Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.
Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.
Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.
Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.
Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.
The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.
A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.
Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.
A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.
Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.
Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.
A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.
In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Sodium chloride used in foods.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.
Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.
C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.
An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.
Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.
Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.
A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.
An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.
A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.
A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.
Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).
Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.
Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.
Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.
An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.
A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).
Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.
Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.
A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.
The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.
Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.
Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.
ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.
The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.
Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The selection of one food over another.
A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.
Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.
Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.
Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.
Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.
A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.
Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.
Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.
The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.
Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.
A strain of mice widely studied as a model for cystic fibrosis. These mice are generated from embryonic stem cells in which the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is inactivated by gene targeting. As a result, all mice have one copy of this altered gene in all their tissues. Mice homozygous for the disrupted gene exhibit many features common to young cystic fibrosis patients, including failure to thrive, meconium ileus, and alteration of mucous and serous glands.
A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).
Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."
The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)
A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.
High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.
Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).
Enlargement of the spleen.

T cell reconstitution of BB/W rats after the initiation of insulitis precipitates the onset of diabetes. (1/252)

One of the diabetes susceptibility genes of the BB/W (Biobreeding/Worcester) rat maps to the lyp locus on chromosome 4. The BB/W lyp allele is responsible for a severe peripheral T lymphopenia. Correction of this lymphopenia by transfer of normal, histocompatible T cells prevents diabetes, providing T cell reconstitution is initiated before insulitis. We have analyzed this time-dependent regulation of the diabetogenic process by normal T cells. We demonstrate that T cell reconstitution after the initiation of insulitis precipitates the onset of diabetes through the recruitment of donor T cells to the autoimmune process. This inability of normal T cells to regulate primed diabetogenic BB/W T cells and their own autoreactive potential were observed when normal T cells outnumbered pathogenic T cells by approximately 1000-fold. Analysis of donor-derived T cells recovered from BB/W rats that were reconstituted before insulitis, and hence protected from diabetes, demonstrates that early T cell reconstitution of BB/W rats does not result in a long term physical or functional depletion of islet cell-specific T cell precursors among donor cells or in the expansion of T cells that can regulate the activation and expansion of diabetogenic T cells.  (+info)

Genetics of Cd36 and the clustering of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in spontaneous hypertension. (2/252)

Disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism have been reported to cluster in patients with essential hypertension and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). A deletion in the Cd36 gene on chromosome 4 has recently been implicated in defective carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in isolated adipocytes from SHRs. However, the role of Cd36 and chromosome 4 in the control of blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk factors in SHRs is unknown. In the SHR. BN-Il6/Npy congenic strain, we have found that transfer of a segment of chromosome 4 (including Cd36) from the Brown Norway (BN) rat onto the SHR background induces reductions in blood pressure and ameliorates dietary-induced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These results demonstrate that a single chromosome region can influence a broad spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors involved in the hypertension metabolic syndrome. However, analysis of Cd36 genotypes in the SHR and stroke-prone SHR strains indicates that the deletion variant of Cd36 was not critical to the initial selection for hypertension in the SHR model. Thus, the ability of chromosome 4 to influence multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, may depend on linkage of Cd36 to other genes trapped within the differential segment of the SHR. BN-Il6/Npy strain.  (+info)

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein induces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the "resistant" Brown Norway rat: disease susceptibility is determined by MHC and MHC-linked effects on the B cell response. (3/252)

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by active immunization with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is an Ab-mediated, T cell-dependent autoimmune disease that replicates the inflammatory demyelinating pathology of multiple sclerosis. We report that disease susceptibility and severity are determined by MHC and MHC-linked effects on the MOG-specific B cell response that mediate severe clinical EAE in the EAE-resistant Brown Norway (BN) rat. Immunization with the extracellular domain of MOG in CFA induced fulminant clinical disease associated with widespread demyelination and with an inflammatory infiltrate containing large numbers of polymorphonuclear cells and eosinophils within 10 days of immunization. To analyze the effects of the MHC (RT1 system) we compared BN (RT1 n) rats with Lewis (LEW) (RT1 l) and two reciprocal MHC congenic strains, LEW.1N (RT1n) and BN.1L (RT1 l). This comparison revealed that disease severity and clinical course were strongly influenced by the MHC haplotype that modulated the pathogenic MOG-specific autoantibody response. The intra-MHC recombinant congenic strain LEW.1R38 demonstrated that gene loci located both within the centromeric segment of the MHC containing classical class I and class II genes and within the telomeric RT1.M region containing the MOG gene are involved in determining Ab production and disease susceptibility. This study indicates that the current T cell-centered interpretation of MHC-mediated effects on disease susceptibility must be reassessed in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases in which autoantibody is involved in disease pathogenesis.  (+info)

Pathological and immunological findings of athymic nude and congenic wild type BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Neospora caninum. (4/252)

Neospora is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that causes abortions and neuromuscular disorders in a wide variety of mammals. Japanese bovine isolate JPA1 was inoculated intraperitoneally into BALB/c nu/ nu (athymic nude) and BALB/c (congenic wild type) female mice to examine the distribution of parasites and resistance mechanisms to Neospora infection. All the athymic nude mice died within 28 days after intraperitoneal injection of 2 x 10(5) JPA1 tachyzoites, whereas all the congenic wild type mice survived without exhibiting any clinical signs. Tachyzoites were identified in the uterus and pancreas and later spread to many other organs. Most tachyzoites identified in the necrotic foci were localized in the epithelium of the venules and capillaries. Nude mice developed high level of serum interferon-gamma and interleukin-6 as infection proceeded. Inflammatory response to Neospora infection might be mediated by Th1-type dependent cellular immunity.  (+info)

C6 produced by macrophages contributes to cardiac allograft rejection. (5/252)

The terminal components of complement C5b-C9 can cause significant injury to cardiac allografts. Using C6-deficient rats, we have found that the rejection of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I-incompatible PVG.R8 (RT1.A(a)B(u)) cardiac allografts by PVG.1U (RT1.A(u)B(u)) recipients is particularly dependent on C6. This model was selected to determine whether tissue injury results from C6 produced by macrophages, which are a conspicuous component of infiltrates in rejecting transplants. We demonstrated that high levels of C6 mRNA are expressed in isolated populations of macrophages. The relevance of macrophage-produced C6 to cardiac allograft injury was investigated by transplanting hearts from PVG. R8 (C6-) donors to PVG.1U (C6-) rats which had been reconstituted with bone marrow from PVG.1U (C6+) rats as the sole source of C6. Hearts grafted to hosts after C6 reconstitution by bone marrow transplantation underwent rejection characterized by deposition of IgG and complement on the vascular endothelium together with extensive intravascular aggregates of P-selectin-positive platelets. At the time of acute rejection, the cardiac allografts contained extensive perivascular and interstitial macrophage infiltrates. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization demonstrated high levels of C6 mRNA in the macrophage-laden transplants. C6 protein levels were also increased in the circulation during rejection. To determine the relative contribution to cardiac allograft rejection of the low levels of circulating C6 produced systemically by macrophages, C6 containing serum was passively transferred to PVG.1U (C6-) recipients of PVG.R8 (C6-) hearts. This reconstituted the C6 levels to about 3 to 6% of normal values, but failed to induce allograft rejection. In control PVG.1U (C6-) recipients that were reconstituted with bone marrow from PVG.1U (C6-) donors, C6 levels remained undetectable and PVG.R8 cardiac allografts were not rejected. These results indicate that C6 produced by macrophages can cause significant tissue damage.  (+info)

Congenic substitution mapping excludes Sa as a candidate gene locus for a blood pressure quantitative trait locus on rat chromosome 1. (6/252)

Previously, linkage analysis in several experimental crosses between hypertensive rat strains and their contrasting reference strains have identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for blood pressure on rat chromosome 1 (Chr 1) spanning the Sa gene locus. In this study, we report the further dissection of this Chr 1 blood pressure QTL with congenic substitution mapping. To address whether the Sa gene represents a candidate gene for the Chr 1 blood pressure QTL, congenic strains were developed by introgressing high blood pressure QTL alleles from the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) into the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY-1) reference strain. Congenic animals carrying a chromosomal segment from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats between genetic markers Mt1pa and D1Rat200 (including the Sa gene locus) show a significant increase in basal systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto progenitors (P<0.001, respectively), whereas congenic animals carrying a subfragment of this Chr 1 region defined by markers Mt1pa and D1Rat57 (also spanning the Sa gene) do not show elevated basal blood pressure levels (P=0.83 and P=0.9, respectively). Similar results were obtained for NaCl-induced blood pressure values. Thus, the blood pressure QTL on Chr 1 is located centromeric to the Sa gene locus in a region that is syntenic to human chromosome 11p15.4-p15.3. This region excludes the Sa as a blood pressure-elevating candidate gene locus on the basis of congenic substitution mapping approaches.  (+info)

Naturally anergic and suppressive CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells as a functionally and phenotypically distinct immunoregulatory T cell subpopulation. (7/252)

A CD4(+) T cell subpopulation defined by the expression levels of a particular cell surface molecule (e.g. CD5, CD45RB, CD25, CD62L or CD38) bears an autoimmune-preventive activity in various animal models. Here we show that the expression of CD25 is highly specific, when compared with other molecules, in delineating the autoimmune-preventive immunoregulatory CD4(+) T cell population. Furthermore, although CD25 is an activation marker for T cells, the following findings indicate that immunoregulatory CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells are functionally distinct from activated or anergy-induced T cells derived from CD25(-)CD4(+) T cells. First, the former are autoimmune-preventive in vivo, naturally unresponsive (anergic) to TCR stimulation in vitro and, upon TCR stimulation, able to suppress the activation/proliferation of other T cells, whereas the latter scarcely exhibit the in vivo autoimmune-preventive activity or the in vitro suppressive activity. Second, such activated or anergy-induced CD25(-) spleen cells produce various autoimmune diseases when transferred to syngeneic athymic nude mice, whereas similarly treated normal spleen cells, which include CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells, do not. Third, upon polyclonal T cell stimulation, CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells express CD25 at higher levels and more persistently than CD25(-)CD4(+) T cell-derived activated T cells; moreover, when the stimulation is ceased, the former revert to the original levels of CD25 expression, whereas the latter lose the expression. These results collectively indicate that naturally anergic and suppressive CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells present in normal naive mice are functionally and phenotypically stable, distinct from other T cells, and play a key role in maintaining immunologic self-tolerance.  (+info)

Insulin-degrading enzyme identified as a candidate diabetes susceptibility gene in GK rats. (8/252)

Genetic analysis of the diabetic GK rat has revealed several diabetes susceptibility loci. Congenic strains have been established for the major diabetes locus, Niddm1, by transfer of GK alleles onto the genome of the normoglycemic F344 rat. Niddm1 was dissected into two subloci, physically separated in the congenic strains Niddm1b and Niddm1i, each with at least one disease susceptibility gene. Here we have mapped Niddm1b to 1 cM by genetic and pathophysiological characterization of new congenic substrains for the locus. The gene encoding insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE:) was located to this 1 cM region, and the two amino acid substitutions (H18R and A890V) identified in the GK allele reduced insulin-degrading activity by 31% in transfected cells. However, when the H18R and A890V variants were studied separately, no effects were observed, demonstrating a synergistic effect of the two variants on insulin degradation. No effect on insulin degradation was observed in cell lysates, indicating that the effect is coupled to receptor-mediated internalization of insulin. Congenic rats with the IDE: GK allele displayed post-prandial hyperglycemia, reduced lipogenesis in fat cells, blunted insulin-stimulated glucose transmembrane uptake and reduced insulin degradation in isolated muscle. Analysis of additional rat strains demonstrated that the dysfunctional IDE: allele was unique to GK. These data point to an important role for IDE: in the diabetic phenotype in GK.  (+info)

Abstract A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Resistance to hepatic disease developed gradually with age, with full expression at approximately 10 weeks in the WF.LEW and LEW rat strains. The ZH501 strain caused fatal hepatitis in WF rats regardless of age. However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. The congenic rat strain will be a valuable asset in elucidating the mechanism of
Rat Mcs3 was physically confirmed and delimited to a 27.8 Mb segment of rat chromosome 1. Rat Mcs3 is the last of the known Cop rat mammary carcinoma resistance-associated QTL (Mcs1-3) to be physically confirmed. In their linkage analysis predicting the Mcs3 QTL, Goulds group reported that Mcs3 heterozygous females had, on average, a 42% reduction in mammary carcinoma multiplicity compared to the WF phenotype, and females homozygous for the Mcs3 Cop allele had an 84% reduction in mammary tumor number (Shepel et al. 1998). Thus, they appropriately concluded that there was no dominance effect at the Mcs3 QTL. While we did not test heterozygous females in our study, we observed that the Mcs3 Cop allele reduced the mammary carcinoma susceptibility phenotype of the highly susceptible WF strain from 46 to 65% when homozygous. The discrepancy between homozygous genotypes in these two studies may be due to effects of Cop resistance alleles at other Mcs QTL present in the linkage analysis study, as the ...
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Through substitution mapping studies, we previously identified that a
ORAL PRESENTATION THURSDAY OCTOBER 21 9.30am - 9.45am MECHANISM OF RESISTANCE TO PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI IN MICE IS MEDIATED THROUGH THE RED CELL AND A TOTALLY SYNERGISTIC NON-ERYTHROCYTIC PATHWAY Lin E, Marshall V, Burt RA, Foote SJ The Walter & Eliza Hall Institute, Parkville, Australia P. chabaudi infection in mice is a model for the severe anaemia seen in falciparum infections. Inbred mice strains are differentially susceptible to malaria. We have mapped three loci involved in outcome to this infection and have generated mice reciprocally congenic for these loci on several strains of mouse. These congenic animals have phenotypes different from their wildtype parents. Parasitaemias are more informative than clinical outcome in differentiating between the congenic animals. In one case, a congenic animal carrying a locus predicted to encode susceptibility was much more resistant than even the resistant animal. Analysis of the ability of red cells from congenic mice to sustain the growth of the ...
Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans and NOD mice results from interactions between multiple susceptibility genes (termed Idd) located within and outside the MHC. Despite sharing ∼88% of their genome with NOD mice, including the H2(g7) MHC haplotype and other important Idd genes, the closely related nonobese resistant (NOR) strain fails to develop T1D because of resistance alleles in residual genomic regions derived from C57BLKS mice mapping to chromosomes (Chr.) 1, 2, and 4. We previously produced a NOD background strain with a greatly decreased incidence of T1D as the result of a NOR-derived 44.31-Mb congenic region on distal Chr. 4 containing disease-resistance alleles that decrease the pathogenic activity of autoreactive B and CD4 T cells. In this study, a series of subcongenic strains for the NOR-derived Chr. 4 region was used to significantly refine genetic loci regulating diabetogenic B and CD4 T cell activity. Analyses of these subcongenic strains revealed the presence of at least two
We have previously reported suggestive evidence for a locus on Chromosome (Chr) 7 that affects adiposity in F2 mice from a CAST/Ei x C57BL/6J intercross fed a high-fat diet. Here we characterize the effect of a high-fat (32.6 Kcal% fat) diet on male and female congenic mice with a C57BL/6J background and a CAST/Ei-derived segment on Chr 7. Adiposity index (AI) and weights of certain fat pads were approximately 50% lower in both male and female congenic mice than in control C57BL/6J mice, and carcass fat content was significantly reduced. The reduction of fat depot weights was not seen, however, in congenic animals fed a low-fat chow diet (12 Kcal% fat). The congenic segment is approximately 25 cM in length, extending from D7Mit213 to D7Mit41, and includes the tub, Ucp2 and Ucp3, genes, all of which are candidate genes for this effect. Some polymorphisms have been found on comparing c-DNA sequences of the Ucp2 gene from C57BL/6J and CAST/Ei mice. These results suggest that one or more genes
Congenic strains are produced by transferring the transgene/KO allele to a new genetic background strain that is more appropriate for phenotypic analysis. The APF offer a speed congenics service that can establish a congenic strain within 18 months.
BACKGROUND: Complex etiology and pathogenesis of pathophysiological components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome have been demonstrated in humans and animal models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated extensive physiological, genetic and genome-wide gene expression profiles in a congenic strain of the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat containing a large region (110 cM, 170 Mb) of rat chromosome 1 (RNO1), which covers diabetes and obesity quantitative trait loci (QTL), introgressed onto the genetic background of the normoglycaemic Brown Norway (BN) strain. This novel disease model, which by the length of the congenic region closely mirrors the situation of a chromosome substitution strain, exhibits a wide range of abnormalities directly relevant to components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome and diabetes complications, including hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, enhanced insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and altered pancreatic
Dive into the research topics of Localization of a Na,sup,+,/sup,, K,sup,+,/sup,-ATPase α 2 subunit gene, Atp1a2, on rat Chromosome 13. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Complete information for BP16 gene (Genetic Locus), Blood Pressure QTL 16, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
Organisms that differ in genotype at (ideally) one specified locus. Strictly speaking these are conisogenics. Thus one homozygous strain can be spoken of as being congenic to another
UW-Madison. We have used both classical genetics and sequence-based genomics in search of mouse modifiers of liver tumorigenesis. The dramatic 20-50-fold difference in tumor multiplicity between carcinogen-treated male C57BL/6 (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice has been shown to map mainly to distal chromosome 1. We have bred congenic animals carrying 70cM of chromosome 1 from C3H on an otherwise B6 genetic background. Relative to B6 animals, these B6.C31 mice developed up to 14-fold more liver tumors. Analysis of recombinant animals carrying smaller portions of the C3H congenic region suggests the presence of two modifiers, one of which has a 5-8-fold effect on tumor multiplicity and lies in a 7 Mb region on distal chromosome 1. Ras mutations are more prevalent in C3H tumors than in B6. By comparing ras mutations in tumors from the B6.C31and parental strains, we have shown that the C3H alleles on distal chromosome 1 are not sufficient to recapitulate the high ras mutant frequency of C3H tumors, ...
We have used the public sequencing and annotation of the mouse genome to delimit the previously resolved type 1 diabetes (T1D) insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd)18 interval to a region on chromosome 3 that includes the immunologically relevant candidate gene, Vav3. To test the candidacy of Vav3, we developed a novel congenic strain that enabled the resolution of Idd18 to a 604-kb interval, designated Idd18.1, which contains only two annotated genes: the complete sequence of Vav3 and the last exon of the gene encoding NETRIN G1, Ntng1. Targeted sequencing of Idd18.1 in the NOD mouse strain revealed that allelic variation between NOD and C57BL/6J (B6) occurs in noncoding regions with 138 single nucleotide polymorphisms concentrated in the introns between exons 20 and 27 and immediately after the 3 untranslated region. We observed differential expression of VAV3 RNA transcripts in thymocytes when comparing congenic mouse strains with B6 or NOD alleles at Idd18.1. The T1D protection associated with B6
Jétudie les liens existant entre lévolution de la composition nucléotidique des génomes mammifères et leurs traits dhistoire de vie.. J. Romiguier, E. Figuet, N. Galtier, E.J.P. Douzery, B. Boussau, V. Ranwez, J.Y. Dutheil. 2012. Fast and robust characterization of time-heterogeneous sequence evolutionary processes using substitution mapping. Plos One (accepted). J. Romiguier, V. Ranwez, E. Douzery, N. Galtier. 2010. Contrasting GC-content dynamics across 33 mammalian genomes: influence of body mass and chromosome size. Genome Research 20:1001-1009.. J.Y. Dutheil, N. Galtier, J. Romiguier, E.J.P. Douzery, V. Ranwez, B. Boussau. 2012. Efficient selection of branch-specific models of sequence evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution (accepted). ...
Hall MA, Norman PJ, Thiel B, Tiwari H, Peiffer A, Vaughan RW, Prescott S, Leppert M, Schork NJ, Lanchbury JS, Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18 control variation in levels of T and B lymphocyte subpopulations. Am J Hum Genet70(5):1172-82 ...
Hall MA, Norman PJ, Thiel B, Tiwari H, Peiffer A, Vaughan RW, Prescott S, Leppert M, Schork NJ, Lanchbury JS, Quantitative trait loci on chromosomes 1, 2, 3, 4, 8, 9, 11, 12, and 18 control variation in levels of T and B lymphocyte subpopulations. Am J Hum Genet70(5):1172-82 ...
Renin has long been suspected to reside in a compound BP QTL, with multiple normotensive and hypertensive alleles that can be derived from a single strain.2 Our data indicate that at least 2 loci around Renin modulate BP (Figure 1). In addition to the BN protective Renin region (46.1-47.2 Mb), we also identified a BN hypertensive region (47.2-49.0 Mb), which in lines 9 and 9C masked the protective allele(s) that were observed in line 9A (Figure 1). Similar to line 9, the S/renrr congenic unexpectedly failed to lower BP compared with SS.11 The SR had a region (47.9-48.1 Mb) that was significantly enriched for common BN and SR alleles (Figure 3), suggesting that this overlapping BN and SR region are potentially functionally relevant.. The BP-associated Renin allele that was first identified by Rapp et al4 in 1989 turned out to be part of a much larger BP QTL (chr13: 35-111 Mb)5 that encompasses multiple BP loci on chromosome 13 in the SS5 and other hypertensive strains (eg, SHR28 and LH29). Using ...
The availability of high-density genotype data for mice has made it possible to quantify the relationship between haplotype structure and differential gene expression. A relationship between SNP in the 1 kb upstream region and differential expression was only observable when using a stringent test of differential expression (absolute log2 fold change , 0.5; pplr , 0.005). This was interpreted as evidence that the variance of expression of cis regulated genes is much lower than that of trans regulated genes. Although the 1 kb upstream region may contain the highest density of regulatory elements it does not contain all of them, they can be spread throughout the gene and its 3 region as well as going tens to hundreds of kilobases upstream. Therefore we are likely to have underestimated the numbers of cis regulated genes using this strategy. However SNP in the upstream region will frequently be markers for larger haplotypes that extend into or through the whole gene region so these regions will ...
The cdc2+ gene function plays a central role in the control of the mitotic cell cycle of the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Recessive temperature-sensitive mutations in the cdc2 gene cause cell cycle arrest when shifted to the restrictive temperature, while a second class of mutations within the cdc2 gene causes a premature advancement into mitosis. Previously the cdc2+ gene has been cloned and has been shown to encode a 34 kDa phosphoprotein with in vitro protein kinase activity. Here we describe the cloning of 11 mutant alleles of the cdc2 gene using two simple methods, one of which is presented here for the first time. We have sequenced these alleles and find a variety of single amino acid substitutions mapping throughout the cdc2 protein. Analysis of these mutations has identified a number of regions within the cdc2 protein that are important for cdc2+ activity and regulation. These include regions which may be involved in the interaction of the cdc2+ gene product with the proteins ...
Mapping studies have identified many QTLs affecting BP in genetically hypertensive rats, and their isolation in congenic strains has been the main approach used for their further characterization (20). Apart from genetic analysis, congenic strains provide a powerful tool for identifying relevant intermediary phenotypes, since they only differ from control (parental) strains for a small fraction of the genome. Thus any differences seen are more likely to be involved in the physiological pathway(s) that regulates the trait of interest. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the rat chromosome 1 BP QTL region also influences pressure-natriuresis relationship, salt sensitivity, and most probably sympathetic activation following salt loading. These findings may be related and pertinent to the effect on BP.. Pressure-natriuresis was studied using the classic method designed by Roman and Cowley (23), which one allows to maintain, at a fixed level, most of the extrarenal factors that ...
Length in bytes of the actual content within the allocated memory. Definition at line 66 of file buffer.h.. Referenced by __wrap_rand_bytes(), alloc_buf(), alloc_buf_gc(), alloc_buf_sock_tun(), bio_read(), bio_write_post(), buf_advance(), buf_catrunc(), buf_clear(), buf_copy_excess(), buf_copy_range(), buf_forward_capacity(), buf_inc_len(), buf_init_dowork(), buf_len(), buf_prepend(), buf_printf(), buf_puts(), buf_read_alloc(), buf_reset(), buf_reset_len(), buf_rmtail(), buf_safe(), buf_safe_bidir(), buf_set_read(), buf_set_write(), buf_string_match(), buf_string_match_head(), buf_string_match_head_str(), buf_valid(), buf_write_alloc(), buffer_list_push(), buffer_list_push_data(), check_fragment(), check_ping_send_dowork(), cipher_ctx_update_ad(), clone_buf(), convert_to_one_line(), drop_if_recursive_routing(), encrypt_sign(), flush_payload_buffer(), foreign_option(), fragment_incoming(), fragment_outgoing(), fragment_prepend_flags(), fragment_ready_to_send(), generate_ephemeral_key(), ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The Cystatin S gene maps to rat Chromosome 3, to which D1mgh18 is re-assigned from Chromosome 1. AU - Duran Alonso, M. Beatriz. AU - Shiels, Paul. AU - McCallion, Andrew S. AU - Bennett, Neil K.. AU - Payne, Anthony P.. AU - Szpirer, Josiane. AU - Szpirer, Claude. AU - Brodie, Martin J.. AU - Davies, R. Wayne. AU - Sutcliffe, Roger G.. PY - 1997/12. Y1 - 1997/12. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=0031543282&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=0031543282&partnerID=8YFLogxK. M3 - Article. C2 - 9383294. AN - SCOPUS:0031543282. VL - 8. SP - 946. EP - 947. JO - Mammalian Genome. JF - Mammalian Genome. SN - 0938-8990. IS - 12. ER - ...
At file:///home/inaam/w/lru_flush/ based on revid:[email protected] 3387 Inaam Rana 2010-12-14 non-functional change: refactored buf_LRU_free_block() to reduce the level of indentation modified: storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c === modified file storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c --- a/storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c revid:[email protected] +++ b/storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c revid:[email protected] @@ -1472,6 +1472,7 @@ buf_LRU_free_block( buf_page_t* b = NULL; buf_pool_t* buf_pool = buf_pool_from_bpage(bpage); enum buf_lru_free_block_status ret; + enum buf_page_state page_state; const ulint fold = buf_page_address_fold(bpage-,space, bpage-,offset); rw_lock_t* hash_lock = buf_page_hash_lock_get(buf_pool, fold); @@ -1576,172 +1577,178 @@ func_exit: #endif /* UNIV_SYNC_DEBUG */ ut_ad(buf_page_can_relocate(bpage)); - if (buf_LRU_block_remove_hashed_page(bpage, zip) - != BUF_BLOCK_ZIP_FREE) { + page_state = buf_LRU_block_remove_hashed_page(bpage, zip); - /* We have just freed a ...
A general experimental design that allows mapping of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) into a 1-cM interval is presented. The design consists of a series of strains, termed
At file:///home/marko/innobase/dev/mysql-5.1-innodb2/ based on revid:[email protected] 3458 Marko Mäkelä 2010-05-11 Do not demand that buf_page_t be fully initialized on 64-bit systems. There may be padding before buf_page_t::zip. (Bug #53307) modified: storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c storage/innodb_plugin/include/buf0buf.ic === modified file storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c --- a/storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c 2010-03-23 16:20:36 +0000 +++ b/storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c 2010-05-11 10:50:12 +0000 @@ -1393,7 +1393,12 @@ buf_LRU_free_block( ut_ad(buf_page_in_file(bpage)); ut_ad(bpage-,in_LRU_list); ut_ad(!bpage-,in_flush_list == !bpage-,oldest_modification); +#if UNIV_WORD_SIZE == 4 + /* On 32-bit systems, there is no padding in buf_page_t. On + other systems, Valgrind could complain about uninitialized pad + bytes. */ UNIV_MEM_ASSERT_RW(bpage, sizeof *bpage); +#endif if (!buf_page_can_relocate(bpage)) { @@ -1688,7 +1693,12 @@ buf_LRU_block_remove_hashed_page( ...
These data establish linkage of rat genotype to a form of environmental perturbation-infection-that is potentially important in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. They confirm that Iddm4 is an exceptionally strong non-MHC determinant of susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes in the rat (6,9-11). In previous studies of Iddm4, diabetes was induced by chronic treatment with poly I:C plus Treg depletion. The present data now extend the role of Iddm4 in diabetes pathogenesis to virus-induced disease expression. They also illuminate the complexity of environmental interaction with genetic susceptibility. The diabetogenic potential of Iddm4 is readily discernable in congenic rats treated with poly I:C and Treg depletion but is far less apparent in animals treated with KRV plus poly I:C unless additional BBDR genes are present. We have discovered at least one of these genes, designated Iddm20, on chromosome 17.. The Iddm20 interval (online appendix Table 3) contains at least one gene of particular ...
I work with rat tumors and try to establish their karyotype. Is there anyone who knows wher I can get such paints?? Bernd K lsch Cell-biology 45147 Essen, Germany e-mail: ttu3a0 at aixrs1.hrz.uni-essen.de knowq s where I can ...
This congenic strain carries the |i|H2|sup|b|/sup||/i| haplotype and |i|Fv1|sup|b|/sup||/i| allele from C57BL/6 on the AKR genetic background. Cells of strains carrying |i|Fv1|sup|b|/sup||/i| are resistant to N-tropic and susceptible to B-tropic viruses. |i|Fv1|sup|b|/sup||/i| is carried as the wild-type allele in the BALB/c, A and C57BL/6|br/| strains.|br/|
Trp53 gene knockout mice. A neomycin selection cassette was inserted into the second exon of the Trp53 gene. Homozygous deficient mice can grow after birth, but often suffered from development of tumors in various region of the body. Several congenic strains were generated. C57BL/6 background (RBRC01361), ICR background (RBRC01348), C3H background (RBRC00107), DBA/2 background (RBRC01518), and MSM background (RBRC00815). In C57BL/6 background most of the female homozygotes die in utero (probably, also in MSM background ...
Trp53 gene knockout mice. A neomycin selection cassette was inserted into the second exon of the Trp53 gene. Homozygous deficient mice can grow after birth, but often suffered from development of tumors in various region of the body. Several congenic strains were generated. C57BL/6 background (RBRC01361), ICR background (RBRC01348), C3H background (RBRC00107), DBA/2 background (RBRC01518), and MSM background (RBRC00815). In C57BL/6 background most of the female homozygotes die in utero (probably, also in MSM background ...
Weil, M. M., Brown, B. W., and Serachitopol, D. M. Genotype Selection to Rapidly Breed Congenic Strains. Genetics 146: 1061-1069 (July,1997). Language: Fortran 95. ...
Sistemas químicos capazes de produzir radicais livres OHâ ¢ e O2â ¢-, responsáveis por danos no DNA, foram estudados em diversos tipos de eletrodos de carbono previamente modificados. Nitrofural, RNO2,...
We have investigated transport in a cross-shaped two-dimensional electron gas with superconducting electrodes coupled to two opposite arms. Multiterminal resistances, measured as a function of the superconducting phase difference and the magnetic flux, are analyzed in terms of an extended Landauer-Buttiker transport formalism. We show that extended reciprocity relations hold. Correlations between transport coefficients are obtained from, e.g., (negative) three-terminal and nonlocal resistances. Energy spectroscopy reveals a reentrant behavior of the transport coefficients around the Thouless energy ...
Clara Marcuello, Carmen Montañez, Borja Muñoz, Ester Montenegro, Isabel Calvo, Consuelo Auñón, Amparo Sabaté, Laura del Valle, Manuel Fuentes Ferrer, Carla Assaf-Balut, Isabelle Runkle, Miguel Angel Rubio, Alfonso Luis Calle-Pascual ...
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been mapped to small intervals along the chromosomes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), by a method we call substitution mapping. The size of the interval to which a QTL can be mapped is determined primarily by the number and spacing of previously mapped genetic markers in the region surrounding the QTL. We demonstrate the method using tomato genotypes carrying chromosomal segments from Lycopersicon chmielewskii, a wild relative of tomato with high soluble solids concentration but small fruit and low yield. Different L. chmielewskii chromosomal segments carrying a common restriction fragment length polymorphism were identified, and their regions of overlap determined using all available genetic markers. The effect of these chromosomal segments on soluble solids concentration, fruit mass, yield, and pH, was determined in the field. Many overlapping chromosomal segments had very different phenotypic effects, indicating QTLs affecting the phenotype(s) to lie in ...
article{418b5550-2321-4395-ab0c-946f90945ceb, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To characterize the arthritis-modulating effects of 3 non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in rat experimental arthritis in the disease-resistant E3 strain, and to investigate the disease-modulating effects of the MHC region (RT1) in various genetic backgrounds. METHODS: A congenic fragment containing Ncf1 along with congenic fragments containing the strongest remaining loci, Pia5/Cia3 and Pia7/Cia13 on chromosome 4, were transferred from the arthritis-susceptible DA strain into the background of the completely resistant E3 strain. The arthritis-regulatory potential of the transferred alleles was evaluated by comparing the susceptibility to experimental arthritis in congenic rats with that in E3 rats. The RT1(u) haplotype from the E3 strain was transferred into the susceptible DA strain (RT1(av1)), and various F(1) and F(2) hybrids were generated to assess the effects of RT1 on arthritis ...
It is well-documented that obesity participated in the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC). Leptin is closely associated with obesity.
1 ---------- 2 SEMAPHORES 3 ---------- 4 OS WAIT ARRAY INFO: reservation count 36255, signal count 12675 5 --Thread 10607472 has waited at buf/buf0rea.c line 420 for 0.00 seconds the semaphore: 6 Mutex at 0x358068 created file buf/buf0buf.c line 597, lock var 0 7 waiters flag 0 8 --Thread 3488624 has waited at buf/buf0buf.c line 1177 for 0.00 seconds the semaphore: 9 Mutex at 0x358068 created file buf/buf0buf.c line 597, lock var 0 10 waiters flag 0 11 --Thread 6896496 has waited at btr/btr0cur.c line 442 for 0.00 seconds the semaphore: 12 S-lock on RW-latch at 0x8800244 created in file buf/buf0buf.c line 547 13 a writer (thread id 14879600) has reserved it in mode exclusive 14 number of readers 0, waiters flag 1 15 Last time read locked in file btr/btr0cur.c line 442 16 Last time write locked in file buf/buf0buf.c line 1797 [...] 17 Mutex spin waits 0, rounds 452650, OS waits 22573 18 RW-shared spins 27550, OS waits 13682; RW-excl spins 0, OS waits 0 ...
Read A congenic mouse and candidate gene at the Chromosome 13 locus regulating bone density, Mammalian Genome on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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The arthritis-susceptible DA rat is one of the most commonly used rat strains for genetic linkage analysis and is instrumental for the identification of many genetic loci. Even though DA rats were kept as inbred lines at different institutes and suppliers, it became obvious that the various breeding …
The Transgenic Genotyping Service (TGS) provides genotyping for JAX Mice and assay development. TGS also provides speed congenics & mapping projects as well as SNP genotyping services for JAX researchers.. TGSs mission is to produce accurate genotyping results with the shortest turnaround time as inexpensively as possible for our clients within the Jackson Laboratory. TGS strives to be the most efficient genotyping service available and to provide complete satisfaction for its clients.. ...
define FUSE_USE_VERSION 26 #include ,sys/fsuid.h, #include ,sys/types.h, #include ,pthread.h, #include ,signal.h, #include ,limits.h, #include ,string.h, #include ,stdarg.h, #include ,stdlib.h, #include ,unistd.h, #include ,errno.h, #include ,fcntl.h, #include ,stdio.h, #include ,fuse.h, #include ,pwd.h, #include ,tcl.h, /* * Default cache directory */ #ifndef APPFS_CACHEDIR #define APPFS_CACHEDIR /var/cache/appfs #endif /* Debugging macros */ #ifdef DEBUG int appfs_debug_fd = STDERR_FILENO; #define APPFS_DEBUG(x...) { \ char buf[8192]; \ int bufoff = 0; \ if (appfs_debug_fd == -1) { \ appfs_debug_fd = open(/tmp/appfsd.log, O_WRONLY , O_APPEND , O_CREAT, 0600); \ }; \ bufoff = snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), [debug] [t=%llx] %s:%i:%s: , (unsigned long long) pthread_self(), __FILE__, __LINE__, __func__); \ if (bufoff , sizeof(buf)) { \ bufoff += snprintf(buf + bufoff, sizeof(buf) - bufoff, x); \ }; \ if (bufoff , sizeof(buf)) { \ bufoff += snprintf(buf + bufoff, sizeof(buf) - bufoff, \n);\ } \ ...
Signed-off-by: Janne Grunau ,janne-ffmpeg at jannau.net, --- libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c , 11 +++++++++-- 1 files changed, 9 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) diff --git a/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c b/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c index 401144f..c06c017 100644 --- a/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c +++ b/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c @@ -1423,13 +1423,15 @@ static int dvbsub_decode(AVCodecContext *avctx, #endif - if (buf_size ,= 2 ,, *buf != 0x0f) + if (buf_size ,= 6 ,, *buf != 0x0f) { + av_dlog(avctx, incomplete or broken packet); return -1; + } p = buf; p_end = buf + buf_size; - while (p , p_end && *p == 0x0f) { + while (p_end - p , 6 && *p == 0x0f) { p += 1; segment_type = *p++; page_id = AV_RB16(p); @@ -1437,6 +1439,11 @@ static int dvbsub_decode(AVCodecContext *avctx, segment_length = AV_RB16(p); p += 2; + if (p_end - p , segment_length) { + av_dlog(avctx, incomplete or broken packet); + return -1; + } + if (page_id == ctx-,composition_id ,, page_id == ctx-,ancillary_id ,, ctx-,composition_id == -1 ,, ctx-,ancillary_id == ...
BNX2]: Fix bug in bnx2_nvram_write(). Length was not calculated correctly if the NVRAM offset is on a non- aligned offset. Signed-off-by: Michael Chan ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], Signed-off-by: David S. Miller ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], --- drivers/net/bnx2.c , 4 ++-- 1 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) diff --git a/drivers/net/bnx2.c b/drivers/net/bnx2.c index f296c37..4fa7cef 100644 --- a/drivers/net/bnx2.c +++ b/drivers/net/bnx2.c @@ -3096,7 +3096,7 @@ bnx2_nvram_write(struct bnx2 *bp, u32 offset, u8 *data_buf, if ((align_start = (offset32 & 3))) { offset32 &= ~3; - len32 += align_start; + len32 += (4 - align_start); if ((rc = bnx2_nvram_read(bp, offset32, start, 4))) return rc; } @@ -3114,7 +3114,7 @@ bnx2_nvram_write(struct bnx2 *bp, u32 offset, u8 *data_buf, if (align_start ,, align_end) { buf = kmalloc(len32, GFP_KERNEL); - if (buf == 0) + if (buf == NULL) return -ENOMEM; if (align_start) { memcpy(buf, start, 4); - To unsubscribe from this list: send the line unsubscribe git-commits-head ...
Berikut Gambar Rangkaian 8951 dengan Handpone HP Siemens c45 List Program Assembly 8051 sebagai berikut : buf_rx data 0ffh buf_no data 0afh ;0a0h buf_psn data 0a0h ;8ch buf_psn_txt data 94h ;5ah buf_no_pdu data 88h ;46h -20 +1 NO_DIAL DATA 73H ;74 ;32h -15 +2 no_sms data 62h -20 +3 ;text_pdu data 4bh ;no_sms data 47h…
Parabolic offers RNO that helps in the regeneration of the natural defense system and of the blood platelets. Its action is very powerful and very rapid. - Bioparabolic
00119 { 00120 FILE *f; 00121 char buf[ 1024 ]; 00122 int i; 00123 static regexp *re_macros = 0; 00124 00125 00126 #ifdef OPT_IMPROVED_PATIENCE_EXT 00127 static int count = 0; 00128 ++count; 00129 if ( ((count == 100) ,, !( count % 1000 )) && DEBUG_MAKE ) 00130 printf(...patience...\n); 00131 #endif 00132 00133 /* the following regexp is used to detect cases where a */ 00134 /* file is included through a line line #include MACRO */ 00135 if ( re_macros == 0 ) 00136 { 00137 re_macros = regex_compile( 00138 ^[ ]*#[ ]*include[ ]*([A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9_]*).*$ ); 00139 } 00140 00141 00142 if( !( f = fopen( file, r ) ) ) 00143 return l; 00144 00145 while( fgets( buf, sizeof( buf ), f ) ) 00146 { 00147 for( i = 0; i , rec; i++ ) 00148 if( regexec( re[i], buf ) && re[i]-,startp[1] ) 00149 { 00150 re[i]-,endp[1][0] = \0; 00151 00152 if( DEBUG_HEADER ) 00153 printf( header found: %s\n, re[i]-,startp[1] ); 00154 00155 l = list_new( l, newstr( re[i]-,startp[1] ) ); 00156 } 00157 00158 /* special ...
Whoa. This warning dates back to 2004, when MAX_BUF_SIZE was a thing that buffers.c enforced. But we removed MAX_BUF_SIZE back in 2007 when we replaced the buffer implementation ...
Vladimir Panteleev ,git at vladimir.panteleev.md, writes: , @@ -255,25 +260,31 @@ static void test_GetSetEnvironmentVariableW(void) , ok(ret == TRUE, should not fail with empty value but GetLastError=%d\n, GetLastError()); , , lstrcpyW(buf, fooW); , + SetLastError(0); You should probably use 0xdeadbeef here (and also in the A test that this was copied from). -- Alexandre Julliard julliard at winehq.org ...
Members brought some of their toughest cases to Dr. Lew Schon at this dynamic live event. Join us to hear his advice and the discussions that ensued for the following cases ...
... is a breeder and supplier of laboratory animals operating in over 50 countries. The current CEO is Nancy J ... 1994 - Contracted with National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease to maintain a repository of inbred, congenic, and ... 1985 - Contracted to supply MPF and germ-free animals for the NASA space shuttle missions. 1985 - Started producing BALB/c mice ... "Taconic Biosciences , Lab Animal Buyers' Guide". Guide.labanimal.com. Retrieved 2017-05-22. https://globenewswire.com/news- ...
... a consistent and uniform animal model for experimental purposes and enables genetic studies in congenic and knock-out animals. ... Small animals such as cats and dogs may be sterilized, but in the case of large agricultural animals, such as cattle, culling ... However, in species such as horses, animals in wild or feral conditions often drive off the young of both sexes, thought to be ... Breeding in domestic animals is primarily assortative breeding (see selective breeding). Without the sorting of individuals by ...
... animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.040.500 - mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520 - animals, inbred strains MeSH B01.050.199.520 ... MeSH B01.050.157.040 - animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.157.040.500 - mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.157.520 - mice, inbred strains ... animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520.040.500 - mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520.520 - mice, inbred strains MeSH B01.050. ... congenic MeSH B01.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400 - mice, inbred strains MeSH B01.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400.300 - mice, ...
Patients who are immunized with the antibodies from animals may develop serum sickness due to the proteins from the immune ... "congenic", or deliberately inbred mouse strains which are histocompatible. An individual's immune response of passive immunity ... Shibasaburo and von Behring immunized guinea pigs with the blood products from animals that had recovered from diphtheria and ... If a neonatal animal does not receive adequate amounts of colostrum prior to gut closure, it does not have a sufficient amount ...
Each animal or plant species is special. It differs in some way from all other species... biological specificity is the major ... Not to be confused with Congenic.. Congeners are organisms within the same genus.[4] ... Interspecies communication, communication between different species of animals, plants, fungi or bacteria ...
... a consistent and uniform animal model for experimental purposes and enables genetic studies in congenic and knock-out animals. ... AnimalsEdit. Wild animalsEdit. Few studies have found evidence of regular incest avoidance in mammals but banded mongooses are ... Small animals such as cats and dogs may be sterilized, but in the case of large agricultural animals, such as cattle, culling ... Domestic animalsEdit. Hereditary polycystic kidney disease is prevalent in the Persian cat breed, affecting almost half the ...
Normally this is performed with sedated animals but sometimes it is performed on awake animals engaged in a behavioral event, ... Selective breeding - Organisms, often mice, may be bred selectively among inbred strains to create a recombinant congenic ... Single-unit recording - A method whereby an electrode is introduced into the brain of a living animal to detect electrical ... In philosophy, people like René Descartes proposed physical models to explain animal as well as human behavior. Descartes ...
For congenic and mutant strains, genomic positions are assigned for the introgressed region (congenic strains) or the location ... Such sequences are useful primarily for researchers still using these markers for genotyping their animals and for ... including information about strain availability and animal husbandry, and links to the RGD strain search and to review articles ... cells and molecular pathways at the whole animal or systems level. Until recently, direct, specific genomic manipulations in ...
They believe that live bird markets may play a key role in human and animal infections with H7N9 and that, even if the overall ... the national avian flu reference laboratory concluded that the strain of the H7N9 virus found on pigeons was highly congenic ... It will also be important to verify whether the H7N9 virus is transmissible from humans to animals because if established, it ... Activation was prompted because the novel H7N9 avian influenza virus has never been seen before in animals or humans and ...
Non-obese diabetic or NOD mice, like biobreeding rats, are used as an animal model for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes develops in ... Loci associated with susceptibility to IDDM have been identified in the NOD mouse strain through the development of congenic ...
... s (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... if the effects of inbreeding can be overcome so an isogenic strain can be created for laboratory use Backcrossing Congenic ... Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for the reproducibility of conclusions all ... Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ...
"Animal Behaviour. 52: 167-181. doi:10.1006/anbe.1996.0162. S2CID 24629559.. *^ Prum, Richard O. (1997). "Phylogenetic Tests of ... Evidence from the use of a Y-maze differentially scented by congenic mice of different major histocompatibility types". Journal ... "Animal Cognition. 20 (2): 309-320. doi:10.1007/s10071-016-1053-7. ISSN 1435-9456. PMID 27844219. S2CID 7632795.. ... "Animal Behaviour. 78 (4): 809-817. doi:10.1016/j.anbehav.2009.07.011. ISSN 0003-3472. S2CID 17075449.. ...
Alcock, John (2013-07-01). Animal Behaviour: A Evolutionary Approach (10th ed.). Sinauer. pp. 70-72. ISBN 978-0-87893-966-4. . ... Evidence from the use of a Y-maze differentially scented by congenic mice of different major histocompatibility types". Journal ... It is characterized by a "selective response by animals to particular stimuli" which can be observed as behavior.[1] In other ... Sex role reversal in animalsEdit. In species where mating biases exist, females are typically the choosy sex because they ...
He defined immunology as the science of self-nonself discrimination, concerned not just with the human species and its animal ... The associations were demonstrated by testing the responses of congenic strains differing at the H2 complex and mapping the ... background and thus producing a set of congenic B10.W lines. These lines proved to be essential for the complete ...
1995). "T cell response to Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia japonica in various congenic mouse strains". ... nymphs that feed on long-distance migrants give rise to hunting adult ticks that subsequently feed on larger animals, such as ...
November 2004). "Congenic mice with low serum IGF-I have increased body fat, reduced bone mineral density, and an altered ... it is difficult to employ in laboratory animals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides MAT assessment in the vertebral ...
Animals. All animal protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of the Medical College of ... A reverse congenic (congenic R) published by St. Lezin et al12 contains the SS Renin allele, yet significantly lowered BP, ... Sequence analysis and comparison of the S/renrr and line 9 congenic intervals. A, As reported by Jiang et al,11 a congenic ... Notably, each of these congenic strains also carried substantial amounts of undefined congenic interval owing to the limited ...
Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. In the congenic C57B ... Laboratory-animals; Animals; Molecular-structure; Genetics; Genetic-factors ... Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. In the congenic C57BL/6J strain, the Ahl locus has been ... This presentation will compare ABR results in the two congenic strains as well as compare the present data with the previous ...
Animals. Congenic strains were prepared by backcrossing B6-x-Bc recombinant inbred strains CXB3 and CXB427 to Bc and then ... Construction of Congenic Strains. Congenic strains were derived from 2 B6×Bc (CXB) inbred lines in which homozygous blocks of ... Congenic strains were developed by repeated backcrossing of CXB3 and CXB4 mice and progeny to Bc. At each round, congenic ... or a separation of the 2 processes in certain congenic strains. However, our finding that congenic strains successively ...
... cryptococcal meningitis showed that the serotype A congenic a and alpha mating type strains had equivalent virulence in animal ... grubii and virulence of congenic a and alpha isolates Infect Immun. 2003 Sep;71(9):4831-41. doi: 10.1128/iai.71.9.4831- ... This meiotic segregant was used to create congenic a and alpha mating type serotype A strains. Virulence tests with rabbit and ... models, in contrast to previous studies linking the alpha mating type to increased virulence in congenic serotype D strains. ...
... a donor strain in the C57BL/6JJcl to generate other three congenic lines. B: C.B6D2-Tg(CAG-GFP/LC3)53NmzRbrc (RBRC01413) in the ... Autophagy monitoring congenic strains B6.B6D2-Tg(CAG-GFP/LC3)53Nmz/NmzRbrc (GFP-LC3#53) RBRC00806 C.B6D2-Tg(CAG-GFP/LC3)53Nmz/ ... Autophagy monitoring congenic strains. B6.B6D2-Tg(CAG-GFP/LC3)53Nmz/NmzRbrc (GFP-LC3#53) RBRC00806 C.B6D2-Tg(CAG-GFP/LC3)53Nmz/ ... A: B6.B6D2-Tg(CAG-GFP/LC3)53NmzRbrc (RBRC00806), a donor strain in the C57BL/6JJcl to generate other three congenic lines.. B: ...
... Genomics. 1999 Nov 15;62(1):34- ... two of which were confirmed by analysis of congenic strains containing the donor genomic segment from a high- or low-responder ...
In Animal Models of Diabetes: A Primer. Sima AAF, Shafrir E, Eds. Amsterdam, Harwood Academic Publishers,2001 , p.43 -61. ... Cumulative incidence of type 1 diabetes in Idd6 congenic mice. During a 45-week period, N.Idd6 and N.N.Idd6 congenic male and ... By comparing the diabetes protection in our congenic strain with the congenic strains described by Rogner et al. (6), we can ... Moreover, we establish reciprocal Idd6 congenic NOD and B6 strains to formally demonstrate that the Idd6 congenic region ...
... ... congenic mice, we conducted the proper F2 controls and discovered significant differences between these F2 animals and MHC- ... Abstract Background Congenic strains of mice are assumed to differ only at a single gene or region of the genome. These mice ... Conclusions These data suggest that these strains differ for genes other than those in the MHC congenic region. The most likely ...
1.Division of Experimental Animals, Graduate School of MedicineNagoya UniversityNagoyaJapan ... We named this locus Stzds1 (STZ-induced diabetes susceptibility 1). Congenic mapping using the Chr. 11 congenic strains ... Rogner UC, Avner P (2003) Congenic mice: cutting tools for complex immune disorders. Nat Rev Immunol 3:243-252CrossRefPubMed ... 11) congenic strains developed from A/J-11SM to identify a candidate STZ-induced diabetes susceptibility gene. The A/J strain ...
... congenic/subcongenic, and interval-specific congenic (IVSC) processes, and genomic sequences of the target inbred region) they ... Among the animal models of RA that fulfil the above listed criteria from a genetic point of view and that are characterised by ... 3. Significance of Animal Models of RA Human genetic studies are expected to be fast but fairly less reliable because either ... W. B. V. D. Berg, "Lessons from animal models of arthritis over the past decade," Arthritis Research and Therapy, vol. 11, no. ...
... congenic mice, we conducted the proper F2 controls and discovered significant differences between these F2 animals and MHC- ... MHC-congenic strain has been separated from its B10-H-2 b parental strain. During typical experiments with congenic strains, ... These data suggest that these strains differ for genes other than those in the MHC congenic region. The most likely explanation ... Infected P0 MHC q/q congenic homozygotes lost significantly more weight (p = 0.02) and had significantly higher Salmonella (p ...
4.4 Recombinant Congenic Strains. 4.5 Advanced Intercross Lines. 5. Coisogenic, Congenic, and Segregating Inbred Strains. 5.1 ... When a mutant allele or chromosomal aberration is maintained by crossing animals bearing the mutation to an F1 hybrid at every ... 4.4 Recombinant Congenic Strains. Recombinant Congenic (RC) Strains are formed by crossing two inbred strains, followed by a ... 5.2 Congenic Strains. Congenic strains are produced by repeated backcrosses to an inbred (background) strain, with selection ...
5 Coisogenic, Congenic, and Segregating Inbred Strains. 5.1 Coisogenic Strains. 5.2 Congenic Strains. 5.3 Consomic Strains. 5.4 ... Such animals should be designated appropriately, according to the breeding scheme that produced them. 4.1 Recombinant Inbred ... 4.3 Recombinant Congenic Strains. Recombinant Congenic (RC) Strains are formed by crossing two inbred strains, followed by a ... 5.2 Congenic Strains. Congenic strains are produced by repeated backcrosses to an inbred (background) strain, with selection ...
Generation of Backcross Animals. The process was similar to that of creating a congenic strain,5 except that no chromosome ... Animals. Protocols for handling as well as maintaining animals were approved by our institutional animal committee (CIPA). The ... Construction of New Congenic Strains. Congenic strains bear different segments of Lewis chromosomes that are replaced by the ... Manufacture of Congenic Combinations. A congenic strain for 1 chromosome was coalesced with another from a separate chromosome ...
"Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of six new recombinant congenic strains derived from NOD/Shi and CBA/J genomes, ... Life Sciences; Cell Biology; Animal Genetics and Genomics; Human Genetics. ISSN. 0938-8990. eISSN. 1432-1777. D.O.I.. 10.1007/ ... Recombinant Congenic Strains (RCS) represent useful tools for. dissecting complex genetic susceptibilities in mice to such syn- ... Abstract. Recombinant Congenic Strains (RCS) are useful for. dissecting complex polygenic traits. Here, we describe genetic and ...
"A congenic mouse and candidate gene at the Chromosome 13 locus regulating bone density, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the ... Life Sciences; Cell Biology; Animal Genetics and Genomics; Human Genetics. ISSN. 0938-8990. eISSN. 1432-1777. D.O.I.. 10.1007/ ... A congenic mouse and candidate gene at the Chromosome 13 locus regulating bone density. A congenic mouse and candidate gene at ... A congenic mouse and candidate gene at the Chromosome 13 locus regulating bone density. Shimizu, Motoyuki; Higuchi, Keiichi; ...
As such, homozygous animals are embryonic lethal. This allele is engineered to revert to a fully functional ,i,Smn1,/i, allele ... Animal Health Reports. Facility Barrier Level Descriptions Production of mice from cryopreserved embryos or sperm occurs in a ... Also Known As:B6.SmnRes , B6.SmnCOIN , Regeneron hybrid rescue allele C57BL/6J congenic background. The Smn rescue allele (Smn ... As such, homozygous animals are embryonic lethal. This allele is engineered to revert to a fully functional Smn1 allele upon ...
... we have found that there are increased markers of oxidative stress in islet beta cells in prediabetic animals when compared ... Animals. Cell Division. Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1 / metabolism*. Humans. Islets of Langerhans / cytology, physiology*. Mice. ... Mice, Congenic. Mice, Inbred NOD. Oxidative Stress / physiology*. Regeneration / physiology*. Tyrosine / analogs & derivatives ... In a diabetes-resistant NOD congenic mouse, the NOD.Lc7 mouse, we found increased beta cell proliferation and decreased ...
Meinersmann, RJ, Stern, NJ and Blankenship, LC (1990). Antigenic differences in congenic chicken-colonizing and noncolonizing ... Food Animal Health Research Program. , Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. , The Ohio State University. , ... Food Animal Health Research Program. , Ohio Agricultural Research and Development Center. , Department of Veterinary Preventive ... Proceedings of the 82nd Annual Meeting of Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases (CRWAD),St. Louis, Missouri, USA, p ...
Animals. All animal protocols were approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of Washington University at St. ... In our congenic ALS mouse model [B6.Cg-Tg(SOD1G93A)1Gur/J] colony (Wooley et al., 2005), disease onset typically occurs ∼130 d ... 2009) Mechanisms of miRNA-mediated post-transcriptional regulation in animal cells. Curr Opin Cell Biol 21:452-460. doi:10.1016 ... 9C,D). These data suggest that miR-218 release is related to MN dysfunction and death and occurs in both animal and human ...
Some animals began dragging their hindlimbs as early as 4-6 weeks. By 4 months, the rats exhibited abnormal paw positioning and ... Congenic C57BL/6J. The construct was introduced into 129S4/SvJae-derived J1 embryonic stem cells, which were injected into ... The resulting chimeric animals were crossed to generate homozygotes and then backcrossed to C57BL/6J for ,7 generations. PINK1 ... Dragging hind limbs in some animals as early as 4-6 weeks. By 4 months, abnormal paw positioning and a shorter stride. In males ...
... congenic strains explanation free. What is congenic strains? Meaning of congenic strains medical term. What does congenic ... Looking for online definition of congenic strains in the Medical Dictionary? ... congenic strains. congenic strains. Strains of animals, such as rats, that are genetically identical except for a single ... Congenic strains , definition of congenic strains by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
... can deliver a fully congenic colony in only 15 months. ... Between 3Rs: Do New Gene Editing Tools Mean Fewer Animals? ... Congenic Strain Production. Congenic strains are widely used in biomedical research because they reduce genetic variability and ... Congenic strains are identical at all genetic loci except for one; that differing locus is usually the transgene or knock-out ... Utilizing traditional, random backcrossing methods, it takes 10 generations (upwards of 2.5 years) to produce a congenic strain ...
Animals were studied individually using n = 6 animals per group. At 2 weeks, miR-155 was significantly increased (p = 0.0144, ... maintained on a congenic background were used for these studies. ... Samples were pooled from n = 6 animals per group with four ... All research conducted on animals was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Alabama ... 3A,B). In WT mice, we observed a 29.7 ± 6.6% loss of TH+ neurons in WT animals transduced with AAV2-SYN compared with AAV2-GFP ...
ILs in plants and congenic strains in animals) (2). Multiple segregating QTL at the whole-genome level tend to mask the effects ... of such targeted population structures increased the identification power for QTL by several times in both plants and animals ( ...
NZM.C57Lc1 and NZM.C57Lc4 congenic lines were derived by replacing the genetic intervals in NZM2328 with those from C57L/J ( ... fig1: NZM.C57Lc1 and NZM.C57Lc4 congenic lines were derived by replacing the genetic intervals in NZM2328 with those from C57L/ ... fig1: NZM.C57Lc1 and NZM.C57Lc4 congenic lines were derived by replacing the genetic intervals in NZM2328 with those from C57L/ ... In this investigation, two congenic strains, NZM2328.C57L/Jc1 (NZM.C57Lc1) and NZM2328.C57L/Jc4 (NZM.C57Lc4), were generated by ...
Animals. Generation of Tg mice overexpressing 11β-HSD1 under the control of the enhancer-promoter region of the adipocyte fatty ... Mice were FVB congenic strain crosses, WT or hemizygous for the transgene. Unless otherwise indicated, mice were fed a chow ... The Animal Care and Use Committee at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center and Harvard Medical School approved all studies. ... Both animal model studies and clinical investigations have demonstrated that pharmacologic blockade of the RAS by angiotensin I ...
Virulence of congenic serotype A strains in animal models.We showed previously that the aA strain 125.91 is less virulent than ... grubii congenic strains.Congenic strains of serotype D have been invaluable in classical genetic studies of the physiology and ... to generate a congenic pair of a and α mating type serotype A strains (KN99a and KN99α). The production of congenic strains was ... grubii and Virulence of Congenic a and α Isolates. Kirsten Nielsen, Gary M. Cox, Ping Wang, Dena L. Toffaletti, John R. Perfect ...
Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug ... Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug ... Bryant, C. D., Kole, L. A., Guido, M. A., Sokoloff, G., and Palmer, A. A. (2012). Congenic dissection of major QTL for ... Initially animals were reinforced with a 0.2% saccharin solution on a fixed ratio 1 (FR1) schedule (animals gained access to ...
  • This would be expected based on the fact that the congenic CBA.B6 mice genotypes included the mutant Ahl locus. (cdc.gov)
  • Infection-dependent phenotypes in MHC-congenic mice are not due to MHC: can we trust congenic animals? (journaldatabase.info)
  • Abstract Background Congenic strains of mice are assumed to differ only at a single gene or region of the genome. (journaldatabase.info)
  • During coinfection studies with Salmonella typhimurium and Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) in major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-congenic mice, we conducted the proper F2 controls and discovered significant differences between these F2 animals and MHC-genotype-matched P0 and F1 animals in weight gain and pathogen load. (journaldatabase.info)
  • Animal studies on rats and mice preferentially have used single sequence length polymorphism (SSLP) markers to identify disease-associated qualitative and quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in the genome of F2 hybrids of arthritis-susceptible and arthritis-resistant rodent strains. (hindawi.com)
  • It is assumed that knockout, transgenic or other congenic strains of mice are identical at all loci or genomic regions except the one being studied. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we showed that housing Mx1 congenic mice in low relative humidity makes mice more susceptible to severe disease following respiratory challenge with influenza A virus. (pnas.org)
  • In brain slice explants, oxygen deprivation (OD) activated apoptotic pathways and increased neuronal cell death in IL-21 receptor-deficient (IL-21R-deficient) mice compared with control animals. (jci.org)
  • Congenic Mice: What's in a Name? (taconic.com)
  • There are a wide variety of animal models used in drug discovery including, but not limited to Drosophila, C. elegans , mice, rats, rabbits, dogs, cats and non-human primates. (taconic.com)
  • For these reasons and others 95% of all animal studies use mice. (taconic.com)
  • a-c ) Flow cytometric analysis of d8 post-sheep red blood cell (SRBC) immunized mice showing the frequency of PD1 high CXCR5 high Tfh cells from total CD4 + T cells ( a ), GL7 high FAS high germinal center (GC) B cells from total B220 + B cells in the spleen ( b ) compared to phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) injected control animals. (elifesciences.org)
  • Centimorgan-range one-step mapping of fertility traits using interspecific recombinant congenic mice. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The study was conducted in congenic mice that were naturally lean and later in mice that had PRCP removed. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Introduction of an Ly108-H1-expressing transgene markedly diminishes T cell-dependent autoimmunity in congenic B6.Sle1b mice. (rupress.org)
  • In this study, we use gene-targeted mutant and congenic mice in combination with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-based transgenic mice to provide evidence that Ly108 is involved in the regulation of SLE in a CD4 + T cell-dependent manner. (rupress.org)
  • Genetic models we use include selectively bred mouse lines, panels of inbred strains, transgenic mice, knockout mice, recombinant inbred strains, and congenic strains. (ohsu.edu)
  • 1994 - Contracted with National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease to maintain a repository of inbred, congenic, and transgenic mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have mapped three loci involved in outcome to this infection and have generated mice reciprocally congenic for these loci on several strains of mouse. (imgs.org)
  • Analysis of the ability of red cells from congenic mice to sustain the growth of the parasite has been compared to wildtype using a novel comparative in vivo parasite survival assay. (imgs.org)
  • Mice congenic for the lmr2 locus demonstrate a curious effect where the origin of the animal receiving the red cells modulates the effect of the red cells. (imgs.org)
  • Leptin normally holds NPY levels in check, and mice with an effective lack of leptin may lack the inhibitory regulation present in normal animals. (physiology.org)
  • The aim of this study was to narrow the Fl1sa region by genetic dissection using novel congenic mice and to identify candidate genes within the narrowed Fl1sa region. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this study, using congenic mice analysis, we narrowed the chromosomal region containing Fl1sa to two regions of mouse chromosome 12. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Intercross of Bcl2l2 +/− mice on a mixed C57BL/6J, 129S5 background produces Bcl2l2 −/− animals with the expected frequency. (g3journal.org)
  • In contrast, intercross of Bcl2l2 +/− mice on a congenic C57BL/6J background produces relatively few live-born Bcl2l2 −/− animals. (g3journal.org)
  • Although echocardiography revealed signs of cardiac hypertrophy in all obese mice, the increase in left ventricular (LV) mass and diameter was significantly more pronounced in LepR S1138 animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Congenic mice that were genetically deficient in B cells and antibody (μMT mice) developed increased CNS viral burdens and were vulnerable to lethal infection at low doses of virus. (asm.org)
  • a ) ABR thresholds at click (orange), 8 (green), 16 (purple) and 32 kHz (red) of congenic BLSW.CAST- +/ahl5 (n =83) and BLSW.CAST- ahl5/ahl5 ( n =59) mice at 8 weeks of age. (nih.gov)
  • To fine map QTL on distal mouse chromosome 2 a total of 1,712 F2 mice from the five subcongenic strains, plus 278 F2 mice from the HG2D founder congenic strain were phenotyped and analyzed. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Preclinical animal models, such as mice and rats that are used to predict drug efficacy and toxicity in humans, are needed. (marketsandmarkets.com)
  • The safety profile and efficacy of this approach in preclinical animal models of T1D, including non-obese diabetic (NOD), BDC2.5 transgenic, and humanized mice, have been extensively investigated, and will be the focus of this review. (soc-bdr.org)
  • To further reduce the list of candidate variants, we regenotyped an overlapping SS-13 SR congenic strain (S/ren rr ) with a previously reported BP phenotype. (ahajournals.org)
  • 2 Causative variant(s) can be further isolated by fixing portions of the QTL from 1 parental strain (donor) on the background of the other (recipient) to form a congenic strain. (ahajournals.org)
  • 12 Another SS-13 SR congenic strain showed that the SR Renin allele only reduced BP when downstream regions of the SR genome were present, 5 suggesting that other variant(s) downstream of Renin likely contribute to BP. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the congenic C57BL/6J strain, the Ahl locus has been replaced by the wild-type locus from the inbred CBA/CaJ strain (strain B6.CBA). (cdc.gov)
  • In the congenic CBA/CaJ strain the wild-type locus has been replaced by the mutant Ahl locus (strain CBA.B6). (cdc.gov)
  • We used congenic mapping to refine Candq1 and its candidate genes to create an isogenic strain set with large differences in collateral extent to assess their impact and the impact of Candq1 , alone, on ischemic injury. (ahajournals.org)
  • Dce1 ), demonstrated that genetic background-dependent variation in collaterals is a major factor underlying differences in ischemic tissue injury, and generated a congenic strain set with wide allele dose-dependent variation in collateral extent for use in investigations of the collateral circulation. (ahajournals.org)
  • A: B6.B6D2-Tg(CAG-GFP/LC3)53NmzRbrc (RBRC00806), a donor strain in the C57BL/6JJcl to generate other three congenic lines. (riken.jp)
  • RI analysis identified four suggestive loci contributing to the LPS response, two of which were confirmed by analysis of congenic strains containing the donor genomic segment from a high- or low-responder strain on the opposite background. (nih.gov)
  • The most likely explanation is that deleterious recessive mutations affecting response to infection have accumulated in the more than 40 years that this B10.Q-H-2q MHC-congenic strain has been separated from its B10-H-2b parental strain. (journaldatabase.info)
  • Utilizing traditional, random backcrossing methods, it takes 10 generations (upwards of 2.5 years) to produce a congenic strain. (criver.com)
  • In this investigation, two congenic strains, NZM2328.C57L/Jc1 (NZM.C57Lc1) and NZM2328.C57L/Jc4 (NZM.C57Lc4), were generated by replacing the respective genetic intervals containing either Cgnz1 or Adnz1 with those from C57L/J, a nonlupus-prone strain. (nih.gov)
  • Thus one homozygous strain can be spoken of as being congenic to another. (academic.ru)
  • congenic - Relating to an inbred strain of animals produced by repeated crossing of one gene line onto another inbred (isogenic) line. (academic.ru)
  • Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats, and rats from an SHR congenic strain that contains a WKY chromosome 1 segment spanning the BP QTL region (SHR. (physiology.org)
  • Since, genetically, a congenic strain only differs from the respective parental for the introgressed segment, it provides a powerful resource to investigate the functional and physiological disturbances associated with the QTL's effect on the primary phenotype, BP in this case. (physiology.org)
  • SHR and WKY progenitor strains and a SHR congenic strain (SHR. (physiology.org)
  • Each congenic strain carries BN alleles spanning an individual Emca locus, introgressed onto the ACI genetic background. (g3journal.org)
  • A water maze was used to compare learning in congenic strain segregating for the quinky gene. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Despite strong genomic similarities (95-99 %) among congenics, each strain exhibited specific patterns of gene expression and metabotypes, reflecting the metabolic consequences of series of linked genetic polymorphisms in the congenic intervals. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Subsequent BP linkage and congenic studies capturing different portions of the renin region have returned conflicting results, suggesting that multiple interdependent BP loci may be residing in the chromosome 13 BP quantitative trait locus that includes Renin . (ahajournals.org)
  • With the aid of Idd6 congenic strains, the Idd6 locus has previously been localized to a 4-cM region on distal chromosome 6 ( 6 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 11 congenic strains indicated that the Stzds1 locus was located between D11Mit163 (27.72 Mb) and D11Mit51 (36.39 Mb). (springer.com)
  • Congenic - In genetics, two organisms that differ in one locus are defined as congenic[1] or coisogenic. (academic.ru)
  • The ADRA2A locus is associated with impaired insulin granule docking and reduced [beta]-cell exocytosis in congenic GK (Goto-Kakizaki) rats (65). (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In one case, a congenic animal carrying a locus predicted to encode susceptibility was much more resistant than even the "resistant" animal. (imgs.org)
  • We used SS-13 BN congenic strains to map 2 BP loci in the Renin region (chr13: 45.2-49.0 Mb). (ahajournals.org)
  • In particular, the construction of congenic strains has enabled the identification of closely linked loci that separately predispose to type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Although the Idd1 ( 10 - 12 ), Idd3 ( 13 ), and Idd4 ( 14 ) loci have been shown to have a major impact on the development of type 1 diabetes, studies of congenic strains have shown that other Idd loci exhibit a relatively moderate protective effect ( 8 , 9 , 15 , 16 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • On the other hand, using the congenic approach to identify the biological functions underlying the diabetogenic effect of the individual Idd loci has proven difficult. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • A panel of unique congenic rat strains has now been generated and characterized to confirm the existence of these quantitative trait loci, designated Emca3 through Emca9 , and to quantify their individual effects on susceptibility to 17β-estradiol−induced mammary cancer. (g3journal.org)
  • We previously reported in male animals the presence of 2 major quantitative trait loci (QTLs) on chromosome 1 that together accounted for most of the difference in the blood pressure (BP) response to salt loading between Sabra hypertension-prone rats (SBH/y) and Sabra hypertension-resistant rats (SBN/y). (ahajournals.org)
  • On the basis of these findings and until congenic strains become available, our working assumption is that within chromosome X, 1 to 3 genetic loci contribute importantly to the BP response of female Sabra rats to salt. (ahajournals.org)
  • We subsequently used the congenic panel to map quantitative trait loci underlying specific mQTLs and genome-wide eQTLs. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This presentation will compare ABR results in the two congenic strains as well as compare the present data with the previous inbred C57BL/6J and CBA/CaJ data. (cdc.gov)
  • Thus, to further study MMU2, congenic strains were developed by introgressing CAST/EiJ segments into the backgrounds of HG and C57BL/6J (B6) to fine map QTL identified by Corva et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Based upon the clinical, immunological, and genetic components, the most appropriate animal models for RA seem to be (i) those that use genetically controlled systemic autoimmune joint diseases, (ii) those in which the MHC (class II molecules) plays a crucial role, (iii) those in which both T and B cells are involved, and (iv) those that apply (auto)antigenic molecules of cartilage or joint tissues for provoking ("targeting") synovial joint inflammation. (hindawi.com)
  • Strains of animals, such as rats, that are genetically identical except for a single chromosome segment. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • However, many inbred and congenic strains were based on observed spontaneous mutations. (cdc.gov)
  • Two Civq1 congenic lines, C.B6- Civq1-6 and C.B6- Civq1-7 , carry segments of B6 chromosome 7 introgressed into the BALB/c background. (jci.org)
  • Reciprocal congenic lines for a major stroke QTL on rat chromosome 1. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Apart from linkage of chromosome 1 markers to BP phenotypes in several crosses of hypertensive and normotensive rats ( 9 , 12 , 13 , 16 , 27 ), more recent work has confirmed the existence of several BP QTLs on chromosome 1 by their capture in congenic strains ( 3 , 10 , 14 , 25 , 28 ). (physiology.org)
  • Studies of human systemic lupus erythematosus patients and of murine congenic mouse strains associate genes in a DNA segment on chromosome 1 with a genetic predisposition for this disease. (rupress.org)
  • Another congenic, for the char3 region on chromosome 17 displays a more resistant phenotype, despite the donor region coming from a susceptible animal. (imgs.org)
  • In the present study we used the high growth ( hg ) mouse mutant model in combination with chromosome 2 (MMU2) congenic and subcongenic strains to map genes that affect body composition, and genes that may interact with the Growth Hormone/IGF signaling pathways [ 5 - 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • 2 , 3 Although this assumption follows statistical calculations well, the actual biological impact of BP QTLs, in reality and functionally, acts according to modularity rather than accumulatively aggregating independent individual units when experimentally combined in an animal model, the hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive rats (DSS). (ahajournals.org)
  • Congenic removal of a QTL for blood pressure attenuates infarct size produced by middle cerebral artery occlusion in hypertensive rats. (semanticscholar.org)
  • By reciprocal transfer of the relevant region between SHR and WKY rats through more than 10 marker selected back-crosses, we have captured and confirmed the existence of the QTL in congenic strains ( 3 ). (physiology.org)
  • 1969 - Began offering rats, including Sprague Dawley, one of the most popular breeds of laboratory rat 1969 - Taconic was the first breeder to receive full accreditation from the American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animals 1970 - Contracted to provide the National Institutes of Health with Sprague Dawley rats. (wikipedia.org)
  • We used systematic metabotyping by 1 H NMR spectroscopy and genome-wide gene expression in white adipose tissue to map molecular phenotypes to genomic blocks associated with obesity and insulin secretion in a series of rat congenic strains derived from spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) and normoglycemic Brown-Norway (BN) rats. (beds.ac.uk)
  • During typical experiments with congenic strains, the phenotypes of these accumulated mutations will be falsely ascribed to the congenic gene(s). (journaldatabase.info)
  • We recently utilized the services of the OHSU transgenic core to replace a mutated gene with the common form of the same and demonstrated reversal of several methamphetamine-related phenotypes in animals with this single gene change. (ohsu.edu)
  • These congenic animals have phenotypes different from their wildtype parents. (imgs.org)
  • Genotypic and phenotypic characterization of six new recombinant congenic strains derived from. (deepdyve.com)
  • Leiter, Edward H. 1999-02-01 00:00:00 Recombinant Congenic Strains (RCS) are useful for dissecting complex polygenic traits. (deepdyve.com)
  • Recombinant congenic inbred strains involved the separation of the unlinked components of a multigene trait into inbred strains. (cdc.gov)
  • Susceptibility to noise-induced hearing loss in two congenic mouse strains. (cdc.gov)
  • The establishment of congenic strains has proven invaluable in defining narrow genetic intervals containing genetic susceptibility factors. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 11) congenic strains developed from A/J-11 SM to identify a candidate STZ-induced diabetes susceptibility gene. (springer.com)
  • This study further establishes the relevance of the ACI and derived congenic rat models of 17β-estradiol−induced mammary cancer for defining the genetic bases of breast cancer susceptibility and elucidating the mechanisms through which 17β-estradiol contributes to breast cancer development. (g3journal.org)
  • Notably, each of these congenic strains also carried substantial amounts of undefined congenic interval owing to the limited availability of genotype markers at the time. (ahajournals.org)
  • The easiest way to test for phenotypic differences that are not due to the known congenic differences is to compare F 2 animals to their genotype matched P 0 and F 1 counterparts. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Conclusions These data suggest that these strains differ for genes other than those in the MHC congenic region. (journaldatabase.info)
  • interval-specific congenic strains) to narrow relatively large QTL intervals to regions of less than 1 centiMorgan (cM) containing only a few genes. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Thus, although the Slamf -haplotype 2 segment in the congenic Sle1b mouse contains circa 20 genes, the Ly108-H1 isoform plays a dominant role in suppressing the pathogenesis of SLE. (rupress.org)
  • Moreover, we establish reciprocal Idd6 congenic NOD and B6 strains to formally demonstrate that the Idd6 congenic region mediates restoration of the apoptosis resistance phenotype. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Congenic strains are widely used in biomedical research because they reduce genetic variability and provide insight into the contribution of genetic background to phenotype. (criver.com)
  • As such, homozygous animals are embryonic lethal. (jax.org)
  • 11] when homozygous blue and nonblue congenic lines were extracted from each [F. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The two QTL reside in different congenic strains with significant total fat differences between homozygous cast/cast and b6/b6 littermates. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Taconic Biosciences is a breeder and supplier of laboratory animals operating in over 50 countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • https://globenewswire.com/news-release/2019/01/31/1708517/0/en/Nancy-J-Sandy-Appointed-Chief-Executive-Officer-of-Taconic-Biosciences.html Taconic Biosciences. (wikipedia.org)
  • The increasing prevalence of these diseases in the human population makes the genetic and phenotypic characterizations of these mutant animals a leading area of interest in the biomedical community. (physiology.org)
  • 6 - 10 Although the hypertensive Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) Renin allele cosegregated with elevated BP by linkage, 6 - 10 the same has not been true for congenic strains that captured portions of the Renin QTL. (ahajournals.org)
  • For example, BP was unexpectedly elevated by a congenic interval containing the normotensive Dahl R (SR) Renin allele on the SS background, 11 whereas a reverse congenic (SS Renin on an SR background) surprisingly decreased BP. (ahajournals.org)
  • Hypertensive animal models are widely appreciated as potent tools for comprehending the pathogenesis of essential hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Virulence tests with rabbit and murine models of cryptococcal meningitis showed that the serotype A congenic a and alpha mating type strains had equivalent virulence in animal models, in contrast to previous studies linking the alpha mating type to increased virulence in congenic serotype D strains. (nih.gov)
  • As a consequence, there are many experimental animal models attempting to mimic the multiple clinical symptoms of RA. (hindawi.com)
  • While the various animal models are tremendously helpful for investigating certain aspects of the human disease, none of these models recreates the full spectrum of diseases collectively called RA. (hindawi.com)
  • Notably, thousands of investigators and pharmaceutical companies use animal models of RA, perhaps without understanding the differences among the different subtypes of this disease and the corresponding animal models [ 2 - 5 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • In comparison, normotensive animals, beyond their usefulness as controls for hypertensive models, have received little recognition capable of unmasking critical mechanisms that can prevent hypertension. (ahajournals.org)
  • Compared to human populations, genetic animal models offer the advantages of control over genetic family history and drug exposure. (frontiersin.org)
  • The use of animal models in research resulted in the advancement of knowledge for how diseases affect animals and humans. (taconic.com)
  • Early identification of drugs that will fail testing in higher level animal models or clinical trials, lowers the over-all cost of drug development. (taconic.com)
  • The FDA relies on data generated from animal models to assess efficacy and safety of new drug entities. (taconic.com)
  • This new edition of Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research describes historical and recent advances in our understanding of the cardiovascular system from studies conducted in a variety of animal models. (google.com)
  • This third edition is designed to provide a better basis for understanding and using animal models in the current climate of background knowledge and information. (google.com)
  • Focusing on comparisons and usefulness of the animal models, the chapters describe a variety of research avenues, such as modeling cognitive and degenerative disorders in fruit flies, congenic mouse strains for candidate disease gene identification in complex traits, nonhuman primate models for AIDS, and animal models of prostate cancer. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our research utilizes genetic animal models to study simple and complex addiction-related traits. (ohsu.edu)
  • in other words, of animal models for investigation, in our laboratory," says José Eduardo Krieger, full professor of molecular medicine at USP. (fapesp.br)
  • Animal models have elucidated the cellular pathological sequelae of specific inner ear insults [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • A discussion of the application of animal models to the study of the effects of heredity on the human response to chemicals was presented in this paper. (cdc.gov)
  • The authors conclude that animal models are extremely helpful in the study of the human response to chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • These animal models have been able to recapitulate many aspects of human HIVAN. (asnjournals.org)
  • A summary of the HIVAN animal models discussed is shown in Table 1 . (asnjournals.org)
  • Importantly, selective inhibition of this enzyme reduces adenocarcinoma formation and cancer progression in preclinical animal models ( 6 -8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Studies with specific inhibitors of COX-2 enzyme have shown significant effects in reducing the incidence and progression of tumors in both animal models and in treatment of cancer patients ( 6 -8 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Animal experimentation and the models by which it is conducted are a core component of the Preclinical Translational Research Unit's work. (duke.edu)
  • Animal models are the primary mode of research responsible for translating preclinical project work into successful clinical trials, which is why they are a focus of our unit. (duke.edu)
  • We work to create animal models that minimize the consumption of resources, especially time and money, without allowing for any compromise in the integrity of our data or their reproducibility. (duke.edu)
  • By continually striving to uphold these standards while continually striving to assess and improve our animal models we ensure that we consistently deliver optimum results and solutions. (duke.edu)
  • NZM.C57Lc1 and NZM.C57Lc4 congenic lines were derived by replacing the genetic intervals in NZM2328 with those from C57L/J (hatched bars). (nih.gov)
  • By selectively breeding individuals containing more of the recipient genome from each generation, our speed congenics program, Marker-Assisted Accelerated Backcrossing (MAX-BAX ® ), can deliver a fully congenic colony in only 15 months. (criver.com)
  • Recently, Johnson has developed two relevant congenic mouse strains. (cdc.gov)
  • In the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse model of type 1 diabetes, we have found that there are increased markers of oxidative stress in islet beta cells in prediabetic animals when compared with control strains. (biomedsearch.com)
  • In a diabetes-resistant NOD congenic mouse, the NOD.Lc7 mouse, we found increased beta cell proliferation and decreased apoptosis in islets. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The systematic analysis of lupus-prone congenic mouse strains suggests a role for two isoforms of the Ly108 receptor in the pathogenesis of the disease. (rupress.org)
  • In the lupus-prone congenic mouse strains, B6.Sle1b ( Sle1b ) and B6.129chr1b , DNA segments derived from NZW or 129 , respectively, are embedded in the B6 genome. (rupress.org)
  • For more information about some of the latest developments in animal modeling at Duke visit the Duke Transgenic Mouse facility . (duke.edu)
  • Refined genotyping of two congenic lines 10.R and 10.2 delimited the ahl5 critical interval in a 2.19 Mbp region (red box) defined by markers D10Ntra205 and D10Ntra222 . (nih.gov)
  • Blue bars at the bottom of the map represent the congenic segments from CAST/EiJ introgressed onto the BLSW genetic background (red lines). (nih.gov)
  • 2011. Single nucleotide polymorphism analysis of chicken genetic resources: Variation within and among MHC-congenic lines and mapping of developmental mutations. (ucdavis.edu)
  • By use of an inbred recurrent line with backcrossing and selection in single-family replicate lines, these lines will become congenic to the recurrent parent, except for QTL of large effect and closely linked regions of the genome. (imgs.org)
  • Thus, when phenotypic differences are detected they are usually attributed to the congenic region without testing (controlling) for the possibility of genetic divergence between strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Analysis of the Idd6 congenic strains indicates that a 3-cM chromosomal region located within the distal part of the Idd6 region controls apoptosis resistance in NOD immature thymocytes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Animal studies may help to fill the gaps in human genome-wide association studies (GWAS) by allowing for gene mapping and functional studies, which cannot be performed in human patients and may yield greater insights into the mechanisms of autoimmune T and B cell responses in RA [ 2 - 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • The effect is demonstrated in more than one animal species expected to react with a response predictive for humans, unless the effect is demonstrated in a single animal species that represents a sufficiently well-characterized animal model for predicting the response in humans. (taconic.com)
  • The animal study endpoint is clearly related to the desired benefit in humans, generally the enhancement of survival or prevention of major morbidity. (taconic.com)
  • The data or information on the kinetics and pharmacodynamics of the product or other relevant data or information, in animals and humans, allows selection of an effective dose in humans. (taconic.com)
  • Toxoplasma gondii is an extremely widespread intracellular protozoan parasite that establishes long-lasting infection in humans and animals. (plos.org)
  • WNV is maintained in a natural cycle between mosquitoes and birds but also infects humans, horses, and other animals. (asm.org)
  • The molecular basis of WNV infection in humans and other animals is not clearly established. (asm.org)
  • Background Flt3-ligand is a cytokine that induces relatively slow mobilization of hematopoietic cells in animals and humans in vivo . (haematologica.org)
  • Alone, or in combination with other growth factors, FL stimulates the proliferation of highly enriched human and murine HSC in vitro and leads to expansion and mobilization of progenitor cells in animals and humans in vitro . (haematologica.org)
  • Migration of transferred cells has been studied mainly by tissue biopsies in humans or harvesting organs in animals to determine the presence of donor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • There are three principal sources of genetic variation that could cause congenic strains to diverge: 1) residual heterozygosity may remain after the construction of the strains, 2) poor animal husbandry could lead to contamination of the strains, and 3) new mutations could become fixed in the strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Having a high homozygosity rate is problematic for a population because it will unmask recessive deleterious alleles generated by mutations, reduce heterozygote advantage, and it is detrimental to the survival of small, endangered animal populations. (wikipedia.org)
  • Such a test will help to establish which animal behavioral traits are most relevant to human alcoholism. (bio.net)
  • Practical training takes place on the animal and includes handling, measurement of physiological basic data, marking, section and killing methods. (uni-heidelberg.de)
  • We and others have shown that systemic administration of agonistic antibodies to OX40 (αOX40) can replace the absence of OX40L within tumor-bearing hosts and leads to a significant increase in survival of tumor-bearing animals ( 19 , 20 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • We established two congenic strains, R2 and R3, from parental A/J-12 SM and A/J strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We found that liver triglyceride accumulation is inversely correlated with epididymal fat weight among the parental and congenic strains. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Together, these 2 congenic strains cover the entire candidate region of Civq1 . (jci.org)
  • The genetic backgrounds of these strains were examined using simple sequence length polymorphism markers to assess congenic status. (riken.jp)
  • Thus bilaterally nephrectomized SHR × WKY F1 animals that receive a kidney from the SHR develop a BP that is significantly greater than that of animals that receive a kidney from the WKY rat, even when the SHR donor is young (prehypertensive) or has been pretreated since weaning with anti-hypertensive drugs to prevent secondary effects due to renal damage ( 21 ). (physiology.org)
  • Although, accumulating evidence suggests that congenic strains suffer genetic divergence that could compromise interpretation of experimental results, this problem is usually ignored. (journaldatabase.info)
  • Using experimental allergic encephalo myelitis (EAE), an animal model of multiple sclerosis, we demonstrate that the cannabinoid system is neuroprotective during EAE. (420magazine.com)
  • At the coastal site on Assateague Island, B. burgdorferi was isolated from 4.2% of 475 animals sampled, including four species of small mammals. (ajtmh.org)
  • Six congenic strains possessing portions of Candq1 introgressed from B6 into Bc were generated and phenotyped. (ahajournals.org)
  • The Foundation for Biomedical Research website has a table listing the animals behind top drugs and a comprehensive summary of how animal testing and research has advanced human health. (taconic.com)
  • The use of animals in biomedical research dates back to approximately the 6th-5th century BC with more prominent references in the writings of Aristotle, Diocles, Praxagoras in the 4th century BC and Erasistratus and Herophilus in the 4th-3rd century BC 1 . (taconic.com)