A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The three possible sequences of CODONS by which GENETIC TRANSLATION may occur from one nucleotide sequence. A segment of mRNA 5'AUCCGA3' could be translated as 5'AUC.. or 5'UCC.. or 5'CCG.., depending on the location of the START CODON.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Functional human corneal equivalents constructed from cell lines. (1/352)

Human corneal equivalents comprising the three main layers of the cornea (epithelium, stroma, and endothelium) were constructed. Each cellular layer was fabricated from immortalized human corneal cells that were screened for use on the basis of morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological similarity to their natural counterparts. The resulting corneal equivalents mimicked human corneas in key physical and physiological functions, including morphology, biochemical marker expression, transparency, ion and fluid transport, and gene expression. Morphological and functional equivalents to human corneas that can be produced in vitro have immediate applications in toxicity and drug efficacy testing, and form the basis for future development of implantable tissues.  (+info)

Comparison of a rabbit model of bacterial endocarditis and an in vitro infection model with simulated endocardial vegetations. (2/352)

Animal models are commonly used to determine the efficacy of various antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial endocarditis. Previously we have utilized an in vitro infection model, which incorporates simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of various antibiotics. In the present study, we compared four experimental rabbit endocarditis protocols to an in vitro infection model in an effort to determine if these models are comparable. We have evaluated the activity of clinafloxacin, trovafloxacin, sparfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin in rabbit models against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. In vitro models were performed simulating the antibiotic pharmacokinetics obtained in the in vivo studies. Models were dosed the same as rabbit models, and SEVs were evaluated at the same time the rabbit vegetations were examined. Clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin were evaluated against methicillin-susceptible (MSSA1199) and -resistant (MRSA494) strains of S. aureus. Ciprofloxacin was studied against MSSA1199 and MSSA487. Sparfloxacin and clinafloxacin were evaluated against Enterococcus faecium SF2149 and Enterococcus faecalis WH245, respectively. We found that reductions in SEV bacterial density obtained in the in vitro model were similar to those obtained in rabbit vegetations, indicating that the SEV model may be a valuable tool for assessing antibiotic potential in the treatment of bacterial endocarditis.  (+info)

Comparative in vitro-in vivo percutaneous absorption of the pesticide propoxur. (3/352)

In vitro and in vivo skin absorption of the pesticide propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methyl carbamate, commercially Baygon(TM) and Unden (TM); log Po/w 1.56, MW 209.2) was investigated. In vivo studies were performed in rats and human volunteers, applying the test compound to the dorsal skin and the volar aspect of the forearm, respectively. In vitro experiments were carried out in static diffusion cells using viable full-thickness skin membranes (rat and human), non-viable epidermal membranes (rat and human) and a perfused-pig-ear model. Percutaneous penetration of propoxur in human volunteers was measured by analysis of its metabolite (2-isopropoxyphenol) in blood and urine; in all other studies radiolabeled propoxur ([ring-U-(14)C]propoxur) was used. In order to allow for direct comparison, experimental conditions were standardized with respect to dose (150 microg propoxur per cm(2)), vehicle (60% aqueous ethanol) and exposure time (4 h). In human volunteers, it was found that approximately 6% of the applied dose was excreted via the urine after 24 h, while the potential absorbed dose (amount applied minus amount washed off) was 23 microg/cm(2). In rats these values were 21% and 88 microg/cm(2), respectively. Data obtained in vitro were almost always higher than those obtained in human volunteers. The most accurate in vitro prediction of the human in vivo percutaneous absorption of propoxur was obtained on the basis of the potential absorbed dose. The absorbed dose and the maximal flux in viable full-thickness skin membranes correlated reasonably well with the human in vivo situation (maximal overestimation by a factor of 3). Epidermal membranes overestimated the human in vivo data up to a factor of 8, but the species-differences observed in vivo were reflected correctly in this model. The data generated in the perfused-pig-ear model were generally intermediate between viable skin membranes and epidermal membranes.  (+info)

Prediction of eye irritation from organic chemicals using membrane-interaction QSAR analysis. (4/352)

Eye irritation potency of a compound or mixture has traditionally been evaluated using the Draize rabbit-eye test (Draize et al., 1944). In order to aid predictions of eye irritation and to explore possible corresponding mechanisms of eye irritation, a methodology termed "membrane-interaction QSAR analysis" (MI-QSAR) has been developed (Kulkarni and Hopfinger 1999). A set of Draize eye-irritation data established by the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) (Bagley et al., 1992) was used as a structurally diverse training set in an MI-QSAR analysis. Significant QSAR models were constructed based primarily upon aqueous solvation-free energy of the solute and the strength of solute binding to a model phospholipid (DMPC) monolayer. The results demonstrate that inclusion of parameters to model membrane interactions of potentially irritating chemicals provides significantly better predictions of eye irritation for structurally diverse compounds than does modeling based solely on physiochemical properties of chemicals. The specific MI-QSAR models reported here are, in fact, close to the upper limit in both significance and robustness that can be expected for the variability inherent to the eye-irritation scores of the ECETOC training set. The MI-QSAR models can be used with high reliability to classify compounds of low- and high-predicted eye irritation scores. Thus, the models offer the opportunity to reduce animal testing for compounds predicted to fall into these two extreme eye-irritation score sets. The MI-QSAR paradigm may also be applicable to other toxicological endpoints, such as skin irritation, where interactions with cellular membranes are likely.  (+info)

Pathology of ocular irritation with acetone, cyclohexanol, parafluoroaniline, and formaldehyde in the rabbit low-volume eye test. (5/352)

The ocular irritation responses to 11 different surfactants and two concentrations of acetic acid and sodium hydroxide have been shown to depend on the extent of initial injury, despite marked differences in the processes leading to tissue damage. The purpose of these studies was to determine the extent to which this fundamental relationship applies to other nonsurfactants. Ten microl of acetone (ACT). cyclohexanol (CY), parafluoroaniline (PF), or 37% formaldehyde (FA) was directly applied to the cornea of the right eye of each rabbit. Eyes and eyelids were macroscopically scored for signs of irritation beginning 3 hours after dosing and periodically until recovery or 35 days. Tissues were obtained for light microscopic examination after 3 hours and on days 1, 3, and 35. Initial corneal injury was characterized quantitatively at 3 hours and I day using in vivo confocal microscopy (CM) and by postmortem quantitation of dead corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes using a Live Dead Assay (L/D, Molecular Probes) and scanning laser CM. Corneal changes over time were characterized quantitatively using in vivo CM performed at 3 hours and 1, 3, 7, 14, and 35 days. The changes with ACT were consistent with mild irritation. Corneal injury was limited to the epithelium and superficial stroma, with the mean normalized depth of injury (NDI) being less than 10% with the majority of regions showing no stromal injury. Changes with CY and PF were consistent with moderate to severe irritation, and FA caused severe irritation. Specifically, corneal injury by CY and PF tended to involve the epithelium and anterior stroma, with the mean NDI being 10.4% to 23.8%, while injury with FA involved the epithelium, deep stroma, and at times the endothelium. Interestingly, with FA significantly less injury was observed at 3 hours with a dramatic increase in injury observed at 1 day and thereafter. In conclusion, these results continue to support and extend our hypothesis that ocular irritation is principally defined by the extent of initial injury despite clear differences in the means by which irritants cause tissue damage. We believe this approach can be applied to developing alternative assays based on injury to ex vivo eyes or injury to an in vitro corneal equivalent system.  (+info)

TestSmart-high production volume chemicals: an approach to implementing alternatives into regulatory toxicology. (6/352)

This article examines the status and application of alternatives defined as replacements, refinements, and reduction for screening high production volume (HPV) chemicals. It specifically focuses on the Screening Information Data Set (SIDS), a series of toxicological tests recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to screen such chemicals. Alternative tests associated with acute, repeat-dose, genetic, and reproductive and developmental toxicity were examined at 2 meetings of academic, industry, and regulatory scientists and their status determined. Tests were placed in 1 of 3 categories: ready for immediate use, in need of or currently undergoing validation, or needing research/developmental work. With respect to traditional acute toxicity testing, the basal cytotoxicity approach was placed in the category of research with the up-and-down, fixed-dose, limit test, and the acute toxic class categorized as available for immediate use and the neutral red assay under validation. Cell culture methods that could provide information on acute target organ toxicity were all categorized in the research stage. Studies of the Ah receptor were placed under validation. All alternative tests for repeat-dose toxicity were placed in the category of research. With regard to genetic toxicity, the Ames, mouse lymphoma, and Chinese hamster ovary methods were considered ready for immediate use, while the in vitro micronucleus and Syrian hamster ovary assays were placed in the validation category. All alternatives for developmental toxicity, with the exception of gene chip technology, were placed in the category of validation. Gene chip technology is considered to be in the research stage. For reproductive toxicity, sperm motility and morphology were considered as ready for immediate use, with the other assays categorized as needing validation or in the research stage. Follow-up to these results is obvious. Work needs to be conducted to move those tests from the research stage to the validation and use stage. This is one approach to the development of alternatives to SIDS. Progress along these lines would apply not only to SIDS but also to toxicology in general.  (+info)

A reply to Joseph Bernstein. (7/352)

Dr. Bernstein suggests that anti-vivisectionists should be able to fill in a directive requesting that they receive no medical treatment developed through work on animals. It is replied that this would only be reasonable if research not using animals had long been funded as adequately and its results were currently available.  (+info)

DNA repair-deficient Xpa and Xpa/p53+/- knock-out mice: nature of the models. (8/352)

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease in which repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage is impaired or is totally absent due to mutations in genes controlling the DNA repair pathway known as nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP is characterized, in part, by extreme sensitivity of the skin to sunlight, and XP patients have a more than 1000-fold increased risk of developing cancer at sun-exposed areas of the skin. To study the role of NER in chemical-induced tumorigenesis in more detail, the authors developed Xpa-/- homozygous knockout mice with a complete defect in NER (designated as Xpa mice or XPA model). Xpa mice develop skin tumors at high frequency when exposed to UV light, and as such, they mimic the phenotype of human XP. Moreover, the Xpa mice also appear to be susceptible to genotoxic carcinogens given orally. Based on these phenotypic characteristics, the Xpa mice were considered to be an attractive candidate mouse model for use in identifying human carcinogens. In an attempt to further increase both the sensitivity and specificity of the XPA model in carcinogenicity testing, the authors crossed Xpa mice with mice having a heterozygous defect in the tumor suppressor gene p53. Xpa/p53+/- double knockout mice develop tumors earlier and with higher incidences upon exposure to carcinogens as compared to their single knockout counterparts. Here the authors describe the development and features of the Xpa mouse and present some examples of the Xpa and Xpa/p53+/- mouse models' sensitivity towards genotoxic carcinogens. It appeared that the Xpa/p53+/- double knockout mouse model is favorable over both the Xpa and p53+/- single knockout models in short-term carcinogenicity testing. In addition to the fact that the double knockout mice respond more robustly to carcinogens, they also appear to respond in a very discriminative way. All compounds identified thus far are true (human) carcinogens, and, therefore, the authors believe that the Xpa/p53+/- mouse model is an excellent candidate for a future replacement of the chronic mouse bioassay, at least for certain classes of chemicals.  (+info)

The Mid-Atlantic Society of Toxicology will present a webinar on Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods: Current Status and Future Directions. NICEATM Director Warren Casey will speak on Predicting in vivo effects using in vitro data: the future of alternatives. Other speakers include George DeGeorge of MB Research Labs, Rodger Curren of the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, and Thomas Hartung of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. The webinar will be presented on May 14, 2015 from 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.. Full Details and Registraton ...
The validation and regulatory acceptance of non-animal alternative tests is critical to the adoption of more humane scientific methodologies. Virtually all federally funded research is paid for with your tax dollars. Two of the main funders of animal-based research in North America, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, need to hear that you dont want your tax dollars used to underwrite animal experiments and urge them to stop requiring cruel and obsolete animal tests for pharmaceuticals and allow companies to substitute in vitro tests. (Government funded animal testing costs U.S. taxpayers $12 billion annually) Alternatives to animal tests are effective, reliable, affordable and humane. Proponents of non-animal testing methods in the scientific community have shown that these methods are quicker and cost-effective. Unlike crude, archaic animal tests, non-animal methods usually take less time to complete, cost only a fraction of what the animal ...
At the end of 1991, the Commission of the European Communities informed the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament of its decision to set up a European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), in line with its responsibilities under Directive 86/609/EEC. The main goal of ECVAM is to coordinate, at the European level, activities designed to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. ECVAM is assisted by a Scientific Advisory Committee representative of all parties concerned with the validation of alternative methods, namely the Member States, and European industries, animal welfare organizations and academia. ECVAM is currently establishing information services and a series of workshops, task forces and symposia. It supports interlaboratory pre-validation and formal validation studies, and will itself also be practically involved in ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Who Scientific Group On Cardiovascular D, author of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: New Areas for Research (Technical…, on LibraryThing
As historic events go the approval of Osiris Pharmaceuticals stem cell treatment Prochymal in Canada, making it the first regulatory approval for the technology outside of China, received a relatively muted response both in the wider pharma community and the financial one.
Authors: S Fitzpatrick, M Wind, A Jacobs, D Hattan, J Kulpa-Eddy, V Malshet, M Mumtaz, M Snyder, D McCarley, S Morefield, C Sprankle, D Allen, W Stokes. Abstract - Poster - Text-only version of poster. Abstract Number 1810A: Establishment of the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM) and Its Role in the Validation and Regulatory Acceptance of Globally Harmonized Safety Assessment ...
In order to evaluate water-insoluble chemicals using the skin model which is more similar to real skin and detectable interaction among three kind cells, we established a test method which is a three-dimensional human skin model consisting of normal fibroblasts, normal keratinocytes and normal dendritic cells utilizing a collagen vitrigel membrane (VG-KDF-Skin). Nine sensitizers and five non-sensitizers were then examined. After 24 hr, the amount of IL-1α and IL-4 release was measured, and then positive/negative outcomes were evaluated (VG-KDF-Skin method ...
AFC TOMATO CHEESE CORN SAUCE Cream corn and V-8 VEGETABLE JUICE lay the foundation for a multi-dimensional culinary experience! Smooth sensations all the way around! Who would think from two common ingredients such a surprise package could catapult itself into the world of animal-free cuisine! Anything is possible when you cook animal-free!! Makes 3 cups…
The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) has recommended a non-animal test method to identify estrogen agonist and antagonist activity. In addition to recommending the test, ICCVAM also found the method to provide a number of benefits over the method currently employed in the United States.
The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) has recommended a non-animal test method to identify estrogen agonist and antagonist activity. In addition to recommending the test, ICCVAM also found the method to provide a number of benefits over the method currently employed in the United States.
This notice announces the broadly applicable alternative test method approval decisions that EPA has made under and in support of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) in 2010.
THE BUSINESS TIMES Companies & Markets - CURRENT cancer screening methods are invasive and costly. Think of the mammographies, endoscopies, or biopsies that are presently done to detect cancer. Local biotechnology start-up Mirxes Pte Ltd is looking to revolutionise cancer detection methods by offering blood tests in place of current diagnostic methods to detect early stage cancer.. Read more at The Business Times.
In case of buried or semi soil-buried liquefied gas tanks, an inner coating is generally required (a water pressure test must also be conducted under certain circumstances). However, test procedures have been developed in recent years that allow these tanks to be tested, in many cases, without requiring the tanks to be opened. These test procedures involve a feed test and a sound emission test. The sound emission test is an alternative test procedure to detect changes in the material. This takes place by applying a load (pressure increase), which causes an emission of acoustic waves in the material. The feed test is also alternative test procedure. In this case, the effectiveness of the container insulation is tested. (The feed test also requires carrying out a random sound emission test for a reference test. The random noise emission test is carried out on 10% of these tanks in addition to the feed measurement that is carried out on 100% of these tanks.) Instead of coating the inner wall, an ...
Colonoscopies are highly effective screening tools used to detect colon cancer, rectal cancer, and other conditions. They are very safe, but not completely without risk. Learn more here.
Buy Products for non-animal specific by Shiny Hardware for your Non-Animal Specific from VioVet. FREE UK DELIVERY available over £29. Great prices and super easy to use website, see for yourself now.
As scientists around the world race to create COVID-19 therapeutics, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd. -- an organization dedicated to promoting human-relevant, non-animal testing strategies -- has co-launched a free, publicly available six-part webinar series focusing on the applications and benefits of animal-free recombinant antibodies. Antibodies are molecules produced by an organisms immune system in order to fight viruses, bacteria, or other foreign particles in the body.
The Executive Committee continued its discussions on HCFC production sector issues in the open-ended contact group which was initially formed at the 55th Meeting. The contact group was able to make progress and reach consensus on several issues. In preparation for the 57th Meeting, the Fund Secretariat was requested to provide a summary of information publicly available on relevant elements of the operation of the clean development mechanism (CDM) and the amounts of HCFC-22 production available for credits as a first step. The Committee also decided to constitute and convene the production sector sub-group at the 57th Meeting to continue the discussion on HCFC production sector phase-out issues including: the practices and procedures laid out in decision 19/36; the calculation of HCFC production sector phase out costs; the encouragement of a synchronized production/consumption phase-out as part of the first HPMP; incentives for early phase-out of HCFC production and/or providing disincentives ...
Anyone who wishes to use live animals in research or teaching at Western University and its affliates must disclose all procedures in an approved Animal Use Protocol (AUP). All AUPs are reviewed by the ACC, consisting of animal-using researchers, research lab animal technicians, grad students, non-animal-using researchers, a veterinarian, and members of the community at large who have never worked in animal research. Any subsequent changes to the AUP post-approval must also be reviewed and approved by the ACC via Protocol Modification. For more information on Animal Use Protocols, please visit the ACC Website.. To begin an AUP at Western, please contact [email protected] for more information.. ...
To date, recombinant human TGF-β1 has only been expressed in mammalian cell lines. Our protein experts have optimised TGF-β1, allowing us to produce highly bioactive protein in an E. coli expression system. This allows us to produce the first truly animal-free TGF-β1 for chemically-defined stem cell media.. As with Qkines other products, we provide full quantitative bioassay and biochemical data. Qkines TGF-β1 PLUS has also been validated for its ability to effectively maintain iPSC pluripotency by the specialist stem cell biotechnology company, Stemnovate, Cambridge, UK.. Benefits:. ...
Animal cell culture for the production of viral vaccines has been performed for more than 50 years, and currently this technology is expanding rapidly to meet present and future demands of the health sector. The development and regulatory approval of continuous cell lines for manufacturing viral vaccines has brought numerous benefits to production processes. However, greater advances in the last decade have been achieved in mammalian cell production of biological therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and clotting factors. We and others have contributed to these upstream advances by improving cell culture media with the development of animal-free and chemically-defined recombinant protein supplements. The supplements we have developed include recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (LONG®R3IGF-I), epidermal growth factor (LONG®EGF), transforming growth factor-á (LONG®TGF-á), transferrin (CellPrime™ rTransferrin AF), and albumin (CellPrime™ rAlbumin
Recombinant Mouse FGF-basic (Animal-Free) - FGF-basic, also known as FGFb and FGF-2, is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family which includes 23 members.
Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I, Human, Recombinant, E. coli, Animal-Free CAS - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
In the EU and US regulators have noted this progress. In 2012 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) revised its concept paper on the replacement of animal studies with in vitro tests to more clearly define the process for regulatory acceptance of alternatives, recognizing the increased use of in vitro methods and the need for formal validation studies on some occasions, and proof of scientific validity on others. (Revised Concept paper on the need for revision of the position on the replacement of animal studies by in vitro models (CPMP/SWP/728/95). Regulatory bodies in the EU and US are both becoming increasingly favourable towards in vitro research, says ISAB in vitro manager Maria Malmlöf. She points out that regulatory change around in vitro testing has been slower in inhalation than other fields, given the notorious complexity of delivering drugs to the lung. Recent regulatory recommendations on, for example, the testing of biosimilars (low-cost generic copies of biologic drugs) ...
7/17/20 The United Kingdom reports a wealth of information every year on its use of animals in research. Every animal procedure must be categorized according to the overall purpose (and specific disease area or regulatory purpose if relevant), the genetic status of the animals and the severity of the procedure. Great Britain (England, Scotland and…
A new article by scientists at Unilever, a corporate member of the HTPC, describes several areas of safety science in which they are using a pathway-based approach to replace traditional animal tests with a combination of human cell-based in vitro assays and computational models. The article, Toxicity testing - non-animal approaches and safety science (by…
The U.S. Food and Drug Administrations insistence on keeping its 2007 predicate date has drawn protests not only from vapor companies but also from animal lovers.. Countless animals will suffer and die now that newer tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, will be required to FDA approval in order to enter or remain on the market, wrote the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) in response the new regulations.. To obtain FDA approval, tobacco manufacturers will be required to show that their products reduce the risk to current tobacco users and do not increase the risk to non-users. In a guidance document accompanying the rule, the FDA encourages manufacturers of electronic nicotine-delivery systems to meet with its Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) early in the development process to discuss what, if any, animal testing the agency considers appropriate or whether non-animal tests may be acceptable.. The FDA has stated that animal tests will still be required for toxicological ...
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The Tox21 partner agencies work together to develop, validate, and translate innovative in vitro HTS methods to characterize the impact of chemicals on key steps in toxicity pathways.. Data collected in the Tox21 initiative has been used to prioritize uncharacterized compounds for regulatory testing using both traditional and novel test methods. To more broadly address challenges in the field of toxicology, in 2018 Tox21 released a new strategic and operational plan (Thomas et al. 2018) that expands the focus of its research activities. New focus areas include expanding its portfolio of alternative test systems, addressing technical limitations of in vitro test systems, curating legacy in vivo toxicity testing data, establishing scientific confidence in in vitro test systems, and refining alternative methods for characterizing pharmacokinetics and in vitro assay disposition. The eventual goal of Tox21 is to use HTS methods to generate data that will allow risk assessors to more accurately ...
Foods of non-animal origin (FoNAO) are consumed in a variety of forms, being a major component of almost all meals. These food types have the potential to be associated with large outbreaks as seen in 2011 associated with VTEC O104. In order to identify and rank specific food/pathogen combinations most often linked to human cases originating from FoNAO in the EU, a semi-quantitative model was developed using seven criteria: strength of associations between food and pathogen based on the foodborne outbreak data from EU Zoonoses Monitoring (2007-2011), incidence of illness, burden of disease, dose-response relationship, consumption, prevalence of contamination and pathogen growth potential during shelf life. The top ranking food/pathogen combination was Salmonella spp. and leafy greens eaten raw followed by (in equal rank) Salmonella spp. and bulb and stem vegetables, Salmonella spp. and tomatoes, Salmonella spp. and melons, and pathogenic Escherichia coli and fresh pods, legumes or grains. ...
Although federal regulations require scientists to consider non-animal research methods fully in their proposals, there has been little training on the
Vegans can improve their omega-3 levels by taking non-animal formsof DHA. Also, browse our large selection of articles and products available at VitaNet®, LLC
The implementation of the SkinEthic™ HCE method, as a validated reference method in the OECD test guidelines TG 492 is already considered.. The draft of TG492 on Reconstructed human Cornea-like Epithelium test method for eye hazard potential is currently under review by the states members of OECD with an approval expected by summer 2017. Our corneal model and corresponding protocols (for liquids and for solids) are designed to comply with regulatory purposes to classify and label chemicals regarding in vitro ocular irritation assessment. ...
MEDICO REMEDIES PVT. LTD. - Manufacturer and Exporter of ClindaMed Oral Drops for Animal Use at most reasonable prices from India.
REACh is the regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on June 1, 2007. It streamlines and improves the former legislative framework on chemicals of the European Union (EU). The main aims of REACh are to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment from the risks that can be posed by chemicals, the promotion of alternative test methods, the free circulation of substances on the internal market and the enhancement of competitiveness and innovation. REACh makes industry responsible for assessing and managing the risks posed by chemicals and providing appropriate safety information to their users. In parallel, the European Union can take additional measures on highly dangerous substances, where there is a need for complementing action at EU level.4 As a result of REACh, the production and use of chemicals is regulated. Substances that are produced and/or used in amounts of more than 1000 kg/year must be ...
Formaldehyde Emissions Testing - GA 6000 uses EN717-2 gas analysis method that is approved by CARB as an Alternative test method.
This issue of ALTEX includes a Food for thought article from Joanne Zurlo, two t4 workshop reports, an article about an alternative QSAR-based approach for predicting the bioconcentration factor for regulatory purposes, and much more.
Cellular metabolism is essential to sustain life and underlies a vast number of mechanisms of pathogenesis. Among thousands of small-molecule metabolites, we are particularly interested in key intermediary metabolites that are shared by metabolic reactions for building cellular blocks and chemical modifications for regulatory purposes. These metabolites include S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and acetyl-CoA, and they are kinetically stable but thermodynamically activated. We found that cellular SAM is substantially consumed by methylation of phospholipids and the histones. This bulk turnover of SAM can influences cell growth and the redox environment, as it subsequently fuels the synthesis of cysteine and glutathione. We also discovered that a unique carboxyl methylation of the major phosphatase PP2A can act as a cellular gauge of SAM. Metabolic processes that alter cellular SAM levels can thus signal SAM-sensitive PP2A methylation for phosphoproteomic control. We demonstrated a PP2A-governed ...
Genentech, Inc. (NYSE:DNA) and Biogen Idec (Nasdaq:BIIB) today announced that a global Phase III study of Rituxan(R) (rituximab) in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy met its primary endpoint of improving progression-free survival (PFS), as assessed by investigators, in patients with previously treated CD20-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) compared to chemotherapy alone. There were no new or unexpected safety signals reported in the study. An independent review of the primary endpoint is being conducted for U.S. regulatory purposes. Data from the study, REACH, will be submitted for presentation at a future medical meeting. Earlier this year, another European Phase III study, CLL-8, showed a similar treatment combination improved PFS in patients with CLL who had not previously received treatment. REACH, the largest relapsed CLL trial ever conducted, is the first Phase III study of this treatment combination to show an improvement in progression-free ...
A Proposed Definition of Microbiota Transplantation for Regulatory Purposes, Gut Microbes, Mar. 20, 2017 (with others).. Stopping Deceptive Health Claims: The Need for a Private Right of Action Under Federal Law, 42 American Journal of Law & Medicine 53 (2016) (with Jack Schwartz). [Full Text]. The Importance of Including the Deans, Journal of Law, 41 Medicine & Ethics 81 (Supp. 2016).. Access to Essential Medicines in African Countries: An Introduction, 31 Maryland Journal of International Law 1 (2016) (with Peter Danchin). [Full Text]. Increasing Access to Dental and Medical Care by Allowing Greater Flexibility in Scope of Practice, 105 American Journal of Public Health 1755 (2015) (with Richard J. Manski and Virginia Rowthorn).. Laying the Foundation for an Interprofessional, Comparative Health Law Clinic, 42 Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 392 (2014) (with Chikosa Banda and Kassim Amuli). [Abstract]. Probiotics: Achieving a Better Regulatory Fit, 69 Food & Drug Law Journal 237 (2014) (with ...
Proceeding/Conference:Preprints of the 4th Workshop on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Belgium, May 1996 ...
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The Contrary Intention Report is used for reporting of contrary expiration quantities for Saturday expiring options. This information is required by options exchanges for regulatory purposes. Contrary Intention Report ...
Density and relative density measurements of light hydrocarbons, including LPG, are used for transportation, storage and regulatory purposes. The measurement is made by floating a thermohydrometer in a sample that has been introduced into a pressure cylin
ABRSM Alternative Aural Tests For Deaf And Hearing Impaired: Grade 1-8 Alternatives to aural tests for deaf and hearing-impaired Piano candidates. Alternative tests for other instruments, for blind and par
With the recent approval of the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) for skin sensitization (allergy), toxicologists now have a battery of methods that allows them to test for sensitization without using animals. Testing a chemical substance for skin irritation or corrosion is pretty straight-forward: the substance is applied to a skin sample (there are…
Your doctor may be able to rule out prostate cancer without a biopsy. Learn about alternative tests that can be used to determine your risk.
I think that the subjectee (i dont know if thats a word), even if they have no rights, should still be able to consent to this, this should be given as an option or as an alternative, if presented at all. For example, if someone is about to get the electric chair, they can opt for an alternative test subject. Put on max security, no contact by outside source, and the only contact they get is the docs that work on them. But i can only assume this would turn out to be a pointlessly small number of people ...
Save 34% Universal - Animal Test 21 Pack Animal Test The Hypertrophic Test Stack Anabolic Response Amplifier Arachidonic Acid Divanillyl Cissus Trans Resveratrol Hesperetin Yohimbe What Animal Test Is Gear up. . Every training session, every meal, is another test to pass. Your approach is dead serious. Nothing is left to chance. You know the importance of testosterone. More test = more size & strength. It is that simple. That is why you gear up with Animal Test. Animal Test keeps it simple, breaking down the muscle-building process to its bare essence & amplifying the anabolic response. Animal Test is legal hypertrophic, pro-testosterone supplementation at its best. Animal Test helps enhance both testosterone output and utilization. Animal Test cuts to the core of the muscle-building process, modifying and enhancing the anabolic response. In other words, Test is money in the bank.* Who We Are In 1983 Animal was founded with the birth of Animal Pak, the venerable training pack that started it all. Born
Save 34% Universal - Animal Test 21 Pack Animal Test The Hypertrophic Test Stack Anabolic Response Amplifier Arachidonic Acid Divanillyl Cissus Trans Resveratrol Hesperetin Yohimbe What Animal Test Is Gear up. . Every training session, every meal, is another test to pass. Your approach is dead serious. Nothing is left to chance. You know the importance of testosterone. More test = more size & strength. It is that simple. That is why you gear up with Animal Test. Animal Test keeps it simple, breaking down the muscle-building process to its bare essence & amplifying the anabolic response. Animal Test is legal hypertrophic, pro-testosterone supplementation at its best. Animal Test helps enhance both testosterone output and utilization. Animal Test cuts to the core of the muscle-building process, modifying and enhancing the anabolic response. In other words, Test is money in the bank.* Who We Are In 1983 Animal was founded with the birth of Animal Pak, the venerable training pack that started it all. Born
Ocular irritation testing is a common requirement for the classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals (substances and mixtures). The in vivo Draize rabbit eye test (OECD Test Guideline 405) is considered to be the regulatory reference method for the classification of chemicals according to …
February 22, 2016 GAITHERSBURG, MD - February 22, 2016 - The Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) has received a grant from the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) to develop non-animal test methods for the evaluation of fragrance materials for potential respiratory irritation and sensitization.. The grant was secured in collaboration with Liverpool John Moores University and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. The proposal, The use of a novel non-animal platform to characterize respiratory effects of fragrance materials combines computational approaches as well as in chemico techniques, and includes a testing plan in harmony with concepts for the OECD Adverse Outcome Pathway program.. The ability to evaluate the effect of fragrance materials on the respiratory system is significant for many industries. This project is expected to deliver far-reaching benefits to the scientific community for evaluating respiratory irritation and sensitization, said Dr. ...
Task force member, Microbial risk analysis in food safety, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (2004-2005). Expert reviewer, Control of Listeria monocytogenes in foods, International Life Science Institute (2003-2004). Panel chair, Food Science and Post Harvest Technology, United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund (2002-2005). Food and Water Safety Committee member, U.S. Department of Defense (2002-2005). Working Group member, Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (2001-2005); Organizing committee member, Central Sciences Laboratory/JIFSAN Annual Symposium Series (2001-2005); Steering committee member, International Risk Assessment Training, International Life Science Institute (2001-2003). Senior Science Council member, Food and Drug Administration (2001-2005). Lead Scientist Council member, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (2001-2005). Science Council member, FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition ...
27th Meeting, 2009: Dissecting Genome Structure, Genetic Traits, and the Basis for Complex Diseases. 26th Meeting, October 6, 2008: Inflammation in Cancer. 25th Meeting, October 29, 2007: Current and Future Issues in Environmental Toxicology. 24th Meeting, October 26, 2006: Oxidative Stress and Damage. 23rd Meeting, October 26, 2005: Genetics of Aging. 22nd Meeting, November 10, 2004: DNA Methylation and its Toxicological Consequences. 21st Meeting, 2003:. 20th Meeting, October 22, 2002: The Science of Bioterrorism. 19th Meeting, November 6, 2001: Toxicogenomics. Annual Fall Meetings - 1991 through 2000. 18th Meeting, October 25, 2000: Genetically Modified Food: Benefits and Risks to Human and Environmental Health. 17th Meeting, October 25, 1999: Current Trends in Genetic Toxicology. 16th Meeting, October 2, 1998: Genetic Susceptibilities Affecting the Response of Children to Toxicants. 15th Meeting, 1997:. 14th Meeting, October 11, 1996: The Use of Transgenic Mice in Toxicology. 13th Meeting, ...
Animal-free testing methods are being increasingly explored and implemented as an alternative to animal models, in efforts to provide a more accurate prediction of a drug candidates efficacy and safety. InSphero recently hosted a virtual roundtable discussion on the topic of animal-free testing. |i|Technology Networks|/i| had the pleasure of speaking with Armin Wolf, chief scientific officer at InSphero, to learn more about the topics discussed.
PETA Science Consortium International organises workshops on various topics, including the development of non-animal methods to examine the subchronic inhalation toxicity of nanomaterials, alternative methods for the identification of acute systemic toxicity, in vitro approaches for medical device pyrogen testing, and the development of animal-free recombinant antibodies.. In addition, the Science Consortium organises webinars focused on the use of alternative approaches to meet REACH requirements, inhalation toxicity testing, recombinant antibodies, and the use of new approach methodologies in risk assessment.. The Science Consortium also funds hands-on training on the use of and interpretation of data from non-animal tests.. ...
Genomic data from foodborne pathogens, by itself and in combination with other information, is a robust resource that can help public health officials identify and understand the source of foodborne foodborne illness outbreaks.
The Animal Alternatives in Environmental Science Advisory Group was formed in 2008 to facilitate scientific discussion of relevant aspects of alternative tests in environmental science as a means to reduce, refine, or replace standard toxicity tests with vertebrates around the globe. Over the past 4 years, more than 400 candidate abstracts expressing interest to join regular sessions have been considered at SETAC North America and SETAC Europe regional meetings. During this same time frame, the burgeoning interest in systems biology, the maturation of genomic and other tools and the concepts of adverse outcome pathways have also become part of the discussion on alternatives. Past activities of the Animal Alternatives in Environmental Science Advisory Group have included sponsoring workshops on in vitro methods in environmental toxicology, providing a sounding board for SETAC leadership on use of animals in research and the commitment of SETAC to animal welfare and leading forums such as this ...
In 1957 Charles Hume and William Russell introduced the concept of the three Rs in their book Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. These techniques to reduce animals used in tests and their suffering include: replacement (eliminate an animal test altogether), reduction (fewer animals used in test by using statistical analysis) and refinement (making tests less painful).[4] In 1991 the European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) was established to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are important to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals.[5] Once the ECVAMs Scientific Advisory Committee approves a test it must be used under the Animal Protection Act, which does not allow the use of animals when an alternative exists. In 2012, British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection joined forces with New England Anti-Vivisection Society and the European Coalition to End Animal Experiments ...
A €50 million European public-private partnership (PPP) has paved the way to a new era of assessing chemical safety without using animals. SEURAT-1 -Towards the Replacement of In VivoRepeated Dose Systemic Toxicity Testing -showcases its achievements during a final symposium on 4 December 2015.. The EUs FP7 and Cosmetics Europe each contributed €25 million to the largest PPP initiative in the field. The project has successfully built on collective knowledge, taking advantage of the cross-disciplinary expertise of regulators and scientists from over 70 universities, research institutes and companies. Together they have defined a common research strategy and made a decisive step to overcome fragmentation in the research community. SEURAT-1s work not only meets the specific needs of the cosmetics industry but also contributes to a global safety assessment solution forany chemical.. SEURAT-1 marks a significant strategic milestone in the journey towards a future of animal-free testing; it ...
Overall, the complexity of organs and events involved in the reproductive cycle simply prevents to find the alternative test for reproductive toxicology [13]. However, the reproductive cycle can be broken up in building blocks (components and/or pathways), so to set up a comprehensive battery of tests, each of them addressing one component. This led to a project structure with three major research areas dealing with cell/tissue specific approaches and with the ambition of providing an array of test targeting the essential steps of reproductive cycle: fertility; implantation; prenatal development. Whereas the developmental toxicity tests were closer to optimization phase, the test batteries dealing with male and female fertility and implantation were more complex to develop encompassing a number of cells/tissues (sperm, Leydig cells, oocytes, ovary granulosa cells, trophoblasts, etc.) and of targeted parameters (DNA integrity, steroidogenesis, etc.). Noticeably, during ReProTect some new ...
The EU Cosmetics Directive aims to phase out animal testing. It established a prohibition on the testing of finished cosmetic products (since 2004) and cosmetic ingredients (since 2009) on animals and a prohibition on the marketing in the EU of finished cosmetic products and ingredients included in cosmetic products which were tested on animals outside the EU. The latter marketing ban applies since 2009 for all human health effects with the exceptions of repeated-dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity and toxicokinetics. For these health effects, the ban will apply step by step but with a maximum cut-off date of 10 years after the entry into force of the directive (11 March 2013), irrespective of the availability of alternative non-animal tests.(1). 1. Does the Commission agree that a case-by-case derogation would mean a delay in the complete marketing ban on animal testing, and that with this third delay the Commission will lose credibility with the citizens of Europe?. 2. Given that 80-90 % of ...
U-M Life Sciences Institute Saltiel Life Sciences Symposium Game Changers: Technologies that are Rewriting the Future of the Life ...
Michigan House Speaker Andy Dillon, right, visited the Life Sciences Institute on Friday to meet with stem cell researchers from across the U-M campus. Pictured from left are: Mark Burton of Dillons staff; Sean Morrison, director of the Center for Stem Cell Biology; Jack Mosher, assistant research scientist at the Life Sciences Institute; Kirk Profit, director of Governmental Consultant Services Inc.; Marty Fischoff, managing director of the A. Alfred Taubman Medical Research Institute; Cynthia Wilbanks, vice president for government relations; Liz Barry, managing director of the Life Sciences Institute; Gary Smith and Sue OShea, co-directors of the Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies; Dr. Eva Feldman, director of the A. Alfred Taubman Medical Research. (Photo by Jennifer Farina, Life Sciences Institute) ...
Scientists at the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute have discovered how one type of enzyme allows a microorganism to produce molecules with a wide range of potentially beneficial activities - from fighting insects to killing fungus.. Hapalindoles compose a large class of structurally diverse natural products made by cyanobacteria. Their structural diversity is reflected in the widely varying activities of the products, including antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities. Until recently, relatively little was known about how nature manages to develop these diverse organic compounds from the same starting material. Now, researchers in the lab of David Sherman, Ph.D., at the LSI have shown that the various structural arrangements in this class all arise from a central starting point and all begin their transformations through a novel class of enzymes.. By solving the structure of an enzyme called a Stig (for Stigonemataceae) cyclase, the U-M researchers were able to ...
For the AHLA Life Sciences Institute, Epstein Becker Green attorney Bradley M. Thompson presented an update on combination products. ...
Anahad OConnor A prominent medical journal on Monday published a scathing attack on global health advice to eat less sugar. Warnings to cut sugar, the study argued, are based on weak evidence and cannot be trusted.. But the review, published in The Annals of Internal Medicine, quickly elicited sharp criticism from public health experts because the authors have ties to the food and sugar industries.. The review was paid for by the International Life Sciences Institute, a scientific group that is based in Washington, D.C., and is funded by multinational food and agrochemical companies including Coca-Cola, General Mills, Hersheys, Kelloggs, Kraft Foods and Monsanto. One of the authors is a member of the scientific advisory board of Tate & Lyle, one of the worlds largest suppliers of high-fructose corn syrup.. Critics say the medical journal review is the latest in a series of efforts by the food industry to shape global nutrition advice by supporting prominent academics who question the role of ...
This thesis is an historical analysis of the culture of science and its use of animals in experiments by the British military and in medical scientific research, and its regulation by law, during the period 1947 to 1965. The overall aim of this thesis is to demonstrate the gendered nature of scientific experimentation on animals in mid-twentieth century Britain. To do this, it addresses two aspects of animal experimentation; firstly, exploring how scientific research forms power-knowledge relations through the use of nonhuman animals. Secondly, this thesis analyses the intersection of animal use in science with that of the broader socio-cultural context, asking was science in mid-twentieth century Britain gendered? As a consequence, it explores the effects of this knowledge production upon animals and women. My findings are twofold: that the construction of scientific knowledge through the use of nonhuman animals was one that created subject-object binaries, and this had powerful and detrimental ...
Alan Boobis and Angelo Moretto have ties to the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI). ILSI Europe receives a majority of its operating and research funding from private companies, including glyphosate producers Dow and Monsanto. ILSIs Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) is primarily funded by private companies, including glyphosate producers Dow, Monsanto and Syngenta.. Most scientists involved in the glyphosate assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which also contradicted the WHO cancer warning, refused to be named.. Greenpeace EU food policy director Franziska Achterberg said: The agencies contradicting the WHO cancer warning seem to either rely on officials who prefer not to be named, or lack a watertight policy to protect their impartiality. Any decision affecting millions of people should be based on fully transparent and independent science that isnt tied to corporate interests. It would be irresponsible to ignore the warnings on glyphosate and ...
Zebrafish models for human acute organophosphorus poisoning. Natalia Garcia-Reyero. Workshop on Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving From Research to Regulatory Testing. Bethesda, MD, USA, September 24-25, 2015. Scientific meeting agenda ...
And there is no wane in sight. First, the extra-territorial imitators have been cast into disarray by the shrewd strategic move of the Prosecco producers to take their future back into their own hands. The Prosecco DOC was first awarded in 1969 and was restricted to wines produced in the Conegliano-Valdiobbadene region. Growers felt that the brand was under attack by imitators using just the grape variety and moved to isolate those competitors by changing both the rules and the venue of the game. Prosecco growers agitated for, and gained regulatory acceptance of: (i) extension of the Prosecco DOC to cover all of Friuli-Venezia-Giulia and approximately two-thirds of Veneto; (ii) promotion of the original Prosecco DOC to DOCG status; (iii) changing the name of the source grape from Prosecco to Glera; and (iv) restricting the use of the name Prosecco only to Glera sparkling wines produced within the delimited zones. The growers felt that these actions would serve to protect their territory, the ...
Find local Science Research Health Scientific groups in Brussels and meet people who share your interests. Join a group and attend online or in person events.
Bio-Matrix Scientific Group, Inc. Due Diligence Report provides a complete overview of the companys affairs. All available data is presented in a comprehensive
United Scientific Group (USG) cordially invites all the participants from all over the world to attend International Conference on Infectious Diseases during November 5-7, 2018 in Berlin, Germany (Infectious Diseases-2018). ...
According to Stratistics MRC, the Global In Vitro Toxicology Testing Market is accounted for $12.30 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach $32.45 billion...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has regulatory authority over tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes and next generation products (NGPs) such as e-cigarettes and tobacco heating products (THPs). There is a desire by the industry, regulators and animal protection organizations to incorporate non-animal test methods for tobacco product and NGP assessment. When assessing respiratory effects in vitro, reliable exposure systems that deliver aerosols to cellular/tissue cultures (such as human reconstructed airways or lung slices) at the air-liquid interface are needed. Using nicotine dosimetry, we report the... Acute Respiratory Toxicity , Chronic Respiratory Toxicity , Goblet Cell Hyperplasia , Pulmonary Models , Respiratory Toxicology , Tobacco , Devin Sheehan , e-cigarette , Erin Hill , Holger Behrsing ...
Committed to developing alternative testing methods; JRF Global offers a customized battery of in vitro tests for the chemical and cosmetic industry for new ingredients and finished products.
ECHA is working closely with certain sectors of the chemical industry to develop guidance on how to identify substances for regulatory purposes. Where relevant, ECHA will do this within the framework of the OECD.. Under each sector link, you will find sector-specific substance identification guidance as it becomes available. This guidance is not official ECHA guidance and does not replace the ECHA guidance for identification and naming of substances under REACH and CLP. Instead, it should be seen as complementary to the official guidance by expanding further on the general concepts. This helps to ensure a consistent approach to identifying substances within industry sectors.. The sector-specific guidance, together with the official ECHA guidance, can help you to identify your substance correctly and achieve compliance with REACH in respect of substance identification.. ...
Introduction. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) model was used to predict the Ready Biodegradability of the test item Tetrasodium 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonate. This QSAR model has been designed to be used for regulatory purposes and based on the QSAR results, this report predicts the consensus endpoint value which would be expected when testing the substance under experimental conditions in a laboratory following the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 301: Ready Biodegradability. Methods. The purpose of the in silico study was to predict the Ready Biodegradability of the test item Tetrasodium 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonate. This prediction was performed using the following QSAR models: · EPI Suite - BIOWIN · Battery of Leadscope, SciQSAR and CASE Ultra models integrated into the Danish QSAR Database Results. Based on multiple QSAR models applied, Tetrasodium 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonate was predicted as non-readily biodegradable. The final Ready Biodegradability was ...
The firm TOSOH Bioscience Inc., sent an URGENT: MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL letter dated March 23, 2018 to affected customers. The letter described the product, problem and action to be taken. The customers were instructed to do the following: *Based on our revised labeling, the assays identified in Table 1 should not be used for patients who are being treated with Asfotase Alfa. For patients that are being treated with Asfotase Alfa, use an alternative test method that does not utilize alkaline phosphatase technology. Inform all medical professionals that assays utilizing alkaline phosphatase-based technologies must not be used for patients receiving Asfotase Alfa treatment. Continue to use the assays listed in Table 1 for any patients who are not receiving Asfotase Alfa treatment. Complete and return the attached Acknowledgement Form to Tosoh Bioscience, Inc., within 15-days of receiving this notification via Fax: 1-650-636-8651, Email: [email protected] or Regular mail: 3600 Gantz ...
The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). Before 2010, it was known as the Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons (SUSDP). The SUSMP classifies drugs and poisons into different Schedules signifying the degree of control recommended to be exercised over their availability to the public. The Schedules are referred to under State and Territory legislation for regulatory purposes. Although each State and Territory has its own laws, the vast majority of medicines and poisons are classified according to the SUSMP to achieve uniform national regulation. The current version, the SUSMP 16, is contained in the Poisons Standard February 2017. Medication that is available on the shelf at supermarkets, convenience stores, and pharmacies. These are considered to be low risk drugs, and have directions of use clearly labelled on both the packaging, and the receptacle. ...
Participation in FILL and USIDNET, as with any research, is completely voluntary. You have the right to stop your child from participating at any time. You can choose not to have your child participate now or even withdraw your childs participation in the future, and it will not affect your childs medical treatment or access to care in any way and will involve no penalty or loss of benefits to which your child is otherwise entitled.. The study doctor, local institution, or sponsor may remove your child/legal dependents information from the Registry at any time without your consent and may also remove the child/legal dependents information from the Registry at any time if they indicate that they no longer wish to participate in the study.. You will be asked to sign a separate form to authorize the use and disclosure of your childs medical information for research or regulatory purposes related to this study. You have the right, however, to cancel this authorization to use and disclose your ...
I cited the lysine requirement for children 2 to 5 years old (based on an old report apparently), which is what I saw multiple times in a few studies as the one for high biological value protein , but for adults the requirements are more modest (actually 45mg/g of protein, rice is still lower than this unfortunately) like the one you cited and depending on which report or study (the one of 1985, 1991 or 2007 by FAO) the source is being based the values may vary, and even the same report might recommend the intake of a different age class for all ages, excepting infants, for regulatory purposes (requirements of children from 6m to 3y old for all ages, recently). Different ages have different necessities making the claim for a complete protein based also on the stage of life, which explains the different requirements we both cited.. ...
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Restriction Description: The information obtained during the conduct of this trial is considered confidential and can be used by Novo Nordisk for regulatory purposes and for the general development of the trial product. The information obtained during this trial may be made available to other physicians who are conducting other clinical trials with the trial product, if deemed necessary by Novo Nordisk ...
Involvement of subcellular structures in miRNA-mediated gene regulatory processes is an underexplored research domain. Although the importance of endosomal trafficking for miRNA-mediated repression processes has been documented previously, the molecular details have never been investigated. In recent times, findings related to secretion of small RNAs via exosomes (7, 31) for intercellular cross talk or other regulatory purposes justify the possible link between the endocytic pathway and miRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this paper, we report that LE/MVB targeting is crucial for degradation of miRNA-targeted mRNAs. Our findings highlight how miRNA-mediated mRNA repression and the endocytic pathway interact. The work described here also reveals how the mRNA degradation process is compartmentalized in mammalian cells.. Cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is subdivided into membrane-bound compartments called organelles. Compartmentalization of cellular processes to specific subcellular locales is a ...
Many EMRs read like Madlibs(for those of you old enough to remember what they are), because they are in fact cut-and-pasted snippets of data from other parts of the EMR, put in place to fulfill some billing documentation requirement or some regulatory imperative. Free text annotation is often discouraged, and frequently impossible to juxtapose next to the appropriate snippet of information in the chart. Some systems make it very difficult to generate any kind of free form documentation, and consequently critical events in the course of a hospitalization are never documented. In most or all hospitals, practitioners have developed a shadow chart that incorporates all of the critical information that practitioners need to know to care for a patient. The existence of these shadow charts has been driven by the hijacking of the medical record for billing and regulatory purposes. The creation of these charts represents additional effort for everyone who directly participates in the care of patients. ...
Study Finds No Advantage to Newer Tests for Cervical Cancer. Wang, Linda // JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute;5/7/2003, Vol. 95 Issue 9, p644 Cites a study by researchers from the French Society of Clinical Cytology Study Group, which suggests that alternative tests do not outperform conventional testing and should not replace the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Comparison of the sensitivity, specificity, and reliability of... ...
FALSE negative tests can definitely be a BIG problem…and it can happen with several diseases, besides Lyme!! Rheumatoid Arthritis to syphilis…and many others disease processes in between. (False positives can also skew things for patients!). Thats why its so important to find a doctor who doesnt just TREAT TEST RESULTS! Yet this gets much harder to do, especially as technology advances! More and more doctors rely SOLELY on our tests and lab results…often not even repeating them if questioned by the patient, or not researching a possible alternative test…or a diagnosis based on other grounds or observed criteria! And they rely so much less now on taking good patient HISTORIES…and sadly even LESS on good PHYSICAL exam assessments!!. Weve all likely run into this! Where later we find out our histories are so incomplete…or just plain wrong! And also where we could honestly have a tennis shoe growing out of our bodies and the doctor wouldnt even KNOW…because he or she DIDNT EVEN ...
A blood test checking your level of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) is the usual test to diagnose potential ovarian failure. Your GP may also arrange for alternative tests to confirm the diagnosis and/or refer you to a gynaecologist for specialist advice.. Women whose ovarian function is reduced from an earlier age are at a higher risk of osteoporosis. Bone scans are recommended for anyone diagnosed with premature ovarian failure. Women can be more susceptible to fractures, and a calcium rich diet with calcium supplements is recommended.. The most significant effect of premature ovarian failure, however, is the possibility of infertility. This can obviously be incredibly upsetting for the patient and can lead to long term psychological consequences.. Coming to terms with infertility can be a difficult process, and it is very important that women seek appropriate support and counselling. GPs should be able to suggest local support groups or networks with which women can talk to about their ...
List of 6 disease causes of Minor eye irritation, patient stories, diagnostic guides, drug side effect causes. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Minor eye irritation.
This webinar will provide an overview of the scientific and welfare benefits of moving to the use of animal-free antibodies and affinity reagents and will highlight the recent Recommendation on Non-Animal-Derived Antibodies from the EU Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing (EURL ECVAM). The target audience is all researchers who use antibodies in their
Hydrogen Peroxide Cell Test Method: photometric 2.0 - 20.0 mg/l H₂O₂ Spectroquant® - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Taxpayer-funded animal experimentation is un-American, and we have the data to prove it.. Opinion surveys in recent years show Americans growing opposition to animal experimentation, with the most recent Pew poll reporting that a majority of Americans now object to the use of animals in scientific research.. Now, as reported by Red Alert Politics, a new national poll commissioned by the White Coat Waste Project and conducted by research firm Lincoln Park Strategies shows that most Americans-Republicans and Democrats alike-are sick of footing the $12-billion-plus bill for these wasteful and secretive experiments on dogs, cats, monkeys and other animals.. The poll of 1,109 U.S. voters found that a majority (about 6 in 10) want to see funding cut and transparency increased for taxpayer-funded animal experiments. According to the survey (also visualized in the infographic below):. ...
... are the development and implementation of test methods that avoid the use of live animals. There ... It promotes the use of alternative methods for animal testing, but does not oblige the test performer to do so; "Article 25.1 ... Institutes and organizations that research or fund alternatives to animal testing include: Medical Advances Without Animals ... alternative methods to animal testing Promotion of research in the field of the 3Rs Reduction of the use of animals for tests ...
Alternatives to animal testing Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods List of animal rights groups Dr Hadwen Trust ... Animal research institutes, Animal welfare organizations based in the United States, Animal testing, Anti-vivisection ... Goldberg, Alan M. (2015-06-01). "A History of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT): The First 28 ... The Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) has worked with scientists, since 1981, to find ...
The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) promotes the application of Russell and Burch's ... systems biology and stem cells Alternatives to animal testing EPAA conference 2005 EPAA Mirror Group minutes EPAA partners ... Animal testing, Animal welfare organizations, Anti-vivisection organizations). ... In 2003, legislation introduced a ban on using animals for testing cosmetics. Current and consolidated regulations on cosmetics ...
"Animal Testing Alternatives". pgbeautygroomingscience.com. Procter & Gamble. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. " ... CoverGirl was once one of the largest global brands to conduct animal testing, but that is no longer the case. In January 2010 ...
In this manner the technical regulations include measures which provide an alternative to animal testing". Animal testing on ... Cosmetic testing on animals is a type of animal testing used to test the safety and hypoallergenic properties of cosmetic ... Re-using existing test data obtained from previous animal testing is generally not considered to be cosmetic testing on animals ... "Approach to alternative to animal experiments". Mandom. Retrieved 12 May 2015. "São Paulo Bans Animal Testing". PetMD. AFP News ...
"Alternatives to animal testing". Unilever. Retrieved 2021-05-03.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link) Doke SK, Dhawale SC ... Animal models of autism Animal models of schizophrenia Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on rodents Animal testing ... These test conditions are often termed as animal models of disease. The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate ... An animal model (short for animal disease model) is a living, non-human, often genetic-engineered animal used during the ...
Whilst replacement of animals, i.e. alternatives to animal testing, is one of the principles, their scope is much broader. ... Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, animal research, and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in ... of research animals. The terms animal testing, animal experimentation, animal research, in vivo testing, and vivisection have ... Animals and Animal Products. Code of Federal Regulations. Vol. 1 (1 January 2008). "Animal Testing and the Law - Animal Legal ...
Alternatives include: chemical restraint; for example, ketamine, a sedative, may be given to the animal before a restraint ... In 2011 in the EU, 0.05% of animals used in animal testing procedures were non-human primates. In 1996, the British Animal ... Many of the best-known allegations of abuse made by animal protection or animal rights groups against animal-testing facilities ... and animal welfare when conducting animal testing on non-human primates. A 2013 amendment to the German Animal Welfare Act, ...
"Working together to respond to the challenges of EU policy to replace animal testing". Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 34 ( ... "Animals and alternatives in testing". Archived from the original on 2006-02-25. Retrieved 2006-04-19. Fentem JH (February 2006 ... Alternative strategies involve sourcing the animal blood from countries with minimum BSE/TSE risk, such as The United States, ... hPL has emerged as a safe and reliable alternative as a direct replacement for FBS or other animal serum. In addition, ...
Doke, Sonali K.; Dhawale, Shashikant C. (July 2015). "Alternatives to animal testing: A review". Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal. ... are hybrid animals; the name zodiac indeed means a circle of animals. All twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac are animals. In ... Animals serve as models in biological research, such as in genetics, and in drug testing. Many species are kept as pets, the ... animal/human interfaces have been a neglected area of research, given the ubiquity of animals in human culture and history, and ...
The study found that none of the alternative tests, taken alone, proved to be a reliable replacement for the animal test, ... Animal testing techniques, Animal rights, Toxicology tests, American inventions, Animal testing in the United States). ... The animals are euthanized after testing if the test renders irreversible damage to the eye or skin. Animals may be re-used for ... Swanston DW: Eye irritancy testing. In: Balls M, Riddell RJ, Warden AN (Eds). Animals and Alternatives in Toxicity Testing. ...
Doke, Sonali K.; Dhawale, Shashikant C. (2015-07-01). "Alternatives to animal testing: A review". Saudi Pharmaceutical Journal ... Those for, argue that animal testing is fundamental for the advancement of biomedical knowledge. Drug testing on animals blew ... Animals portal Abolitionism (animal rights) Animal Ethics (organization) Animal Rights Ethics of eating meat Ethics of ... The subject matter includes animal rights, animal welfare, animal law, speciesism, animal cognition, wildlife conservation, ...
Balls, Michael (2007). "Professor W.M.S. Russell (1925-2006): Doyen of the Three Rs" (PDF). Alternatives to Animal Testing and ... director of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT), invited Bill and his wife Claire to participate ... on animal alternatives were established in several parts of the world and also a series of World Congresses on Alternatives and ... a landmark in the humane use of animals in research, education and testing. Russell and Burch introduced the concept of the ...
Alternatives to Animal Testing and Experimentation. 14 (Special Issue): 317-321. "Act on Welfare and Management of Animals (up ... Animal-industrial complex Animal rights Cruelty to animals Federation of European Laboratory Animal Science Associations " ... the animal testing for cosmetic products is forbidden in the EU. Also animal testing for cosmetic ingredients is prohibited ... animal testing on vertebrates is primarily regulated by the Animal Welfare Act of 1966 (AWA), and the Animal Welfare ...
Alternatives to animal testing Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing Pain and suffering in laboratory animals Animal ... "Canadian centre for alternatives to animal tests opens , Chemical Watch". October 12, 2017. "UWindsor gets $1M donation to find ... "New lab at University of Windsor investigates alternatives to animal testing , CTV News". October 11, 2019. "UWindsor gets $1M ... It is the first centre in Canada dedicated to non-animal testing and the promotion of human-relevant alternatives. The CCAAM's ...
"The Three Rs: The Way Forward". The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. Archived from the original on 28 March 2007. ... in animal testing called "The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research". The board ... The focus of the centre is on the three Rs: the replacement, refinement, and reduction of animal testing. The three Rs were ... The UK government currently still regards animal testing as necessary, but science minister Lord Sainsbury of Turville said ...
Die Entwicklungsmechanik (1905) Terminologie der Entwicklungsmechanik (1912). Cell culture "Animals and alternatives in testing ...
"FDA: Why are animals used for testing medical products?". FDA. 2019-06-18. "Society Of Toxicology: Advancing valid alternatives ... Animals in space Animal testing Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on rodents Cellular model (numerical), e.g., ... These test conditions are often termed as animal models of disease. The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate ... In the U.S., the Animal Welfare Act of 1970 (see also Laboratory Animal Welfare Act) set standards for animal use and care in ...
Animals and Alternatives in Testing: History, Science, Ethics. Mary Ann Liebert, 1994, ISBN 0913113670 The Scalpel and the ... "A balanced account of the battle over animal research and animal rights", Chicago Tribune, 10 September 2000. Byrne, Michael. " ... a history of the practice and politics of animal testing, The Riddle of Gender (2004), which examines scientists' attempts to ... The War Between Animal Research and Animal Protection. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2000. The Riddle of Gender: Science, Activism ...
"EU Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing". (CS1 maint: archived copy as title, Toxicology). ... EU Test Methods), and other such methods. Often studies are performed to more than one test guideline where they are in ... It assigns studies to one of four categories as follows: The applicable guidelines are the (OECD Guidelines for the Testing of ... "Instruments for Assessing Risk of Bias and Other Methodological Criteria of Published Animal Studies: A Systematic Review". ...
Vedani, A.; Dobler, M.; Smieško, M. (2012). "Biograf 3R - Computational Alternatives to Animal Testing - Home". Toxicology and ... of reduction and replacement of animal experiments as well as to the refinement of the methodology in cases where animal tests ... In a future scenario, biosimulation would change the way substances are tested, in which in vivo and in vitro tests are ... The early prediction if a drug will fail in animals or humans would be a key to reduce both drug development costs and the ...
Animal Legal Defense Fund. Retrieved November 22, 2018. "HB 1087 Animal research; alternative test methods, civil penalty". ... The law exempts testing done for medical research. It also allows animal testing to be conducted whenever required by federal ... the law requires that the number of animals used in testing be minimized and that the most humane testing method be used. ... This law made Virginia the fourth state to restrict animal based product testing. That same year, Northam signed a law banning ...
... has received criticism from animal advocacy group PETA for the practice of testing on animals. On June 30, ... "Animal Welfare and Alternatives". Procter & Gamble. Archived from the original on March 19, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2012. "Over- ... The company invested more than $275 million in the development of alternative testing methods. In 2002, P&G was sued for its ... Canedy, Dana (July 1, 1999). "P.& G. to End Animal Tests For Most Consumer Goods". The New York Times. Archived from the ...
Gaul, Gilbert M. (12 April 2008). "In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". The Washington Post. Whitehead, A.; Curnow ... As a result, in 1992 this test was proposed as an alternative to the LD50 test by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation ... approve non-animal alternatives in response to research cruelty concerns and the lack of validity/sensitivity of animal tests ... In comparison to the older LD50 test developed in 1927, this procedure produces similar results while using fewer animals and ...
"Animal testing in China: China's move towards animal alternatives". Frame. 2019-04-24. Retrieved 2020-04-08. "Dangers lurk for ... Portals: Animals China (Animal welfare and rights in China, Animal rights movement, Politics of China, Animal welfare and ... "China Ends Animal Testing Rule for Some Cosmetics". Sinosphere Blog. "China May Lift Animal-Test Constraint on Some Cosmetics ... including non-animal tests. Foreign companies are still required to perform animal testing, but Humane Society International ...
Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) 3Rs Alternatives: Technologies and Approaches, Animal Welfare ... The 3Rs have a broader scope than simply encouraging alternatives to animal testing, but aim to improve animal welfare and ... Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Johns Hopkins University. Retrieved December 17, 2020.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url- ... Animal testing, Animal welfare, Bioethics, Biology experiments, Ethics and statistics, Laboratory techniques). ...
"Professorial chair to lead search for animal testing alternatives". Times Higher Education. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 20 ... In January 2013, Queen Mary established the world's first professorial chair in animal replacement science. From 2014, Queen ...
"Professorial chair to lead search for animal testing alternatives". Times Higher Education. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 20 ... "Thurston's DH4 Tests". Archived from the original on 12 March 2014. Retrieved 11 September 2011. "Spratt's". London Remembers. ... In January 2013, Queen Mary established the world's first professorial chair in animal replacement science. From 2014, Queen ...
"Animals and Alternatives in Testing: History, Science, and Ethics". Retrieved April 23, 2016. "Rats, Mice & Birds". Retrieved ... Abolitionism (animal rights) Animal welfare and rights in China Animal welfare and rights in India Animal welfare in the United ... cites.org "US Domestic Terrorism: Animal Liberation Front". Retrieved April 21, 2016. "Animal Rights International - Animal ... Animal rights timelines, Animal welfare timelines, Animal welfare and rights legislation). ...
"Animals and Alternatives in Testing: History, Science, and Ethics". Retrieved April 23, 2016. "Rats, Mice & Birds". Retrieved ... Timeline of animal welfare and rights Timeline of animal welfare and rights in Europe Animal welfare in the United States ... Animal welfare and rights in China Animal welfare and rights in India Animal rights movement Universal Declaration on Animal ... "Animal Enterprise Protection Act". Retrieved May 1, 2016. Will Potter. "Analysis of the Animal Enterprise Terrorism Act (AETA ...
In 1784, when Franz Mesmer began to publicize his theory of "animal magnetism" which was considered offensive by many, Louis ... In his writings, Franklin indicates that he was aware of the dangers and offered alternative ways to demonstrate that lightning ... Schwartz, Stephan A. "Franklin's Forgotten Triumph: Scientific Testing" American Heritage, October 2004. "The phony health ... ISBN 978-0-931340-71-0. The Carnival of the Animals: Scores at the International Music Score Library Project McCrary, John. " ...
The majority of these games have not been scientifically tested to see whether children learn the skills the games claim to ... a number of groups have rejected violent video games as offensive and have promoted the development of non-violent alternatives ... the player wanders about converting the denizens of his town to Christianity while fending off the attacks of wild animals with ... Game Makers Hope Non-Violent Alternatives Will Catch On. ABC News/Technology. 17 August 2005. McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding ...
It is a full member of the International Cricket Council, having been granted Test status and full membership by the ICC in ... C.M. 1(49). - See also Alternative names for Northern Ireland "Editorial Policy, Guidance Note". BBC. n.d. Archived from the ... although much of the hill country is marginal and suitable largely for animal husbandry. The valley of the River Lagan is ... The side competes in Test cricket, the highest level of competitive cricket in the international arena, and is one of the 12 ...
Therefore, alternatives are being searched for, including lanthanide acetates or platinum blue as well as the use of less ... Neodymium magnets have been tested for medical uses such as magnetic braces and bone repair, but biocompatibility issues have ... Oolong tea extract as a substitute for uranyl acetate in staining of ultrathin sections based on examples of animal tissues for ... Despite these published alternatives, uranyl acetate (UAc) is still the standard for EM contrasting. In the periodic table the ...
Still, test scores in the magnet schools did not rise; the black-white gap did not diminish; and there was less, not greater, ... Archive of profile) ("Alternatives a la segregació escolar als Estats Units: el cas de les magnet schools"/"Alternativas a la ... Other schools are built around elite-sporting programs or teach agricultural skills such as farming or animal husbandry. In ... Orfield, Gary (University of California, Los Angeles professor and co-director of the Civil Rights Project) "Alternatives to ...
As more land was cultivated and farmed, Britain became the sole market for New Zealand meat and animal products. The dairy ... Kelsey, Jane (9 July 1999). "LIFE IN THE ECONOMIC TEST-TUBE: New Zealand "experiment" a colossal failure". Archived from the ... Having lost unrestricted access to its traditional market, New Zealand continued to search for alternative export markets and ...
... animals, people and buildings were all 12 times taller. Born: Sir Robert Buckland, Welsh politician, Secretary of State for ... An Alternative Reader (New York University Press, 1997) pp456-457 "Miss America Begins Reign; Black Queen Charges Bias", by Len ... was rolled out to the public and the media at an event at Boeing's test facility, Paine Field, at Everett, Washington. The ... the show featured four costumed animal characters - Fleegle, Bingo, Drooper and Snork- who played instruments in a rock group. ...
Yet another alternative to UBI is a negative income tax..." Historically in Belgium, the most active group promoting basic ... The political parties LIVRE and People Animals Nature (PAN) in Portugal support a universal basic income. Since 2001, the Red ... Hamid Tabatabai, IRAN : Basic Income Might Become Means Tested Archived 6 October 2014 at the Wayback Machine The Basic Income ... Governments could make the existing benefits more accessible by eliminating unnecessary conditions and means testing in order ...
El-Gazzar, A.; Watson, L.; Williams, W. T.; Lance, G. N. (1968). "The taxonomy of Salvia: a test of two radically different ... This often results in the plant being unattractive to grazing animals and some insects. The defining characteristic of the ... commonly grown and harvested as an alternative to common sage Salvia fulgens: Cardinal sage, Mexican scarlet sage; small ...
This explained the large loss of interferon activity when preparations were transferred from test tube to test tube or from ... Administration of Type I IFN has been shown experimentally to inhibit tumor growth in animals, but the beneficial action in ... Kidd, P (2003). "Th1/Th2 Balance: the hypothesis, its limitations, and implications for health and disease". Alternative ... More than twenty distinct IFN genes and proteins have been identified in animals, including humans. They are typically divided ...
Because animal tests of their first vaccine - a purified polysaccharide - were inconclusive, Anderson and his colleagues tested ... This vaccine - and alternative versions thereafter developed - became a part of standard childhood immunization regimens in ...
Samuel Brown later tested the first industrially applied internal combustion engine in 1826. Development was hindered in the ... replacing vegetable and animal oils).: 60 There were social effects, also. Music would be made about cars, such as "In My Merry ... How Corporations and Governments Addicted the World to Oil and Derailed the Alternatives. St. Martin's Press. ISBN ... In 1826, Englishman Samuel Brown tested his hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engine by using it to propel a vehicle up ...
... which provide the person with an alternative to easier and more destructive alternatives. Finally, they should encourage ... No other animals besides Homo sapiens, he argues, are capable of being so unsatisfied with their lot, that they should try to ... Russell 1938:199) Second, he provides a method by which we can test whether a particular sort of private morality is a form of ... The rule of the masses is positive, in that it is less likely to lead to civil war than the alternatives. An ambivalent feature ...
Common alternatives for prostitute include escort and whore; however, not all professional escorts are prostitutes. The English ... combined with regular testing for sexually transmitted diseases, has been very successful when applied consistently. As an ... Prostitution among animals Prostitution statistics by country Recreation and Amusement Association Red light violations under ... Sociographic Essays on the Post-Soviet Infrastructure for Alternative Healing Practices, Volume 1, Issue 1 Columbia University ...
Bewi (14 May 2013). "Test de Survivalcraft sur iPhone" [Testing Survivalcraft in iPhone]. iPhone Soft. Archived from the ... The player may then use the tools to increase the hunger bar by eating food from hunting down animals, constructing a shelter ... Cohen, Jason (8 July 2020). "Looking for Minecraft Alternatives? Try These Sandbox Creation Games". PCMag. Archived from the ... Following early test versions, it was released on 16 November 2011 for the Windows Phone, and is also available for Android, ...
Following Dalli's resignation, served under EU Commissioner Tonio Borg who implemented the full ban on the testing of animals ... Vassallo was one of the co-founders of Democratic Alternative (DA) in 1989 and unsuccessfully stood for all general elections ... In 2010 Vassallo joined the Cabinet of European Commissioner John Dalli where he was responsible for animal health and welfare ... Harry Vassallo (born Enrico Vassallo) was the Chairperson of the Maltese Green political party, Democratic Alternative from ...
"Deutsche Alternative Charts - Woche: 41 Jahr: 2020 Kategorie: Single". Deutsche Alternative Charts. Archived from the original ... They elaborated that those two acts had been a primary influence on Manson's work since the 1998 album Mechanical Animals, and ... and test their strength in a lot of ways." The primary guitar used to record the track was an acoustic guitar tuned to ... "Marilyn Manson Chart History (Alternative Digital Songs)". Billboard. Archived from the original on December 24, 2019. ...
By knowing the various occupations taking place over time it may allow an opportunity for an archaeological test pit or two to ... Lepley, Paul M.; Eastman, W. Dean (1977). "Other Choices: Alternative Careers for Physical Educators". Journal of Physical ... students learned to determine if stone walls from the colonial era were used to keep animals in or out (from eating crops, for ...
The nuclear test was criticized, and the U.S. decided not to continue with their test plans at Amchitka. Environmental ... The alternative proposed by Greenpeace is to discourage monocropping and to increase production of crops which are naturally ... There has never been a single confirmed case of a negative health outcome for humans or animals from their consumption. Their ... When the nuclear tests at Amchitka were over, Greenpeace moved its focus to the French atmospheric nuclear weapons testing at ...
Protein, a good source of vitamin B and lasting energy, can be found in both plant and animal products. The USDA also suggests ... Pretests were administered prior to a new store opening and post-tests were delivered two years after the new store had opened ... Some informal communal alternatives could be community food gardens and informal transportation networks. Further, existing ... The tour also highlighted economically viable alternatives to provide healthy food and created spaces in which community ...
... and 4 for safety in laboratory tests. The product has been field tested in Cambodia by the Berkeley Air Monitoring Group, who ... More than 3 billion people cook using solid biomass fuels like wood, crop waste, coal and animal dung. There are also 1.2 ... Prior to founding ACE, Ruben owned a bamboo flooring company, as a sustainable alternative to wood. The ACE One was developed ... animal waste and agricultural waste. It is capable of burning any type of solid biomass smokelessly, and provides electricity ...
Then further tests can be performed to confirm the presence of the bacteria, such as serology tests that find antibodies formed ... By understanding plants and animals on the molecular level, scientists are able to engineer them with specific goals in mind. ... Institute, of Food Technologies (IFT). "Kinetics of Microbial Inactivation for Alternative Food Processing Technologies" (PDF ... This greatly facilitates the identification of certain bacteria cultures and can eliminate need for further testing. To guard ...
In 1997, he missed one of the court-ordered drug tests and had to spend six months in the Los Angeles County jail. After Downey ... the bio-based alternative to plastic manufacturer RWDC, and bamboo toilet paper manufacturer Cloud Paper. The Futurist (2004) " ... depicted in the film as a 19th-century Welsh veterinarian who can communicate with animals. This was the second film from Team ... He was arrested for suspicion of being under the influence of drugs, but was released a few hours later, even though tests ...
... which is sponsored by the Johns Hopkins University's Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT). The EBTC's members ... The need to improve how the performance of toxicological test methods is assessed was the main impetus for translating these ... EBTC scientists are promoting and conducting systematic reviews of toxicological test methods. The EBTC is governed by a Board ... speakers presented the concept of EBT as it pertains to decision-making about the utility of new toxicity tests and their ...
デジタル・デビル・サーガ アバタール・チューナー A's TEST Server BREWアプリ『DIGITAL DEVIL SAGA アバタール・チューナー A's Test Server』配信開始 (in Japanese). Inside ... The characters' demon forms were designed to be animal-like, signifying their urge to eat. They were given prominent mouths as ... "a great Final Fantasy alternative". Jeremy Dunham of IGN said that "Despite its repetition and unfinished storyline, [Digital ... Digital Devil Saga: Avatar Tuner: A's TEST Server, a mobile role-playing game, was developed by Interactive Brains for mobile ...
... and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals (such as ... An alternative theory originally proposed by Charles Darwin explains that music may have begun as a hominin mating strategy. ... Urquhart, James (8 August 2007). "Finds test human origins theory". BBC News. Retrieved 20 March 2008. Christopher Boehm (1999 ... may have had their origins in these hypothetical Middle Paleolithic animal cults. Animal worship during the Upper Paleolithic ...
Renewal Applications for Licences and Animal Test Certificates) Regulations 1994 (S.I. 1994/3143) Medicines for Human Use ( ... Alternative Method of Calculation of Gain or Loss) Regulations 1994 (S.I. 1994/3227) Exchange Gains and Losses (Deferral of ... 2) Regulations 1994 (S.I. 1994/1553) Medicines (Fees Relating to Medicinal Products for Animal Use) Regulations 1994 (S.I. 1994 ... 2) Regulations 1994 (S.I. 1994/2919) Importation of Animal Products and Poultry Products (Amendment) Order 1994 (S.I. 1994/2920 ...
The viceroy Marquis de Mancera, wishing to test the learning and intelligence of the 17-year-old, invited several theologians, ... while the sonorous offers an alternative to the feminine space in the work of Sor Juana. As an example of this, Finley points ... where night and day animals participate, either dozing or sleeping, all urged to silence and rest by Harpocrates. The person's ...
SON also plays a key role in alternative splicing of exons. SON is required for genome stability by ensuring the efficiency of ... However, a formal diagnosis of intellectual disability can only be conducted by a performance of an IQ test score of below 70. ... The consequence of SON haploinsufficiency on embryonic development has also been studied in zebrafish animal models (Danio ... The presence of these domains is necessary for SON to mediate constitutive and alternative splicing. The RS-rich domain serves ...
Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Twenty five tests were ... Three alternative transcripts encoding the same protein, differing only in their 5' UTRs, have been identified for this gene. ... The remaining tests were carried out on heterozygous mutant adult mice; no additional significant abnormalities were observed ... a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists. ...
The global non-animal alternative testing market is projected to witness significant growth in the 2021-2030 timeframe. Rising ... The global non-animal alternative testing market is projected to witness significant growth in the 2021-2030 timeframe. Rising ... Asia-Pacific Non-Animal Alternative Testing Market to Observe Rapid Growth. The report analyzes the global non-animal ... Non-animal Alternative Testing technology medical Healthcare Cell Culture Molecular Imaging Omic Technology Ex-vivo Diagnostics ...
Important breakthrough for neurovirulence testing of oral poliovirus vaccine : current topics / D. J. Wood  ... "Animal Testing Alternatives". 0-9. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. H. I. J. K. L. M. N. O. P. Q. R. S. T. U. V. W. X. Y. Z. * 0-9 ...
Alternative methods are permitted, but it must be demonstrated that these have the same predictive value as animal testing. In ... but neither does it actively encourage the use of these alternatives. ... Current pharmaceutical legislation does not impose any legal constraints on the use of alternatives to animal testing, ... Other obstacles include the lack of alternative methods that can fully replace animal testing. In addition, new alternative ...
All animal testing alternatives articles in Chemistry World ... All animal testing alternatives articles. * News Research and ... The art of alternatives 2014-01-16T00:00:00Z Recent years have seen great advances in alternatives to animal tests, yet we ... Unilever has been researching and applying alternatives to animal testing, and working with industry, academia, government ... Animal rights groups find that Environmental Protection Agency animal tests jumped nine-fold ...
Donation to Support Alternative Methods to Animal Testing. by: ammo, May 13 2019 - 4:10pm ... dedicated to the development of alternative approaches to the use of animals in scientific testing. ... "There is no doubt in my mind that their contribution will allow CCAAM, the first Canadian centre for alternatives to animal ... Charu Chandrasekera, above, is the founding executive director of the Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods. ...
Animal testing only if no alternative, minister says in new plan ... Animal testing only if no alternative, minister says in new ... Testing drugs and chemicals should only be allowed on animals if there is no viable alternative, junior economic affairs ... New technology makes much animal testing unnecessary and it should be phased out as much as possible, the minister says in her ... underway with animal rights groups to work out ways to take better care of animals which are no longer being used for testing. ...
... and toxicology experts and will focus on how to incorporate modern methods into your testing strategies and safety assessments ...
... was delayed because of animal tests.(13) How many potential cures were thrown out because of unreliable animal testing? ... The FDA Modernization Act would lift the requirement for animal testing and allow the FDA to authorize the best testing methods ... The FDA Modernization Act would lift the requirement for animal testing and allow the FDA to authorize the best testing methods ... as did 150 drugs tested successfully in animals for inflammatory diseases.(8) More than 114 therapies for stroke tested in ...
Animal testing alternatives essay for free ✔️️1007 words sample for your inspiration ✍ Download high-quality papers from ... Alternatives to Animal Testing. Numerous strategies have been put up to prevent the use of animals in testing. Up to a point, ... Animal testing and its alternatives-The most important omics is economics. ALTEX-Alternatives to animal experimentation, 35(3 ... the accuracy of animal testing is frequently questioned (Van Norman, 2019). Animal testing is the best substitute for testing ...
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"Many companies have been working for decades to eliminate animal testing," states Dr. Rodger... Working with Regulators ... ICARAA was formed in response to international regulations that still require animal testing to assess the safety of cosmetic ... Industry Council Formed to Advance Regulatory Acceptance of Non-Animal Testing Methods. May 28, 2013. GAITHERSBURG, Md., May 28 ... Webinar: Integrated Testing Strategies for In Vitro Skin Sensitization Testing. November 14, 2013. ... ARE-Nrf2 Luciferase ...
Thomas Hartung, E-cigarettes and the need and opportunities for alternatives to animal testing , ALTEX - Alternatives to animal ... "Proposal for a Brazilian Centre on Alternative Test Methods", ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation, 26(4), pp. 303- ... and its interplay with alternative toxicity methods , ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation: Vol. 33 No. 4 (2016) ... ALTEX - Alternatives to Animal Experimentation. Online ISSN: 1868-8551; Print ISSN: 1868-596X JCR Impact Factor 2021: 6.250. 5- ...
A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing. In: Alternatives to animal ... A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing. Type of Publication:. Journal ... A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing. * Home ... A roadmap for the development of alternative (non-animal) methods for systemic toxicity testing,/dcterms:title, ,dc:creator, ...
Computational alternatives to animal testing", ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation, 35(1), pp. 126-128. doi: ... a tool for preclinical drug testing , ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation: Vol. 37 No. 4 (2020) ... ALTEX - Alternatives to Animal Experimentation. Online ISSN: 1868-8551; Print ISSN: 1868-596X JCR Impact Factor 2021: 6.250. 5- ... Insights from a meeting hosted by the German Centre for the Protection of Laboratory Animals (Bf3R) , ALTEX - Alternatives to ...
GREAT US! Musks Firm under Investigation for Animal Testing. None for Manmade SARS-Cov-2 or.... Fabio Giuseppe Carlo Carisio - ... AllAlternative Foreign Policy Talk RadioFalse Flag Weekly NewsSpeaking Truth To EmpireTruth Jihad ... VT is an alternative foreign policy media dedicated to providing comprehensive news, information, opinion, and advocacy for our ...
Animal Testing: FDA Expectations Presenter: Natalie Miller October 30, 2016. Presentation Is There a Role for PCI of Renal ... An Interesting Alternative: The New WikiRecs for TAVR Use in Lower Risk Patients * ...
... animals tests have the same results when replicated in humans. I have previously discussed the ethical dilemmas behind animal ... In my last blog post I pointed out that the scientific practice of animal testing for medical science is a wasteful and ... inaccurate testing process due to the fact that only 5-25% ... Animal Testing: The Alternatives * Humans are animals, but its ... I have previously discussed the ethical dilemmas behind animal testing and suggested that a lot of animal testing could be ...
It tests the binding of small molecules against a total of 16 target proteins: AR, AhR, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, ERα, ER ... The new approach has been validated employing 1,288 test compounds. The results are shown → here. VirtualToxLab™ 5.0 March 15, ...
NIST Study Gives Animal Testing Alternatives a Confidence Boost May 17, 2022. ... NIST is making the new material freely available to testing laboratories and diagnostic test manufacturers worldwide. ... Revamped Design Could Take Powerful Biological Computers From the Test Tube to the Cell March 23, 2022. ... Discovering diseases early can mean successful treatment for patients, but many diagnostic tests arent sensitive enough for ...
While the fish embryo test has been developed as an alternative to the acute fish test, so far no alternatives for chronic fish ... Development of a gene expression fish embryo test as an alternative for chronic fish tests: analysis of toxic effects using ... New test guideline: Organic matter decomposition in contaminated soil * Publication on validation of a method to determine ... In compliance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), we perform standardised ecotoxicological tests in the laboratory as well as ...
Results of search for su:{Animal testing alternatives} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently available ... Alternatives to animal use in research, testing, and education / Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States ... Chemical testing and animal welfare : proceedings from the international seminar arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, May 20-22 1986 ... International Seminar on the Prospects of Future Chemicals Testing with Special Regard to the Use of Animals (1986 : Stockholm ...
... committed to pursuing alternatives to animal testing and has implemented internal processes to keep the number of animal tests ... committed to pursuing alternatives to animal testing and has implemented internal processes to keep the number of animal tests ... Grace is committed to minimizing animal testing by sharing data when feasible. When legally required to submit animal testing ... Alternative Methods Grace will use other data sources before engaging in animal testing. Grace also contributes to the ...
Limitations of animal tests. Benefits of using non-animal tests. ... animal experiment results often not transferable to humans. ... Alternatives to Animal Tests. There is no need for animal tests when superior non-animal tests exist. ... Alternative Scientific Tests are Often More Reliable than Animal Tests. Because animal systems are vastly different from human ... Limitations of Animal Tests. © 2004 NEAVS. LD50 Test. The traditional LD50 (lethal dose 50%) test forces animals to ingest ...
... please contact your representative and ask them to support an end to testing of cosmetics on animals and for animal tests to be ... please contact your representative and ask them to support an end to testing of cosmetics on animals and for animal tests to be ... FDA successfully retired 26 primates to a sanctuary after ending tests on the animals.o USDA: After ending testing on kittens ... Animal Freedom from Testing, Experiments and Research (AFTER) Act(HR 2897/S 2322). The AFTER Act (HR 2897/S 2322) requires ...
Alternative methods can help to identify substances with oestrogenic effects in a high-throughput procedure. ... SMAFIRA - Artificial Intelligence for Finding Alternative Methods * Alternative Methods to Animal Testing for the Detection of ... Alternative Methods to Animal Testing for the Detection of Endocrine Disruptors in vitro. A reliable assessment of the effects ... Alternative Methods to Animal Testing for the Detection of Endocrine Disruptors in vitro ...
Alternative methods to animal testing. A number of alternative methods have been developed to replace the use of animals with ... ECHA promotes alternatives to animal testing that meet regulatory needs by assessing the risks of substances to human health ... If animal tests are being performed, they should comply with the requirements for the protection of laboratory animals ( ... reduce the number of animals in a test, or refine the procedures to make them less painful or stressful to the animals under ...
The ban on animal testing in cosmetics does not mean that alternative approaches arent needed in other areas. Pesticides, ... On the first day of the EuroTox 2013 conference in Interlaken Switzerland, the workshop "Alternative test methods: challenges ... A number of alternative approaches exist currently, all of which can be applied with varying levels of success depending on ... While a number of alternative methods do exist, none are standardised and no single approach can be considered the "best" ...
Unilever investing in alternatives to animal testing 22-Sep-2015. By Lucy Whitehouse ... As an ever-increasing number of countries make moves to end the testing of consumer products on animals, Unilever has partnered ... 5 The value of validating claims: New innovations in skin testing will help enhance claim support ... CeeToxs on-going work on alternative skin sensitization assays is making headway as its latest project sees an outside lab ...
Study gives animal testing alternatives a confidence boost. As part of a government effort to reduce animal testing, ...
3D printed organs offer alternative to animal testing Innovation German wind farm to use hydroelectric batteries ...
  • The animals are raised for experimentation but never used. (dutchnews.nl)
  • Nearly 590,000 animals were used for experimentation in relation to human health last year. (dutchnews.nl)
  • 2020). Because of this, the scientific community and a large portion of the public accept the use of animal experimentation as a means of enhancing human health. (grademiners.com)
  • Animal experimentation for medicine and the creation of new pharmaceuticals to treat disease is supported by some people who oppose it for cosmetics (Deb et al. (grademiners.com)
  • Animal experimentation makes sense if one believes that human life is more valued than animal life because they allow researchers to examine how different biological systems in a body may respond to a test sample. (grademiners.com)
  • Material documenting the strategies Spira and Animal Rights International employed to discourage institutional reliance on animals for product testing and experimentation and to encourage adoption of non-animal alternatives. (loc.gov)
  • Files containing correspondence, printed matter, shareholder information, and notes detailing the operations and functions of multinational corporations such as Procter & Gamble Company, Bristol-Myers Company, and Colgate-Palmolive Company illustrate the ways in which Spira and Animal Rights International sought to track animal experimentation and identify targets for campaigns. (loc.gov)
  • In the opinion of Cruelty Free International, alternative techniques to animal experimentation might include cell cultures and human tissue. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • This study was conducted to ascertain the attitudes of first year medical students to human and animal experimentation, while undergoing a course in Muscle and Nerve experimental Physiology. (who.int)
  • Gender and academic performance were not determinants of student's attitude to animal and human experimentation, although ethical insight was. (who.int)
  • His focus is now on animal welfare issues. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Pressures to move from traditional animal models to novel technologies arise from various concerns, including: the need to evaluate large numbers of previously untested chemicals and new products (such as nanoparticles or cell therapies), the limited predictivity of traditional tests for human health effects, duration and costs of current approaches, and animal welfare considerations. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • Chemical testing and animal welfare : proceedings from the international seminar arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, May 20-22 1986 by the National Chemicals Inspectorate under the patronage of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (who.int)
  • The Interagency Research Animal Committee admits, "The LD50 tests have become controversial among toxicologists, animal welfare organizations, legislators and the public primarily due to the ethics of using a large number of animals and evaluating only mortality. (healingcancernaturally.com)
  • The day of the announcement, the European Commissioner in charge of Health & Consumer Policy, Tonio Borg, stated: "Today's entry into force of the full marketing ban gives an important signal on the value that Europe attaches to animal welfare. (theglobalfool.com)
  • Together, the various projects will help the European Commission to reach the goal of innovating cosmetics testing while promoting animal welfare worldwide. (theglobalfool.com)
  • In the UK and in European Union countries, animal testing of cosmetics and skincare products is strictly prohibited, in light of ethical concerns over animal welfare . (icare-worldwide.org)
  • This database, created in 2000, is updated every three months with newly published scientific articles, books, and other publications related to improving or safeguarding the welfare of animals used in research. (awionline.org)
  • The concept of the 3Rs (Refinement, Reduction and Replacement) has been used as a framework for improving the welfare of laboratory animals for the last half century. (awionline.org)
  • It was created to honor animal activists in the animal welfare, protection, or rights' movements who work to achieve progress through dialogue and collaboration. (norecopa.no)
  • Journal of Applied Animal Welfare Science 23(2), 231-243. (awionline.org)
  • The European Commissioner for Science and Research, Janez Potočnik, emphasized, in a press announcement, the positive impact of this cooperation: "Reducing animal testing, both out of concern for animal welfare and ethical issues, and protecting consumer safety are two major objectives of this international agreement," adding "I expect that European, American, Japanese and Canadian scientists working together will more rapidly identify scientifically sound alternative testing methods. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The NIH is notorious for funding research institutions with substandard animal welfare records, and will continue to do so until enough people demand that they stop. (lcanimal.org)
  • Contact the NIH here and urge them to remove ITR from the list of Foreign Institutions with a PHS Approved Animal Welfare Assurance so that your tax dollars will no longer be used to fund cruel tests at ITR. (lcanimal.org)
  • This item is made using non-animal alternative materials, or methods associated with good animal welfare. (zalora.com.my)
  • Products tagged under Animal Friendly are made using non-animal alternatives or methods associated with animal welfare. (zalora.com.my)
  • Material documenting to the administrative functions of Animal Rights International (ARI), the non-profit animal welfare advocacy organization founded by Spira in 1974. (loc.gov)
  • Also included is evidence of contributions from consultants, part-time assistants, an advisory committee he nicknamed "Troika," and regular collaborative meetings with other animal welfare activists. (loc.gov)
  • Researchers should note that information detailing ARI's targeted media campaigns and advertisements can be found in the Laboratory Animal Welfare File, Farm Animal Welfare File, and Alphabetical File. (loc.gov)
  • However, even with the significant animal welfare benefits provided by the LLNA, there is interest still in the development of non-animal test methods for skin sensitization. (cdc.gov)
  • Our commitment to animal welfare has been recognised by PETA (People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals), who are working to stop animal abuse worldwide, on their list of cruelty free brands. (nyrorganic.com)
  • New York, USA, March 30, 2022 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- A new report on the global non-animal alternative testing market has been added by Research Dive to its repository. (globenewswire.com)
  • The global non-animal alternative testing market is projected to witness significant growth in the 2021-2030 timeframe. (globenewswire.com)
  • With strong bipartisan support, Senate leaders on October 7 introduced the FDA Modernization Act of 2021 to revise a depression-era statute that requires animal testing for new drugs. (foundanimals.org)
  • 2021. Behavioral Biology of Laboratory Animals (1st ed). (awionline.org)
  • 2021. Animal-centric Care and Management - Enhancing Refinement in Biomedical Research. (awionline.org)
  • On 15th September 2021, the European Parliament voted in favor of a resolution that demands an EU-wide action plan to end the use of animals in testing and research. (un-aligned.org)
  • The growth of the region market is mainly because of the rising prohibition on animal usage for pre-clinical testing owing to increasing ethical problems on animal cruelty. (globenewswire.com)
  • But animal testing isn't about pointless cruelty. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Aside from supporting the battle against cruelty to animals, global support for alternative methods of testing has since grown because non-use of animals has been proven as less costly and less time-consuming. (icare-worldwide.org)
  • In addition to U.S. agencies knowingly perpetuating animal cruelty, the Canadian government continues to fail the country's animals by not conducting investigations into the treatment of animals in laboratories. (lcanimal.org)
  • The Canadian government is failing to protect animals by ignoring blatant cruelty and allowing animal abusers to walk free. (lcanimal.org)
  • Until the use of animals in research and testing is eliminated, the government must, at the very least, protect these animals from egregious cruelty. (lcanimal.org)
  • How is cruelty free makeup tested? (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • Our essential products do not contain any ingredients or byproducts of animal cruelty. (hylands.com)
  • In a previous RIVM report a similar study has been described in terms of alternatives to animals in the assessment of chemicals. (rivm.nl)
  • Testing drugs and chemicals should only be allowed on animals if there is no viable alternative, junior economic affairs minister Sharon Dijksma says in a new policy document presented to parliament on Friday. (dutchnews.nl)
  • Acute and chronic fish tests are performed for the registration of chemicals, pesticides, biocides and pharmaceuticals. (ect.de)
  • The traditional LD50 (lethal dose 50%) test forces animals to ingest chemicals to determine the approximate dose that results in the death of half the test animals. (healingcancernaturally.com)
  • Researchers working in all of these areas require alternative methods in order in to save time and costs when considering chemicals as potential candidates for the host of applications they are used in the world around us. (cremeglobal.com)
  • Toxys is expert in toxicological research with a mission to improve animal-free safety testing by creating mechanistic in vitro chemical safety tests to meet the needs for safer medicines, chemicals and cosmetics. (pharmiweb.com)
  • This ECHA update includes one addition to the hazardous chemicals list, two proposals for harmonized classification/labeling (eugenol and tetrahydrofurfuryl methacrylate), advice for toxicity test dosing and the appointment of Shay O'Malley. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The ECHA recently published guidance for REACH registrants on reliably combining different sources of animal alternative-derived test data to assess the skin sensitizing potential of chemicals. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • While Europe has banned animal testing for cosmetics, the REACH regulation permits it for chemicals. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Clean Skin Care - A gentle alternative to injections, your wrinkle serum nurtures a healthy complexion without animal testing or harmful additives such as parabens or irritating chemicals. (alternatesea.com)
  • and the Coalition the Abolish the LD50, which challenged the relevancy of several major corporations' use of the acute toxicity "death test" to determine lethal dosage of household chemicals. (loc.gov)
  • Skin and eye irritation tests are performed on tethered rabbits in which chemicals are rubbed into their shaved skin or poured into their eyes while no pain treatment is provided. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • In order to determine if chemicals or medications may be harmful to an unborn child, the conventional test on pregnant rats can only detect 60% of potentially risky compounds. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • Here, we provide a dataset of chemicals that have been tested in the LLNA and the activity of which correspond with what is known of their potential to cause skin sensitization in humans. (cdc.gov)
  • rate identification of skin-sensitization hazard, LLNA protocol and chemicals tested. (cdc.gov)
  • This presentation will examine the recent guidelines and legislative developments and discuss alternative strategies for preventing auditory effects of exposure to ototoxic chemicals. (cdc.gov)
  • Handling of chemicals is an often-neglected area of test descriptions. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • EU's ban on animal testing for cosmetics is under threath as new analysis (link) finds that cosmetics sold in the EU and UK contain chemicals tested on animals. (un-aligned.org)
  • Furthermore, the European Chemicals Agency (ECHA) is requesting new animal tests on ingredients that have been used in cosmetics safely for years. (un-aligned.org)
  • Thus, it contributes to a high level of protection of human health and the environment, and at the same time fosters the promotion of alternative (non-animal) test methods, the free circulation of chemicals on the internal market, competitiveness and innovation. (reach.lu)
  • NIST is making the new material freely available to testing laboratories and diagnostic test manufacturers worldwide. (nist.gov)
  • monkeys continue to be torn from their forest homes to be taken to laboratory animal suppliers and from there, they are sold to laboratories where behind closed doors, they suffer in horrific experiments. (mauritiusprimaterescue.com)
  • My good friend and blogfather, Orac, posted something yesterday about animal testing in medical laboratories. (scienceblogs.com)
  • I have known some people like that, but thankfully they're very rare, and none of them were scientists whose work involves doing animal testing in real laboratories. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Not one of our products are tested on animals and we use no services or laboratories that do animal testing. (platinumskincare.com)
  • Canada's failure to properly supervise these facilities allows thousands of animals to legally suffer in laboratories across the country. (lcanimal.org)
  • September 2017 - After the release of LCA's ground-breaking undercover investigation into ITR Laboratories in Baie d'Urfe, Quebec, negative press, and intense pressure by Activists, members of the City Council amended Zoning By-Law 875-121 to prevent new animal testing facilities from opening in the Municipality. (lcanimal.org)
  • Elizabeth May, a Member of Parliament and the leader of Canada's Green Party, has agreed to sponsor a petition to mandate government oversight of all Canadian laboratories, suppliers, and teaching institutions where animals are used for experiments. (lcanimal.org)
  • The FDA waived federal Clinical Laboratories Improvement Act (CLIA) requirements and cleared for marketing seven rapid influenza diagnostic tests that directly detect influenza A or B virus-associated antigens or enzyme in throat swabs, nasal swabs, or nasal washes. (medscape.com)
  • Files reflecting Spira's and Animal Rights International's many campaigns and coalitions targeting specific tests and the use of animals in laboratories comprise the bulk of this series. (loc.gov)
  • etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories. (bvsalud.org)
  • Rather than rely on animal models in laboratories, NIOSH stepped in and developed a system to assess potential health effects following exposure to molds at levels found in water-damaged buildings. (cdc.gov)
  • Laboratory workers in rabies biologics production or in rabies research laboratories who might be at high risk of high-dose inapparent exposure should still receive a booster dose every 6 months or be tested for rabies antibody and vaccinated when antibody level falls below 16 as measured with the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition (RFFI) test. (cdc.gov)
  • Although most businesses assert that no animals are harmed during animal experiments, there is still room for suspicion (Van Norman, 2019). (grademiners.com)
  • The mini-brains show promise to replace hundreds of thousands of animals used in neurological experiments. (all-creatures.org)
  • But the ones created at Johns Hopkins have key unique features that show promise to reduce the suffering of many thousands of animals in neurological experiments. (all-creatures.org)
  • It undertakes to perform animal testing experiments responsibly. (uni-graz.at)
  • So as to avoid testing on animals wherever feasible, experiments are also carried out on model organisms. (uni-graz.at)
  • Although animal testing and experiments are not prohibited in the U.S., guidelines for the Validation of Alternative Methods were set up by the Interagency Coordinating Committee in 1997. (icare-worldwide.org)
  • Moreover, where cosmetic products are concerned, the differences in the structures and immune responses between human and animal skin, make animal experiments less reliable. (icare-worldwide.org)
  • What types of cosmetics experiments are carried out on animals? (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • IMSEAR at SEARO: The perceptions of first-year medical students on animal and human experiments in physiology. (who.int)
  • Padmavathi R, Maruthy KN, Borghona S, Vaz M. The perceptions of first-year medical students on animal and human experiments in physiology. (who.int)
  • At the time of administration of the questionnaire, students had been exposed to both human as well as animal experiments. (who.int)
  • The results suggest that while students recognize the importance and value of animal experiments, they would prefer the introduction of a larger number of human experiments. (who.int)
  • The European Parliament voted in September to phase out animal experiments and invest in NAMs based on human biology. (michelsonphilanthropies.org)
  • Because the European legislation requires proof of safety of consumer products on the European markets, alternative methods to animal testing based on the 'three Rs' concept (Reduce, Refine and Replace) are highly emphasized for safety and risk assessment. (theglobalfool.com)
  • The initiative aims to promote the use of various alternative methods to animal testing based on 3 guiding principles, "Refinement, Reduction and Replacement," also known as the 3Rs. (icare-worldwide.org)
  • Rising adoption of non-animal alternative testing by scientists is driving the growth of the market. (globenewswire.com)
  • Moreover, numerous scientists have limited themselves from functioning in a wet laboratory and restricted themselves from being in contact with either humans or animals at time of pre-clinical testing of drugs. (globenewswire.com)
  • Unilever has been researching and applying alternatives to animal testing, and working with industry, academia, government scientists and NGOs to usher in a new era of sustainable safety testing that isn't reliant on animal models. (chemistryworld.com)
  • I am particularly excited about the opportunities that this gift provides for our students, and knowing that the centre will train the next generation of scientists, health professionals, and policy makers in animal replacement methods to build viable, healthy, and safe communities. (uwindsor.ca)
  • UWindsor interim President Douglas Kneale says scientists have acknowledged the pragmatic and ethical limitations to animal-based research and have turned their attention to human-centred research as an alternative method: "And with alternative methods come not just new ways of thinking but new ways of doing. (uwindsor.ca)
  • In scientists' eyes, animal testing is the process of using animals to create medical treatments, assess the toxicity of drugs, and verify the safety of goods intended for consumer, industrial, and medicinal use (Kabene & Baadel, 2019). (grademiners.com)
  • The main benefit of animal testing is that it helps scientists discover new drugs and therapies that will advance medicine and health. (grademiners.com)
  • GAITHERSBURG, MD, December 16, The Institute for In Vitro Sciences (IIVS), with support from its Industry Council for the Advancement of Regulatory Acceptance of Alternatives (ICARAA), conducted a training course on September 23-27 for in vitro safety testing methods for scientists from China's NIFDC (National Institutes for Food and Drug Control), a division of the China Food and Drug Administration. (iivs.org)
  • I have previously discussed the ethical dilemmas behind animal testing and suggested that a lot of animal testing could be avoided by scientists sharing their data and using information from past studies. (wordpress.com)
  • But what can scientists do to avoid animal testing in the meantime, or if they are commencing ground-breaking research that has never been done before? (wordpress.com)
  • Scientists in Japan have taken a step towards a whole-human-on-a-chip, producing a chip that simultaneously tests liver, intestine and breast cancer cells respond to cancer drugs. (wordpress.com)
  • The Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) has received a grant from the European partnership for alternative approaches to animal testing (EPAA) to support its annual training of Chinese scientists in non-animal testing methods. (europa.eu)
  • As part of the agreement, 2 scientists from BASF SE, a member of EPAA, joined IIVS to provide hands-on training in China for 4 non-animal approaches for skin sensitisation. (europa.eu)
  • These include several initiatives led by the Institute for in Vitro Sciences (IIVS) in China to train regulators and scientists on alternative methods of testing. (europa.eu)
  • In 2014, IIVS scientists produced a video that demonstrates how to perform the bovine corneal opacity and permeability (BCOP) assay according to the test guidelines set by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD TG 437). (europa.eu)
  • Training will be presented by regulators, industry personnel, and toxicology experts and will focus on how to incorporate modern methods into your testing strategies and safety assessments. (iivs.org)
  • The Food and Drug Administration does not require its use and the National Toxicology Program does not use this test. (healingcancernaturally.com)
  • The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research (NC3Rs) is working with industry to promote social housing during cardiovascular telemetry recordings within non-rodent safety pharmacology and toxicology studies. (awionline.org)
  • ALTBIB: Bibliography on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing - The intent of the bibliography is to assist in identifying methods and procedures helpful in supporting the development, testing, application, and validation of alternatives to the use of vertebrates in biomedical research and toxicology testing. (vifabio.de)
  • Combining the new method with two additional alternative methods to investigate skin sensitization allows us not only to significantly reduce the number of animal studies, but also to predict a possible allergic potential more reliably than before," said Dr. Robert Landsiedel, Head of the short-term Toxicology unit at BASF. (analytica-world.com)
  • The world's first toxicology testing strategy without animal testing has been approved by the OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development). (analytica-world.com)
  • At this workshop, experts in testis physiology, toxicology, and tissue engineering discussed approaches for creating improved in vitro environments that would be more conducive to maintaining spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis and could provide more predictive models for testicular toxicity testing. (ainhibitor.com)
  • The latter holds especially true in the context of the scheduled 2013 marketing ban on cosmetic ingredients tested for systemic toxicity. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • This solution reportedly replaces animal-derived ingredients with plant-derived or synthetic alternatives to assure the safety of a cosmetic product without compromising vegan ethics. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • PETA's list of animal-derived ingredients and their alternatives is here to help you avoid animal ingredients in food, cosmetics, and other products. (peta.org)
  • Many ingredients known by one name can be of animal, vegetable, or synthetic origin. (peta.org)
  • So use our list as a guide, and do your best to avoid animal ingredients. (peta.org)
  • Furthermore, since March 2013 animal studies on cosmetic ingredients for the European market have been completely prohibited. (analytica-world.com)
  • Cosmetic animal testing has been banned since 2009 in 27 EU countries, and the sale of cosmetic products or ingredients subject to new animal testing has been illegal since March 2013. (openparliament.ca)
  • In a few countries, including China, cosmetic animal testing may still be a legal requirement for some ingredients and finished products. (openparliament.ca)
  • We craft your serum with quality ingredients and ensure it passes clinical, dermatological, and allergy testing. (alternatesea.com)
  • EU cosmetic ingredients are ruled by two conflicting regulations: The Cosmetics Regulation that fully prohibits the testing of cosmetic products or their ingredients, and the REACH that strives to ensure human health and protect the environment. (un-aligned.org)
  • ECHA, which evaluates the data of toxicity and workers' safety according to the REACH regulation, ordered Symrise to conduct animal tests on two ingredients used for cosmetics only, and rejected the alternative non-animal testing methods Symras proposed. (un-aligned.org)
  • Vegan cosmetics are not of course tested on animals like the ingredients that constitute them. (naturame.bio)
  • Animals might have experienced such therapy in vain if there was no direct benefit to people because many of the compounds examined might never even be approved for public consumption and use (Van Norman, 2019). (grademiners.com)
  • Last but not least, the accuracy of animal testing is frequently questioned (Van Norman, 2019). (grademiners.com)
  • The largest philanthropic gift for research in UWindsor history was recently announced in support of the Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods (CCAAM), dedicated to the development of alternative approaches to the use of animals in scientific testing. (uwindsor.ca)
  • This unprecedented gift for research will enable us to expedite the development of novel non-animal approaches," says Dr. Houser. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Alternative approaches may also take into account chemical properties, (Q)SAR predictions and models, and in vitro tests on cells or tissues with current or new technologies including genomics and proteomics. (europa.eu)
  • The ban on animal testing in cosmetics does not mean that alternative approaches aren't needed in other areas. (cremeglobal.com)
  • A number of alternative approaches exist currently, all of which can be applied with varying levels of success depending on what is already known. (cremeglobal.com)
  • It is anticipated that this will be of value to other investigators in the evaluation and calibration of novel approaches to skin-sensitization testing. (cdc.gov)
  • It is hoped that this dataset will accelerate the development, evaluation and eventual validation of new approaches to skin-sensitization testing. (cdc.gov)
  • Currently, legislation in the country requires that all cosmetic products be tested on animals before entering the market. (vegnews.com)
  • Besides, the EU Commission and the UK not only prohibit animal testing on cosmetic products. (icare-worldwide.org)
  • Bill S-214 would amend the Food and Drugs Act to prohibit cosmetic animal testing and the sale of cosmetic products developed or manufactured using animal testing. (openparliament.ca)
  • The safety of other cosmetic products may be established using a mix of scientific literature, nonanimal testing, raw material safety testing, and controlled human-use testing, among other methods. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • These pre-clinical tested candidate DENV viruses were approved for proceeding to the clinical evaluation phase by a WHO-appointed Scientific Steering Committee and by the Ethical Review Committee of the Thai Ministry of Public Health. (who.int)
  • Today, Animal Wellness Action, the Center for a Humane Economy, the Michelson Center for Public Policy, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA), and other affiliated organizations applauded U.S. Senators Rand Paul, R-Ky. (michelsonphilanthropies.org)
  • VeganSure tests products using non-animal derived culture media to keep these products vegan. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • As part of its commitment to deliver 100% vegan formulas by 2023, The Body Shop has been one of the first companies to start moving micro-challenge tests to VeganSure solutions, MSL Solution Providers reports. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • This solution is registered with The Vegan Society's Trademark and is performed in an ISO/IEC 17025:2005 accredited testing laboratory at MSL Solution Providers. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • MSL's VeganSure solution enables us to offer fully tested and regulatory-approved products, which supports our mission to becoming 100% vegan. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Being vegan is about helping animals, not maintaining personal purity. (peta.org)
  • While we hope this list proves helpful, we also want to emphasize that no one can avoid every single animal ingredient. (peta.org)
  • In most other countries, cosmetic animal testing is neither expressly required nor prohibited, so cosmetics companies and ingredient suppliers decide whether they want to conduct such testing. (openparliament.ca)
  • In other words, what could happen is that an ingredient could be banned from animal testing according to the cosmetics regulation but needs to be tested on animals to fulfill the requirements of the REACH. (un-aligned.org)
  • If a formulation, Ingredient , or product is found not to comply with the Standard , the Company will replace it with an alternative that complies with the Standard's criteria or remove it from the product range. (naturame.bio)
  • Members of the European Parliament reportedly passed a resolution calling on the European Union to expedite the ban on animal testing, "as soon as scientifically possible. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Thanks to modern scientific innovation, the use of animal toxicity testing for experimental drugs has become increasingly obsolete," said U.S. Senator Cory Booker, D-N.J. "This legislation will eliminate unnecessary suffering for countless animals when scientifically reliable alternative testing methods are available. (michelsonphilanthropies.org)
  • 3) TGN 1412 had been tested in mice, rabbits, rats, and nonhuman primates with no ill effects. (foundanimals.org)
  • Only 60 percent of the time can the infamous Draize skin irritation test in rabbits accurately predict human skin responses. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • Back then, industry relied on rabbits to test for toxins, resulting in thousands of animals being euthanized every year. (medscape.com)
  • More than 400 animal rights organizations and companies, including PETA, The Body Shop, Dove and it´s parent company Unilever have signed and sent an open letter to the Presidents of the European Commission, the Parliament and the Council to fully commit to the EU-regulation and continue with its course for a global ban by 2023. (un-aligned.org)
  • Human leukemia T-cell lines as alternative to animal use for detecting biologically active Staphylococcal enterotoxin type B. Toxins. (usda.gov)
  • Plus, always a plus when it's made with no toxins or animal testing. (thefabulous.co)
  • This training followed the announcement by China's National Medical Products Association (NMPA) of acceptance of one non-animal method for skin sensitization, DPRA, which was included in the training. (europa.eu)
  • The Institute for In Vitro Sciences (IIVS), with an established track record in the validation of alternatives to animal testing, is teaming up with BASF and Givaudan to validate an improved skin sensitization reactivity method to address the needs of toxicologists and regulators. (analytica-world.com)
  • Antigen-specific for skin-sensitization testing. (cdc.gov)
  • The abrupt rise of COVID-19 pandemic in 2020 has had an optimistic impact on the growth of the global non-animal alternative testing market. (globenewswire.com)
  • 2020). It is also crucial to realize that animal testing contributes to the safety of many pharmaceuticals and other products that people use daily or are exposed to. (grademiners.com)
  • 5 ). In addition, the World Organisation for Animal during the March-June 2020 COVID-19 epidemic in Health defi ned COVID-19 as an emerging disease in Italy and 100 serum samples, 65 from dogs and from animals and began promoting surveys on the preva- 35 cats, collected in different regions of Italy before lence of SARS-CoV-2 infections among animals ( 6 ). (cdc.gov)
  • ECHA promotes alternatives to animal testing that meet regulatory needs by assessing the risks of substances to human health and the environment, while avoiding unnecessary animal testing. (europa.eu)
  • ECHA among other environmental groups argue that while their goal is to reduce the usage of animal tests as much as possible, the alternatives (non-animal testing methods) are not yet safe and reliable enough to ban all animal tests. (un-aligned.org)
  • This factor has augmented the usage of alternatives for animals testing methods such as microarrays which needs least human contact. (globenewswire.com)
  • I am deeply grateful to Eric and Dana Margolis for their transformative gift that will catalyze our human-centered research, academic, and regulatory testing initiatives and enable us to thrust Canada into the global alternatives arena. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Faculty of Science dean Chris Houser says work taking place in the centre will make the University of Windsor a leader in non-animal, human-centered research. (uwindsor.ca)
  • This is great news for public health as it marks a major milestone in transforming the biomedical sciences to embrace testing platforms that are more innovative and relevant to human health than the animal testing platforms that have been delivering disappointing results for decades. (foundanimals.org)
  • 8) More than 114 therapies for stroke tested in animals failed in human trials. (foundanimals.org)
  • More than 700 human trials of potential HIV/AIDS vaccines have been conducted, all of which gave encouraging results in animals, including monkeys and chimpanzees. (foundanimals.org)
  • But we now know that animal tests often fail to model human diseases adequately and can provide highly misleading information. (foundanimals.org)
  • Overall, 90-95% of drugs found to be safe and effective in animal tests fail during human clinical trials, primarily because of toxicities not predicted by animal tests or because of lack of efficacy. (foundanimals.org)
  • While some believe that this practice violates the rights of animals, others see the benefits that human beings derive from animal testing. (grademiners.com)
  • Drugs, in particular, can pose serious risks when used, but researchers can first evaluate a drug's safety using animal models before starting human testing (Polito et al. (grademiners.com)
  • They give accurate responses for that particular model, as opposed to animal studies which, more often than not, are not applicable to human models. (wordpress.com)
  • Very soon, it seems, the organ-on-a-chip will be perfected as a sound way to conduct human trials, without the need for animal testing, a huge deal of money or causing harm to real people in medical trials. (wordpress.com)
  • A key issue today…is the prediction of chemical carcinogenesis from animal data to man…The real answer in the final analysis will be human experience. (healingcancernaturally.com)
  • Introductory note: A recent tragic incidence, highlighting once more the crucial differences between species, happened in January 2016: a drug that had been extensively pre-tested on mice, rats, dogs and monkeys led to the death of a human volunteer in a French drug trial (Biotrial Laboratory in Rennes). (healingcancernaturally.com)
  • These agencies and programs recommend alternative testing such as existing animal data, prior human experience, and/or the Limit test (a test that uses 10 animals in acute toxicity). (healingcancernaturally.com)
  • Broadening options for drug developers to use human-based test methods that will best predict human outcomes. (mauritiusprimaterescue.com)
  • Ask your U.S. Representative to support S.5002, the FDA Modernization Act 2.0, to allow drug developers to use non-animal, human-relevant science. (mauritiusprimaterescue.com)
  • Testing on humans and non-human primates is prohibited. (europa.eu)
  • The mini-brains promise to fulfill a pressing void in neurological research because animal models have consistently proven to be poor models of human disease, including animals that have been genetically modified to carry some human disease traits. (all-creatures.org)
  • The future of brain research will include less reliance on animals, more reliance on human cell-based models," he said. (all-creatures.org)
  • ReproTracker is an animal-free test to identify compounds that are toxic to human embryonic development. (pharmiweb.com)
  • As far as human and veterinary vaccines are concerned, an in vitro method has in many cases been introduced as an alternative to or replacement for in vivo testing. (edqm.eu)
  • These decisions are fully in line with the EDQM's mission to promote and protect human and animal health, and with its commitment to the 3Rs principles. (edqm.eu)
  • The results of animal testing cannot be regarded as totally reflective of testing results based on human skin applications. (icare-worldwide.org)
  • Numerous crepe erase reviews attest to the efficiency of the anti-aging and skin rejuvenation treatments of Crepe Erase, as the company has tested its products using sophisticated vitro methods applied on human tissues and cells while aided by advanced computer modeling techniques. (icare-worldwide.org)
  • The high failure rate during the drug testing process is partially due to the fact that animal models are not always predictive of the human condition. (news-medical.net)
  • New scientific methods have been developed to test products on human tissue collected during surgical procedures, making animal testing obsolete. (openparliament.ca)
  • Research with captive wildlife in Animal Biosafety Level 2 (ABSL2) and 3 (ABSL3) facilities is becoming increasingly necessary as emerging and re-emerging diseases involving wildlife have increasing impacts on human, animal, and environmental health. (awionline.org)
  • Only 72 percent of the time do guinea pig skin allergy tests anticipate human reactions. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • The adverse auditory effects of chemical toxicants have been investigated more systematically during the past two decades, both in animal and human field and clinical studies. (cdc.gov)
  • The existing drug development paradigm, established by statute in 1938 under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA) relies on animal tests to determine if they are safe and effective for humans has a 95 percent failure rate in human clinical trials. (michelsonphilanthropies.org)
  • Either animal studies show no risk but human studies not available or animal studies showed minor risks and human studies done and showed no risk. (medscape.com)
  • Animal studies show risk and human studies not available or neither animal nor human studies done. (medscape.com)
  • People are also infected by inhalation of droplets coughed by an infected human or animal. (cdc.gov)
  • New technology makes much animal testing unnecessary and it should be phased out as much as possible, the minister says in her statement . (dutchnews.nl)
  • The agreement establishes enhanced international cooperation and coordination on the scientific validation and evaluation of in vitro toxicity testing methods. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Commission and its experts have worked continuously to ensure that the 3Rs principles of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal testing are applied when revising or drafting the texts published in the Ph. (edqm.eu)
  • History of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal testing (3Rs) at Ph. (edqm.eu)
  • To encourage the development of alternative methods, regulatory authorities, researchers and pharmaceutical companies must engage in ongoing consultation at international level concerning the criteria applicable to such alternatives. (rivm.nl)
  • Legal barriers for the use of alternatives to animal testing: do current EU regulations and guidelines for regulatory acceptance of medicinal products pose legal barriers? (rivm.nl)
  • GAITHERSBURG, Md., May 28, 2013 - The Institute for In Vitro Sciences Inc., (IIVS) a world renowned leader in the validation, training, and application of non-animal test methods, announces the formation of ICARAA: Industry Council for the Advancement of Regulatory Acceptance of Alternatives. (iivs.org)
  • In 2008, Vanessa Sd-Rocha organized a meeting with Brazilian regulatory authorities and the major stakeholders in the field of testing to foster discussions on the process of funding, development, and validation of alternative methods in Brazil. (altex.org)
  • On the first day of the EuroTox 2013 conference in Interlaken Switzerland, the workshop "Alternative test methods: challenges and regulatory application", had contributions from the "holy trinity" of regulators, industry and academia. (cremeglobal.com)
  • This, in turn, should facilitate test methods that are widely accepted by regulatory bodies in the EU, US, Japan, Canada and internationally by the OECD. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The reinforced collaboration among the signatories will formalize the way they already work together in test method evaluation, validation studies, independent scientific peer review and recommendations from regulatory authorities. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • In order to satisfy regulatory requirements and detect possible threats to people, animals, and the environment, many goods are subjected to animal testing to ensure their safety. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • Here, alternative methods, such as a cell-based screening method (E-Morph Assay) that is developed in this project, can support the reliable identification of substances with estrogenic effects and thus help to significantly reduce the number of test animals. (bf3r.de)
  • The modified text provides up-to-date information on alternative in vitro methods for potency and now includes a section on the application of humane end-points in the LD50 assay to reduce animal suffering. (edqm.eu)
  • LCs are part of local lymph node assay (LLNA) has been devel- a wider family of dendritic cells that collectively oped as an alternative approach based upon char- are responsible for initiating primary immune acterization of induced proliferative responses in responses. (cdc.gov)
  • He continued by saying, "with the November 1997 United Kingdom legislation preventing future new finished cosmetics from being tested on animals, there is potential for more demand for non-animal test methodologies such as INVI's Irritection Assay System in its Ocular and Dermal forms. (invitrointl.com)
  • Public health and animal health officials should collaborate using a One Health approach to conduct epidemiological investigations for companion animals with SARS-CoV-2 infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Their suppliers do not conduct animal testing on their products, and they do not permit their products to be tested on animals as mandated by law. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • In recognition of this gift, the centre's main research and training laboratory will be named the Eric S. Margolis Research and Training Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Methods. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Furthermore, growing investments by market players into enhancement of prevailing non-animal alternative testing products and novel product developments is projected to open doors to beneficial opportunities for the growth of the market in the forecast period. (globenewswire.com)
  • ICARAA was formed in response to international regulations that still require animal testing to assess the safety of cosmetic and personal care products. (iivs.org)
  • Animal testing is only conducted as a last resort when either legally required or to achieve our goal of no harm from our products. (grace.com)
  • In fact, the Consumer Products Safety Commission, the Department of Transportation, and the Environmental Protection Agency discourage the use of the LD50 test. (healingcancernaturally.com)
  • As an ever-increasing number of countries make moves to end the testing of consumer products on animals, Unilever has partnered up with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop alternative testing strategies. (cosmeticsdesign.com)
  • The company's leaders began to diversify its products as well, and in 1911 began producing Crisco , a shortening made of vegetable oils rather than animal fats . (wikipedia.org)
  • This new body care range offers an alternative to highly processed shampoos and soaps, by harnessing the power of plants they've created products that are not only great for your skin and hair but also our planet. (naturalcollection.com)
  • Mandatory tests typically rely on standard culture media and neutralizers that originate from animal by-products. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Boycotting products that may contain trace amounts of animal products can actually be harmful to animals in the long run. (peta.org)
  • Its eponymous brand, as well as Clinique, Bobbi Brown, La Mer, and Origins, among other brands, are all owned by Estée Lauder, which is also the parent corporation of several subsidiaries, some of which continue to test products on animals. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • Kylie Cosmetics has stated that they do not test its products or components on animals, nor do they enlist the help of third parties to do so for them. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • No, Maybelline does not use animal byproducts in its products. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • This is due to the fact that Maybelline, like its parent company L'Oreal, operates in Mainland China, where it is required by law to test imported cosmetics and skincare products on animals before they can be sold. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • Huda Beauty does not test any of its components, formulations, or finished products on animals in any of its facilities across the world. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • InVitro International is engaged in the development, manufacture and sale of proprietary, non-animal toxicity testing products and services that ensure the safekeeping of humans and the environment, and that minimize animal testing in commercial and academic enterprise. (invitrointl.com)
  • That means our products are not tested on animals nor are any being harmed during production. (hylands.com)
  • A great alternative to petroleum based triple antibiotic products for use under bandages due to the protective anti-microbial, and anti-inflammatory properties. (gypsygemsandjewelry.com)
  • Systemic toxicity testing forms the cornerstone for the safety evaluation of substances. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • 2011), the present report proposes a roadmap for how to overcome the acknowledged scientific gaps for the full replacement of systemic toxicity testing using animals. (uni-konstanz.de)
  • The replacement of animal testing for systemic, repeated dose and long term toxicity in humans is a major challenge. (theglobalfool.com)
  • Animal tests are used to evaluate the safety, quality and efficacy of medicines. (rivm.nl)
  • When 21st century technology is used to further medical research and chemical safety testing, the result is the Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods," Margolis says. (uwindsor.ca)
  • This next chapter will place our country on the forefront of future medical discoveries and safety testing and I am honoured to play an integral part in its inception. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Dr. Charu Chandrasekera, the centre's founding executive director, says that in spite of the fact that millions of animals are used annually in Canadian medical research and chemical safety testing, a growing body of scientific evidence indicates that the rate of congruence between animals and humans is at an all-time low. (uwindsor.ca)
  • Since its enactment in 1938, the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetics Act (FFDCA) has required data for safety and efficacy from animal tests for all new drugs and vaccines. (foundanimals.org)
  • Whatever role animal testing may have played in the past, we now know that it is extremely poor in predicting the safety and effectiveness of drugs and vaccines for humans. (foundanimals.org)
  • Recently, the FDA's Cellular, Tissue, and Gene Therapies Advisory Committee concluded that animal models are "problematic" in assessing the safety risks of gene therapies derived from adeno-associated virus (AAV) vectors. (foundanimals.org)
  • The FDA Modernization Act would lift the requirement for animal testing and allow the FDA to authorize the best testing methods, whether animal or non-animal, to determine the safety and efficacy of a new drug. (foundanimals.org)
  • Researchers, cosmetic and medicine businesses continue to encounter opposition because they utilize animals for the safety of their goods and clinical research, even though this harsh and painful practice results in the mistreatment and death of numerous animals annually (Agell, Soria & Carrió, 2015). (grademiners.com)
  • The research initiative is dubbed SEURAT-1 (Safety Evaluation Ultimately Replacing Animal Testing) and is supported by the European Commission and by the Cosmetics Europe industry for a total of 50 million EUR (Cosmetics Europe matched the funds made available by the European Commission). (theglobalfool.com)
  • With this strengthened leadership, Toxys will further accelerate business growth to become an industry-leader in animal-free chemical safety testing. (pharmiweb.com)
  • Givaudan has also pledged to contribute to real-world case studies in animal-free safety assessment. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • It also provides that no evidence derived from animal testing may be used to establish the safety of a cosmetic. (openparliament.ca)
  • Even non-regulated items, such as cosmetics, are routinely subjected to animal testing for the aim of determining their safety and liability. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • They were subjected to general safety tests and monkey neurovirulence tests in accordance with the US FDA requirements. (who.int)
  • I'm proud to join Sen. Paul in introducing legislation that will cut FDA red tape, allowing drug manufacturers and sponsors to innovate clinical trial designs and utilize modern alternatives to demonstrate safety and efficacy. (michelsonphilanthropies.org)
  • Testing new drugs on animals is often risky for both animals and people," said U.S. Senator John Kennedy, R-La. "The FDA Modernization Act would allow drug producers to improve safety by using more modern, humane and effective testing. (michelsonphilanthropies.org)
  • we continue to believe that we are ahead of our time both with the non-animal testing core business as well as with the infant safety and identification product, Guardian DNA. (invitrointl.com)
  • In a 96-well plate, cells of a breast cancer cell line are brought into contact with various test substances in increasing concentrations (exposure). (bf3r.de)
  • However, in the event a companion animal tests positive for SARS-CoV-2, state, local, and federal public health and animal health partners should be prepared to take additional steps to mitigate potential risks associated with exposure to these animals. (cdc.gov)
  • One animal had day 0 titers suggestive of previous vaccination or exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Transportation, exposure to heat, and merely being out of the water can hurt and stress these animals, impacting their survival and ability to reproduce. (medscape.com)
  • It appears that, with this vaccine, the 0.1-ml intradermal (ID) regimen is an acceptable alternative to the currently approved 1.0-ml intramuscular (IM) regimen for pre-exposure prophylaxis (1,2). (cdc.gov)
  • Although the accepted pre-exposure vaccination regimen is 3 doses of vaccine, 1.0 ml IM each, given on days 0, 7, and 21 or 28, apparently the 0.1-ml ID regimen will be an acceptable alternative after Merieux Institute produces a product with appropriate packaging and labelling changes. (cdc.gov)
  • Editorial Note: Although the Committee has determined that the 0.1-ml ID regimen is an acceptable alternative for pre-exposure prophylaxis, the manufacturer--Merieux Institute--has not yet formally requested approval from the Food and Drug Administration's Bureau of Biologics (BOB) for the vaccine to be administered according to this alternate regimen. (cdc.gov)
  • Current pharmaceutical legislation does not impose any legal constraints on the use of alternatives to animal testing, but neither does it actively encourage the use of these alternatives. (rivm.nl)
  • RIVM has investigated whether European and Dutch pharmaceutical legislation offers sufficient scope for using alternatives to animal testing for the evaluation of (new) medicines. (rivm.nl)
  • The new legislation will require breeding programmes using genetically manipulated animals to be licenced. (dutchnews.nl)
  • The legislation establishes, among other provisions, the task of monitoring and evaluating the introduction of alternative methods. (altex.org)
  • the legislation does not provide for promotion of or information about, existing alternative methods to the larger Brazilian scientific community. (altex.org)
  • The legislation will go into effect as of Jan. 1, 2023, and will end the sale of cosmetics tested on animals in New York State, WBNG reports. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • This legislation allows FDA and drug developers to use 21st-century testing methods and do the best screening of drugs that science allows, whether that involves animals or not. (michelsonphilanthropies.org)
  • Alternatives to animal use in research, testing, and education / Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States. (who.int)
  • The decision to remove the test was taken following a thorough re-assessment of toxicity testing requirements for these vaccines, and follows recent similar exercises for other toxoid vaccines. (edqm.eu)
  • The FDA Modernization Act will eliminate a Depression-era requirement for animal testing for all new drug development protocols. (michelsonphilanthropies.org)
  • Ben Ray Lujan, D-N.M., and John Kennedy, R-La. for introducing the FDA Modernization Act to eliminate a Depression-era requirement for animal testing for all new drug development protocols and to enable FDA to accept the most effective test methods, regardless of whether animals are used. (michelsonphilanthropies.org)
  • The European Commission announced that global efforts to promote alternatives to animal testing were unified at the April 27, 2009, meeting in Brussels via the signing of an agreement by international bodies, including the European Commission's Joint Research Centre (JRC), which is tasked with the validation of alternative test methods. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • On the other hand, animal testing is typically viewed as a cruel and pointless practice that entails the torturing and misery of the animals. (grademiners.com)
  • In my last blog post I pointed out that the scientific practice of animal testing for medical science is a wasteful and inaccurate testing process due to the fact that only 5-25% animals tests have the same results when replicated in humans. (wordpress.com)
  • In compliance with Good Laboratory Practice (GLP), we perform standardised ecotoxicological tests in the laboratory as well as at semi-field and field level. (ect.de)
  • If no data are available, ecotoxicological and toxicological tests should be performed that comply with the requirements under the REACH Regulation, the OECD principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and any internationally recognised methods validated according to international procedures to ensure that the data are of high quality and reliable. (europa.eu)
  • While the practice is acceptable the animal testing methods have raised concerns, particularly if used by cosmetic manufacturers. (icare-worldwide.org)
  • The technology is still in the early stages of development but provides the possibility of drug testing without the use of animal models. (news-medical.net)
  • Moreover, the current trial process requiring the use of animal models is expensive and time-consuming. (news-medical.net)
  • Typically, animal models are used in conjunction with this testing. (angelsforanimalstucson.org)
  • Brian Foy] The first step is to explore Zika virus transmission in animal models in the laboratory. (cdc.gov)
  • Numerous strategies have been put up to prevent the use of animals in testing. (grademiners.com)
  • The growth of this sub-segment is mostly because of the rising demand for cell culture technology among researchers for analyzing huge number of test outcomes in one attempt. (globenewswire.com)
  • Researchers from NIST have developed hazelnut and almond flour reference materials that will help ensure accurate and consistent results for industry test kits. (nist.gov)
  • These monographs were revised to delete the test for specific toxicity (test in guinea pigs) that is performed on the final lot as part of the validation of the production process. (edqm.eu)
  • the conditions under which the residual toxicity test may be omitted on the final bulk and the final batch are stated. (edqm.eu)
  • Taking us in the wrong direction and throwing away possible cures because of misleading animal tests are just some of the problems with our present drug development paradigm. (foundanimals.org)
  • Animal testing has enabled the development of numerous medicinal therapies, including insulin, antibiotics, vaccinations, cancer and HIV medications, and many others (Polito et al. (grademiners.com)
  • The Commission is committed to continue supporting the development of alternative methods and to engage with third countries to follow our European approach. (theglobalfool.com)
  • Thus, the European Commission launched a research initiative to fill current gaps in scientific knowledge and accelerate the development of methods that do not require animal testing. (theglobalfool.com)
  • This testing solution means brands can ensure formulations are animal-free from development through to microbiological testing. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The use of animals in new drug development represents a major category of animal testing in the United States, including the widespread use of dogs and primates. (michelsonphilanthropies.org)
  • To move drug development forward, the pharmaceutical industry must be allowed to use emerging technologies in nonclinical testing for new drugs, instead of relying solely on animal tests. (michelsonphilanthropies.org)
  • Advance Development and Use of Rapid and Innovative Diagnostic Tests for Identification and Characterization of Resistant Bacteria. (cdc.gov)
  • B. Nothing in this section shall prohibit the use of a test method that does not use animals. (virginia.gov)
  • This enactment amends the Food and Drugs Act to prohibit cosmetic animal testing and the sale of cosmetics developed or manufactured using cosmetic animal testing. (openparliament.ca)
  • One of the responsibilities of the academic world is to lay the foundations for the best possible medical care for humans and animals and to ensure that this care is continuously advanced. (uni-graz.at)
  • SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence was higher among cats humans and animals. (cdc.gov)
  • CoV-2 infection in humans and animals. (cdc.gov)
  • The Netherlands - based specialty chemical supplier announced this week the opening of its newest facility, a laboratory equipped to deliver formulations, testing, and more to clients in the US. (cosmeticsdesign.com)
  • Promega and BASF have jointly developed an alternative method to animal studies that can reliably detect the allergenic potential of substances. (analytica-world.com)
  • Using a newly developed cell line, the reaction of skin cells to allergenic substances can now be demonstrated in the test tube. (analytica-world.com)
  • Both are early and reliable indicators of a possible allergenic potential of the test substance. (analytica-world.com)
  • The new cell line has been extensively tested at BASF and a standardized method has been developed to reliably assess the allergenic potential of a substance. (analytica-world.com)
  • Evaluation of hair cortisol as an indicator of long-term stress responses in dogs in an animal shelter and after subsequent adoption. (awionline.org)
  • Alternative methods are permitted, but it must be demonstrated that these have the same predictive value as animal testing. (rivm.nl)
  • In addition, practices which cause pain to animals, such as cutting off a toe from newly-born mice for identification purposes, should be phased out, she said. (dutchnews.nl)
  • In 2012, nearly 525,000 animals - mainly mice and fish - were surplus to testing requirements. (dutchnews.nl)
  • When vivisectors induce cancer in laboratory animals (primarily mice and rats), the cancer-causing substance gives different results, not only from species to species, but also from one strain to another of the same species. (healingcancernaturally.com)
  • A public health response to the identification of SARS-CoV-2 in a companion animal involves drafting policies and protocols, assessing resources, and engaging partners at all levels (e.g., public health agencies, animal health agencies, animal services, local government and legal authorities, and other relevant partners). (cdc.gov)
  • It endangers the survival of a number of horseshoe crab species, creates ecologic imbalances, and involves a great deal of animal suffering. (medscape.com)
  • Amidst the tidal change rippling through the luxury sector-one that involves reduction of carbon footprint, protection of animal rights and dismissal of plastics-only one leather alternative adheres to such standards and still feels premium. (coolhunting.com)
  • All requests for animal testing are referred to a committee of the corporate EHS and product stewardship team who assess the availability of alternatives and approve any proposed testing. (grace.com)
  • Used in companion animal food for nutrition and in skin creams and lotions to soothe eczema and rashes. (peta.org)