The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
'Laboratory animals' are non-human creatures that are intentionally used in scientific research, testing, and education settings to investigate physiological processes, evaluate the safety and efficacy of drugs or medical devices, and teach anatomy, surgical techniques, and other healthcare-related skills.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
'Housing, Animal' refers to the physical structure or environment designed and constructed to provide shelter, protection, and specific living conditions for various domestic or captive animals, meeting their biological and behavioral needs while ensuring their welfare and well-being.
Individuals with a degree in veterinary medicine that provides them with training and qualifications to treat diseases and injuries of animals.
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.
Skin diseases of the foot, general or unspecified.
The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with improving and maintaining farm income and developing and expanding markets for agricultural products. Through inspection and grading services it safeguards and insures standards of quality in food supply and production.
The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Procedures for recognizing individual animals and certain identifiable characteristics pertaining to them; includes computerized methods, ear tags, etc.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
Physical manipulation of animals and humans to induce a behavioral or other psychological reaction. In experimental psychology, the animal is handled to induce a stress situation or to study the effects of "gentling" or "mothering".
'Zoo animals' are various species of captive wild animals, housed and displayed in a facility for the purpose of public education, conservation, research, and recreation.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
Societies whose membership is limited to scientists.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Financial assistance provided by the government to indigent families with dependent children who meet certain requirements as defined by the Social Security Act, Title IV, in the U.S.

Effect of pen size on behavioral, endocrine, and immune responses of water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. (1/550)

Female water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves (n = 28) aged 7 to 10 d were divided into four groups of seven animals each to examine the effects of space allowance (Group A: 2.6 indoor m2 + 2.0 outdoor m2/calf; Group B: 2.6 indoor m2/calf; Group C: 1.5 indoor m2/calf; Group D: 1.0 indoor m2/calf) on behavioral, endocrine, and immune variables for a period of 60 d. Animals were offered 7 L/d of a commercial acidified milk substitute. The calves averaged 45.9 kg initially and 92.4 kg finally. The behavior observations were conducted 7 d after grouping and fortnightly thereafter. At wk 4 and 8, the phytohemagglutinin (PHA) skin test was performed to induce aspecific delayed hypersensitivity. At wk. 1 and 3, calves were injected i.m. with keyhole limpet hemocyanin. Antibody titers were determined at weekly intervals for 7 wk. Calves in pens with greater space allowance (Groups A and B) were less active than Groups C and D (P<.001). The latter groups were also observed feeding more often at wk 7 (P<.01). Calves provided with an outdoor paddock spent less time standing than Groups C and D (P<.01), and lay with a greater number of outstretched legs (P<.001). Groups C and D showed a lower reaction to PHA in both skin tests than did Groups A and B (P<.001 and P<.05, respectively). Group A showed an antibody response consistently higher than groups B, C, and D (P<.01, P<.05, and P<.05, respectively). At the end of the experimental period, the calves were subjected to an isolation test lasting 10 min. Group D showed a longer duration of movement with respect to Groups A and B (P<.01); animals from Group C walked more than did Group A (P<.05). Cortisol concentration evaluated 0, 10, 45, 90, 150, and 225 min after separation from the group was higher in Groups C and D than in Groups A and B (P<.01). For all animals, the highest cortisol level was observed immediately after the isolation test (P<.001). Space restriction resulted in evidence of stress in the animals as shown by alterations in a number of physiological responses. However, the use of small groups of only seven animals per pen may have affected their reactions to space restriction. It is possible that using larger groups could change these conclusions.  (+info)

Comparative cardiopulmonary effects of carfentanil-xylazine and medetomidine-ketamine used for immobilization of mule deer and mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids. (2/550)

Three mule deer and 4 mule deer/white-tailed deer hybrids were immobilized in a crossover study with carfentanil (10 microg/kg) + xylazine (0.3 mg/kg) (CX), and medetomidine (100 microg/kg) + ketamine (2.5 mg/kg) (MK). The deer were maintained in left lateral recumbency for 1 h with each combination. Deer were immobilized with MK in 230+/-68 s (mean +/- SD) and with CX in 282+/-83 seconds. Systolic, mean and diastolic arterial pressure were significantly higher with MK. Heart rate, PaO2, PaCO2, pH, and base excess were not significantly different between treatments. Base excess and pH increased significantly over time with both treatments. Both treatments produced hypoventilation (PaCO2 > 50 mm Hg) and hypoxemia (PaO2 < 60 mm Hg). PaO2 increased significantly over time with CX. Body temperature was significantly (P<0.05) higher with CX compared to MK. Ventricular premature contractions, atrial premature contractions, and a junctional escape rhythm were noted during CX immobilization. No arrhythmias were noted during MK immobilization. Quality of immobilization was superior with MK, with no observed movement present for the 60 min of immobilization. Movement of the head and limbs occurred in 4 animals immobilized with CX. The major complication observed with both of these treatments was hypoxemia, and supplemental inspired oxygen is recommended during immobilization. Hyperthermia can further complicate immobilization with CX, reinforcing the need for supplemental oxygen.  (+info)

Headroom requirements for horses in transit. (3/550)

Horses intended for slaughter in Western Canada are frequently transported in double-deck trailers, where headroom may be restricted. Poll and withers height was estimated from type photographs of various horse breeds. The headroom required by Canadian legislation and codes of practice may not be sufficiently restrictive to protect the welfare of sport type horses when transported.  (+info)

Comparison of minimum space allowance standards for transportation of cattle by road from 8 authorities. (4/550)

Space allowance for animals in transit is a consistent concern in many countries developing codes of practice and regulations to assure humane treatment of food producing animals. Describing minimum space allowance requirements for cattle in transit has proven to be difficult, as the space required increases as the animal grows. Loading pressure, defined as weight of live animal per unit area, has proven to be a clear method of communicating with transporters and inspection staff what the maximum safe stocking limit is based on individual animal weight. The loading density recommendations in the Canadian code of practice for beef cattle are compared with other standards by using loading pressure charts as a visual aid. Loading pressure charts are recommended in preference to a tabular format to describe the minimal space allowed per animal for cattle transported by road.  (+info)

Principles in laboratory animal research for experimental purposes. (5/550)

The present work contains information about proper husbandry and care of laboratory animals, microbiological monitoring of their health and protecting them against suffering and distress. The author also gives some advice on the improvement and unification of experimental research results through the standardisation of laboratory animals used for the experiments as well as imposing proper conditions for animal husbandry.  (+info)

The "new perception" of animal agriculture: legless cows, featherless chickens, and a need for genuine analysis. (6/550)

A growing popular literature has created a "New Perception" of animal agriculture by depicting commercial animal production as 1) detrimental to animal welfare, 2) controlled by corporate interests, 3) motivated by profit rather than by traditional animal care values, 4) causing increased world hunger, 5) producing unhealthy food, and 6) harming the environment. Agricultural organizations have often responded with public relations material promoting a very positive image of animal agriculture and denying all six of the critics' claims. The public, faced with these two highly simplistic and contradictory images, needs knowledgeable research and analysis to serve as a basis for public policy and individual choice. Scientists and ethicists could provide such analysis. In some cases, however, scientists and ethicists have themselves produced misleading, polarized, or simplistic accounts of animal agriculture. The problems in such accounts include the repetition of unreliable information from advocacy sources, use of unwarranted generalizations, simplistic analysis of complex issues, and glossing over the ethical problems. The New Perception debate raises important and complex ethical issues; in order to provide useful guidance, both scientists and ethicists must consider these issues as research problems that are worthy of genuine investigation and analysis.  (+info)

Perspectives on hepatitis B studies with chimpanzees. (7/550)

Chimpanzees have been shown to be exquisitely susceptible to human hepatitis viruses, without themselves developing clinical illness, thus providing an important model for studies on these agents. Chimpanzees have contributed substantially to human welfare by making possible the development of hepatitis B vaccines, which now prevent development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in millions of people. They have provided a means to evaluate the efficacy of virus inactivation strategies, which have made blood derivatives formerly contaminated with blood-borne viruses (hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency viruses) safe with respect to their transmission. In exchange for these contributions, humans owe chimpanzees lifelong retirement in sanctuaries that offer socialization and environmental enrichment.  (+info)

Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and imaging in animal research. (8/550)

Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and imaging can be used to investigate, noninvasively, a wide range of biological processes in systems as diverse as protein solutions, single cells, isolated perfused organs, and tissues in vivo. It is also possible to combine different NMR techniques enabling metabolic, anatomical, and physiological information to be obtained in the same experiment. This review provides a simple overview of the basic principles of NMR and outlines both the advantages and disadvantages of NMR spectroscopy and imaging. A few examples of potential applications of NMR spectroscopy and imaging are presented, which demonstrate the range of questions that can be asked using these techniques. The potential impact of using NMR techniques in a biomedical research program on the total number of animals required for specific investigations, as well as the number of animals used in research, are discussed. The article concludes with a personal perspective on the impact of continuing improvements in NMR technology for future applications in animal research.  (+info)

Animal welfare is a concept that refers to the state of an animal's physical and mental health, comfort, and ability to express normal behaviors. It encompasses factors such as proper nutrition, housing, handling, care, treatment, and protection from harm and distress. The goal of animal welfare is to ensure that animals are treated with respect and consideration, and that their needs and interests are met in a responsible and ethical manner.

The concept of animal welfare is based on the recognition that animals are sentient beings capable of experiencing pain, suffering, and emotions, and that they have intrinsic value beyond their usefulness to humans. It is guided by principles such as the "Five Freedoms," which include freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury or disease, freedom to express normal behavior, and freedom from fear and distress.

Animal welfare is an important consideration in various fields, including agriculture, research, conservation, entertainment, and companionship. It involves a multidisciplinary approach that draws on knowledge from biology, ethology, veterinary medicine, psychology, philosophy, and law. Ultimately, animal welfare aims to promote the humane treatment of animals and to ensure their well-being in all aspects of their lives.

Animal experimentation, also known as animal testing, refers to the use of non-human animals in scientific research and testing to understand the effects of various substances, treatments, or procedures on living organisms. This practice is performed with the goal of advancing medical and veterinary knowledge, developing new medications, treatments, and surgical techniques, as well as studying basic biological processes and diseases.

In animal experimentation, researchers expose animals to specific conditions, treatments, or substances and then analyze their responses, behaviors, physiological changes, or other outcomes. The selection of animal species for these experiments depends on the research question and the similarities between the animal model and the human or target species under investigation. Commonly used animals include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, primates, and dogs.

Animal experimentation has been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs and medical advancements throughout history. However, it remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding the treatment and welfare of animals used in research. Many organizations advocate for the reduction, refinement, or replacement (3Rs) of animal testing, aiming to minimize animal suffering and find alternative methods whenever possible.

Animal Care Committees (ACCs), also known as Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) in the United States, are committees required by regulations to oversee the humane treatment and use of animals in research and teaching at institutions such as universities, hospitals, and pharmaceutical companies.

The main responsibilities of ACCs include reviewing and approving animal use protocols, inspecting animal facilities and laboratories, ensuring compliance with relevant policies and regulations, and providing training and education to researchers and staff on the ethical treatment of animals. The members of ACCs typically include veterinarians, scientists, non-scientists, and community members who can provide a balanced perspective on the use of animals in research and teaching.

'Laboratory animals' are defined as non-human creatures that are used in scientific research and experiments to study various biological phenomena, develop new medical treatments and therapies, test the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical devices, and other products. These animals are kept under controlled conditions in laboratory settings and are typically purpose-bred for research purposes.

The use of laboratory animals is subject to strict regulations and guidelines to ensure their humane treatment and welfare. The most commonly used species include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, dogs, cats, non-human primates, and fish. Other less common species may also be used depending on the specific research question being studied.

The primary goal of using laboratory animals in research is to advance our understanding of basic biological processes and develop new medical treatments that can improve human and animal health. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding their welfare and potential for suffering.

Animal husbandry is the practice of breeding and raising animals for agricultural purposes, such as for the production of meat, milk, eggs, or fiber. It involves providing proper care for the animals, including feeding, housing, health care, and breeding management. The goal of animal husbandry is to maintain healthy and productive animals while also being mindful of environmental sustainability and animal welfare.

"Animal rights" is a term that refers to the philosophical and moral stance that non-human animals have inherent value and basic rights to live free from exploitation, harm, and unnecessary suffering. This perspective holds that animals are not merely property or resources for human use, but sentient beings capable of experiencing pleasure and pain, just like humans.

The concept of animal rights is often associated with the abolitionist movement, which advocates for an end to all forms of animal exploitation, including farming, hunting, fishing, entertainment, experimentation, and clothing production. Instead, proponents of animal rights argue that animals should be treated with respect and compassion, and that their interests and well-being should be considered on par with those of humans.

It is important to note that the concept of animal rights can vary in scope and specifics, with some advocates focusing on certain species or issues, while others take a more comprehensive approach. Ultimately, the goal of the animal rights movement is to promote a more just and equitable relationship between humans and animals, based on respect for their inherent worth and dignity.

"Social welfare" is a broad concept and not a medical term per se, but it is often discussed in the context of public health and medical social work. Here's a definition related to those fields:

Social welfare refers to the programs, services, and benefits provided by governmental and non-governmental organizations to promote the well-being of individuals, families, and communities, with a particular focus on meeting basic needs, protecting vulnerable populations, and enhancing social and economic opportunities. These efforts aim to improve overall quality of life, reduce health disparities, and strengthen the social determinants of health.

Examples of social welfare programs include Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Medicaid, Section 8 housing assistance, and various community-based services such as mental health counseling, substance abuse treatment, and home healthcare.

In the medical field, social workers often play a crucial role in connecting patients to available social welfare resources to address various psychosocial needs that can impact their health outcomes.

Domestic animals, also known as domestic animals or pets, are species that have been tamed and kept by humans for various purposes. These purposes can include companionship, work, protection, or food production. Some common examples of domestic animals include dogs, cats, cows, sheep, goats, pigs, horses, and chickens.

Domestic animals are distinguished from wild animals in that they are dependent on humans for their survival and are able to live in close proximity to people. They have often been selectively bred over generations to possess certain traits or characteristics that make them more suitable for their intended uses. For example, dogs may be bred for their size, strength, agility, or temperament, while cats may be bred for their coat patterns or behaviors.

It is important to note that the term "domestic animal" does not necessarily mean that an animal is tame or safe to handle. Some domestic animals, such as certain breeds of dogs, can be aggressive or dangerous if not properly trained and managed. It is always important to approach and handle any animal, domestic or wild, with caution and respect.

Euthanasia, when used in the context of animals, refers to the act of intentionally causing the death of an animal in a humane and peaceful manner to alleviate suffering from incurable illness or injury. It is also commonly referred to as "putting an animal to sleep" or "mercy killing." The goal of euthanasia in animals is to minimize pain and distress, and it is typically carried out by a veterinarian using approved medications and techniques. Euthanasia may be considered when an animal's quality of life has become significantly compromised and there are no reasonable treatment options available to alleviate its suffering.

Laboratory Animal Science (also known as Experimental Animal Science) is a multidisciplinary field that involves the care, use, and breeding of animals for scientific research. It encompasses various disciplines such as veterinary medicine, biology, genetics, nutrition, and ethology to ensure the humane treatment, proper husbandry, and experimental validity when using animals in research.

The primary goal of laboratory animal science is to support and advance biological and medical knowledge by providing well-characterized and healthy animals for research purposes. This field also includes the development and implementation of guidelines, regulations, and standards regarding the use of animals in research to ensure their welfare and minimize any potential distress or harm.

Animal testing alternatives, also known as alternative methods or replacement methods, refer to scientific techniques that can be used to replace the use of animals in research and testing. These methods aim to achieve the same scientific objectives while avoiding harm to animals. There are several categories of animal testing alternatives:

1. In vitro (test tube or cell culture) methods: These methods involve growing cells or tissues in a laboratory setting, outside of a living organism. They can be used to study the effects of chemicals, drugs, and other substances on specific cell types or tissues.
2. Computer modeling and simulation: Advanced computer programs and algorithms can be used to model biological systems and predict how they will respond to various stimuli. These methods can help researchers understand complex biological processes without using animals.
3. In silico (using computer models) methods: These methods involve the use of computational tools and databases to predict the potential toxicity or other biological effects of chemicals, drugs, and other substances. They can be used to identify potential hazards and prioritize further testing.
4. Microdosing: This method involves giving human volunteers very small doses of a drug or chemical, followed by careful monitoring to assess its safety and pharmacological properties. This approach can provide valuable information while minimizing the use of animals.
5. Tissue engineering: Scientists can create functional tissue constructs using cells, scaffolds, and bioreactors. These engineered tissues can be used to study the effects of drugs, chemicals, and other substances on human tissues without using animals.
6. Human-based approaches: These methods involve the use of human volunteers, donated tissues, or cells obtained from consenting adults. Examples include microdosing, organ-on-a-chip technology, and the use of human cell lines in laboratory experiments.

These animal testing alternatives can help reduce the number of animals used in research and testing, refine experimental procedures to minimize suffering, and replace the use of animals with non-animal methods whenever possible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Housing, Animal" is not a standard term in medical terminology. Medical terminology typically relates to the human body, diseases, treatments, and healthcare practices. "Housing, Animal" would be more related to veterinary medicine or animal care fields, which pertain to the accommodation and environment provided for animals. If you have any questions related to medical terminology, I'd be happy to help!

A veterinarian is a licensed medical professional who practices veterinary medicine. They are dedicated to the health and well-being of animals, ranging from pets and livestock to wild animals and exotic creatures. Veterinarians diagnose, treat, and prevent diseases and injuries in animals, and they also provide advice and guidance on animal care and nutrition.

Veterinarians may specialize in a particular area of veterinary medicine, such as surgery, internal medicine, dentistry, dermatology, or emergency care. They may work in private clinical practice, research institutions, government agencies, zoos, wildlife rehabilitation centers, or the animal health industry.

To become a veterinarian, one must complete a Doctor of Veterinary Medicine (DVM) degree from an accredited veterinary school and pass a licensing exam. Veterinary schools typically require applicants to have a bachelor's degree with a strong background in science courses. Additionally, veterinarians must adhere to strict ethical standards and maintain their knowledge and skills through ongoing education and training.

"Animal Use Alternatives" refers to the methods and techniques used in scientific research, testing, and education that avoid or reduce the use of animals. The three main categories of alternatives are:

1. Replacement: This involves using non-animal methods to entirely replace the use of animals in a particular procedure or experiment. Examples include the use of computer modeling, cell cultures, and tissue samples instead of live animals.
2. Reduction: This refers to methods that reduce the number of animals used in a given procedure or experiment while still achieving the same scientific objective. Examples include using statistical methods to design experiments that require fewer animals, or sharing data and resources between research groups.
3. Refinement: This involves modifying procedures to minimize suffering and improve animal welfare for those animals that are still used. Examples include using anesthesia and pain relief during surgical procedures, providing appropriate housing and enrichment, and implementing humane endpoints in experiments.

The development and implementation of animal use alternatives is a key goal in the ethical and responsible conduct of scientific research, testing, and education.

Ethology is the scientific study of animal behavior, especially in a natural or instinctive environment. It focuses on the observational research and analysis of animal behavior, including communication, social organization, mating, and development. Ethologists aim to understand the evolutionary basis for these behaviors and how they contribute to an animal's survival and reproduction. The field draws upon various disciplines, including psychology, biology, anthropology, and ecology.

Foot dermatoses refer to various skin conditions that affect the feet. These can include inflammatory conditions like eczema and psoriasis, infectious diseases such as athlete's foot (tinea pedis), fungal infections, bacterial infections, viral infections (like plantar warts caused by HPV), and autoimmune blistering disorders. Additionally, contact dermatitis from irritants or allergens can also affect the feet. Proper diagnosis is essential to determine the best course of treatment for each specific condition.

In the context of medical definitions, "transportation" typically refers to the movement of patients from one location to another. This can include the transfer of patients between healthcare facilities (such as from a hospital to a long-term care facility), between departments within a healthcare facility (such as from the emergency department to an inpatient unit), or to and from medical appointments.

Transportation may also refer to the movement of medical equipment, supplies, or specimens between locations. In this context, transportation ensures that necessary items are delivered to the right place at the right time, which is critical for providing high-quality patient care.

It's important to note that safe and timely transportation is essential for ensuring positive patient outcomes, reducing the risk of adverse events, and improving overall healthcare efficiency.

The United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) is not a medical organization or entity, so it does not provide medical definitions. However, I can give you some information about what the USDA is and what it does.

The USDA is a federal executive department of the U.S. government responsible for developing and executing federal laws related to farming, forestry, and food. It was established in 1862 by President Abraham Lincoln and is headed by the Secretary of Agriculture, who is a member of the President's cabinet.

The USDA has several key missions, including:

* Promoting agricultural trade and production
* Ensuring the safety of the food supply
* Providing nutrition assistance to vulnerable populations
* Protecting natural resources and the environment
* Promoting rural development and economic stability

In terms of food and nutrition, the USDA plays an important role in setting dietary guidelines for Americans, establishing standards for school meals and other federal food programs, and regulating the safety of meat, poultry, and egg products. The agency also conducts research on agricultural and food-related topics and provides education and outreach to farmers, ranchers, and consumers.

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. In the medical field, ethics refers to the principles that guide doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals in making decisions about patient care. These principles often include respect for autonomy (the right of patients to make their own decisions), non-maleficence (doing no harm), beneficence (acting in the best interests of the patient), and justice (fairness in the distribution of resources). Medical ethics may also involve considerations of confidentiality, informed consent, and end-of-life decision making.

Veterinary medicine is the branch of medical science that deals with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases, disorders, and injuries in non-human animals. The profession of veterinary medicine is dedicated to the care, health, and welfare of animals, as well as to the promotion of human health through animal research and public health advancements. Veterinarians employ a variety of diagnostic methods including clinical examination, radiography, laboratory testing, and ultrasound imaging. They use a range of treatments, including medication, surgery, and dietary management. In addition, veterinarians may also advise on preventative healthcare measures such as vaccination schedules and parasite control programs.

'Animal behavior' refers to the actions or responses of animals to various stimuli, including their interactions with the environment and other individuals. It is the study of the actions of animals, whether they are instinctual, learned, or a combination of both. Animal behavior includes communication, mating, foraging, predator avoidance, and social organization, among other things. The scientific study of animal behavior is called ethology. This field seeks to understand the evolutionary basis for behaviors as well as their physiological and psychological mechanisms.

Animal Identification Systems refer to methods and technologies used for identifying individual animals, typically for the purposes of animal health monitoring, traceability in food production, and conservation efforts. These systems can include various forms of physical tags, electronic identification devices, and data management software. Common examples include ear tags, radio-frequency identification (RFID) transponders, and tattooing or branding. The goal of animal identification systems is to enable accurate tracking and monitoring of animals throughout their lifecycle, which can help prevent the spread of disease, ensure food safety, and support research and conservation efforts.

Child welfare is a broad term that refers to the overall well-being and protection of children. It encompasses a range of services and interventions aimed at promoting the physical, emotional, social, and educational development of children, while also protecting them from harm, abuse, and neglect. The medical definition of child welfare may include:

1. Preventive Services: Programs and interventions designed to strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, such as home visiting programs, parent education classes, and family support services.
2. Protective Services: Interventions that aim to protect children from harm, abuse, or neglect, including investigations of reports of maltreatment, removal of children from dangerous situations, and provision of alternative care arrangements.
3. Family Reunification Services: Efforts to reunite children with their families when it is safe and in the best interest of the child, such as family therapy, parent-child visitation, and case management services.
4. Permanency Planning: The development of long-term plans for children who cannot safely return to their families, including adoption, guardianship, or other permanent living arrangements.
5. Foster Care Services: Provision of temporary care for children who cannot safely remain in their own homes, including placement with foster families, group homes, or residential treatment facilities.
6. Child Health and Development Services: Programs that promote the physical, emotional, and developmental well-being of children, such as health screenings, immunizations, mental health services, and early intervention programs for children with special needs.
7. Advocacy and Policy Development: Efforts to promote policies and practices that support the well-being and protection of children, including advocating for laws and regulations that protect children's rights and ensure their safety and well-being.

"Animals, Zoo" is not a medical term. However, it generally refers to a collection of various species of wild animals kept in enclosures or exhibits for the public to view and learn about. These animals are usually obtained from different parts of the world and live in environments that attempt to simulate their natural habitats. Zoos play an essential role in conservation efforts, education, and research. They provide a unique opportunity for people to connect with wildlife and understand the importance of preserving and protecting endangered species and their ecosystems.

An abattoir is a facility where animals are slaughtered and processed for human consumption. It is also known as a slaughterhouse. The term "abattoir" comes from the French word "abattre," which means "to take down" or "slaughter." In an abattoir, animals such as cattle, pigs, sheep, and chickens are killed and then butchered into smaller pieces of meat that can be sold to consumers.

Abattoirs must follow strict regulations to ensure the humane treatment of animals and the safety of the meat products they produce. These regulations cover various aspects of the slaughtering and processing process, including animal handling, stunning, bleeding, evisceration, and inspection. The goal of these regulations is to minimize the risk of contamination and ensure that the meat is safe for human consumption.

It's important to note that while abattoirs play an essential role in providing a reliable source of protein for humans, they can also be controversial due to concerns about animal welfare and the environmental impact of large-scale animal agriculture.

Scientific societies are organizations that bring together professionals and researchers in a specific scientific field to promote the advancement of knowledge, research, and application of that science. These societies often engage in activities such as publishing scientific journals, organizing conferences and meetings, providing continuing education and professional development opportunities, and advocating for science policy and funding. Membership may be open to anyone with an interest in the field, or it may be restricted to individuals who meet certain qualifications, such as holding a degree in the relevant scientific discipline. Examples of scientific societies include the American Medical Association (AMA), the American Chemical Society (ACS), and the Royal Society of London.

The European Union (EU) is not a medical term or organization, but rather a political and economic union of 27 European countries. It is primarily involved in matters related to policy, law, and trade, and does not have a direct role in the provision or regulation of healthcare services, except in certain specific areas such as pharmaceutical regulations and cross-border healthcare directives.

Therefore, there is no medical definition for "European Union."

Research ethics refers to the principles and guidelines that govern the conduct of research involving human participants or animals. The overarching goal of research ethics is to ensure that research is conducted in a way that respects the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of all those involved. Research ethics are designed to prevent harm, promote fairness, and maintain trust between researchers and study participants.

Some key principles of research ethics include:

1. Respect for Persons: This means treating all individuals with respect and dignity, and recognizing their autonomy and right to make informed decisions about participating in research.
2. Beneficence: Researchers have a duty to maximize the benefits of research while minimizing potential harms.
3. Justice: Research should be conducted fairly, without discrimination or bias, and should benefit all those who are affected by it.
4. Confidentiality: Researchers must protect the privacy and confidentiality of study participants, including their personal information and data.
5. Informed Consent: Participants must give their voluntary and informed consent to participate in research, after being fully informed about the nature of the study, its risks and benefits, and their rights as a participant.

Research ethics are typically overseen by institutional review boards (IRBs) or research ethics committees (RECs), which review research proposals and monitor ongoing studies to ensure that they comply with ethical guidelines. Researchers who violate these guidelines may face sanctions, including loss of funding, suspension or revocation of their research privileges, or legal action.

Toxicity tests, also known as toxicity assays, are a set of procedures used to determine the harmful effects of various substances on living organisms, typically on cells, tissues, or whole animals. These tests measure the degree to which a substance can cause damage, inhibit normal functioning, or lead to death in exposed organisms.

Toxicity tests can be conducted in vitro (in a test tube or petri dish) using cell cultures or in vivo (in living organisms) using animals such as rats, mice, or rabbits. The results of these tests help researchers and regulators assess the potential risks associated with exposure to various chemicals, drugs, or environmental pollutants.

There are several types of toxicity tests, including:

1. Acute toxicity tests: These tests measure the immediate effects of a single exposure to a substance over a short period (usually 24 hours or less).
2. Chronic toxicity tests: These tests evaluate the long-term effects of repeated exposures to a substance over an extended period (weeks, months, or even years).
3. Genotoxicity tests: These tests determine whether a substance can damage DNA or cause mutations in genetic material.
4. Developmental and reproductive toxicity tests: These tests assess the impact of a substance on fertility, embryonic development, and offspring health.
5. Carcinogenicity tests: These tests evaluate the potential of a substance to cause cancer.
6. Ecotoxicity tests: These tests determine the effects of a substance on entire ecosystems, including plants, animals, and microorganisms.

Toxicity tests play a crucial role in protecting public health by helping to identify potentially harmful substances and establish safe exposure levels. They also contribute to the development of new drugs, chemicals, and consumer products by providing critical data for risk assessment and safety evaluation.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

"Swine" is a common term used to refer to even-toed ungulates of the family Suidae, including domestic pigs and wild boars. However, in a medical context, "swine" often appears in the phrase "swine flu," which is a strain of influenza virus that typically infects pigs but can also cause illness in humans. The 2009 H1N1 pandemic was caused by a new strain of swine-origin influenza A virus, which was commonly referred to as "swine flu." It's important to note that this virus is not transmitted through eating cooked pork products; it spreads from person to person, mainly through respiratory droplets produced when an infected person coughs or sneezes.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

In medical terms, "breeding" is not a term that is commonly used. It is more frequently used in the context of animal husbandry to refer to the process of mating animals in order to produce offspring with specific desired traits or characteristics. In human medicine, the term is not typically applied to people and instead, related concepts such as reproduction, conception, or pregnancy are used.

"Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC)" was a federal assistance program in the United States, established in 1935 as part of the Social Security Act. The program provided financial assistance to families with dependent children who were deprived of support due to the death, disability, or absence of one or both parents.

The primary goal of AFDC was to help ensure the basic needs of children were met, including food, clothing, and housing. Eligibility for the program was based on income and resource limits, and the amount of assistance provided varied by state. In 1996, AFDC was replaced by the Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF) block grant program as part of the Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act.

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The Animal Welfare (Sentience) Bill partly came about through the desire to separate out the two sections of the Animal Welfare ... Animal Welfare (Kept Animals) Bill List of Acts of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, 2020-present "Animals to be formally ... Nurse, Angus (2019). "A Question of Sentience: Brexit, Animal Welfare and Animal Protection Law". Journal of Animal & ... Further complaints were raised such as the notion that the UK has recognised animal sentience and that animal welfare has been ...
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Fresh thinking and bold action for animals, people and the place we call home. ... International Fund for Animal Welfare. 290 Summer Street, Yarmouth Port, MA 02675 , USA © 2023 , IFAW is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit ... IFAWs Disaster Response Grants offer both physical and financial support during moments of crisis - when animals and people ... The increase in ocean noise levels is a threat to the animals that live there. ...
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Animal Welfare We have a range of measures to promote animal welfare for pets and animals listed on Trade Me. ... Code of Animal Welfare for Cats and Dogs Trade Mes Code of Animal Welfare ensures well-being and transparency when selling ... Animal welfare: Trade Mes approach Learn more about what we do to help ensure animals are treated properly, and can find a ... Home made animal remedies are subject to the ACVM Act Your home-made animal remedies must also comply with the Agricultural ...
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Animal Care Centers of NYC (ACC) is the Citys open-admission animal shelter. Before you consider surrendering your animal to ... If you have a disability and your animal is either a service animal or emotional support animal, you may be able to keep your ... Animal Havens Pet Owner Eviction Project, in partnership with the Mayors Office of Animal Welfare and NYC Emergency ... There is no special registration or proof required for a service animal. A service animal is allowed to accompany their handler ...
We seek to create and uphold high standards of animal welfare throughout our dairy, fish, seafood, meat, poultry, and eggs ... Partnering to make change in animal welfare practices Nestlé is one of the founding members of the Global Coalition for Animal ... The conditions were evaluated by Professional Animal Auditor Certification Organization auditors as part of an animal welfare ... concerns about the welfare of animals raised for food and the need to ensure sustainable animal production systems. Through our ...
Egyptians are demanding the country adopt its first animal welfare law. (192031 signatures on petition) ... Activists hope Egypt will adopt the new animal welfare law next year. As Care2, with the backing of animal rights supporters ... create animal humane animal transport provisions, regulate the use of animal testing and put controls on the treatment of ... The incident became known as Dog al-Ahram and brought to light the serious dearth of animal welfare laws in the Arab republic. ...
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... has sought to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of all animals since its founding in 1951. ... Today, the Animal Legal Defense Fund, Center for Biological Diversity, Project Coyote, the Animal Welfare Institute, and ... the Animal Welfare Institute. has been dedicated to. reducing animal suffering. caused by people. ... The Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) welcomed a decision last week by the federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to ban wildlife ...
... has sought to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of all animals since its founding in 1951. ... the Animal Welfare Institute. has been dedicated to. reducing animal suffering. caused by people. ... Today, in the wake of the latest Faroe Islands drive hunt on Friday that killed 42 more pilot whales, the Animal Welfare ... Animal Welfare Institute, 900 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20003. Phone: (202) 337-2332 ...
... has sought to reduce the human-inflicted suffering of all animals since its founding in 1951. ... the Animal Welfare Institute. has been dedicated to. reducing animal suffering. caused by people. ... The Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) endorses the Refuge from Cruel Trapping Act, reintroduced today in the US House of ... Animal Welfare Institute, 900 Pennsylvania Avenue, SE, Washington, DC 20003. Phone: (202) 337-2332 ...
We noted that NIH policy requires grant recipients to comply with the federal Animal Welfare Act and the Guide for the Care and ... PETA has fired off a letter to Patricia Brown-director of the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare at the National Institutes of ... "These reports reveal again that the Cleveland Clinic is incapable of following the most basic animal welfare rules. PETA is ... Feds Find Ailing Animals, Maggot-Filled Food at Animal Haven Zoo After PETA Tip ...
The aim of our animal welfare work is to ensure compliance with the Animal Welfare Act and ensure that the animals have a ... If you have animals. The County Administrative Board carry out animal welfare inspections throughout the county and the ... You also need a permit if you have a business involving animals. This is a permit under the Animal Welfare Act §16 and the ... We perform animal welfare inspections, feed- and food inspections, and inspections of animal health staff. ...
Spotted: One guiding issue in farming is how to improve animal welfare. A Montréal-based architectural studio has recently come ... The barn also demonstrates how good design can play a major role in improving both animal and human welfare. ... At Springwise, we have seen a big interest in innovations aimed at protecting animals and wildlife, and much of this comes from ... up with a barn design that could help improve the quality of life for both animals and workers. ...
Listings » Sussex County » Health and Human Services » Animal Services » Vernon Animal Welfare League ... Vernon Animal Welfare League. Added by ...
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Fulton County Animal Welfare Board The Fulton County Animal Welfare Board will be holding its regularly scheduled meeting to ... The Fulton County Animal Welfare Board will be holding its regularly scheduled meeting to address various policies and ... procedures impacting the countys Animal Shelter.. Wednesday, August 9, 2023 from 5 p.m. until 7 p.m.. Fulton County Government ... address various policies and procedures impacting the countys Animal Shelter. Fulton County Government Center , FULCO Lab, ...
Animal welfare. Animal welfare, unlike trade, international cooperation in criminal matters, or environmental conservation, has ... Conversely, animal welfare approaches seek to protect individual animals irrespective of conservation and endangered status ( ... CITES contains several provisions regulating human interactions with wild animals and animal welfare in the course of ... together with related pushes to recognize animal rights, indicate that the welfare of individual animals is likely to be of ...
Developments in Laboratory Animal Science, Technology, Welfare and Medicine is a new venture that aims at providing a ... Developments in Laboratory Animal Science, Technology, Welfare and Medicine also cover business and regulatory matters that ... comprehensive suite of reference books on developing areas in Laboratory Animal Science, Technology, Welfare and Medicine. ... Academicians, researchers and (post) graduate students who utilize animals in biomedical research. ...
Capital Area Animal Welfare Society offers the opportunity to serve your community through Grant Writer. This is an ongoing ... The Capital Area Animal Welfare Society (CAAWS) is a non-profit organization committed to the well-being of animals in the ... With the help of volunteers, CAAWS offers a number of services and programs that strive to promote animal welfare within the ... ORGANIZATION: Capital Area Animal Welfare Society This opportunity is provided by VolunteerMatchs partner.. Please visit the ...
And you could also have animals that are difficult to handle. One of my big concerns in animal welfare, both in dogs and in ... And we got concerned about a lot of animal welfare things, with farm animals. I get concerned about some of these poor dogs ... So without further ado, Id like to present Temple whos going to be talking on animal behavior and animal welfare issues. ... Could you comment on the animal welfare issues surrounding the amount of space these animals need and the need for mobility? ...
... Responsible pet ownership. The Animal Welfare Act 2006 says you must take care of your ... Further information on farm animal health. Business companion has information on trading standards law about animals and ... Imported animals, including dogs. Find out what you need to do to bring your pet dog, cat or ferret to Great Britain on GOV.UK. ... Good biosecurity when keeping animals reduces the risk of diseases spreading. You should have plans to prevent and contain the ...
The website includes resources from various entities on animal welfare in disaster or emergency situations and provides links ... ... Animals as a PopulationProgram Planners, Administrators and Project Managers as an Audience U.S. Department of Agriculture ( ...
Learn about Animal Welfare volunteering in Bermuda! Use our reviews, guides, articles, and program matching services to find a ...
... embroidered iron-on patch can be awarded as part of our Animal Advocate Service Patch Program®. Find out more about this ... Product Number:YS-1000M Categories: Advocate Level, Animal, Animal Welfare Program, Boy Scouts Too, Community Service, Patch ... Earn these patches to complete your Animal Welfare Advocate Patch Program® Requirements and earn the Animal Advocate Patch ... About the Animal Welfare Service Patch Program® from Youth Squad Who can earn these patches and pins?. Anyone who is concerned ...
Animal welfare inspections. We carry out animal welfare inspections throughout the county. We perform checks on farm animals in ... The aim of our animal welfare work is to ensure compliance with the Animal Welfare Act, and ensure that the animals have a ... The Animal Welfare Act contains provisions on how animals should be kept and treated. These provisions are supplemented by the ... the owner of the animals is unknown, or if we otherwise consider it necessary from an animal welfare point of view. ...
Anna Johnson, Iowa State University, What is Animal Welfare and Animal Rights? ... Candace Croney, Ohio State University, The Role of Ethics in Current Farm Animal Welfare Debates ... Randy Cantrell, University of Nebraska, Key Findings from the UNL & ISU Extension Animal Welfare Survey ... Duane Reese, University of Nebraska, Different Definitions and Applications of Farm Animal Welfare ...
The Fundamentals of Animal Welfare Assessments with Xavier Manteca Vilanova. Assessing the welfare of wild animals under human ... EAZA ANIMAL WELFARE WEBINARS. EAZA is committed to ensuring promotion of positive animal welfare and being a recognised ... The importance of nutrition in animal welfare. Welfare starts with broccoli: What is nutritional welfare and how can I make ... EAZA Welfare Webinars are free and open to all, to support animal management professionals across the wider animal management ...
  • On the basis of Brambell's report, the UK government set up the Farm Animal Welfare Advisory Committee in 1967, which became the Farm Animal Welfare Council in 1979. (
  • Read advice about farm animal welfare from the RSPCA. (
  • The UK-based Royal Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (RSPCA) has been awarded funding from the Open Philanthropy Project - a US foundation - to support long-term work in China in advancing farm animal welfare. (
  • In 2005, China hosted its first farm animal welfare conference, which was co-hosted by the RSPCA. (
  • and lastly, to suggest ways of improving farm animal welfare. (
  • We propose that part of the effort of scientists interested in farm animal welfare be applied to the study of technologies for sustainable animal breeding, once such technologies necessarily consider the effects of agriculture on the environment and the well-being of human and animal populations. (
  • Arizona Animal Welfare League is a proud recipient of funding from Maddie's FundⓇ (, helping to achieve a no-kill nation #ThanksToMaddie. (
  • Australia, for example, banned exports of livestock to Egypt on several occasions after video of animals being cruelly slaughtered in Egyptian facilities. (
  • Temple Grandin, an animal welfare expert and designer of livestock facilities, lectured at Kennedy Hall Feb. 24 during her last visit to campus as a Rhodes Class of '56 Professor. (
  • Due to its high population of pigs and poultry, improvements to livestock husbandry have the potential to affect a significant number of animals in the country. (
  • DES MOINES, Iowa - New rules, decades in the making, that would have required organic meat and egg producers to abide by stricter animal welfare standards were withdrawn by the federal government on Monday, frustrating organic farmers and animal welfare groups but leaving some traditional egg and livestock farm groups rejoicing. (
  • Animal welfare science uses measures such as longevity, disease, immunosuppression, behavior, physiology, and reproduction, although there is debate about which of these best indicate animal welfare. (
  • Join Animal Welfare Department on Facebook Get step-by-step video behavior tips for your pet. (
  • The Behavior Coordinator at the shelter, Katie Corbett says they created the room in order to show their shelter animals what the real world is like. (
  • As a method of environmental enrichment, the effect of different auditory stimulations on the behavior response and welfare of laying hen chicks has yet to be investigated. (
  • Add to Calendar 08/09/2023 17:00 08/09/2023 19:00 America/New_York Fulton County Animal Welfare Board The Fulton County Animal Welfare Board will be holding its regularly scheduled meeting to address various policies and procedures impacting the county's Animal Shelter. (
  • Formal standards of animal welfare vary between contexts, but are debated mostly by animal welfare groups, legislators, and academics. (
  • whether the operator is already meeting higher standards of animal welfare than is required by the Licence conditions. (
  • Respect for animal welfare is often based on the belief that nonhuman animals are sentient and that consideration should be given to their well-being or suffering, especially when they are under the care of humans. (
  • One view, held by some thinkers in history, holds that humans have no duties of any kind to animals. (
  • The other view is based on the animal rights position that animals should not be regarded as property and any use of animals by humans is unacceptable. (
  • The predominant view of modern neuroscientists, notwithstanding philosophical problems with the definition of consciousness even in humans, is that consciousness exists in nonhuman animals. (
  • Stress factors and poor welfare can lead to increased susceptibility to transmissible Capable of being passed between individuals in the same species, as well as between different species (e.g. from animals to humans). (
  • The welfare of food-producing animals depends largely on how they are managed by humans. (
  • Humans have never been the only animals to live in cities and, as the world becomes ever more urbanized, the number and array of animal species sharing urban spaces are only increasing. (
  • There are two primary reasons that human and nonhuman animals share cities: Humans have intruded on the spaces of nonhuman animals, and nonhuman animals have followed humans there. (
  • Resistant bacteria can be found in food animals and food products destined for consumption by humans. (
  • The outbreak occurred in a game management area along the Zambezi River, where food is scarce for both animals and humans in the dry season. (
  • Melissa Marx] In general, humans can be infected when they come into contact with the carcasses of infected animals. (
  • Rabies has a fatality rate of nearly 100%, and it causes the most human deaths of any zoonotic disease, that is, diseases which can be spread between animals and humans. (
  • Recognizing the linkages between humans, animals, plants and the environment through adoption and integration, the One Health approach can support countries to effectively prevent and prepare for public health threats at the human-animal-environment interface. (
  • In order to achieve this without negatively impacting the welfare of the animals under our care, we need to have a holistic approach to breeding management and make sure our animals are fit for breeding, and this is the main goal of reproductive management. (
  • This talk is an overview of reproductive management and of the main things we need to consider to evaluate the potential welfare impact (positive and/or negative) that fulfilling the requirements of our captive breeding programmes may pose, and how a holistic and collaborative approach to reproductive management can help us to achieve this. (
  • The grant gives the RSPCA the capabilities of working closely with the official International Co-operation Committee of Animal Welfare - an important organisation in bringing together Chinese stakeholders, the farming sector and food retail industries. (
  • This grant is a major step forward in our efforts to improve animal welfare in China, ​" commented Paul Littlefair, RSPCA head of international. (
  • Marc Bekoff has noted that "Primatt was largely responsible for bringing animal welfare to the attention of the general public. (
  • Good animal welfare practices not only reduce unnecessary suffering but also help to make animals healthier. (
  • Get an update on basic welfare requirements and unacceptable practices. (
  • Science informs, motivates and facilitates advances in animal welfare by providing a strong evidence base for changing attitudes and practices, and by creating practical and effective solutions to welfare problems. (
  • STLT public health veterinarians, animal health officials, attending veterinarians, and other relevant partners should discuss management of a test-positive animal, including best practices for animals requiring in-patient care and daily monitoring of isolated animals. (
  • National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) investigators observed work practices, personal protective equipment use, and the extent and duration of contact with the animals during the inspections. (
  • This toolkit is for health officials managing cases of zoonotic SARS-CoV-2 infections within their jurisdiction, including state public health veterinarians, state animal health officials, zoonotic disease epidemiologists, and wildlife health specialists. (
  • In response to a September 1998 request from the United States Department of Agricultur e, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (USDA/APHIS), a health hazard evaluation was conducted to assess potential zoonotic disease hazards encountered during animal welfare inspections. (
  • Recommendations are made in the report to strengthen the zoonotic disease prevention program for animal welfare inspectors. (
  • These concerns can include how animals are slaughtered for food, how they are used in scientific research, how they are kept (as pets, in zoos, farms, circuses, etc.), and how human activities affect the welfare and survival of wild species. (
  • Environmental treaties, such as the Convention on Biological Diversity and the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals , deal with human interactions with animals through conservation and biodiversity perspectives aimed at preserving animals at the species level. (
  • When we perform normal inspections, we base them on a checklist for animal species that applies to Sweden as a whole. (
  • Through continuous long-term observations of nocturnal behaviour, we can shed light on the darkness and investigate the following questions for individual species: When and for how long do the animals feed, lie down or sleep? (
  • In this talk, these activity budgets for selected African mammal species will be presented and the results will be discussed with regard to animal welfare. (
  • We noted that NIH policy requires grant recipients to comply with the federal Animal Welfare Act and the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals , which the Cleveland Clinic has evidently ignored. (
  • Volumes include original research about basic and applied laboratory investigations, as well as informed and thoughtful opinions relevant to the humane care and use of laboratory animals. (
  • We have a range of measures to promote animal welfare for pets and animals listed on Trade Me. (
  • With the help of volunteers, CAAWS offers a number of services and programs that strive to promote animal welfare within the Baton Rouge community. (
  • Thus, some animals formerly in more rural spaces have been swallowed up into cities, creating relict populations and inevitable interactions between human and nonhuman animals. (
  • For deindustrializing and depopulating cities, increasing greenspace provides environments for a number of nonhuman animals to survive and thrive in formerly urbanized areas. (
  • In addition, the Lisbon Treaty of 2009 included an explicit recognition that animals are sentient beings and that the EU and its Member States bear an ethical responsibility to prevent maltreatment, pain and suffering. (
  • UFAW believes that where there is any doubt the animal should be given the benefit of the doubt and treated as if it were sentient - and that, from an ethical point of view, it is essential that we take these feelings into account in all our dealings with them. (
  • The Conservative 2019 manifesto promised to bring in new laws to protect animal welfare, including tougher sentences for animal cruelty. (
  • Educators can use the AVMA's model animal welfare syllabus as a template to meet the core competencies that students need to learn to protect animal welfare in any field of veterinary medicine. (
  • EFSA's experts use a guidance document that includes a methodology for assessing risks to animal welfare that considers husbandry systems, management procedures and welfare issues. (
  • The aim of this course is to develop the knowledge, skills and competencies relevant to the welfare and behaviour of zoo animals. (
  • In 1776, English clergyman Humphrey Primatt authored A Dissertation on the Duty of Mercy and Sin of Cruelty to Brute Animals, one of the first books published in support of animal welfare. (
  • Since 1822, when Irish MP Richard Martin brought the "Cruel Treatment of Cattle Act 1822" through Parliament offering protection from cruelty to cattle, horses, and sheep, an animal welfare movement has been active in England. (
  • Martin was among the founders of the world's first animal welfare organization, the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, or SPCA, in 1824. (
  • In the US it was many years until there was a national law to protect animals-the "Animal Welfare Act of 1966"-although there were a number of states that passed anti-cruelty laws between 1828 and 1898. (
  • The County Administrative Board also makes decisions about animal bans, for example for people who has been convicted of cruelty to animals, or manifestly proved to be unfit to care for animals. (
  • Dropping the rule "reverses the nearly two decades of collaboration and feedback from farmers and consumers," said Matt Bershadker, CEO of the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. (
  • To address this problem, Emmi Puuvuori decided to create a web platform called In Vivo Library , where protocols of different animal models are easily accessible through a user-friendly search function. (
  • Through bold new alternatives, we're saving one of the world's most endangered animals. (
  • It's a mammoth topic but by picking out some of the key concepts in this area it is hoped to encourage interest in what is essentially a molecular biology with a giant influence on an animal's health and welfare. (
  • Positive health and welfare are important for an animal's mental and physical needs. (
  • UFAW's scientific work aims to give practical meaning to these principles from the animal's point of view, and show how they can be effectively implemented through new developments in all aspects of animal care. (
  • In 2016 the USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service announced changes that would strengthen regulations and enforcement of the Horse Protection Act. (
  • Establish bi-directional information flows between STLT public health and animal health officials, local partners, and federal One Health partners including CDC and the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA). (
  • Report test-positive animals to federal partners, including CDC and USDA. (
  • During the period January 25 to March 24, 1999, site visits were made to 16 facilities in the Eastern and Western regions to observe animal welfare inspections at businesses licensed by or registered with USDA. (
  • While baseline serum samples are collected from some USDA employees at the time of employment for evidence of prior brucellosis or psittacosis infection, the extent of participation by animal welfare inspectors was not known. (
  • A " no - kill " shelter is an animal shelter that does not kill healthy or treatable animals even when the shelter is full, reserving euthanasia for terminally ill animals or those considered dangerous to public safety. (
  • Animal Care Centers of NYC (ACC) is the City's open-admission animal shelter. (
  • Before you consider surrendering your animal to the animal shelter, try finding a new home for your animal on your own. (
  • The Fulton County Animal Welfare Board will be holding its regularly scheduled meeting to address various policies and procedures impacting the county's Animal Shelter. (
  • While closed to the public, shelter staff created a room with household items to help animals combat that stress. (
  • GWINNETT COUNTY, Ga. - After closing to the public in March due to the COVID-19 pandemic, Gwinnett Animal Welfare and Enforcement is now back open and unveiling its "Real Life Room" for shelter animals dealing with stress. (
  • Every year the shelter takes in over 7,000 animals and on average have 300 in house dogs a month, they said. (
  • Guidance was expanded from only companion animals to include other animal groups, including animals in zoos, rehabilitation facilities, sanctuaries and aquariums, and free-ranging wildlife. (
  • The Swedish Board of Agriculture has the overall responsibility for maintaining and developing animal welfare in Sweden. (
  • The Capital Area Animal Welfare Society (CAAWS) is a non-profit organization committed to the well-being of animals in the Baton Rouge community by providing, facilitating, and promoting spay/neuter, adopting or facilitating the adoption of homeless animals, teaching the community responsible companion animal ownership and the humane treatment of animals, and at all times promoting the practice of spay/neuter. (
  • The COVID-19 pandemic is a recent example of consequences at the global level that portrayed the interlinkages between animal and human health, which were amplified by human activity and movement. (
  • At this popular one-day seminar, get the latest practical guidance on key issues including animals in captive environments, wildlife viewing and working animals. (
  • Animals, like people, should enjoy basic welfare and humane treatment and should be respected. (
  • The Animal Welfare Institute (AWI) welcomed a decision last week by the federal Bureau of Land Management (BLM) to ban wildlife-killing M-44 devices, commonly known. (
  • At Springwise, we have seen a big interest in innovations aimed at protecting animals and wildlife, and much of this comes from design firms. (
  • Public health officials, animal health officials, veterinarians, and wildlife health specialists should collaborate using a One Health approach when deciding to test an animal or conduct epidemiologic investigations for animals with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. (
  • Use a One Health approach that includes STLT and federal public health and animal health officials, as well as jurisdictional wildlife health specialists where free-living wildlife are concerned, when deciding to test an animal for SARS-CoV-2. (
  • Establish relations with local partners that may detect SARS-CoV-2 infection in animals, including veterinarians, researchers, diagnosticians, and animal caretakers. (
  • Confirmatory testing through NVSL is required for all animals except domestic cats and dogs from STLT jurisdictions that have previously confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats and dogs. (
  • Routine tuberculin skin testing for TB (either annually or semiannually) is required for all animal welfare inspectors, but sufficient information could not be obtained to determine TB infection or conversion rates, or to evaluate whether the tests had been conducted and interpreted according to current Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines. (
  • Accordingly, some animal rights proponents argue that the perception of better animal welfare facilitates continued and increased exploitation of animals. (
  • Replacement involves finding alternatives to animal use, such as in vitro models or computer simulations. (
  • Early legislation in the Western world on behalf of animals includes the Ireland Parliament (Thomas Wentworth) "An Act against Plowing by the Tayle, and pulling the Wooll off living Sheep", 1635, and the Massachusetts Colony (Nathaniel Ward) "Off the Bruite Creatures" Liberty 92 and 93 in the "Massachusetts Body of Liberties" of 1641. (
  • EFSA's Panel on Animal Health and Welfare assesses factors such as housing and management, transport and slaughter of farmed animals such as pigs, sheep, poultry, cattle and fish. (
  • The operational animal welfare inspection at regional and local level is carried out by the County Administrative Board. (
  • After the inspection we provide an summary for the animal owner. (
  • Within three weeks the animal keeper will receive a written inspection report including results based on the checklist and what was established verbally during the visit. (
  • If we find shortcomings at a normal inspection the animal keeper will receive an invoice to cover costs for any follow-up visits. (
  • Health hazard evaluation report: HETA-98-0339-2806, United States Department of Agricultur e, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, Riverdale, Maryland. (
  • On animal welfare, Clare has driven widespread, international industry adoption of the ABTA Animal Welfare Guidelines and oversaw their recent revision. (
  • Our top-rated Animal Welfare Societies in Loughborough on have many animals looking for a good home and ready for adoption. (
  • The safety of the food chain is directly connected to the welfare of animals, particularly those farmed for food production, due to the close links between animal welfare, animal health and food-borne diseases. (
  • PETA has fired off a letter to Patricia Brown -director of the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare at the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-calling on her to withdraw the Public Health Service Animal Welfare Assurance granted to the Cleveland Clinic, without which it cannot receive funding from NIH to conduct experiments on animals. (
  • We perform animal welfare inspections, feed- and food inspections, and inspections of animal health staff. (
  • Report your suspicions to your regional Animal and Plant Health Agency straight away. (
  • The County Administrative Board carry out animal welfare inspections, feed and food inspections as well as inspections of animal health staff. (
  • Ensuring good welfare is about more than ensuring good health. (
  • Report of the Department of Animal Health. (
  • Dept of Animal Health. (
  • Animal Health Research Centre: annual report. (
  • Early coordination with federal animal and public health partners is encouraged. (
  • This resistance to antimicrobial medicines is happening in all parts of the world for a broad range of pathogens, with an increasing prevalence that threatens human and animal health. (
  • The indirect impact of antimicrobial resistance, however, extends beyond increased health risks and encompasses economic losses due to reduced productivity caused by sickness (of both human beings and animals) and higher costs of treatment. (
  • Even though public health officials say that they routinely warn residents to avoid eating animals found dead, it was likely hard for them to pass up free and available meat when their families were hungry. (
  • Programs to train qualified professionals in humane animal handling and vaccination have shown to improve animal health and make rabies vaccination programs more effective. (
  • A rabies surveillance officer learns how to perform health checks on animals in his community. (
  • The 4-day meeting of the Quadripartite, comprising the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (WOAH) - convened to discuss progress in the area of One Health and the way forward in the Region. (
  • One Health' is a unifying approach that aims to balance and optimize the health of people, animals and the environment through the implementation of equitable and holistic solutions across the 3 sectors. (
  • fresh thinking and bold action for animals, people and the place we call home. (
  • IFAW's Disaster Response Grants offer both physical and financial support during moments of crisis - when animals and people need us the most. (
  • 55+ years of helping animals, people, and the place we call home . (
  • The mission of AAWL is to provide excellent care, protection, and loving compassion for the life of the animals entrusted to us and to take a leadership role in promoting humane values for the benefit of all animals and people. (
  • An emotional support anima l (ESA) is an animal that provides companionship, relieves loneliness, and can sometimes help with depression, anxiety, and certain phobias, for people with disabilities. (
  • Since 1951, the Animal Welfare Institute has been dedicated to reducing animal suffering caused by people. (
  • Anyone, anywhere can make a difference for people, other animals, and the planet we share. (
  • This certification allows veterinary professionals to fully appreciate the science behind the human-animal bond, and its benefits for both animals and people, and get practical advice on how to ensure good bonds are built and maintained. (
  • In ABTA's latest Holiday Habits research two-thirds (66%) of people said that they have concerns about the wider impacts of tourism and how animals are treated. (
  • The City of Albuquerque Animal Welfare Department's (AWD) superhero volunteer team is made up of ordinary people with big hearts. (
  • Most animals with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became infected after close contact with people with COVID-19. (
  • There is no evidence that animals play a significant role in spreading SARS-CoV-2 to people. (
  • We found animal remains by the side of the river that had clearly been handled by the people previously, but seemed to have been left untouched for a few weeks when we saw them, coinciding with the release of educational messages. (
  • Healthy animals mean healthy people. (
  • See ACC's Surrender Prevention Options document for tips on finding a safe new home for your animal or instructions on how to speak with someone from ACC for further guidance on placement options for your animal. (
  • Historically, the focus of zoo animal nutrition changed from the prevention of acute nutrient deficiencies to the support of a long life of high welfare. (
  • This is despite initiatives aimed at creating international principles, such as the proposed Declaration on Animal Welfare (see, for example, Gibson, 2011), and support by various NGOs, such as the International Fund for Animal Welfare (IFAW). (
  • There is, it has been argued, a 'noticeable, if still tentative', inclusion of animal welfare and protection principles within more well-developed and sophisticated international rules dealing with biodiversity and conservation (Sykes, 2016). (
  • These principles are now accepted world-wide as the fundamental ethical framework within which research using animals should be conducted, are now incorporated into European legislation and have had an enormous international impact in improving the welfare of these animals. (
  • The 3Rs refer to the principles of animal research that aim to minimise the use of animals, improve their welfare, and replace them with non-animal alternatives where possible," explains Emmi Puuvuori. (
  • International guiding principles for biomedical involving animals = Principes directeurs internationaux pour la recherche biomédicale impliquant des animaux. (
  • Air transport is regulated by Live Animals Regulations of the International Air Transport Association (IATA) (CITES Resolution Conf. (
  • These provisions are supplemented by the Animal Protection Ordinance, various regulations and general advice. (
  • If you are a farmer, and you applied for any kind of agricultural grant, you may receive less money in support of your business if you do not comply with animal welfare regulations. (
  • In October 2018, new Regulations will come into force around a number of activities involving animals in England. (
  • Most recently Government introduced a significant change with the Animal Activity Licensing Regulations 2018 and below you will find the guidance documents (subject to change) to assist businesses in meeting the new requirements set out under those Regulations. (
  • Existing licence holders and anyone planning to apply for a licence should also read The Animal Welfare (Licensing of Activities Involving Animals) (England) Regulations 2018 [external link] (the "Regulations") to understand their obligations and duties under the new Regulations and the licences granted under these Regulations. (
  • Yesterday, the Iowa Department of Agriculture and Land Stewardship published the final updates to the state's animal welfare regulations. (
  • Like previous regulations, such individuals are limited to having six adult animals in an individual's residence. (
  • A special issue of Animals (ISSN 2076-2615). (
  • Drug-resistant bacteria can circulate in populations of human beings and animals, through food, water and the environment, and transmission is influenced by trade, travel and both human and animal migration. (
  • EFSA recommends avoiding the permanent use of boxes, cages and crates to improve the welfare of cats and dogs in commercial breeding establishments. (
  • Veal calves should be housed in small groups during their first weeks of life and the use of individual pens should be avoided to improve their welfare, according to a scientific opinion by EFSA. (
  • To improve the welfare of farmed broiler chickens and laying hens, EFSA's scientists recommend avoiding the practice of mutilation, feed restriction and the use of cages in two new scientific opinions . (
  • EFSA recommends more space, lower temperatures, shorter journeys to improve animal welfare during transport in new five scientific opinions . (
  • EFSA provides recommendations to improve the welfare of farmed pigs in the first assessment delivered in the context of Farm to Fork (F2F) strategy. (
  • The agency's scientific assessments help risk managers identify methods to reduce unnecessary pain, distress and suffering for animals and to improve welfare wherever possible. (
  • One guiding issue in farming is how to improve animal welfare. (
  • A Montréal-based architectural studio has recently come up with a barn design that could help improve the quality of life for both animals and workers. (
  • Understand how you can improve your services and products to ensure that you safeguard the welfare of the animals themselves, meet customer expectations and protect your business' reputation. (
  • The University of British Columbia established the Animal Welfare Program in 1997 to improve the welfare and humane care of animals in agriculture, research, companionship and other areas, and to help. (
  • Environmental enrichment can improve animal welfare. (
  • The mission of the American College of Animal Welfare, an AVMA-recognized veterinary specialty organization, is to advance animal welfare through education, certification, and scientific investigation. (
  • Chemical testing and animal welfare : proceedings from the international seminar arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, May 20-22 1986 by the National Chemicals Inspectorate under the patronage of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (
  • Any mediation relating to disputes arising under the licence shall be conducted in accordance with the mediation rules of the World Intellectual Property Organization ( (
  • No matter which option you choose, make sure your animal is current on their vaccinations and that you have copies of their veterinary records. (
  • The AVMA is proud to be the founding educational partner for the Human-Animal Bond Certification Program offered through the Human Animal Bond Research Institute (HABRI) and the North American Veterinary Community (NAVC). (
  • The proceedings of this 2009 symposium provide information on the role of the veterinary profession in animal welfare education, research and advocacy as presented by an international line-up of expert speakers. (
  • Dept of Veterinary Services and Animal Industry. (
  • diseases among animals. (
  • Good biosecurity when keeping animals reduces the risk of diseases spreading. (
  • A range of factors can impact on their welfare from housing and bedding, space and crowding, transport conditions, stunning and slaughter methods, to castration of males and tail docking. (
  • We never considered the impact of these actions on the animals involved. (
  • In addition to basic research, methods and technologies, books will be published in the series: Developments in Laboratory Animal Science, Technology, Welfare and Medicine also cover business and regulatory matters that impact the development and application of model organisms for preclinical research. (
  • There are many tools in the box of reproductive management and the way we apply and use them, if not carefully considered, may have an impact on the animals under our care. (
  • Clare supports travel companies and destinations on issues spanning the environment, human rights, community impact, animal welfare and accessibility. (
  • The scale of farming in China means there is an opportunity to make an extremely broad and lasting impact on animal welfare. (
  • Its aim was to address concerns over food safety, with an added emphasis on poor animal treatment ​ on farms, during transportation and at slaughter, and the impact this has on the meat. (
  • It appears that China is moving in a similar direction to Europe, with a focus on encouraging citizens to eat modest amounts of meat, but to choose carefully, considering the impact of their eating habits particularly on the environment and animal welfare. (
  • If you have a disability and your animal is either a service animal or emotional support animal, you may be able to keep your animal with you in your next housing placement, including in homeless shelters. (
  • Are you interested in helping Albuquerque's Homeless Animals? (
  • as a last resort and for appropriate cases, connecting animal guardians who need to surrender their animals to free community resources. (
  • Today, the Animal Legal Defense Fund, Center for Biological Diversity, Project Coyote, the Animal Welfare Institute, and WildEarth Guardians submitted a petition for rulemaking to. (
  • Following on from this event, leading welfare scientists have travelled to Beijing to share experiences and findings. (
  • The common consensus in the industry since then is that Chinese scientists and food industry leaders are showing more of a focus on the importance of animal welfare. (
  • In promoting and supporting this scientific approach to improving welfare, UFAW's work is wide-ranging and undertaken with many other organisations and individuals - enlisting and informing the energies of animal keepers, scientists, veterinarians, lawyers and others who care about animals. (
  • PETA has just obtained damning federal documents revealing that while the Cleveland Clinic publicly denied the employee negligence and animal misery documented in our six-month undercover investigation into the institute, it privately admitted to multiple , similar violations of federal animal welfare guidelines. (
  • Violations of the Animal Welfare Act are handled by the District Court. (
  • If you are at risk for eviction and you have an animal, please use this informational sheet to plan in advance for the care and/or placement of your animal. (
  • The Animal Welfare Act 2006 says you must take care of your animals and their needs. (
  • In the United States, concern about the care of animals is reflected in public policy & legislation. (
  • UFAW promotes and supports a scientific approach aimed at finding ways to gain insight into what matters to animals, assessing their welfare and improving the quality of their lives through practical developments in all aspects of their care. (
  • The purpose of these updates in part is to address kennels, rescues, and shelters, as well as care for animals in facilities licensed in Iowa and regulated in Iowa Code. (
  • Jumping forward in time to another non-Western context, the atheist Arab philosopher Abū al-ʿAlāʾ al-Maʿarrī (973 - 1057 CE) from Syria advocated veganism out of care for animals in their own right. (
  • Academicians, researchers and (post) graduate students who utilize animals in biomedical research. (
  • Emmi Puuvuori is committed to creating a game-changing resource for animal model information for researchers. (
  • Several Indian kings have built hospitals for animals, and emperor Ashoka (304-232 BCE) issued orders against hunting and animal slaughter, in line with ahimsa, the doctrine of non-violence. (
  • Popular media discourses and heated debates on possible transitions to plant-based food systems can sometimes give the impression that veganism is a newfangled trend or that advocacy for animals is an intrinsically Western or even 'white' social phenomenon. (
  • The group guarantees generous standards for organic animals and not what Thicke considers weak requirements set by the government. (
  • Significant progress in animal welfare did not take place until the late 20th century. (
  • A higher welfare assurance scheme will enable Chinese consumers for the first time to think about the wellbeing of farm animals in their purchasing choices. (
  • Among other things, the law would prohibit the murder of stray animals, create animal humane animal transport provisions, regulate the use of animal testing and put controls on the treatment of animals in slaughterhouses. (
  • Only two treaties contain provisions dealing intentionally and directly with aspects of animal welfare (Harrop, 2013). (
  • CITES contains several provisions regulating human interactions with wild animals and animal welfare in the course of international trade (Harrop, 2013). (
  • The Animal Welfare Act contains provisions on how animals should be kept and treated. (