Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
The use of animals as investigational subjects.
Institutional committees established to protect the welfare of animals used in research and education. The 1971 NIH Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals introduced the policy that institutions using warm-blooded animals in projects supported by NIH grants either be accredited by a recognized professional laboratory animal accrediting body or establish its own committee to evaluate animal care; the Public Health Service adopted a policy in 1979 requiring such committees; and the 1985 amendments to the Animal Welfare Act mandate review and approval of federally funded research with animals by a formally designated Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC).
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
Review of claims by insurance companies to determine liability and amount of payment for various services. The review may also include determination of eligibility of the claimant or beneficiary or of the provider of the benefit; determination that the benefit is covered or not payable under another policy; or determination that the service was necessary and of reasonable cost and quality.
Collections of facts, assumptions, beliefs, and heuristics that are used in combination with databases to achieve desired results, such as a diagnosis, an interpretation, or a solution to a problem (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed).
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.
Form of leukemia characterized by an uncontrolled proliferation of the myeloid lineage and their precursors (MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS) in the bone marrow and other sites.
Skin tests in which the sensitizer is applied to a patch of cotton cloth or gauze held in place for approximately 48-72 hours. It is used for the elicitation of a contact hypersensitivity reaction.
A promyelocytic cell line derived from a patient with ACUTE PROMYELOCYTIC LEUKEMIA. HL-60 cells lack specific markers for LYMPHOID CELLS but express surface receptors for FC FRAGMENTS and COMPLEMENT SYSTEM PROTEINS. They also exhibit phagocytic activity and responsiveness to chemotactic stimuli. (From Hay et al., American Type Culture Collection, 7th ed, pp127-8)
A recurrent contact dermatitis caused by substances found in the work place.
Animals which have become adapted through breeding in captivity to a life intimately associated with humans. They include animals domesticated by humans to live and breed in a tame condition on farms or ranches for economic reasons, including LIVESTOCK (specifically CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; etc.), POULTRY; and those raised or kept for pleasure and companionship, e.g., PETS; or specifically DOGS; CATS; etc.
The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.
Communication, in the sense of cross-fertilization of ideas, involving two or more academic disciplines (such as the disciplines that comprise the cross-disciplinary field of bioethics, including the health and biological sciences, the humanities, and the social sciences and law). Also includes problems in communication stemming from differences in patterns of language usage in different academic or medical disciplines.
An organization of cells into an organ-like structure. Organoids can be generated in culture. They are also found in certain neoplasms.
Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.
Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.
Affection; in psychiatry commonly refers to pleasure, particularly as it applies to gratifying experiences between individuals.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.
Tests or bioassays that measure the skin sensitization potential of various chemicals.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Methods for maintaining or growing CELLS in vitro.
Methods for cultivation of cells, usually on a large-scale, in a closed system for the purpose of producing cells or cellular products to harvest.
Substances capable of increasing BODY TEMPERATURE and cause FEVER and may be used for FEVER THERAPY. They may be of microbial origin, often POLYSACCHARIDES, and may contaminate distilled water.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.

Cardiotoxicity of trastuzumab (herceptin) in chick embryos. (1/28)

The cardiac toxicity of trastuzumab was studied in chick embryos. Fertilized eggs of White Leghorns were incubated and investigated. Trastuzumab 5 mg/egg (low dose) or 15 mg/egg (high dose) was injected into the air sac of a fertilized egg on the 16th day of incubation. Electrocardiograms (ECGs) were recorded 0 to 60 min after the injection. After low dosing of trastuzumab, the heart rate was not different compared with the control. However, the heart rate was significantly decreased by high dosing of trastuzumab. In addition, arrhythmia was produced by high dosing of trastuzumab. These findings indicate that trastuzumab has a marked dose- and time-dependent influence on the heart rate in chick embryos.  (+info)

Piscine islet xenotransplantation. (2/28)

Tilapia, a teleost fish species with large anatomically discrete islet organs (Brockmann bodies; BBs) that can be easily harvested without expensive and fickle islet isolation procedures, make an excellent donor species for experimental islet xenotransplantation research. When transplanted into streptozotocin-diabetic nude or severe combined immunodeficient mice, BBs provide long-term normoglycemia and mammalian-like glucose tolerance profiles. However, when transplanted into euthymic recipients, the mechanism of islet xenograft rejection appears very similar to that of islets from "large animal" donor species such as the very popular fetal/neonatal porcine islet cell clusters (ICCs). Tilapia islets are more versatile than ICCs and can be transplanted (1) into the renal subcapsular space, the cryptorchid or noncryptorchid testis, or intraportally as neovascularized cell transplants; (2) as directly vascularized organ transplants; or (3) intraperitoneally after microencapsulation. Unlike the popular porcine ICCs, BBs function immediately after transplantation; thus, their rejection can be assessed on the basis of loss of function as well as other parameters. We have also shown that transplantation of tilapia BBs into nude mice can be used to study the possible implications of cross-species physiological incompatibilities in xenotransplantation. Unfortunately, tilapia BBs might be unsuitable for clinical islet xenotransplantation because tilapia insulin differs from human insulin by 17 amino acids and, thus, would be immunogenic and less biologically active in humans. Therefore, we have produced transgenic tilapia that express a "humanized" tilapia insulin gene. Future improvements on these transgenic fish may allow tilapia to play an important role in clinical islet xenotransplantation.  (+info)

Industrial implementation of in vitro production of monoclonal antibodies. (3/28)

Monoclonal antibodies are widely used at GlaxoSmithKline Biologicals (GSK Bio) for the quantification and characterization of antigens and for the release of vaccine lots. In 1998, GSK Bio decided to change the production of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) designed for immunological tools from in vivo to in vitro technology. In 2004, all MAbs used at GSK Bio were produced in vitro. These MAbs cover more than 100 different targets with a variety of 1500 hybridomas, and approximately 60 to 90 MAbs are produced every year. This article describes the development process, including a description of the different systems tested based on double membrane or hollow fiber technology. The productivity, assets, and drawbacks of the different technologies are presented, and evaluation strategies for the choice of in vitro systems are discussed. Binding kinetics displayed by MAbs produced in vitro and in vivo were found to be similar, and MAbs produced in vitro are suitable tools for various immunological applications.  (+info)

The new EU REACH regulation has finally been adopted: is this the end of the campaign trail... or just the beginning? (4/28)

The final EU REACH legislation has recently been adopted. This article considers the progress that has been made toward reducing the numbers of animals likely to be required to fulfil the testing requirements, and also considers the benefits to animal welfare and science that have arisen since the original REACH system proposals were published in 2003. Several positive changes have been made, including: the use of exposure-based testing; the requirement for scientific justification of any proposed animal testing; mandatory data sharing; and the fact that the EU is to take responsibility for the development and validation of alternative methods. While these changes are to be commended, there is still much room for improvement, particularly with respect to the adoption of integrated testing strategies that make maximum use of non-animal approaches to expedite the risk assessment process of existing chemicals, with the use of refined and updated animal tests only as a last resort.  (+info)

Skin sensitizers induce antioxidant response element dependent genes: application to the in vitro testing of the sensitization potential of chemicals. (5/28)

Tests for skin sensitization are required prior to the market launch of new cosmetic ingredients and in vitro tests are needed to replace the current animal tests. Protein reactivity is the common feature of skin sensitizers and it is a crucial question whether a cellular in vitro assay can detect protein reactivity of diverse test chemicals. The signaling pathway involving the repressor protein Keap1 and the transcription factor nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2, which binds to the antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter of many phase II detoxification genes, is a potential cellular marker because Keap1 had been shown to be covalently modified by electrophiles which leads to activation of ARE-dependent genes. To evaluate whether this regulatory pathway can be used to develop a predictive cellular in vitro test for sensitization, 96 different chemicals of known skin sensitization potential were added to Hepa1C1C7 cells and the induction of the ARE-regulated quinone reductase (QR) activity was determined. In parallel, 102 chemicals were tested on the reporter cell line AREc32, which contains an eightfold repeat of the ARE sequence upstream of a luciferase gene. Among the strong/extreme skin sensitizers 14 out of 15 and 30 out of 34 moderate sensitizers induced the ARE-dependent luciferase activity and in many cases this response was paralleled by an induction of QR activity in Hepa1C1C7 cells. Sixty percent of the weak sensitizers also induced luciferase activity, and the overall accuracy of the assay was 83 percent. Only four of 30 tested nonsensitizers induced low levels of luciferase activity, indicating a high specificity of the assay. Thus, measurement of the induction of this signaling pathway provides an interesting in vitro test to screen for the skin sensitization potential of novel chemicals.  (+info)

Surgical oocyte retrieval (SOR): a method for collecting mature mouse oocytes without euthanasia. (6/28)

A novel surgical method for collecting oocytes from unique and irreplaceable mice is described. This method, surgical oocyte retrieval (SOR), facilitates the collection of ovulated oocytes, does not require euthanasia, and preserves reproductive potential. The surgery involves a small incision in the ampulla region of the oviduct, through which the cumulus oocyte mass is removed with a gel-loading pipette. The incision then is closed by using a tissue adhesive, which is required to ensure healing of the incision and containment of any oocytes ovulated after SOR. Two anesthetics, isoflurane and tribromoethanol, were compared for oocyte toxicity during SOR. More dead oocytes were recovered when tribromoethanol was used than when isoflurane was used. Combining SOR and traditional oocyte collection methods yielded more oocytes per BALB/cByJ than did traditional methods alone (41 versus 28 oocytes, respectively). Oocytes collected by using SOR were fertilized and subsequent embryos developed to term comparable to controls. This technique provides an alternative method for oocyte collection and will be valuable for maximizing the number of oocytes from irreplaceable mice.  (+info)

Reduced hamster usage and stress in propagating Leishmania chagasi promastigotes using cryopreservation and saphenous vein inoculation. (7/28)


Comparison of HepG2 and HepaRG by whole-genome gene expression analysis for the purpose of chemical hazard identification. (8/28)


The threshold of toxicologic concern (TTC) concept was developed as a method to identify a chemical intake level that is predicted to be without adverse human health effects assuming daily intake over the course of a 70-yr life span. The TTC values are based on known structure-activity relationships and do not require chemical-specific toxicity data. This allows safety assessment (or prioritization for testing) of chemicals with known molecular structure but little or no toxicity data. Recently, the TTC concept was extended to inhaled substances by converting a TTC expressed in micrograms per person per day to an airborne concentration (ng/m3), making allowance for intake by routes in addition to inhalation and implicitly assuming 100% bioavailability of inhaled toxicants. The resulting concentration of no toxicologic concern (CoNTC), 30 ng/m3, represents a generic airborne concentration that is expected to pose no hazard to humans exposed continuously throughout a 70-yr lifetime. Published data on the
keratinocytes - Based on automatic parsing from source available in
Bio::PopGen::Marker(3)User Contributed Perl DocumentatioBio::PopGen::Marker(3) NAME Bio::PopGen::Marker - A genetic marker which one uses to generate genotypes SYNOPSIS my $name = $marker-,name(); # marker name my $description = $marker-,description(); # description my $type = $marker-,type(); # coded type of the marker my $unique_id = $marker-,unique_id; # optional unique ID my @alleles = $marker-,get_Alleles(); # the known alleles my %allele_freqs = $marker-,get_Allele_Frequencies(); # keys are marker names # vals are frequencies # may change to handle multiple populations DESCRIPTION This object will not contain genotype information pertaining to an individual, but rather population level statistics and descriptive information about a marker. FEEDBACK Mailing Lists User feedback is an integral part of the evolution of this and other Bioperl modules. Send your comments and suggestions preferably to the Bioperl mailing list. Your participation is much appreciated. [email protected] - ...
Japans largest platform for academic e-journals: J-STAGE is a full text database for reviewed academic papers published by Japanese societies
You should try to quit smoking, and avoid being around people who smoke. Cigarette smoke contains benzenes, which have been shown to have a significant effect on blood pressure. High blood pressure, in turn, is often connected to tinnitus. If you cant quit, at least try to cut back and see if that helps. Try different strategies when trying to go to sleep with tinnitus. Make sure the room you are sleeping in is completely dark. When you lie down, try to think of relaxing things, such as ocean waves or relaxing on a beach after sundown. Keeping your mind occupied with relaxing thoughts will help you fall asleep fast. Meditation offers relief for many that suffer from tinnitus. Yoga, deep breathing techniques and massage therapy can also decrease stress and relieve tension-related tinnitus. Meditation helps users focus on their breathing and relaxation which will help to eliminate the distractions associated with tinnitus. Training the mind in this way can help those with tinnitus concentrate on ...
In light of improving analytical methods, it can be expected that many more unintended chemicals will be detected in our environment, including food and drinking water, and in our bodies. The TTC approach is a screening and prioritization tool for the safety assessment of chemicals when hazard data are incomplete and human exposure can be estimated. TTC is not applicable when compound-specific assessment and toxicity data are available or are required under existing regulations.
Environmental risk assessment is often affected by severe uncertainty. The frequently invoked precautionary principle helps to guide risk assessment and decision-making in the face of scientific uncer
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University of Cambridge. Illuminating cell fate decisions in the implanting primate by embryo profiling and ex vivo functional analysis. Cells in the early embryo are of particular interest as they harbour the potential to form all cell types found in the adult body. Most of our knowledge about these cells is based on mouse studies. However, early development in human and non-human primates radically diverges from the rodent paradigm. Primates even form additional placental tissues upon implantation. Despite the tremendous potential for biomedical research, the underlying mechanisms remain unknown.. I propose to investigate the primate-specific aspects of early development of the embryo after implantation, building on strong collaborations with primate centres in Germany and Japan. Gene expression analysis of marmoset embryos post-implantation using the latest next-generation sequencing techniques will identify regulators of cell-fate decisions. This can only be done in a non-human primate, ...
In the Distribution tab, the distribution of parameters that are variable in the virtual population are shown. To select a certain parameter, mark it in the parameter tree on the left hand side. Again, you can use the Filter function above the tree view to find parameters more quickly. The distribution of the parameter selected will be depicted in the adjacent graphic. The parameter distribution can either be displayed as absolute counts or as percentage. Choose either Count or Percent from the drop-down menu below the parameter tree. For human populations, the parameter distributions are color coded. In case of a virtual human population that contains male and female individuals, you can select from the first drop-down menu whether all, only male, or only female individuals should be displayed. If All is selected, the gender specific data can either be shown as neighboring bars or stacking bars. ...
Does gene number correlate with complexity? As shown in the adjacent table, it obviously does not. Rather, alternative splicing correlates with complexity. 95% of Human genes are known to exhibit alternative splicing. Complex Transcription Units use alternative splicing to produce more than one type of mRNA. Patterns of RNA spliciing can combine to produce a dizzying array of alternatively spliced isoforms.. The Slo or Bk channel has over 500 isoforms.the neurexin protein has 2,346 isoforms; the para-sodium channel has 1,536 isoforms; the Drosophila DSCAM Receptor can potentially be made in 38,016 different spliced isoforms. Somatic sexual development in Drosophila is controlled by a cascade of splicing factors each regulating the splicing of genes downstream in the pathway. And cochlear hair cells are tuned to respond to different frequencies via alternative RNA splicing.. Alternative RNA splicing is an important aspect of gene control in metazoans (multicellular animals). Two general molecular ...
Natural Healthcare, A practical guide to alternative treatment via a natural medicine or remedy. Use alternative natural healthcare medicine products for that alternative remedy or treatment.
...In the light of growing concerns about the separation of producers and...Through participation consumers tended to increase their consumption ...Although the majority of consumers use alternative food sources alongs...People take part in alternative food networks for a range of economic...,Alternative,food,networks,connect,ethical,producers,and,consumers,and,can,lead,to,healthier,eating,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
The public seems to be becoming much more aware about the dangers of overusing antibiotics, which is music to my ears. However, antibiotics are still being over-prescribed and used when they arent absolutely essential.. Of course, antibiotics can be needed in life-threatening situations. But it is always a good idea to question and research if they are completely necessary when prescribed in other situations and make an informed decision.. I understand that sometimes it can feel risky when you say no to conventional medicines, like antibiotics, and use alternatives. But your body is extremely capable when it comes to healing. My partner and I have both had minor surgeries in the past where antibiotics are prescribed and heavily pushed as a precautionary or even a treatment method. While it was at our own risk, we chose not to take the antibiotics and recovered perfectly. Instead, we supported our immune system and used herbal alternatives (with caution - it is important to support your body ...
RICHMOND -- A 16-year-old cancer patient fighting to use alternative medical treatment said he told a juvenile court judge in a two-day, closed-door hearing what it is like to go through chemotherapy and that he didnt want to relive it.
The annual pet exam provides an opportunity to use alternative pet medicine, including home methods to give your pet a physical, the in-depth holistic physical and the physical for older pets.
Swedens Environment Minister, Andreas Carlgren, said in May that If the EU will not quickly forbid the hormone disrupting substance bisphenol in baby-bottles Sweden will precede with a national prohibition.. In June, Germany also broke EU ranks, issuing new guidance calling on manufacturers, importers and users of bisphenol A to use alternative substances that pose less risk to human health and the environment in all areas of use that significantly contribute to exposure. Denmark and France have both outlawed using the chemical in baby bottles.. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration announced in January that it has some concern about the chemical, but is continuing to review the rapidly growing body of scientific evidence on the matter. The National Institutes of Health recently launched a $30 million research initiative to study low level BPA exposure ...
Angell M, Kassirer JP. Alternative medicine - the risks of untested and unregulated remedies. New England J. Med. 339: 839-841, 1998 Medline. Aronson KF, Howe GR, Carpenter M, Fair ME, Surveillance of potential associations between occupations and causes of death in Canada, 1965-91. Occup. Environ. Med. 56: 265-269, 1999 Medline. Astin Ja. Why patients use alternative medicine: results of a national study. JAMA 279: 1548-1553, 1998 Medline. Baranov VS, Ivaschenko T, Bakay B, et al. Proportion of the GSTM1 o/o genotype in some Slavic populations and its correlation with cystic fibrosis and some multifactorial diseases. Human Genetics 97: 516-520, 1996 Medline. Barnett PA, Spence JD, Manuck SB, et al. Psychological stress and the progression of carotid artery disease. J. Hypertens. 15: 49-55, 1997 Medline. Berman BM, Singh BK, Lao L, et al. Physicians attitudes toward complimentary or alternative medicine: A regional survey. J. Am. Board Fam. Pract. 8: 361-365, 1995 Medline. Blumberg DL, Grant ...
Lift Credit is not a lender in all states. Lift Credit uses alternative credit data and application information as part of their underwriting process. Lift Credit does not approve all applications or credit extension requests. A decision on a customer application or credit extension request may take longer if additional verification or documents are required. Approval and loan terms differ based on applicant qualifications and by state. Rates, terms, and conditions apply.. Applications approved before 6:00 p.m. MT Monday-Friday are generally funded the next business day. Approved applications during other times are generally funded with loans approved the following business day.. Notice: High-Interest installment loans should be used for short-term financial needs only, not as a long-term financial solution. Customers with credit difficulties should seek credit counseling before entering into a loan agreement.. †Declining Rates and Cash Back Rewards Program not offered in all states.. ...
For the past week I have been using a new blood glucose meter courtesy of LifeScan. Jeff Christensen, LifeScans communication manager in Milpitas, California, came to my home to demonstrate the meter to me. His demonstration and my use of the meter was persuasive. I have permanently retired my previous meter, the Accu-Chek Compact, as good as it is. One thing that the Compact isnt, however, is a meter that facilitates testing on alternative sites. It claims to have that capability, but since it requires a 3 microliter sample, I found that I usually had to puncture my arm three times to get enough blood. Several bruises were the long-term result. My endo says that a meter should require 1 microliter or less to be able to use alternative sites. I agree. The UltraSmart requires 1 microliter and returns the result in just five seconds. I was so sold that I switched, even though my insurance doesnt cover LifeScan test strips. The UltraSmart works the same as the Ultra, except that it includes ...
Depending on the type of blotting (tank or semi-dry blotting) and the specific characteristics of the proteins, different buffers may be used for Western Blotting. For small proteins or for tank blotting after SDS PAGE Towbin Buffer is recommended, for blotting proteins after SDS PAGE or IEF by semi-dry blotting, a discontinuous buffer system is recommended. A fast and easy to use alternative for optimal semi-dry blotting is SERVAs Xpress Blotting Kit. The buffer system enables in combination with the newly developed alternative for blotting paper, the Blotting Fleece, an efficient simultaneous transfer of high and low molecular weight proteins in only 15 minutes ...
Some jurisdictions use alternatives to a sentence of incarceration to protect the public from further crimes. Offenders may be made to wear electronic tagging devices or adhere to banning orders to meet the sentencing goal of incapacitation. Unpaid labor and community service in lieu of direct monetary compensation can also be considered as reasonable alternatives with regard to the goal of reparation.. Sentences involving incarceration can be intermediate, determinate or indeterminate. Intermediate sentences are served over weekends, determinate sentences are served for a predetermined and specific length of time and indeterminate sentences carry minimum and maximum time frames, such as 5 to 7 years.. ...
Hi Monica: Here are the sites to research on. Your friend and good luck, lillian WELCOME TO YOUR MOL CANCER FORUM Here you will meet a wonderful caring group of individuals who are cancering or who are loved ones and friends being advocates for those cancering. Individuals in this group are not in the medical professional field. Therefore,we do not endorse a treatment, drug or product. Our people combined do have many years of accumulated knowledge and expierence, who come from all walks in life and are able to lend tremendous assistance to help you walk through this journey. There are a few matters of importance to address. It is the general assumption of the group that one can use alternative treatments (with your doctors permission) in conjunction with traditional therapy. We feel that an individual who has had testing and is returning to the doctor should take someone with them as an extra set of ears. It must be remembered that this is a most stressful time for you. We also agree that a ...
A Ribonucleic acid (RNA) is a molecule found in all cells, comprised of many individual units of nucleic acid. It differs from DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) in that it only contains a single, not double strand, and substitutes uracil for thymine. The sugar backbone of RNA is also composed of ribose (DNA contains deoxyribose). RNAs fall into several different categories, depending on function. The primary role of mRNA in is to transfer a copy of the information coded in DNA to a ribosome to be expressed as a protein, using a form of RNA known as messenger RNA (mRNA). mRNA in eukaryotes undergoes spicing after transcription from DNA to remove introns or to use alternative splicing to create a different gene product. Alternatively-spliced transcripts can also express the same protein, but at different levels, due to the removal or addition of regulatory sequences. The main role of tRNA, or transfer RNA is to carry an amino acid to the mRNA (while the mRNA is in the ribosome) during translation of the ...
In order to save forests, research needs to understand what is driving communities and countries to clear them, and propose land use alternatives that are both economically viable and environmentally sustainable.
A consequence of the trans-splicing mechanism in dinoflagellate cox3, and the inclusion of part of the cox3H1-6 oligoadenosine tail in the spliced product, is that a variable number of A nucleotides occur at the join region. This results in one or more lysines (codon: AAA) encoded in the complete transcript (Fig. 1C). In a poly-topic membrane protein inclusion of charged residues might be expected to cause problems for membrane topology, with potential implications for protein function. However, the location of the splice site in cox3 is between the coding regions of two membrane helices, and presumably these charged residues (and variability in protein sequence) are tolerated at this site. Overall, these new insights into trans-splic.Proteins that either function autonomously or are subsequently joined as proteins. Dinoflagellate mitochondria are known to be able to use alternative initiator and terminator translation signals [18,19], so the lack of conventional open reading frames in the ...
The process of authoring, reviewing, and publishing scholarly articles remains an expensive, time-consuming process that can require significant up-front investment and technical expertise. Coupled with lengthy review processes this can create delays of up to a year before new scientific findings are published. Annotum, a new, open-source, open-access authoring publishing tool based on the WordPress content management system, builds on the earlier work of the Public Library of Sciences Currents publication and provides an easy-to use alternative to existing publishing systems that supports very rapid expert review and professional online publishing.
Risk of hematologic toxicity/bone marrow suppression; monitor CBCs esp. in advanced HIV-1 disease; interrupt dose if anemia or neutropenia occurs. Myopathy with prolonged zidovudine use. Suspend if lactic acidosis or pronounced hepatotoxicity (eg, hepatomegaly, steatosis) occurs. Not for treating chronic HBV infection; closely monitor patients co-infected with HBV and HIV for several months after stopping treatment (discontinuing therapy may exacerbate HBV infection); if appropriate, initiate anti-hepatitis B therapy may be warranted. History of pancreatitis. Monitor for lipoatrophy; use alternatives if suspected. Women. Obesity. Elderly. Pregnancy. Nursing mothers: not recommended.. ...
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You probably remember how we shifted from general funds to fee-based inspection programs. The most controversial fee increase was for child care facilities, as the costs of inspecting child care facilities had been almost entirely subsidized by the states general fund. In the end, we found a way to use alternative funding sources to provide [...] ...
The COVID-19 pandemic will continue to impede aspects of employment screening in 2021, leading employers to use alternative procedures such as conditional hiring and remote drug testing.
LABA as monotherapy (without ICS) for asthma can increase risk of asthma-related events. Do not initiate in acute deteriorating COPD. Not for relief of acute symptoms. Prescribe a short-acting β2-agonist for acute symptoms; monitor for increased need. Do not exceed recommended dose. Discontinue immediately and treat if paradoxical bronchospasm or immediate hypersensitivity reactions occur; use alternative therapy. Cardiovascular disorders (eg, coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, hypertension). Convulsive disorders. Thyrotoxicosis. Hyperresponsiveness to sympathomimetics. Diabetes. Ketoacidosis. Hypokalemia. Hyperglycemia. Narrow-angle glaucoma. Urinary retention. Prostatic hyperplasia. Bladder-neck obstruction. Pregnancy. Labor & delivery. Nursing mothers.. ...
Increased risk of asthma-related events (death, hospitalizations, intubations) with LABA monotherapy (without ICS). Do not initiate in rapidly or acutely deteriorating asthma. Not for use with other long-acting β2-agonists. Do not exceed recommended dose. Prescribe a short-acting, inhaled β2-agonist for acute symptoms; monitor for increased need. Immunosuppressed. Tuberculosis. Systemic infections. Ocular herpes simplex. If exposed to chickenpox or measles, consider immune globulin prophylaxis or antiviral -treatment. Monitor for adrenal insufficiency when transferring from systemic steroids. May need supplemental systemic corticosteroids during periods of stress or severe asthma attack. May unmask previously suppressed allergic conditions. Reevaluate periodically. Monitor for hypercorticism and HPA axis suppression (if occurs, discontinue gradually), growth in children, intraocular pressure, glaucoma, or cataracts. Discontinue if paradoxical bronchospasm occurs; use alternative therapy. ...
Neurovascular MR angiography (MRA) is rapidly gaining greater clinical acceptance. To provide functional information, novel techniques of acquisition, information processing, and display are used, generating a new set of artifacts. The purpose of this paper is to outline the causes, provide examples, and note clinical problems associated with MRA artifacts by grouping them into six common types: 1) poor visualization of small vessels, 2) overestimation of stenosis, 3) view-to-view variations, 4) false positives, 5) false negatives, and 6) vessel overlap. This in turn will lead to four generalized solutions: 1) optimize acquisition parameters, 2) edit volume boundaries before performing maximum intensity projection reconstructions, 3) refer to the individual source images, and 4) use alternative image processing. By organizing and simplifying both clinical problems and solutions into major categories, a greater understanding of the current clinical indications and the overall goals of MRA can be ...
COMMUTERS can make it pay to leave their cars at home and use alternative methods of transport along one of Sheffield’s busiest routes.
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I just returned from a mini-tour. Four days, four states, two shows, one workshop, three radio interviews, and a television show. And four tanks of gas. (Obviously, I dont have a Prius.). I remember a conversation from a few years ago. Some friends and I decided that gas should be five bucks a gallon. Our thinking? That would be the only way to motivate anyone to use alternative energy. So, even though its uncomfortable at times, and even though I dont love why gas prices are rising, I believe that good things are happening.. But, heres the thing: Lots of people are talking about hard times. I even noticed the temptation to go there as I filled up my tank out on the road. Luckily, I catch myself when this happens. I take a breath. And I shift my thoughts. I had a great road trip. And I continue to feel (and be) prosperous.. Remember, you can have a powerful dream or vision for yourself. You can do all the right meditations and create effective action plans. But if you sink into negative ...
The NHPD Ingredient Database contains the ingredient information which the Natural Health Products Directorate has developed for ingredients that are generally regarded to be of minimal toxicological concern
The NHPD Ingredient Database contains the ingredient information which the Natural Health Products Directorate has developed for ingredients that are generally regarded to be of minimal toxicological concern
Title:Comparison of Rat and Human Pulmonary Metabolism Using Precision-cut Lung Slices (PCLS). VOLUME: 13 ISSUE: 1. Author(s):Yildiz Yilmaz*, Gareth Williams, Markus Walles, Nenad Manevski, Stephan Krähenbühl and Gian Camenisch. Affiliation:Pharmacokinetic Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Pharmacokinetic Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Pharmacokinetic Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Pharmacokinetic Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel, Clinical Pharmacology and Toxicology, University Hospital, Basel, Pharmacokinetic Sciences, Novartis Institutes for Biomedical Research, Basel. Keywords:Precision-cut lung slices (PCLS), rat lung metabolism, human lung metabolism, rat and human pulmonary metabolism activity, pulmonary disposition of phase I and phase II drugs, dynamic organ culture system, AFQ056.. Abstract:. Background: Although the liver is the primary organ of drug metabolism, the ...
Several in vitro OECD test guidelines address key events 1-3 of the adverse outcome pathway for skin sensitization, but none are validated for sensitizer potency assessment. The reaction of sensitizing molecules with skin proteins is the molecular initiating event and appears to be rate-limiting as chemical reactivity strongly correlates with sensitizer potency. The kinetic direct peptide reactivity assay (kDPRA), a modification of the DPRA (OECD TG 442C), allows derivation of rate constants of the depletion of the cysteine-containing model peptide upon reaction with the test item. Its reproducibility was demonstrated in an inter-laboratory study. Here we present a database of rate constants, expressed as log kmax, for 180 chemicals to define the prediction threshold to identify strong sensitizers (classified as GHS 1A). A threshold of log kmax - 2 offers a balanced accuracy of 85% for predicting GHS 1A sensitizers according to the local lymph node assay. The kDPRA is proposed as a stand-alone ...
Precision-cut lung slices of pigs were infected with five swine influenza A viruses of different subtypes (A/sw/Potsdam/15/1981 H1N1, A/sw/Bad Griesbach/IDT5604/2006 H1N1, A/sw/Bakum/1832/2000 H1N2, A/sw/Damme/IDT5673/2006 H3N2, A/sw/Herford/IDT5932/2007 H3N2). The viruses were able to infect ciliated and mucus-producing cells. The infection of well-differentiated respiratory epithelial cells by swine influenza A viruses was analyzed with respect to the kinetics of virus release into the supernatant. The highest titres were determined for H3N2/2006 and H3N2/2007 viruses. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 viruses replicated somewhat slower than the H3N2 viruses whereas a H1N1 strain from 2006 multiplied at significantly lower titres than the other strains. Regarding their ability to induce a ciliostatic effect, the two H3N2 strains were found to be most virulent. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 were somewhat less virulent with respect to their effect on ciliary activity. The lowest ciliostatic effect was observed with
This document is a resource for developing plans for management of produced water and understanding the benefits of using coal bed methane produced water. Included is information on past and ongoing CBM research to evaluate the achievability of produced water management options for various areas of the United States. Chapter 5 includes alternative uses for produced water. Chapter 6 includes case study examples ...
If youve ever been in a sauna then you know first hand how rejuvenating and invigorating a good sweat can be. Sweating is a form of detoxification and there may be no better place to stimulate this process than in the sauna. Sauna therapy developed in the Scandinavian region, specifically Finland, and is used for bathing, improving ailments, and even as a setting for childbirth. To say the sauna is a foundational element of Finnish society would be an understatement, some even view it as a holy place and behave as they would in a church. Its no wonder, more than just a place to feel good, the sweat inducing heat is also thought to balance many health problems including hypertension, fatigue, discomfort, and even certain cravings.. Many formal studies have set out to determine the health benefits of using a sauna and the outcomes have been very positive.. 1. May Offer Fibromyalgia Symptom Support. The Department of Rehabilitation and Physical Medicine at Japans Kagoshima University conducted a ...
A combination of three in chemical/in vitro methods addressing key events of the adverse outcome pathway (AOP) for skin sensitization (OECD, 2012) as defined by the OECD were part of the in vitro Skin Sensitization Turnkey Testing Strategy to access the skin sensitization potential of the test item. DPRA The reactivity of the test substance towards synthetic cysteine (C)- or lysine (K)-containing peptides was evaluated in the Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA) according to OECD TG 442C. For this purpose, the test substance was incubated with synthetic peptides for ca. 24 hours at ca. 25°C and the remaining non-depleted peptide concentrations were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with gradient elution and UV-detection at 220 nm. The test substance was dissolved at a 100 mM concentration in de-ionized water. Three samples of the test substance were incubated with each peptide in ratios of 1:10 (for C-containing peptide) or 1:50 (for K-containing peptide). ...
Precision-cut lung slices of pigs were infected with five swine influenza A viruses of different subtypes (A/sw/Potsdam/15/1981 H1N1, A/sw/Bad Griesbach/IDT5604/2006 H1N1, A/sw/Bakum/1832/2000 H1N2, A/sw/Damme/IDT5673/2006 H3N2, A/sw/Herford/IDT5932/2007 H3N2). The viruses were able to infect ciliated and mucus-producing cells. The infection of well-differentiated respiratory epithelial cells by swine influenza A viruses was analyzed with respect to the kinetics of virus release into the supernatant. The highest titres were determined for H3N2/2006 and H3N2/2007 viruses. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 viruses replicated somewhat slower than the H3N2 viruses whereas a H1N1 strain from 2006 multiplied at significantly lower titres than the other strains. Regarding their ability to induce a ciliostatic effect, the two H3N2 strains were found to be most virulent. H1N1/1981 and H1N2/2000 were somewhat less virulent with respect to their effect on ciliary activity. The lowest ciliostatic effect was observed with
Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/403 of 24 March 2021 laying down rules for the application of Regulations (EU) 2016/429 and (EU) 2017/625 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards model animal health certificates and model animal health/official certificates, for the entry into the Union and movements between Member States of consignments of certain categories of terrestrial animals and germinal products thereof, official certification regarding such certificates and repealing Decision 2010/470/EU (Text with EEA relevance). Commission Implementing Regulation (EU) 2021/403 of 24 March 2021 laying down rules for the application of Regulations (EU) 2016/429 and (EU) 2017/625 of the European Parliament and of the Council as regards model animal health certificates and model animal health/official certificates, for the entry into the Union and movements between Member States of consignments of certain categories of terrestrial animals and germinal products thereof, ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Current methods to manufacture human platelet lysates (HPLs) for cell therapy and tissue engineering: possible trends in product safety and standardisation. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Caring for your lawn properly is just a small part of healthy gardening. The following general suggestions are some cheap and easy ways to promote healthy living for you, your family, wildlife, and the environment. Use alternative lawn care: Chemical lawn care systems leach into and contaminate water supplies. Choose alternative lawn care that contains all-natural and environmentally friendly weed control and fertilizing components. Want a green, healthy, weed-free lawn but dont want the dangers of chemicals? Youll never need those little flags warning kids and pets to stay off your treated turf again. With the growing awareness of natural and organic living, alternative methods for lawn care are now being offered. Look for products that are safe to use around children and pets and that keep water supplies clean.. Grow healthy, chemical-free fruits, veggies, herbs: With the increasing awareness of harmful effects from chemical residue intake, it is wise to provide your family with organic and ...
A normally more dangerous time of the year for house fires could be made even worse this winter as Missourians try to escape the rising costs of natural gas. State fire marshall Bill Farr worries more people will be tempted to use alternative sources to their furnaces to heat their homes - space heaters, fireplaces, and such - at a time when the number of house fires is already on the rise. Farr says people should make sure space heaters are properly safety-rated and should make sure fireplaces are properly cleaned before using them. He also suggests changing the batteries in smoke detectors.. ...
Air Products has signed a contract with SK Energy to construct a hydrogen fueling station for a novel energy project to be based in World Cup Park in Seoul, South Korea. The hydrogen fueling station to be on-stream in July 2010 will supply hydrogen produced solely from landfill gas to fuel a fleet of vehicles. The project is part of Seouls push to use alternative supply means to generate 10 percent of its energy consumption by 2020, and to use hydrogen for 30 percent of the switch.. This is a very innovative project with high goals, and we are proud to be part of this plan and to work with SK Energy, which is a leading Korean company in hydrogen reforming technology. Seoul should be applauded for its foresight to use this project and World Cup Parks prominent name and location as a showcase and model for its future energy plans, said Bob Kelly, business development manager for Hydrogen Energy Systems at Air Products. Processing a waste stream to make hydrogen for use as an alternative fuel ...
Garden Green - Slugs and Snails - Garden Green educates and inspires people to use alternatives to toxic chemicals in their lawns, gardens, roadsides, parks, golf courses, and farms. We focus on alternatives for common problems in the Pacific Northwest.
Due in large part to the high volume of traffic that clogs the citys streets and freeways, Los Angeles air quality is notoriously bad. And research has shown that fumes from all of those vehicles increase L.A. residents risk for respiratory and cardiovascular disease.. Downtown and East Los Angeles, in fact, are among the California communities with the worst environmental conditions according to an Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment report; both rank among the states bottom 10 percent.. For years, city officials, policymakers, environmentalists and others have introduced initiatives to encourage residents to reduce their use of cars and instead use alternative transportation, such as public transit, carpools, walking and cycling.. One example is CicLAvia, a series of one-day events organized by a local nonprofit in which neighborhood streets are closed to motor vehicles so that people can walk and cycle freely. According to the organization, more than 1 million people have ...
The result of 10 years plus of research and health care (at the time of printing my copy was printed in 1981) helping you to understand and learn about: self-examination, the vagina and its ecology and secretions, the cervix and the uterus - including myths behind cervical cauterization and the tipped uterus, Infertility. Prevent and use alternative treatment for: menstrual cramps and distress, urinary tract infections, vaginal infections, herpes, pelvic pain, pain during intercourse, nausea during pregnancy. helping take the mystery out of a medical visit by learning: how to choose a health care facility, what happens on a medical visit, how standard laboratory tests are done and what they show, what are accepted medical treatments and what are their risks, the terms most often used by gynecologists and what they mean in everyday language ...
A young woman suffering from a treatable form of skin cancer opted to use alternative treatment known as black salve which burned a quarter-size hole in her nose.. The Daily Mail is reporting on the story of a woman whose story was posted on Youtube in an attempt to warn people away from the corrosive salve which has been called a fake cancer cure by the Food and Drug Administration. The gruesome video begins with a look at a small pink spot on the tip of her nose which was diagnosed as basal cell carcinoma, a common type of skin cancer that is almost never deadly. Her doctor recommended Mohs micrographic surgery which removes thin layers of the tumor at a time until only cancer-free tissue remains.. But the woman was afraid of scarring and decided against the procedure, opting to go the natural route by investing in a jar of black salve.. Black salve has been around since the early 1900s when it was widely used to treat skin lesions. According to this case study appearing on Pub Med, a ...
Sean Russell2018-02-13T00:07:15+00:00. A Guide to DIY Herbal Supplements plus Recipes 20% of the population uses herbal medicine and herbal supplements 40% of the population use alternative medicine therapies such as acupuncture The natural supplement industry has been booming over the last 10 years. Supplement use has grown steadily at 8% since 2013 where it was already a healthy industry. This growth is from several factors, with supplement growth mostly due to increased public demand. The supplement industry is growing thanks to: Increased research of.... ...
Many people who suffer from asthma are very familiar with both inhalers and oral remedies that their doctors prescribe in order to treat asthma. Although these medicines can be extremely effective in treating asthma there are some people who prefer to use alternative ways of treating it. Certainly a lot of people now look for more natural asthma relief treatments rather than relying on more conventional medicines. There are a number of reasons as to why people are turning more and more to using natural asthma relief treatments, not just for asthma but for other illnesses and conditions as well.. The biggest problem that people face when they use more conventional medications that have been prescribed by their doctor or health provider is that they can cause unpleasant side effects. Some people find that in the short term when taking such medicines they suffer from nausea. A lot of people nowadays are becoming concerned about the long term effects that the steroids contained within the medication ...
Nationalist and patriotic sentiments frequently cause headaches for Christian leaders and pose particular challenges for the church or mission agency leader responsible for managing multi-national teams. This simple observation requires us to understand the scope and significance of nationalism in the context of global mission.. While populist parties stir up fears, the churches often struggle to express a clear kingdom perspective. In some instances the churches find themselves, wittingly or unwittingly, portrayed as patriotic allies in the struggle to stem the influx of non-Christian immigrants.. Nationalists, above all else, issue a call to difference in the face of homogenizing forces that are global in nature. In resisting globalisation, most nationalisms use alternative narratives that are mythological, such as frontier myths and sacred origin myths.. The Lausanne Movements commitment to a vision of the one worldwide body of Christ, fuelled by passion and enthusiasm, is entirely ...
One of the great achievements of the omics revolution is the development of high throughput functional genomics approaches. Notably transcriptomics studies have been instrumental in analyzing the response of LAB to different environments and over 100 papers have been published addressing a variety of stresses, growth conditions and culturing regimens. Among the most important practical discoveries was the finding that Lactococcus lactis and other LAB, when provided with the appropriate cofactors, such as heme, could use alternative electron acceptors and hence respire rather than ferment [82]. Following the first description of the use of molecular oxygen by Lactococcus lactis MG1363 [83], a variety of studies have followed that have been reviewed recently [84]. Transcriptional studies allowed to identify the genes involved in the use of molecular oxygen that resulted in a wide range of applications, notably faster growth and higher yield of starter cultures [85]. Biochemical studies confirmed ...
This report updates information previously published regarding contamination of Vapotherm® respiratory gas administration devices (Vapotherm, Inc., Stevensville, Maryland) with Ralstonia spp. (1,2). The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has issued an updated Preliminary Public Health Notification, advising health-care providers to use alternative devices until the source of the contamination has been identified.* CDC continues to receive information regarding Ralstonia spp. associated with Vapotherm use. Twenty-nine institutions in 16 states have reported recovery of Ralstonia spp. from Vapotherm devices and from approximately 40 pediatric patients. The majority of these cases appear to represent colonization, although one infection has been reported to CDC and other cases remain under investigation. In addition, the recommended disinfecting protocol has reportedly failed to eradicate Ralstonia spp. in three separate tests. Based on pulsed field gel electrophoresis analysis, isolates from ...
Heterotrimeric guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins), which integrate signals between receptors and effector proteins, are composed of an alpha, a beta, and a gamma subunit. These subunits are encoded by families of related genes. This gene encodes a beta subunit. Beta subunits are important regulators of alpha subunits, as well as of certain signal transduction receptors and effectors. This gene uses alternative polyadenylation signals.[5][6] ...
Electron tower theory explains the utilization order of electron acceptor for respiration. Depending on the type of electron acceptors used by microorganisms, microbes can be classified into the strict aerobes, obligate anaerobes, and facultative anaerobes. The strict aerobes can not live under anoxic condition; on the contrary, obligate anaerobes can never use oxygen as electron acceptor. However, facultative anaerobes can live in both aerobic and anaerobic condition. If oxygen is plentiful, they tend to use oxygen because microorganisms gain much energy from reducing oxygen rather than other electron acceptors. When there is no more available oxygen in solution, they start to use nitrate as electron acceptor. Thus, obligate anaerobes and facultative anaerobes use alternative electron acceptor in the order of electron acceptor having more reducing energy. Oxygen is most efficient electron acceptor, while carbon dioxide has the less reducing energy. (figure electron tower) ...
Downloadable! This paper studies the proposition that capital inflows tend to take the form of FDI--i. e. , the share of FDI in total liabilities tends to be higher--in countries that are safer, more promising and with better institutions and policies. It finds that this view is patently wrong since it stands the historical record on its head. It then uses alternative theories to make sense of the facts. It begins by studying the determinants of the size and composition of the flows of private capital across countries. It finds that while capital flows tend to go to countries that are safer and have better institutions and financial markets, the share of FDI in total flows is not an indication of good health. On the contrary, countries that are riskier, less financially developed and have weaker institutions tend to attract less capital but more of it in the form of FDI. Hence, interpreting the rising share of FDI as a sign of good health is unwarranted. This is even more so, given that FDI`s recent
The trick is to not blend white and black directly on the palette to get intermediate tones, but, just like in a photo or a print, where the dots are only black ones printed on white paper more or less less thickened, in melting them to our brain in order to make us perceive all the shades of gray. So just paint with just black dots on a white background, or with black and white dots on a gray background to achieve a photorealistic effect. This is also the reason why most of the artists of these currents choose to paint large paintings (usually around two square meters), making it easier for them to see and control the brush strokes. But if one wants to realize a small picture as it should do. Well, there are two solutions, either you buy a high-magnifying monocle or choose to use alternative techniques, which are not of the type with a printing effect, but which allow to obtain similar effects. I do not know canonical methods to paint in this way, but I can illustrate my personal method of ...
The trick is to not blend white and black directly on the palette to get intermediate tones, but, just like in a photo or a print, where the dots are only black ones printed on white paper more or less less thickened, in melting them to our brain in order to make us perceive all the shades of gray. So just paint with just black dots on a white background, or with black and white dots on a gray background to achieve a photorealistic effect. This is also the reason why most of the artists of these currents choose to paint large paintings (usually around two square meters), making it easier for them to see and control the brush strokes. But if one wants to realize a small picture as it should do. Well, there are two solutions, either you buy a high-magnifying monocle or choose to use alternative techniques, which are not of the type with a printing effect, but which allow to obtain similar effects. I do not know canonical methods to paint in this way, but I can illustrate my personal method of ...
S. 2160. A bill to establish a pilot program under which the Chief of the Forest Service may use alternative dispute resolution in lieu of judicial review of certain projects. In, a database of bills in the U.S. Congress.
The Personal Vehicles Initiative (PVI) encourages and assists motorists to buy, drive and maintain their vehicles in energy-efficient ways that save fuel and money, and emphasizes how such efforts also reduce vehicle emissions. Its main tool is the Auto$mart Guide, which offers information and tips on purchasing, operating and maintaining personal vehicles. The program also provides resource materials to driver educators for fuel-efficiency training to novice drivers and provides Web-based communications tools that support and encourage the development of new initiatives of local governments, industry and associations to promote fuel efficiency. PVI also offers information on opportunities to use alternative fuels. ...
If you have not given an error, then we will load the code on the board using ST-LINK. If you do not have an ST-LINK in the next blog post, I will explain how to load the code using a USB-UART converter.. In the Nucleus and Discovery the ST-LINK is integrated. However you can always buy the ST officer or use alternative routes: my ST-Link is from Aliexpress and it works perfectly.. Before giving Load, next to Build, make sure you have the ST-LINK drivers installed, they are obtained on the ST website:. To be able to load our program, for the case of the STM32F103C8T6 board that I am using, it is necessary to put the jumpers that it carries over as it is seen in the photo and to hit the reset button. If you do not do this, uVision will give you an error because it does not detect the micro via ST-LINK.. ...
LABA as monotherapy (without ICS) for asthma can increase risk of asthma-related events. Do not initiate in acute deteriorating COPD. Not for relief of acute symptoms. Prescribe a short-acting β2-agonist for acute symptoms; monitor for increased need. Do not exceed recommended dose. Discontinue if paradoxical bronchospasm or hypersensitivity reactions occur; use alternative therapy. Cardiovascular disease (esp. coronary insufficiency, arrhythmias, hypertrophic obstructive cardiomyopathy, hypertension). Convulsive disorders. Thyrotoxicosis. Prolongation of the QT interval. Hyperresponsiveness to sympathomimetics. Diabetes. Ketoacidosis. Narrow-angle glaucoma. Monitor for signs/symptoms of prostatic hyperplasia, GI or GU obstruction. Risk of hypokalemia or hyperglycemia. Moderate to severe renal impairment: monitor for anticholinergic effects. Severe hepatic impairment. Pregnancy. Labor & delivery. Nursing mothers.. ...
Oasis of Hope doctors use alternative treatments for cancer with the best results. Immunosupportive agents are one of the best cancer cells killers. Learn more by visiting our website TODAY!
The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) is accepting public comment on possible land use alternatives for the Sauk Prairie Recreation Area,
Patricia Jackson, Drug & Alcohol Counselor, Denver, CO, 80216, (720) 744-3645, Anxiety about CORONAVIRUS? I am a skillful E-COUNSELOR (remote counseling). Physical office is in a pine forest in the DTC area of Denver metro. I have 39 years of experience as a psychotherapist. TREATING BEHAVIORAL ADDICTIONS ON AN OUTPATIENT BASIS and codependence, victims of narcissists, eating issues, trauma, grief, depression, anxiety, parental estrangement and sexual violation. I use alternative healing modalities (hypnotherapy, EMDR, journaling, visualization, etc.). Results-oriented treatment approach. Specialize in treating individuals requiring high need for confidentiality. PROFESSIONAL, CARING AND WISE. CALL ME NOW!
It was expected that UCP1-deficient mice would have increased susceptibility to obesity caused by a high-fat adipogenic diet. The reasons for this expectation followed from the considerable body of evidence showing that increases in brown adipocyte number and ectopic Ucp1 expression reduce excessive adiposity (reviewed in ref. 24). On the contrary, UCP1-deficient mice are resistant to the development of obesity in a manner similar to that of transgenic mice overexpressing Ucp1. That the mechanism causing the reduction in adiposity is principally thermogenic is evident from the fact that the differences in adiposity vanish when the mice are not challenged thermogenically (Figure 1). Furthermore, when the temperature is elevated, both wild-type and UCP1-deficient mice increase adiposity at the same rate, illustrating that the decreased rate of weight gain at the lower temperature was due to nonshivering thermogenesis.. We hypothesize that UCP1-deficient mice use alternative mechanisms of ...
A large number of the buildings have tank water supplies and therefore we are hoping that this will mean that there is little or no impact on the water supplies in these buildings, particularly toilets. Some buildings however are likely to be without water once the work commences and occupants will therefore have to use alternative toilet facilities in nearby buildings ...
The ubiquitous presence of anthropogenic chemicals and their transformation products in surface water represents a toxicological concern from both an ecological standpoint and a human perspective as many of these chemicals ...
Animals, Antibodies; Monoclonal/*therapeutic use, CD40 Ligand/*immunology, Cyclosporine/therapeutic use, Fetal Tissue Transplantation/*immunology, Graft Rejection/immunology, Graft Survival/immunology, Immunoglobulins; Intravenous/*therapeutic use, Immunohistochemistry, Immunosuppressive Agents/*therapeutic use, Islets of Langerhans Transplantation/*immunology, Male, Rats, Rats; Inbred Lew, Swine, Tacrolimus/therapeutic use, Transplantation; Heterologous/*immunology ...
While the skin sensitization hazard of substances can readily be identified using non-animal methods, the classification of potency into UN GHS sub-categories 1A and 1B remains challenging. The kinetic direct peptide reactivity assay (kDPRA) is a modification of the DPRA (OECD TG 442C) wherein the reaction kinetics of a test substance towards a synthetic cysteine-containing peptide is evaluated. For this purpose, several concentrations of the test substance are incubated with the synthetic peptide for several incubation times at 25°C. After... kDPRA , Agro/Petrochemical , Cleaning Products , Fragrance & Flavors , Household & Consumer Products , Andreas Natsch , Barbara Birk , Britta Wareing , Cindy Ryan , Erin Hill ...
Under section 8 in the Annexes of the information, required Toxicological Information is outlined. In section 8.4, Mutagenicity testing assays are listed, which call for a tiered approach to toxicological assessment of substances. Further, under section 8.5 and 8.6 Acute Toxicity and Repeated Dose Toxicity assays are noted. Although the approach and procedures for testing are outlined, the interpretation of results and navigation of testing options requires expertise and experience. BioReliance has assembled the foremost collection of scientists available anywhere and thus you can rely on us to assist in your REACH testing needs ...
FOSFITAL EXTRA has the EU REACH registry, which regulates the registration, evaluation, authorization and restriction of chemical substances and preparations,with the aim of guaranteeing a high level of protection of human health and the environment.. FOSFITAL EXTRA has the EU REACH registryFOSFITAL EXTRA is formulated in special stainless steel reactors, equipped with a double jacket and connected to a closed cooling system by means of chillers, through which water flows at a suitable temperature to temper the exothermic reaction that occurs during its manufacture, conferring a greater stability to the formula.. During its manufacturing process, proper handling of temperature, pH, speed and stirring times, as well as the order of addition of raw materials are essential to ensure a high quality final product and high efficiency in the field.. FOSFITAL Extra ei: Physiological inducer , Phosphite , FOSFITAL Extra (commercial information). ...
The European Commission announced on Saturday that it had reached a deal with Beijing to resolve a trade dispute over Chinese manufactured solar panels after agreeing to pay a minimum price for impor…
"Animal Testing Alternatives". Procter & Gamble. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. " ... CoverGirl was once one of the largest global brands to conduct animal testing, but that is no longer the case. In January 2010 ...
Among its research programs are Air Quality; Animal Health; Crop Production; Crop Protection and Quarantine; Food Animal ... Methyl Bromide Alternatives; Plant Biological and Molecular Processes; Plant Diseases; Plant Genetic Resources, Genomics, and ...
"Animal Welfare and Alternatives". Procter & Gamble. Archived from the original on March 19, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2012. "Over- ... Procter & Gamble has received criticism from animal advocacy group PETA for the practice of testing on animals. On June 30, ... The company invested more than $275 million in the development of alternative testing methods. In 2002, P&G was sued for its ... Canedy, Dana (July 1, 1999). "P.& G. to End Animal Tests For Most Consumer Goods". The New York Times. Archived from the ...
ISBN 0-19-920570-1. "Existing Non-animal Alternatives". 20 November 2016. Archived from the original on March 13, ... Animal testing Ex vivo In situ In utero In vivo In silico In papyro In natura Animal in vitro cellular and developmental ... Just as studies in whole animals more and more replace human trials, so are in vitro studies replacing studies in whole animals ... and many animal virologists refer to such work as being in vitro to distinguish it from in vivo work in whole animals. ...
"Existing Non-animal Alternatives". 8 September 2011. "Alternative toxicity test methods: reducing, refining and ... 2011). "Alternative (non-animal)methods for cosmetic testing: current status and future prospects - 2010". Arch Toxicol. 85 (1 ... The use of non-human animals for toxicology testing is opposed by some organisations for reasons of animal welfare, and it has ... While testing in animal models remains as a method of estimating human effects, there are both ethical and technical concerns ...
"Genotoxicity: Validated Non-animal Alternatives". 2011-06-20. Retrieved 2013-03-16. Sugden KD, Campo CK, Martin BD ... These substances are found mainly in plant species and are poisonous to animals, including humans; about half of them have been ...
Animal Genetics. 37 (5): 494-497. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2052.2006.01495.x. PMID 16978180. Luís, C, Bastos-Silveira, C., Costa- ... Superlative Alternatives" (PDF). Equestrian: 65-66. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-06-17. Retrieved 2009-06-26. " ... Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics. 123 (6): 399-402. doi:10.1111/j.1439-0388.2006.00612.x. PMID 17177696.CS1 maint: ... de Criadores do Cavalo Puro Sangue Lusitano Lusitano Horse Association of Australasia Horses portal Mammals portal Animals ...
"Alternatives to Antibiotics Reduce Animal Disease". Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization. 9 January ... to lay animal owners for administration to their own animals nonetheless continued in all states. In 2000, the FDA announced ... Using antibiotic-free alternatives in bone infection treatment may help decrease the use of antibiotics and thus antimicrobial ... It is established that the use of antibiotics in animal husbandry can give rise to AMR resistances in bacteria found in food ...
Proponents of animal-free teaching methodologies argue that alternatives to animal dissection can benefit educators by ... Some alternatives to dissection may present educational advantages over the use of animal cadavers, while eliminating perceived ... The NORINA database lists over 3,000 products which may be used as alternatives or supplements to animal use in education and ... Dewhurt, D; Jenkinson, L (1995). "The impact of computer-based alternatives on the use of animals in undergraduate teaching: A ...
Owing to the large number of saponins in the leaves and fruits of H. helix, it is mildly poisonous to animals like rabbits and ... Northwest Coalition for Alternatives to Pesticides. "Ring in the holiday season and reduce the spread of invasive species! -". ... Invasive Species Council of British Columbia , ISCBC Plants & Animals. 2020-02-10. Retrieved 2020-12-27. "English Ivy". ...
Later, as a fellow at the Oxford Centre for Animal Ethics, McCance published Critical Animal Studies: An Introduction through ... Klaus Martens (2004). The Canadian Alternative. Königshausen & Neumann. p. 105. ISBN 9783826026362. Retrieved February 25, 2020 ... This book focused on issues concerning the fledgling discipline of "Animal Studies" which include questions regarding animal ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) Shakespeare, Steven (2014). "Reviewed Work(s): Critical Animal Studies: An Introduction ...
Administrative & Public Law; African-American Lawyers; Alternative Dispute Resolution; American Indian Law; Animal Law; ...
Alternative Press. p. 96. Bell. "Techno Animal: The Brotherhood of the Bomb: Matador". Daily Nexus. Retrieved 22 October 2018. ... All music is composed by Techno Animal. Credits adapted from The Brotherhood of the Bomb liner notes Techno Animal Justin ... "Techno Animal - The Brotherhood of the Bomb". Drowned in Sound. Retrieved 22 October 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter ( ... "Techno Animal - The Brotherhood of the Bomb". AllMusic. Retrieved 22 October 2018. CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) ...
"When will it end? Citizens for Alternatives to Animal Labs" (PDF). p. 99. Retrieved 4 March 2019. "Animal ... He antagonized animal rights and animal welfare advocates who oppose the use of animals in the development of medical treatment ... surgeons and others who do research in animal labs are as much concerned about the care of the animals as anyone can be. Their ... whose goal is to promote public understanding and support for animal research. DeBakey made wide use of animals in his research ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "The Three Rs: The Way Forward". The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. ... The focus of the centre is on the three Rs: the replacement, refinement, and reduction of animal testing. The three Rs were ... In May 2004, the UK Government announced that it was establishing a national centre for "best practice" in animal testing ... The UK government currently still regards animal testing as necessary, but science minister Lord Sainsbury of Turville said ...
There are alternatives to animal tissue valves. In some cases, a human aortic valve can be implanted. These are called ... Tissue heart valves are usually made from animal tissues, either animal heart valve tissue or animal pericardial tissue, and ...
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 35 (6): 661-671. doi:10.1177/026119290703500606. PMID 18186671. S2CID 1247463. Peters, SA ( ... of synthetic or natural chemical substances in humans and other animal species. PBPK modeling is used in pharmaceutical ...
However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has begun to approve non-animal alternatives in response to research cruelty ... Gaul, Gilbert M. (12 April 2008). "In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". The Washington Post. Whitehead, A.; Curnow ... Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 32 (2_suppl): 13-21. doi:10.1177/026119290403202s05. PMID 15601221. Stallard, N.; Whitehead ... As a result, in 1992 this test was proposed as an alternative to the LD50 test by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation ...
The TraumaMan surgical trainer has become a preferred alternative to the use of animals by both medical students and ... Balcombe, Jonathan (2004). "Medical Training Using Simulation: Toward Fewer Animals and Safer Patients". Alternatives to ... "Teaching Emergency Surgical Skills for Trauma Resuscitation-Mechanical Simulator versus Animal Model". ISRN Emergency Medicine ... Laboratory Animals. 32 (S1): 553-560. doi:10.1177/026119290403201s90. PMID 23581135. Simulab Corporation web site Simulab: ...
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 32 (Sup 1): 315-322. doi:10.1177/026119290403201s52. PMID 23577480. S2CID 6743973. ... "Nonhuman Primates: Research Animals". Animal Welfare Information Center. United States Department of Agriculture. Archived from ... European groups such as the European Coalition to End Animal Experiments are seeking a ban on all NHP use in experiments as ... Animals portal Mammals portal Primates portal Arboreal theory Human evolution International Primate Day List of primates List ...
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 32 (6): 605-15. doi:10.1177/026119290403200611. PMID 15757498. S2CID 31487885. Wassman, ...
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 20: 297-301. Muñoz J; Gómez A; Green AJ; Figuerola J; Amat F; Rico C (2008). " ... In addition, the resilience of Artemia makes them ideal animals running biological toxicity assays and it has become a model ... has had extensive use as a test organism and in some circumstances is an acceptable alternative to the toxicity testing of ... although the first unambiguous record is the report and drawings made by Schlösser in 1757 of animals from Lymington, England. ...
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 30 (4): 365-406. doi:10.1177/026119290203000403. PMID 12234245. S2CID 26326825. Minghetti L ... "An assessment of progress in the use of alternatives in toxicity testing since the publication of the report of the second ...
"Dorothy Hegarty Award Winners 2012". Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. Sep 2013.. ... The aim is to shorten the entire drug development process as well as to reduce animal experiments and drug testing in humans ... Eskes and Whelan: Validating Alternative Methods for Toxicity Testing. Springer book. Rebelo, S.P.; Dehne, E.-M.; Brito, C.; ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Human Organ Farms Could Stop Animal Testing in Just 3 Years, Say Scientists". care2. ...
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 30 (4): 365-406. doi:10.1177/026119290203000403. PMID 12234245. Bernardi R, Pandolfi PP ( ... It consists of 10 exons that are subject to shuffling through alternative splicing, yielding more than 15 known PML protein ... In addition to regulation through alternative splicing, the protein product is subject to post-translational modifications such ... "An assessment of progress in the use of alternatives in toxicity testing since the publication of the report of the second ...
2002). "The Use of Fetal Bovine Serum: Ethical or Scientific Problem?". Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 30 (2): 219-227. ... The collection and movement of all animal derived products globally is strictly controlled. Veterinary control of animal ... Fetal bovine serum, as with the vast majority of animal serum used in cell culture, is produced from blood collected at ... Our primary focus will be on safety and safe use of serum and animal derived products through proper origin traceability, truth ...
"Current status of animal welfare and animal rights in China". Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 41 (5): 351-357. doi:10.1177/ ... World Animal Protection "New home for bile bears at the Bear Sanctuary Ninh Binh". "Animals Asia". Animals Asia ... Animals Asia Foundation Free the Bears Fund Snake wine, a rice wine made with snake bile China portal Animals portal Czaja, ... a legal trade can in principle be created by farming animals to assuage demand for wild animals which thus need not be ...
Louekari K (October 2004). "Status and prospects of in vitro tests in risk assessment". Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 32 ... animal ECM extract hydrogels, protein hydrogels, peptide hydrogels, polymer hydrogels, and wood-based nanocellulose hydrogel. ... arrangement allows the cultures to provide a model that more accurately resembles human tissue in vivo without utilizing animal ...
Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 29 (1): 15-33. doi:10.1177/026119290102900109. PMID 11178572. S2CID 594362. Styblo M, ... In a rat animal model, urine levels of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (as a biomarker of ROS DNA damage) were measured after ... "FDA: Pfizer will voluntarily suspend sale of animal drug 3-Nitro". Archived from the original on 2013-05-02. Lewis, D R (1999 ... Kitchin KT (May 2001). "Recent advances in arsenic carcinogenesis: modes of action, animal model systems, and methylated ...
Animal Bond". Alternative and Complementary Therapies. 16 (6): 339-343. doi:10.1089/act.2010.16603. PMID 20374096. Passages ... Animal Assisted Therapy. Addiction-related structural neuroplasticity Addiction vulnerability Addiction by Design Olds, J., & ... Horowitz, Sala (December 2010). "Animal Assisted Therapies for Inpatients:Tapping the Unique Healing Power of the Human - ... Malibu (2011-06-05). "Animal Assisted Therapy and Addiction". Passages Malibu. Retrieved 5 October 2012. Integrative Therapy: ...
An alternative (acidic) pathway of bile acid synthesis is initiated by mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1), expressed ... O'Keefe SJ, Kidd M, Espitalier-Noel G, Owira P (May 1999). "Rarity of colon cancer in Africans is associated with low animal ...
These layers were created by millennia of river-borne sediments which gradually incorporated plant and animal matter, creating ... and two alternative centers for education. The district serves all of Baytown, Highlands, outlying areas of East Harris County ...
a b Lange, C. M. & Sletten, S. J. (2002, February). Alternative education: A brief history and research synthesis (Project ... Other schools are built around elite-sporting programs or teach agricultural skills such as farming or animal breeding. ... Archive of profile) ("Alternatives a la segregació escolar als Estats Units: el cas de les magnet schools"/"Alternativas a la ... Orfield, Gary (University of California, Los Angeles professor and co-director of the Civil Rights Project) "Alternatives to ...
Animals and other heterotrophs must eat in order to survive - carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores ... If eating and drinking is not possible, as is often the case when recovering from surgery, alternatives are enteral[26] ... Physiologically, animals must be able to obtain both energy and nutrients from plant and animal materials to be considered ... Other animals[edit]. Mammals[edit]. This section is transcluded from Mammal#Feeding. (edit , history) ...
Elton CS (1927) Animal Ecology. Republished 2001. University of Chicago Press. *^ Allee, W. C. (1932). Animal life and social ... Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 253-269. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01460.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-16.. ... One of the earliest descriptions of a food chain was described by a medieval Afro-Arab scholar named Al-Jahiz: "All animals, in ... In a detrital web, plant and animal matter is broken down by decomposers, e.g., bacteria and fungi, and moves to detritivores ...
Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments, with some animal products, and added minerals, including ... The meaning of the term "alternative" in the expression "alternative medicine", is not that it is an effective alternative to ... "The Alternative Fix - Introduction". Frontline - PBS.. *^ The New Age of Alternative Medicine, Why New Age ... Alternative medicine. Alternative medicine is defined loosely as a set of products, practices, and theories that are believed ...
However, it was the stuffed animal that Mr. Yamada bought. So, they buy more stuffed animals to put on the windowsill so Chi ... Prince of Stride: Alternative (2016). *Alderamin on the Sky (2016). *All Out!! (2016-2017) ... Yamada buys a stuffed animal.. 36. "Chi Is Found". Transcription: "Chi, mitsuke rareru" (Japanese: チー、見つけられる。). May 29, 2008 ( ... The Yamada family takes Chi to the new home, but Chi does not want to come out of the box, thinking it is the animal hospital. ...
Small animal imagingEdit. PET technology for small animal imaging: A miniature PE tomograph has been constructed that is small ... Alternative methods of scanning include x-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional ... animal diagnosis. Because of cost as well as the marginal utility of detecting cancer metastases in companion animals (the ... Pharmacokinetics: In pre-clinical trials, it is possible to radiolabel a new drug and inject it into animals. Such scans are ...
Animals that are specialized to eat leaves are known as folivores. Some species have cryptic adaptations by which they use ... "Shoot and compound leaf comparisons in eudicots: Dynamic morphology as an alternative approach". Botanical Journal of the ... The leaf is a vital source of energy production for the plant, and plants have evolved protection against animals that consume ... animals, and abrasion from surrounding foliage and plant structures. Overall leaves are relatively flimsy with regard to other ...
The crisis of social democratic trade unionism in Western Europe: the search for alternatives. Surrey, England, UK; Burlington ... the same time strives to maintain and enlarge the precious kernel of social customs without which no human or animal society ... "There Are Good Alternatives to US Capitalism, But No Way to Get There." Alternet. Retrieved 12 August 2013. ...
Other animals. Wild animals. Ebola has a high mortality rate among primates.[241] Frequent outbreaks of Ebola may have resulted ... Social anthropologists may help find alternatives to traditional rules for burials.[121] ... Animals may become infected when they eat fruit partially eaten by bats carrying the virus.[82] Fruit production, animal ... Blood samples were taken from 178 animal handlers during the incident.[249] Of those, six animal handlers eventually ...
In testing alternative explanations for the cognitive bias of illusory superiority, the study Why the Unskilled are Unaware: ... Numeracy Underlies Better Alternatives". Numeracy. 10 (1). doi:10.5038/1936-4660.10.1.4. ISSN 1936-4660.. ...
The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animal.. *^ a b Sharman Apt Russell (2006). Hunger an unnatural ... Maintaining a rhythm while working may have helped people to become more efficient at daily activities.[81] An alternative ... and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals (such as ... may have had their origins in these hypothetical Middle Paleolithic animal cults.[90] Animal worship during the Upper ...
Other animals[edit]. Acne can occur on cats,[198] dogs,[199] and horses.[200][201] ... Alternative medicine[edit]. Researchers are investigating complementary therapies as treatment for people with acne.[166] Low- ... Topical and oral preparations of nicotinamide (the amide form of vitamin B3) are alternative medical treatments.[147] ... Morelli V, Calmet E, Jhingade V (June 2010). "Alternative therapies for common dermatologic disorders, part 2". Primary Care ( ...
Animal[edit]. A multitude of animal studies have been conducted to help understand hearing loss and fatigue. It is difficult to ... Another alternative developed by Asius is a seal called the Ambrose Diaphonic Ear Lens (ADEL). The seal attaches to headphones ... Studies[clarification needed] have been done on a variety of animal species, including guinea pigs[13] and dolphins.,[14] rats, ... quantify levels of fatigue in animals as opposed to humans. In the experiment done by Ishii et al., subjects were asked to " ...
Bed bugs - least toxic control' - alternatives to pesticides fact sheet from PAN UK ... Animalia. পর্ব:. Arthropoda. শ্রেণী:. Insecta. বর্গ:. Hemiptera. উপবর্গ:. Heteroptera. ...
Abortion may also be induced in animals, in the context of animal husbandry. For example, abortion may be induced in mares that ... Pro-life people think women who are pregnant and do not want to raise a child should look for alternatives to abortion such as ... "Animal Behaviour 59: 689-694. ...
... an alternative fuel source.[15] K. marxianus is also used to produce the industrial enzymes: inulinase, β-galactosidase, and ... into useful biomass for animal feed, food additives or fuel.[5] Certain strains of the fungus can also be used to convert whey ...
... with the animal presenting a fusiform appearance. In an alternative method of swimming, some species flatten themselves dorso- ... World Animal Foundation. Retrieved 12 April 2017.. *^ Simon, Matt (16 January 2015). "Absurd Creature of the Week: The ... Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. 7 (2): 95-106. doi:10.1207/s15327604jaws0702_2. PMID ... Captive animals have been found to be more susceptible to pathogens than wild ones.[106] A gram-negative bacterium, Vibrio ...
Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, ... When adopted outside of its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often called alternative medicine.[61] Practices known ... They remain commonly used with or instead of scientific medicine and are thus called alternative medicine. For example, ... Conservation medicine studies the relationship between human and animal health, and environmental conditions. Also known as ...
Other research suggests alternative techniques to stimulating neurons in vitro. One study investigates the use of a laser beam ... Currently, relatively little research has been conducted on growing primate or other animal neuronal networks. Harvesting ... where an arbitrary signal to the network indicates that the simulated animal has run into a wall or is moving in a direction, ...
rank the animals by the time they take to complete the course, so give the first animal home rank 12, the second rank 11, and ... Alternatives[edit]. If one desires a simple shift interpretation, the Mann-Whitney U test should not be used when the ... Kasuya, Eiiti (2001). "Mann-Whitney U test when variances are unequal". Animal Behaviour. 61: 1247-1249. doi:10.1006/anbe. ... In many software packages, the Mann-Whitney U test (of the hypothesis of equal distributions against appropriate alternatives) ...
... how new alternative spliced isoforms of genes arise, how gene scrambling in ciliates evolved, and how pervasive pan-RNA editing ...
Host animals[edit]. Lyme and other deer tick-borne diseases can sometimes be reduced by greatly reducing the deer population on ... The resistance of a genospecies of Lyme disease spirochetes to the bacteriolytic activities of the alternative complement ... Other animals[edit]. Prevention of Lyme disease is an important step in keeping dogs safe in endemic areas. Prevention ... Small Animal Practice. 40 (6): 1103-19. doi:10.1016/j.cvsm.2010.07.011. PMID 20933139.. ...
This problem was first considered by Pierre de Fermat,[61] and many alternative solution methods have been developed over the ... It is also used to determine the position of calling animals (such as birds and whales), although Apollonius' problem does not ... Alternative solutions based on the geometry of circles and spheres have been developed and used in higher dimensions.[26][35] ...
Eric J. Bailey (2002). African American Alternative Medicine: Using Alternative Medicine to Prevent and Control Chronic ... A related field, veterinary chiropractic, applies manual therapies to animals and is recognized in 40 US states,[66] but is not ... Chiropractic: Conventional or Alternative Healing?. The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 308-. ISBN 978- ... "In Wainapel SF, Fast A. Alternative Medicine and Rehabilitation: a Guide for Practitioners. New York: Demos Medical Publishing ...
Alternative rock. Progressive rock. New prog. Symphonic rock. Space rock. Progressive metal. ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... 4) are very useful since they are permanently charged, and they are often used as an alternative to the expensive Cs+ to ... which was known partly for its high abundance in animal blood. He named the metal inside the material "lithium".[20][15][18] ... Caesium chloride has been promoted as an alternative cancer therapy,[245] but has been linked to the deaths of over 50 patients ...
In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva (Sanskrit: जीव, jīva, alternative spelling jiwa; Hindi: जीव, jīv, alternative spelling jeev) is ... See also nefesh habehamit the "animal soul".) Scientology[edit]. The Scientology view is that a person does not have a soul, it ... "animal") the living organism. Francis M. Cornford quotes Pindar by saying that the soul sleeps while the limbs are active, but ... The structure of the souls of plants, animals, and humans, according to Aristotle, with Bios, Zoê, and Psūchê ...
Satish Kumar Jindal; M. C. Sharma (2010). Biotechnology in Animal Health and Production. New India Publishing. pp. 77-. ISBN ... Monotherapy with the nonsteroidal antiandrogen bicalutamide is also used in the treatment of prostate cancer as an alternative ... J.M. Sreenan; M.G. Diskin (6 December 2012). Embryonic Mortality in Farm Animals. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 172-. ... it has been found to produce masculinization of the genitalia of female fetuses of pregnant animals.[57] In contrast to ...
Justifications for invasive experiments on animals rely on claims that such research is essential for the advancement of ... Alternative to Animal Experiment Mo... by Dr Jayant Rai 10242 views * Alternatives to animal screening me... by Vasaya ... Alternatives to animal experiments by Dr. Mohit Kulmi 4152 views * Alternatives to animal experiments by Roopali Somani 22924 ... Animal Experiments and Alternatives * 1. THE COSTS AND BENEFITS O F ANIMAL EXPERIMENTS Andrew Knight 90101 9 780230 243927 I S ...
These are the principles of reduction, refinement and replacement of animals in research (the 3Rs), which ... We only use animals in research where there are no alternatives and try to limit the number of animals used in research, either ... improving our experimental techniques or through the development of technologies or techniques that can replace the animals ... We only use animals in research where there are no alternatives and try to limit the number of animals used in research, either ...
Background Animals are still used abundantly to assess the efficacy and safety of cosmetics, medicines, food additives,...,FP4- ... Human health and animal welfare both stand to gain from the development of new in vitro toxicology tests, based on cultured ... Alternatives to animal testing. Human health and animal welfare both stand to gain from the development of new in vitro ... In September 1999, the Centre was the principal organiser of the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life ...
How do animals suffer in experiments? What alternatives exist? Learn more about the problems with testing on animals. ... Animal Testing Alternatives: Can Science Progress Without Tests on Animals?. Today-because experiments on animals are cruel and ... Check out these facts about animal testing to learn more:. What Is Animal Testing?. Animal testing refers to the practice of ... All Your Questions About Experiments on Animals Answered. Share. Tweet. Donate. What is animal testing? Every year in the U.S ...
PRWEB) October 28, 2009 -- The creator of has launched a new animal alternative medicine directory ... The site was created by Gina McCulloch D.C., animal lover and alternative medicine practitioner for animals. ... People often ask me what types of alternative medicines are available for animals and whether they would work for their pet. ... The creator of has launched a new animal alternative medicine directory which provides details of ...
... Studies should focus on cells, National Research Council says by Cheryl Hogue and Jeff Johnson June ... He expects the alternatives to animal tests to include rapid, automated biologically based experiments that can evaluate ... Use of in vitro testing would also expand the number of substances that could be tested and save time, money, and animals, he ... TESTING CHEMICALS on animals for human toxicity should be greatly reduced and can potentially be eliminated in favor of ...
Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open ... Publishers keywords: in vitro methods, alternatives to animal experiments, toxicology, bioethics. Language of fulltext: ...
Alternatives to animal research in acute lung injury BMJ 2014; 349 :g4171 ... Letters Utility of animal research Alternatives to animal research in acute lung injury. BMJ 2014; 349 doi: ... Although animal research is not a perfect model of human disease, there are practical and ethical difficulties in proceeding ... Pound and Bracken suggest that all animal research is futile,1 highlighting problems with quality, validity, and reporting. ...
Today, ethical alternatives are emerging. But can they replace animal studies? The Down to Earth team takes a closer look. ... humans have required all new drugs to be tested on animals. ... Recycling human skin: An alternative to animal testing?. 6 ... Today, ethical alternatives are emerging. But can they replace animal studies? The Down to Earth team takes a closer look. ... For more than half a century, humans have required all new drugs to be tested on animals. ...
... new alternative test methods can be developed that will benefit animal welfare by reducing, refining, and replacing animal use ... Alternative test methods are those that accomplish one or more of the 3Rs of reducing the number of animals used in testing, or ... and alternative testing methods that protect human and animal health and the environment. ... said a high priority for ICCVAM will be to focus on evaluating alternatives to test methods that use a large number of animals ...
Educators use a number of alternatives to animal dissection in order to teach similar skills or lessons. Many of the following ... The study of form, habitat, and behavior by keeping live animals such as fish, small mammals, and other, less-complex forms of ... Lifelike models that allow students to disassemble an animal, to handle replicas of major organs, and to replace them in ... Videodisks containing film and still images of internal organs and physiological processes of amphibians and other animals. ...
But theres a growing number of alternatives available that let researchers replace, reduce, or refine their use of animals for ... Researchers have frequently used animals to study disease, test product safety, experiment, or teach. Such research has led to ... Developing alternatives to animal use in testing. Federal agencies require researchers to consider alternatives to animal use. ... the number of animals agencies use that are covered by the Animal Welfare Act (e.g., warm-blooded animals like dogs, cats, and ...
... 08.08.2011. European legislation restricts animal testing within the pharmaceutical ... Our lab-based alternative to animal testing, although in an early stage of production, is faster, out-performs present ... 1. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests Henrik ... Animal Testing »BioMed »Dermatitis »Genomics »Hypoallergenic »human cell »low immunogenicity »sensitizing potency ...
A new type of therapy offers an alternative. ... antibiotics continue to be given to farm animals as a means of ... READ MORE: New campaign to end antibiotic use in farm animals There are several alternative to the use of antibiotics for ... More about Antibiotics, antimicrobials, Farm animals, Bacteria, Microbiology More news from Antibiotics. antimicrobials. Farm ... For example, farm workers who work on farms where high levels of antibiotics are used in farm animals carry a high proportion ...
Alternatives to Animal Testing and Research. Alternatives to Animal Testing and Research ... As additional alternatives are developed, science will naturally reduce the need and use of animal models. This progression ... A cell culture is not a full living system, like an animal or person, so it doesnt show how a disease or drug works throughout ... Computer models and cell cultures, as well as other adjunct research methods, reduce the number of animals used. But there is ...
Experts from across the University are leading a public discussion about the use of animals in research at the Edinburgh ... minimise the impact on these animals and develop non animal alternatives for our world-leading science. We are looking forward ... Animals in Research: Any Alternatives?. Experts from across the University are leading a public discussion about the use of ... Animals in Research: Any Alternatives? Experts from across the University are leading a public discussion about the use of ...
... scientific committee now endorses new safety test methods that eliminate animal testing. ... Colipa announced yesterday that The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (EVCAM) ... Colipa Approves Animal Testing Alternatives. October 30, 2008 , Contact Author , By: Katie Schaefer. ... In terms of skin allergy, the new test strategy will allow a decrease in the number of animals required to assess the potential ...
Home » Information Centers » Food Safety Research Information Office » Animal Experimentation and Animal Use Alternatives ... Organizes information on the Animal Welfare Act. Includes the full-text of the 1966 Animal Welfare Act, the Animal Welfare Act ... Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals. American Psychological Association; Committee on Animal Research ... Presents the text for the "U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, ...
Animal testing alternatives fall into three main categories. replacement alternatives, reduction alternatives and refinement ... A reduction alternative is a method that reduces the number of animals used. And a refinement alternative is a method that ... Animal Testing Alternatives. Alternative is the term traditionally used within the scientific community to describe the "3Rs"- ... Animal testing alternatives fall into three main categories. A replacement alternative is a test method that has been endorsed ...
Alternatives to Animal Research. Those who defend the use of animals in research contend that nonhuman animals are enough like ... But if imaging is used instead, they can perform serial studies on the same animal and monitor animals over the course of their ... For example, if looking at disease progression in an animal model, researchers may sacrifice animals every week to collect data ... Furthermore, when animals are used in studies of human diseases, the artificial way in which the disease is induced in the ...
Jerry Wells of Animal Science Group, Wageningen University and Research (WUR). The research team published their study on the ... effects of alternative protein sources on the small intestine in the Journal of Animal Science and Biotechnology ... Alternative protein sources. As proof of principal, the researchers introduced alternative protein sources, present in animal ... Mini-guts as alternative for animal tissue. Published on. September 10, 2020 Intestinal organoids or mini-guts can be used as ...
Heres a few of the top rawhide alternatives. Theyre safe, natural, and your canine companion will love them! ... Animal Wellness. Animal Wellness is North Americas top natural health and lifestyle magazine for dogs and cats, with a ... Looking for the perfect chew for your dog? Heres a few of the top rawhide alternatives.. A few years ago, rawhide chews were a ... Before submitting to Animal Wellness, we ask that you familiarize yourself with our publication so that you have a strong sense ...
... environment at the Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods and the Canadian Centre for the Validation of Alternative ... Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods In this section ...
... and commercial operations already successfully utilize them to reduce antibiotic use and increase animal productivity. ... Alternatives to antibiotics are essential tools for minimizing the need for these drugs, ... New Research Highlights Promising Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture Alternative products are a critical tool in ... Alternatives to Antibiotics in Animal Agriculture. The use of antibiotics in any setting contributes to the growing global ...
Finding alternatives. We are improving the way that we carry out our animal research and actively seeking alternatives.. Weve ... Animal Research. Home , Research Services , Ethics and Integrity , Animal Ethics Policy , Finding alternatives ... Weve received grants from the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research to fund ... pioneered a number of initiatives to reduce the number of animals used in research around the world, including:. Shared Ageing ...
In alternative animal testing, a pessimist really is a well-informed optimist * facebook ... In alternative animal testing, a pessimist really is a well-informed optimist. ... In alternative animal testing, a pessimist really is a well-informed optimist ... Answering scientific arguments of animal rights extremists. I spent a lot of time writing about animal rights extremists who ...
So are vegan leather goods just for those who want to avoid animal products? Or are they kinder on the environment too? ... Simply put, its a leather alternative that doesnt involve animal products. What this looks like in practice most of the time ... In comparison to plastic-based leather alternatives, those within the animal leather industry point out leather puts to use a ... The alternative alternatives. While the majority of faux leathers still rely on fossil fuels, recent innovations mean theyre ...
Global efforts to promote alternatives to animal testing were united at the April 27, 2009, meeting in Brussels via the signing ... The European Commission announced that global efforts to promote alternatives to animal testing were unified at the April 27, ... International Groups Unite to Develop Animal Alternatives. April 30, 2009 , Contact Author , By: Katie Schaefer. ... Reducing animal testing, both out of concern for animal welfare and ethical issues, and protecting consumer safety are two ...
... testing options based on the type of animal rack system employed in your vivarium. ... Animal Health Surveillance Toggle menu. * 360 Diagnostics™ Program Overview * Alternative Health Monitoring (e.g., EAD®) Toggle ... Animal Health Surveillance Toggle menu. * 360 Diagnostics™ Program Overview * Alternative Health Monitoring (e.g., EAD®) Toggle ... Animal Health Surveillance * 360 Diagnostics™ Program Overview * Alternative Health Monitoring (e.g., EAD®) * Are you Roxanne ...
Instead, we offer an alternative null hypothesis for the evolutionary origin of SSB that, through a subtle shift in perspective ... By shifting the lens through which we study animal sexual behaviour, we can more fruitfully examine the evolutionary history of ... is the baseline condition for animals, from which SSB has evolved. We question the idea that SSB necessarily presents an ... has been recorded in over 1,500 animal species with a widespread distribution across most major clades. Evolutionary biologists ...
  • Until recently, debates about the necessity of animal experimentation have mainly utilised two approaches. (
  • In addition to covering the biomedical aspects of animal experimentation, ALTEX is devoted to the bioethics of the complex relationship between humans and animals. (
  • The thesis of this book is not that all animal experimentation can be replaced, now or in the near future, by equally effective or superior alternatives. (
  • Dr. John Pippin, senior medical and research adviser of the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine, said animal experimentation should be completely banned for medical reasons as well as for the obvious ethical concerns. (
  • In reality, Capaldo said he believes if animal experimentation was outlawed, humans would benefit. (
  • Once a professor of medicine at Harvard University, Pippin testified before the FDA and the Institute of Medicine in 2005 on the repercussions of animal experimentation, stating that such research led to life-threatening products, such as Vioxx, being released on the market. (
  • I believe that if we really wanted to, we could work steadily towards a day in 10 to 20 years' time when animal experimentation will have disappeared. (
  • The University of California, Riverside should replace traditional animal dissection and experimentation with alternatives for the biological and life science courses. (
  • We educate journalists, scientists and legislators so they can be knowledgeable too, helping to dissolve the cloak of misinformation that surrounds animal experimentation. (
  • With your support, we can smash the myth that animal research is necessary for medical progress, and expose the cruel and painful world of animal experimentation. (
  • Besides reducing animal experimentation, an increase in the accuracy of predicting sensitising potencies is also expected. (
  • Animal experimentation is bad science. (
  • Justifications for invasive experiments on animals rely on claims that such research is essential for the advancement of biomedical knowledge, for the development of cures to human diseases, or for the evaluation of the toxicity of compounds to which humans are exposed. (
  • The outcomes have been consistent: animal experiments have contributed far less than advocates would have us believe. (
  • Historical accounts of the extent to which animal experiments have or have not contributed towards cures for various human diseases are sometimes disputed, and in any case provide few clues as to how research might have developed instead, had alternative avenues such as human-based studies been more vigorously pursued, using redirected funding. (
  • Scientists from 3 British universities and Yale University (US) called for systematic reviews of the efficacy of animal experiments. (
  • After searching the literature they located six existing reviews examining the efficacy of animal experiments in specific fields of medicine, which they briefly reviewed. (
  • Animal experiments are intended to be conducted prior to human clinical trials in case toxicity becomes evident. (
  • Animals are used in medical training exercises and in huge numbers in government- and taxpayer-funded curiosity-driven experiments at universities. (
  • They also suffer and die for classroom biology experiments and dissection, even though modern, non-animal methods have repeatedly been shown to have more educational value and save schools money. (
  • Studies published in prestigious medical journals have repeatedly shown that experiments on animals waste animals' lives and precious resources because they aren't even relevant to human health. (
  • Animal testing refers to the practice of performing unnatural and often painful experiments on animals held captive in stressful laboratory settings, often in the misguided belief that the results of the tests will be applicable to humans. (
  • Exact numbers aren't available, because mice, rats, birds, and cold-blooded animals-who make up more than 99% of animals used in experiments-are not protected under the federal Animal Welfare Act and their numbers don't even have to be reported. (
  • The federal government and many health charities waste billions of dollars-including money from U.S. taxpayers-on animal experiments at universities and private laboratories, instead of supporting promising non-animal studies that could actually benefit humans. (
  • None of the thousands of experiments conducted on animals every year at universities are required by law. (
  • How Does PETA Help Animals Used in Experiments? (
  • PETA's vivid demonstrations and undercover investigations alert the public to wasteful, cruel, and useless experiments on animals, often ones occurring right under their noses. (
  • PETA's scientists are at the forefront of humane and modern methods, promoting groundbreaking non-animal tests and eliminating requirements for experiments on animals by sharing existing research and data with companies and governments. (
  • TESTING CHEMICALS on animals for human toxicity should be greatly reduced and can potentially be eliminated in favor of experiments using cells, cell lines, or cellular components, says a National Research Council report released last week. (
  • The validity, usefulness, expense and ethics of scientific experiments that rely upon animal models are increasingly being called into question-not only by animal advocates, but by those in the scientific community-which is why it is essential for researchers to develop and utilize models that better reflect human biology and give us the best chance possible of improving human health and well-being. (
  • Animal experiments are defined by the editors as all experimental procedures involving the use of animals in testing, research, and education, or to obtain tissues, organs, and other animal derived products that may cause pain or distress to animals. (
  • Two of the main funders of animal-based research in North America, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, need to hear that you don't want your tax dollars used to underwrite animal experiments and urge them to stop requiring cruel and obsolete animal tests for pharmaceuticals and allow companies to substitute in vitro tests. (
  • Unlike crude, archaic animal tests, non-animal methods usually take less time to complete, cost only a fraction of what the animal experiments they replace cost, and are not plagued with species differences that make extrapolation difficult or impossible. (
  • However, some claim they are not true alternatives because simulations use data from prior animal experiments and cell cultures often require animal derived products, such as serum or cells. (
  • However, even though cell or tissue culture methods may reduce the number of experiments performed on intact animals, the maintenance of cells in culture normally requires the use of animal-derived serum. (
  • Alternatives to animal testing are primarily based on biochemical assays, on experiments in cells that are carried out in vitro ("within the glass"), and on computational models and algorithms. (
  • Over the last decade, in vitro models have become more sophisticated and are at a stage where they can provide an effective alternative to in vivo experiments. (
  • Replacing Animal Models provides scientists and technicians with a practical, integrated guide to developing culture-based alternatives to in vivo experiments. (
  • After looking at the reasons for and potential benefits of alternatives to animal experiments, the book covers a range of methods and examples emphasising the design considerations that went into each system. (
  • The Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) has worked with scientists, since 1981, to find new methods to replace the use of laboratory animals in experiments, reduce the number of animals tested, and refine necessary tests to eliminate pain and distress (the Three Rs as described in Russell and Burch's Principles of Humane Experimental Technique). (
  • Experiments on animals are cruel and expensive, and they produce dangerously misleading results that are generally inapplicable to humans. (
  • They have been shown to replicate human physiology, diseases and drug responses more accurately than crude animal experiments do. (
  • Books explain all the information, but hands on learning is better so animal specimen are used for dissections and experiments. (
  • Are you aware of any possible alternatives to your research, such as experiments conducted on alternative species, cell culture, or in vitro studies? (
  • It is our goal to restrict animal experiments to the indispensable amount and to ensure the best possible protection of laboratory animals. (
  • This new alternative method to animal experiments for testing Botulinum Neurotoxin-containing products is approved throughout the EU. (
  • This research team is working in a coordinated manner towards establishing diverse in-vitro and in-silico methods on alternatives to animal experiments. (
  • In the UK, just under 3.7 million animal experiments were started in 2008, a rise of nearly 15% from the year before, according to recent Home Office statistics. (
  • Profits and liability protection are the guiding principle, and if animal experiments can provide a sort of "placebo" to protect the pharmaceuticals, then their continuance must be at the top of the agenda. (
  • With the provision of data and statistics that these experiments yield, the average layperson can be fooled into thinking that animal experiments are good science. (
  • I do think while we try to come up with new medications and treatments for human diseases there is no way to omit experiments on animals. (
  • The use of the described ex vivo models will allow to reduce the number of animal experiments. (
  • We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of acupuncture for improving learning and memory in animal experiments. (
  • The EU is committed to promoting methods that replace, reduce, or refine animal testing. (
  • The role of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, is to co-ordinate the development, validation and acceptance of alternative tests for specific purposes. (
  • Current methods of administering large doses of chemicals such as pesticides to laboratory animals-and then observing disease symptoms-may not be relevant to humans exposed to much lower levels of the substances, notes NRC committee member Melvin E. Andersen. (
  • A new plan to further reduce, refine and replace the use of animals in research and regulatory testing commonly referred to as the 3Rs was unveiled today at a symposium marking the 10-year anniversary of the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM). (
  • The plan identifies priority areas for research, development, translation, and validation activities necessary to achieve regulatory acceptance of alternative test methods. (
  • ICCVAM promotes the development, validation, and regulatory acceptance of scientifically sound new, revised, and alternative testing methods that protect human and animal health and the environment. (
  • Traditionally, chemicals, consumer products, medical devices and new drugs are tested on animals to predict toxicity on humans, but scientists, like those involved in ICCVAM, are working to promote the development and validation of alternative test methods. (
  • Alternative test methods are those that accomplish one or more of the 3Rs of reducing the number of animals used in testing, or refining procedures so animals experience less pain and distress, or replacinganimals with non-animal systems. (
  • We've made great progress in the past decade, and with the help of our partners we can do even more to increase the pace of developing and introducing alternative methods. (
  • Stokes, who is also an Assistant Surgeon General in the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps explained that ICCVAM itself does not conduct research but carefully evaluates alternative test methods brought forth by government and industry labs and makes recommendations about their usefulness to federal regulatory agencies. (
  • We appreciate all of the public input we've received to develop this plan and look forward to working closely with our government and non-government stakeholders to promote good science and validation studies that will support the regulatory use of alternative methods," said Stokes. (
  • By incorporating recent advances in science and technology, new alternative test methods can be developed that will benefit animal welfare by reducing, refining, and replacing animal use, and that will benefit public health by ensuring continued or improved protection of human and animal health and the environment. (
  • Stokes said a high priority for ICCVAM will be to focus on evaluating alternatives to test methods that use a large number of animals or that can involve significant pain and stress, including safety tests for ocular (eye) injuries, dermal (skin) damage, acute poisoning and tests for biologics such as vaccines. (
  • Many of the following methods and materials are endorsed by animal-welfare advocates. (
  • Computer models and cell cultures, as well as other adjunct research methods, reduce the number of animals used. (
  • The European Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association (Colipa) announced yesterday that The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (EVCAM) scientific committee now endorses new safety test methods that eliminate animal testing. (
  • This decision is a milestone in the development of alternative methods, and we are proud that the cosmetics industry played a significant role in the development and validation of these methods" said Bertil Heerink, director general, Colipa. (
  • in vitro (primary cultures, cell lines, 3-D cell culture), ex-vivo (isolated animal tissues and organs) or in silico (mathematical models, computer simulations) methods. (
  • One motivation is ethics, as these traditional safety and toxicity testing methods cause high levels of animal suffering. (
  • Test method validation criteria were established by three organizations in the 1990s: the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and the U.S.'s Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM). (
  • They may prefer use of more traditional, less "risky" animal methods, in part, because they are more comfortable interpreting data from animal studies for which they have more experience. (
  • Data generated from methods which use animal testing alternatives is different and regulatory bodies may be unsure how to interpret it with respect to human risk assessment. (
  • We are recruiting creative, talented, and motivated research scientists and research/postdoctoral fellows to join our multidisciplinary research environment at the Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods and the Canadian Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods. (
  • I wonder if you could tell me if there is any real concern among toxicologists that the non-animal testing methods currently under development are not up to identifying problems with these new compounds? (
  • The European Commission announced that global efforts to promote alternatives to animal testing were unified at the April 27, 2009, meeting in Brussels via the signing of an agreement by international bodies, including the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), which is tasked with the validation of alternative test methods. (
  • In addition, the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), its equivalent in the US (ICCVAM), Japan (JACVAM), and Canada's Environmental Health Science and Research Bureau, signed the agreement. (
  • The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, emphasized, in a press announcement, the positive impact of this cooperation: 'Reducing animal testing, both out of concern for animal welfare and ethical issues, and protecting consumer safety are two major objectives of this international agreement,' adding 'I expect that European, American, Japanese and Canadian scientists working together will more rapidly identify scientifically sound alternative testing methods. (
  • Screening samples from the environment instead of the animal via more sensitive methods, such as Exhaust Air Dust (EAD ® ) or environmental PCR testing, allows you to reduce or eliminate the need for sentinel animals. (
  • Proponents of non-animal testing methods in the scientific community have shown that these methods are quicker and cost-effective. (
  • Alternatives for Testing Alternatives to the use of animals in toxicity testing include replacing animal tests with non-animal methods, as well as modifying animal-based tests to reduce the number of animals used and to minimize pain and distress. (
  • To date, several non-animal test methods have been formally validated and accepted by some countries as replacements for an existing animal test. (
  • Alternatives to animal testing are the development and implementation of test methods that avoid the use of live animals. (
  • Replacement refers to the preferred use of non-animal methods over animal methods whenever it is possible to achieve the same scientific aim. (
  • Reduction refers to methods that enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals, or to obtain more information from the same number of animals. (
  • Refinement refers to methods that alleviate or minimize potential pain, suffering, or distress, and enhance animal welfare for the animals used. (
  • Marafante, E. and Balls, M. (1994) The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), in Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition (ed C. A. Reinhardt), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. (
  • At the end of 1991, the Commission of the European Communities informed the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament of its decision to set up a European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), in line with its responsibilities under Directive 86/609/EEC. (
  • The main goal of ECVAM is to coordinate, at the European level, activities designed to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. (
  • ECVAM is assisted by a Scientific Advisory Committee representative of all parties concerned with the validation of alternative methods, namely the Member States, and European industries, animal welfare organizations and academia. (
  • rather, it seeks to effect change by working with scientists in industry, government, and academia to find new ways to replace animals with non-animal methods, reduce the numbers of animals necessary, or refine methods to make them less painful or stressful to the animals involved. (
  • CAAT has offered grants since 1993 that fund development of non-animal in-vitro test methods that may replace the use of laboratory animals in certain tests. (
  • Alternatives to animal testing Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods List of animal rights groups Dr Hadwen Trust Henry Spira W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch (1959). (
  • With this in mind, the world's most forward-thinking scientists are developing and using methods for studying diseases and testing products that replace the use of animals and are actually relevant to human health. (
  • These and other non-animal methods are not hindered by species differences that make applying animal-test results to humans difficult or impossible, and they usually take less time and money to complete. (
  • PETA and its affiliates fund the development of many of these non-animal methods, publish research on their superiority to traditional animal tests and vigorously promote their use to governments and companies around the world. (
  • The non-animal methods replace the cruel use of rabbits in this painful procedure. (
  • Riverside, Calif. - Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) awarded $849,811 to University of California Riverside as part of a total of $4.25 million in funding to five universities to research the development and use of alternative test methods and strategies that reduce, refine and/or replace vertebrate animal testing. (
  • We are also awarding $4.25 million to advance the research and development of alternative test methods for evaluating the safety of chemicals that will minimize, and hopefully eliminate, the need for animal testing. (
  • The research focuses on advancing the development and use of alternative test methods and strategies to reduce, refine and/or replace vertebrate animal testing. (
  • The grantees are advancing the science of non-vertebrate alternative test methods and strategies in chemical hazard assessment. (
  • Carbon dioxide has long been considered one of the better methods for euthanizing laboratory rodents because it allows termination of several animals at one time, does not require handling of the animal, is easy to use, is inexpensive, and is environmentally friendly. (
  • Since this test causes severe suffering to the animals, alternative methods to replace it are now being developed worldwide. (
  • The BoNT EWG is mandated to develop recommendations on the validation and acceptance by regulatory authorities of alternative methods to the mouse LD 50 activity test for the purpose of approval and batch-based release of BoNT products. (
  • The Scientific Advisory Committee of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods has today approved six new alternative testing methods that will reduce the need for certain drugs and chemicals to be tested on animals. (
  • The role of ECVAM, which is based at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, is to replace, refine and reduce methods of animal testing for cosmetics, drugs and chemicals. (
  • Identify knowledge and data gaps that must be addressed to develop alternative methods that can further reduce, refine, and replace the use of animals in vaccine potency and safety testing. (
  • Identify and prioritize research, development, and validation efforts needed to address these knowledge and data gaps in order to advance alternative methods for vaccine potency and safety testing, while ensuring continued protection of human and animal health. (
  • Nearly 200 scientists from 13 countries gathered at this workshop to review the current state of the science and to recommend future research, development, and validation needed to advance alternative methods that can reduce, refine (decrease or eliminate pain and distress), and replace the use of animals for human and veterinary vaccine post-licensing potency and safety testing. (
  • The workshop was organized NICEATM and ICCVAM in partnership with the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods, and Health Canada. (
  • In recent years, efforts have increased to develop alternative methods that reduce, refine, and replace the use of animals for vaccine potency and safety testing. (
  • Implementation of the recommendations of this workshop is expected to advance the availability of alternative methods for vaccine potency and safety testing while ensuring continued protection of human and animal health. (
  • Last year, the Government made a derisory £650,000 available towards developing alternative methods of research. (
  • Much more attention has been given to the search for alternative test procedures in the hope that methods could be developed that would be both more humane and more predictive of human response. (
  • A key factor in effectively replacing animals with alternative methods is validation, which requires databases to correlate historical in vivo results with new in vitro results. (
  • Animal Testing is only 2% effective when it comes to finding human illessness in animals, i want to know how effective the other methods that don't have to invlove innocent animals work. (
  • But given the legislation and higher expense of animal testing over other methods I would assume that is often the case, though I am sure not always. (
  • Chapter 476 responds to this needless animal testing.12 It requires manufacturers and contract testing facilities13 to conduct alternative testing14 when certain *463 conditions are met: the alternative test methods must be scientifically approved and recommended by the federal Inter-Agency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods15 (ICCVAM), and subsequently adopted by the appropriate federal regulatory agency. (
  • The cosmetic industry is always looking for more innovative ways to test their products - preferably methods that don't require the use of animals. (
  • InVitro International (IVRO), headquartered in Placentia, CA was established in September 1985 and is a customer and technology driven provider of non-animal testing methods. (
  • Evidence-based absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and its interplay with alternative toxicity methods. (
  • Alternatives to the carcinogenicity bioassay: in silico methods, and the in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity assays. (
  • Our results for species including humans, NHPs, dogs, mice, rabbits, and rats, have major implications for the value of animal tests in predicting human toxicity, and demand that human-focused alternative methods are adopted in their place as a matter of urgency. (
  • The Galileo Data Bank on Toxicity Testing with Testing with In Vitro Alternative Methods. (
  • One focus of activity under this Directive is the use of animals and alternative methods in regulatory testing. (
  • These proteins are naturally produced by some animals and rely on a variety of molecular processes to protect against bacterial infection, which should make it more difficult for resistance to emerge. (
  • Recent scientific advances allowing for mass production of these proteins at an economical price point for food animal producers bodes well for their future use. (
  • San Francisco-based AvidBiotics is currently developing antibacterial non-antibody proteins against food and animal bacterial pathogens that the company calls Purocin proteins. (
  • Despite its low levels of the essential amino acids methionine and isoleucine, blood can be used as a source of high-quality proteins for both animal feed and human consumption, said the authors. (
  • Animal behaviour can be as complex as human behaviour, and the cellular structures, proteins, and genes of humans and animals are so similar that the prospect of using animal tissues to replace diseased human tissues is under intense investigation for patients who would otherwise never receive a potentially life-saving transplant. (
  • Apart from adopting plant-based proteins, efforts have also gone into developing animal protein sources that do not depend on livestock breeding. (
  • Now, it is possible to make dairy proteins, egg whites, or collagen completely without involving animals. (
  • For the alternative proteins, however, labeling will not be so straightforward. (
  • Good Catch Foods has spent the past two years developing a fish-free seafood alternative product and has honed in on a blend of six non-GMO plant proteins- chickpea, fava, soy, lentil, pea, navy, and pea - with pea being its main source of protein. (
  • London - Despite longstanding scientific concerns, antibiotics continue to be given to farm animals as a means of producing leaner meat. (
  • One concern with parts of the farming industry is the indiscriminate use of antibiotics for farm animals, with the intention of producing better quality meat from animals like cows and pigs (there is a secondary reason, which relates to treating animal infections). (
  • For example, farm workers who work on farms where high levels of antibiotics are used in farm animals carry a high proportion of antibiotic resistant bacteria compared with farms that are antibiotic-free. (
  • There are several alternative to the use of antibiotics for animals. (
  • The journal Veterinary Research recently published a special edition on new techniques that may provide alternatives to antibiotics in animals. (
  • This compilation of research resulted from the 2nd International Symposium on Alternatives to Antibiotics , co-hosted by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE). (
  • Alternatives to antibiotics are essential tools for minimizing the need for these drugs, and commercial operations already successfully utilize them to reduce antibiotic use and increase animal productivity. (
  • Host defense peptides offer an alternative way of killing bacteria-with less risk for developing resistance compared with traditional antibiotics. (
  • But what if scientists could engineer an alternative to antibiotics--potentially as effective, and just as quick? (
  • Animal research has provided valuable information about many physiological processes that are relevant to humans and has been fundamental in the development of many drugs, including vaccines, anesthetics, and antibiotics. (
  • The use of growth-promoting antibiotics in farming is thought to contribute to certain strains of animal gut bacteria developing resistance to some antibiotics. (
  • Focus on developing novel solutions by investing in research and development (R&D) to create more potent bacterial strains and novel delivery mechanisms to enhance their efficacy in animals as probiotics hold considerable potential as an alternative for antibiotics. (
  • About 80 percent of antibiotics in the United States are used by farmers, because they both protect against disease and accelerate weight gain in many farm animals. (
  • However, exploration of alternative strategies to mitigate the use of antibiotics is needed in view of growing concerns about antibiotic resistance to certain strains of bacteria and increasing restrictions on their prudent use in animals. (
  • Some of the latest scientific breakthroughs and technologies, which provide new options and alternative strategies for enhancing production and improving animal health and well-being, will be presented at an international symposium, "Alternatives to Antibiotics: Challenges and Solutions in Animal Production," September 25-28, 2012, at the headquarters of the World Organization for Animal Health (known as "OIE") in Paris, France. (
  • Avian immunologist Hyun Lillehoj, at the ARS Henry A. Wallace Beltsville [Maryland] Agricultural Research Center (BARC), has devoted her career to developing alternative-to-antibiotics strategies to control infectious diseases in poultry. (
  • Resistance to antibiotics has continued to increase, placing future animal and human disease management in real danger. (
  • 2004) reported that the use of antibiotics in food animals selects for bacteria resistant to antibiotics used in humans, and these might spread via the food to humans and cause human infection. (
  • 2010), the use of antibiotics in livestock production is contributing significantly to antibiotic resistance in species of bacteria that are common to humans and animals. (
  • These include animals with residues of antibiotics, such as chloramphenical and sulfamethazine,that are commonly used in meat production. (
  • Greek & Greek 2002a), and the right of humans to experiment on animals has also been strongly contested philosophically (e.g. (
  • The unnatural and stressful conditions of captivity make it even more unlikely that the results of animal tests can be applied to humans. (
  • For more than half a century, humans have required all new drugs to be tested on animals. (
  • For example, instead of animals, researchers can use computer modeling to predict how humans will be affected by certain chemicals. (
  • Also, there is the question of which humans are we expecting animals to model, as small genetic differences between humans leads to important variability not captured by lab animals. (
  • Those who defend the use of animals in research contend that nonhuman animals are enough like humans to make them scientifically adequate models of humans, but different enough to make it morally acceptable to experiment on them. (
  • In addition to the ethical objections to causing suffering to other sentient species, inherent issues with animal models-including differences from humans in both size and physiology, genetic differences, and variations in biological targets-limit the ability of data collected from an animal model to be translated to people. (
  • The FDA is now 6 months into its clamp down on antibiotic use for animals, in the wake of spiking infections from not only bacterial vulnerability in livestock on the farm, but in humans from consuming drug-pumped meat. (
  • Other alternatives include the use of humans for skin irritancy tests and donated human blood for pyrogenicity studies. (
  • Words such as euthanize, dispatch, harvest, and cull are frequently used to refer to instances in which people with different motivations and intentions, kill healthy animals, usually "in the name of humans. (
  • However, time again, others and I are told that only humans can be murdered, because that's the way legal systems view killing other-than-human animals. (
  • What's important here is that the word "murder" is used in the print edition to refer to humans killing nonhuman animals. (
  • Animals and humans are similar in many ways. (
  • However, the way in which animals and humans react to their environments, both physiologically and behaviorally, can be drastically different, and the conditions under which laboratory animals are kept can influence and alter experimental results. (
  • These tests result in the deaths of many animals and often produce data that are irrelevant to humans. (
  • Recognition of the inadequacy of animal toxicity testing has resulted in the development of better techniques that are able to produce comparable toxicity values of chemicals that are applicable to humans. (
  • The IC50 test is useful for comparing the toxicity of chemicals in human cells and thus produces data that are more relevant to humans than an LD50 value obtained from rats, mice, or other animals. (
  • Theodora Capaldo, president of the New England Anti-Vivisection Society, also known as NEAVS, said many people have the dangerous misconception that experimenting on animals such as chimpanzees, who share many genetic similarities with humans, will help find cures for human-related ailments. (
  • Microdosing can replace certain tests on animals and help screen out drug compounds that won't work in humans so that they won't needlessly advance to government-required animal testing. (
  • He worked on both animals and humans. (
  • The list is long and an awesome demonstration of applied science, not only for humans but also animals. (
  • One of the biggest challenges in drug discovery is figuring out which new drugs are likely to be harmful before testing them on humans as there are physiological differences in animals and humans which range from genetic makeup, physiology, environment, and lifestyle - all of which may interact and limit the drug's success for individual patients. (
  • The importance of vaccines to human and animal health is underscored by a number of factors, including increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the growing concern about diseases in domestic animals and wildlife that can be passed on to humans, and the priority given by the World Health Organization to the eradication of a number of diseases. (
  • As a scientist, I am interested to find out why otherwise harmless compounds can often elicit an adverse immune response in humans, and gene expression studies could provide us with some important insights in this area, whilst also providing a viable alternative to animal testing. (
  • We cloned the chicken NK lysin gene, made biologically active recombinant NK lysin protein, and demonstrated for the first time that this chicken recombinant antimicrobial protein (host defense molecule) not only kills chicken coccidia, but also kills Neospora and Cryptosporidia, which infect large animals and humans, respectively. (
  • Computer modelling is now very sophisticated, with virtual human organs and virtual metabolism programmes which predict drug effects in humans far more accurately than animals can. (
  • Besides the adverse effects on humans, resistant variants of microbes, as well as species that are inherently resistant resulting from antimicrobial resistance, can become dominant and spread in host-animal populations. (
  • In nature, we see another example of wild animals eating entirely enzyme rich raw foods being free of the degenerative diseases that afflict humans. (
  • In this regard, we recently showed, by producing Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive data set of over 3,000 drugs with both animal and human data, that the absence of toxicity in animals provides little or virtually no evidential weight that adverse drug reactions will also be absent in humans. (
  • To estimate the evidential weight given by animal data to the probability that a new drug may be toxic to humans, we have calculated Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive data set of 2,366 drugs, for which both animal and human data are available, including tissue-level effects and MedDRA Level 1-4 biomedical observations. (
  • prior to this, production required animals to undergo a procedure likely to cause pain and distress. (
  • The 3 R's represent reduction in the number of animals used, refinement of techniques and procedures that reduce pain and distress, and replacement of animal with non-animal techniques. (
  • However, these tests still account for the largest numbers of animals that experience unrelieved pain and distress. (
  • This presentation summarises these recent results, and comprehensively reviews the alternatives to invasive animal use with biomedical research, toxicity testing, and education. (
  • We only use animals in research where there are no alternatives and try to limit the number of animals used in research, either through improving our experimental techniques or through the development of technologies or techniques that can replace the animals entirely. (
  • These are the principles of reduction, refinement and replacement of animals in research (the '3Rs'), which underpin all related work carried out at the University. (
  • Pound and Bracken suggest that all animal research is futile, 1 highlighting problems with quality, validity, and reporting. (
  • Although animal research is not a perfect model of human disease, there are practical and ethical difficulties in proceeding directly to human trials of new drugs. (
  • But there's a growing number of alternatives available that let researchers replace, reduce, or refine their use of animals for research and testing. (
  • In today's WatchBlog, we look at how the federal government is helping to ensure the humane treatment of research animals and how agencies are promoting and developing alternatives to animal testing. (
  • About 20 federal agencies use animals for research-much of which focuses on human health and medicine, but also includes testing for agriculture, animal health, and product safety. (
  • In our 2018 report , we found that while research facilities submitted required information to the NIH, facilities were not accurately reporting their animal use to the APHIS because of inadequate instructions. (
  • We identified 3 key agencies-Health and Human Services, the Department of Agriculture, and the Environmental Protection Agency-that conduct or fund research that doesn't use animals or uses fewer animals. (
  • Some agencies also encourage industry to use alternatives when conducting product safety research. (
  • We recommended that HHS create a workgroup to help the agencies assess and report on their progress in reducing or replacing animal use in research. (
  • Research published in BioMed Central's open access journal BMC Genomics demonstrates that the response of laboratory grown human cells can now be used to classify chemicals as sensitizing, or non-sensitizing, and can even predict the strength of allergic response, so providing an alternative to animal testing. (
  • But there is no way to completely replace animal testing and research because the pathway to fully duplicating a whole, living system does not yet exist. (
  • The scientific community looks forward to the day when animal testing and research is no longer needed in the future. (
  • Animals in Research: Any Alternatives? (
  • Experts from across the University are leading a public discussion about the use of animals in research at the Edinburgh Science Festival. (
  • The discussion will focus on efforts to find alternatives to animals and progress in refining research to minimise impact on the animals involved. (
  • Animal research has played a vital part in nearly every medical and veterinary breakthrough. (
  • Welfare is paramount to scientists using animals in research and the principles of the 3Rs - Refinement, Reduction and Replacement - are at the heart of UK legislation. (
  • Speakers include Dr Lesley Penny, Director of Bioresearch and Veterinary Services at the University, who will highlight the role of vets and technicians in maximising the welfare of animals involved in research. (
  • Implementing the 3Rs is a central focus for all those who use animals in research and the University is constantly working to reduce the numbers of animals used, minimise the impact on these animals and develop non animal alternatives for our world-leading science. (
  • Presents the text for the " U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training" as well as the "Health Research Extension Act of 1985" (Public Law 99-158, "Animals in Research," November 20, 1985), which provides the statutory mandate for the PHS Policy. (
  • Categorizes diseases and conditions affecting common research animals from most to least prevalent. (
  • Incidence, transmission, clinical signs, pathology, and augment descriptions are included to serve as a basic reference for veterinarians, veterinary students, and residents involved in the care of animal species used in research. (
  • Lists criteria for establishing codes of practice or legislation around the use of animals in scientific research. (
  • States the American Veterinary Medical Association's positions on the use of research animals including antimicrobial use, euthanasia, abuse, pain, and other important animal welfare concerns. (
  • Assembles links to internet resources on animals in research and education including government agencies. (
  • Committee on Animal Research and Ethics. (
  • These models could be designed to mimic specific disease states and to study tissue development and organ physiology, potentially reducing the need for animal testing in these and other areas of research. (
  • That was discovered by a multidisciplinary research team, led by Prof. Jerry Wells of Animal Science Group, Wageningen University and Research (WUR). (
  • Moreover gut organoids can be generated from tissues from animals killed for food production, frozen and grown for at least several months as an alternative to animal research. (
  • In the Animal Sciences Group, of WUR Host-Microbe Interactomics and Wageningen Livestock Research ), pig organoids of both small and large intestine have been developed. (
  • Highlighted below are four research innovations or advancements that show promise for enhancing these products' attractiveness as antibiotic alternatives, and the scientific community is excited about them. (
  • These products have already been successfully used in aquaculture, at least experimentally, and research is underway to expand their use to other animals. (
  • This international conference, and the numerous peer-reviewed articles that stem from it, provides not only guidance on product development for scientists and financial investors, but also optimism that by working together, the global agricultural research community can solve challenges related to the commercial development of alternative products. (
  • We are improving the way that we carry out our animal research and actively seeking alternatives. (
  • We're at the forefront of exploiting tissue culture as an effective way of producing large amounts of high quality antibodies for medical research, reducing the number of animals needed. (
  • We've received grants from the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research to fund further antibody-related research and for other work aimed at refining existing animal models of disease. (
  • One of the greatest threats to the preclinical research necessary for science-based medicine today is animal rights activism. (
  • The production of antibodies as tools for research and development typically involves the immunisation of between one and three animals (usually mice or rabbits, but sometimes sheep, chickens, goats or donkeys) per target. (
  • Animal research facilities are moving toward a sentinel-free system to help reduce the use of research animals and improve pathogen surveillance. (
  • Most research facilities employ the use of IVCs to house their animal models. (
  • Alternatives for Research Comparative studies of human populations allow doctors and scientists to discover the root causes of human diseases and disorders so that preventive action can be taken. (
  • Concern over the care and management of animals used in scientific research was initially raised in the 19th century in Great Britain, where the Cruelty to Animals Act was adopted in 1876. (
  • A significant step forward-for both supporters and opponents of animal research-occurred in 1959, when British zoologist William Russell and British microbiologist Rex Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique . (
  • These concepts became the foundation for the development of scientific alternatives to animal testing, and they continue to guide the treatment of animals in modern scientific research. (
  • The goal of the project was to bring together people with different points of view and different areas of expertise on animal research ethics to share their knowledge, exchange ideas and insights, and produce unbiased educational resources: a Hastings Center special report, Animal Research Ethics: Evolving Views and Practices, and a website, . (
  • The resources cover contemporary ethical arguments about animal research and describe new initiatives seeking alternatives to animal testing. (
  • Although scientists are already carrying out many of the alternatives in major research, some believe there is still plenty of room for progress. (
  • Pippin admitted to once using animal models, mostly dogs, in his cardiovascular research. (
  • Amanda Banks, the president of the California Biomedical Research Association, said although scientists are making progress when it comes to alternatives, animal research is still critical to scientific advancements, especially when it comes to diseases. (
  • CAAT promotes humane science by supporting the creation, development, validation, and use of alternatives to animals in research, product safety testing, and education. (
  • The chips can be used instead of animals in disease research, drug testing and toxicity testing. (
  • Studies show that these models can accurately predict the ways that new drugs will react in the human body and can replace the use of animals in exploratory research and many standard drug tests. (
  • This controversy is not a new one, animal dissection has been disputed for well over a hundred years (National Research Council, 1988). (
  • Dasgip and the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology (IZI) are partnering conducting stem-cell research to find alternatives to drug testing that do not require animals. (
  • It directs leadership and staff in the Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention and the Office of Research and Development to prioritize ongoing efforts and to direct existing resources toward additional activities that will demonstrate measurable impacts in the reduction of animal testing while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. (
  • The following guidelines were developed to assist researchers, information specialists, and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members, when conducting literature searches to determine if alternatives to the use of animals exist and whether a protocol unnecessary duplicates previous research. (
  • The specialist cannot effectively search for alternatives without a basic understanding of the type of research the investigator is proposing. (
  • A conclusion from this process was that alternatives to CO 2 were urgently required, including a program of research and extension to meet the needs for humane killing of these animals. (
  • The next step will involve gathering a group of international experts to formulate, draft, and publish a research strategy on alternatives to CO 2 . (
  • ATLA is intended to cover all aspects of the development, validation, introduction and use of alternatives to laboratory animals in biomedical research and testing. (
  • It covers the latest research relating to alternatives to the use of laboratory animals. (
  • The platform primarily contributes to funding replacement, reduction and refinement (3Rs) in the use of animals in research and testing and is the first to utilise a two-phase approach specifically for this purpose, which combines industry sponsors with research council funding. (
  • A flagship initiative of the UK's National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs), CRACK IT aims to develop new technologies to benefit the 3Rs from challenges put forward by industry and academic sponsors. (
  • About CRACK IT: CRACK IT is an open innovation platform from the NC3Rs, launched in 2011 to bridge the gap between scientific research and its wider use and commercialisation with the primary benefit being to replace and reduce the need for animals in research and testing, and improve animal welfare where they continue to be used. (
  • Designed to tackle the challenges of using animals for research, CRACK IT focuses on improving business processes and/or developing marketable products. (
  • Animal research is a multi-billion dollar industry. (
  • Many scientists, companies and institutions - including government - sustain established programs and careers based on animal research. (
  • Because I know that it will take more than innovations in science to end the standard of using animals in research. (
  • CAARE demonstrates every day that research without animals is not just some hypothetical goal, but is happening right now in universities, labs and corporations around the world, yielding exciting new results that surpass animal research. (
  • Our message to the world is that it's time to stop apologizing for animal research as a necessary evil. (
  • Global Animal Feed Ingredient Market Powered by Antibiotic Alternatives and Vertical Integration is the latest addition to Frost & Sullivan's Chemicals, Materials and Nutrition research and analyses available through the Frost & Sullivan Leadership Council, which helps organizations identify a continuous flow of growth opportunities to succeed in an unpredictable future. (
  • Despite their lobbying and support of biomedical research associations , animal research and testing is out-gunned, easily ten to one by my estimates. (
  • For almost a decade, public approval of animal research and testing has dropped year-to-year, all to suggest that critical species will leave the labs, beginning with chimpanzees then others that society judges most cuddly and dear. (
  • But the costs to breed or buy, house and feed happy and healthy animals -- a necessity for sound research -- is exorbitant and a natural inhibitor to their use. (
  • What binds pharmas, academia and their networks of contract research houses to animals is the sheer effectiveness of non-human testing and, in recognition of this fact, the many legal requirements to use animals in drug discovery and trials. (
  • I started my career as an academic and veterinarian, followed by almost 9 years of stem cell research that included working with cutting-edge technologies, like cellular reprogramming, before starting a biotech business, part of which is developing 'organ-on-chip' platforms as an alternative to animal testing for human drug development. (
  • Use of adipocyte as a co-culture model is a completely new area of alternative research. (
  • The work of ECVAM is funded from the EU's Research Framework Programme, with support from Member States, industry and animal welfare organisations. (
  • When talking about the '3Rs' of reduction, replacement and refinement which govern and guide animal research in the UK, it can be hard to quantify successes - how can you count an experiment which didn't take place? (
  • Research and development expenditure by the pharmaceutical industry has increased by £1 billion since 2002, yet the Home Office figures for animal use by commercial organisations have stayed largely unchanged with around 1.5 million procedures a year. (
  • Ongoing ICH revisions and their adoption tend to be driven by research into and validation of in vitro alternatives conducted by and published in collaboration between pharmaceutical companies, CROs and academia, so in other words as alternatives are confirmed as validated they become the new norm. (
  • The bottom line is that they still very much need to use animals in this area of research since 'alternative' assays simply can't model complex biological systems yet, but they clearly are pressing ahead to make whatever gains they can using available technology. (
  • Their innovative research will help to support Sens-it-iv, a large EU-funded research project that aims to develop and optimise in vitro test strategies that could reduce or replace animal testing for sensitisation studies. (
  • Dan Schaefer , a professor of animal science, and his graduate research assistant, Mitch Schaefer, halved the rate of bovine respiratory disease in beef steers by feeding them the IL-10 antibody for 14 days. (
  • A number of the new technologies have direct applications as medical interventions for human health, but the focus of the symposium is animal production, animal health, and food safety," says Cyril Gay, national program leader for animal health with the Agricultural Research Service in Beltsville, Maryland. (
  • The University of Oxford has been at the forefront of developing and using alternatives to animals in scientific research. (
  • There are a number of alternatives, and researchers must be able to demonstrate that non-animal techniques could not be used for their research before they are granted a Home Office licence. (
  • In general, only about 10% of medical research in this country involves the use of animals. (
  • Both models can be used as alternative test systems that could replace the use of animals in research and development for safety and toxicity testing in a variety of industries (e.g. the pharmaceutical, environmental, cosmetics, and food industries). (
  • This advancement in in vitro toxicology relies on filter-well technology that will enable a wide-spectrum of researchers to create viable and economic alternatives for respiratory safety assessment and disease-focused research. (
  • Reviews based on animal data could make trails' planning more perfect, increase the odds of success of future clinical trials and assist to decide what is valuable in further research [ 17 ]. (
  • Our researchers are actively researching alternatives that can be used in place of animals. (
  • Researchers have frequently used animals to study disease, test product safety, experiment, or teach. (
  • Federal agencies require researchers to consider alternatives to animal use. (
  • Researchers can study diseases like cancer cells in a petri dish, but they don't behave the same way in a dish as in a living, breathing animal or person. (
  • Researchers will showcase how University teams are making progress in the 3Rs to improve studies involving animals. (
  • As proof of principal, the researchers introduced alternative protein sources, present in animal feed, to organoids. (
  • Last October, researchers at Newcastle University said they had come up with a skin testing alternative that promised a faster and more accurate alternative to animal testing for cosmetics. (
  • Some companies, such as the HµRel Corporation , have already turned these chips into products that researchers can use in place of animals. (
  • RATIONALISM By the same token, researchers who use animals to advance their work are imbued with an intellectual bias that conveys as conceit and a dismissal of pain and suffering. (
  • Human health and animal welfare both stand to gain from the development of new in vitro toxicology tests, based on cultured cells and advanced technology. (
  • The hope is that such microsystems, developed with human cells, can replace costly and poorly-predictive animal tests, making the process of drug development and toxicology testing more accurate and human-relevant. (
  • The Impact of Novel Assessment Methodologies in Toxicology on Green Chemistry and Chemical Alternatives. (
  • For example, HHS provided funding to scientists to test chemicals for toxicity using human cell cultures rather than animals. (
  • To come up with an alternative to the practice, scientists based at Leicester University have demonstrated that it should be possible to develop an alternative therapy to tackle diseases in pigs. (
  • While some companies have used animal tissues for this purpose, Pharmagene scientists believe that the discovery process is much more efficient with human tissues. (
  • Scientists from both sides of the Atlantic say they have successfully developed the first fully functioning lab-grown skin epidermis, pointing the way to a replacement for animal testing of cosmetics products. (
  • Through partnerships with industry, international scientists, and colleagues in the BARC Animal Parasitic Diseases Laboratory, Lillehoj has demonstrated the effectiveness of using food supplements and probiotics, molecules produced by cells of the immune system, and phytonutrients to fight poultry diseases like coccidiosis-a parasitic disease that causes annual losses of more than $600 million in the United States and $3.2 billion worldwide. (
  • Articles published in ALTEX should convey a basic respect for the dignity of living creatures and a recognition of animals as our partners. (
  • You can already create human cell cultures and tissues that can be used for testing drugs in a way that s more accurate than animal testing, he said. (
  • Human tissue is vital in the study of human disease and drug testing - animal tissues differ in crucial ways. (
  • The skin mimicking laminated membranes will be useful to evaluate drug permeation quantitatively and to imitate some events which can happen in inflamed tissues in skin without requiring animals. (
  • Animal parts sent to rendering plants to be included in commercial pet foods include cancerous tissues, worm-infested organs, contaminated blood and blood clots. (
  • Since this section of our website addresses product safety and toxicity testing, the focus here will be on animal testing alternatives intended for toxicity testing applications that are being considered for acceptance by regulatory agencies. (
  • Animal testing alternatives fall into three main categories. (
  • There are a number of incentives for moving away from animal safety and toxicity testing and toward animal testing alternatives. (
  • Other incentives for using animal testing alternatives include significant cost savings benefits from non-animal models and regulatory drivers forcing companies to rethink animal use in toxicity testing. (
  • Regulatory acceptance of animal testing alternatives is limited, as regulators may be reluctant to accept new approaches. (
  • How effective does animal testing alternatives work such as computer modelling and human tissue cultures? (
  • Pioneers in the development and application of non-animal testing alternatives for irritation and skin toxicity testing. (
  • The ex vivo materials are obtained form animals used for human (food) consumption, according to the committee. (
  • They provide an excellent laboratory ( in vitro) model system to study complex traits which are not easily accessible in animals ( in vivo) . (
  • Two major alternatives to in vivo animal testing are in vitro cell culture techniques and in silico computer simulation. (
  • This study aims to determine the in vivo anti-inflammatory effects of taraxasterol against animal models. (
  • Our finding indicates that taraxasterol has obvious in vivo anti-inflammatory effects against animal models. (
  • To reduce or replace animal testing for regulatory purposes, non-animal tests must be independently validated to prove that they can provide information that is relevant and reliable for hazard prediction in relation to specific types of toxicity in vivo . (
  • This 21st century animal replacement model could yield representative in vitro predictions for in vivo toxicity. (
  • Or they've relied on lists of tested drugs for which animal and human outcomes have been concordant or discordant. (
  • In addition to raising public concern for animal welfare, animal testing is costly, time-consuming, and not always predictive of human responses. (
  • Recycling human skin: An alternative to animal testing? (
  • Federal agencies have also collaborated to develop devices that could help reduce animal testing, such as the tissue chip pictured below, which contains features designed to replicate the complex biological functions of specific human organs. (
  • Our lab-based alternative to animal testing, although in an early stage of production, is faster, out-performs present alternatives, and, because the cells are human in origin, is more relevant. (
  • Discovery requires living systems - both human and animal. (
  • Scientific drivers are also providing motivation, as inherent differences in the biology of human and non-human animals limits the value of animals serving as human stand-ins. (
  • A new or alternative toxicity test method can be quite different from the existing animal test method, but it must provide the same or better prediction of human health effects for it to be accepted by regulatory agencies. (
  • Furthermore, when animals are used in studies of human diseases, the artificial way in which the disease is induced in the animal is far removed from the way diseases occur naturally in people, limiting the value of such studies. (
  • Importantly, human cells can be studied in vitro and offer the potential of reducing animal use in several areas of study. (
  • Animal experimenters face the unavoidable fact that their artificially created "animal model" can never fully reflect the human condition, whereas clinical investigators know that the results of their work are directly relevant to people. (
  • Grown from human pluripotent stem cells, the alternative is also said to be a cost-effective alternative lab model that will be appropriate for testing a vast range of skin care, colour cosmetic and other personal care products. (
  • Another alternative is so-called microdosing, in which the basic behaviour of drugs is assessed using human volunteers receiving doses well below those expected to produce whole-body effects. (
  • Human skin equivalent tests can be used to replace animal-based corrosive and irritative studies. (
  • What About Non-Human Animals? (
  • T he use of animals to better understand human anatomy and human disease is a centuries-old practice. (
  • According to Pippin, animal testing for human conditions can be misleading, and even dangerous, as the human anatomy is different from other animals even our closest relatives the great apes. (
  • Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) are computer-based techniques that can replace animal tests by making sophisticated estimates of a substance's likelihood of being hazardous, based on its similarity to existing substances and our knowledge of human biology. (
  • The act of vivisection or the practice of experimenting on animals began because of religious prohibitions against dissection of human corpses. (
  • Deploying a system to supply and use human, rather than animal, dorsal root ganglia for testing potential analgesic drugs. (
  • We want to demonstrate the possibility of leveraging microengineered physiological organ models to challenge a century-long tradition of using animals as human surrogates in life sciences. (
  • Several drug companies, like Merck and Janssen, have signed partnerships with biotech firms that manufacture organ chips, acknowledging that animals fail to adequately model human medicine and biology. (
  • For starters, it is more ethical as the process does not involve animal or human testing, and is therefore also safer for the patients themselves. (
  • Farming of fish is a very efficient way to produce animal protein and other human nutritional needs. (
  • The human health implications of using alternative feeds needs to be better understood and considered. (
  • The current increasing trend in antibiotic usage holds a serious danger for the future and therefore calls for alternative plans to safeguard future livestock production, food security and human health. (
  • This selection for resistant bacteria in agricultural production environments and the subsequent impact on animal and human health has therefore become a major concern and is the subject of many reports (Institute of Food Technologists 2006). (
  • 3D-printing human skin: The end of animal testing? (
  • Answer by tigris they don't go and search for human diseases in animals any more. (
  • Alternative approaches like in-vitro, human tissue and computer models tend to be less expensive and certainly easier to manage. (
  • Please understand that I am a professional as far as human nutrition is concerned, but not animal nutrition, so please do not think of me as such. (
  • As mentioned, animals classified as "4-D" (dead, diseased, dying and disabled) that is, 'too unhealthy for human consumption' are rendered. (
  • Predicting Human Drug Toxicity and Safety via Animal Tests: Can Any One Species Predict Drug Toxicity in Any Other, and Do Monkeys Help? (
  • This section focuses on topics related to human or animal health, and medicine. (
  • Here we describe various wild animal diseases and wild bird diseases, with reference to acupuncture, herbal treatment, homeopathic treatment, chiropractic manipulation etc., where appropriate. (
  • This helps prevent common gastrointestinal diseases and optimizes animal nutrition. (
  • The result of this symposium will be an assessment of new technologies for treating and preventing diseases of animals and recommendations that will advance strategies for growth promotion and health in livestock, poultry, and aquaculture. (
  • Formulates guidelines for use by psychologists working with nonhuman animals. (
  • It's well known that the language we use to refer to nonhuman animals (animals) can be used to hide or sanitize the often rather egregious ways in which we use, harm, and kill them. (
  • Pet lovers who have been searching fruitlessly for information on holistic practitioners and natural products for animals need search no longer. (
  • The first step in conducting a search for alternatives, involves communication between the investigator and the information specialist. (
  • Search strategies for alternatives may be divided into two phases, reduction and refinement, and replacement. (
  • While watching the games of 2016 -- not the Olympics, the U.S. presidential election -- I am reminded of the stare-down between drug companies and animal rights activists. (
  • The UK Nuffield Council on Bioethics stated that "it would … be desirable to undertake further systematic reviews and meta-analyses to evaluate more fully the predictability and transferability of animal models. (
  • Lifelike models that allow students to 'disassemble' an animal, to handle replicas of major organs, and to replace them in their proper locations. (
  • As additional alternatives are developed, science will naturally reduce the need and use of animal models. (
  • Cells in culture are easier to molecularly manipulate, faster, cheaper and more reproducible than animal models. (
  • Charles River offers both sentinel-free and hybrid programs for IVC-housed animal models. (
  • There have been at least 85 successful vaccines to either cure or prevent HIV infection in animal models, mostly in monkeys, said Pippin, a cardiologist. (
  • It is a leading example to the international scientific community of how the UK is using the latest approaches to fund alternatives to animal models and developing novel solutions to improve welfare where they continue to be used. (
  • Currently, the center focuses on designing and developing novel co-culture based method, 3D culture as alternative models against use of animals in toxicity testing. (
  • Further progress will come from the same place as today's successes - collaboration between industry, academia and bodies such as the National Centre for the 3Rs, creating, validating and normalising the use of alternatives to animal models. (
  • We have taken a drug--an FDA-approved anti-vomiting medication--and using a novel delivery method, improved its efficacy and duration of action in animal models of inflammatory pain and neuropathic pain," said Nigel Bunnett, PhD, chair of the Department of Basic Science and Craniofacial Biology at New York University (NYU) College of Dentistry and the study's senior author. (
  • Anti-inflammatory effects were assessed in four animal models by using dimethylbenzene-induced mouse ear edema, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, acetic acid-induced mouse vascular permeability and cotton pellet-induced rat granuloma tests. (
  • Alternative Animal and Non-Animal Models for Drug Discovery and Development: Bonus or Burden? (
  • These findings show acupuncture has a potential role in improving learning and memory ability in animal models, suggesting it as a candidate therapy for memory loss of aged brain. (
  • The PETA International Science Consortium Ltd. works with agencies around the world to reduce the number of animals used in tests. (
  • Twenty million animals are killed each year in inhumane fashion for the purpose of classroom dissection, even though just as good options are available and don't cost animal lives (Peta). (
  • ENTERTAINMENT What activists NGOs, particularly The Humane Society of the United States ( HSUS ) and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals ( PETA ), understand so well is that entertainment is core to their cause. (
  • TAMPA (FOX 13) - Old sayings may seem harmless, but, according to PETA, they could actually be viewed as anti-animal language and normalize animal cruelty. (
  • The animal-rights group is pushing for "animal-friendly idioms" and provided a list of suggestions people can use to avoid offending vegans, PETA said. (
  • This progression will happen when viable alternatives exist and are scientifically validated. (
  • Each agency makes its own determination of whether to accept data from the new method, and to what extent the new method can replace the existing regulatory test method (usually an animal test). (
  • A little while back some newspapers were reporting on concerns that the regulatory system for new "cosmaceuticals" is not adequate, due to these cosmetics containing ingredients such as nanoparticles that potentially have effects that current animal and in vitro tests don't look for. (
  • And with industry heavyweights signed on to phase out 283 products by the end of the three-year regulatory sweep, analysts warn in a new market report the animal antibiotic market is destined for a hard crash. (
  • The validation and regulatory acceptance of non-animal alternative tests is critical to the adoption of more humane scientific methodologies. (
  • Dhomne added: 'North America holds the highest position in meat consumption per capita, but Asia-Pacific is expected to dominate the animal feed ingredient market, mainly due to the region's high population, increasing per-capita disposable income, growing per-capita meat consumption, and constant change in regulatory frameworks against the use of antibiotic growth promoters. (
  • The National Institutes for Food and Drug Control released a proposal for a new in vitro test standard for cosmetic ingredients as part of China's ongoing efforts to align its regulatory frameworks with those of key international trading partners, providing technology supporting future trade in cosmetics, and further developing Chinese programs and infrastructures for non-animal test method development and validation. (
  • These, and other examples which are discussed, confirm that the internationally harmonised ECVAM/ICCVAM/OECD validation concept is a practical and effective way of making possible the replacement of regulatory testing in animals. (
  • is one of the leading online resources for complementary and alternative medicine for animals. (
  • However, several are now in widespread use around the world for routine safety testing, resulting in notable reduction and refinement of animal use. (
  • A reduction alternative is a method that reduces the number of animals used. (
  • There is widespread agreement that a reduction in the number of animals used and the refinement of testing to reduce suffering should be important goals for the industries involved. (
  • This work introduced the goals of replacement, reduction, and refinement: replacement of animal testing with other techniques, reduction of the number of animals tested, and refinement of animal tests to reduce suffering. (
  • Today, Administrator Wheeler called for the agency to aggressively pursue a reduction in animal testing. (
  • Chemical companies submitting High Production Volume (HPV) test plans to the US EPA have often failed to follow even minimal EPA guidance about 3Rs alternatives. (
  • Directive 86/609/EEC bans the use of an animal test when an equally satisfactory alternative test is "reasonably and practicably" available. (
  • The replacement method for skin irritation, Episkin, will not require animals to test the potential for irritation of any chemical substance. (
  • In terms of skin allergy, the new test strategy will allow a decrease in the number of animals required to assess the potential for skin allergy. (
  • Alternative is the term traditionally used within the scientific community to describe the "3Rs" -methodologies to replace, reduce or refine animal use in an existing test or procedure. (
  • A validation study is conducted to obtain the data needed to assess the reliability and relevance of a new or revised animal testing alternative to test toxicity. (
  • These techniques are typically far more sophisticated and specific than traditional approaches to testing in whole animals, and many in vitro tests are capable of producing information about the biological effects of a test compound that are as accurate -and in some cases more accurate than-information collected from studies in whole animals. (
  • An example of a toxicity test in animals that is being replaced by in vitro techniques is the LD50 test, in which the concentration of a chemical is increased in a population of test animals until 50 percent of the animals die. (
  • Another example of a toxicity test performed on animals that often produces inaccurate results is the Draize test, in which a chemical, such as a cosmetic or pharmaceutical agent, is applied to the skin or eye of a rabbit. (
  • The alternate test is also less stressful to the animals. (
  • International studies have shown that this new test can provide more accurate predictions than testing on animals, so the new method will not only reduce the number of animals needed, but also increase the safety of patients. (
  • This test will not only reduce the number of animals used in labs, but also the costs of testing. (
  • The aim of the Sens-it-iv project is to develop in vitro alternatives to animal tests currently used for the risk assessment of potential skin or lung sensitisers, as there are not yet any in vitro tests or test strategies available to test chemical compounds for their potential to induce hypersensitivity reactions. (
  • Coordinated by The Accord Group, the project successfully identified three non-animal tests which can be used in place of the rabbit test to determine the eye irritation potential of commonly used household cleaning products. (
  • They put the relevant genes for the disease into the animal (usually a mouse, but it might also be a fruit fly) if they are known or they test the effect of candidate genes. (
  • Animal Test. (
  • Same-sex sexual behaviour (SSB) has been recorded in over 1,500 animal species with a widespread distribution across most major clades. (
  • Fig. 1: Examples of species with documented SSB demonstrate the widespread distribution of SSB in animals. (
  • The first six symposia focused on the social housing of laboratory animals, since it has been shown that housing social species with other animals of their kind improves animal welfare. (
  • In the present study we identified AOX in 28 animal species representing nine phyla. (
  • This expands the known taxonomic distribution of AOX in animals by 10 species and two phyla. (
  • Today, ethical alternatives are emerging. (
  • Guiding principles for more ethical use of animals in testing are the Three Rs (3Rs) first described by Russell and Burch in 1959. (
  • The husbandry and treatment of laboratory animals has been and continues to be a major topic of ethical debate. (
  • In addition to this, there are inherent disincentives to using animals such as ethical costs, bureaucracy or the financial burden of maintaining animal houses, with vets and animal techs. (
  • Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare. (
  • Starting in 2013, CAAT has co-sponsored an annual symposium with the Animal Welfare Information Center (National Agricultural Library, USDA) and the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (NIH) on the Three Rs. (
  • The more an antibiotic is used, the more likely resistant populations are to develop amongst pathogens and amongst commensal bacteria of an increasing number of animals in an exposed population. (
  • What barriers stand in the way of widespread practice of non-animal testing approaches? (
  • A conference in Brussels on 7 November 2005 entitled "Europe goes alternative" saw the adoption of a European Partnership with industry to promote alternative approaches to animal testing. (
  • Animals are not ours to experiment on, eat, wear, use for entertainment or abuse in any other way. (
  • But the only alternative to a senseless animal experiment is not to do it in the first place. (
  • Additionally, animal experiment can make us better understand the mechanism of acupuncture on learning and memory and guide the future clinical study. (
  • The overall objective of Sens-it-iv is to produce in vitro alternatives for these assays and develop them up to the level of pre-validation. (
  • United Kingdom: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. (
  • The evaluation takes into account the scientific merit of a manuscript and the contribution to animal welfare and the 3Rs. (
  • Scientific advancements in medical testing may reduce the need for animal subjects, eliminating the heated debate without another fight. (
  • on: The Scientific Case For Alternatives. (
  • ATLA is published by FRAME, and has been a key scientific journal in the field of laboratory animal alternatives for more than 30 years. (
  • Tests validated by ECVAM must be approved by its Scientific Advisory Committee, composed of representatives of the 25 member states, academia, industry and animal welfare organizations before they can be used in labs across Europe. (
  • By using advances in scientific knowledge, ECVAM will help to increase patient safety and animal welfare. (
  • The Three Rs concept, which was developed by Russell & Burch in 1959, was implemented into the legal framework in the European Union (EU) for the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes, when Directive 86/609/EEC was adopted in 1986. (
  • In addition to co-ordinating multi-laboratory prevalidation and validation studies, ECVAM gives advice on alternative tests and animal welfare issues, organises workshops and task forces, runs SIS - an information service providing factual, evaluated information on tests and their validation/acceptance status - and has created Olive(c)JRC, an information management system that can help laboratories to set up and operate a `Good Laboratory Practice' facility for alternative tests. (
  • Educators use a number of alternatives to animal dissection in order to teach similar skills or lessons. (
  • Not only alternatives make good replacements, but it will be for a good cause, cheaper, and can improve student's learning than dissection. (
  • Dissection for a course that no one is studying in the biological and life science is causing unneeded deaths of animals. (
  • Animal dissection is expensive and time consuming, especially that it can only be used once and then must be properly thrown away. (
  • Fleischmann, Kenneth R. 'Frog And Cyberfrog Are Friends: Dissection Simulation And Animal Advocacy. (
  • Dissection Alternatives Dissection in science classrooms is an experience that almost every student has to go through, but one that many will regret. (
  • A lot of these animals aren't even raised for dissection, they're captured from the wild or - like dogs and cats - bought from shelters (Dissection: Lessons in Cruelty). (
  • What we need to start asking is, "Does dissection breed a cold view towards animals? (
  • Ethics as well as religion are challenged with the dissection of animals. (
  • There have been numerous court cases concerning this issue and laws have been enacted to give students the right to refrain from participating in animal dissection (NABT, 1990). (
  • There are some people that don't follow the ethics on treating animals. (
  • Organizes information on the Animal Welfare Act. (
  • Includes the full-text of the 1966 Animal Welfare Act, the Animal Welfare Act and Regulations "Blue Book" (September 2013), amendments to the act, quick reference, and the background of the act. (
  • But can they replace animal studies? (
  • Non-animal tests are generally faster and less expensive than the animal tests they replace and improve upon. (
  • Others say that they cannot replace animals completely as they are unlikely to ever provide enough information about the complex interactions of living systems. (
  • EPA has already made significant efforts to reduce, replace, and refine the agency's animal testing requirements. (
  • However, the alternatives cannot replace all animal work. (
  • ECVAM's co-ordinating role involves many partners worldwide: in animal welfare, academia, the chemical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries, governmental departments and international organisations. (
  • Every year in the U.S., tens of millions animals suffer and die in chemical, drug, food, and product tests. (
  • Which Animals Are Used in Tests? (
  • Are Tests on Animals Legal? (
  • Alternatives to animal tests are effective, reliable, affordable and humane. (
  • Traditional toxicity tests performed on animals are becoming outmoded. (
  • It supports interlaboratory pre-validation and formal validation studies, and will itself also be practically involved in the development and validation of non-animal tests and testing strategies. (
  • The new tests use cell cultures rather than animals to establish the toxicity of cancer drugs and identify contaminated drugs. (
  • The tests approved today will not only reduce the number of animals needed for testing, but will also increase the accuracy of the tests, thereby making the products concerned safer. (
  • An added bonus is that these new tests are far more effective in finding contaminated drugs than the previous animal tests. (
  • Smaller tests with larger animals also show promise. (
  • It is possible that computer modeling reduces the need for killing animals if the predictions are accurate and make it easier to find the correct solution in animal (or cell culture) tests. (
  • Animals are still widely used in drug development and safety tests, despite evidence for their lack of predictive value. (
  • The animal tests currently carried out according to the German and European pharmacopoeias are evaluated. (
  • The opportunities for replacing obligatory bioassays and safety tests are assessed, taking into account both pharmaceutical quality and animal welfare aspects. (
  • For example, the EPA issued a strategic plan to reduce animal testing for toxic chemicals and pesticides. (
  • Furthering these efforts, EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler signed a memo titled, "Directive to Prioritize Efforts to Reduce Animal Testing. (
  • Objective 3.3 of the FY2018 - FY2022 U.S. EPA Strategic Plan outlines a commitment to further reduce the reliance on animal testing within five years under both statutory and strategic directives. (
  • For example, the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, which amended the Toxic Substances Control Act, requires EPA to reduce reliance on animal testing. (
  • As farmers gradually reduce and discontinue the use of antibiotic growth promoters, the rising demand for its alternatives creates new revenue streams for manufacturers in this space. (
  • As a result, in industries such as cosmetics animal testing has traditionally been used to address the risk of producing products that contain skin (contact) sensitisers. (
  • Humane Society International is praising a significant move by Chinese authorities away from an almost exclusively animal testing paradigm for cosmetics. (
  • The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. (
  • A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation. (
  • The following section describes both traditional and cutting-edge alternatives which hold the promise of reducing, refining and ultimately replacing the use of animals in science. (
  • Journal Of Applied Animal Welfare Science 4.2 (2001): 117. (
  • Five university grants were awarded through the agency's Science to Achieve Results Request for Application Advancing Actionable Alternatives to Vertebrate Animal Testing for Chemical Safety Assessment. (
  • CAARE works daily to deliver the best and the latest information on breakthroughs in science and medicine that don't harm animals. (
  • The only alternative to bad science is good science. (
  • In September 1999, the Centre was the principal organiser of the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in Bologna, Italy. (
  • Through CRACK IT Solutions, Avacta Life Sciences sought partners interested in validating the technology in their own applications, or in developing Affimers in new applications, where traditional animal-derived antibodies would be used. (
  • The guest writer for Advocacy for Animals this week, Kara Rogers, is Britannica's life sciences editor. (
  • The 11th World Congress on Alternatives and the Use of Animal in the Life Sciences will explore the latest in 3R R&D and will provide a multidisciplinary programme covering more traditional themes as well as very latest issues and novel developments in the field of alternatives to animal testing in the life sciences. (
  • It is estimated that six million vertebrate animals are dissected in high schools each year, and another 5.7 million are used in college laboratories. (
  • The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) partnered with the USDA to examine the issue of aquaculture feed and to create strategies for the development of alternative feed for use in aquaculture farming. (
  • The majority of these alternatives are still in the early stages of product development-which makes symposia such as USDA's and OIE's all the more imperative to driving progress. (
  • The testing of cosmetic products directly onto an animal can be minimized or eliminated by the use of in Vitro cell growth and development. (
  • Development of an imaging technique for detecting the distribution of large biomolecules in rodents, which in addition to reducing the use of animals will enable efficacy and safety studies to be ended earlier. (
  • These advances are ushering in a new era for replacing animals in drug discovery and development. (
  • What they found is that development and uptake of alternative technologies has been steadily gaining pace, culminating in an exponential rise since the millennium. (
  • Animal use continues to be central to preclinical drug development, in spite of a lack of its demonstrable validity. (
  • There have been significant advances in the treatment of animals using the natural approach of alternative medicine. (
  • Likewise, many of these in vitro techniques will have been used alongside animal studies to build up a picture of a drug's safety or otherwise. (
  • Studies of xenobiotic metabolism and the regulation of enzyme systems for their metabolism (Phase I and II enzyme systems) require large numbers of animals, intensive use of experimental aquarium systems and in some instances can pose major problems when the compounds are scarce, expensive or too toxic to be disposed of easily. (
  • Forty-two studies involving 944 animals were included. (
  • This is a story about two laboratory animal employees trying to overcome the known limitations of soiled-bedding sentinel testing. (
  • CAAT holds an annual Summer School at Johns Hopkins School of Public Health in Baltimore, Maryland, for members of the laboratory animal community to share innovations and techniques in the 3Rs. (
  • This is a much more effective alternative for kittens than adult cats, and involves redirecting a misbehaving cat to a toy or scratching post. (
  • Rootwave is an alternative to herbicides that uses electricity to kill weeds instead of environmentally harmful chemicals. (
  • Companies and governments are increasingly using QSAR tools to avoid animal testing of chemicals, and PETA's affiliate in the US actively promotes and funds their use internationally. (
  • The goal is to eventually group them into an entire organ system for testing new treatments and examining the effects of viruses and chemicals (an alternative to expensive and unreliable animal testing). (
  • When searching for alternatives, the staff at the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) refer to the tenets of the 3 R's introduced by W.M.S. Russell and R.L Burch (1959) in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique 1. (
  • At BioDrug Corp we are committed to humane animal welfare. (
  • And you can't credibly claim to be humane when your otherwise healthy animals don't fare so well. (
  • I want to get the latest chemistry news from C&EN in my inbox every week. (
  • Videodisks containing film and still images of internal organs and physiological processes of amphibians and other animals. (
  • Simply put, it's a leather alternative that doesn't involve animal products. (