Animals, Congenic: Animals that are produced through selective breeding to eliminate genetic background differences except for a single or few specific loci. They are used to investigate the contribution of genetic background differences to PHENOTYPE.Mice, Congenic: Mouse strains constructed to possess identical genotypes except for a difference at a single gene locus.Chromosomes, Mammalian: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of MAMMALS.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Quantitative Trait Loci: Genetic loci associated with a QUANTITATIVE TRAIT.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Mice, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.Mice, Inbred C57BLRats, Inbred Dahl: Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.Rats, Inbred BNH-2 Antigens: The major group of transplantation antigens in the mouse.Mice, Inbred NOD: A strain of non-obese diabetic mice developed in Japan that has been widely studied as a model for T-cell-dependent autoimmune insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in which insulitis is a major histopathologic feature, and in which genetic susceptibility is strongly MHC-linked.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Major Histocompatibility Complex: The genetic region which contains the loci of genes which determine the structure of the serologically defined (SD) and lymphocyte-defined (LD) TRANSPLANTATION ANTIGENS, genes which control the structure of the IMMUNE RESPONSE-ASSOCIATED ANTIGENS, HUMAN; the IMMUNE RESPONSE GENES which control the ability of an animal to respond immunologically to antigenic stimuli, and genes which determine the structure and/or level of the first four components of complement.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Mice, Inbred BALB CMice, Inbred DBASpecies Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Genetic Markers: A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.Mice, Inbred C3HAlleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Mice, Inbred ADisease Susceptibility: A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.Spleen: An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.Mice, Inbred NZBMice, Inbred AKRDisease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Quantitative Trait, Heritable: A characteristic showing quantitative inheritance such as SKIN PIGMENTATION in humans. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Rats, Mutant Strains: Rats bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Rats, Inbred LewImmunoglobulin Allotypes: Allelic variants of the immunoglobulin light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) or heavy chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) encoded by ALLELES of IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES.Mice, Mutant Strains: Mice bearing mutant genes which are phenotypically expressed in the animals.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Histocompatibility Antigens: A group of antigens that includes both the major and minor histocompatibility antigens. The former are genetically determined by the major histocompatibility complex. They determine tissue type for transplantation and cause allograft rejections. The latter are systems of allelic alloantigens that can cause weak transplant rejection.Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1: A subtype of DIABETES MELLITUS that is characterized by INSULIN deficiency. It is manifested by the sudden onset of severe HYPERGLYCEMIA, rapid progression to DIABETIC KETOACIDOSIS, and DEATH unless treated with insulin. The disease may occur at any age, but is most common in childhood or adolescence.Genes, MHC Class II: Genetic loci in the vertebrate major histocompatibility complex that encode polymorphic products which control the immune response to specific antigens. The genes are found in the HLA-D region in humans and in the I region in mice.T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Epistasis, Genetic: A form of gene interaction whereby the expression of one gene interferes with or masks the expression of a different gene or genes. Genes whose expression interferes with or masks the effects of other genes are said to be epistatic to the effected genes. Genes whose expression is affected (blocked or masked) are hypostatic to the interfering genes.Chromosomes: In a prokaryotic cell or in the nucleus of a eukaryotic cell, a structure consisting of or containing DNA which carries the genetic information essential to the cell. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Sialadenitis: INFLAMMATION of salivary tissue (SALIVARY GLANDS), usually due to INFECTION or injuries.Inbreeding: The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.Genetic Loci: Specific regions that are mapped within a GENOME. Genetic loci are usually identified with a shorthand notation that indicates the chromosome number and the position of a specific band along the P or Q arm of the chromosome where they are found. For example the locus 6p21 is found within band 21 of the P-arm of CHROMOSOME 6. Many well known genetic loci are also known by common names that are associated with a genetic function or HEREDITARY DISEASE.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Immunity, Innate: The capacity of a normal organism to remain unaffected by microorganisms and their toxins. It results from the presence of naturally occurring ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS, constitutional factors such as BODY TEMPERATURE and immediate acting immune cells such as NATURAL KILLER CELLS.Complement C5: C5 plays a central role in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C5 is cleaved by C5 CONVERTASE into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. The smaller fragment C5a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of inflammatory process. The major fragment C5b binds to the membrane initiating the spontaneous assembly of the late complement components, C5-C9, into the MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.AKR murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) isolated from spontaneous leukemia in AKR strain mice.Mice, Inbred CBARadiation Chimera: An organism whose body contains cell populations of different genotypes as a result of the TRANSPLANTATION of donor cells after sufficient ionizing radiation to destroy the mature recipient's cells which would otherwise reject the donor cells.Autoimmune Diseases: Disorders that are characterized by the production of antibodies that react with host tissues or immune effector cells that are autoreactive to endogenous peptides.Organogold Compounds: Organic compounds that contain GOLD as an integral part of the molecule. Some are used as ANTIRHEUMATIC AGENTS. The term chrysotherapy derives from an ancient Greek term for gold.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Dimercaprol: An anti-gas warfare agent that is effective against Lewisite (dichloro(2-chlorovinyl)arsine) and formerly known as British Anti-Lewisite or BAL. It acts as a chelating agent and is used in the treatment of arsenic, gold, and other heavy metal poisoning.Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic: A chronic, relapsing, inflammatory, and often febrile multisystemic disorder of connective tissue, characterized principally by involvement of the skin, joints, kidneys, and serosal membranes. It is of unknown etiology, but is thought to represent a failure of the regulatory mechanisms of the autoimmune system. The disease is marked by a wide range of system dysfunctions, an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and the formation of LE cells in the blood or bone marrow.Antigens, Ly: A group of lymphocyte surface antigens located on mouse LYMPHOCYTES. Specific Ly antigens are useful markers for distinguishing subpopulations of lymphocytes.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Rats, Inbred OLETF: An inbred strain of Long-Evans rats that develops hyperglycemia, hyperinsulinemia, and mild obesity, mostly in males, that resembles non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in humans. It was developed from outbred Long-Evans stock in 1983.Antigenic Modulation: Loss of detectable antigen from the surface of a cell after incubation with antibodies. This is one method in which some tumors escape detection by the immune system. Antigenic modulation of target antigens also reduces the therapeutic effectiveness of treatment by monoclonal antibodies.Bone Marrow Transplantation: The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.Mice, Inbred MRL lpr: A mouse substrain that is genetically predisposed to the development of systemic lupus erythematosus-like syndrome, which has been found to be clinically similar to the human disease. It has been determined that this mouse strain carries a mutation in the fas gene. Also, the MRL/lpr is a useful model to study behavioral and cognitive deficits found in autoimmune diseases and the efficacy of immunosuppressive agents.Rats, Inbred BB: A strain of Rattus norvegicus which is a model for spontaneous insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, INSULIN-DEPENDENT).Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Lupus Nephritis: Glomerulonephritis associated with autoimmune disease SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Lupus nephritis is histologically classified into 6 classes: class I - normal glomeruli, class II - pure mesangial alterations, class III - focal segmental glomerulonephritis, class IV - diffuse glomerulonephritis, class V - diffuse membranous glomerulonephritis, and class VI - advanced sclerosing glomerulonephritis (The World Health Organization classification 1982).Chorioretinitis: Inflammation of the choroid in which the sensory retina becomes edematous and opaque. The inflammatory cells and exudate may burst through the sensory retina to cloud the vitreous body.Lymphocyte Activation: Morphologic alteration of small B LYMPHOCYTES or T LYMPHOCYTES in culture into large blast-like cells able to synthesize DNA and RNA and to divide mitotically. It is induced by INTERLEUKINS; MITOGENS such as PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS, and by specific ANTIGENS. It may also occur in vivo as in GRAFT REJECTION.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Homozygote: An individual in which both alleles at a given locus are identical.Antigens, Thy-1: A group of differentiation surface antigens, among the first to be discovered on thymocytes and T-lymphocytes. Originally identified in the mouse, they are also found in other species including humans, and are expressed on brain neurons and other cells.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Microsatellite Repeats: A variety of simple repeat sequences that are distributed throughout the GENOME. They are characterized by a short repeat unit of 2-8 basepairs that is repeated up to 100 times. They are also known as short tandem repeats (STRs).Rats, Transgenic: Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.Mice, 129 Strain: Strains of mice arising from a parental inbred stock that was subsequently used to produce substrains of knockout and other mutant mice with targeted mutations.Radiation Hybrid Mapping: A method for ordering genetic loci along CHROMOSOMES. The method involves fusing irradiated donor cells with host cells from another species. Following cell fusion, fragments of DNA from the irradiated cells become integrated into the chromosomes of the host cells. Molecular probing of DNA obtained from the fused cells is used to determine if two or more genetic loci are located within the same fragment of donor cell DNA.Hybridization, Genetic: The genetic process of crossbreeding between genetically dissimilar parents to produce a hybrid.B-Lymphocytes: Lymphoid cells concerned with humoral immunity. They are short-lived cells resembling bursa-derived lymphocytes of birds in their production of immunoglobulin upon appropriate stimulation.Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Aminobiphenyl Compounds: Biphenyl compounds substituted in any position by one or more amino groups. Permitted are any substituents except fused rings.Autoimmunity: Process whereby the immune system reacts against the body's own tissues. Autoimmunity may produce or be caused by AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Arthritis, Experimental: ARTHRITIS that is induced in experimental animals. Immunological methods and infectious agents can be used to develop experimental arthritis models. These methods include injections of stimulators of the immune response, such as an adjuvant (ADJUVANTS, IMMUNOLOGIC) or COLLAGEN.Antibody Formation: The production of ANTIBODIES by proliferating and differentiated B-LYMPHOCYTES under stimulation by ANTIGENS.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Immune Tolerance: The specific failure of a normally responsive individual to make an immune response to a known antigen. It results from previous contact with the antigen by an immunologically immature individual (fetus or neonate) or by an adult exposed to extreme high-dose or low-dose antigen, or by exposure to radiation, antimetabolites, antilymphocytic serum, etc.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Friend murine leukemia virus: A strain of Murine leukemia virus (LEUKEMIA VIRUS, MURINE) producing leukemia of the reticulum-cell type with massive infiltration of liver, spleen, and bone marrow. It infects DBA/2 and Swiss mice.Leukemia Virus, Murine: Species of GAMMARETROVIRUS, containing many well-defined strains, producing leukemia in mice. Disease is commonly induced by injecting filtrates of propagable tumors into newborn mice.Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms: Animals or humans raised in the absence of a particular disease-causing virus or other microorganism. Less frequently plants are cultivated pathogen-free.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Lupus Vulgaris: A form of cutaneous tuberculosis. It is seen predominantly in women and typically involves the NASAL MUCOSA; BUCCAL MUCOSA; and conjunctival mucosa.Isoantigens: Antigens that exist in alternative (allelic) forms in a single species. When an isoantigen is encountered by species members who lack it, an immune response is induced. Typical isoantigens are the BLOOD GROUP ANTIGENS.Antibodies, Antinuclear: Autoantibodies directed against various nuclear antigens including DNA, RNA, histones, acidic nuclear proteins, or complexes of these molecular elements. Antinuclear antibodies are found in systemic autoimmune diseases including systemic lupus erythematosus, Sjogren's syndrome, scleroderma, polymyositis, and mixed connective tissue disease.Terpenes: A class of compounds composed of repeating 5-carbon units of HEMITERPENES.Leukemia, Experimental: Leukemia induced experimentally in animals by exposure to leukemogenic agents, such as VIRUSES; RADIATION; or by TRANSPLANTATION of leukemic tissues.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Killer Cells, Natural: Bone marrow-derived lymphocytes that possess cytotoxic properties, classically directed against transformed and virus-infected cells. Unlike T CELLS; and B CELLS; NK CELLS are not antigen specific. The cytotoxicity of natural killer cells is determined by the collective signaling of an array of inhibitory and stimulatory CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. A subset of T-LYMPHOCYTES referred to as NATURAL KILLER T CELLS shares some of the properties of this cell type.Heterozygote: An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Dinitrobenzenes: Benzene derivatives which are substituted with two nitro groups in the ortho, meta or para positions.Arylamine N-Acetyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of acetyl groups from ACETYL-COA to arylamines. It can also catalyze acetyl transfer between arylamines without COENZYME A and has a wide specificity for aromatic amines, including SEROTONIN. However, arylamine N-acetyltransferase should not be confused with the enzyme ARYLALKYLAMINE N-ACETYLTRANSFERASE which is also referred to as SEROTONIN ACETYLTRANSFERASE.Mice, Inbred CFTR: A strain of mice widely studied as a model for cystic fibrosis. These mice are generated from embryonic stem cells in which the CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator) gene is inactivated by gene targeting. As a result, all mice have one copy of this altered gene in all their tissues. Mice homozygous for the disrupted gene exhibit many features common to young cystic fibrosis patients, including failure to thrive, meconium ileus, and alteration of mucous and serous glands.Rats, Inbred F344Immunogenetics: A subdiscipline of genetics which deals with the genetic basis of the immune response (IMMUNITY).Immunity, Cellular: Manifestations of the immune response which are mediated by antigen-sensitized T-lymphocytes via lymphokines or direct cytotoxicity. This takes place in the absence of circulating antibody or where antibody plays a subordinate role.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Thymus Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the THYMUS GLAND.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lod Score: The total relative probability, expressed on a logarithmic scale, that a linkage relationship exists among selected loci. Lod is an acronym for "logarithmic odds."Skin Transplantation: The grafting of skin in humans or animals from one site to another to replace a lost portion of the body surface skin.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes: A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.T-Lymphocyte Subsets: A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.Macrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Coombs Test: A test to detect non-agglutinating ANTIBODIES against ERYTHROCYTES by use of anti-antibodies (the Coombs' reagent.) The direct test is applied to freshly drawn blood to detect antibody bound to circulating red cells. The indirect test is applied to serum to detect the presence of antibodies that can bind to red blood cells.Antigens, CD45: High-molecular weight glycoproteins uniquely expressed on the surface of LEUKOCYTES and their hemopoietic progenitors. They contain a cytoplasmic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity which plays a role in intracellular signaling from the CELL SURFACE RECEPTORS. The CD45 antigens occur as multiple isoforms that result from alternative mRNA splicing and differential usage of three exons.Adoptive Transfer: Form of passive immunization where previously sensitized immunologic agents (cells or serum) are transferred to non-immune recipients. When transfer of cells is used as a therapy for the treatment of neoplasms, it is called adoptive immunotherapy (IMMUNOTHERAPY, ADOPTIVE).Splenomegaly: Enlargement of the spleen.

T cell reconstitution of BB/W rats after the initiation of insulitis precipitates the onset of diabetes. (1/252)

One of the diabetes susceptibility genes of the BB/W (Biobreeding/Worcester) rat maps to the lyp locus on chromosome 4. The BB/W lyp allele is responsible for a severe peripheral T lymphopenia. Correction of this lymphopenia by transfer of normal, histocompatible T cells prevents diabetes, providing T cell reconstitution is initiated before insulitis. We have analyzed this time-dependent regulation of the diabetogenic process by normal T cells. We demonstrate that T cell reconstitution after the initiation of insulitis precipitates the onset of diabetes through the recruitment of donor T cells to the autoimmune process. This inability of normal T cells to regulate primed diabetogenic BB/W T cells and their own autoreactive potential were observed when normal T cells outnumbered pathogenic T cells by approximately 1000-fold. Analysis of donor-derived T cells recovered from BB/W rats that were reconstituted before insulitis, and hence protected from diabetes, demonstrates that early T cell reconstitution of BB/W rats does not result in a long term physical or functional depletion of islet cell-specific T cell precursors among donor cells or in the expansion of T cells that can regulate the activation and expansion of diabetogenic T cells.  (+info)

Genetics of Cd36 and the clustering of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in spontaneous hypertension. (2/252)

Disorders of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism have been reported to cluster in patients with essential hypertension and in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). A deletion in the Cd36 gene on chromosome 4 has recently been implicated in defective carbohydrate and lipid metabolism in isolated adipocytes from SHRs. However, the role of Cd36 and chromosome 4 in the control of blood pressure and systemic cardiovascular risk factors in SHRs is unknown. In the SHR. BN-Il6/Npy congenic strain, we have found that transfer of a segment of chromosome 4 (including Cd36) from the Brown Norway (BN) rat onto the SHR background induces reductions in blood pressure and ameliorates dietary-induced glucose intolerance, hyperinsulinemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. These results demonstrate that a single chromosome region can influence a broad spectrum of cardiovascular risk factors involved in the hypertension metabolic syndrome. However, analysis of Cd36 genotypes in the SHR and stroke-prone SHR strains indicates that the deletion variant of Cd36 was not critical to the initial selection for hypertension in the SHR model. Thus, the ability of chromosome 4 to influence multiple cardiovascular risk factors, including hypertension, may depend on linkage of Cd36 to other genes trapped within the differential segment of the SHR. BN-Il6/Npy strain.  (+info)

Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein induces experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in the "resistant" Brown Norway rat: disease susceptibility is determined by MHC and MHC-linked effects on the B cell response. (3/252)

Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced by active immunization with the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) is an Ab-mediated, T cell-dependent autoimmune disease that replicates the inflammatory demyelinating pathology of multiple sclerosis. We report that disease susceptibility and severity are determined by MHC and MHC-linked effects on the MOG-specific B cell response that mediate severe clinical EAE in the EAE-resistant Brown Norway (BN) rat. Immunization with the extracellular domain of MOG in CFA induced fulminant clinical disease associated with widespread demyelination and with an inflammatory infiltrate containing large numbers of polymorphonuclear cells and eosinophils within 10 days of immunization. To analyze the effects of the MHC (RT1 system) we compared BN (RT1 n) rats with Lewis (LEW) (RT1 l) and two reciprocal MHC congenic strains, LEW.1N (RT1n) and BN.1L (RT1 l). This comparison revealed that disease severity and clinical course were strongly influenced by the MHC haplotype that modulated the pathogenic MOG-specific autoantibody response. The intra-MHC recombinant congenic strain LEW.1R38 demonstrated that gene loci located both within the centromeric segment of the MHC containing classical class I and class II genes and within the telomeric RT1.M region containing the MOG gene are involved in determining Ab production and disease susceptibility. This study indicates that the current T cell-centered interpretation of MHC-mediated effects on disease susceptibility must be reassessed in multiple sclerosis and other autoimmune diseases in which autoantibody is involved in disease pathogenesis.  (+info)

Pathological and immunological findings of athymic nude and congenic wild type BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Neospora caninum. (4/252)

Neospora is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that causes abortions and neuromuscular disorders in a wide variety of mammals. Japanese bovine isolate JPA1 was inoculated intraperitoneally into BALB/c nu/ nu (athymic nude) and BALB/c (congenic wild type) female mice to examine the distribution of parasites and resistance mechanisms to Neospora infection. All the athymic nude mice died within 28 days after intraperitoneal injection of 2 x 10(5) JPA1 tachyzoites, whereas all the congenic wild type mice survived without exhibiting any clinical signs. Tachyzoites were identified in the uterus and pancreas and later spread to many other organs. Most tachyzoites identified in the necrotic foci were localized in the epithelium of the venules and capillaries. Nude mice developed high level of serum interferon-gamma and interleukin-6 as infection proceeded. Inflammatory response to Neospora infection might be mediated by Th1-type dependent cellular immunity.  (+info)

C6 produced by macrophages contributes to cardiac allograft rejection. (5/252)

The terminal components of complement C5b-C9 can cause significant injury to cardiac allografts. Using C6-deficient rats, we have found that the rejection of major histocompatibility (MHC) class I-incompatible PVG.R8 (RT1.A(a)B(u)) cardiac allografts by PVG.1U (RT1.A(u)B(u)) recipients is particularly dependent on C6. This model was selected to determine whether tissue injury results from C6 produced by macrophages, which are a conspicuous component of infiltrates in rejecting transplants. We demonstrated that high levels of C6 mRNA are expressed in isolated populations of macrophages. The relevance of macrophage-produced C6 to cardiac allograft injury was investigated by transplanting hearts from PVG. R8 (C6-) donors to PVG.1U (C6-) rats which had been reconstituted with bone marrow from PVG.1U (C6+) rats as the sole source of C6. Hearts grafted to hosts after C6 reconstitution by bone marrow transplantation underwent rejection characterized by deposition of IgG and complement on the vascular endothelium together with extensive intravascular aggregates of P-selectin-positive platelets. At the time of acute rejection, the cardiac allografts contained extensive perivascular and interstitial macrophage infiltrates. RT-PCR and in situ hybridization demonstrated high levels of C6 mRNA in the macrophage-laden transplants. C6 protein levels were also increased in the circulation during rejection. To determine the relative contribution to cardiac allograft rejection of the low levels of circulating C6 produced systemically by macrophages, C6 containing serum was passively transferred to PVG.1U (C6-) recipients of PVG.R8 (C6-) hearts. This reconstituted the C6 levels to about 3 to 6% of normal values, but failed to induce allograft rejection. In control PVG.1U (C6-) recipients that were reconstituted with bone marrow from PVG.1U (C6-) donors, C6 levels remained undetectable and PVG.R8 cardiac allografts were not rejected. These results indicate that C6 produced by macrophages can cause significant tissue damage.  (+info)

Congenic substitution mapping excludes Sa as a candidate gene locus for a blood pressure quantitative trait locus on rat chromosome 1. (6/252)

Previously, linkage analysis in several experimental crosses between hypertensive rat strains and their contrasting reference strains have identified a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for blood pressure on rat chromosome 1 (Chr 1) spanning the Sa gene locus. In this study, we report the further dissection of this Chr 1 blood pressure QTL with congenic substitution mapping. To address whether the Sa gene represents a candidate gene for the Chr 1 blood pressure QTL, congenic strains were developed by introgressing high blood pressure QTL alleles from the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) into the normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY-1) reference strain. Congenic animals carrying a chromosomal segment from stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats between genetic markers Mt1pa and D1Rat200 (including the Sa gene locus) show a significant increase in basal systolic and diastolic blood pressure compared with their normotensive Wistar-Kyoto progenitors (P<0.001, respectively), whereas congenic animals carrying a subfragment of this Chr 1 region defined by markers Mt1pa and D1Rat57 (also spanning the Sa gene) do not show elevated basal blood pressure levels (P=0.83 and P=0.9, respectively). Similar results were obtained for NaCl-induced blood pressure values. Thus, the blood pressure QTL on Chr 1 is located centromeric to the Sa gene locus in a region that is syntenic to human chromosome 11p15.4-p15.3. This region excludes the Sa as a blood pressure-elevating candidate gene locus on the basis of congenic substitution mapping approaches.  (+info)

Naturally anergic and suppressive CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells as a functionally and phenotypically distinct immunoregulatory T cell subpopulation. (7/252)

A CD4(+) T cell subpopulation defined by the expression levels of a particular cell surface molecule (e.g. CD5, CD45RB, CD25, CD62L or CD38) bears an autoimmune-preventive activity in various animal models. Here we show that the expression of CD25 is highly specific, when compared with other molecules, in delineating the autoimmune-preventive immunoregulatory CD4(+) T cell population. Furthermore, although CD25 is an activation marker for T cells, the following findings indicate that immunoregulatory CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells are functionally distinct from activated or anergy-induced T cells derived from CD25(-)CD4(+) T cells. First, the former are autoimmune-preventive in vivo, naturally unresponsive (anergic) to TCR stimulation in vitro and, upon TCR stimulation, able to suppress the activation/proliferation of other T cells, whereas the latter scarcely exhibit the in vivo autoimmune-preventive activity or the in vitro suppressive activity. Second, such activated or anergy-induced CD25(-) spleen cells produce various autoimmune diseases when transferred to syngeneic athymic nude mice, whereas similarly treated normal spleen cells, which include CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells, do not. Third, upon polyclonal T cell stimulation, CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells express CD25 at higher levels and more persistently than CD25(-)CD4(+) T cell-derived activated T cells; moreover, when the stimulation is ceased, the former revert to the original levels of CD25 expression, whereas the latter lose the expression. These results collectively indicate that naturally anergic and suppressive CD25(+)CD4(+) T cells present in normal naive mice are functionally and phenotypically stable, distinct from other T cells, and play a key role in maintaining immunologic self-tolerance.  (+info)

Insulin-degrading enzyme identified as a candidate diabetes susceptibility gene in GK rats. (8/252)

Genetic analysis of the diabetic GK rat has revealed several diabetes susceptibility loci. Congenic strains have been established for the major diabetes locus, Niddm1, by transfer of GK alleles onto the genome of the normoglycemic F344 rat. Niddm1 was dissected into two subloci, physically separated in the congenic strains Niddm1b and Niddm1i, each with at least one disease susceptibility gene. Here we have mapped Niddm1b to 1 cM by genetic and pathophysiological characterization of new congenic substrains for the locus. The gene encoding insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE:) was located to this 1 cM region, and the two amino acid substitutions (H18R and A890V) identified in the GK allele reduced insulin-degrading activity by 31% in transfected cells. However, when the H18R and A890V variants were studied separately, no effects were observed, demonstrating a synergistic effect of the two variants on insulin degradation. No effect on insulin degradation was observed in cell lysates, indicating that the effect is coupled to receptor-mediated internalization of insulin. Congenic rats with the IDE: GK allele displayed post-prandial hyperglycemia, reduced lipogenesis in fat cells, blunted insulin-stimulated glucose transmembrane uptake and reduced insulin degradation in isolated muscle. Analysis of additional rat strains demonstrated that the dysfunctional IDE: allele was unique to GK. These data point to an important role for IDE: in the diabetic phenotype in GK.  (+info)

*NOD mice

Non-obese diabetic or NOD mice, like the Biobreeding rat, are used as an animal model for type 1 diabetes. Diabetes develops in ... Loci associated with susceptibility to IDDM have been identified in the NOD mouse strain through the development of congenic ...

*List of MeSH codes (B01)

... animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.040.500 --- mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520 --- animals, inbred strains MeSH B01.050. ... MeSH B01.050.157.040 --- animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.157.040.500 --- mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.157.520 --- mice, inbred ... 199.520.040 --- animals, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520.040.500 --- mice, congenic MeSH B01.050.199.520.520 --- mice, inbred ... congenic MeSH B01.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400 --- mice, inbred strains MeSH B01.150.900.649.865.635.505.500.400.300 --- ...

*Taconic Biosciences

... is a breeder and supplier of laboratory animals operating in over 50 companies. The current CEO is Dr. ... 1994 - Contracted with National Institute for Allergy and Infectious Disease to maintain a repository of inbred, congenic, and ... 1985 - Contracted to supply MPF and germ-free animals for the NASA space shuttle missions. 1985 - Started producing BALB/c mice ... "Taconic Biosciences , Lab Animal Buyers' Guide". Guide.labanimal.com. Retrieved 2017-05-22. Taconic Biosciences. "Taconic ...

*Passive immunity

Patients who are immunized with the antibodies from animals may develop serum sickness due to the proteins from the immune ... "congenic", or deliberately inbred mouse strains which are histocompatible. An individual's immune response of passive immunity ... Shibasaburo and von Behring immunized guinea pigs with the blood products from animals that had recovered from diphtheria and ... If a neonatal animal does not receive adequate amounts of colostrum prior to gut closure, is does not have a sufficient amount ...

*Behavioral neuroscience

Normally this is performed with sedated animals but sometimes it is performed on awake animals engaged in a behavioral event, ... Selective breeding - Organisms, often mice, may be bred selectively among inbred strains to create a recombinant congenic ... Single-unit recording - A method whereby an electrode is introduced into the brain of a living animal to detect electrical ... In philosophy, people like René Descartes proposed physical models to explain animal and human behavior. Descartes, for example ...

*Rat Genome Database

For congenic and mutant strains, genomic positions are assigned for the introgressed region (congenic strains) or the location ... Such sequences are useful primarily for researchers still using these markers for genotyping their animals and for ... including information about strain availability and animal husbandry, and links to the RGD strain search and to review articles ... cells and molecular pathways at the whole animal or systems level. Until recently, direct, specific genomic manipulations in ...

*Influenza A virus subtype H7N9

They believe that live bird markets may play a key role in human and animal infections with H7N9 and that, even if the overall ... the national avian flu reference laboratory concluded that the strain of the H7N9 virus found on pigeons was highly congenic ... It will also be important to verify whether the H7N9 virus is transmissible from humans to animals because if established, it ... Activation was prompted because the novel H7N9 avian influenza virus has never been seen before in animals or humans and ...

*Mate choice

Unlike many animals, humans are not able to consciously display physical changes to their body when they are ready to mate, so ... Evidence from the use of a Y-maze differentially scented by congenic mice of different major histocompatibility types". Journal ... Some animals, such as mice even assess a mate's genetic compatibility based on their urine odor. In an experiment studying ... Animal Behaviour: A Evolutionary Approach (10th ed.). Sinauer. pp. 70-72. ISBN 9780878939664. Jones, I. L.; Hunter, F. M. (1998 ...

*Inbred strain

... s (also called inbred lines, or rarely for animals linear animals) are individuals of a particular species which ... strain can be created for laboratory use Backcrossing Linebreeding Recombinant inbred strain Coisogenic strain Congenic strain ... Inbred strains of animals are frequently used in laboratories for experiments where for the reproducibility of conclusions all ... Thus outbred strains of most laboratory animals are also available, where an outbred strain is a strain of an organism that is ...

*Cross-presentation

"Cross-priming for a secondary cytotoxic response to minor H antigens with H-2 congenic cells which do not cross-react in the ... Bevan after injection of cells carrying alloantigens into experimental animals. This resulted in CD8 T cell responses that were ...

*Jan Klein

He defined immunology as the science of self-nonself discrimination, concerned not just with the human species and its animal ... The associations were demonstrated by testing the responses of congenic strains differing at the H2 complex and mapping the ... background and thus producing a set of congenic B10.W lines. These lines proved to be essential for the complete ...

*Borrelia lusitaniae

1995). "T cell response to Borrelia garinii, Borrelia afzelii, and Borrelia japonica in various congenic mouse strains". ... nymphs that feed on long-distance migrants give rise to hunting adult ticks that subsequently feed on larger animals, such as ...

*Marrow adipose tissue

"Congenic mice with low serum IGF-I have increased body fat, reduced bone mineral density, and an altered osteoblast ... it is difficult to employ in laboratory animals. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) provides MAT assessment in the vertebral ...
Abstract A congenic rat strain (WF.LEW) was derived from the susceptible Wistar-Furth (WF) (background strain) and the resistant LEW (donor strain) inbred strains and was used to evaluate the phenotypic expression of a dominant Mendelian gene that confers resistance to fatal hepatic disease caused by the ZH501 strain of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Resistance to hepatic disease developed gradually with age, with full expression at approximately 10 weeks in the WF.LEW and LEW rat strains. The ZH501 strain caused fatal hepatitis in WF rats regardless of age. However, resistance to the SA75 RVFV strain (relatively non-pathogenic for adult rats), was age- and dose-dependent in both WF and LEW rats. The resistance gene transferred to the newly derived WF.LEW congenic rat strain appears to amplify age-dependent resistance of adult rats, resulting in protection against fatal hepatic disease caused by the virulent ZH501 strain. The congenic rat strain will be a valuable asset in elucidating the mechanism of
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ORAL PRESENTATION THURSDAY OCTOBER 21 9.30am - 9.45am MECHANISM OF RESISTANCE TO PLASMODIUM CHABAUDI IN MICE IS MEDIATED THROUGH THE RED CELL AND A TOTALLY SYNERGISTIC NON-ERYTHROCYTIC PATHWAY Lin E, Marshall V, Burt RA, Foote SJ The Walter & Eliza Hall Institute, Parkville, Australia P. chabaudi infection in mice is a model for the severe anaemia seen in falciparum infections. Inbred mice strains are differentially susceptible to malaria. We have mapped three loci involved in outcome to this infection and have generated mice reciprocally congenic for these loci on several strains of mouse. These congenic animals have phenotypes different from their wildtype parents. Parasitaemias are more informative than clinical outcome in differentiating between the congenic animals. In one case, a congenic animal carrying a locus predicted to encode susceptibility was much more resistant than even the "resistant" animal. Analysis of the ability of red cells from congenic mice to sustain the growth of the ...
Autoimmune type 1 diabetes (T1D) in humans and NOD mice results from interactions between multiple susceptibility genes (termed Idd) located within and outside the MHC. Despite sharing ∼88% of their genome with NOD mice, including the H2(g7) MHC haplotype and other important Idd genes, the closely related nonobese resistant (NOR) strain fails to develop T1D because of resistance alleles in residual genomic regions derived from C57BLKS mice mapping to chromosomes (Chr.) 1, 2, and 4. We previously produced a NOD background strain with a greatly decreased incidence of T1D as the result of a NOR-derived 44.31-Mb congenic region on distal Chr. 4 containing disease-resistance alleles that decrease the pathogenic activity of autoreactive B and CD4 T cells. In this study, a series of subcongenic strains for the NOR-derived Chr. 4 region was used to significantly refine genetic loci regulating diabetogenic B and CD4 T cell activity. Analyses of these subcongenic strains revealed the presence of at least two
We have previously reported suggestive evidence for a locus on Chromosome (Chr) 7 that affects adiposity in F2 mice from a CAST/Ei x C57BL/6J intercross fed a high-fat diet. Here we characterize the effect of a high-fat (32.6 Kcal% fat) diet on male and female congenic mice with a C57BL/6J background and a CAST/Ei-derived segment on Chr 7. Adiposity index (AI) and weights of certain fat pads were approximately 50% lower in both male and female congenic mice than in control C57BL/6J mice, and carcass fat content was significantly reduced. The reduction of fat depot weights was not seen, however, in congenic animals fed a low-fat chow diet (12 Kcal% fat). The congenic segment is approximately 25 cM in length, extending from D7Mit213 to D7Mit41, and includes the tub, Ucp2 and Ucp3, genes, all of which are candidate genes for this effect. Some polymorphisms have been found on comparing c-DNA sequences of the Ucp2 gene from C57BL/6J and CAST/Ei mice. These results suggest that one or more genes
Congenic strains are produced by transferring the transgene/KO allele to a new genetic background strain that is more appropriate for phenotypic analysis. The APF offer a speed congenics service that can establish a congenic strain within 18 months.
BACKGROUND: Complex etiology and pathogenesis of pathophysiological components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome have been demonstrated in humans and animal models. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have generated extensive physiological, genetic and genome-wide gene expression profiles in a congenic strain of the spontaneously diabetic Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat containing a large region (110 cM, 170 Mb) of rat chromosome 1 (RNO1), which covers diabetes and obesity quantitative trait loci (QTL), introgressed onto the genetic background of the normoglycaemic Brown Norway (BN) strain. This novel disease model, which by the length of the congenic region closely mirrors the situation of a chromosome substitution strain, exhibits a wide range of abnormalities directly relevant to components of the cardio-metabolic syndrome and diabetes complications, including hyperglycaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, enhanced insulin secretion both in vivo and in vitro, insulin resistance, hypertriglyceridemia and altered pancreatic
Complete information for BP16 gene (Genetic Locus), Blood Pressure QTL 16, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards - The Human Gene Compendium
We reported previously that a region on rat chromosome 2 was associated with proteinuria and histological renal injury but not blood pressure.9 A congenic strain was developed (S.SHR(2)) to confirm the linkage analysis that demonstrated attenuated renal injury independent of changes in blood pressure compared with control S rats.12 Subsequently, RPT narrowed the genomic interval based on overlapping recombinant intervals.12 In the present study, we used additional RPT to better define the genomic interval, developed 2 small congenic strains to characterize the cardiovascular and renal parameters associated with the genomic locus, and performed detailed genetic analysis (haplotype analysis, sequencing, and gene expression) to identify genetic variants that may be causative to the observed renal injury.. Both congenic strains demonstrated reduced kidney injury and improved kidney function compared with the control S. The decreased proteinuria and improved GFR were associated with reduced renal ...
Organisms that differ in genotype at (ideally) one specified locus. Strictly speaking these are conisogenics. Thus one homozygous strain can be spoken of as being congenic to another
UW-Madison. We have used both classical genetics and sequence-based genomics in search of mouse modifiers of liver tumorigenesis. The dramatic 20-50-fold difference in tumor multiplicity between carcinogen-treated male C57BL/6 (B6) and C3H/HeJ (C3H) mice has been shown to map mainly to distal chromosome 1. We have bred congenic animals carrying 70cM of chromosome 1 from C3H on an otherwise B6 genetic background. Relative to B6 animals, these B6.C31 mice developed up to 14-fold more liver tumors. Analysis of recombinant animals carrying smaller portions of the C3H congenic region suggests the presence of two modifiers, one of which has a 5-8-fold effect on tumor multiplicity and lies in a 7 Mb region on distal chromosome 1. Ras mutations are more prevalent in C3H tumors than in B6. By comparing ras mutations in tumors from the B6.C31and parental strains, we have shown that the C3H alleles on distal chromosome 1 are not sufficient to recapitulate the high ras mutant frequency of C3H tumors, ...
Jétudie les liens existant entre lévolution de la composition nucléotidique des génomes mammifères et leurs traits dhistoire de vie.. J. Romiguier, E. Figuet, N. Galtier, E.J.P. Douzery, B. Boussau, V. Ranwez, J.Y. Dutheil. 2012. Fast and robust characterization of time-heterogeneous sequence evolutionary processes using substitution mapping. Plos One (accepted). J. Romiguier, V. Ranwez, E. Douzery, N. Galtier. 2010. Contrasting GC-content dynamics across 33 mammalian genomes: influence of body mass and chromosome size. Genome Research 20:1001-1009.. J.Y. Dutheil, N. Galtier, J. Romiguier, E.J.P. Douzery, V. Ranwez, B. Boussau. 2012. Efficient selection of branch-specific models of sequence evolution. Molecular Biology and Evolution (accepted). ...
Renin has long been suspected to reside in a compound BP QTL, with multiple normotensive and hypertensive alleles that can be derived from a single strain.2 Our data indicate that at least 2 loci around Renin modulate BP (Figure 1). In addition to the BN protective Renin region (46.1-47.2 Mb), we also identified a BN hypertensive region (47.2-49.0 Mb), which in lines 9 and 9C masked the protective allele(s) that were observed in line 9A (Figure 1). Similar to line 9, the S/renrr congenic unexpectedly failed to lower BP compared with SS.11 The SR had a region (47.9-48.1 Mb) that was significantly enriched for common BN and SR alleles (Figure 3), suggesting that this overlapping BN and SR region are potentially functionally relevant.. The BP-associated Renin allele that was first identified by Rapp et al4 in 1989 turned out to be part of a much larger BP QTL (chr13: 35-111 Mb)5 that encompasses multiple BP loci on chromosome 13 in the SS5 and other hypertensive strains (eg, SHR28 and LH29). Using ...
The availability of high-density genotype data for mice has made it possible to quantify the relationship between haplotype structure and differential gene expression. A relationship between SNP in the 1 kb upstream region and differential expression was only observable when using a stringent test of differential expression (absolute log2 fold change , 0.5; pplr , 0.005). This was interpreted as evidence that the variance of expression of cis regulated genes is much lower than that of trans regulated genes. Although the 1 kb upstream region may contain the highest density of regulatory elements it does not contain all of them, they can be spread throughout the gene and its 3 region as well as going tens to hundreds of kilobases upstream. Therefore we are likely to have underestimated the numbers of cis regulated genes using this strategy. However SNP in the upstream region will frequently be markers for larger haplotypes that extend into or through the whole gene region so these regions will ...
Looking for online definition of congenic in the Medical Dictionary? congenic explanation free. What is congenic? Meaning of congenic medical term. What does congenic mean?
Mapping studies have identified many QTLs affecting BP in genetically hypertensive rats, and their isolation in congenic strains has been the main approach used for their further characterization (20). Apart from genetic analysis, congenic strains provide a powerful tool for identifying relevant intermediary phenotypes, since they only differ from control (parental) strains for a small fraction of the genome. Thus any differences seen are more likely to be involved in the physiological pathway(s) that regulates the trait of interest. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the rat chromosome 1 BP QTL region also influences pressure-natriuresis relationship, salt sensitivity, and most probably sympathetic activation following salt loading. These findings may be related and pertinent to the effect on BP.. Pressure-natriuresis was studied using the classic method designed by Roman and Cowley (23), which one allows to maintain, at a fixed level, most of the extrarenal factors that ...
At file:///home/inaam/w/lru_flush/ based on revid:[email protected] 3387 Inaam Rana 2010-12-14 non-functional change: refactored buf_LRU_free_block() to reduce the level of indentation modified: storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c === modified file storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c --- a/storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c revid:[email protected] +++ b/storage/innobase/buf/buf0lru.c revid:[email protected] @@ -1472,6 +1472,7 @@ buf_LRU_free_block( buf_page_t* b = NULL; buf_pool_t* buf_pool = buf_pool_from_bpage(bpage); enum buf_lru_free_block_status ret; + enum buf_page_state page_state; const ulint fold = buf_page_address_fold(bpage-,space, bpage-,offset); rw_lock_t* hash_lock = buf_page_hash_lock_get(buf_pool, fold); @@ -1576,172 +1577,178 @@ func_exit: #endif /* UNIV_SYNC_DEBUG */ ut_ad(buf_page_can_relocate(bpage)); - if (buf_LRU_block_remove_hashed_page(bpage, zip) - != BUF_BLOCK_ZIP_FREE) { + page_state = buf_LRU_block_remove_hashed_page(bpage, zip); - /* We have just freed a ...
A general experimental design that allows mapping of a quantitative trait locus (QTL) into a 1-cM interval is presented. The design consists of a series of strains, termed
At file:///home/marko/innobase/dev/mysql-5.1-innodb2/ based on revid:[email protected] 3458 Marko Mäkelä 2010-05-11 Do not demand that buf_page_t be fully initialized on 64-bit systems. There may be padding before buf_page_t::zip. (Bug #53307) modified: storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c storage/innodb_plugin/include/buf0buf.ic === modified file storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c --- a/storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c 2010-03-23 16:20:36 +0000 +++ b/storage/innodb_plugin/buf/buf0lru.c 2010-05-11 10:50:12 +0000 @@ -1393,7 +1393,12 @@ buf_LRU_free_block( ut_ad(buf_page_in_file(bpage)); ut_ad(bpage-,in_LRU_list); ut_ad(!bpage-,in_flush_list == !bpage-,oldest_modification); +#if UNIV_WORD_SIZE == 4 + /* On 32-bit systems, there is no padding in buf_page_t. On + other systems, Valgrind could complain about uninitialized pad + bytes. */ UNIV_MEM_ASSERT_RW(bpage, sizeof *bpage); +#endif if (!buf_page_can_relocate(bpage)) { @@ -1688,7 +1693,12 @@ buf_LRU_block_remove_hashed_page( ...
These data establish linkage of rat genotype to a form of environmental perturbation-infection-that is potentially important in the pathogenesis of autoimmunity. They confirm that Iddm4 is an exceptionally strong non-MHC determinant of susceptibility to autoimmune diabetes in the rat (6,9-11). In previous studies of Iddm4, diabetes was induced by chronic treatment with poly I:C plus Treg depletion. The present data now extend the role of Iddm4 in diabetes pathogenesis to virus-induced disease expression. They also illuminate the complexity of environmental interaction with genetic susceptibility. The diabetogenic potential of Iddm4 is readily discernable in congenic rats treated with poly I:C and Treg depletion but is far less apparent in animals treated with KRV plus poly I:C unless additional BBDR genes are present. We have discovered at least one of these genes, designated Iddm20, on chromosome 17.. The Iddm20 interval (online appendix Table 3) contains at least one gene of particular ...
I work with rat tumors and try to establish their karyotype. Is there anyone who knows wher I can get such paints?? Bernd K lsch Cell-biology 45147 Essen, Germany e-mail: ttu3a0 at aixrs1.hrz.uni-essen.de knowq s where I can ...
Trp53 gene knockout mice. A neomycin selection cassette was inserted into the second exon of the Trp53 gene. Homozygous deficient mice can grow after birth, but often suffered from development of tumors in various region of the body. Several congenic strains were generated. C57BL/6 background (RBRC01361), ICR background (RBRC01348), C3H background (RBRC00107), DBA/2 background (RBRC01518), and MSM background (RBRC00815). In C57BL/6 background most of the female homozygotes die in utero (probably, also in MSM background ...
Weil, M. M., Brown, B. W., and Serachitopol, D. M. Genotype Selection to Rapidly Breed Congenic Strains. Genetics 146: 1061-1069 (July,1997). Language: Fortran 95. ...
We have investigated transport in a cross-shaped two-dimensional electron gas with superconducting electrodes coupled to two opposite arms. Multiterminal resistances, measured as a function of the superconducting phase difference and the magnetic flux, are analyzed in terms of an extended Landauer-Buttiker transport formalism. We show that extended reciprocity relations hold. Correlations between transport coefficients are obtained from, e.g., (negative) three-terminal and nonlocal resistances. Energy spectroscopy reveals a reentrant behavior of the transport coefficients around the Thouless energy ...
In a whole-genome linkage screen with data from 10 extended pedigrees in the SAFHS, we have identified a region on chromosome 16q that harbors a QTL that contributes to quantitative variation in plasma concentrations of HDL-C. Evidence for this QTL remains significant when adjusted for departures from multivariate normality in the phenotype data.. As reported previously,1 simultaneous estimation of the described covariates yields a genetic model for a residual HDL-C phenotype that is independent of the phenotypic effects of plasma concentrations of apo A-I and TG. The detected QTL on chromosome 16 is responsible for the additive genetic effects on quantitative variation in total plasma HDL-C concentrations not attributable to QTLs that also influence plasma concentrations of apo A-I and TG. Given the probable structure of HDL-C particles,21 it is likely that our models helped us to detect a QTL that influences variation in the amount of cholesterol per HDL particle. This interpretation was first ...
Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) have been mapped to small intervals along the chromosomes of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum), by a method we call substitution mapping. The size of the interval to which a QTL can be mapped is determined primarily by the number and spacing of previously mapped genetic markers in the region surrounding the QTL. We demonstrate the method using tomato genotypes carrying chromosomal segments from Lycopersicon chmielewskii, a wild relative of tomato with high soluble solids concentration but small fruit and low yield. Different L. chmielewskii chromosomal segments carrying a common restriction fragment length polymorphism were identified, and their regions of overlap determined using all available genetic markers. The effect of these chromosomal segments on soluble solids concentration, fruit mass, yield, and pH, was determined in the field. Many overlapping chromosomal segments had very different phenotypic effects, indicating QTLs affecting the phenotype(s) to lie in ...
article{418b5550-2321-4395-ab0c-946f90945ceb, abstract = {OBJECTIVE: To characterize the arthritis-modulating effects of 3 non-major histocompatibility complex (MHC) quantitative trait loci (QTLs) in rat experimental arthritis in the disease-resistant E3 strain, and to investigate the disease-modulating effects of the MHC region (RT1) in various genetic backgrounds. METHODS: A congenic fragment containing Ncf1 along with congenic fragments containing the strongest remaining loci, Pia5/Cia3 and Pia7/Cia13 on chromosome 4, were transferred from the arthritis-susceptible DA strain into the background of the completely resistant E3 strain. The arthritis-regulatory potential of the transferred alleles was evaluated by comparing the susceptibility to experimental arthritis in congenic rats with that in E3 rats. The RT1(u) haplotype from the E3 strain was transferred into the susceptible DA strain (RT1(av1)), and various F(1) and F(2) hybrids were generated to assess the effects of RT1 on arthritis ...
1 ---------- 2 SEMAPHORES 3 ---------- 4 OS WAIT ARRAY INFO: reservation count 36255, signal count 12675 5 --Thread 10607472 has waited at buf/buf0rea.c line 420 for 0.00 seconds the semaphore: 6 Mutex at 0x358068 created file buf/buf0buf.c line 597, lock var 0 7 waiters flag 0 8 --Thread 3488624 has waited at buf/buf0buf.c line 1177 for 0.00 seconds the semaphore: 9 Mutex at 0x358068 created file buf/buf0buf.c line 597, lock var 0 10 waiters flag 0 11 --Thread 6896496 has waited at btr/btr0cur.c line 442 for 0.00 seconds the semaphore: 12 S-lock on RW-latch at 0x8800244 created in file buf/buf0buf.c line 547 13 a writer (thread id 14879600) has reserved it in mode exclusive 14 number of readers 0, waiters flag 1 15 Last time read locked in file btr/btr0cur.c line 442 16 Last time write locked in file buf/buf0buf.c line 1797 [...] 17 Mutex spin waits 0, rounds 452650, OS waits 22573 18 RW-shared spins 27550, OS waits 13682; RW-excl spins 0, OS waits 0 ...
Read "A congenic mouse and candidate gene at the Chromosome 13 locus regulating bone density, Mammalian Genome" on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
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define FUSE_USE_VERSION 26 #include ,sys/fsuid.h, #include ,sys/types.h, #include ,pthread.h, #include ,signal.h, #include ,limits.h, #include ,string.h, #include ,stdarg.h, #include ,stdlib.h, #include ,unistd.h, #include ,errno.h, #include ,fcntl.h, #include ,stdio.h, #include ,fuse.h, #include ,pwd.h, #include ,tcl.h, /* * Default cache directory */ #ifndef APPFS_CACHEDIR #define APPFS_CACHEDIR /var/cache/appfs #endif /* Debugging macros */ #ifdef DEBUG int appfs_debug_fd = STDERR_FILENO; #define APPFS_DEBUG(x...) { \ char buf[8192]; \ int bufoff = 0; \ if (appfs_debug_fd == -1) { \ appfs_debug_fd = open(/tmp/appfsd.log, O_WRONLY , O_APPEND , O_CREAT, 0600); \ }; \ bufoff = snprintf(buf, sizeof(buf), [debug] [t=%llx] %s:%i:%s: , (unsigned long long) pthread_self(), __FILE__, __LINE__, __func__); \ if (bufoff , sizeof(buf)) { \ bufoff += snprintf(buf + bufoff, sizeof(buf) - bufoff, x); \ }; \ if (bufoff , sizeof(buf)) { \ bufoff += snprintf(buf + bufoff, sizeof(buf) - bufoff, \n);\ } \ ...
Signed-off-by: Janne Grunau ,janne-ffmpeg at jannau.net, --- libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c , 11 +++++++++-- 1 files changed, 9 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) diff --git a/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c b/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c index 401144f..c06c017 100644 --- a/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c +++ b/libavcodec/dvbsubdec.c @@ -1423,13 +1423,15 @@ static int dvbsub_decode(AVCodecContext *avctx, #endif - if (buf_size ,= 2 ,, *buf != 0x0f) + if (buf_size ,= 6 ,, *buf != 0x0f) { + av_dlog(avctx, incomplete or broken packet); return -1; + } p = buf; p_end = buf + buf_size; - while (p , p_end && *p == 0x0f) { + while (p_end - p , 6 && *p == 0x0f) { p += 1; segment_type = *p++; page_id = AV_RB16(p); @@ -1437,6 +1439,11 @@ static int dvbsub_decode(AVCodecContext *avctx, segment_length = AV_RB16(p); p += 2; + if (p_end - p , segment_length) { + av_dlog(avctx, incomplete or broken packet); + return -1; + } + if (page_id == ctx-,composition_id ,, page_id == ctx-,ancillary_id ,, ctx-,composition_id == -1 ,, ctx-,ancillary_id == ...
BNX2]: Fix bug in bnx2_nvram_write(). Length was not calculated correctly if the NVRAM offset is on a non- aligned offset. Signed-off-by: Michael Chan ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], Signed-off-by: David S. Miller ,[EMAIL PROTECTED], --- drivers/net/bnx2.c , 4 ++-- 1 files changed, 2 insertions(+), 2 deletions(-) diff --git a/drivers/net/bnx2.c b/drivers/net/bnx2.c index f296c37..4fa7cef 100644 --- a/drivers/net/bnx2.c +++ b/drivers/net/bnx2.c @@ -3096,7 +3096,7 @@ bnx2_nvram_write(struct bnx2 *bp, u32 offset, u8 *data_buf, if ((align_start = (offset32 & 3))) { offset32 &= ~3; - len32 += align_start; + len32 += (4 - align_start); if ((rc = bnx2_nvram_read(bp, offset32, start, 4))) return rc; } @@ -3114,7 +3114,7 @@ bnx2_nvram_write(struct bnx2 *bp, u32 offset, u8 *data_buf, if (align_start ,, align_end) { buf = kmalloc(len32, GFP_KERNEL); - if (buf == 0) + if (buf == NULL) return -ENOMEM; if (align_start) { memcpy(buf, start, 4); - To unsubscribe from this list: send the line unsubscribe git-commits-head ...
Berikut Gambar Rangkaian 8951 dengan Handpone HP Siemens c45 List Program Assembly 8051 sebagai berikut : buf_rx data 0ffh buf_no data 0afh ;0a0h buf_psn data 0a0h ;8ch buf_psn_txt data 94h ;5ah buf_no_pdu data 88h ;46h -20 +1 NO_DIAL DATA 73H ;74 ;32h -15 +2 no_sms data 62h -20 +3 ;text_pdu data 4bh ;no_sms data 47h…
00119 { 00120 FILE *f; 00121 char buf[ 1024 ]; 00122 int i; 00123 static regexp *re_macros = 0; 00124 00125 00126 #ifdef OPT_IMPROVED_PATIENCE_EXT 00127 static int count = 0; 00128 ++count; 00129 if ( ((count == 100) ,, !( count % 1000 )) && DEBUG_MAKE ) 00130 printf("...patience...\n"); 00131 #endif 00132 00133 /* the following regexp is used to detect cases where a */ 00134 /* file is included through a line line "#include MACRO" */ 00135 if ( re_macros == 0 ) 00136 { 00137 re_macros = regex_compile( 00138 "^[ ]*#[ ]*include[ ]*([A-Za-z][A-Za-z0-9_]*).*$" ); 00139 } 00140 00141 00142 if( !( f = fopen( file, "r" ) ) ) 00143 return l; 00144 00145 while( fgets( buf, sizeof( buf ), f ) ) 00146 { 00147 for( i = 0; i , rec; i++ ) 00148 if( regexec( re[i], buf ) && re[i]-,startp[1] ) 00149 { 00150 re[i]-,endp[1][0] = \0; 00151 00152 if( DEBUG_HEADER ) 00153 printf( "header found: %s\n", re[i]-,startp[1] ); 00154 00155 l = list_new( l, newstr( re[i]-,startp[1] ) ); 00156 } 00157 00158 /* special ...
Whoa. This warning dates back to 2004, when MAX_BUF_SIZE was a thing that buffers.c enforced. But we removed MAX_BUF_SIZE back in 2007 when we replaced the buffer implementation ...
BioMed Research International is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal that publishes original research articles, review articles, and clinical studies covering a wide range of subjects in life sciences and medicine. The journal is divided into 55 subject-specific sections.
Compared with hexaploid wheat, tetraploid durum is more susceptible to Fusarium crown rot (FCR) infection. The feasibility of enhancing FCR resistance in durum wheat by introgressing chromosome segmen
Cell hybrids between malignant mouse hepatoma cells and normal rat fibroblasts with approximately one set of chromosomes from each parent exhibited remarkable karyotypic stability. Most chromosomes of both parents were retained even after prolonged culture in vitro. Normally, such hybrids showed suppression of the transformed phenotype and formed no colonies in soft agar. However, two hybrids, BS140 and BS181, formed a few colonies in soft agar when many cells were seeded, and also occasional foci of cells were detected piling up in monolayer cell cultures. We isolated soft agar colonies (a-subclones) and sub-clones from foci (h-subclones) of both hybrids, and, as a control, subclones of cells from random areas without foci of one hybrid (BS181 p-subclones). When tested for soft agar growth, cells from the a- and h-subclones of both BS140 and BS181 formed colonies at frequencies comparable to the malignant mouse hepatoma parent, whereas the control cells of the BS181 p-subclones (like the normal ...
Buffalo 0 0 2 1--3 Dallas 1 0 1 0--2 ------------------------------- FIRST PERIOD -- Scoring: 1, Dallas, Hull 6 (power play) (Modano, Lehtinen), 10:17. Penalties: Zubov, Dal (roughing), 6:36; Satan, Buf (boarding), 8:18; Patrick, Buf ( double high sticking minor), 12:46; D Ward, Buf (interference), 19:11. SECOND PERIOD -- Scoring: None. Penalties: Varada, Buf (goalie interference), 4:53; Zhitnik, Buf (interference), 7:07; D Ward, Buf (roughing), 9:34; Ludwig, Dal (hooking), 12:21; Matvichuk, Dal (interference), 16:33. THIRD PERIOD -- Scoring: 2, Buffalo, Barnes 5 (Juneau, Smehlik), 8:33. 3, Buffalo, Primeau 3 (power play) (Zhitnik, Smehlik), 13:37. 4, Dallas, Lehtinen 8 (Modano, Zubov), 19:11. Penalties: Sydor, Dal (tripping), 12:10; Mckee, Buf (charging), 14:17. OVERTIME -- Scoring: 5, Buffalo, Woolley 4 (Brown), 15:30. Penalties: Zhitnik, Buf (hooking), 6:41; Sanderson, Buf (boarding), 9:06. Shots on goal: ------------------------------------ Buffalo 5 4 10 5--24 Dallas 11 12 7 7--37 ...
Results 3 days after pristane application the proportion of cells positive for cleaved caspase 3 was highly increased in draining inguinal lymph nodes of DA.1F rats indicating apoptosis. Interestingly, the apoptosis rate decreased to normal levels as seen as in naïve animals within 2 weeks but draining lymph nodes became extremely hypercellular. In peripheral blood both apoptosis and necrosis rates doubled during the first week after pristane injection. In the acute disease phase four times increased apoptosis and necrosis rates were observed which was in contrast to the draining lymph nodes which normalised during the disease course. The authors could not observe any phagoytosis deficiency in pristane-injected animals rather a strongly increased phagocytosis activity was seen in the acute disease phase. In line with this in vivo data, pristane induced pronounced apoptosis and secondary necrosis in a dose dependent manner when added to cultured rat splenocytes.. ...
Role of IGF1 in stem cell differentiation. Insulin-like Growth Factor- I (IGF-I) is a critical peptide for skeletal growth and consolidation. The Bone group at The Jackson Laboratory identified a QTL for serum IGF-I, (Igflsl-1, LOD score ~9.0) located on Chromosome (Chr) 6. Dr. Rosen generated a congenic strain (B6.C3H-6T;6T), which resulted in a phenotype that included very low trabecular bone volume(BV/TV), reduced bone formation, impaired entry of stromal cells into the osteoblast lineage, acclerated marrow adiposity and insulin sensitivity. Female 6T congenics had ~20% lower serum IGF-I, as well as reduced skeletal and fat expression of this peptide. In preliminary studies, my laboratory found significant strain differences in the distribution of both caveolin 3 and the IGFR between 6T and B6. Hence, we want to analyze the effect of the clustering and aggregation of IGFR in caveolae on cell differentiation. We will do this by quantifying the co-localization of IGFR with caveolae in bone MSCs ...
How is inbred Dahl salt-sensitive abbreviated? S/JR stands for inbred Dahl salt-sensitive. S/JR is defined as inbred Dahl salt-sensitive rarely.
Each QTL identified in the crosses of inbred mice generally spans a large genomic distance, sometimes almost an entire chromosome. In complex phenotypes such as atherosclerosis, where a large number of genes are involved, transferring a target region onto an inbred background and creating congenic line is a powerful step toward identifying causative genes. Here we have analyzed the effect of the atherosclerosis QTL Aath4 by establishing a congenic line (Aath4aDBA/DBA), where the 5′ region of DBA Aath4 was backcrossed onto a 129S6-Apoe−/− background. As expected, the resulting Aath4aDBA/DBA males had significantly larger plaques, and macrophages isolated from these mice exhibited reduced efferocytosis as a consequence of allele-specific decrease in MERTK expression. Together, our results provide strong evidence that the increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis determined by the DBA allele of Aath4 is, at least in part, due to decreased MERTK expression.. MERTK is known to play a ...
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Kit Component:- KN205578G1, GIMAP7 gRNA vector 1 in pCas-Guide vector- KN205578G2, GIMAP7 gRNA vector 2 in pCas-Guide vector- KN205578D, donor vector…
Generation of interval-specific congenic lines. Interval-specific congenic lines (ISCL) were generated as described (19). Standard nomenclature for the mouse lines is used herein, as follows: the background strain (e.g., C57BL/6NCr, abbreviated B6 in the ISCL designations) is listed first, followed by the donor strain (e.g., C3H) and the introgressed interval on mouse chromosome 5 (in Mbp, according to the NCBI37/mm9 Mouse Genome Assembly) from C3H/HeNCr into the C57BL/6NCr parental strain (National Cancer Institute). B6.C3H-120.3-141.2 (Full Length, B6.C3H-Bbaa2), B6.C3H-120.3-121.6, B6.C3H-120.3-125.6, B6.C3H-120.3-126.6, B6.C3H-120.3-128.2, B6.C3H-125.3-128.2, B6.C3H-120.3-131.0, B6.C3H-125.3-131.8, B6.C3H-129.0-130.5 (B6.C3H-Gusbh), B6.C3H-129.0-141.2, B6.C3H-131.8-133.5, B6.C3H-131.8-141.2, B6.C3H-134.7-141.2, and B6.C3H-136.4-141.2 ISCL were generated by marker-assisted selection using high-resolution melting analysis SNP genotyping primers as described (21). Homozygous progeny derived ...
Identification of genes influencing obesity and type 2 diabetes remains a significant challenge. We have used the polygenic obese mouse strain NZO to map genes which regulate various parameters relevant to body weight regulation, eg food intake, physical activity, insulin secretion, fat pad weights, heart size, etc. Congenic mice have been produced to confirm the mapping data and to fine map the QTL loci. A major locus resulting in deficient insulin production was mapped to a 2cM region. We have also examined regulation of insulin production in crosses between the C57BL/6 and DBA/2 strains. Mapping of two loci that affect insulin production was achieved from analysis of backcross mice, and characterization of RIX strains bred from selected BXD RI strains will allow fine mapping of these loci ...
QTL mapping of sex ratio phenotype revealed six independently segregating quantitative trait loci on five separate chromosomes, explaining 19% of the variation
human HCCA2 protein: activates NDR1; suppressed expression in a subpopulation of cortical pyramidal neurons in the Alzheimer Disease brain; do not confuse with human hepatocellular carcinoma susceptibility protein, also known as HCCA2 and YAP; RefSeq NM_053005
The SA gene encodes a 578 amino acid protein of unknown function. SA was first identified as a candidate gene for hypertension and blood pressure regulation due to its increased expression in the kidneys of genetically hypertensive compared with normotensive rats. The aim of the work undertaken in this thesis was to investigate the function of the SA gene by gene targeting in the mouse and to assess any possible involvement of the SA protein in BP homeostasis. We utilised ES cell technology to generate a mouse model carrying a null mutation of the SA gene. Mice lacking the protein product of the SA gene are viable, reproductively normal and have no overt phenotype. Body weight and kidney, liver and heart weights are not affected by the absence of the SA protein. Comparison of basal blood pressures (BP) revealed no differences between SA-null and wildtype littermate controls in either male or female mice. Exposure of male mice to a high salt diet caused an increase in BP in wildtype mice. However ...
The present study tested the hypothesis that the Dahl SS (salt-sensitive) rat has vascular dysfunction due, in part, to the up-regulation of the CYP4A/20-HETE (cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylase 4A)/20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid) system. To assess the role of vascular 20-HETE, SS rats were compared with SS-5(BN) consomic rats, carrying CYP4A alleles on chromosome ...
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Cvents Munich, Germany destination guide gives event planners all the necessary information to determine if Munich, Germany is the right city for their event.
Crash involves two trains that hit head-on near Bad Aibling, about 60 kilometers southeast of Munich; at least 10 dead, more than 80 injured
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Rastlina: Georgína * Dahlia Leo - cubuľovina, hľúzovitá r., listy protistojné, nepárno perovito zložený, kvetenstvo úbor, plody nažky, záhonová
Many quantitative trait loci (QTL) influencing mouse model phenotypes for alcoholism have been mapped genetically. However, the gene(s) comprising the QTL (QTG) are largely unknown. In previous work, Bennett and colleagues created congenic strains carrying the DBA/2IBG (D2) region for alcohol preference (AP) on chromosome 2, on a C57BL/6IBG (B6) background [1]. Subsequently, interval specific congenic recombinant strains (ISCRS), in which the full D2 QTL region was broken into smaller, partially overlapping regions of introgression, were generated and tested. With information from two ISCRS, the QTL has been mapped onto mouse chromosome 2 (Chr2) in a region of 3.4Mb by using C57BL/6J (B6) x DBA/2J (D2) recombinant inbred (RI) strains as well as by using F2 populations. Several candidate genes, Gad1, Atp5g3, Atf2, Sp3 and Sp9, have been evaluated but none of them has been confirmed for a definitive role in the regulation of the QTL of AP on Chr2 [2, 3]. ...
Six congenic lines containing B complex recombinants R1 = B-F/B-L24, B-G23; R2 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R3 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R4 = B-F/B-L2, B-G23; R5 = B-F/B-L21, B-G19; and R6R6 = B-F/B-L21, B-G23 were tested individually for antibody response against SRBC. R2, R3 and R4 arose from independent recombination events but are serologically identical. Each B complex recombinant was crossed to inbred Line UCD 003 (B17B17). After ten backcross generations to the inbred line, B complex heterozyogtes were mated to produce recombinant homozygous lines having 99.9% background gene uniformity. Birds of each line were injected intravenously with 1 mL of 2.5% SRBC at four and 11 weeks of age to induce primary and secondary antibody responses, respectively. Blood samples were collected 7 days post-injection. Microtiter methods were used to assay total anti-SRBC and mercaptoethanol-resistant (MER) serum antibody. All antibody titers were evaluated by least squares ANOVA with hatch and B recombinant genotype as main
By congenic strain mapping using autoimmune NOD.C57BL/6J congenic mice, we demonstrated previously that the type 1 diabetes (T1D) protection associated with the insulin-dependent diabetes (Idd)10 locus on chromosome 3, originally identified by linkage analysis, was in fact due to three closely linked Idd loci: Idd10, Idd18.1, and Idd18.3. In this study, we define two additional Idd loci-Idd18.2 and Idd18.4-within the boundaries of this cluster of disease-associated genes. Idd18.2 is 1.31 Mb and contains 18 genes, including Ptpn22, which encodes a phosphatase that negatively regulates T and B cell signaling. The human ortholog of Ptpn22, PTPN22, is associated with numerous autoimmune diseases, including T1D. We, therefore, assessed Ptpn22 as a candidate for Idd18.2; resequencing of the NOD Ptpn22 allele revealed 183 single nucleotide polymorphisms with the C57BL/6J (B6) allele-6 exonic and 177 intronic. Functional studies showed higher expression of full-length Ptpn22 RNA and protein, and ...
Buffalo 0 0 0--0 Dallas 0 1 1--2 ----------------------------- FIRST PERIOD -- Scoring: None. Penalties: Ludwig, Dal (Obstr tripping), 2:08. SECOND PERIOD -- Scoring: 1, Dallas, Sydor 3 (power play) (Modano, Zubov), 2:23. Penalties: Brown, Buf (interference), 1:42; Woolley, Buf (Obstr holding), 3:31; Langenbrunner, Dal (roughing), 7:44. THIRD PERIOD -- Scoring: 2, Dallas, Verbeek 3 (Matvichuk, Modano), 15:21. Penalties: Sydor, Dal (roughing), 8:21; Primeau, Buf (roughing), 8:21; R Warrener, Buf (slashing), 16:31; Zhitnik, Buf (elbowing), 17:27; Nieuwendyk, Dal (roughing), 17:27; Skrudland, Dal (Obstr tripping), 19:29. Shots on goal: --------------------------------- Buffalo 9 5 9--23 Dallas 8 7 6--21 --------------------------------- Power-play Conversions: Buf - 0 of 3, Dal - 1 of 3. Goalies: Buffalo, Hasek (21 shots, 19 saves; record: 13-5-0). Dallas, Belfour (23, 23; record: 15-7-0). A:17,001. Referees: Fraser, Koharski. Linesmen: Scapinello, Sharrers ...
Book Arthotel Munich, prices from US$34.50. Average rating of 91% from 3 Hostels.com customer reviews. View Arthotel Munich photos and pay no booking fees.
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jrepin writes In May 2003, Munichs city council resolved to migrate municipal workstations from Windows to Linux and open source. Munichs LiMux project has announced that it has exceeded its annual target for migrating the citys PCs to its LiMux client. To date in 2011, the project has migrated ...
include ,sys/types.h, #include ,sys/time.h, #include ,sys/queue.h, #include ,stdlib.h, #include ,err.h, #include ,event.h, #include ,evhttp.h, #include ,stdio.h, #include ,sys/socket.h, #include ,netinet/in.h, #include "erl_interface.h" #include "ei.h" #include ,pthread.h, #define BUFSIZE 1024 #define MAXUSERS (17*65536) // C1024K // List of current http requests by uid: struct evhttp_request * clients[MAXUSERS+1]; // Memory to store uids passed to the cleanup callback: int slots[MAXUSERS+1]; // called when user disconnects void cleanup(struct evhttp_connection *evcon, void *arg) { int *uidp = (int *) arg; fprintf(stderr, "disconnected uid %d\n", *uidp); clients[*uidp] = NULL; } // handles http connections, sets them up for chunked transfer, // extracts the user id and registers in the global connection table, // also sends a welcome chunk. void request_handler(struct evhttp_request *req, void *arg) { struct evbuffer *buf; buf = evbuffer_new(); if (buf == NULL){ err(1, "failed to create response ...
The teen who shot dead nine people in Munich on Friday was a mentally troubled man who had extensively researched rampage killings and had no apparent links to ISIS.
Leukocare AG Biotechnology Martinsried / Munich, Germany: The Next-Generation Formulation Platform We Protect your Biologics for Better Products
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is associated with amino acid variants in multiple MHC molecules. The association to MHC class II (MHC-II) has been studied in several animal models of RA. In most cases these models depend on T cells restricted to a single immunodominant peptide of the immunizing Ag, which does not resemble the autoreactive T cells in RA. An exception is pristane-induced arthritis (PIA) in the rat where polyclonal T cells induce chronic arthritis after being primed against endogenous Ags. In this study, we used a mixed genetic and functional approach to show that RT1-Ba and RT1-Bb (RT1-B locus), the rat orthologs of HLA-DQA and HLA-DQB, determine the onset and severity of PIA. We isolated a 0.2-Mb interval within the MHC-II locus of three MHC-congenic strains, of which two were protected from severe PIA. Comparison of sequence and expression variation, as well as in vivo blocking of RT1-B and RT1-D (HLA-DR), showed that arthritis in these strains is regulated by coding polymorphisms in ...
Elevated expression of LL-37 and its activating protease have been described in RA patients (6, 64), and mechanistic studies are beginning to unravel the role of LL-37 in this disease. Periarticular osteopenia is a common finding among patients with RA (65), and LL-37 induces apoptosis of osteoblasts, which could contribute to reduced bone formation in arthritic joints (7). Furthermore, a recent report characterized elevated expression of LL-37 primarily in the osteoclasts and granulocytes within the human RA synovium (66). Using a pristane-induced arthritis model in rats, upregulation of rCRAMP, the rat ortholog of LL-37, was demonstrated in granulocytes, macrophages, and γδ T cells of synovial fluid. Importantly, transfer of pristane-exposed neutrophils induced arthritis, whereas type I IFN or autoantibody responses in control rats did not (66). This suggests that LL-37 may contribute to arthritis development, but further studies are needed to clarify its role.. An association between ...
Dr. Jonas Helming is General Manager of EclipseSource Munich (http://eclipsesource.com/munich). He has many years of experience with Eclipse RCP and EMF and works as a software engineer, consultant and trainer. He is project lead of the EMF Forms (http://emfforms.org), the EMFStore (http://emfstore.org) and the EMF Client Platform (http://emfcp.org) project. In 2013, he won the Eclipse Top-Newcomer Evangelist award. He regularly speaks at conferences such as Jax, OOP, WJax and EclipseCon.. ...
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Germany already has some of the strictest gun laws in the world. Are even tighter controls the answer in the wake of the recent shooting in Munich?
Hi ! libntp/msyslog.c has a buffer overflow error. Buffer allocated for log messages is 1025 bytes. With longer messages you get an overflow. For a quick test use ntpdate `perl -e print Ax10000` Heres quick patch: --- xntp3-5.93/libntp/msyslog.c~ Tue Aug 12 09:21:29 1997 +++ xntp3-5.93/libntp/msyslog.c Mon Aug 21 16:10:31 2000 @@ -141,7 +141,8 @@ *n++ = \n; *n = \0; - vsprintf(buf, nfmt, ap); + /* Oh no ;-) */ + vsnprintf(buf, 1024, nfmt, ap); #if !defined(VMS) && !defined (SYS_VXWORKS) if (syslogit) #ifndef SYS_WINNT - ...
Di., 21. Jan. 2020, 19:30: We have a regulars table on AR and VR…• for you to get to know and get involved in the AR & VR community• to exchange new ideas and crazy concepts• to show off with new tec
Article in HTML , PDF (952 KB) , (gzipped) PostScript (611 KB). Near-IR imaging of the molecular outflows in HH 24-26, L 1634 (HH 240-241), L 1660 (HH 72) and RNO 15 FIR ...
phdthesis{40ce3c46-9e94-4b66-bdaf-09bc464fc967, abstract = {We used three animal models of rats for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in this study. Firstly, We found that CXI induced arthritis (CXIIA) is associated with the RT1 f haplotype and follows a chronic disease course affecting peripheral joints with both progression and relapses. The main difference of pathological changes in CXIIA rats against rats with CIIIA was a larger number of infiltrating lymphocytes which tended to form follicle-like aggregates. Surprisingly, males were more susceptible to CXIIA than females whereas the opposite has been observed in other rat arthritis models, including CIIIA. We also found that nasal and tracheolaryngeal cartilage is affected in LEW.1A and DA rats to varying degree in CIIIA but not in any strain in the pristane induced model. Next, we investigated the role of genetic factors in arthritis development after pristane injection. In newly made MHC congenic strains with DA background, we found that rats ...
Munich (German: München, Bavarian: Minga) [http://www.muenchen.de/home/60093/Homepage.html] is the capital city of Bavaria. Within the city limits, Munich has a population of more than 1.4 million, making it the third most populous city in Germany. Greater Munich including its suburbs has a population of 2.6 million. The Munich metropolitan region which extends to cities like Augsburg or Ingolstadt had a population of more than 5.6 million in 2008.
Munich (German: München) [http://www.muenchen.de/home/60093/Homepage.html] is the capital city of Bavaria. Within the city limits, Munich has a population of more than 1.3 million, making it the third most populous city in Germany. Greater Munich including its suburbs has a population of 2.6 million. The Munich metropolitan region which extends to cities like Augsburg or Ingolstadt had a population of more than 5.6 million in 2008.
After a 3-minute walk from the Courtyard by Marriott Munich City East you reach the railway station München Ostbahnhof. From there it takes you only 7 minutes to the City Center, 10 minutes to the trade fair Munich, 25 minutes to the Aiport.
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News for Munich, Germany continually updated from thousands of sources on the web : Hiccup for German high-speed line on 1st regular service day
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T01003 (aplc,apre,bapi,bgg,bhan,bths,cchv,ceh,chon,cwa,epa,eti,mmas,myi,nab,nhi,pmai,pspo,rdi,tbs,thh,xhr,zdf : calculation not yet completed ...
T01003 (apre,bapi,bgg,bhan,bths,cchv,ceh,chon,cwa,epa,eti,mmas,myi,nab,nhi,pmai,pspo,rdi,tbs,thh,xhr,zdf : calculation not yet completed ...
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Infection-dependent phenotypes in MHC-congenic mice are not due to MHC: can we trust congenic animals?Infection-dependent phenotypes in MHC-congenic mice are not due to MHC: can we trust congenic animals?

... ... congenic mice, we conducted the proper F2 controls and discovered significant differences between these F2 animals and MHC- ... Abstract Background Congenic strains of mice are assumed to differ only at a single gene or region of the genome. These mice ... Conclusions These data suggest that these strains differ for genes other than those in the MHC congenic region. The most likely ...
more infohttp://journaldatabase.info/articles/infection-dependent_phenotypes.html

Infection-dependent phenotypes in MHC-congenic mice are not due to MHC: can we trust congenic animals? | BMC Immunology | Full...Infection-dependent phenotypes in MHC-congenic mice are not due to MHC: can we trust congenic animals? | BMC Immunology | Full...

... congenic mice, we conducted the proper F2 controls and discovered significant differences between these F2 animals and MHC- ... MHC-congenic strain has been separated from its B10-H-2 b parental strain. During typical experiments with congenic strains, ... These data suggest that these strains differ for genes other than those in the MHC congenic region. The most likely explanation ... Infected P0 MHC q/q congenic homozygotes lost significantly more weight (p = 0.02) and had significantly higher Salmonella (p ...
more infohttps://bmcimmunol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-2172-5-14

NZM.C57Lc1 and NZM.C57Lc4 congenic lines were derived b | Open-iNZM.C57Lc1 and NZM.C57Lc4 congenic lines were derived b | Open-i

NZM.C57Lc1 and NZM.C57Lc4 congenic lines were derived by replacing the genetic intervals in NZM2328 with those from C57L/J ( ... fig1: NZM.C57Lc1 and NZM.C57Lc4 congenic lines were derived by replacing the genetic intervals in NZM2328 with those from C57L/ ... fig1: NZM.C57Lc1 and NZM.C57Lc4 congenic lines were derived by replacing the genetic intervals in NZM2328 with those from C57L/ ... In this investigation, two congenic strains, NZM2328.C57L/Jc1 (NZM.C57Lc1) and NZM2328.C57L/Jc4 (NZM.C57Lc4), were generated by ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2211766_20031519f1&req=4

Michael Cascio - Publications
     - Oregon Health & Science UniversityMichael Cascio - Publications - Oregon Health & Science University

Congenic Animals Pulmonary Alveoli Receptor, Melanocortin, Type 1 Inhalation Anesthetics Knockout Mice ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/michael-cascio/publications/

Backcross | Article about backcross by The Free DictionaryBackcross | Article about backcross by The Free Dictionary

Interval-specific congenic animals for high-resolution quantitative trait loci mapping. Identification of QTLs for early blight ...
more infohttps://encyclopedia2.thefreedictionary.com/backcross

18th International Mouse Genome Conference (2004)18th International Mouse Genome Conference (2004)

... differentiating between the congenic animals. In one case, a congenic animal carrying a locus predicted to encode ... Mice congenic for the lmr2 locus demonstrate a curious effect where the origin of the animal receiving the red cells modulates ... These congenic animals have phenotypes different from their wildtype parents. Parasitaemias are more informative than clinical ... susceptibility was much more resistant than even the "resistant" animal. Analysis of the ability of red cells from congenic ...
more infohttp://www.imgs.org/Archive/abstracts/2004abstracts/abs/file50.shtml

Experimental viral evolution to specific host MHC genotypes reveals fitness and virulence trade-offs in alternative MHC types |...Experimental viral evolution to specific host MHC genotypes reveals fitness and virulence trade-offs in alternative MHC types |...

2004) Infection-dependent phenotypes in MHC-congenic mice are not due to MHC: Can we trust congenic animals? BMC Immunol 5:14. ... All experimental animals were females between 2 and 6 mo of age. All animal use was in compliance with federal regulations and ... There are two caveats that must be made anytime one uses MHC-congenic inbred strains (or any congenic strains). First, the ... As many infected animals had titers below this level (especially animals infected with unpassaged virus), we conservatively ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/109/9/3422

Dr. Erin E. McClelland | Faculty | Middle Tennessee State UniversityDr. Erin E. McClelland | Faculty | Middle Tennessee State University

Infection-Dependent Phenotypes in MHC-congenic mice are not due to MHC: can we trust congenic animals? BMC Immunology, 5(1):14. ...
more infohttps://www.mtsu.edu/faculty/erin-e-mcclelland

PLZF induces an intravascular surveillance program mediated by long-lived LFA-1-ICAM-1 interactions | JEMPLZF induces an intravascular surveillance program mediated by long-lived LFA-1-ICAM-1 interactions | JEM

To study the NKT cell recirculation pattern, we generated parabiotic mice with pairs of CD45.1 and CD45.2 congenic animals. ... Parabiotic mice do not exchange NKT cells. CD45.1 and CD45.2 congenic C57BL/6 mice joined in parabiotic pairs at 6 wk of age ... Thus, parabiotic mice harbored ,5-10% congenic NKT cells 2 mo after surgery. In contrast, the peculiar population of CD4− NKT ... we extracted them from the spleen or liver of Vα14-Jα18 transgenic mice and intravenously injected them into CD45 congenic RAG ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/208/6/1179.full

A novel isoform of the Ly108 gene ameliorates murine lupus | JEMA novel isoform of the Ly108 gene ameliorates murine lupus | JEM

More importantly, we identified a third protein isoform, Ly108-H1, which is absent in two lupus-prone congenic animals. ... The congenic Ly108−/− [129 × B6] mouse does not develop SLE, in contrast to the B6.129chr1b congenic mouse, which contains the ... Animal experiments were approved by the Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee. ... the disruption of the Ly108 gene in a congenic mouse ameliorates disease found in a very similar congenic mouse strain that ...
more infohttp://jem.rupress.org/content/208/4/811

003383 - 129S-Nog|tm1Amc|/J003383 - 129S-Nog|tm1Amc|/J

... many animals on congenic background show increased ABR thresholds relative to wild-type mice; these animals hearing threshold ... Animals are typically ready to ship in 11-14 weeks. If a second recovery is required to produce the minimum number of animals, ... Animal Care and Use for SERVICES. Consistent with the requirement for a written understanding regarding animal care and use, ... the JACKSON Animal Care and Use Committee will review the animal care and use protocol(s) associated with any SERVICES to be ...
more infohttps://www.jax.org/strain/003383

Cascio, M.<...Cascio, M.<...

Congenic Animals Medicine & Life Sciences Histiocytes Medicine & Life Sciences Neoplasms Medicine & Life Sciences ...
more infohttps://ohsu.pure.elsevier.com/en/persons/michael-cascio

The 16th International Mouse Genome Conference (2002)The 16th International Mouse Genome Conference (2002)

Analysis of recombinant animals carrying smaller portions of the C3H congenic region suggests the presence of two modifiers, ... We have bred congenic animals carrying 70cM of chromosome 1 from C3H on an otherwise B6 genetic background. Relative to B6 ... animals, these B6.C31 mice developed up to 14-fold more liver tumors. ...
more infohttp://www.imgs.org/Archive/abstracts/2002abstracts/file5.shtml

Development of severe proteinuria in females of NZM2328 | Open-iDevelopment of severe proteinuria in females of NZM2328 | Open-i

The kinetics of proteinuria development was similar between NZM2328 and its congenic NZM.C57Lc4. There was a delay of 4 mo in ... The kinetics of proteinuria development was similar between NZM2328 and its congenic NZM.C57Lc4. There was a delay of 4 mo in ... In this investigation, two congenic strains, NZM2328.C57L/Jc1 (NZM.C57Lc1) and NZM2328.C57L/Jc4 (NZM.C57Lc4), were generated by ... In this investigation, two congenic strains, NZM2328.C57L/Jc1 (NZM.C57Lc1) and NZM2328.C57L/Jc4 (NZM.C57Lc4), were generated by ...
more infohttps://openi.nlm.nih.gov/detailedresult.php?img=PMC2211766_20031519f2&req=4

Zooming In on a Quantitative Trait for Tomato Yield Using Interspecific Introgressions | ScienceZooming In on a Quantitative Trait for Tomato Yield Using Interspecific Introgressions | Science

ILs in plants and congenic strains in animals) (2). Multiple segregating QTL at the whole-genome level tend to mask the effects ... of such targeted population structures increased the identification power for QTL by several times in both plants and animals ( ...
more infohttp://science.sciencemag.org/content/305/5691/1786?ijkey=615336564c85425d2761fa3ed7dac623927e8bd9&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Weiterbildung Programm PDFWeiterbildung Programm PDF

Animal breeding (strategies); Animal housing; Caging systems; Back-crosses; Inbred, outbred, congenic animals; Nomenclature of ... political and mediarelated aspects of animal research. Animal welfare and animal rights positions are analysed and discussed ... Application of animal experiments and legal procedures; Basic principles in statistics; Replacement of animal experiments; 3R ... Animal models (including transgenic animals, amphibians, dogs, cats, sheep, pigs and horses); Legal regulations; Ethical ...
more infohttp://docplayer.org/2733682-Weiterbildung-programm-2014.html

Short-term administration of JAK2 inhibitors reduces splenomegaly in mouse models of β-thalassemia intermedia and major |...Short-term administration of JAK2 inhibitors reduces splenomegaly in mouse models of β-thalassemia intermedia and major |...

... from Hbbth3/th3 embryos into C57BL/6 congenic animals. One month following engraftment, C57-FLCth3/th3 mice exhibited prominent ... Animals that received transfusions showed 35% reduction in spleen weight when compared with non-transfused animals (Figure 2D ... We first tested this hypothesis by transfusing RBCs from transgenic animals expressing GFP into NTDT Hbbth3/+ mice. GFP animals ... when compared to vehicle-treated animals (Figure 1A and B). This mild worsening of anemia, however, was sufficient to increase ...
more infohttp://www.haematologica.org/content/103/2/e46

Antibody-induced arthritis: disease mechanisms and genes involved at the effector phase of arthritis | Arthritis Research &...Antibody-induced arthritis: disease mechanisms and genes involved at the effector phase of arthritis | Arthritis Research &...

Of these, a pathogenic effect of the anti-CII and anti-G6PI antibodies is well demonstrated using animal models. These new ... C5 deficient congenic animals did not develop the antibody-initiated disease (KS Nandakumar and colleagues, unpublished ... Lessons from animal studies. Animal models for arthritis reveal that breakdown of tolerance by disruption of homeostasis or ... Need for animal models. A basic understanding of disease mechanisms is a prerequisite for finding effective therapy with ...
more infohttps://arthritis-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/ar2089

Rituximab specifically depletes short-lived autoreactive plasma cells in a mouse model of inflammatory arthritis | PNASRituximab specifically depletes short-lived autoreactive plasma cells in a mouse model of inflammatory arthritis | PNAS

... hCD20/K/g7 animals were generated by first crossing hCD20 transgenic mice on the B6 background (12) to B6.H-2g7 congenic mice ... transgenic and B6.H-2g7 congenic animals. The minimum genetic requirements for development of arthritis in the K/BxN model are ... K/BxN animals were generated by crossing KRN TCR transgenic mice on the B6 genetic background with non-obese diabetic mice (10 ... This is not surprising given that the concentration of anti-GPI Abs is so high in such animals (up to 10 mg/mL) that they ...
more infohttp://www.pnas.org/content/107/10/4658

Mouse H6 Homeobox 1 (Hmx1) mutations cause cranial abnormalities and reduced body mass | BMC Developmental Biology | Full TextMouse H6 Homeobox 1 (Hmx1) mutations cause cranial abnormalities and reduced body mass | BMC Developmental Biology | Full Text

Recombinant animals and specific deletion-bearing mice were used to map the dumbo mutation to a 1.8 Mb region on Chromosome 5. ... Breeding data of congenic animals confirmed the qualitative findings of Wilson et al [11] that dmbo is semilethal. Litters ... we also weighed animals produce by intercrosses of homozygotes (dmbo/dmbo). These animals had weights similar to the ... Recombinant animals and specific deletion-bearing mice were used to map the dumbo mutation to a 1.8 Mb region on Chromosome 5. ...
more infohttps://bmcdevbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/1471-213X-9-27

Validation of VPS41, a Protein Involved in Lysosomal Trafficking, as a Target for Parkinson Disease Therapy | Parkinsons...Validation of VPS41, a Protein Involved in Lysosomal Trafficking, as a Target for Parkinson Disease Therapy | Parkinson's...

... the need to breed congenic animals, and delays in production of the AAV vector. This supplement will allow us to complete the ...
more infohttps://www.michaeljfox.org/foundation/grant-detail.php?grant_id=650

Frontiers | Leukemia-Initiating Cells in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia | OncologyFrontiers | Leukemia-Initiating Cells in T-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia | Oncology

... have been found in both human T-ALL patients and animal models, the nature and origin of LICs are largely unknown. In this ... have been found in both human T-ALL patients and animal models, the nature and origin of LICs are largely unknown. In this ... μ-Myc model of pre-B/B-cell lymphoma were shown to engraft in non-congenic animals regardless of the number of cells injected ( ... LICs in Other Animal Models of T-ALL. Additionally, several other animal models of T-ALL have been used to analyze LICs. In ...
more infohttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fonc.2017.00218/full

Association of estrogen receptor-α and progesterone receptor A expression with hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: role of the...Association of estrogen receptor-α and progesterone receptor A expression with hormonal mammary carcinogenesis: role of the...

... epithelial cells were transplanted into cleared fat pads of 21-day-old female Swiss nu/nu mice or control congenic animals. MPA ... nu mice or control congenic animals. ... In control groups, animals were killed at diestrus; animals ... Institute of Laboratory Animal Resources CoLSNRC: Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals. 1996, Washington, DC: ... All animals were weighed weekly and the results expressed as mean ± standard error. MPA-treated animals showed an increase in ...
more infohttps://breast-cancer-research.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/bcr1660

Similar - Books on Google PlaySimilar - Books on Google Play

Since the last edition we have witnessed an explosion in the use of both congenic and transgenic animals. The use of specific ... Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research: Edition 3 David Gross June 26, 2009 3 ... This third edition is designed to provide a better basis for understanding and using animal models in the current climate of ... Chapter 4 addresses the techniques, problems and pitfalls of measuring cardiac function in animals. There is an emphasis on the ...
more infohttps://play.google.com/store/books/collection/books_clusters_mrl_9F614612_C3413252_678E4C61
  • In this investigation, two congenic strains, NZM2328.C57L/Jc1 (NZM.C57Lc1) and NZM2328.C57L/Jc4 (NZM.C57Lc4), were generated by replacing the respective genetic intervals containing either Cgnz1 or Adnz1 with those from C57L/J, a nonlupus-prone strain. (nih.gov)
  • NZM.C57Lc1 and NZM.C57Lc4 congenic lines were derived by replacing the genetic intervals in NZM2328 with those from C57L/J (hatched bars). (nih.gov)
  • The kinetics of proteinuria development was similar between NZM2328 and its congenic NZM.C57Lc4. (nih.gov)
  • Previously, we observed a single linkage peak for BP in this region in second filial generation rats derived from a cross of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) with the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY), and we have reported the isolation of the region containing the BP effect in reciprocal congenic strains (WKY.SHR-Sa) and (SHR.WKY-Sa) derived from these animals. (ahajournals.org)
  • However, their utility depends on the maintenance of this true congenic nature. (journaldatabase.info)
  • Although leukemia-initiating cells (LICs), which can generate leukemia in a xenograft setting, have been found in both human T-ALL patients and animal models, the nature and origin of LICs are largely unknown. (frontiersin.org)
  • This third edition is designed to provide a better basis for understanding and using animal models in the current climate of background knowledge and information. (google.com)
  • This new edition of Animal Models in Cardiovascular Research describes historical and recent advances in our understanding of the cardiovascular system from studies conducted in a variety of animal models. (google.com)
  • Our observations serve to illustrate the complexity of QTL dissection and the care needed to interpret findings from congenic studies. (ahajournals.org)
  • In one case, a congenic animal carrying a locus predicted to encode susceptibility was much more resistant than even the "resistant" animal. (imgs.org)
  • Of these, a pathogenic effect of the anti-CII and anti-G6PI antibodies is well demonstrated using animal models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite the clinical relevance, even less is known about the mechanisms that regulate these cells in old animals. (stemcellbiology.nl)
  • 1969 - Began offering rats, including Sprague Dawley, one of the most popular breeds of laboratory rat 1969 - Taconic was the first breeder to receive full accreditation from the American Association for the Accreditation of Laboratory Animals 1970 - Contracted to provide the National Institutes of Health with Sprague Dawley rats. (wikipedia.org)