins are expressed mainly on professional antigen-presenting cells such as dendritic cells, macrophages, and B cells. MHC Class II molecules present extracellular antigens derived from bacteria, viruses, and other pathogens, facilitating the activation of appropriate immune responses to eliminate the threat. The genes responsible for these proteins are found within the MHC locus on chromosome 6 in humans (chromosome 17 in mice).

T-lymphocytes, also known as T-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the adaptive immune system's response to infection. They are produced in the bone marrow and mature in the thymus gland. There are several different types of T-cells, including CD4+ helper T-cells, CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells, and regulatory T-cells (Tregs).

CD4+ helper T-cells assist in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages. They also produce cytokines, which are signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response. CD8+ cytotoxic T-cells directly kill infected cells by releasing toxic substances. Regulatory T-cells help maintain immune tolerance and prevent autoimmune diseases by suppressing the activity of other immune cells.

T-lymphocytes are important in the immune response to viral infections, cancer, and other diseases. Dysfunction or depletion of T-cells can lead to immunodeficiency and increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, an overactive T-cell response can contribute to autoimmune diseases and chronic inflammation.

Epistasis is a phenomenon in genetics where the effect of one gene (the "epistatic" gene) is modified by one or more other genes (the "modifier" genes). This interaction can result in different phenotypic expressions than what would be expected based on the individual effects of each gene.

In other words, epistasis occurs when the expression of one gene is influenced by the presence or absence of another gene. The gene that is being masked or modified is referred to as the hypostatic gene, while the gene doing the masking or modifying is called the epistatic gene.

Epistasis can take many forms and can be involved in complex genetic traits and diseases. It can also make it more difficult to map genes associated with certain traits or conditions because the phenotypic expression may not follow simple Mendelian inheritance patterns.

There are several types of epistasis, including recessive-recessive, dominant-recessive, and dominant-dominant epistasis. In recessive-recessive epistasis, for example, the presence of two copies of the epistatic gene prevents the expression of the hypostatic gene, even if the individual has two copies of the hypostatic gene.

Understanding epistasis is important in genetics because it can help researchers better understand the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as improve breeding programs for plants and animals.

Chromosomes are thread-like structures that exist in the nucleus of cells, carrying genetic information in the form of genes. They are composed of DNA and proteins, and are typically present in pairs in the nucleus, with one set inherited from each parent. In humans, there are 23 pairs of chromosomes for a total of 46 chromosomes. Chromosomes come in different shapes and forms, including sex chromosomes (X and Y) that determine the biological sex of an individual. Changes or abnormalities in the number or structure of chromosomes can lead to genetic disorders and diseases.

Sodium chloride, commonly known as salt, is an essential electrolyte in dietary intake. It is a chemical compound made up of sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl-) ions. In a medical context, particularly in nutrition and dietetics, "sodium chloride, dietary" refers to the consumption of this compound in food sources.

Sodium plays a crucial role in various bodily functions such as maintaining fluid balance, assisting nerve impulse transmission, and contributing to muscle contraction. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans recommend limiting sodium intake to less than 2,300 milligrams (mg) per day and further suggest an ideal limit of no more than 1,500 mg per day for most adults, especially those with high blood pressure. However, the average American consumes more than twice the recommended amount, primarily from processed and prepared foods. Excessive sodium intake can lead to high blood pressure and increase the risk of heart disease and stroke.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

SHR (Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats) are an inbred strain of rats that were originally developed through selective breeding for high blood pressure. They are widely used as a model to study hypertension and related cardiovascular diseases, as well as neurological disorders such as stroke and dementia.

Inbred strains of animals are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or offspring) for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at all genetic loci. This means that the animals within an inbred strain are essentially genetically identical to one another, which makes them useful for studying the effects of specific genes or environmental factors on disease processes.

SHR rats develop high blood pressure spontaneously, without any experimental manipulation, and show many features of human hypertension, such as increased vascular resistance, left ventricular hypertrophy, and renal dysfunction. They also exhibit a number of behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity, impulsivity, and cognitive deficits, which make them useful for studying the neurological consequences of hypertension and other cardiovascular diseases.

Overall, inbred SHR rats are an important tool in biomedical research, providing a valuable model for understanding the genetic and environmental factors that contribute to hypertension and related disorders.

Sialadenitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the salivary gland. It can occur in any of the major salivary glands, including the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands. The inflammation may result from bacterial or viral infections, autoimmune disorders, or obstruction of the salivary ducts.

Acute sialadenitis is often caused by bacterial infections and can lead to symptoms such as pain, swelling, redness, and difficulty swallowing. Chronic sialadenitis, on the other hand, may be caused by recurrent infections, autoimmune disorders like Sjogren's syndrome, or stones in the salivary ducts. Symptoms of chronic sialadenitis can include intermittent swelling, pain, and dry mouth.

Treatment for sialadenitis depends on the underlying cause but may include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, hydration, and massage of the salivary glands. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove obstructions or damaged tissue in the salivary gland.

Inbreeding, in a medical context, refers to the practice of mating closely related individuals within a given family or breeding population. This leads to an increased proportion of homozygous genes, meaning that the same alleles (versions of a gene) are inherited from both parents. As a result, recessive traits and disorders become more likely to be expressed because the necessary dominant allele may be absent.

In human medicine, consanguinity is the term often used instead of inbreeding, and it refers to relationships between individuals who share a common ancestor. Consanguinity increases the risk of certain genetic disorders due to the increased likelihood of sharing harmful recessive genes. The closer the relationship, the higher the risk.

In animal breeding, inbreeding can lead to reduced fertility, lower birth weights, higher infant mortality, and a decreased lifespan. It is crucial to maintain genetic diversity within populations to ensure their overall health and vigor.

A genetic locus (plural: loci) is a specific location on a chromosome where a particular gene or DNA sequence is found. It is the precise position where a specific genetic element, such as a gene or marker, is located on a chromsomere. This location is defined in terms of its relationship to other genetic markers and features on the same chromosome. Genetic loci can be used in linkage and association studies to identify the inheritance patterns and potential relationships between genes and various traits or diseases.

WKY (Wistar Kyoto) is not a term that refers to "rats, inbred" in a medical definition. Instead, it is a strain of laboratory rat that is widely used in biomedical research. WKY rats are an inbred strain, which means they are the result of many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a genetically uniform population.

WKY rats originated from the Wistar Institute in Philadelphia and were established as a normotensive control strain to contrast with other rat strains that exhibit hypertension. They have since been used in various research areas, including cardiovascular, neurological, and behavioral studies. Compared to other commonly used rat strains like the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), WKY rats are known for their lower blood pressure, reduced stress response, and greater emotionality.

In summary, "WKY" is a designation for an inbred strain of laboratory rat that is often used as a control group in biomedical research due to its normotensive characteristics.

Innate immunity, also known as non-specific immunity or natural immunity, is the inherent defense mechanism that provides immediate protection against potentially harmful pathogens (like bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) without the need for prior exposure. This type of immunity is present from birth and does not adapt to specific threats over time.

Innate immune responses involve various mechanisms such as:

1. Physical barriers: Skin and mucous membranes prevent pathogens from entering the body.
2. Chemical barriers: Enzymes, stomach acid, and lysozyme in tears, saliva, and sweat help to destroy or inhibit the growth of microorganisms.
3. Cellular responses: Phagocytic cells (neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages) recognize and engulf foreign particles and pathogens, while natural killer (NK) cells target and eliminate virus-infected or cancerous cells.
4. Inflammatory response: When an infection occurs, the innate immune system triggers inflammation to increase blood flow, recruit immune cells, and remove damaged tissue.
5. Complement system: A group of proteins that work together to recognize and destroy pathogens directly or enhance phagocytosis by coating them with complement components (opsonization).

Innate immunity plays a crucial role in initiating the adaptive immune response, which is specific to particular pathogens and provides long-term protection through memory cells. Both innate and adaptive immunity work together to maintain overall immune homeostasis and protect the body from infections and diseases.

Complement C5 is a protein that plays a crucial role in the complement system, which is a part of the immune system that helps to eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body. The complement system is a complex series of biochemical reactions that help to identify and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria and viruses.

Complement C5 is one of several proteins in the complement system that are activated in a cascading manner in response to an activating event, such as the binding of an antibody to a pathogen. Once activated, Complement C5 can be cleaved into two smaller proteins, C5a and C5b.

C5a is a powerful anaphylatoxin, which means it can cause the release of histamine from mast cells and basophils, leading to inflammation and increased vascular permeability. It also acts as a chemoattractant, drawing immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

C5b, on the other hand, plays a role in the formation of the membrane attack complex (MAC), which is a protein structure that can punch holes in the membranes of pathogens, leading to their lysis and destruction.

Overall, Complement C5 is an important component of the immune system's response to infection and injury, helping to eliminate pathogens and damaged cells from the body.

A gene is a specific sequence of nucleotides in DNA that carries genetic information. Genes are the fundamental units of heredity and are responsible for the development and function of all living organisms. They code for proteins or RNA molecules, which carry out various functions within cells and are essential for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs.

Each gene has a specific location on a chromosome, and each person inherits two copies of every gene, one from each parent. Variations in the sequence of nucleotides in a gene can lead to differences in traits between individuals, including physical characteristics, susceptibility to disease, and responses to environmental factors.

Medical genetics is the study of genes and their role in health and disease. It involves understanding how genes contribute to the development and progression of various medical conditions, as well as identifying genetic risk factors and developing strategies for prevention, diagnosis, and treatment.

The AKR murine leukemia virus (AKR MLV) is a type of retrovirus that naturally infects mice of the AKR strain. It is a member of the gammaretrovirus genus and is closely related to other murine leukemia viruses (MLVs).

AKR MLV is transmitted horizontally through close contact with infected animals, as well as vertically from mother to offspring. The virus primarily infects hematopoietic cells, including lymphocytes and macrophages, and can cause a variety of diseases, most notably leukemia and lymphoma.

The AKR MLV genome contains three main structural genes: gag, pol, and env, which encode the viral matrix, capsid, nucleocapsid, reverse transcriptase, integrase, and envelope proteins, respectively. Additionally, the virus carries accessory genes, such as rex and sor, that play a role in regulating viral gene expression and replication.

AKR MLV has been extensively studied as a model system for retrovirus biology and pathogenesis, and its study has contributed significantly to our understanding of the mechanisms of retroviral infection, replication, and disease.

"CBA" is an abbreviation for a specific strain of inbred mice that were developed at the Cancer Research Institute in London. The "Inbred CBA" mice are genetically identical individuals within the same strain, due to many generations of brother-sister matings. This results in a homozygous population, making them valuable tools for research because they reduce variability and increase reproducibility in experimental outcomes.

The CBA strain is known for its susceptibility to certain diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer, which makes it a popular choice for researchers studying those conditions. Additionally, the CBA strain has been widely used in studies related to transplantation immunology, infectious diseases, and genetic research.

It's important to note that while "Inbred CBA" mice are a well-established and useful tool in biomedical research, they represent only one of many inbred strains available for scientific investigation. Each strain has its own unique characteristics and advantages, depending on the specific research question being asked.

A radiation chimera is not a widely used or recognized medical term. However, in the field of genetics and radiation biology, a "chimera" refers to an individual that contains cells with different genetic backgrounds. A radiation chimera, therefore, could refer to an organism that has become a chimera as a result of exposure to radiation, which can cause mutations and changes in the genetic makeup of cells.

Ionizing radiation, such as that used in cancer treatments or nuclear accidents, can cause DNA damage and mutations in cells. If an organism is exposed to radiation and some of its cells undergo mutations while others do not, this could result in a chimera with genetically distinct populations of cells.

However, it's important to note that the term "radiation chimera" is not commonly used in medical literature or clinical settings. If you encounter this term in a different context, I would recommend seeking clarification from the source to ensure a proper understanding.

Autoimmune diseases are a group of disorders in which the immune system, which normally protects the body from foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses, mistakenly attacks the body's own cells and tissues. This results in inflammation and damage to various organs and tissues in the body.

In autoimmune diseases, the body produces autoantibodies that target its own proteins or cell receptors, leading to their destruction or malfunction. The exact cause of autoimmune diseases is not fully understood, but it is believed that a combination of genetic and environmental factors contribute to their development.

There are over 80 different types of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, Graves' disease, psoriasis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Symptoms can vary widely depending on the specific autoimmune disease and the organs or tissues affected. Treatment typically involves managing symptoms and suppressing the immune system to prevent further damage.

Organogold compounds are chemical compounds that contain carbon-gold bonds, where gold is bonded directly to carbon atoms. These compounds have been synthesized and studied for their unique properties and potential applications in various fields, including medicine, catalysis, and materials science. In the medical context, organogold compounds have been explored as potential therapeutic agents, particularly in the treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Some organogold compounds have shown promising antitumor and antibacterial activities, although their clinical use is still under investigation.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

A haplotype is a group of genes or DNA sequences that are inherited together from a single parent. It refers to a combination of alleles (variant forms of a gene) that are located on the same chromosome and are usually transmitted as a unit. Haplotypes can be useful in tracing genetic ancestry, understanding the genetic basis of diseases, and developing personalized medical treatments.

In population genetics, haplotypes are often used to study patterns of genetic variation within and between populations. By comparing haplotype frequencies across populations, researchers can infer historical events such as migrations, population expansions, and bottlenecks. Additionally, haplotypes can provide information about the evolutionary history of genes and genomic regions.

In clinical genetics, haplotypes can be used to identify genetic risk factors for diseases or to predict an individual's response to certain medications. For example, specific haplotypes in the HLA gene region have been associated with increased susceptibility to certain autoimmune diseases, while other haplotypes in the CYP450 gene family can affect how individuals metabolize drugs.

Overall, haplotypes provide a powerful tool for understanding the genetic basis of complex traits and diseases, as well as for developing personalized medical treatments based on an individual's genetic makeup.

The thymus gland is an essential organ of the immune system, located in the upper chest, behind the sternum and surrounding the heart. It's primarily active until puberty and begins to shrink in size and activity thereafter. The main function of the thymus gland is the production and maturation of T-lymphocytes (T-cells), which are crucial for cell-mediated immunity, helping to protect the body from infection and cancer.

The thymus gland provides a protected environment where immune cells called pre-T cells develop into mature T cells. During this process, they learn to recognize and respond appropriately to foreign substances while remaining tolerant to self-tissues, which is crucial for preventing autoimmune diseases.

Additionally, the thymus gland produces hormones like thymosin that regulate immune cell activities and contribute to the overall immune response.

Dimercaprol is a chelating agent, which means it can bind to and help remove certain toxic substances from the body. It is primarily used in the treatment of heavy metal poisoning, such as lead, mercury, or arsenic poisoning. Dimercaprol works by forming stable complexes with these toxic metals, allowing them to be excreted from the body through urine and bile.

The chemical name for dimercaprol is British Anti-Lewisite (BAL), as it was initially developed during World War II as an antidote against the chemical warfare agent Lewisite, a type of arsenic-based blistering agent. Dimercaprol is administered parenterally, usually by intramuscular injection, and its use requires medical supervision due to potential side effects, including hypertension, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, and pain at the injection site.

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is a complex autoimmune disease that can affect almost any organ or system in the body. In SLE, the immune system produces an exaggerated response, leading to the production of autoantibodies that attack the body's own cells and tissues, causing inflammation and damage. The symptoms and severity of SLE can vary widely from person to person, but common features include fatigue, joint pain, skin rashes (particularly a "butterfly" rash across the nose and cheeks), fever, hair loss, and sensitivity to sunlight.

Systemic lupus erythematosus can also affect the kidneys, heart, lungs, brain, blood vessels, and other organs, leading to a wide range of symptoms such as kidney dysfunction, chest pain, shortness of breath, seizures, and anemia. The exact cause of SLE is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Treatment typically involves medications to suppress the immune system and manage symptoms, and may require long-term management by a team of healthcare professionals.

I'm assuming you are asking for information about "Ly" antigens in the context of human immune system and immunology.

Ly (Lymphocyte) antigens are a group of cell surface markers found on human leukocytes, including T cells, NK cells, and some B cells. These antigens were originally identified through serological analysis and were historically used to distinguish different subsets of lymphocytes based on their surface phenotype.

The "Ly" nomenclature has been largely replaced by the CD (Cluster of Differentiation) system, which is a more standardized and internationally recognized classification system for cell surface markers. However, some Ly antigens are still commonly referred to by their historical names, such as:

* Ly-1 or CD5: A marker found on mature T cells, including both CD4+ and CD8+ subsets.
* Ly-2 or CD8: A marker found on cytotoxic T cells, which are a subset of CD8+ T cells that can directly kill infected or damaged cells.
* Ly-3 or CD56: A marker found on natural killer (NK) cells, which are a type of immune cell that can recognize and destroy virus-infected or cancerous cells without the need for prior activation.

It's worth noting that while these antigens were originally identified through serological analysis, they are now more commonly detected using flow cytometry, which allows for the simultaneous measurement of multiple surface markers on individual cells. This has greatly expanded our ability to identify and characterize different subsets of immune cells and has led to a better understanding of their roles in health and disease.

Blood pressure is the force exerted by circulating blood on the walls of the blood vessels. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg) and is given as two figures:

1. Systolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart pushes blood out into the arteries.
2. Diastolic pressure: This is the pressure when the heart rests between beats, allowing it to fill with blood.

Normal blood pressure for adults is typically around 120/80 mmHg, although this can vary slightly depending on age, sex, and other factors. High blood pressure (hypertension) is generally considered to be a reading of 130/80 mmHg or higher, while low blood pressure (hypotension) is usually defined as a reading below 90/60 mmHg. It's important to note that blood pressure can fluctuate throughout the day and may be affected by factors such as stress, physical activity, and medication use.

"Rats, Inbred OLETF" is a specific strain of laboratory rats used in medical research. "OLETF" stands for "Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty," which refers to the fact that this strain was developed by crossbreeding and inbreeding Long-Evans rats from the University of Kyoto with local wild rats in Tokushima, Japan, by Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co.

The OLETF rat is a model for studying obesity, type 2 diabetes, and related metabolic disorders. These rats have a genetic mutation that impairs the function of their cholecystokinin-1 (CCK-1) receptors, which are involved in regulating satiety and insulin secretion. As a result, OLETF rats become obese and develop type 2 diabetes as they age.

Inbred strains like the OLETF rat are useful for medical research because they have a consistent genetic background, making it easier to control variables and study the effects of specific genes or interventions. However, it's important to note that results from animal studies may not always translate directly to humans, so further research is needed to confirm any findings.

Antigenic modulation is a process that occurs when the expression or display of antigens on the surface of cells is altered as a result of interaction with antibodies or other immune effector molecules. This can occur through several mechanisms, including:

1. Internalization and degradation of the antigens by endocytosis after binding to antibodies.
2. Shedding of antigens from the cell surface upon engagement with antibodies or complement components.
3. Changes in the glycosylation or conformation of antigens, which can affect their recognition by the immune system.
4. Upregulation or downregulation of gene expression leading to altered antigen presentation.

Antigenic modulation can have significant implications for the immune response, as it may allow cells to evade detection and elimination by the immune system. This is particularly relevant in the context of cancer and infectious diseases, where antigenic modulation can contribute to disease progression and treatment resistance.

Bone marrow transplantation (BMT) is a medical procedure in which damaged or destroyed bone marrow is replaced with healthy bone marrow from a donor. Bone marrow is the spongy tissue inside bones that produces blood cells. The main types of BMT are autologous, allogeneic, and umbilical cord blood transplantation.

In autologous BMT, the patient's own bone marrow is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with lymphoma or multiple myeloma who have undergone high-dose chemotherapy or radiation therapy to destroy their cancerous bone marrow.

In allogeneic BMT, bone marrow from a genetically matched donor is used for the transplant. This type of BMT is often used in patients with leukemia, lymphoma, or other blood disorders who have failed other treatments.

Umbilical cord blood transplantation involves using stem cells from umbilical cord blood as a source of healthy bone marrow. This type of BMT is often used in children and adults who do not have a matched donor for allogeneic BMT.

The process of BMT typically involves several steps, including harvesting the bone marrow or stem cells from the donor, conditioning the patient's body to receive the new bone marrow or stem cells, transplanting the new bone marrow or stem cells into the patient's body, and monitoring the patient for signs of engraftment and complications.

BMT is a complex and potentially risky procedure that requires careful planning, preparation, and follow-up care. However, it can be a life-saving treatment for many patients with blood disorders or cancer.

'Mice, Inbred MRL-lpr' refers to a specific strain of laboratory mice that are used in biomedical research. The 'MRL' part of the name stands for the breeding colony where they were originally developed, which is the Mouse Repository at the Jackson Laboratory in Bar Harbor, Maine. The 'lpr' designation indicates that these mice carry a mutation in the Fas gene, also known as lpr (lymphoproliferation) gene, which leads to an autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphadenopathy (enlarged lymph nodes), splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), and production of autoantibodies.

The MRL-lpr mice are known for their accelerated aging phenotype, which includes the development of a variety of age-related diseases such as atherosclerosis, osteoporosis, and cancer. They also develop a severe form of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease that affects many organs in the body. The MRL-lpr mice are widely used as a model to study the pathogenesis of SLE and other autoimmune diseases, as well as to test potential therapies for these conditions.

It is important to note that while inbred mouse strains like MRL-lpr provide valuable insights into human disease mechanisms, they do not perfectly replicate all aspects of human disease, and results obtained in mice may not always translate directly to humans. Therefore, findings from mouse studies should be interpreted with caution and validated in human studies before being applied in clinical practice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rats, Inbred BB" is not a widely recognized medical term or abbreviation in human or veterinary medicine. The term "inbred" is used in genetics to describe an organism that has resulted from many generations of mating between closely related individuals, which can lead to a higher incidence of homozygosity (the same allele inherited from both parents) and expression of recessive traits.

The "BB" strain could refer to a specific inbred rat strain, but without more context, it's difficult to provide a precise definition. The BB Wistar rat strain is sometimes used in research, and it has been used as a model for studying various medical conditions such as diabetes and hypertension.

If you are looking for information about a specific scientific study or medical condition related to an "Inbred BB" rat strain, I would be happy to help you if you could provide more context or details.

Hypertension is a medical term used to describe abnormally high blood pressure in the arteries, often defined as consistently having systolic blood pressure (the top number in a blood pressure reading) over 130 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure (the bottom number) over 80 mmHg. It is also commonly referred to as high blood pressure.

Hypertension can be classified into two types: primary or essential hypertension, which has no identifiable cause and accounts for about 95% of cases, and secondary hypertension, which is caused by underlying medical conditions such as kidney disease, hormonal disorders, or use of certain medications.

If left untreated, hypertension can lead to serious health complications such as heart attack, stroke, heart failure, and chronic kidney disease. Therefore, it is important for individuals with hypertension to manage their condition through lifestyle modifications (such as healthy diet, regular exercise, stress management) and medication if necessary, under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Lupus nephritis is a type of kidney inflammation (nephritis) that can occur in people with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), an autoimmune disease. In lupus nephritis, the immune system produces abnormal antibodies that attack the tissues of the kidneys, leading to inflammation and damage. The condition can cause a range of symptoms, including proteinuria (protein in the urine), hematuria (blood in the urine), hypertension (high blood pressure), and eventually kidney failure if left untreated. Lupus nephritis is typically diagnosed through a combination of medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to suppress the immune system and control inflammation, such as corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs.

Chorioretinitis is a medical term that refers to the inflammation of the choroid and the retina, which are both important structures in the eye. The choroid is a layer of blood vessels that supplies oxygen and nutrients to the retina, while the retina is a light-sensitive tissue that converts light into electrical signals that are sent to the brain and interpreted as visual images.

Chorioretinitis can be caused by various infectious and non-infectious conditions, such as bacterial, viral, fungal, or parasitic infections, autoimmune diseases, or cancer. The symptoms of chorioretinitis may include decreased vision, floaters, blurry vision, sensitivity to light, and eye pain. Treatment for chorioretinitis depends on the underlying cause and may include antibiotics, antiviral medications, corticosteroids, or other immunosuppressive therapies. It is important to seek medical attention promptly if you experience any symptoms of chorioretinitis, as timely diagnosis and treatment can help prevent permanent vision loss.

Lymphocyte activation is the process by which B-cells and T-cells (types of lymphocytes) become activated to perform effector functions in an immune response. This process involves the recognition of specific antigens presented on the surface of antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages.

The activation of B-cells leads to their differentiation into plasma cells that produce antibodies, while the activation of T-cells results in the production of cytotoxic T-cells (CD8+ T-cells) that can directly kill infected cells or helper T-cells (CD4+ T-cells) that assist other immune cells.

Lymphocyte activation involves a series of intracellular signaling events, including the binding of co-stimulatory molecules and the release of cytokines, which ultimately result in the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, differentiation, and effector functions. The activation process is tightly regulated to prevent excessive or inappropriate immune responses that can lead to autoimmunity or chronic inflammation.

Autoantibodies are defined as antibodies that are produced by the immune system and target the body's own cells, tissues, or organs. These antibodies mistakenly identify certain proteins or molecules in the body as foreign invaders and attack them, leading to an autoimmune response. Autoantibodies can be found in various autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, and thyroiditis. The presence of autoantibodies can also be used as a diagnostic marker for certain conditions.

A homozygote is an individual who has inherited the same allele (version of a gene) from both parents and therefore possesses two identical copies of that allele at a specific genetic locus. This can result in either having two dominant alleles (homozygous dominant) or two recessive alleles (homozygous recessive). In contrast, a heterozygote has inherited different alleles from each parent for a particular gene.

The term "homozygote" is used in genetics to describe the genetic makeup of an individual at a specific locus on their chromosomes. Homozygosity can play a significant role in determining an individual's phenotype (observable traits), as having two identical alleles can strengthen the expression of certain characteristics compared to having just one dominant and one recessive allele.

Thy-1, also known as Thy-1 antigen or CD90, is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored protein found on the surface of various cells in the body. It was first discovered as a cell surface antigen on thymocytes, hence the name Thy-1.

Thy-1 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is widely expressed in different tissues, including the brain, where it is found on the surface of neurons and glial cells. In the immune system, Thy-1 is expressed on the surface of T lymphocytes, natural killer (NK) cells, and some subsets of dendritic cells.

The function of Thy-1 is not fully understood, but it has been implicated in various biological processes, including cell adhesion, signal transduction, and regulation of immune responses. Thy-1 has also been shown to play a role in the development and maintenance of the nervous system, as well as in the pathogenesis of certain neurological disorders.

As an antigen, Thy-1 can be recognized by specific antibodies, which can be used in various research and clinical applications, such as immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, and cell sorting.

A genome is the complete set of genetic material (DNA, or in some viruses, RNA) present in a single cell of an organism. It includes all of the genes, both coding and noncoding, as well as other regulatory elements that together determine the unique characteristics of that organism. The human genome, for example, contains approximately 3 billion base pairs and about 20,000-25,000 protein-coding genes.

The term "genome" was first coined by Hans Winkler in 1920, derived from the word "gene" and the suffix "-ome," which refers to a complete set of something. The study of genomes is known as genomics.

Understanding the genome can provide valuable insights into the genetic basis of diseases, evolution, and other biological processes. With advancements in sequencing technologies, it has become possible to determine the entire genomic sequence of many organisms, including humans, and use this information for various applications such as personalized medicine, gene therapy, and biotechnology.

Microsatellite repeats, also known as short tandem repeats (STRs), are repetitive DNA sequences made up of units of 1-6 base pairs that are repeated in a head-to-tail manner. These repeats are spread throughout the human genome and are highly polymorphic, meaning they can have different numbers of repeat units in different individuals.

Microsatellites are useful as genetic markers because of their high degree of variability. They are commonly used in forensic science to identify individuals, in genealogy to trace ancestry, and in medical research to study genetic diseases and disorders. Mutations in microsatellite repeats have been associated with various neurological conditions, including Huntington's disease and fragile X syndrome.

Transgenic rats are genetically modified rats that have incorporated foreign DNA (transgene) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA techniques in the laboratory. The transgene can come from any species, including other mammals, plants, or even bacteria. Once the transgene is introduced into the rat's embryonic cells, it becomes a permanent part of the rat's genetic makeup and is passed on to its offspring.

Transgenic rats are used in biomedical research as models for studying human diseases, developing new therapies, and testing the safety and efficacy of drugs. They offer several advantages over traditional laboratory rats, including the ability to manipulate specific genes, study gene function and regulation, and investigate the underlying mechanisms of disease.

Some common applications of transgenic rats in research include:

1. Modeling human diseases: Transgenic rats can be engineered to develop symptoms and characteristics of human diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, Alzheimer's, and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to study the disease progression, test new treatments, and evaluate their effectiveness.
2. Gene function and regulation: By introducing specific genes into rats, scientists can investigate their role in various biological processes, such as development, aging, and metabolism. They can also study how genes are regulated and how they interact with each other.
3. Drug development and testing: Transgenic rats can be used to test the safety and efficacy of new drugs before they are tested in humans. By studying the effects of drugs on transgenic rats, researchers can gain insights into their potential benefits and risks.
4. Toxicology studies: Transgenic rats can be used to study the toxicity of chemicals, pollutants, and other substances. This helps ensure that new products and treatments are safe for human use.

In summary, transgenic rats are genetically modified rats that have incorporated foreign DNA into their own genome. They are widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function and regulation, develop new therapies, and test the safety and efficacy of drugs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mice, 129 Strain" is not a medical definition. Instead, it refers to a specific strain of laboratory mice used in biomedical research. The 129 strain is one of the most commonly used inbred mouse strains and has been extensively characterized genetically and phenotypically. These mice are often used as models for various human diseases due to their well-defined genetic background, which facilitates reproducible experimental results.

The 129 strain is maintained through brother-sister mating for many generations, resulting in a high degree of genetic homogeneity within the strain. There are several substrains of the 129 strain, including 129S1/SvImJ, 129X1/SvJ, 129S6/SvEvTac, and 129P3/J, among others. Each substrain may have distinct genetic differences that can influence experimental outcomes. Therefore, it is essential to specify the exact substrain when reporting research findings involving 129 mice.

Radiation hybrid (RH) mapping is a genetic mapping technique used to determine the relative order and distance between DNA markers or genes on a chromosome. This technique involves exposing donor cells, which contain the chromosome of interest, to high-dose radiation. The radiation causes breaks in the chromosomes, which are then repaired by fusing the donor cells with irradiated hamster cells (the recipient cells).

During the repair process, the broken chromosomal fragments from the donor cell randomly assort and integrate into the genome of the recipient cell. The resulting hybrid cells contain a mosaic of donor chromosomal fragments, which can be analyzed to determine the order and distance between DNA markers or genes on the original chromosome.

The frequency of co-occurrence of two markers in the same hybrid cell is used as an estimate of their physical proximity on the chromosome. The greater the frequency of co-occurrence, the closer the two markers are assumed to be. RH mapping can provide high-resolution maps of large genomes and has been widely used for mapping human and other mammalian genomes. However, with the advent of next-generation sequencing technologies, RH mapping has largely been replaced by sequence-based methods such as whole-genome sequencing and optical mapping.

Genetic hybridization is a biological process that involves the crossing of two individuals from different populations or species, which can lead to the creation of offspring with new combinations of genetic material. This occurs when the gametes (sex cells) from each parent combine during fertilization, resulting in a zygote with a unique genetic makeup.

In genetics, hybridization can also refer to the process of introducing new genetic material into an organism through various means, such as genetic engineering or selective breeding. This type of hybridization is often used in agriculture and biotechnology to create crops or animals with desirable traits, such as increased disease resistance or higher yields.

It's important to note that the term "hybrid" can refer to both crosses between different populations within a single species (intraspecific hybrids) and crosses between different species (interspecific hybrids). The latter is often more challenging, as significant genetic differences between the two parental species can lead to various reproductive barriers, making it difficult for the hybrid offspring to produce viable offspring of their own.

B-lymphocytes, also known as B-cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a key role in the immune system's response to infection. They are responsible for producing antibodies, which are proteins that help to neutralize or destroy pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.

When a B-lymphocyte encounters a pathogen, it becomes activated and begins to divide and differentiate into plasma cells, which produce and secrete large amounts of antibodies specific to the antigens on the surface of the pathogen. These antibodies bind to the pathogen, marking it for destruction by other immune cells such as neutrophils and macrophages.

B-lymphocytes also have a role in presenting antigens to T-lymphocytes, another type of white blood cell involved in the immune response. This helps to stimulate the activation and proliferation of T-lymphocytes, which can then go on to destroy infected cells or help to coordinate the overall immune response.

Overall, B-lymphocytes are an essential part of the adaptive immune system, providing long-lasting immunity to previously encountered pathogens and helping to protect against future infections.

Telemetry is the automated measurement and wireless transmission of data from remote or inaccessible sources to receiving stations for monitoring and analysis. In a medical context, telemetry is often used to monitor patients' vital signs such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen levels, and other important physiological parameters continuously and remotely. This technology allows healthcare providers to track patients' conditions over time, detect any abnormalities or trends, and make informed decisions about their care, even when they are not physically present with the patient. Telemetry is commonly used in hospitals, clinics, and research settings to monitor patients during procedures, after surgery, or during extended stays in intensive care units.

Body weight is the measure of the force exerted on a scale or balance by an object's mass, most commonly expressed in units such as pounds (lb) or kilograms (kg). In the context of medical definitions, body weight typically refers to an individual's total weight, which includes their skeletal muscle, fat, organs, and bodily fluids.

Healthcare professionals often use body weight as a basic indicator of overall health status, as it can provide insights into various aspects of a person's health, such as nutritional status, metabolic function, and risk factors for certain diseases. For example, being significantly underweight or overweight can increase the risk of developing conditions like malnutrition, diabetes, heart disease, and certain types of cancer.

It is important to note that body weight alone may not provide a complete picture of an individual's health, as it does not account for factors such as muscle mass, bone density, or body composition. Therefore, healthcare professionals often use additional measures, such as body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and blood tests, to assess overall health status more comprehensively.

'Gene expression regulation' refers to the processes that control whether, when, and where a particular gene is expressed, meaning the production of a specific protein or functional RNA encoded by that gene. This complex mechanism can be influenced by various factors such as transcription factors, chromatin remodeling, DNA methylation, non-coding RNAs, and post-transcriptional modifications, among others. Proper regulation of gene expression is crucial for normal cellular function, development, and maintaining homeostasis in living organisms. Dysregulation of gene expression can lead to various diseases, including cancer and genetic disorders.

Aminobiphenyl compounds are a group of chemical substances that contain two phenyl rings linked by a single carbon-nitrogen bond. The amino group (-NH2) is attached to one of the phenyl rings.

These compounds have been historically used in the manufacture of dyes and were also used as rubber accelerators. However, they have been largely phased out due to their carcinogenic properties. Exposure to certain aminobiphenyl compounds has been associated with an increased risk of bladder cancer in humans.

It is important to note that the medical definition of 'aminobiphenyl compounds' generally refers to their chemical structure and potential health hazards, rather than a specific medical condition or treatment.

Autoimmunity is a medical condition in which the body's immune system mistakenly attacks and destroys healthy tissues within the body. In normal function, the immune system recognizes and fights off foreign substances such as bacteria, viruses, and toxins. However, when autoimmunity occurs, the immune system identifies self-molecules or tissues as foreign and produces an immune response against them.

This misguided response can lead to chronic inflammation, tissue damage, and impaired organ function. Autoimmune diseases can affect various parts of the body, including the joints, skin, glands, muscles, and blood vessels. Some common examples of autoimmune diseases are rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, Hashimoto's thyroiditis, and Graves' disease.

The exact cause of autoimmunity is not fully understood, but it is believed to involve a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors that trigger an abnormal immune response in susceptible individuals. Treatment for autoimmune diseases typically involves managing symptoms, reducing inflammation, and suppressing the immune system's overactive response using medications such as corticosteroids, immunosuppressants, and biologics.

Experimental arthritis refers to the induction of joint inflammation in animal models for the purpose of studying the disease process and testing potential treatments. This is typically achieved through the use of various methods such as injecting certain chemicals or proteins into the joints, genetically modifying animals to develop arthritis-like symptoms, or immunizing animals to induce an autoimmune response against their own joint tissues. These models are crucial for advancing our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of arthritis and for developing new therapies to treat this debilitating disease.

Antibody formation, also known as humoral immune response, is the process by which the immune system produces proteins called antibodies in response to the presence of a foreign substance (antigen) in the body. This process involves several steps:

1. Recognition: The antigen is recognized and bound by a type of white blood cell called a B lymphocyte or B cell, which then becomes activated.
2. Differentiation: The activated B cell undergoes differentiation to become a plasma cell, which is a type of cell that produces and secretes large amounts of antibodies.
3. Antibody production: The plasma cells produce and release antibodies, which are proteins made up of four polypeptide chains (two heavy chains and two light chains) arranged in a Y-shape. Each antibody has two binding sites that can recognize and bind to specific regions on the antigen called epitopes.
4. Neutralization or elimination: The antibodies bind to the antigens, neutralizing them or marking them for destruction by other immune cells. This helps to prevent the spread of infection and protect the body from harmful substances.

Antibody formation is an important part of the adaptive immune response, which allows the body to specifically recognize and respond to a wide variety of pathogens and foreign substances.

Gene expression profiling is a laboratory technique used to measure the activity (expression) of thousands of genes at once. This technique allows researchers and clinicians to identify which genes are turned on or off in a particular cell, tissue, or organism under specific conditions, such as during health, disease, development, or in response to various treatments.

The process typically involves isolating RNA from the cells or tissues of interest, converting it into complementary DNA (cDNA), and then using microarray or high-throughput sequencing technologies to determine which genes are expressed and at what levels. The resulting data can be used to identify patterns of gene expression that are associated with specific biological states or processes, providing valuable insights into the underlying molecular mechanisms of diseases and potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

In recent years, gene expression profiling has become an essential tool in various fields, including cancer research, drug discovery, and personalized medicine, where it is used to identify biomarkers of disease, predict patient outcomes, and guide treatment decisions.

Immune tolerance, also known as immunological tolerance or specific immune tolerance, is a state of unresponsiveness or non-reactivity of the immune system towards a particular substance (antigen) that has the potential to elicit an immune response. This occurs when the immune system learns to distinguish "self" from "non-self" and does not attack the body's own cells, tissues, and organs.

In the context of transplantation, immune tolerance refers to the absence of a destructive immune response towards the transplanted organ or tissue, allowing for long-term graft survival without the need for immunosuppressive therapy. Immune tolerance can be achieved through various strategies, including hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, costimulation blockade, and regulatory T cell induction.

In summary, immune tolerance is a critical mechanism that prevents the immune system from attacking the body's own structures while maintaining the ability to respond appropriately to foreign pathogens and antigens.

Bone marrow cells are the types of cells found within the bone marrow, which is the spongy tissue inside certain bones in the body. The main function of bone marrow is to produce blood cells. There are two types of bone marrow: red and yellow. Red bone marrow is where most blood cell production takes place, while yellow bone marrow serves as a fat storage site.

The three main types of bone marrow cells are:

1. Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs): These are immature cells that can differentiate into any type of blood cell, including red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. They have the ability to self-renew, meaning they can divide and create more hematopoietic stem cells.
2. Red blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into mature red blood cells, also known as erythrocytes. Red blood cells carry oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and carbon dioxide back to the lungs.
3. Myeloid and lymphoid white blood cell progenitors: These are immature cells that will develop into various types of white blood cells, which play a crucial role in the body's immune system by fighting infections and diseases. Myeloid progenitors give rise to granulocytes (neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils), monocytes, and megakaryocytes (which eventually become platelets). Lymphoid progenitors differentiate into B cells, T cells, and natural killer (NK) cells.

Bone marrow cells are essential for maintaining a healthy blood cell count and immune system function. Abnormalities in bone marrow cells can lead to various medical conditions, such as anemia, leukopenia, leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, or thrombocytosis, depending on the specific type of blood cell affected. Additionally, bone marrow cells are often used in transplantation procedures to treat patients with certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma, or other hematologic disorders.

"Inbred strains of rats" are genetically identical rodents that have been produced through many generations of brother-sister mating. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the genes at any particular locus in the genome are identical in all members of the strain.

Inbred strains of rats are widely used in biomedical research because they provide a consistent and reproducible genetic background for studying various biological phenomena, including the effects of drugs, environmental factors, and genetic mutations on health and disease. Additionally, inbred strains can be used to create genetically modified models of human diseases by introducing specific mutations into their genomes.

Some commonly used inbred strains of rats include the Wistar Kyoto (WKY), Sprague-Dawley (SD), and Fischer 344 (F344) rat strains. Each strain has its own unique genetic characteristics, making them suitable for different types of research.

Organ size refers to the volume or physical measurement of an organ in the body of an individual. It can be described in terms of length, width, and height or by using specialized techniques such as imaging studies (like CT scans or MRIs) to determine the volume. The size of an organ can vary depending on factors such as age, sex, body size, and overall health status. Changes in organ size may indicate various medical conditions, including growths, inflammation, or atrophy.

Food preferences are personal likes or dislikes towards certain types of food or drinks, which can be influenced by various factors such as cultural background, individual experiences, taste, texture, smell, appearance, and psychological factors. Food preferences can also be shaped by dietary habits, nutritional needs, health conditions, and medication requirements. They play a significant role in shaping an individual's dietary choices and overall eating behavior, which can have implications for their nutritional status, growth, development, and long-term health outcomes.

Friend murine leukemia virus (F-MuLV) is a type of retrovirus that specifically infects mice. It was first discovered by Charlotte Friend in the 1950s and has since been widely used as a model system to study retroviral pathogenesis, oncogenesis, and immune responses.

F-MuLV is a complex retrovirus that contains several accessory genes, including gag, pol, env, and others. The virus can cause leukemia and other malignancies in susceptible mice, particularly when it is transmitted from mother to offspring through the milk.

The virus is also known to induce immunosuppression, which makes infected mice more susceptible to other infections and diseases. F-MuLV has been used extensively in laboratory research to investigate various aspects of retroviral biology, including viral entry, replication, gene expression, and host immune responses.

It is important to note that Friend murine leukemia virus only infects mice and is not known to cause any disease in humans or other animals.

Medical Definition:

Murine leukemia virus (MLV) is a type of retrovirus that primarily infects and causes various types of malignancies such as leukemias and lymphomas in mice. It is a complex genus of viruses, with many strains showing different pathogenic properties.

MLV contains two identical single-stranded RNA genomes and has the ability to reverse transcribe its RNA into DNA upon infection, integrating this proviral DNA into the host cell's genome. This is facilitated by an enzyme called reverse transcriptase, which MLV carries within its viral particle.

The virus can be horizontally transmitted between mice through close contact with infected saliva, urine, or milk. Vertical transmission from mother to offspring can also occur either in-utero or through the ingestion of infected breast milk.

MLV has been extensively studied as a model system for retroviral pathogenesis and tumorigenesis, contributing significantly to our understanding of oncogenes and their role in cancer development. It's important to note that Murine Leukemia Virus does not infect humans.

"Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF)" is a term used to describe animals or organisms that are raised and maintained in a controlled environment, free from specific pathogens (disease-causing agents) that could interfere with research outcomes or pose a risk to human or animal health. The "specific" part of the term refers to the fact that the exclusion of pathogens is targeted to those that are relevant to the particular organism or research being conducted.

To maintain an SPF status, animals are typically housed in specialized facilities with strict biosecurity measures, such as air filtration systems, quarantine procedures, and rigorous sanitation protocols. They are usually bred and raised in isolation from other animals, and their health status is closely monitored to ensure that they remain free from specific pathogens.

It's important to note that SPF does not necessarily mean "germ-free" or "sterile," as some microorganisms may still be present in the environment or on the animals themselves, even in an SPF facility. Instead, it means that the animals are free from specific pathogens that have been identified and targeted for exclusion.

In summary, Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms refer to animals or organisms that are raised and maintained in a controlled environment, free from specific disease-causing agents that are relevant to the research being conducted or human/animal health.

A kidney, in medical terms, is one of two bean-shaped organs located in the lower back region of the body. They are essential for maintaining homeostasis within the body by performing several crucial functions such as:

1. Regulation of water and electrolyte balance: Kidneys help regulate the amount of water and various electrolytes like sodium, potassium, and calcium in the bloodstream to maintain a stable internal environment.

2. Excretion of waste products: They filter waste products from the blood, including urea (a byproduct of protein metabolism), creatinine (a breakdown product of muscle tissue), and other harmful substances that result from normal cellular functions or external sources like medications and toxins.

3. Endocrine function: Kidneys produce several hormones with important roles in the body, such as erythropoietin (stimulates red blood cell production), renin (regulates blood pressure), and calcitriol (activated form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).

4. pH balance regulation: Kidneys maintain the proper acid-base balance in the body by excreting either hydrogen ions or bicarbonate ions, depending on whether the blood is too acidic or too alkaline.

5. Blood pressure control: The kidneys play a significant role in regulating blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which constricts blood vessels and promotes sodium and water retention to increase blood volume and, consequently, blood pressure.

Anatomically, each kidney is approximately 10-12 cm long, 5-7 cm wide, and 3 cm thick, with a weight of about 120-170 grams. They are surrounded by a protective layer of fat and connected to the urinary system through the renal pelvis, ureters, bladder, and urethra.

Lupus vulgaris is not related to systemic lupus erythematosus, which is an autoimmune disease. Instead, it's a specific form of cutaneous tuberculosis, a bacterial infection that affects the skin. It's caused by the Mycobacterium tuberculosis bacteria, the same organism responsible for pulmonary tuberculosis and other forms of tuberculosis.

Lupus vulgaris typically occurs in people who have had prior tuberculous infection or those with a weakened immune system. The condition is characterized by slowly growing, reddish-brown or violaceous papules, nodules, and plaques that may ulcerate and form scars. Lesions often have an apple jelly appearance when a glass slide is pressed against them and examined under a dermatoscope.

Lupus vulgaris lesions usually occur on the face, especially the nose, cheeks, and ears, but they can appear on other parts of the body as well. The condition can lead to significant disfigurement if left untreated. Diagnosis typically involves skin biopsy and culture or PCR for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Treatment usually consists of a combination of multiple antituberculous drugs, such as isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide, along with local therapies like surgical excision or laser treatment.

Isoantigens are antigens that are present on the cells or tissues of one individual of a species, but are absent or different in another individual of the same species. They are also known as "alloantigens." Isoantigens are most commonly found on the surface of red blood cells and other tissues, and they can stimulate an immune response when transplanted into a different individual. This is because the recipient's immune system recognizes the isoantigens as foreign and mounts a defense against them. Isoantigens are important in the field of transplantation medicine, as they must be carefully matched between donor and recipient to reduce the risk of rejection.

Antinuclear antibodies (ANA) are a type of autoantibody that target structures found in the nucleus of a cell. These antibodies are produced by the immune system and attack the body's own cells and tissues, leading to inflammation and damage. The presence of ANA is often used as a marker for certain autoimmune diseases, such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, and polymyositis.

ANA can be detected through a blood test called the antinuclear antibody test. A positive result indicates the presence of ANA in the blood, but it does not necessarily mean that a person has an autoimmune disease. Further testing is usually needed to confirm a diagnosis and determine the specific type of autoantibodies present.

It's important to note that ANA can also be found in healthy individuals, particularly as they age. Therefore, the test results should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical findings and symptoms.

Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds produced by a variety of plants, including cannabis. They are responsible for the distinctive aromas and flavors found in different strains of cannabis. Terpenes have been found to have various therapeutic benefits, such as anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial properties. Some terpenes may also enhance the psychoactive effects of THC, the main psychoactive compound in cannabis. It's important to note that more research is needed to fully understand the potential medical benefits and risks associated with terpenes.

Experimental leukemia refers to the stage of research or clinical trials where new therapies, treatments, or diagnostic methods are being studied for leukemia. Leukemia is a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow, leading to an overproduction of abnormal white blood cells.

In the experimental stage, researchers investigate various aspects of leukemia, such as its causes, progression, and potential treatments. They may conduct laboratory studies using cell cultures or animal models to understand the disease better and test new therapeutic approaches. Additionally, clinical trials may be conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of novel treatments in human patients with leukemia.

Experimental research in leukemia is crucial for advancing our understanding of the disease and developing more effective treatment strategies. It involves a rigorous and systematic process that adheres to ethical guidelines and scientific standards to ensure the validity and reliability of the findings.

Genetic recombination is the process by which genetic material is exchanged between two similar or identical molecules of DNA during meiosis, resulting in new combinations of genes on each chromosome. This exchange occurs during crossover, where segments of DNA are swapped between non-sister homologous chromatids, creating genetic diversity among the offspring. It is a crucial mechanism for generating genetic variability and facilitating evolutionary change within populations. Additionally, recombination also plays an essential role in DNA repair processes through mechanisms such as homologous recombinational repair (HRR) and non-homologous end joining (NHEJ).

Genetic polymorphism refers to the occurrence of multiple forms (called alleles) of a particular gene within a population. These variations in the DNA sequence do not generally affect the function or survival of the organism, but they can contribute to differences in traits among individuals. Genetic polymorphisms can be caused by single nucleotide changes (SNPs), insertions or deletions of DNA segments, or other types of genetic rearrangements. They are important for understanding genetic diversity and evolution, as well as for identifying genetic factors that may contribute to disease susceptibility in humans.

Renin is a medically recognized term and it is defined as:

"A protein (enzyme) that is produced and released by specialized cells (juxtaglomerular cells) in the kidney. Renin is a key component of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), which helps regulate blood pressure and fluid balance in the body.

When the kidney detects a decrease in blood pressure or a reduction in sodium levels, it releases renin into the bloodstream. Renin then acts on a protein called angiotensinogen, converting it to angiotensin I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) subsequently converts angiotensin I to angiotensin II, which is a potent vasoconstrictor that narrows blood vessels and increases blood pressure.

Additionally, angiotensin II stimulates the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, a hormone that promotes sodium reabsorption in the kidneys and increases water retention, further raising blood pressure.

Therefore, renin plays a critical role in maintaining proper blood pressure and electrolyte balance in the body."

Immunoglobulin G (IgG) is a type of antibody, which is a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to foreign substances like bacteria or viruses. IgG is the most abundant type of antibody in human blood, making up about 75-80% of all antibodies. It is found in all body fluids and plays a crucial role in fighting infections caused by bacteria, viruses, and toxins.

IgG has several important functions:

1. Neutralization: IgG can bind to the surface of bacteria or viruses, preventing them from attaching to and infecting human cells.
2. Opsonization: IgG coats the surface of pathogens, making them more recognizable and easier for immune cells like neutrophils and macrophages to phagocytose (engulf and destroy) them.
3. Complement activation: IgG can activate the complement system, a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body. Activation of the complement system leads to the formation of the membrane attack complex, which creates holes in the cell membranes of bacteria, leading to their lysis (destruction).
4. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC): IgG can bind to immune cells like natural killer (NK) cells and trigger them to release substances that cause target cells (such as virus-infected or cancerous cells) to undergo apoptosis (programmed cell death).
5. Immune complex formation: IgG can form immune complexes with antigens, which can then be removed from the body through various mechanisms, such as phagocytosis by immune cells or excretion in urine.

IgG is a critical component of adaptive immunity and provides long-lasting protection against reinfection with many pathogens. It has four subclasses (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, and IgG4) that differ in their structure, function, and distribution in the body.

Natural Killer (NK) cells are a type of lymphocyte, which are large granular innate immune cells that play a crucial role in the host's defense against viral infections and malignant transformations. They do not require prior sensitization to target and destroy abnormal cells, such as virus-infected cells or tumor cells. NK cells recognize their targets through an array of germline-encoded activating and inhibitory receptors that detect the alterations in the cell surface molecules of potential targets. Upon activation, NK cells release cytotoxic granules containing perforins and granzymes to induce target cell apoptosis, and they also produce a variety of cytokines and chemokines to modulate immune responses. Overall, natural killer cells serve as a critical component of the innate immune system, providing rapid and effective responses against infected or malignant cells.

A heterozygote is an individual who has inherited two different alleles (versions) of a particular gene, one from each parent. This means that the individual's genotype for that gene contains both a dominant and a recessive allele. The dominant allele will be expressed phenotypically (outwardly visible), while the recessive allele may or may not have any effect on the individual's observable traits, depending on the specific gene and its function. Heterozygotes are often represented as 'Aa', where 'A' is the dominant allele and 'a' is the recessive allele.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Dinitrobenzenes are a group of organic compounds that contain two nitro groups (-NO2) attached to a benzene ring. There are three isomers of dinitrobenzenes, depending on the position of the nitro groups on the benzene ring:
1. 1,2-Dinitrobenzene: This isomer has both nitro groups attached to adjacent carbon atoms on the benzene ring. It is a yellow crystalline solid with a melting point of 89-90°C and is soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, and benzene.
2. 1,3-Dinitrobenzene: This isomer has the nitro groups attached to carbon atoms separated by one carbon atom on the benzene ring. It is a white crystalline solid with a melting point of 90°C and is soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, and benzene.
3. 1,4-Dinitrobenzene: This isomer has the nitro groups attached to opposite carbon atoms on the benzene ring. It is a white crystalline solid with a melting point of 169°C and is soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, ether, and benzene.
Dinitrobenzenes are used in chemical synthesis, particularly in the production of dyes, pharmaceuticals, and explosives. However, they are also known to be toxic and can cause skin irritation, respiratory problems, and damage to the liver and kidneys if ingested or inhaled in large quantities. Therefore, handling and use of these compounds should be done with caution and appropriate safety measures.

Arylamine N-acetyltransferase (NAT) is a group of enzymes involved in the metabolism of aromatic amines, which are found in a variety of substances including tobacco smoke, certain drugs, and environmental contaminants. NAT catalyzes the transfer of an acetyl group from acetyl coenzyme A to the aromatic amine, which can help to detoxify these compounds and make them more water-soluble for excretion. There are two main forms of NAT in humans, known as NAT1 and NAT2, which have different tissue distributions and substrate specificities. Variations in NAT activity due to genetic polymorphisms can affect individual susceptibility to certain chemical exposures and diseases, including cancer.

'Inbred CFTR mice' refers to a strain of laboratory mice that have been selectively bred to carry a specific genetic mutation in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene. The CFTR gene provides instructions for making a protein that helps regulate the movement of salt and water in and out of cells.

In humans, mutations in the CFTR gene can lead to cystic fibrosis (CF), a genetic disorder that affects multiple organs, particularly the lungs and digestive system. The most common CF-causing mutation is called ΔF508, which results in the production of a misfolded CFTR protein that does not function properly.

Inbred CFTR mice carry the same ΔF508 mutation as human CF patients and can serve as an important model for studying the disease mechanisms and testing potential therapies. These mice exhibit many of the symptoms seen in human CF, including lung inflammation, mucus accumulation, and digestive problems. By using inbred CFTR mice, researchers can control for genetic background and focus on the effects of the CFTR mutation, providing valuable insights into the pathophysiology of cystic fibrosis.

F344 is a strain code used to designate an outbred stock of rats that has been inbreeded for over 100 generations. The F344 rats, also known as Fischer 344 rats, were originally developed at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and are now widely used in biomedical research due to their consistent and reliable genetic background.

Inbred strains, like the F344, are created by mating genetically identical individuals (siblings or parents and offspring) for many generations until a state of complete homozygosity is reached, meaning that all members of the strain have identical genomes. This genetic uniformity makes inbred strains ideal for use in studies where consistent and reproducible results are important.

F344 rats are known for their longevity, with a median lifespan of around 27-31 months, making them useful for aging research. They also have a relatively low incidence of spontaneous tumors compared to other rat strains. However, they may be more susceptible to certain types of cancer and other diseases due to their inbred status.

It's important to note that while F344 rats are often used as a standard laboratory rat strain, there can still be some genetic variation between individual animals within the same strain, particularly if they come from different suppliers or breeding colonies. Therefore, it's always important to consider the source and history of any animal model when designing experiments and interpreting results.

Immunogenetics is the study of the genetic basis of immune responses. It involves the investigation of the genetic factors that control the development, function, and regulation of the immune system, as well as the genetic mechanisms underlying immune-mediated diseases such as autoimmune disorders, allergies, and transplant rejection. This field combines immunology, genetics, and molecular biology to understand how genes contribute to immune response variability among individuals and populations.

Cellular immunity, also known as cell-mediated immunity, is a type of immune response that involves the activation of immune cells, such as T lymphocytes (T cells), to protect the body against infected or damaged cells. This form of immunity is important for fighting off infections caused by viruses and intracellular bacteria, as well as for recognizing and destroying cancer cells.

Cellular immunity involves a complex series of interactions between various immune cells and molecules. When a pathogen infects a cell, the infected cell displays pieces of the pathogen on its surface in a process called antigen presentation. This attracts T cells, which recognize the antigens and become activated. Activated T cells then release cytokines, chemicals that help coordinate the immune response, and can directly attack and kill infected cells or help activate other immune cells to do so.

Cellular immunity is an important component of the adaptive immune system, which is able to learn and remember specific pathogens in order to mount a faster and more effective response upon subsequent exposure. This form of immunity is also critical for the rejection of transplanted organs, as the immune system recognizes the transplanted tissue as foreign and attacks it.

Hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) are immature, self-renewing cells that give rise to all the mature blood and immune cells in the body. They are capable of both producing more hematopoietic stem cells (self-renewal) and differentiating into early progenitor cells that eventually develop into red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. HSCs are found in the bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, and peripheral blood. They have the ability to repair damaged tissues and offer significant therapeutic potential for treating various diseases, including hematological disorders, genetic diseases, and cancer.

Thymus neoplasms are abnormal growths in the thymus gland that result from uncontrolled cell division. The term "neoplasm" refers to any new and abnormal growth of tissue, also known as a tumor. Thymus neoplasms can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Malignant thymus neoplasms are called thymomas or thymic carcinomas. Thymomas are the most common type and tend to grow slowly, invading nearby tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body. Thymic carcinomas are rarer and more aggressive, growing and spreading more quickly than thymomas.

Symptoms of thymus neoplasms may include coughing, chest pain, difficulty breathing, or swelling in the neck or upper chest. Treatment options for thymus neoplasms depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

A LOD (Logarithm of Odds) score is not a medical term per se, but rather a statistical concept that is used in genetic research and linkage analysis to determine the likelihood of a gene or genetic marker being linked to a particular disease or trait. The LOD score compares the odds of observing the pattern of inheritance of a genetic marker in a family if the marker is linked to the disease, versus the odds if the marker is not linked. A LOD score of 3 or higher is generally considered evidence for linkage, while a score of -2 or lower is considered evidence against linkage.

Skin transplantation, also known as skin grafting, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of healthy skin from one part of the body (donor site) and its transfer to another site (recipient site) that has been damaged or lost due to various reasons such as burns, injuries, infections, or diseases. The transplanted skin can help in healing wounds, restoring functionality, and improving the cosmetic appearance of the affected area. There are different types of skin grafts, including split-thickness grafts, full-thickness grafts, and composite grafts, which vary in the depth and size of the skin removed and transplanted. The success of skin transplantation depends on various factors, including the size and location of the wound, the patient's overall health, and the availability of suitable donor sites.

"Sex characteristics" refer to the anatomical, chromosomal, and genetic features that define males and females. These include both primary sex characteristics (such as reproductive organs like ovaries or testes) and secondary sex characteristics (such as breasts or facial hair) that typically develop during puberty. Sex characteristics are primarily determined by the presence of either X or Y chromosomes, with XX individuals usually developing as females and XY individuals usually developing as males, although variations and exceptions to this rule do occur.

The liver is a large, solid organ located in the upper right portion of the abdomen, beneath the diaphragm and above the stomach. It plays a vital role in several bodily functions, including:

1. Metabolism: The liver helps to metabolize carbohydrates, fats, and proteins from the food we eat into energy and nutrients that our bodies can use.
2. Detoxification: The liver detoxifies harmful substances in the body by breaking them down into less toxic forms or excreting them through bile.
3. Synthesis: The liver synthesizes important proteins, such as albumin and clotting factors, that are necessary for proper bodily function.
4. Storage: The liver stores glucose, vitamins, and minerals that can be released when the body needs them.
5. Bile production: The liver produces bile, a digestive juice that helps to break down fats in the small intestine.
6. Immune function: The liver plays a role in the immune system by filtering out bacteria and other harmful substances from the blood.

Overall, the liver is an essential organ that plays a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being.

CD4-positive T-lymphocytes, also known as CD4+ T cells or helper T cells, are a type of white blood cell that plays a crucial role in the immune response. They express the CD4 receptor on their surface and help coordinate the immune system's response to infectious agents such as viruses and bacteria.

CD4+ T cells recognize and bind to specific antigens presented by antigen-presenting cells, such as dendritic cells or macrophages. Once activated, they can differentiate into various subsets of effector cells, including Th1, Th2, Th17, and Treg cells, each with distinct functions in the immune response.

CD4+ T cells are particularly important in the immune response to HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), which targets and destroys these cells, leading to a weakened immune system and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. The number of CD4+ T cells is often used as a marker of disease progression in HIV infection, with lower counts indicating more advanced disease.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

T-lymphocyte subsets refer to distinct populations of T-cells, which are a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. The two main types of T-lymphocytes are CD4+ and CD8+ cells, which are defined by the presence or absence of specific proteins called cluster differentiation (CD) molecules on their surface.

CD4+ T-cells, also known as helper T-cells, play a crucial role in activating other immune cells, such as B-lymphocytes and macrophages, to mount an immune response against pathogens. They also produce cytokines that help regulate the immune response.

CD8+ T-cells, also known as cytotoxic T-cells, directly kill infected cells or tumor cells by releasing toxic substances such as perforins and granzymes.

The balance between these two subsets of T-cells is critical for maintaining immune homeostasis and mounting effective immune responses against pathogens while avoiding excessive inflammation and autoimmunity. Therefore, the measurement of T-lymphocyte subsets is essential in diagnosing and monitoring various immunological disorders, including HIV infection, cancer, and autoimmune diseases.

Macrophages are a type of white blood cell that are an essential part of the immune system. They are large, specialized cells that engulf and destroy foreign substances, such as bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, as well as damaged or dead cells. Macrophages are found throughout the body, including in the bloodstream, lymph nodes, spleen, liver, lungs, and connective tissues. They play a critical role in inflammation, immune response, and tissue repair and remodeling.

Macrophages originate from monocytes, which are a type of white blood cell produced in the bone marrow. When monocytes enter the tissues, they differentiate into macrophages, which have a larger size and more specialized functions than monocytes. Macrophages can change their shape and move through tissues to reach sites of infection or injury. They also produce cytokines, chemokines, and other signaling molecules that help coordinate the immune response and recruit other immune cells to the site of infection or injury.

Macrophages have a variety of surface receptors that allow them to recognize and respond to different types of foreign substances and signals from other cells. They can engulf and digest foreign particles, bacteria, and viruses through a process called phagocytosis. Macrophages also play a role in presenting antigens to T cells, which are another type of immune cell that helps coordinate the immune response.

Overall, macrophages are crucial for maintaining tissue homeostasis, defending against infection, and promoting wound healing and tissue repair. Dysregulation of macrophage function has been implicated in a variety of diseases, including cancer, autoimmune disorders, and chronic inflammatory conditions.

The Coombs test is a laboratory procedure used to detect the presence of antibodies on the surface of red blood cells (RBCs). It is named after the scientist, Robin Coombs, who developed the test. There are two types of Coombs tests: direct and indirect.

1. Direct Coombs Test (DCT): This test is used to detect the presence of antibodies directly attached to the surface of RBCs. It is often used to diagnose hemolytic anemia, a condition in which RBCs are destroyed prematurely, leading to anemia. A positive DCT indicates that the patient's RBCs have been coated with antibodies, which can occur due to various reasons such as autoimmune disorders, blood transfusion reactions, or drug-induced immune hemolysis.
2. Indirect Coombs Test (ICT): This test is used to detect the presence of antibodies in the patient's serum that can agglutinate (clump) foreign RBCs. It is commonly used before blood transfusions or during pregnancy to determine if the patient has antibodies against the RBCs of a potential donor or fetus, respectively. A positive ICT indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies capable of binding to and agglutinating foreign RBCs.

In summary, the Coombs test is a crucial diagnostic tool in identifying various hemolytic disorders and ensuring safe blood transfusions by detecting the presence of harmful antibodies against RBCs.

CD45 is a protein that is found on the surface of many types of white blood cells, including T-cells, B-cells, and natural killer (NK) cells. It is also known as leukocyte common antigen because it is present on almost all leukocytes. CD45 is a tyrosine phosphatase that plays a role in regulating the activity of various proteins involved in cell signaling pathways.

As an antigen, CD45 is used as a marker to identify and distinguish different types of white blood cells. It has several isoforms that are generated by alternative splicing of its mRNA, resulting in different molecular weights. The size of the CD45 isoform can be used to distinguish between different subsets of T-cells and B-cells.

CD45 is an important molecule in the immune system, and abnormalities in its expression or function have been implicated in various diseases, including autoimmune disorders and cancer.

Adoptive transfer is a medical procedure in which immune cells are transferred from a donor to a recipient with the aim of providing immunity or treating a disease, such as cancer. This technique is often used in the field of immunotherapy and involves isolating specific immune cells (like T-cells) from the donor, expanding their numbers in the laboratory, and then infusing them into the patient. The transferred cells are expected to recognize and attack the target cells, such as malignant or infected cells, leading to a therapeutic effect. This process requires careful matching of donor and recipient to minimize the risk of rejection and graft-versus-host disease.

Splenomegaly is a medical term that refers to an enlargement or expansion of the spleen beyond its normal size. The spleen is a vital organ located in the upper left quadrant of the abdomen, behind the stomach and below the diaphragm. It plays a crucial role in filtering the blood, fighting infections, and storing red and white blood cells and platelets.

Splenomegaly can occur due to various underlying medical conditions, including infections, liver diseases, blood disorders, cancer, and inflammatory diseases. The enlarged spleen may put pressure on surrounding organs, causing discomfort or pain in the abdomen, and it may also lead to a decrease in red and white blood cells and platelets, increasing the risk of anemia, infections, and bleeding.

The diagnosis of splenomegaly typically involves a physical examination, medical history, and imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI. Treatment depends on the underlying cause and may include medications, surgery, or other interventions to manage the underlying condition.

"Caliper sells animal models subsidiary to Taconic Farms for $11 million". Drug Discovery News. Retrieved 13 December 2009. v t ... 1994 - Contracted with National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease to maintain a repository of inbred, congenic, and ... "Taconic Biosciences , Lab Animal Buyers' Guide". Guide.labanimal.com. Retrieved 2017-05-22. "Nancy J. Sandy Appointed Chief ... Taconic Biosciences is a breeder and supplier of laboratory animals operating in over 50 countries. The current CEO is Nancy J ...
... a consistent and uniform animal model for experimental purposes and enables genetic studies in congenic and knock-out animals. ... Small animals such as cats and dogs may be sterilized, but in the case of large agricultural animals, such as cattle, culling ... However, in species such as horses, animals in wild or feral conditions often drive off the young of both sexes, thought to be ... Animals avoid incest only rarely. Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being ...
... animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.040.500 - mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520 - animals, inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520 ... MeSH B01.050.157.040 - animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.157.040.500 - mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.157.520 - mice, inbred strains ... animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520.040.500 - mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520.520 - mice, inbred strains MeSH B01.050. ... congenic MeSH B01.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400 - mice, inbred strains MeSH B01.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400.300 - mice, ...
Normally this is performed with sedated animals but sometimes it is performed on awake animals engaged in a behavioral event, ... Selective breeding - Organisms, often mice, may be bred selectively among inbred strains to create a recombinant congenic ... Analyses can be conducted on how keypoints (i.e. parts of the animal) move within different phases of a particular behavior (on ... Single-unit recording - A method whereby an electrode is introduced into the brain of a living animal to detect electrical ...
Patients who are immunized with the antibodies from animals may develop serum sickness due to the proteins from the immune ... "congenic", or deliberately inbred mouse strains which are histocompatible.[citation needed] An individual's immune response of ... Shibasaburo and von Behring immunized guinea pigs with the blood products from animals that had recovered from diphtheria and ... If a neonatal animal does not receive adequate amounts of colostrum prior to gut closure, it does not have a sufficient amount ...
In general, animals are tested in the Hebb-Williams maze's twelve separate mazes after acclimating to six practice mazes, ... Stanford, Lianne; Brown, Richard E. (September 2003). "MHC-congenic mice (C57BL/6J and B6-H-2K) show differences in speed but ... The Hebb-Williams maze is a maze used in comparative psychology to assess the cognitive ability of small animals such as mice ... This modified version is the most commonly used in research where the aim is to measure animals' problem-solving abilities. ...
For congenic and mutant strains, genomic positions are assigned for the introgressed region (congenic strains) or the location ... Autism Models: Laboratory rats are the animal of choice in neurobiology. The Medical College of Wisconsin has been working with ... Such sequences are useful primarily for researchers still using these markers for genotyping their animals and for ... cells and molecular pathways at the whole animal or systems level. Until recently, direct, specific genomic manipulations in ...
Non-obese diabetic or NOD mice, like biobreeding rats, are used as an animal model for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes develops in ... Loci associated with susceptibility to IDDM have been identified in the NOD mouse strain through the development of congenic ... Fox, James; Anderson, Lynn; Otto, Glen; Corning, Kathleen; Whary, Mark (2015). Laboratory Animal Medicine (3 ed.). Amsterdam: ... Portals: Animals Biology (Laboratory mouse strains, Diabetes, Population genetics). ...
They believe that live bird markets may play a key role in human and animal infections with H7N9 and that, even if the overall ... the national avian flu reference laboratory concluded that the strain of the H7N9 virus found on pigeons was highly congenic ... It will also be important to verify whether the H7N9 virus is transmissible from humans to animals because if established, it ... Activation was prompted because the novel H7N9 avian influenza virus has never been seen before in animals or humans and ...
... s (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... Backcrossing Congenic strain Inbreeding Linebreeding Beck JA, Lloyd S, Hafezparast M, Lennon-Pierce M, Eppig JT, Festing MF, ... Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for the reproducibility of conclusions all ... Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ...
In other words, before an animal engages with a potential mate, they first evaluate various aspects of that mate which are ... Evidence from the use of a Y-maze differentially scented by congenic mice of different major histocompatibility types". Journal ... The genetic diversity of animals and life reproductive success (LRS) at the MHC level is optimal at intermediate levels rather ... Similar to the humans of the odor-rating experiment, animals also choose mates based upon genetic compatibility as determined ...
Unlike many animals, humans are not able to consciously display physical changes to their body when they are ready to mate, so ... Evidence from the use of a Y-maze differentially scented by congenic mice of different major histocompatibility types". Journal ... Relative to most other animals however, female and male mating strategies are found to be more similar to each other. According ... ISBN 978-0-333-72558-0.[page needed] Collins, Sarah A. (2000). "Men's voices and women's choices". Animal Behaviour. 60 (6): ...
He defined immunology as the science of self-nonself discrimination, concerned not just with the human species and its animal ... The associations were demonstrated by testing the responses of congenic strains differing at the H2 complex and mapping the ... background and thus producing a set of congenic B10.W lines. These lines proved to be essential for the complete ...
1995). "T cell response to Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia japonica in various congenic mouse strains". ... nymphs that feed on long-distance migrants give rise to hunting adult ticks that subsequently feed on larger animals, such as ...
November 2004). "Congenic mice with low serum IGF-I have increased body fat, reduced bone mineral density, and an altered ... it is difficult to employ in laboratory animals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides BMAT assessment in the vertebral ...
Animals. 11β-HSD1 knock-out mice congenic on a C57BL/6J background (Carter et al., 2009) were bred after a minimum of 10 ... Since no apparent cognitive benefits are seen in young animals even with complete 11β-HSD1 deficiency, the implication is that ... All procedures were performed to the highest standards under the aegis of the UK Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act, 1986, and ... Hyperglycemia associates with cognitive decline with aging in humans and some animal models (Convit et al., 2003; McCall, 2005 ...
"Caliper sells animal models subsidiary to Taconic Farms for $11 million". Drug Discovery News. Retrieved 13 December 2009. v t ... 1994 - Contracted with National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease to maintain a repository of inbred, congenic, and ... "Taconic Biosciences , Lab Animal Buyers Guide". Guide.labanimal.com. Retrieved 2017-05-22. "Nancy J. Sandy Appointed Chief ... Taconic Biosciences is a breeder and supplier of laboratory animals operating in over 50 countries. The current CEO is Nancy J ...
Have experience in tumor immunology including working with transplantable tumor cell lines in congenic mouse models. ... and test these vaccine candidates for in vivo immunogenicity and protective efficacy in different animal tumor models. ...
Here, we introduce the B6 RIP-DTR mouse, a model of experimental diabetes in fully immunocompetent animals. These inbred mice ... and this was reversed indefinitely after transplantation with islets from congenic C57BL/6 mice. By contrast, MHC-mismatched ... Here, we introduce the B6 RIP-DTR mouse, a model of experimental diabetes in fully immunocompetent animals. These inbred mice ... Here, we introduce the B6 RIP-DTR mouse, a model of experimental diabetes in fully immunocompetent animals. These inbred mice ...
... animals were bred by crossing heterozygotes on a congenic C57BL/6J background to C3H/HeH mice. Mutant F1 progeny were ... Animals. Animals were genotyped using a TaqMan allelic discrimination assay under standard conditions. Primers used were as ... Following behavioral tests, animals were sacrificed and any animals showing gross anatomical defects were excluded from the ... To produce sufficient cohorts of animals for this study, we chose to use animals of mixed genetic background. This did not ...
Currently used animal models of IBD include transgenic, congenic, chemically induced and adoptive cell-transfer models (8), in ... Animals. A total of 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats (age, 6-7 weeks; weight, 220±20 g) were purchased from the animal center of ... All animals received humane care in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals, published by the US ... The animals then received vehicle with or without PO for 7 subsequent days. On the 5th day after colitis induction, rats were ...
Animals. C57BL/6J mice and the congenic inbred strain of rd10 mice were obtained from the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME) ... The animals were then maintained for 2 weeks in the dark before they were moved to a normal 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycling ... Only animals with minimal surgical complications and initial retinal blebs occupying more than half the retina were retained ... For light-adapted electroretinography, the animals were put under a background light of 100 cd · s/m2 for 5 minutes before the ...
Transgene Congenic and Spontaneous Mutation. RBRC09241. HR1.Cg-Hr,hr, Tg(EF1A-PDHL/roGFP1)121Soht. Transgene Congenic and ... Transgene Congenic and Spontaneous Mutation. Dermatology Research. Fluorescent Proteins/lacZ System. Metabolism Research. ...
Genes; Hearing-loss; Noise-induced-hearing-loss; Noise-frequencies; Laboratory-animals; Animals; Animal-studies; Age-factors; ... The congenic B6.CAST-+Ahl male mice had significantly less TTS immediately post-exposure than C57BL/6J males or females but not ... 114 (1997) 83] developed a congenic B6.CAST-+Ahl mouse which carries the wild-type allele from Mus musculus castaneus at the ... the animals underwent cardiac perfusion to fix their cochleae. The isolated cochleae were embedded in plastic and dissected ...
Animals. FVB/N-Tg (MMTV-PyMT) 634 Mul/J transgenic males on a 100% FVB background [18] were obtained from Jackson Labs and ... crossed with mitochondrial targeted (mCAT) transgenic females on a congenic C57/BL6 background [17]. PyMT is a membrane bound ... Animals were kept in ventilated cages (4 to 5 per cage) in a specific pathogen free facility at the University of Washington. ... HH and CPB participated in animal dissections and tumor measurements. CPB performed Ki-67 immunohistochemistry assays. JM ...
Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. In the congenic C57BL/6J strain, the Ahl locus has been ... Laboratory-animals; Animals; Molecular-structure; Genetics; Genetic-factors ... This presentation will compare ABR results in the two congenic strains as well as compare the present data with the previous ... The present study was designed to test these congenic strains for their vulnerability to noise-induced hearing loss. Mouse ...
ANIMALS, CONGENIC. ANIMALES CONGENICOS. ANQUILOSE DENTAL. TOOTH ANKYLOSIS. ANQUILOSIS DEL DIENTE. ANTAGONISTAS DE LEUCOTRIENOS ...
ANIMALS, CONGENIC. ANIMALES CONGENICOS. ANIMAIS CONGÊNICOS. ANTICIPATION, GENETIC. ANTICIPACION GENETICA. ANTECIPAÇÃO GENÉTICA ...
ANIMALS, CONGENIC. ANIMALES CONGENICOS. ANQUILOSE DENTAL. TOOTH ANKYLOSIS. ANQUILOSIS DEL DIENTE. ANTAGONISTAS DE LEUCOTRIENOS ...
... kidney abnormalities could be identified by QTL mapping analysis and follow-up studies including consomic and congenic rat ...
The mouse is an important and widely utilized animal model for bone marrow transplant (BMT) translational studies. Here, we ... document the course of an unexpected increase in mortality of congenic mice that unde... ... The golden retriever muscular dystrophy (GRMD) dogs represent the best available animal model for therapeutic trials aiming at ... Numerous compounds have been demonstrated to efficiently prevent pulmonary fibrosis (PF) in animal models but only a fe... ...
Live Animals. Genetic Category. Inbred Segregating Congenic. Consomic Recombinant. Coisogenic Spont. Mutant Transgene Ind. ...
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The delayed development is also consistent with observations in humans with congenic Lep/LepR deficiency, making this animal ... On the other hand, LepR-deficient animals and healthy controls display analogous bone matrix composition, which is assessed in ... Compared to the healthy controls, the LepR-deficient animals display significant alterations in femur microarchitecture and in ... Overall, the altered bone microarchitecture in the LepR-deficient animals indicates compromised bone quality, despite the ...
For all in vivo experiments, n values reported are individual animals.. Animals. Several transgenic mouse lines were used in ... Incipient B6 congenic (4th or 5th backcross generation with DBA/2 J passenger loci) "S-line" mice were mated to B6.APP/PS1, ... but no synaptic reorganization is evident in 10-month-old animals (10 and 16 month old animals, N = 3). (c, d) High ... RP and GAC designed and were involved in all animal work. SNP analysis was performed by GAC and DRB. TLS-J and BTH conceived ...
Animal studies. Congenic C57BL/6J LRH-1 WT or LRH-1 K289R (9) as well as C57BL/6J Lrh-1hep-/- and Lrh-1hep+/+ mice (6) were ... Starting first with animals then people, Salafia perfected his process. Eventually, he embalmed his own father.. Once word ... They often deal with plants, animals, and real-world materials like wood, tools, and machinery. Many of the occupations require ... He didnt have a formal education or training in embalming but preserving human and animal bodies was his passion, says Dr Dario ...
All animal care and experimental procedures have been authorized by the University of Missouri Animal Care and Use Committee. ... C57BL/6J-congenic PAI-1-deficient (pai1-/-) mice had been a gift from Dr. Peter Carmeliet, University of Leuven, Leuven, ... Belgium [21]. C57BL/6J-congenic VN-deficient (vn-/-) mice and PAI-1-transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress PAI-1 beneath the ...
All animal work must have been conducted according to relevant national and international guidelines. All such studies must ... or made congenic onto another strain. In addition, the genotypes of all experimental and control groups must be specified. ... All animal work must have been conducted according to relevant national and international guidelines. All such studies must ... In experiments involving animal models, details concerning sex, age, weight, strain, substrain, and source must be delineated. ...
The C57BL/6 (CD45.2) mice and the congenic strains B6.SJL-PtprcaPep3b/BoyJ (CD45.1) were obtained from the Jackson Laboratory ( ... All mouse studies were approved by the institutional animal care and use. ...
The following animal models are presently characterized: Akita mouse model, IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mouse, BB/DR.LepR-/- ... congenic rats, PDGFBret/ret mouse (a.k.a. retention mouse), ZSF1 rats, DIO mouse, SUR1/E1506K x LDLR-/-ApoB100/100. ... The animal models will provide a central bridge between the discovery projects and projects translating these findings into ... The final aim of WP4 is to create novel animal models for insulin resistance, T1D and T2D, and their micro- and macrovascular ...
Animals, Congenic. * Blood Pressure. * Calcium-Binding Proteins. * Collagen. * Disease Models, Animal. * Drug Administration ... ACE-inhibition and AT1 receptor antagonism improves ventricular lusitropy without affecting cardiac fibrosis in the congenic ... ACE-inhibition and AT1 receptor antagonism improves ventricular lusitropy without affecting cardiac fibrosis in the congenic ... ACE-inhibition and AT1 receptor antagonism improves ventricular lusitropy without affecting cardiac fibrosis in the congenic ...
Genome to phenome: improving animal health, production, and well-being: a new USDA blueprint for animal genome research 2018- ... ADOL, IA, and CA each maintained and shared numerous lines of various types (e.g., inbred, congenic) for use in a range of ... Journal of Animal Physiology and Nutrition 102: e468-e475.. *Aggrey, S.E., M. C. Milfort, A. L. Fuller, Y. Jiamin and R. Rekaya ... Animals (Basel) 10.. *Alber, A., Morris, K.M., Bryson, K.J., Sutton, K., Monson, M.S., Chintoan-Uta, C., Borowska, D., Lamont, ...
Transgenic, knock-out, congenic and inbread strains are known for C57BL/6, A/J, BALB/c, SCID while the CD-1 is outbred as ... the basis of most modern medical diagnostic testing in humans and animals. A microplate typically has 6, 24, 96, 384 or 1536 ...
Gale GD, Yazdi RD, Khan AH, Lusis AJ, Davis RC, Smith DJ: A genome-wide panel of congenic mice reveals widespread epistasis of ... Protocols conformed to NIH Care and Use Guidelines and were approved through the UCLA Animal Research Committee. Mice were ... Brains were removed from each animal after euthanasia. Hippocampus and striatum were dissected out and flash frozen in liquid ... Flint J: Analysis of quantitative trait loci that influence animal behavior. J Neurobiol. 2003, 54: 46-77. 10.1002/neu.10161 ...
  • Aged (24 months old) heterozygous male 11β-HSD1 knock-out mice, with ∼60% reduction in hippocampal 11β-reductase activity throughout life, were protected against spatial memory impairments in the Y-maze compared to age-matched congenic C57BL/6J controls. (jneurosci.org)
  • The congenic B6.CAST-+Ahl male mice had significantly less TTS immediately post-exposure than C57BL/6J males or females but not less PTS or hair-cell losses at 20 days post-exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • In the congenic C57BL/6J strain, the Ahl locus has been replaced by the wild-type locus from the inbred CBA/CaJ strain (strain B6.CBA). (cdc.gov)
  • This presentation will compare ABR results in the two congenic strains as well as compare the present data with the previous inbred C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ data. (cdc.gov)
  • C57BL/6J-congenic PAI-1-deficient (pai1-/-) mice had been a gift from Dr. Peter Carmeliet, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium [21]. (emlinhibitor.com)
  • C57BL/6J-congenic VN-deficient (vn-/-) mice and PAI-1-transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress PAI-1 beneath the control from the CMV promoter had been from Dr. David Ginsburg, University of Michigan [22, 23]. (emlinhibitor.com)
  • The C57BL/6 (CD45.2) mice and the congenic strains B6.SJL-PtprcaPep3b/BoyJ (CD45.1) were obtained from the Jackson Laboratory (Bar Harbor, ME) and housed in a specific pathogen-free environment. (thetechnoant.info)
  • Transgenic, knock-out, congenic and inbread strains are known for C57BL/6, A/J, BALB/c, SCID while the CD-1 is outbred as strain. (polabo.com)
  • 1994 - Contracted with National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease to maintain a repository of inbred, congenic, and transgenic mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • This would be expected based on the fact that the congenic CBA.B6 mice genotypes included the mutant Ahl locus. (cdc.gov)
  • In the current study we have used NOD-InsHA transgenic mice that express the influenza hemagglutinin (HA) as an islet Ag to compare the fate of HA-specific CD8+ T cells in diabetes susceptible NOD-InsHA mice with that observed in diabetes-resistant congenic mice having protective alleles at insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd) 3, Idd5.1, and Idd5.2 (Idd3/5 strain) or at Idd9.1, Idd9.2, and Idd9.3 (Idd9 strain). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Research on diabetic complications has been hampered by the limitation that most of the animal models used for T1D (NOD mice, BB rat) or T2D (db/db mice, GK rat) do not develop classical micro- and macrovascular complications. (lu.se)
  • Currently used animal models of IBD include transgenic, congenic, chemically induced and adoptive cell-transfer models ( 8 ), in which rodent colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) by stimulation of transmural oxidative stress and inflammatory factors is one of the most widely used models that closely resembles the pathogenesis of CD ( 9 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • Susceptibility to noise -induced hearing loss in two congenic mouse strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. (cdc.gov)
  • In this panel of inbred strains, a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to albuminuria/proteinuria and other functional or structural kidney abnormalities could be identified by QTL mapping analysis and follow-up studies including consomic and congenic rat lines. (nih.gov)
  • The generation of new models will be based on candidate genes identified in WP1 and/or WP2The consortium also aims to use knowledge from genetic and biomarker discovery programmes (in particular, novel pathway information) to support development of novel animal models, and includes European players with a strong track record in this area. (lu.se)
  • At 20 days post-exposure, the animals underwent cardiac perfusion to fix their cochleae. (cdc.gov)
  • Dual ACE-inhibition and AT1 receptor antagonism improves ventricular lusitropy without affecting cardiac fibrosis in the congenic mRen2.Lewis rat. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Jessup JA, Westwood BM, Chappell MC, Groban L. Dual ACE-inhibition and AT1 receptor antagonism improves ventricular lusitropy without affecting cardiac fibrosis in the congenic mRen2.Lewis rat. (wakehealth.edu)
  • Join a highly productive research team who are developing and characterizing recombinant vaccine vectors incorporating neoantigens identified by proprietary bioinformatic pipelines, and test these vaccine candidates for in vivo immunogenicity and protective efficacy in different animal tumor models. (postdocjobs.com)
  • This mutation occurred sometime after the divergence of humans from their last common ancestor, so humans are the only known animals missing a functional CMAH gene (Chou, H-H, et al. (justia.com)
  • A very common usage is in the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), the basis of most modern medical diagnostic testing in humans and animals. (polabo.com)
  • ethylene Monographs , a review was undertak icals and other agents that may oxide (in 1994), based on strong ev en during 2008-2009 of relevant in pre sent carcinogenic hazards to idence of genotoxicity and limited formation on all the agents classified humans. (who.int)
  • The car between humans and experimental have also been shown to cause cinogens evaluated in Volume animals, and of mechanistic events cancer in animals. (who.int)
  • In the congenic CBA/CaJ strain the wild-type locus has been replaced by the mutant Ahl locus (strain CBA.B6). (cdc.gov)
  • Have experience in tumor immunology including working with transplantable tumor cell lines in congenic mouse models. (postdocjobs.com)
  • 114 (1997) 83] developed a congenic B6.CAST-+Ahl mouse which carries the wild-type allele from Mus musculus castaneus at the Ahl locus. (cdc.gov)
  • The following animal models are presently characterized: Akita mouse model, IGF-II/LDLR-/-ApoB100/100 mouse, BB/DR.LepR-/- congenic rats, PDGFBret/ret mouse (a.k.a. retention mouse), ZSF1 rats, DIO mouse, SUR1/E1506K x LDLR-/-ApoB100/100. (lu.se)
  • scientists with a deep insight into genetics, biomarker discovery, development of novel imaging assays for assessing progression of complications, novel animal models for chronic diabetic complications, in silico models to predict development of complications and response to novel treatments. (lu.se)
  • The final aim of WP4 is to create novel animal models for insulin resistance, T1D and T2D, and their micro- and macrovascular complications with special emphasis on nephropathy (DN), retinopathy (DR) and macrovascular disease (CVD). (lu.se)
  • The animal models will provide a central bridge between the discovery projects and projects translating these findings into clinical settings. (lu.se)
  • 100 of the IARC Monographs at different sites in separate ani en the scientific value of Volume confirm that the induction of mal models. (who.int)
  • Taconic Biosciences is a breeder and supplier of laboratory animals operating in over 50 countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1969 - Began offering rats, including Sprague Dawley, one of the most popular breeds of laboratory rat 1969 - Taconic was the first breeder to receive full accreditation from the American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animals 1970 - Contracted to provide the National Institutes of Health with Sprague Dawley rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • neutron radiation (in cinogenicity in laboratory animals. (who.int)
  • In addition, a targeted metabolic profiling study identified that four metabolites were elevated in the urine of the animals in the TNBS group, which were significantly inhibited by treatment with PO: Two tryptophan metabolites [4-(2-aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid and 4,6-cihydroxyquinoline] and two gut microbial metabolites (phenylacetylglycine and p‑cresol glucuronide). (spandidos-publications.com)
  • SUMMIT will also generate animals in which alteration of gene function can be induced in later life: this will involve both conventional methods (using tetracycline and tamoxifen) as well as a novel lentiviral transgenesis technology which allows in vivo siRNA-knockdown of genes that would be embryonic lethal using conventional technologies. (lu.se)
  • All animal care and experimental procedures have been authorized by the University of Missouri Animal Care and Use Committee. (emlinhibitor.com)
  • 100, and embarked on a twophase cancer in experimental animals 4. (who.int)
  • The poultry industry in the United States underpins the global food system providing an efficient, economical and nutritious source of animal-based protein (meat and eggs). (nimss.org)
  • Also, we bred F344.MES-Cybames congenic rats that have a similar genetic background to the Nox knockout rats. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the congenic CBA/CaJ strain the wild-type locus has been replaced by the mutant Ahl locus (strain CBA.B6). (cdc.gov)
  • The genetic background of the host animal exerts great influence on the tumor frequency and/or the resultant latency of a particular transgene or mutation, as well as the systemic host immune responses. (nih.gov)
  • Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. (nih.gov)
  • Restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis has already shown that the close linkage between Sinc and the gene encoding PrP has been maintained in the Sinc congenic lines, strengthening the possibility that PrP is the Sinc gene product. (nih.gov)
  • BACKGROUND: Linkage and congenic strain analyses using the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse as a model for human type 1 autoimmune diabetes (T1D) have identified several NOD mouse Idd (insulin dependent diabetes) loci, including Slc11a1 (formerly known as Nramp1). (ox.ac.uk)
  • Such a test will help to establish which animal behavioral traits are most relevant to human alcoholism. (nih.gov)
  • Exposing animals to mutagens was considered one way to increase the rate of spontaneous, random mutation. (cdc.gov)
  • Therefore, it is advantageous to study these genetic modifications in a congenic mouse, which has a homogeneous genome, varying only by the region containing the transgene or targeted mutation. (nih.gov)
  • We used two congenic mouse models differing at the Ahr gene, which encodes AHRs with a 10-fold difference in signaling potencies. (nih.gov)
  • We derived the SHR.BN16 congenic strain by introgression of a limited RNO16 region from the Brown Norway congenic strain (BN-Lx) into the genomic background of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) strain. (nih.gov)
  • Background: Both coplanar and noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) exhibit neurotoxic effects in animal studies, but individual congeners do not always produce the same effects as PCB mixtures. (nih.gov)
  • Resources include biological specimens, animals, data, materials, tools, or services made available to any qualified investigato r to accelerate alcohol-related research in a cost-effective manner. (nih.gov)
  • All animal experiments were approved by the local animal welfare committee Lower Saxony State Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (LAVES) and performed strictly according to their guidelines. (e-core.org)
  • goGermline eliminates competition with 'host' embryos, resulting in 100% embryonic stem (ES) cell-derived offspring with significant benefits to project timelines and animal welfare. (ozgene.com)
  • All animal experiments and care procedures were conducted at the Massachusetts General Hospital or Baylor College of Medicine facilities in accordance with the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) protocols approved at each institution, in compliance with all relevant ethical regulations, and following guidelines from the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. (platohealth.ai)
  • Animals with signs of sickness or infection were excluded from the study. (platohealth.ai)
  • The funds set aside for this RFA are intended to support all aspects of projects funded, except for genotyping of the animals generated during the course of the research, which will be supported by a separately awarded contract (see SPECIAL REQUIREMENTS, below). (nih.gov)
  • A depauperate assemblage of animals is present (by comparison to Lhyp.Ft and Lhyp.Pk) predominantly consisting of the encrusting polychaetes Spirobranchus triqueter , the crabs Carcinus maenas and Pagurus bernhardus and the ubiquitous gastropod Gibbula cineraria . (marlin.ac.uk)