Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Sodium chloride used in foods.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.
An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.
Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.
Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The selection of one food over another.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
A strain of mice widely studied as a model for cystic fibrosis. These mice are generated from embryonic stem cells in which the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is inactivated by gene targeting. As a result, all mice have one copy of this altered gene in all their tissues. Mice homozygous for the disrupted gene exhibit many features common to young cystic fibrosis patients, including failure to thrive, meconium ileus, and alteration of mucous and serous glands.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Enlargement of the spleen.

T cell reconstitution of BB/W rats after the initiation of insulitis precipitates the onset of diabetes. (1/252)

One of the diabetes susceptibility genes of the BB/W (Biobreeding/Worcester) rat maps to the lyp locus on chromosome 4. The BB/W lyp allele is responsible for a severe peripheral T lymphopenia. Correction of this lymphopenia by transfer of normal, histocompatible T cells prevents diabetes, providing T cell reconstitution is initiated before insulitis. We have analyzed this time-dependent regulation of the diabetogenic process by normal T cells. We demonstrate that T cell reconstitution after the initiation of insulitis precipitates the onset of diabetes through the recruitment of donor T cells to the autoimmune process. This inability of normal T cells to regulate primed diabetogenic BB/W T cells and their own autoreactive potential were observed when normal T cells outnumbered pathogenic T cells by approximately 1000-fold. Analysis of donor-derived T cells recovered from BB/W rats that were reconstituted before insulitis, and hence protected from diabetes, demonstrates that early T cell reconstitution of BB/W rats does not result in a long term physical or functional depletion of islet cell-specific T cell precursors among donor cells or in the expansion of T cells that can regulate the activation and expansion of diabetogenic T cells.  (+info)

Genetics of Cd36 and the clustering of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in spontaneous hypertension. (2/252)

Disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism have been reported to cluster in patients with essential hypertension and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). A deletion in the Cd36 gene on chromosome 4 has recently been implicated in defective carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in isolated adipocytes from SHRs. However, the role of Cd36 and chromosome 4 in the control of blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk factors in SHRs is unknown. In the SHR. BN-Il6/Npy congenic strain, we have found that transfer of a segment of chromosome 4 (including Cd36) from the Brown Norway (BN) rat onto the SHR background induces reductions in blood pressure and ameliorates dietary-induced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These results demonstrate that a single chromosome region can influence a broad spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors involved in the hypertension metabolic syndrome. However, analysis of Cd36 genotypes in the SHR and stroke-prone SHR strains indicates that the deletion variant of Cd36 was not critical to the initial selection for hypertension in the SHR model. Thus, the ability of chromosome 4 to influence multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, may depend on linkage of Cd36 to other genes trapped within the differential segment of the SHR. BN-Il6/Npy strain.  (+info)

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein induces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the "resistant" Brown Norway rat: disease susceptibility is determined by MHC and MHC-linked effects on the B cell response. (3/252)

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by active immunization with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is an Ab-mediated, T cell-dependent autoimmune disease that replicates the inflammatory demyelinating pathology of multiple sclerosis. We report that disease susceptibility and severity are determined by MHC and MHC-linked effects on the MOG-specific B cell response that mediate severe clinical EAE in the EAE-resistant Brown Norway (BN) rat. Immunization with the extracellular domain of MOG in CFA induced fulminant clinical disease associated with widespread demyelination and with an inflammatory infiltrate containing large numbers of polymorphonuclear cells and eosinophils within 10 days of immunization. To analyze the effects of the MHC (RT1 system) we compared BN (RT1 n) rats with Lewis (LEW) (RT1 l) and two reciprocal MHC congenic strains, LEW.1N (RT1n) and BN.1L (RT1 l). This comparison revealed that disease severity and clinical course were strongly influenced by the MHC haplotype that modulated the pathogenic MOG-specific autoantibody response. The intra-MHC recombinant congenic strain LEW.1R38 demonstrated that gene loci located both within the centromeric segment of the MHC containing classical class I and class II genes and within the telomeric RT1.M region containing the MOG gene are involved in determining Ab production and disease susceptibility. This study indicates that the current T cell-centered interpretation of MHC-mediated effects on disease susceptibility must be reassessed in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases in which autoantibody is involved in disease pathogenesis.  (+info)

Pathological and immunological findings of athymic nude and congenic wild type BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Neospora caninum. (4/252)

Neospora is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that causes abortions and neuromuscular disorders in a wide variety of mammals. Japanese bovine isolate JPA1 was inoculated intraperitoneally into BALB/c nu/ nu (athymic nude) and BALB/c (congenic wild type) female mice to examine the distribution of parasites and resistance mechanisms to Neospora infection. All the athymic nude mice died within 28 days after intraperitoneal injection of 2 x 10(5) JPA1 tachyzoites, whereas all the congenic wild type mice survived without exhibiting any clinical signs. Tachyzoites were identified in the uterus and pancreas and later spread to many other organs. Most tachyzoites identified in the necrotic foci were localized in the epithelium of the venules and capillaries. Nude mice developed high level of serum interferon-gamma and interleukin-6 as infection proceeded. Inflammatory response to Neospora infection might be mediated by Th1-type dependent cellular immunity.  (+info)

C6 produced by macrophages contributes to cardiac allograft rejection. (5/252)

The terminal components of complement C5b-C9 can cause significant injury to cardiac allografts. Using C6-deficient rats, we have found that the rejection of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I-incompatible PVG.R8 (RT1.A(a)B(u)) cardiac allografts by PVG.1U (RT1.A(u)B(u)) recipients is particularly dependent on C6. This model was selected to determine whether tissue injury results from C6 produced by macrophages, which are a conspicuous component of infiltrates in rejecting transplants. We demonstrated that high levels of C6 mRNA are expressed in isolated populations of macrophages. The relevance of macrophage-produced C6 to cardiac allograft injury was investigated by transplanting hearts from PVG. R8 (C6-) donors to PVG.1U (C6-) rats which had been reconstituted with bone marrow from PVG.1U (C6+) rats as the sole source of C6. Hearts grafted to hosts after C6 reconstitution by bone marrow transplantation underwent rejection characterized by deposition of IgG and complement on the vascular endothelium together with extensive intravascular aggregates of P-selectin-positive platelets. At the time of acute rejection, the cardiac allografts contained extensive perivascular and interstitial macrophage infiltrates. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization demonstrated high levels of C6 mRNA in the macrophage-laden transplants. C6 protein levels were also increased in the circulation during rejection. To determine the relative contribution to cardiac allograft rejection of the low levels of circulating C6 produced systemically by macrophages, C6 containing serum was passively transferred to PVG.1U (C6-) recipients of PVG.R8 (C6-) hearts. This reconstituted the C6 levels to about 3 to 6% of normal values, but failed to induce allograft rejection. In control PVG.1U (C6-) recipients that were reconstituted with bone marrow from PVG.1U (C6-) donors, C6 levels remained undetectable and PVG.R8 cardiac allografts were not rejected. These results indicate that C6 produced by macrophages can cause significant tissue damage.  (+info)

Congenic substitution mapping excludes Sa as a candidate gene locus for a blood pressure quantitative trait locus on rat chromosome 1. (6/252)

Previously, linkage analysis in several experimental crosses between hypertensive rat strains and their contrasting reference strains have identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for blood pressure on rat chromosome 1 (Chr 1) spanning the Sa gene locus. In this study, we report the further dissection of this Chr 1 blood pressure QTL with congenic substitution mapping. To address whether the Sa gene represents a candidate gene for the Chr 1 blood pressure QTL, congenic strains were developed by introgressing high blood pressure QTL alleles from the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) into the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY-1) reference strain. Congenic animals carrying a chromosomal segment from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats between genetic markers Mt1pa and D1Rat200 (including the Sa gene locus) show a significant increase in basal systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto progenitors (P<0.001, respectively), whereas congenic animals carrying a subfragment of this Chr 1 region defined by markers Mt1pa and D1Rat57 (also spanning the Sa gene) do not show elevated basal blood pressure levels (P=0.83 and P=0.9, respectively). Similar results were obtained for NaCl-induced blood pressure values. Thus, the blood pressure QTL on Chr 1 is located centromeric to the Sa gene locus in a region that is syntenic to human chromosome 11p15.4-p15.3. This region excludes the Sa as a blood pressure-elevating candidate gene locus on the basis of congenic substitution mapping approaches.  (+info)

Naturally anergic and suppressive CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells as a functionally and phenotypically distinct immunoregulatory T cell subpopulation. (7/252)

A CD4(+) T cell subpopulation defined by the expression levels of a particular cell surface molecule (e.g. CD5, CD45RB, CD25, CD62L or CD38) bears an autoimmune-preventive activity in various animal models. Here we show that the expression of CD25 is highly specific, when compared with other molecules, in delineating the autoimmune-preventive immunoregulatory CD4(+) T cell population. Furthermore, although CD25 is an activation marker for T cells, the following findings indicate that immunoregulatory CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells are functionally distinct from activated or anergy-induced T cells derived from CD25(-)CD4(+) T cells. First, the former are autoimmune-preventive in vivo, naturally unresponsive (anergic) to TCR stimulation in vitro and, upon TCR stimulation, able to suppress the activation/proliferation of other T cells, whereas the latter scarcely exhibit the in vivo autoimmune-preventive activity or the in vitro suppressive activity. Second, such activated or anergy-induced CD25(-) spleen cells produce various autoimmune diseases when transferred to syngeneic athymic nude mice, whereas similarly treated normal spleen cells, which include CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells, do not. Third, upon polyclonal T cell stimulation, CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells express CD25 at higher levels and more persistently than CD25(-)CD4(+) T cell-derived activated T cells; moreover, when the stimulation is ceased, the former revert to the original levels of CD25 expression, whereas the latter lose the expression. These results collectively indicate that naturally anergic and suppressive CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells present in normal naive mice are functionally and phenotypically stable, distinct from other T cells, and play a key role in maintaining immunologic self-tolerance.  (+info)

Insulin-degrading enzyme identified as a candidate diabetes susceptibility gene in GK rats. (8/252)

Genetic analysis of the diabetic GK rat has revealed several diabetes susceptibility loci. Congenic strains have been established for the major diabetes locus, Niddm1, by transfer of GK alleles onto the genome of the normoglycemic F344 rat. Niddm1 was dissected into two subloci, physically separated in the congenic strains Niddm1b and Niddm1i, each with at least one disease susceptibility gene. Here we have mapped Niddm1b to 1 cM by genetic and pathophysiological characterization of new congenic substrains for the locus. The gene encoding insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE:) was located to this 1 cM region, and the two amino acid substitutions (H18R and A890V) identified in the GK allele reduced insulin-degrading activity by 31% in transfected cells. However, when the H18R and A890V variants were studied separately, no effects were observed, demonstrating a synergistic effect of the two variants on insulin degradation. No effect on insulin degradation was observed in cell lysates, indicating that the effect is coupled to receptor-mediated internalization of insulin. Congenic rats with the IDE: GK allele displayed post-prandial hyperglycemia, reduced lipogenesis in fat cells, blunted insulin-stimulated glucose transmembrane uptake and reduced insulin degradation in isolated muscle. Analysis of additional rat strains demonstrated that the dysfunctional IDE: allele was unique to GK. These data point to an important role for IDE: in the diabetic phenotype in GK.  (+info)

Abstract A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Resistance to hepatic disease developed gradually with age, with full expression at approximately 10 weeks in the WF.LEW and LEW rat strains. The ZH501 strain caused fatal hepatitis in WF rats regardless of age. However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. The congenic rat strain will be a valuable asset in elucidating the mechanism of
Rat Mcs3 was physically confirmed and delimited to a 27.8 Mb segment of rat chromosome 1. Rat Mcs3 is the last of the known Cop rat mammary carcinoma resistance-associated QTL (Mcs1-3) to be physically confirmed. In their linkage analysis predicting the Mcs3 QTL, Goulds group reported that Mcs3 heterozygous females had, on average, a 42% reduction in mammary carcinoma multiplicity compared to the WF phenotype, and females homozygous for the Mcs3 Cop allele had an 84% reduction in mammary tumor number (Shepel et al. 1998). Thus, they appropriately concluded that there was no dominance effect at the Mcs3 QTL. While we did not test heterozygous females in our study, we observed that the Mcs3 Cop allele reduced the mammary carcinoma susceptibility phenotype of the highly susceptible WF strain from 46 to 65% when homozygous. The discrepancy between homozygous genotypes in these two studies may be due to effects of Cop resistance alleles at other Mcs QTL present in the linkage analysis study, as the ...
Thank you for your interest in spreading the word on Hypertension.. NOTE: We only request your email address so that the person you are recommending the page to knows that you wanted them to see it, and that it is not junk mail. We do not capture any email address. ...
Through substitution mapping studies, we previously identified that a
ORAL PRESENTATION THURSDAY OCTOBER 21 9.30am - 9.45am MECHANISM OF RESISTANCE TO PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI IN MICE IS MEDIATED THROUGH THE RED CELL AND A TOTALLY SYNERGISTIC NON-ERYTHROCYTIC PATHWAY Lin E, Marshall V, Burt RA, Foote SJ The Walter & Eliza Hall Institute, Parkville, Australia P. chabaudi infection in mice is a model for the severe anaemia seen in falciparum infections. Inbred mice strains are differentially susceptible to malaria. We have mapped three loci involved in outcome to this infection and have generated mice reciprocally congenic for these loci on several strains of mouse. These congenic animals have phenotypes different from their wildtype parents. Parasitaemias are more informative than clinical outcome in differentiating between the congenic animals. In one case, a congenic animal carrying a locus predicted to encode susceptibility was much more resistant than even the resistant animal. Analysis of the ability of red cells from congenic mice to sustain the growth of the ...
Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans and NOD mice results from interactions between multiple susceptibility genes (termed Idd) located within and outside the MHC. Despite sharing ∼88% of their genome with NOD mice, including the H2(g7) MHC haplotype and other important Idd genes, the closely related nonobese resistant (NOR) strain fails to develop T1D because of resistance alleles in residual genomic regions derived from C57BLKS mice mapping to chromosomes (Chr.) 1, 2, and 4. We previously produced a NOD background strain with a greatly decreased incidence of T1D as the result of a NOR-derived 44.31-Mb congenic region on distal Chr. 4 containing disease-resistance alleles that decrease the pathogenic activity of autoreactive B and CD4 T cells. In this study, a series of subcongenic strains for the NOR-derived Chr. 4 region was used to significantly refine genetic loci regulating diabetogenic B and CD4 T cell activity. Analyses of these subcongenic strains revealed the presence of at least two
We have previously reported suggestive evidence for a locus on Chromosome (Chr) 7 that affects adiposity in F2 mice from a CAST/Ei x C57BL/6J intercross fed a high-fat diet. Here we characterize the effect of a high-fat (32.6 Kcal% fat) diet on male and female congenic mice with a C57BL/6J background and a CAST/Ei-derived segment on Chr 7. Adiposity index (AI) and weights of certain fat pads were approximately 50% lower in both male and female congenic mice than in control C57BL/6J mice, and carcass fat content was significantly reduced. The reduction of fat depot weights was not seen, however, in congenic animals fed a low-fat chow diet (12 Kcal% fat). The congenic segment is approximately 25 cM in length, extending from D7Mit213 to D7Mit41, and includes the tub, Ucp2 and Ucp3, genes, all of which are candidate genes for this effect. Some polymorphisms have been found on comparing c-DNA sequences of the Ucp2 gene from C57BL/6J and CAST/Ei mice. These results suggest that one or more genes
Congenic strains are produced by transferring the transgene/KO allele to a new genetic background strain that is more appropriate for phenotypic analysis. The APF offer a speed congenics service that can establish a congenic strain within 18 months.
BACKGROUND: Complex etiology and pathogenesis of pathophysiological components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome have been demonstrated in humans and animal models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated extensive physiological, genetic and genome-wide gene expression profiles in a congenic strain of the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat containing a large region (110 cM, 170 Mb) of rat chromosome 1 (RNO1), which covers diabetes and obesity quantitative trait loci (QTL), introgressed onto the genetic background of the normoglycaemic Brown Norway (BN) strain. This novel disease model, which by the length of the congenic region closely mirrors the situation of a chromosome substitution strain, exhibits a wide range of abnormalities directly relevant to components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome and diabetes complications, including hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, enhanced insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and altered pancreatic
Dive into the research topics of Localization of a Na,sup,+,/sup,, K,sup,+,/sup,-ATPase α 2 subunit gene, Atp1a2, on rat Chromosome 13. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Complete information for BP16 gene (Genetic Locus), Blood Pressure QTL 16, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Organisms that differ in genotype at (ideally) one specified locus. Strictly speaking these are conisogenics. Thus one homozygous strain can be spoken of as being congenic to another
UW-Madison. We have used both classical genetics and sequence-based genomics in search of mouse modifiers of liver tumorigenesis. The dramatic 20-50-fold difference in tumor multiplicity between carcinogen-treated male C57BL/6 (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice has been shown to map mainly to distal chromosome 1. We have bred congenic animals carrying 70cM of chromosome 1 from C3H on an otherwise B6 genetic background. Relative to B6 animals, these B6.C31 mice developed up to 14-fold more liver tumors. Analysis of recombinant animals carrying smaller portions of the C3H congenic region suggests the presence of two modifiers, one of which has a 5-8-fold effect on tumor multiplicity and lies in a 7 Mb region on distal chromosome 1. Ras mutations are more prevalent in C3H tumors than in B6. By comparing ras mutations in tumors from the B6.C31and parental strains, we have shown that the C3H alleles on distal chromosome 1 are not sufficient to recapitulate the high ras mutant frequency of C3H tumors, ...
We have used the public sequencing and annotation of the mouse genome to delimit the previously resolved type 1 diabetes (T1D) insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd)18 interval to a region on chromosome 3 that includes the immunologically relevant candidate gene, Vav3. To test the candidacy of Vav3, we developed a novel congenic strain that enabled the resolution of Idd18 to a 604-kb interval, designated Idd18.1, which contains only two annotated genes: the complete sequence of Vav3 and the last exon of the gene encoding NETRIN G1, Ntng1. Targeted sequencing of Idd18.1 in the NOD mouse strain revealed that allelic variation between NOD and C57BL/6J (B6) occurs in noncoding regions with 138 single nucleotide polymorphisms concentrated in the introns between exons 20 and 27 and immediately after the 3 untranslated region. We observed differential expression of VAV3 RNA transcripts in thymocytes when comparing congenic mouse strains with B6 or NOD alleles at Idd18.1. The T1D protection associated with B6
Jétudie les liens existant entre lévolution de la composition nucléotidique des génomes mammifères et leurs traits dhistoire de vie.. J. Romiguier, E. Figuet, N. Galtier, E.J.P. Douzery, B. Boussau, V. Ranwez, J.Y. Dutheil. 2012. Fast and robust characterization of time-heterogeneous sequence evolutionary processes using substitution mapping. Plos One (accepted). J. Romiguier, V. Ranwez, E. Douzery, N. Galtier. 2010. Contrasting GC-content dynamics across 33 mammalian genomes: influence of body mass and chromosome size. Genome Research 20:1001-1009.. J.Y. Dutheil, N. Galtier, J. Romiguier, E.J.P. Douzery, V. Ranwez, B. Boussau. 2012. Efficient selection of branch-specific models of sequence evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution (accepted). ...
Hall MA, Norman PJ, Thiel B, Tiwari H, Peiffer A, Vaughan RW, Prescott S, Leppert M, Schork NJ, Lanchbury JS, Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18 control variation in levels of T and B lymphocyte subpopulations. Am J Hum Genet70(5):1172-82 ...
Hall MA, Norman PJ, Thiel B, Tiwari H, Peiffer A, Vaughan RW, Prescott S, Leppert M, Schork NJ, Lanchbury JS, Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18 control variation in levels of T and B lymphocyte subpopulations. Am J Hum Genet70(5):1172-82 ...
Renin has long been suspected to reside in a compound BP QTL, with multiple normotensive and hypertensive alleles that can be derived from a single strain.2 Our data indicate that at least 2 loci around Renin modulate BP (Figure 1). In addition to the BN protective Renin region (46.1-47.2 Mb), we also identified a BN hypertensive region (47.2-49.0 Mb), which in lines 9 and 9C masked the protective allele(s) that were observed in line 9A (Figure 1). Similar to line 9, the S/renrr congenic unexpectedly failed to lower BP compared with SS.11 The SR had a region (47.9-48.1 Mb) that was significantly enriched for common BN and SR alleles (Figure 3), suggesting that this overlapping BN and SR region are potentially functionally relevant.. The BP-associated Renin allele that was first identified by Rapp et al4 in 1989 turned out to be part of a much larger BP QTL (chr13: 35-111 Mb)5 that encompasses multiple BP loci on chromosome 13 in the SS5 and other hypertensive strains (eg, SHR28 and LH29). Using ...
The availability of high-density genotype data for mice has made it possible to quantify the relationship between haplotype structure and differential gene expression. A relationship between SNP in the 1 kb upstream region and differential expression was only observable when using a stringent test of differential expression (absolute log2 fold change , 0.5; pplr , 0.005). This was interpreted as evidence that the variance of expression of cis regulated genes is much lower than that of trans regulated genes. Although the 1 kb upstream region may contain the highest density of regulatory elements it does not contain all of them, they can be spread throughout the gene and its 3 region as well as going tens to hundreds of kilobases upstream. Therefore we are likely to have underestimated the numbers of cis regulated genes using this strategy. However SNP in the upstream region will frequently be markers for larger haplotypes that extend into or through the whole gene region so these regions will ...
The cdc2+ gene function plays a central role in the control of the mitotic cell cycle of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Recessive temperature-sensitive mutations in the cdc2 gene cause cell cycle arrest when shifted to the restrictive temperature, while a second class of mutations within the cdc2 gene causes a premature advancement into mitosis. Previously the cdc2+ gene has been cloned and has been shown to encode a 34 kDa phosphoprotein with in vitro protein kinase activity. Here we describe the cloning of 11 mutant alleles of the cdc2 gene using two simple methods, one of which is presented here for the first time. We have sequenced these alleles and find a variety of single amino acid substitutions mapping throughout the cdc2 protein. Analysis of these mutations has identified a number of regions within the cdc2 protein that are important for cdc2+ activity and regulation. These include regions which may be involved in the interaction of the cdc2+ gene product with the proteins ...
Mapping studies have identified many QTLs affecting BP in genetically hypertensive rats, and their isolation in congenic strains has been the main approach used for their further characterization (20). Apart from genetic analysis, congenic strains provide a powerful tool for identifying relevant intermediary phenotypes, since they only differ from control (parental) strains for a small fraction of the genome. Thus any differences seen are more likely to be involved in the physiological pathway(s) that regulates the trait of interest. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the rat chromosome 1 BP QTL region also influences pressure-natriuresis relationship, salt sensitivity, and most probably sympathetic activation following salt loading. These findings may be related and pertinent to the effect on BP.. Pressure-natriuresis was studied using the classic method designed by Roman and Cowley (23), which one allows to maintain, at a fixed level, most of the extrarenal factors that ...
Length in bytes of the actual content within the allocated memory. Definition at line 66 of file buffer.h.. Referenced by __wrap_rand_bytes(), alloc_buf(), alloc_buf_gc(), alloc_buf_sock_tun(), bio_read(), bio_write_post(), buf_advance(), buf_catrunc(), buf_clear(), buf_copy_excess(), buf_copy_range(), buf_forward_capacity(), buf_inc_len(), buf_init_dowork(), buf_len(), buf_prepend(), buf_printf(), buf_puts(), buf_read_alloc(), buf_reset(), buf_reset_len(), buf_rmtail(), buf_safe(), buf_safe_bidir(), buf_set_read(), buf_set_write(), buf_string_match(), buf_string_match_head(), buf_string_match_head_str(), buf_valid(), buf_write_alloc(), buffer_list_push(), buffer_list_push_data(), check_fragment(), check_ping_send_dowork(), cipher_ctx_update_ad(), clone_buf(), convert_to_one_line(), drop_if_recursive_routing(), encrypt_sign(), flush_payload_buffer(), foreign_option(), fragment_incoming(), fragment_outgoing(), fragment_prepend_flags(), fragment_ready_to_send(), generate_ephemeral_key(), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Cystatin S gene maps to rat Chromosome 3, to which D1mgh18 is re-assigned from Chromosome 1. AU - Duran Alonso, M. Beatriz. AU - Shiels, Paul. AU - McCallion, Andrew S. AU - Bennett, Neil K.. AU - Payne, Anthony P.. AU - Szpirer, Josiane. AU - Szpirer, Claude. AU - Brodie, Martin J.. AU - Davies, R. Wayne. AU - Sutcliffe, Roger G.. PY - 1997/12. Y1 - 1997/12. UR - UR - M3 - Article. C2 - 9383294. AN - SCOPUS:0031543282. VL - 8. SP - 946. EP - 947. JO - Mammalian Genome. JF - Mammalian Genome. SN - 0938-8990. IS - 12. ER - ...
At file:///home/inaam/w/lru_flush/ based on revid:[email protected] 3387 Inaam Rana 2010-12-14 non-functional change: refactored buf_LRU_free_block() to reduce the level of indentation modified: storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c === modified file storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c --- a/storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c revid:[email protected] +++ b/storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c revid:[email protected] @@ -1472,6 +1472,7 @@ buf_LRU_free_block( buf_page_t* b = NULL; buf_pool_t* buf_pool = buf_pool_from_bpage(bpage); enum buf_lru_free_block_status ret; + enum buf_page_state page_state; const ulint fold = buf_page_address_fold(bpage-,space, bpage-,offset); rw_lock_t* hash_lock = buf_page_hash_lock_get(buf_pool, fold); @@ -1576,172 +1577,178 @@ func_exit: #endif /* UNIV_SYNC_DEBUG */ ut_ad(buf_page_can_relocate(bpage)); - if (buf_LRU_block_remove_hashed_page(bpage, zip) - != BUF_BLOCK_ZIP_FREE) { + page_state = buf_LRU_block_remove_hashed_page(bpage, zip); - /* We have just freed a ...
A general experimental design that allows mapping of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) into a 1-cM interval is presented. The design consists of a series of strains, termed
At file:///home/marko/innobase/dev/mysql-5.1-innodb2/ based on revid:[email protected] 3458 Marko Mäkelä 2010-05-11 Do not demand that buf_page_t be fully initialized on 64-bit systems. There may be padding before buf_page_t::zip. (Bug #53307) modified: storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c storage/innodb_plugin/include/buf0buf.ic === modified file storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c --- a/storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c 2010-03-23 16:20:36 +0000 +++ b/storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c 2010-05-11 10:50:12 +0000 @@ -1393,7 +1393,12 @@ buf_LRU_free_block( ut_ad(buf_page_in_file(bpage)); ut_ad(bpage-,in_LRU_list); ut_ad(!bpage-,in_flush_list == !bpage-,oldest_modification); +#if UNIV_WORD_SIZE == 4 + /* On 32-bit systems, there is no padding in buf_page_t. On + other systems, Valgrind could complain about uninitialized pad + bytes. */ UNIV_MEM_ASSERT_RW(bpage, sizeof *bpage); +#endif if (!buf_page_can_relocate(bpage)) { @@ -1688,7 +1693,12 @@ buf_LRU_block_remove_hashed_page( ...
These data establish linkage of rat genotype to a form of environmental perturbation-infection-that is potentially important in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. They confirm that Iddm4 is an exceptionally strong non-MHC determinant of susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes in the rat (6,9-11). In previous studies of Iddm4, diabetes was induced by chronic treatment with poly I:C plus Treg depletion. The present data now extend the role of Iddm4 in diabetes pathogenesis to virus-induced disease expression. They also illuminate the complexity of environmental interaction with genetic susceptibility. The diabetogenic potential of Iddm4 is readily discernable in congenic rats treated with poly I:C and Treg depletion but is far less apparent in animals treated with KRV plus poly I:C unless additional BBDR genes are present. We have discovered at least one of these genes, designated Iddm20, on chromosome 17.. The Iddm20 interval (online appendix Table 3) contains at least one gene of particular ...
I work with rat tumors and try to establish their karyotype. Is there anyone who knows wher I can get such paints?? Bernd K lsch Cell-biology 45147 Essen, Germany e-mail: ttu3a0 at knowq s where I can ...
This congenic strain carries the |i|H2|sup|b|/sup||/i| haplotype and |i|Fv1|sup|b|/sup||/i| allele from C57BL/6 on the AKR genetic background. Cells of strains carrying |i|Fv1|sup|b|/sup||/i| are resistant to N-tropic and susceptible to B-tropic viruses. |i|Fv1|sup|b|/sup||/i| is carried as the wild-type allele in the BALB/c, A and C57BL/6|br/| strains.|br/|
Trp53 gene knockout mice. A neomycin selection cassette was inserted into the second exon of the Trp53 gene. Homozygous deficient mice can grow after birth, but often suffered from development of tumors in various region of the body. Several congenic strains were generated. C57BL/6 background (RBRC01361), ICR background (RBRC01348), C3H background (RBRC00107), DBA/2 background (RBRC01518), and MSM background (RBRC00815). In C57BL/6 background most of the female homozygotes die in utero (probably, also in MSM background ...
Trp53 gene knockout mice. A neomycin selection cassette was inserted into the second exon of the Trp53 gene. Homozygous deficient mice can grow after birth, but often suffered from development of tumors in various region of the body. Several congenic strains were generated. C57BL/6 background (RBRC01361), ICR background (RBRC01348), C3H background (RBRC00107), DBA/2 background (RBRC01518), and MSM background (RBRC00815). In C57BL/6 background most of the female homozygotes die in utero (probably, also in MSM background ...
Weil, M. M., Brown, B. W., and Serachitopol, D. M. Genotype Selection to Rapidly Breed Congenic Strains. Genetics 146: 1061-1069 (July,1997). Language: Fortran 95. ...
Sistemas químicos capazes de produzir radicais livres OHâ ¢ e O2â ¢-, responsáveis por danos no DNA, foram estudados em diversos tipos de eletrodos de carbono previamente modificados. Nitrofural, RNO2,...
We have investigated transport in a cross-shaped two-dimensional electron gas with superconducting electrodes coupled to two opposite arms. Multiterminal resistances, measured as a function of the superconducting phase difference and the magnetic flux, are analyzed in terms of an extended Landauer-Buttiker transport formalism. We show that extended reciprocity relations hold. Correlations between transport coefficients are obtained from, e.g., (negative) three-terminal and nonlocal resistances. Energy spectroscopy reveals a reentrant behavior of the transport coefficients around the Thouless energy ...
Clara Marcuello, Carmen Montañez, Borja Muñoz, Ester Montenegro, Isabel Calvo, Consuelo Auñón, Amparo Sabaté, Laura del Valle, Manuel Fuentes Ferrer, Carla Assaf-Balut, Isabelle Runkle, Miguel Angel Rubio, Alfonso Luis Calle-Pascual ...
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been mapped to small intervals along the chromosomes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), by a method we call substitution mapping. The size of the interval to which a QTL can be mapped is determined primarily by the number and spacing of previously mapped genetic markers in the region surrounding the QTL. We demonstrate the method using tomato genotypes carrying chromosomal segments from Lycopersicon chmielewskii, a wild relative of tomato with high soluble solids concentration but small fruit and low yield. Different L. chmielewskii chromosomal segments carrying a common restriction fragment length polymorphism were identified, and their regions of overlap determined using all available genetic markers. The effect of these chromosomal segments on soluble solids concentration, fruit mass, yield, and pH, was determined in the field. Many overlapping chromosomal segments had very different phenotypic effects, indicating QTLs affecting the phenotype(s) to lie in ...
article{418b5550-2321-4395-ab0c-946f90945ceb, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To characterize the arthritis-modulating effects of 3 non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in rat experimental arthritis in the disease-resistant E3 strain, and to investigate the disease-modulating effects of the MHC region (RT1) in various genetic backgrounds. METHODS: A congenic fragment containing Ncf1 along with congenic fragments containing the strongest remaining loci, Pia5/Cia3 and Pia7/Cia13 on chromosome 4, were transferred from the arthritis-susceptible DA strain into the background of the completely resistant E3 strain. The arthritis-regulatory potential of the transferred alleles was evaluated by comparing the susceptibility to experimental arthritis in congenic rats with that in E3 rats. The RT1(u) haplotype from the E3 strain was transferred into the susceptible DA strain (RT1(av1)), and various F(1) and F(2) hybrids were generated to assess the effects of RT1 on arthritis ...
It is well-documented that obesity participated in the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Leptin is closely associated with obesity.
1 ---------- 2 SEMAPHORES 3 ---------- 4 OS WAIT ARRAY INFO: reservation count 36255, signal count 12675 5 --Thread 10607472 has waited at buf/buf0rea.c line 420 for 0.00 seconds the semaphore: 6 Mutex at 0x358068 created file buf/buf0buf.c line 597, lock var 0 7 waiters flag 0 8 --Thread 3488624 has waited at buf/buf0buf.c line 1177 for 0.00 seconds the semaphore: 9 Mutex at 0x358068 created file buf/buf0buf.c line 597, lock var 0 10 waiters flag 0 11 --Thread 6896496 has waited at btr/btr0cur.c line 442 for 0.00 seconds the semaphore: 12 S-lock on RW-latch at 0x8800244 created in file buf/buf0buf.c line 547 13 a writer (thread id 14879600) has reserved it in mode exclusive 14 number of readers 0, waiters flag 1 15 Last time read locked in file btr/btr0cur.c line 442 16 Last time write locked in file buf/buf0buf.c line 1797 [...] 17 Mutex spin waits 0, rounds 452650, OS waits 22573 18 RW-shared spins 27550, OS waits 13682; RW-excl spins 0, OS waits 0 ...
Read A congenic mouse and candidate gene at the Chromosome 13 locus regulating bone density, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Read Increased physical activity cosegregates with higher intake of carbohydrate and total calories in a subcongenic mouse strain, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
The arthritis-susceptible DA rat is one of the most commonly used rat strains for genetic linkage analysis and is instrumental for the identification of many genetic loci. Even though DA rats were kept as inbred lines at different institutes and suppliers, it became obvious that the various breeding …
The Transgenic Genotyping Service (TGS) provides genotyping for JAX Mice and assay development. TGS also provides speed congenics & mapping projects as well as SNP genotyping services for JAX researchers.. TGSs mission is to produce accurate genotyping results with the shortest turnaround time as inexpensively as possible for our clients within the Jackson Laboratory. TGS strives to be the most efficient genotyping service available and to provide complete satisfaction for its clients.. ...
define FUSE_USE_VERSION 26 #include ,sys/fsuid.h, #include ,sys/types.h, #include ,pthread.h, #include ,signal.h, #include ,limits.h, #include ,string.h, #include ,stdarg.h, #include ,stdlib.h, #include ,unistd.h, #include ,errno.h, #include ,fcntl.h, #include ,stdio.h, #include ,fuse.h, #include ,pwd.h, #include ,tcl.h, /* * Default cache directory */ #ifndef APPFS_CACHEDIR #define APPFS_CACHEDIR /var/cache/appfs #endif /* Debugging macros */ #ifdef DEBUG int appfs_debug_fd = STDERR_FILENO; #define APPFS_DEBUG(x...) { \ char buf[8192]; \ int bufoff = 0; \ if (appfs_debug_fd == -1) { \ appfs_debug_fd = open(/tmp/appfsd.log, O_WRONLY , O_APPEND , O_CREAT, 0600); \ }; \ bufoff = snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), [debug] [t=%llx] %s:%i:%s: , (unsigned long long) pthread_self(), __FILE__, __LINE__, __func__); \ if (bufoff , sizeof(buf)) { \ bufoff += snprintf(buf + bufoff, sizeof(buf) - bufoff, x); \ }; \ if (bufoff , sizeof(buf)) { \ bufoff += snprintf(buf + bufoff, sizeof(buf) - bufoff, \n);\ } \ ...
Signed-off-by: Janne Grunau ,janne-ffmpeg at, --- libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c , 11 +++++++++-- 1 files changed, 9 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) diff --git a/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c b/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c index 401144f..c06c017 100644 --- a/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c +++ b/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c @@ -1423,13 +1423,15 @@ static int dvbsub_decode(AVCodecContext *avctx, #endif - if (buf_size ,= 2 ,, *buf != 0x0f) + if (buf_size ,= 6 ,, *buf != 0x0f) { + av_dlog(avctx, incomplete or broken packet); return -1; + } p = buf; p_end = buf + buf_size; - while (p , p_end && *p == 0x0f) { + while (p_end - p , 6 && *p == 0x0f) { p += 1; segment_type = *p++; page_id = AV_RB16(p); @@ -1437,6 +1439,11 @@ static int dvbsub_decode(AVCodecContext *avctx, segment_length = AV_RB16(p); p += 2; + if (p_end - p , segment_length) { + av_dlog(avctx, incomplete or broken packet); + return -1; + } + if (page_id == ctx-,composition_id ,, page_id == ctx-,ancillary_id ,, ctx-,composition_id == -1 ,, ctx-,ancillary_id == ...
BNX2]: Fix bug in bnx2_nvram_write(). Length was not calculated correctly if the NVRAM offset is on a non- aligned offset. Signed-off-by: Michael Chan ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], Signed-off-by: David S. Miller ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], --- drivers/net/bnx2.c , 4 ++-- 1 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) diff --git a/drivers/net/bnx2.c b/drivers/net/bnx2.c index f296c37..4fa7cef 100644 --- a/drivers/net/bnx2.c +++ b/drivers/net/bnx2.c @@ -3096,7 +3096,7 @@ bnx2_nvram_write(struct bnx2 *bp, u32 offset, u8 *data_buf, if ((align_start = (offset32 & 3))) { offset32 &= ~3; - len32 += align_start; + len32 += (4 - align_start); if ((rc = bnx2_nvram_read(bp, offset32, start, 4))) return rc; } @@ -3114,7 +3114,7 @@ bnx2_nvram_write(struct bnx2 *bp, u32 offset, u8 *data_buf, if (align_start ,, align_end) { buf = kmalloc(len32, GFP_KERNEL); - if (buf == 0) + if (buf == NULL) return -ENOMEM; if (align_start) { memcpy(buf, start, 4); - To unsubscribe from this list: send the line unsubscribe git-commits-head ...
Berikut Gambar Rangkaian 8951 dengan Handpone HP Siemens c45 List Program Assembly 8051 sebagai berikut : buf_rx data 0ffh buf_no data 0afh ;0a0h buf_psn data 0a0h ;8ch buf_psn_txt data 94h ;5ah buf_no_pdu data 88h ;46h -20 +1 NO_DIAL DATA 73H ;74 ;32h -15 +2 no_sms data 62h -20 +3 ;text_pdu data 4bh ;no_sms data 47h…
Parabolic offers RNO that helps in the regeneration of the natural defense system and of the blood platelets. Its action is very powerful and very rapid. - Bioparabolic
00119 { 00120 FILE *f; 00121 char buf[ 1024 ]; 00122 int i; 00123 static regexp *re_macros = 0; 00124 00125 00126 #ifdef OPT_IMPROVED_PATIENCE_EXT 00127 static int count = 0; 00128 ++count; 00129 if ( ((count == 100) ,, !( count % 1000 )) && DEBUG_MAKE ) 00130 printf(...patience...\n); 00131 #endif 00132 00133 /* the following regexp is used to detect cases where a */ 00134 /* file is included through a line line #include MACRO */ 00135 if ( re_macros == 0 ) 00136 { 00137 re_macros = regex_compile( 00138 ^[ ]*#[ ]*include[ ]*([A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9_]*).*$ ); 00139 } 00140 00141 00142 if( !( f = fopen( file, r ) ) ) 00143 return l; 00144 00145 while( fgets( buf, sizeof( buf ), f ) ) 00146 { 00147 for( i = 0; i , rec; i++ ) 00148 if( regexec( re[i], buf ) && re[i]-,startp[1] ) 00149 { 00150 re[i]-,endp[1][0] = \0; 00151 00152 if( DEBUG_HEADER ) 00153 printf( header found: %s\n, re[i]-,startp[1] ); 00154 00155 l = list_new( l, newstr( re[i]-,startp[1] ) ); 00156 } 00157 00158 /* special ...
Whoa. This warning dates back to 2004, when MAX_BUF_SIZE was a thing that buffers.c enforced. But we removed MAX_BUF_SIZE back in 2007 when we replaced the buffer implementation ...
Vladimir Panteleev ,git at, writes: , @@ -255,25 +260,31 @@ static void test_GetSetEnvironmentVariableW(void) , ok(ret == TRUE, should not fail with empty value but GetLastError=%d\n, GetLastError()); , , lstrcpyW(buf, fooW); , + SetLastError(0); You should probably use 0xdeadbeef here (and also in the A test that this was copied from). -- Alexandre Julliard julliard at ...
Members brought some of their toughest cases to Dr. Lew Schon at this dynamic live event. Join us to hear his advice and the discussions that ensued for the following cases ...
"Caliper sells animal models subsidiary to Taconic Farms for $11 million". Drug Discovery News. Retrieved 13 December 2009. v t ... 1994 - Contracted with National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease to maintain a repository of inbred, congenic, and ... "Taconic Biosciences , Lab Animal Buyers' Guide". Retrieved 2017-05-22. "Nancy J. Sandy Appointed Chief ... Taconic Biosciences is a breeder and supplier of laboratory animals operating in over 50 countries. The current CEO is Nancy J ...
... a consistent and uniform animal model for experimental purposes and enables genetic studies in congenic and knock-out animals. ... Small animals such as cats and dogs may be sterilized, but in the case of large agricultural animals, such as cattle, culling ... However, in species such as horses, animals in wild or feral conditions often drive off the young of both sexes, thought to be ... Animals avoid incest only rarely. Inbreeding results in homozygosity, which can increase the chances of offspring being ...
... animals, congenic MeSH B01. - mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520 - animals, inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520 ... MeSH B01.050.157.040 - animals, congenic MeSH B01. - mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.157.520 - mice, inbred strains ... animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520.040.500 - mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520.520 - mice, inbred strains MeSH B01.050. ... congenic MeSH B01.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400 - mice, inbred strains MeSH B01.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400.300 - mice, ...
Patients who are immunized with the antibodies from animals may develop serum sickness due to the proteins from the immune ... "congenic", or deliberately inbred mouse strains which are histocompatible. An individual's immune response of passive immunity ... Shibasaburo and von Behring immunized guinea pigs with the blood products from animals that had recovered from diphtheria and ... If a neonatal animal does not receive adequate amounts of colostrum prior to gut closure, it does not have a sufficient amount ...
In general, animals are tested in the Hebb-Williams maze's twelve separate mazes after acclimating to six practice mazes, ... Stanford, Lianne; Brown, Richard E. (September 2003). "MHC-congenic mice (C57BL/6J and B6-H-2K) show differences in speed but ... The Hebb-Williams maze is a maze used in comparative psychology to assess the cognitive ability of small animals such as mice ... This modified version is the most commonly used in research where the aim is to measure animals' problem-solving abilities. ...
Normally this is performed with sedated animals but sometimes it is performed on awake animals engaged in a behavioral event, ... Selective breeding - Organisms, often mice, may be bred selectively among inbred strains to create a recombinant congenic ... Single-unit recording - A method whereby an electrode is introduced into the brain of a living animal to detect electrical ... René Descartes proposed physical models to explain animal as well as human behavior. Descartes suggested that the pineal gland ...
For congenic and mutant strains, genomic positions are assigned for the introgressed region (congenic strains) or the location ... Autism Models: Laboratory rats are the animal of choice in neurobiology. The Medical College of Wisconsin has been working with ... Such sequences are useful primarily for researchers still using these markers for genotyping their animals and for ... cells and molecular pathways at the whole animal or systems level. Until recently, direct, specific genomic manipulations in ...
Non-obese diabetic or NOD mice, like biobreeding rats, are used as an animal model for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes develops in ... Loci associated with susceptibility to IDDM have been identified in the NOD mouse strain through the development of congenic ... Fox, James; Anderson, Lynn; Otto, Glen; Corning, Kathleen; Whary, Mark (2015). Laboratory Animal Medicine (3 ed.). Amsterdam: ... Portals: Animals Biology (Laboratory mouse strains, Diabetes, Population genetics). ...
They believe that live bird markets may play a key role in human and animal infections with H7N9 and that, even if the overall ... the national avian flu reference laboratory concluded that the strain of the H7N9 virus found on pigeons was highly congenic ... It will also be important to verify whether the H7N9 virus is transmissible from humans to animals because if established, it ... Activation was prompted because the novel H7N9 avian influenza virus has never been seen before in animals or humans and ...
... s (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... Backcrossing Congenic strain Inbreeding Linebreeding Beck JA, Lloyd S, Hafezparast M, Lennon-Pierce M, Eppig JT, Festing MF, ... Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for the reproducibility of conclusions all ... Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ...
In other words, before an animal engages with a potential mate, they first evaluate various aspects of that mate which are ... Evidence from the use of a Y-maze differentially scented by congenic mice of different major histocompatibility types". Journal ... The genetic diversity of animals and life reproductive success (LRS) at the MHC level is optimal at intermediate levels rather ... Similar to the humans of the odor-rating experiment, animals also choose mates based upon genetic compatibility as determined ...
Unlike many animals, humans are not able to consciously display physical changes to their body when they are ready to mate, so ... Evidence from the use of a Y-maze differentially scented by congenic mice of different major histocompatibility types". Journal ... Relative to most other animals however, female and male mating strategies are found to be more similar to each other. According ... ISBN 978-0-333-72558-0.[page needed] Collins, Sarah A. (2000). "Men's voices and women's choices". Animal Behaviour. 60 (6): ...
He defined immunology as the science of self-nonself discrimination, concerned not just with the human species and its animal ... The associations were demonstrated by testing the responses of congenic strains differing at the H2 complex and mapping the ... background and thus producing a set of congenic B10.W lines. These lines proved to be essential for the complete ...
1995). "T cell response to Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia japonica in various congenic mouse strains". ... nymphs that feed on long-distance migrants give rise to hunting adult ticks that subsequently feed on larger animals, such as ...
November 2004). "Congenic mice with low serum IGF-I have increased body fat, reduced bone mineral density, and an altered ... it is difficult to employ in laboratory animals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides BMAT assessment in the vertebral ...
All strains were BALB/c-congenic and were maintained as homozygous colonies or by continuous backcrossing to BALB/c animals. ... Animal studies. Female Balb/c mice were maintained according to the Australian Standards for Animal Care under the protocols ... The animals with one wild-type copy of the Flii gene and one mutant copy of the Flii gene express no more than 50% of the ... The University of Adelaide Animal Ethics Committee and University of South Australia Animal Ethics Committee (AEC 962/12/16 and ...
Interval-Specific Congenic Animals for High-Resolution Quantitative Trait Loci Mapping; Single-Nucleotide Polymorphism Masking ...
Compared with hemizygous 5xFAD mice, animals homozygous for the transgenes exhibit more severe amyloid pathology; behavioral ... and have since generated their own congenic lines through backcrossing. 5xFAD mice on a C57BL/6J background are commercially ... Human APP was detected by immunohistochemistry in subicular and layer V pyramidal neurons in animals as young as 16 days, and ... and thalamus of 2-month animals (Richard et al., 2015). Intraneuronal Aβ and extracellular plaques were also observed in spinal ...
... when the donor genome outside of the congenic segment was removed, two heterozygous animals were intercrossed to produce ... Phenotypes in Other Animal Models Animal Husbandry Strain Medical Records Phylogenetics Strain Availability Calendar Rats 101 ... DA/ZtmKini females were mated with BN/Rj males, speed congenic strategy was used to generate these congenics; ...
immunized a series of congenic NOD mice carrying B6-derived Idd loci with MOG[35-55] (60). They found that NOD mice carrying B6 ... Several decades worth of evidence from animal models have supported the idea that CD4+ T cells are the chief drivers of ... Animal Models of MS. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is a murine disease that recapitulates the immunopathogenesis of ... Genetic protection from the inflammatory disease type 1 diabetes in humans and animal models. Immunity (2001) 15:387-95. doi: ...
5 × 106 CD8+ T cells were injected i.v. into wild-type recipient animals (C57BL/6). At day 5 or day 35 after transfer, mice ... Transferred cells were identified by the congenic marker CD45.1 while endogenous cells were CD45.2. (E) MFI (mean ± SEM) of ... cells from an animal receiving NAC-treated CD8+ T cells. Endogenous host CD8+ T cells are shown as a control. Data refer to day ... followed by ACT in wild-type animals. At day 35 after transfer, we recovered a higher frequency of Tn-like cells (i.e., CD62Lhi ...
Protein digestibility and bioavailability of the F2 homozygous crossing line of the congenic mice for the lean locus Fob3b2, ... Micro and macro environment in rodents animal facilitiesMicro and macro environment in rodents animal facilities. ... Helping the public to understand animal researchHelping the public to understand animal research. ... Event: Conferences » Other » 2nd Congress of the Slovenian Society for Laboratory Animals, Ljubljana 2014 2nd Congress of the ...
Animal experimentation: All experimental procedures were approved by the Animal Care and Use program at University of ... IRBP-specific TCR transgenic R161H mice (Horai et al., 2013) generated on the congenic CD90.1 B10.RIII background and WT CD90.2 ... and are in accordance with the National Institutes of Health Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. All animals were ... All animals were maintained on the NIH-31 Open Formula diet with 1.9% C18:2 ω6 linoleic acid and 0.2% C18:3 ω3 linolenic acid ( ...
Adducin, Congenic Strains, Genetics, Hypertension, Inbred MHS, Animals, Rats. Source:. Biochemical and Biophysical Research ... Congenic strains were developed by introgressing Add1, Add2, and Add3 genes (and chr14, chr4, and chr1 associated segments) of ... In this study, we report the dissection of the individual contribution of each rat Add gene to blood pressure, by congenic ... In contrast, SBPs of Add2 and Add3 congenic strains were not different from those of the correspondent recipient parental ...
Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. In the congenic C57BL/6J strain, the Ahl locus has been ... Laboratory-animals; Animals; Molecular-structure; Genetics; Genetic-factors ... This presentation will compare ABR results in the two congenic strains as well as compare the present data with the previous ... This would be expected based on the fact that the congenic CBA.B6 mice genotypes included the mutant Ahl locus. ...
In a specifically designed congenic animal model of defective insulin secretion, we were able to identify two genetic loci on ... In a specifically designed congenic animal model of defective insulin secretion, we were able to identify two genetic loci on ... In a specifically designed congenic animal model of defective insulin secretion, we were able to identify two genetic loci on ...
LV-126 animals demonstrated a significantly higher vessel surface area compared with LV-C animals. (E) Total surface area of ... FACS analysis for the expression ratios between congenic markers CD45.1 (donor) and CD45.2 (acceptor) in PB and BM of the ... The animal welfare committee of the Leiden University Medical Center approved all animal experimental protocols. ... cells in animals transplanted with LV-C or LC-126 compared with cells of nontransplanted animals (donor). (B) Representative ...
Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. In the congenic C57BL/6J strain, the Ahl locus has been ... Laboratory-animals; Animals; Molecular-structure; Genetics; Genetic-factors ... This presentation will compare ABR results in the two congenic strains as well as compare the present data with the previous ... The present study was designed to test these congenic strains for their vulnerability to noise-induced hearing loss. Mouse ...
A BALB/c congenic mouse strain lacking all endogenous Mtvs (Mtv-null) was resistant to MMTV oral and intraperitoneal infection ... Resistance to MMTV in Mtv-null animals was not due to neutralizing antibodies. Further, Mtv-null mice were resistant to rapid ...
  • The creation of double congenic inbred strains for the study of two genetic polymorphisms was also addressed. (
  • Recombinant congenic inbred strains involved the separation of the unlinked components of a multigene trait into inbred strains. (
  • Our genetic platform is based on the use of genetically diverse mouse inbred strains, recombinant congenic strains, and experimentally induced mutagenized mouse stocks (ENU mutants). (
  • The MMRRC Centers have developed a genetic QC pipeline using MiniMUGA array genotyping to provide additional information on strain backgrounds for MMRRC congenic and inbred strains. (
  • However, many laboratories preferred to use mice on a C57BL6 background, and have since generated their own congenic lines through backcrossing. (
  • This would be expected based on the fact that the congenic CBA.B6 mice genotypes included the mutant Ahl locus. (
  • A BALB/c congenic mouse strain lacking all endogenous Mtvs (Mtv-null) was resistant to MMTV oral and intraperitoneal infection and tumorigenesis compared to wild-type BALB/c mice. (
  • One approach involves the experimental transmission of disease by inoculating homogenized brain tissue from affected animals into transgenic mice that are overexpressing 1 of the 2 common polymorphic forms of the human PrP (either methionine or valine at residue 129) on a mouse PrP null background ( 16 ). (
  • We have previously shown that in IgH congenic mice VH-gene family usage in neonatal spleen B cells and adult Ig-secreting cells is entirely determined by the IgH locus, while in adult resting B cells it is regulated by genetic element(s) located outside the IgH locus. (
  • METHODS: Congenic C1qa mice were generated in the DBA/2NNia background. (
  • Female and male knockout (-/-), heterozygous (+/-), and wild type (+/+) mice were aged up to 14 months and IOPs were recorded in a subset of animals. (
  • As opposed to monolayers prepared from the A and C3H background animals, monolayers from B10 background mice only demonstrated an H-2 haplotype dependent rate differential after treatment with fetal calf serum or neuraminidase. (
  • Severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice and their congenic strain CB17 were purchased from M&B (Bomholtvej, Denmark). (
  • All mice were housed in the animal facility of the Department of Rheumatology, University of Göteborg. (
  • To examine whether genetic background influenced the phenotype in the piebald mutant mice, we generated a congenic strain (B6.PROD-s/s), produced by repeated backcrosses to the C57BL/6J (B6) strain. (
  • Although much of this research is done directly in the livestock animal of interest, some animal health research is done using surrogate models, such as mice. (
  • With so many well-understood mouse disease models, and the commercial availability of germ-free mice which can be associated with a defined microbiota, we expect murine studies to be critical tools supporting the development of livestock and companion animal probiotics. (
  • Previously, we demonstrated that the life span of ovariectomy-senescence accelerated mice (OVX-SAMP8) was significantly prolonged and similar to that of the congenic senescence-resistant strain of mice after platelet rich plasma (PRP)/embryonic fibroblast transplantation. (
  • Primary adipose derived stem cells (ADSCs) and bone marrow derived stem cells (BMSCs) were harvested from young and aged mice, and found that cell senescence was strongly correlated to animal aging. (
  • For immunizations, WT donor T cells were transferred into Balb/c mice and, 24 h later, these were intravenously injected with 1-2 × 105 congenic, buy Rapamycin bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) that were preactivated with LPS and loaded with Ova peptide (1 μg/mL each). (
  • These animals can be used to study gene function, gene expression, gene regulation, to develop animal models of human disease, to test gene therapy reagents, to establish cell lines from specific cell types transformed in vivo, to produce mice with tissue-specific inducible gene expression or tissue-specific gene deletions, or to study the effects of cell specific ablation with toxigenes. (
  • The Transgenic Core derives specific pathogen free mice or rats from pathogen infected animals. (
  • Any project that uses mice must be approved by the Institutional Animal Care & Use Committee (IACUC) . (
  • Some of the mice Chervonsky and Golovkina used in their experiments were congenic, or genetically the same except for differences in part of the genome called the major histocompatibility locus (MHC), which determines adaptive immunity. (
  • In contrast, SBPs of Add2 and Add3 congenic strains were not different from those of the correspondent recipient parental strain. (
  • In the congenic C57BL/6J strain, the Ahl locus has been replaced by the wild-type locus from the inbred CBA/CaJ strain (strain B6.CBA). (
  • In the congenic CBA/CaJ strain the wild-type locus has been replaced by the mutant Ahl locus (strain CBA.B6). (
  • 2003 Hum Mol Genet 12:2949) compares the well characterized B6-R1.40 strain with two additional congenic strains, D2-R1.40 and 129S1-R1.40. (
  • Congenic strains in which the iP chromosome 4 QTL interval was transferred to the iNP (NP.P) exhibited the expected increase in alcohol consumption compared with the iNP background strain. (
  • This presentation will compare ABR results in the two congenic strains as well as compare the present data with the previous inbred C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ data. (
  • Founder animals (line R1.40) were established and bred to C57BL/6J for an unknown number of generations. (
  • The Custom Strains department provides breeding and maintenance of customer-owned rodent strains, including inbred, hybrid, congenic and genetically modified strains. (
  • Using Ian5 congenic inbred rats (wild-type (non-lyp BB) and mutated (BB)), we assessed the development of BB regulatory CD8 − 4 + 25 + T cells and their role in the pathogenesis of DM. (
  • New animal models reveal that coenzyme Q2 (Coq2) and placenta-specific 8 (Plac8) are candidate genes for the onset of type 2 diabetes associated with obesity in rats. (
  • Two observations reported here demonstrate that the differential expression of VH genes is an intrinsic property of the respective cell populations, determined by both the IgH locus and by a cis element(s) operating independently in the same animal. (
  • Humans began applying knowledge of genetics in prehistory with the domestication and breeding of plants and animals. (
  • Autoimmune mechanisms are pathogenic in experimental and spontaneous animal models associated with the development of autoimmunity. (
  • In chimeras of IgH congenic donors, VH-gene expression in fetal liver-derived splenic B cells and Ig-secreting cells is dictated by the IgH haplotype, while in bone marrow-derived B cells is entirely determined by the cis element(s). (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Cis-regulated candidate genes for alcohol consumption were identified using microarray profiling of gene expression differences in congenic animals carrying a QTL for alcohol preference. (
  • The MSM-Wv and MSM-Tyrc strains are MSM-background congenic strains carrying mutant alleles within lab strains. (
  • The fine mapping of chr14 congenic segment supports the identity of blood pressure QTL with Add1 gene. (
  • The relationship that was seen between monolayer H-2 haplotype and rate of adhesion with embryonic monolayers was not observed with either congenic 3T3 cell lines or fibroblasts derived from adult tissues. (
  • The use of these animals permits reproducibility and consistency across experiments in order to make definitive observations and interpretations that cannot be attributed to genetic variation. (
  • Thus proper in vivo experiments are required to establish the safety and efficacy of new animal health probiotics 2 . (
  • Animals were maintained in pathogen-free housing and experiments were carried out in accordance to federal, state, and institutional guidelines. (
  • Over the past 2 decades, surrogate methods have been developed to assess the relative pathogenicity of animal prions for humans. (
  • Farmers routinely treat livestock with low-dose antibiotics to promote growth, but that practice has been widely criticized as leading to the development of antimicrobial resistance, which the US Department of Agriculture has called " one of the most serious health threats to both animals and humans . (
  • ethylene Monographs , a review was undertak icals and other agents that may oxide (in 1994), based on strong ev en during 2008-2009 of relevant in pre sent carcinogenic hazards to idence of genotoxicity and limited formation on all the agents classified humans. (
  • The car between humans and experimental have also been shown to cause cinogens evaluated in Volume animals, and of mechanistic events cancer in animals. (
  • These findings do not only underscore the utility of the congenic and subcongenic approach in differentially analyzing complex traits, but also show that candidate genes can be identified and that chromosomal exchange can variously influence the phenotype, leading to sub-phenotypes which may be representative for human beings. (
  • Congenic strains were developed by introgressing Add1, Add2, and Add3 genes (and chr14, chr4, and chr1 associated segments) of MHS in the Milan normotensive rat (MNS) genetic background (MNS.H-Add1, MNS.H-Add2, and MNS.H-Add3) and vice versa (MHS.N-Add1, MHS.N-Add2, and MHS.N-Add3). (
  • Identification of candidate genes for alcohol preference by expression profiling of congenic rat strains. (
  • This study was undertaken to identify genes in the chromosome 4 QTL interval that might contribute to the differences in alcohol consumption between the alcohol-naïve congenic and background strains. (
  • To increase the power to detect differentially expressed genes, combined analyses (averaging data from the 5 discrete brain regions of each animal) were also carried out. (
  • Therefore, we developed new animal models of obesity to search for diabetogenic genes associated with obesity. (
  • In histological analyses, aganglionosis was detected in the rectum of megacolon animals. (
  • In a specifically designed congenic animal model of defective insulin secretion, we were able to identify two genetic loci on rat chromosome 1 that confer impaired beta-cell glucose metabolism and. (
  • While these three congenic strains have similar levels of holo-APP in brain tissue, the levels of brain APP C-terminal fragments (CTFs) vary depending upon genetic background. (
  • Moreover, an alternative to the genetic differential analysis of complex mammalian diseases is the use of animal models. (
  • The availability of inbred animal models closely resembling the human disease is an essential component of genetic investigations in this field, as shown in the results of this work. (
  • Susceptibility to noise -induced hearing loss in two congenic mouse strains. (
  • Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. (
  • When scientists transfer microbes from one mouse to another, the result is largely determined by the microbiome of the source animal, what kind of food they eat, where they live, etc. (
  • Resistance to MMTV in Mtv-null animals was not due to neutralizing antibodies. (
  • However, many inbred and congenic strains were based on observed spontaneous mutations. (
  • Exposing animals to mutagens was considered one way to increase the rate of spontaneous, random mutation. (
  • A discussion of the application of animal models to the study of the effects of heredity on the human response to chemicals was presented in this paper. (
  • The authors conclude that animal models are extremely helpful in the study of the human response to chemicals. (
  • Animal Models of Atrial Fibrillation. (
  • Experimental data indicate that α and β adducin are expressed into the glomerulus and their polymorphisms are involved in the altered expression of some podocyte proteins, proteinuria and progression of renal damage in animal models independently from their blood pressure. (
  • 100 of the IARC Monographs at different sites in separate ani en the scientific value of Volume confirm that the induction of mal models. (
  • Microcapillary leakage was seen to increase with age in both 5xFAD and wild-type brains, but was more severe in the transgenic animals. (
  • 100, and embarked on a twophase cancer in experimental animals 4. (
  • Animals have two primary types of immunity: innate, or inborn, immunity that uses standard, hardwired mechanisms to fend off pathogens, and adaptive immunity that "learns" as it encounters different pathogens and uses T cells and B cells to target their unique receptors. (
  • Public and animal health controls to limit human exposure to animal prions are focused on bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), but other prion strains in ruminants may also have zoonotic potential. (
  • Although atypical scrapie has been discovered retrospectively in 2 UK sheep culled in 1987 and 1989 ( 14 , 15 ), the level and duration of human exposure to atypical scrapie prions are unknown, and this lack of knowledge confounds a cause-and-effect investigation of epidemiologic links between this animal disease and some form of CJD ( 11 ). (
  • Atopy as a Modifier of the Relationships Between Endotoxin Exposure and Symptoms Among Laboratory Animal Workers. (
  • Histomorphological analysis of the joints with respect to inflammatory cell infiltration, pannus formation and erosion formation revealed development of arthritis in 80% of animals injected with TF. (
  • But did you know that microbiome research and probiotics are also of interest to the animal health and agriculture markets? (
  • This includes both scientific materials, such as DNA samples and genotyping tests, and paperwork, such as approval to use animals in research, material transfer agreements and billing information. (
  • Contact the Animal Care & Use Office for information on how to apply for permission to use vertebrate animals in research, testing, or teaching. (
  • Investigators approved for animal research are expected to provide ULAM with a shortcode that can be used to pay for veterinary care and husbandry/housing costs. (
  • Demand extends beyond the livestock market to companion animals and the equine industry. (
  • Properly controlled development of new probiotics for animal health should include a series of in vitro selection steps followed by in vivo efficacy assessment. (
  • Animals, Laboratory" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Animals, Laboratory" by people in Harvard Catalyst Profiles by year, and whether "Animals, Laboratory" was a major or minor topic of these publication. (
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Animals, Laboratory" by people in Profiles. (
  • Examining the effects of psychoactive drugs on complex behavioral processes in laboratory animals. (
  • The Unit for Laboratory Animal Medicine (ULAM) provides animal housing and veterinary care to all animals on campus. (
  • neutron radiation (in cinogenicity in laboratory animals. (
  • In this study, we report the dissection of the individual contribution of each rat Add gene to blood pressure, by congenic substitution mapping. (
  • First, the study of F1 hybrids between the IgH congenic B6a and CB.20 strains demonstrates that cis elements control VH-gene family expression. (
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of PRP for recovering cellular potential from senescence and then delaying animal aging. (
  • Furthermore, it will also be possible to locate the syntenic region in the human genome and congenic and subcongenic strains can also be used to study interactions between chromosomal regions and various selected environmental conditions. (
  • Pairing two animals in parabiosis to test for systemic or circulatory factors from one animal affecting the other animal has been used in scientific studies for at least 150 years. (
  • A variation on the technique, heterochronic parabiosis, whereby two animals of different ages are joined to test for systemic regulators of aspects of aging or age-related diseases also has almost a century-long scientific history. (
  • This clinical trial was registered at the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT) with the identifier IRCT ID: IRCT2016070428786N1 registered on August 20, 2016 (Retrospectively registered) ( ) and at the U.S. National Institutes of Health ( with the related identifier NCT04078308 registered on September 6, 2019 (Retrospectively registered). (
  • Increased mortality is observed in young animals. (