Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA Splice Sites: Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Polyadenylation: The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.RNA Isoforms: The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid: Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.Mice, Inbred C57BL5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein: A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Animal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).United StatesNucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B: A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Spliceosomes: Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mice, Inbred BALB CSequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Reading Frames: The three possible sequences of CODONS by which GENETIC TRANSLATION may occur from one nucleotide sequence. A segment of mRNA 5'AUCCGA3' could be translated as 5'AUC.. or 5'UCC.. or 5'CCG.., depending on the location of the START CODON.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Faith Healing: The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Nerve Tissue ProteinsComplement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Codon, Nonsense: An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Integrative Medicine: The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.

Functional human corneal equivalents constructed from cell lines. (1/352)

Human corneal equivalents comprising the three main layers of the cornea (epithelium, stroma, and endothelium) were constructed. Each cellular layer was fabricated from immortalized human corneal cells that were screened for use on the basis of morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological similarity to their natural counterparts. The resulting corneal equivalents mimicked human corneas in key physical and physiological functions, including morphology, biochemical marker expression, transparency, ion and fluid transport, and gene expression. Morphological and functional equivalents to human corneas that can be produced in vitro have immediate applications in toxicity and drug efficacy testing, and form the basis for future development of implantable tissues.  (+info)

Comparison of a rabbit model of bacterial endocarditis and an in vitro infection model with simulated endocardial vegetations. (2/352)

Animal models are commonly used to determine the efficacy of various antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial endocarditis. Previously we have utilized an in vitro infection model, which incorporates simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of various antibiotics. In the present study, we compared four experimental rabbit endocarditis protocols to an in vitro infection model in an effort to determine if these models are comparable. We have evaluated the activity of clinafloxacin, trovafloxacin, sparfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin in rabbit models against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. In vitro models were performed simulating the antibiotic pharmacokinetics obtained in the in vivo studies. Models were dosed the same as rabbit models, and SEVs were evaluated at the same time the rabbit vegetations were examined. Clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin were evaluated against methicillin-susceptible (MSSA1199) and -resistant (MRSA494) strains of S. aureus. Ciprofloxacin was studied against MSSA1199 and MSSA487. Sparfloxacin and clinafloxacin were evaluated against Enterococcus faecium SF2149 and Enterococcus faecalis WH245, respectively. We found that reductions in SEV bacterial density obtained in the in vitro model were similar to those obtained in rabbit vegetations, indicating that the SEV model may be a valuable tool for assessing antibiotic potential in the treatment of bacterial endocarditis.  (+info)

Comparative in vitro-in vivo percutaneous absorption of the pesticide propoxur. (3/352)

In vitro and in vivo skin absorption of the pesticide propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methyl carbamate, commercially Baygon(TM) and Unden (TM); log Po/w 1.56, MW 209.2) was investigated. In vivo studies were performed in rats and human volunteers, applying the test compound to the dorsal skin and the volar aspect of the forearm, respectively. In vitro experiments were carried out in static diffusion cells using viable full-thickness skin membranes (rat and human), non-viable epidermal membranes (rat and human) and a perfused-pig-ear model. Percutaneous penetration of propoxur in human volunteers was measured by analysis of its metabolite (2-isopropoxyphenol) in blood and urine; in all other studies radiolabeled propoxur ([ring-U-(14)C]propoxur) was used. In order to allow for direct comparison, experimental conditions were standardized with respect to dose (150 microg propoxur per cm(2)), vehicle (60% aqueous ethanol) and exposure time (4 h). In human volunteers, it was found that approximately 6% of the applied dose was excreted via the urine after 24 h, while the potential absorbed dose (amount applied minus amount washed off) was 23 microg/cm(2). In rats these values were 21% and 88 microg/cm(2), respectively. Data obtained in vitro were almost always higher than those obtained in human volunteers. The most accurate in vitro prediction of the human in vivo percutaneous absorption of propoxur was obtained on the basis of the potential absorbed dose. The absorbed dose and the maximal flux in viable full-thickness skin membranes correlated reasonably well with the human in vivo situation (maximal overestimation by a factor of 3). Epidermal membranes overestimated the human in vivo data up to a factor of 8, but the species-differences observed in vivo were reflected correctly in this model. The data generated in the perfused-pig-ear model were generally intermediate between viable skin membranes and epidermal membranes.  (+info)

Prediction of eye irritation from organic chemicals using membrane-interaction QSAR analysis. (4/352)

Eye irritation potency of a compound or mixture has traditionally been evaluated using the Draize rabbit-eye test (Draize et al., 1944). In order to aid predictions of eye irritation and to explore possible corresponding mechanisms of eye irritation, a methodology termed "membrane-interaction QSAR analysis" (MI-QSAR) has been developed (Kulkarni and Hopfinger 1999). A set of Draize eye-irritation data established by the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) (Bagley et al., 1992) was used as a structurally diverse training set in an MI-QSAR analysis. Significant QSAR models were constructed based primarily upon aqueous solvation-free energy of the solute and the strength of solute binding to a model phospholipid (DMPC) monolayer. The results demonstrate that inclusion of parameters to model membrane interactions of potentially irritating chemicals provides significantly better predictions of eye irritation for structurally diverse compounds than does modeling based solely on physiochemical properties of chemicals. The specific MI-QSAR models reported here are, in fact, close to the upper limit in both significance and robustness that can be expected for the variability inherent to the eye-irritation scores of the ECETOC training set. The MI-QSAR models can be used with high reliability to classify compounds of low- and high-predicted eye irritation scores. Thus, the models offer the opportunity to reduce animal testing for compounds predicted to fall into these two extreme eye-irritation score sets. The MI-QSAR paradigm may also be applicable to other toxicological endpoints, such as skin irritation, where interactions with cellular membranes are likely.  (+info)

Pathology of ocular irritation with acetone, cyclohexanol, parafluoroaniline, and formaldehyde in the rabbit low-volume eye test. (5/352)

The ocular irritation responses to 11 different surfactants and two concentrations of acetic acid and sodium hydroxide have been shown to depend on the extent of initial injury, despite marked differences in the processes leading to tissue damage. The purpose of these studies was to determine the extent to which this fundamental relationship applies to other nonsurfactants. Ten microl of acetone (ACT). cyclohexanol (CY), parafluoroaniline (PF), or 37% formaldehyde (FA) was directly applied to the cornea of the right eye of each rabbit. Eyes and eyelids were macroscopically scored for signs of irritation beginning 3 hours after dosing and periodically until recovery or 35 days. Tissues were obtained for light microscopic examination after 3 hours and on days 1, 3, and 35. Initial corneal injury was characterized quantitatively at 3 hours and I day using in vivo confocal microscopy (CM) and by postmortem quantitation of dead corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes using a Live Dead Assay (L/D, Molecular Probes) and scanning laser CM. Corneal changes over time were characterized quantitatively using in vivo CM performed at 3 hours and 1, 3, 7, 14, and 35 days. The changes with ACT were consistent with mild irritation. Corneal injury was limited to the epithelium and superficial stroma, with the mean normalized depth of injury (NDI) being less than 10% with the majority of regions showing no stromal injury. Changes with CY and PF were consistent with moderate to severe irritation, and FA caused severe irritation. Specifically, corneal injury by CY and PF tended to involve the epithelium and anterior stroma, with the mean NDI being 10.4% to 23.8%, while injury with FA involved the epithelium, deep stroma, and at times the endothelium. Interestingly, with FA significantly less injury was observed at 3 hours with a dramatic increase in injury observed at 1 day and thereafter. In conclusion, these results continue to support and extend our hypothesis that ocular irritation is principally defined by the extent of initial injury despite clear differences in the means by which irritants cause tissue damage. We believe this approach can be applied to developing alternative assays based on injury to ex vivo eyes or injury to an in vitro corneal equivalent system.  (+info)

TestSmart-high production volume chemicals: an approach to implementing alternatives into regulatory toxicology. (6/352)

This article examines the status and application of alternatives defined as replacements, refinements, and reduction for screening high production volume (HPV) chemicals. It specifically focuses on the Screening Information Data Set (SIDS), a series of toxicological tests recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to screen such chemicals. Alternative tests associated with acute, repeat-dose, genetic, and reproductive and developmental toxicity were examined at 2 meetings of academic, industry, and regulatory scientists and their status determined. Tests were placed in 1 of 3 categories: ready for immediate use, in need of or currently undergoing validation, or needing research/developmental work. With respect to traditional acute toxicity testing, the basal cytotoxicity approach was placed in the category of research with the up-and-down, fixed-dose, limit test, and the acute toxic class categorized as available for immediate use and the neutral red assay under validation. Cell culture methods that could provide information on acute target organ toxicity were all categorized in the research stage. Studies of the Ah receptor were placed under validation. All alternative tests for repeat-dose toxicity were placed in the category of research. With regard to genetic toxicity, the Ames, mouse lymphoma, and Chinese hamster ovary methods were considered ready for immediate use, while the in vitro micronucleus and Syrian hamster ovary assays were placed in the validation category. All alternatives for developmental toxicity, with the exception of gene chip technology, were placed in the category of validation. Gene chip technology is considered to be in the research stage. For reproductive toxicity, sperm motility and morphology were considered as ready for immediate use, with the other assays categorized as needing validation or in the research stage. Follow-up to these results is obvious. Work needs to be conducted to move those tests from the research stage to the validation and use stage. This is one approach to the development of alternatives to SIDS. Progress along these lines would apply not only to SIDS but also to toxicology in general.  (+info)

A reply to Joseph Bernstein. (7/352)

Dr. Bernstein suggests that anti-vivisectionists should be able to fill in a directive requesting that they receive no medical treatment developed through work on animals. It is replied that this would only be reasonable if research not using animals had long been funded as adequately and its results were currently available.  (+info)

DNA repair-deficient Xpa and Xpa/p53+/- knock-out mice: nature of the models. (8/352)

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease in which repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage is impaired or is totally absent due to mutations in genes controlling the DNA repair pathway known as nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP is characterized, in part, by extreme sensitivity of the skin to sunlight, and XP patients have a more than 1000-fold increased risk of developing cancer at sun-exposed areas of the skin. To study the role of NER in chemical-induced tumorigenesis in more detail, the authors developed Xpa-/- homozygous knockout mice with a complete defect in NER (designated as Xpa mice or XPA model). Xpa mice develop skin tumors at high frequency when exposed to UV light, and as such, they mimic the phenotype of human XP. Moreover, the Xpa mice also appear to be susceptible to genotoxic carcinogens given orally. Based on these phenotypic characteristics, the Xpa mice were considered to be an attractive candidate mouse model for use in identifying human carcinogens. In an attempt to further increase both the sensitivity and specificity of the XPA model in carcinogenicity testing, the authors crossed Xpa mice with mice having a heterozygous defect in the tumor suppressor gene p53. Xpa/p53+/- double knockout mice develop tumors earlier and with higher incidences upon exposure to carcinogens as compared to their single knockout counterparts. Here the authors describe the development and features of the Xpa mouse and present some examples of the Xpa and Xpa/p53+/- mouse models' sensitivity towards genotoxic carcinogens. It appeared that the Xpa/p53+/- double knockout mouse model is favorable over both the Xpa and p53+/- single knockout models in short-term carcinogenicity testing. In addition to the fact that the double knockout mice respond more robustly to carcinogens, they also appear to respond in a very discriminative way. All compounds identified thus far are true (human) carcinogens, and, therefore, the authors believe that the Xpa/p53+/- mouse model is an excellent candidate for a future replacement of the chronic mouse bioassay, at least for certain classes of chemicals.  (+info)

*Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing

Alternatives to animal testing UCDavis Center for Animal Alternatives Dr Hadwen Trust Henry Spira Official website. ... a global clearinghouse for information on alternatives to animal testing, and publishes a general animal news blog, A Boundless ... The Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) has worked with scientists since 1981 to find new ... and use of alternatives to animals in research, product safety testing, and education. It is not an activist group; rather, it ...

*European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing

The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) promotes the application of Russell and Burch's ... systems biology and stem cells Alternatives to animal testing EPAA conference 2005 EPAA Mirror Group minutes EPAA partners ... Current and consolidated ragulations on cosmetics and animal testing are laid down in the Cosmetics Regulation 1223/2009. ... reduction and refinement of animal testing: applicability in food and feed risk assessment or the ECHA's Practical guide "How ...

*Altbib

Alternatives to animal testing. ... testing, application, and validation of alternatives to the use ... Bibliography on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing, or Altbib, is a bibliography ... of vertebrates in biomedical research and toxicology testing. The bibliography is produced from MEDLARS database searches ...

*Lipton

"Developing alternative approaches to animal testing". Unilever. Retrieved 8 June 2016. "Search results for 'soup'". Lipton Tea ... Zelman, Joanna (2 February 2011). "Unilever Ends Animal Testing On Lipton Tea Products After PETA Threatens Major Campaign". ... campaign Unilever no longer test their products on animals unless required to by governments as part of their regulatory ... According to the animal rights organization, Unilever decided to end the practice for Lipton products after receiving more than ...

*Leslie Turnberg, Baron Turnberg

"The Three Rs: The Way Forward". The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. Archived from the original on 28 March 2007. ... in animal testing called "The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research". The board ... The focus of the centre is on the three Rs: the replacement, refinement, and reduction of animal testing. The three Rs were ... The UK government currently still regards animal testing as necessary, but science minister Lord Sainsbury of Turville said ...

*History of Queen Mary University of London

"Professorial chair to lead search for animal testing alternatives". Times Higher Education. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 20 ... "Thurston's DH4 Tests". Retrieved 11 September 2011. "Spratt's". London Remembers. Retrieved 16 July 2015. "Information released ... In January 2013, Queen Mary established the world's first professorial chair in animal replacement science. From 2014, Queen ...

*Syed Ziaur Rahman

He even translated few papers into Urdu in the field of Alternatives to animal testing. Rahman also works in the field of ... Rahman's contributed in the area of Alternatives to animal testing. He believed in the philosophy of '3Rs" of Russell and Burch ... getting survey related to the attitude of undergraduate medical students towards Alternatives to animal testing and Animal ... a presentation by InterNICHE Co-ordinator Nick Jukes about alternatives to animal testing in education: Urdu Translation ...

*Lung on a chip

It is expected to become an alternative to animal testing. The lung-on-a-chip places two layers of living tissues-the lining of ... The response of the lung-on-a-chip to inhaled living pathogens was tested by introducing E. Coli bacteria into the air channel ... The engineered organ combination could be used to test inhaled drugs and to identify new and more effective therapeutics that ... It can be used to test the effects of environmental toxins, absorption of aerosolized therapeutics, and the safety and efficacy ...

*CAAT

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, a US research center. Campaign Against Arms Trade, a British campaigning ...

*UCDavis Center for Animal Alternatives

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing Dr Hadwen Trust Official website. ... UCDavis Center for Animal Alternatives disseminates information on alternatives to animal experiments and provides animal ... experimenters with information on the most current methods for improving all aspects of animal care. ...

*In silico medicine

In silico modeling can also provide a humane alternative to animal testing. It has been purported by a company in the field, ... com/en/improving-the-welfare-of-animals-researchers-develop-computer-aided-models-to-replace-animal-testing "The Seventh ... that computer-aided models will make the use of testing on living organisms obsolete. The term in silico medicine is ...

*ALTEX

... the European consensus platform for alternatives, the European Society for Alternatives to Animal Testing, and the ... ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering alternatives to animal ... It is the official journal of Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, the American Society for Cellular and Computational ... Official website Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. ...

*InterNICHE

Alternatives to animal testing "Animal Concerns Community - InterNICHE - the International Network for Humane Education". ... Encyclopedia of animal rights and animal welfare. School Library Journal. vol. 56 iss. 4 p. 10. The International Network for ... "Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare: Second Edition - Google Books". Books.google.com. 2009-11-25. Retrieved 2013- ... "InterNICHE Launches New Website for Humane Education and Alternatives". Altweb.jhsph.edu. Retrieved 2013-07-22. Patricia Ann ...

*Foundation for Biomedical Research

"The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT)". Retrieved 2009-06-24. PETA. "Animals in Experimentation - ... "Animal research and medical progress". About animal testing. "Scientists Against Animal Testing". The Society for Neuroscience ... Animal testing History of animal testing Foundation for Biomedical Research. "About FBR". Retrieved 2009-06-24. 2005 Report on ... Some animal rights supporters believe that alternatives exist for animal models in research; however the vast majority of ...

*Biosimulation

In:The Economist (US) June 11, 2005 "Biograf 3R - Computational Alternatives to Animal Testing - Home". Biograf.ch. doi:10.1016 ... of reduction and replacement of animal experiments as well as to the refinement of the methodology in cases where animal tests ... In a future scenario, biosimulation would change the way substances are tested, in which in vivo and in vitro tests are ... The early prediction if a drug will fail in animals or humans would be a key to reduce both drug development costs and the ...

*Michael Balls

He is best known for his work on laboratory animal welfare and alternatives to animal testing. Balls was born in 1938 in ... He became Editor of Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ATLA) in 1983. He acted as an adviser to the British government during ... "ATLA -Alternatives To Laboratory Animals". Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR). Retrieved 4 December 2013. "London ... "Ed Balls' father urges review of animal testing laws". Daily Mail. London. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2010. Biography ...

*Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments

... its first report on alternatives to using animals for toxicity testing at the Animals and Alternatives in Toxicity Testing ... FRAME campaigns for the replacement of animal testing methods with alternatives that do not use animals. If there is no valid ... 2000-2003 - EU regulators accepted the first three replacement alternatives to animal-based toxicity testing. One of these, a ... and the adoption of the Three Rs strategy of alternatives to animal testing. The Three Rs (Replacement, Reduction, Refinement) ...

*Animal welfare and rights in Iran

The IAVA campaigns for the use of alternatives to animal testing. In 2012 they were given the Brown Bear Award by Iran Animal ... G on World Animal Protection's Animal Protection Index. In 2016, Iran stopped issuing permits for wild animal circuses. The ... Animal welfare and rights in Iran is about the laws concerning and treatment of non-human animals in Iran. Iran has no ... In 2014, Animal Rights Watch and Animal Defenders International launched the "No to Circus!" campaign. This resulted in the ...

*EU Directive 2010/63/EU

Promotion and use of alternative animal testing methods and 3Rs are written elsewhere within EU legislation (e.g. REACH, ... EU-NETVAL's primary role is to provide support for the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing [ ... Article 1.3: The new EU Directive applies to the following animals: (a) live non-human vertebrate animals, including: (i) ... since animals are sentient beings, pay full regard to the welfare of animals, while respecting the legislative or ...

*Microtox bioassay

Microtox has also been applied to animal testing as an in vitro alternative. Numerous studies and published data comparing ... There are five major Microtox tests including the Basic Test, the 100% Test, the Solid Phase Test, the Comparison Test, and the ... Of these five tests, three are used for sediment and soil testing including the Basic Test, the 100% Test and the Solid-Phase ... while either the Basic test or the 100% test is used for pore water. Sediment testing: Microtox is used to test and evaluate ...

*Transatlantic Economic Council

Other priorities include: road safety, and petrol conservation, cosmetics testing (finding alternatives to animal testing), ...

*In vitro toxicology

... the quest for alternatives to animal testing has gained a new momentum. In many cases the in vitro tests are better than animal ... Measurement of these types of cellular responses can be windows into the interaction of the test article on the test models ( ... In vitro toxicity testing is the scientific analysis of the effects of toxic chemical substances on cultured bacteria or ... New testing platforms are now developed to solve problems related to cellular interactions. These new platforms are much more ...

*Monique Adolphe

She was one of the pioneers of cell culture in vitro and its applications in alternatives to animal testing. She is an Officier ... With Paul Lechat she was an ardent advocate of alternative methods to animal testing by promoting the use of in vitro ... "Tests in vitro, utiles mais pas suffisants: Entretien avec Monique Adolphe". Fondation pour la recherche médicale. 2000-04-11. ...

*Testing cosmetics on animals

In this manner the technical regulations include measures which provide an alternative to animal testing". Animal testing on ... Cosmetic testing on animals is a type of animal testing used to test the safety and hypoallergenic properties of products for ... Re-using existing test data obtained from previous animal testing is generally not considered to be cosmetic testing on animals ... "New Models in Cosmetics Replacing Animal Testing". Communications of the ACM. 57: 20-21. "Alternatives to Animal Tests : The ...

*Revlon

In 1989, Revlon became one of the first companies to replace animal tests with alternative safety testing methods. On November ... McGill, Douglas C. (August 2, 1989). "Cosmetics Companies Quietly Ending Animal Tests". The New York Times. Stevenson, Richard ... who do not test their products on animals after the organization learned they were paying Chinese laboratories to test their ... The big-name beauty brands among those ditching cruelty-free animal testing policies to sell their products to China". Daily ...

*Cellulosic ethanol commercialization

... and has been tested as a high carbohydrate animal feed supplement and potential bio-based feedstock for production of numerous ... The US Federal government is actively promoting the development of ethanol from cellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to ...
The Mid-Atlantic Society of Toxicology will present a webinar on "Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods: Current Status and Future Directions." NICEATM Director Warren Casey will speak on "Predicting in vivo effects using in vitro data: the future of alternatives." Other speakers include George DeGeorge of MB Research Labs, Rodger Curren of the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, and Thomas Hartung of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. The webinar will be presented on May 14, 2015 from 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.. Full Details and Registraton ...
The validation and regulatory acceptance of non-animal alternative tests is critical to the adoption of more humane scientific methodologies. Virtually all federally funded research is paid for with your tax dollars. Two of the main funders of animal-based research in North America, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, need to hear that you dont want your tax dollars used to underwrite animal experiments and urge them to stop requiring cruel and obsolete animal tests for pharmaceuticals and allow companies to substitute in vitro tests. (Government funded animal testing costs U.S. taxpayers $12 billion annually) Alternatives to animal tests are effective, reliable, affordable and humane. Proponents of non-animal testing methods in the scientific community have shown that these methods are quicker and cost-effective. Unlike crude, archaic animal tests, non-animal methods usually take less time to complete, cost only a fraction of what the animal ...
Staff members of the U.S. Department of Education have provided me with a factual statement about states that have alternative tests for English-language learners for calculating adequate yearly progress under the No Child Left Behind Act and states that have dropped such tests. They provided me with this statement in response to questions I had about whether federal education officials had told Oregon it had to suspend use of one of its Spanish-language tests. Here's the statement: There have been a few states that stopped using a specialized assessment for ELL students because the test did not meet the statutory requirements....
At the end of 1991, the Commission of the European Communities informed the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament of its decision to set up a European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), in line with its responsibilities under Directive 86/609/EEC. The main goal of ECVAM is to coordinate, at the European level, activities designed to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. ECVAM is assisted by a Scientific Advisory Committee representative of all parties concerned with the validation of alternative methods, namely the Member States, and European industries, animal welfare organizations and academia. ECVAM is currently establishing information services and a series of workshops, task forces and symposia. It supports interlaboratory pre-validation and formal validation studies, and will itself also be practically involved in ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Who Scientific Group On Cardiovascular D, author of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: New Areas for Research (Technical…, on LibraryThing
Authors: S Fitzpatrick, M Wind, A Jacobs, D Hattan, J Kulpa-Eddy, V Malshet, M Mumtaz, M Snyder, D McCarley, S Morefield, C Sprankle, D Allen, W Stokes. Abstract - Poster - Text-only version of poster. Abstract Number 1810A: Establishment of the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM) and Its Role in the Validation and Regulatory Acceptance of Globally Harmonized Safety Assessment ...
In order to evaluate water-insoluble chemicals using the skin model which is more similar to real skin and detectable interaction among three kind cells, we established a test method which is a three-dimensional human skin model consisting of normal fibroblasts, normal keratinocytes and normal dendritic cells utilizing a collagen vitrigel membrane (VG-KDF-Skin). Nine sensitizers and five non-sensitizers were then examined. After 24 hr, the amount of IL-1α and IL-4 release was measured, and then positive/negative outcomes were evaluated (VG-KDF-Skin method ...
The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) has recommended a non-animal test method to identify estrogen agonist and antagonist activity. In addition to recommending the test, ICCVAM also found the method to provide a number of benefits over the method currently employed in the United States.
The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) has recommended a non-animal test method to identify estrogen agonist and antagonist activity. In addition to recommending the test, ICCVAM also found the method to provide a number of benefits over the method currently employed in the United States.
This notice announces the broadly applicable alternative test method approval decisions that EPA has made under and in support of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) in 2010.
THE BUSINESS TIMES Companies & Markets - CURRENT cancer screening methods are invasive and costly. Think of the mammographies, endoscopies, or biopsies that are presently done to detect cancer. Local biotechnology start-up Mirxes Pte Ltd is looking to revolutionise cancer detection methods by offering blood tests in place of current diagnostic methods to detect early stage cancer.. Read more at The Business Times.
Colonoscopies are highly effective screening tools used to detect colon cancer, rectal cancer, and other conditions. They are very safe, but not completely without risk. Learn more here.
Brussels, Mar 2006 Six new alternative testing methods that can replace animal tests for certain drugs and chemicals have been developed by the EUs European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), and approved by its scientific advisory committee. The new tests use cell cultures rather than animals to establish the toxicity of cancer drugs, and to identify contaminated drugs. Speaking to CORDIS News, Thomas Hartung, head of ECVAM, said that the new methods will save around 200,000 rabbits per year, which had previously been used to test the substances. The new methods are also more accurate than the animal tests, and will therefore make the products concerned safer. Dr Hartung also spoke of how pleased he was with the approval of the new methods, saying: We have had a 40 per cent increase in validated methods in one day only. ECVAM now has 23 approved alternative methods, compared to the previous figure of 17. Changes to EU legislation have required ECVAM to intensify its ...
Anyone who wishes to use live animals in research or teaching at Western University and its affliates must disclose all procedures in an approved Animal Use Protocol (AUP). All AUPs are reviewed by the ACC, consisting of animal-using researchers, research lab animal technicians, grad students, non-animal-using researchers, a veterinarian, and members of the community at large who have never worked in animal research. Any subsequent changes to the AUP post-approval must also be reviewed and approved by the ACC via Protocol Modification. For more information on Animal Use Protocols, please visit the ACC Website.. To begin an AUP at Western, please contact [email protected] for more information.. ...
A new article by scientists at Unilever, a corporate member of the HTPC, describes several areas of safety science in which they are using a pathway-based approach to replace traditional animal tests with a combination of human cell-based in vitro assays and computational models. The article, Toxicity testing - non-animal approaches and safety science (by…
Conference (2013, May 21). In pharmaceutical and biomedical industries, quantitative analytical methods such as HPLC play a key role. Indeed, the analytical results obtained from them are used to make crucial decisions such as the ... [more ▼]. In pharmaceutical and biomedical industries, quantitative analytical methods such as HPLC play a key role. Indeed, the analytical results obtained from them are used to make crucial decisions such as the release of batches of drugs, the evaluation of safety and efficacy of new drug candidates or the monitoring of patients health. Prior to their routine use, analytical methods are submitted to a stringent validation study [1] where they have to demonstrate that they are fit for their final purpose, i.e. providing accurate results: where is the analytical result, is the theoretical unknown true concentration of analyte in the sample analyzed and a regulatory acceptance limit. Typically this demonstration is made by either providing point estimates of ...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administrations insistence on keeping its 2007 predicate date has drawn protests not only from vapor companies but also from animal lovers.. "Countless animals will suffer and die now that newer tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, will be required to FDA approval in order to enter or remain on the market," wrote the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) in response the new regulations.. To obtain FDA approval, tobacco manufacturers will be required to show that their products reduce the risk to current tobacco users and do not increase the risk to non-users. In a guidance document accompanying the rule, the FDA encourages manufacturers of electronic nicotine-delivery systems to meet with its Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) early in the development process to discuss what, if any, animal testing the agency considers "appropriate" or whether non-animal tests may be acceptable.. "The FDA has stated that animal tests will still be required for toxicological ...
Foods of non-animal origin (FoNAO) are consumed in a variety of forms, being a major component of almost all meals. These food types have the potential to be associated with large outbreaks as seen in 2011 associated with VTEC O104. In order to identify and rank specific food/pathogen combinations most often linked to human cases originating from FoNAO in the EU, a semi-quantitative model was developed using seven criteria: strength of associations between food and pathogen based on the foodborne outbreak data from EU Zoonoses Monitoring (2007-2011), incidence of illness, burden of disease, dose-response relationship, consumption, prevalence of contamination and pathogen growth potential during shelf life. The top ranking food/pathogen combination was Salmonella spp. and leafy greens eaten raw followed by (in equal rank) Salmonella spp. and bulb and stem vegetables, Salmonella spp. and tomatoes, Salmonella spp. and melons, and pathogenic Escherichia coli and fresh pods, legumes or grains. ...
The implementation of the SkinEthic™ HCE method, as a validated reference method in the OECD test guidelines TG 492 is already considered.. The draft of TG492 on Reconstructed human Cornea-like Epithelium test method for eye hazard potential is currently under review by the states members of OECD with an approval expected by summer 2017. Our corneal model and corresponding protocols (for liquids and for solids) are designed to comply with regulatory purposes to classify and label chemicals regarding in vitro ocular irritation assessment. ...
MEDICO REMEDIES PVT. LTD. - Manufacturer and Exporter of ClindaMed Oral Drops for Animal Use at most reasonable prices from India.
Formaldehyde Emissions Testing - GA 6000 uses EN717-2 gas analysis method that is approved by CARB as an Alternative test method.
This issue of ALTEX includes a Food for thought article from Joanne Zurlo, two t4 workshop reports, an article about an alternative QSAR-based approach for predicting the bioconcentration factor for regulatory purposes, and much more.
Genentech, Inc. (NYSE:DNA) and Biogen Idec (Nasdaq:BIIB) today announced that a global Phase III study of Rituxan(R) (rituximab) in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy met its primary endpoint of improving progression-free survival (PFS), as assessed by investigators, in patients with previously treated CD20-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) compared to chemotherapy alone. There were no new or unexpected safety signals reported in the study. An independent review of the primary endpoint is being conducted for U.S. regulatory purposes. Data from the study, REACH, will be submitted for presentation at a future medical meeting. Earlier this year, another European Phase III study, CLL-8, showed a similar treatment combination improved PFS in patients with CLL who had not previously received treatment. "REACH, the largest relapsed CLL trial ever conducted, is the first Phase III study of this treatment combination to show an improvement in progression-free ...
A Proposed Definition of Microbiota Transplantation for Regulatory Purposes, Gut Microbes, Mar. 20, 2017 (with others).. Stopping Deceptive Health Claims: The Need for a Private Right of Action Under Federal Law, 42 American Journal of Law & Medicine 53 (2016) (with Jack Schwartz). [Full Text]. The Importance of Including the Deans, Journal of Law, 41 Medicine & Ethics 81 (Supp. 2016).. Access to Essential Medicines in African Countries: An Introduction, 31 Maryland Journal of International Law 1 (2016) (with Peter Danchin). [Full Text]. Increasing Access to Dental and Medical Care by Allowing Greater Flexibility in Scope of Practice, 105 American Journal of Public Health 1755 (2015) (with Richard J. Manski and Virginia Rowthorn).. Laying the Foundation for an Interprofessional, Comparative Health Law Clinic, 42 Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 392 (2014) (with Chikosa Banda and Kassim Amuli). [Abstract]. Probiotics: Achieving a Better Regulatory Fit, 69 Food & Drug Law Journal 237 (2014) (with ...
Triplex stability is studied in crowding conditions using small cosolutes (ethanol, acetonitrile and dimethylsulfoxide) by ultraviolet (UV), circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopies. The results indicate that the triplex is formed preferentially when the triplex forming oligonucleotide (TFO) is RNA. In addition, DNA triplexes (D:D·D) are clearly less stable in cosolute solutions while the stability of the RNA triplexes (R:D·D) is only slightly decreased. The kinetic of triplex formation with RNA-TFO is slower than with DNA-TFO and the thermal stability of the triplex is increased with the salt concentration in EtOH-water solutions. Accordingly, RNA could be considered a potential molecule to form a stable triplex for regulatory purposes in molecular crowding conditions.
... Alternatives to aural tests for deaf and hearing-impaired Piano candidates. Alternative tests for other instruments, for blind and par
With the recent approval of the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) for skin sensitization (allergy), toxicologists now have a battery of methods that allows them to test for sensitization without using animals. Testing a chemical substance for skin irritation or corrosion is pretty straight-forward: the substance is applied to a skin sample (there are…
Your doctor may be able to rule out prostate cancer without a biopsy. Learn about alternative tests that can be used to determine your risk.
For example when in a study testing the long-term effects of a single chemicals potential to cause cancer over a 5-year period (in which the animal subjects were exposed to maximum dosage), the results in lab rats showed 50% positive results. Yet studies show that humans are much less sensitive to certain carcinogens than animals, essentially rendering these tests useless. So, why is it that so much money, time, and animal life is being wasted on research that rarely proves fruitful? This is because, unfortunately, many of the alternative tests have produced insufficient evidence of improved data accuracy in most areas of testing. ...
I think that the subjectee (i dont know if thats a word), even if they have no rights, should still be able to consent to this, this should be given as an option or as an alternative, if presented at all. For example, if someone is about to get the electric chair, they can opt for an alternative test subject. Put on max security, no contact by outside source, and the only contact they get is the docs that work on them. But i can only assume this would turn out to be a pointlessly small number of people ...
Downloadable (with restrictions)! We study the validity of uncovered interest-rate parity by constructing ultra-long time series that span two centuries. The forward-premium regressions yield positive slope estimates over the whole sample. The estimates become negative only when the sample is dominated by the period of 1980s. We also find that large interest-rate differentials have significantly stronger forecasting powers for currency movements than small interest-rate differentials. Furthermore, when we regress domestic currency returns on foreign bonds against returns on domestic bonds as an alternative test of the parity condition, the null hypotheses of zero intercept and unit slope cannot be rejected in most cases. These results are consistent with a world in which expectations formation is highly imperfect and characterized on the one hand by slow adjustment of expectations to actual regime changes and on the other by anticipations for extended periods of regime changes or other big events that
THE SELECTION PROCESS will be job related and will consist of one or more of the following: education and experience evaluation; written, oral, or performance tests, or other assessment methods. The Department of Employee Relations and the Department of City Development reserve the right to call only the most qualified candidates to oral and performance examinations. Oral examinations may include written exercises. Selection process component weights will be determined by further analysis of the job.. INITIAL FILING DATE - The examination will be held as soon as practical after Tuesday, October 10, 2017. Receipt of applications may be discontinued at any time after this date without prior notice. However, recruitment may continue until the needs of the City have been met. Qualified applicants will be notified of the date, time, and place of the examination. Unless otherwise required by law, the City of Milwaukee will not provide alternative test administration. The applicant is responsible for ...
Believed by Great Basin to be superior to alternative tests on the market, the Companys Shiga Toxin Direct Test offers true sample-to-result testing with less than three minutes of hands-on time, no specimen enrichment step, and presents much higher sensitivity than either non-molecular or antigen-based rapid tests, thereby simplifying workflow for laboratory technicians and providing cost savings while facilitating better patient care. The Shiga Toxin Direct Test quickly detects Shiga toxin-producingE. coli - specifically stx1 and stx2 genes - in addition to identifying the serotype O157. E. coli O157 can lead to a life-threatening condition called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), characterized by hemolytic anemia and renal failure. By including identification of O157 in the test, a laboratory can avoid running additional tests or expensive panels to get the definitive answers clinicians need for timely and accurate course of care, providing the means to avoid health complications that may ...
Joseph Stalins famous quote regarding elections, "The people who count the votes decide everything" has an analogy to the bizarre world of the No Child Left Behind Act. Regardless of the merits of the act, it is in the interests of those who will be judged by this law to look good. As a consequence, it appears that there are several ways, other than outright cheating or the students actually testing higher, to make the numbers come out better. In Minnesota, according to James Walsh of the Minneapolis Star Tribune (March 6, 2006), the trick is to have the low-scoring students take a different test. "To some, it may look like were gaming the system" says Tim Vansickle, the Minnesota director of assessments. Minnesota does have many students whose native language is not English and Vansickle denies that the alternative test is not meant to help schools keep off "the list" of schools deemed failing. Another technique according to Jay Mathews of the Washington Post (February 28, 2006), is to engage ...
CVS is estimated to give a definitive result in around 99% of cases. However, it cannot test for every birth defect and its not always possible to get a conclusive result.. In a very small number of cases, the results of CVS cannot establish with certainty that the chromosomes in the baby are normal or not. This might be because the sample of cells removed was too small or theres a possibility the abnormality is just in the placenta and not the baby.. If this happens, it may be necessary to have amniocentesis (an alternative test, in which a sample of amniotic fluid is taken from the mother) a few weeks later to confirm a diagnosis.. ...
The Union Minister for Finance, Defence and Corporate Affairs, Shri Arun Jaitley will chair the 15th Meeting of the GST Council scheduled to be held tomorrow, i.e., Saturday, 3rd June, 2017 at Vigyan Bhavan in the national capital. This meeting is important because it is likely to finalize the rates of tax and cess to be levied on the commodities remaining after the fitment exercise in the 14th GST Council Meeting. Besides it, approval of amendments to the draft GST Rules and related Forms are also on the agenda among others of the aforesaid one day meeting. The meeting is likely to be attended by the Finance Ministers of different States/UTs being the member of the GST Council along with the senior officers. ...
36th meeting of the european group for blood and marrow transplantation 201 lugar: viena. fecha: 21-24 marzo. miembros del servicio participaron como autor
Check out our best-in-class prices for Protease Inhibitor Cocktail III at AG Scientific, Inc. With more than 20 years of experience in the life science industry, we can supply the chemicals you need to accelerate your scientific discoveries.
In order to validate the IMPAT, it was compared with the MAP test. Samples of known concentration (tissue culture infective dose) were generated for each of the 14 viruses on the screening panel (Table 1). For each virus four 100-fold serial dilutions were made.. MAP test: Groups of 2 mice were inoculated with each virus at each of the dilutions. After 30 days the animals were euthanized and exsanguinated. The serum was tested for antibodies specific to the respective viruses using immunofluoresence assays.. IMPAT: To mimic routine conditions, the virus dilutions were not analyzed directly by IMPAT, but rather used to inoculate a standard tumor cell suspension. The tumor cells were incubated with the virus samples for 1 hour (DNA viruses) or 5 minutes (RNA viruses) before DNA or RNA extraction. Nucleic acids isolated from the contaminated tumor material were analyzed using standard PCR and the TaqMan method.. Sensitivity: The three methods were equally sensitive in detecting two of the 14 ...
Article Discussion on [quote=JPS:1ln2girj][quote=old enough:1ln2girj][quote=JPS:1ln2girj]I am really getting tire of all these people who talk about animal cruelty because they read it in a book. These people really dont have a clue what the vast majority of livestock producers do for their animals. I grew up on a dairy farm. Everything revolved around the cows. They were fed and taken care of before we ate. At the time we were one of the larger dairies in the area. All the cows had a name and we knew each and everyone by their name, their habits and manor when milking them. People who think that animal cruelty is theis the rule rather than the exception just dont get it. If you are cruel to the animals, they will not perform to their maximum and if they dont perform to their maximum you dont make money. You can be a vegan or vegatarian, thats your choice. Dont try to justify it with claims that animal cruelty is widespread because it isnt. I know people who are vegans or
Serologicals Corporation (NASDAQ:SERO), announced today that Celliance Corporation, its wholly-owned subsidiary, has entered into an exclusive agreement with Novozymes A/S
FGF-basic is one of 23 known members of the FGF family. Proteins of this family play a central role during prenatal development, postnatal growth
FGF-8 (FGF-8b) is a heparin-binding growth factor belonging to the FGF family. Proteins of this family play a central role during prenatal development,
The European Partnership on Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) was launched in November 2005 by European Commission Vice President Günter Verheugen and Science & Research Commissioner Janez Potočnik together with the European industry. At a conference in Brussels today both industry and the Commission have expressed their strong wish to strengthen this unprecedented collaboration…
Recent genetic techniques have led to new theories of evolution and the relationships between organisms. Students examine this \\\evolution revolution,\\\ using molecular sequences to...
Once registered in the Congress, when you access the online upload of your communication, you will find a drop-down with this same list in which to select the scientific reasearch group of your communication ...
Open access - A new peer-reviewed journal presenting applications of alternative in vitro testing methods for predicting adverse effects in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and personal care industries.
Recommend to a librarian - A new peer-reviewed journal presenting applications of alternative in vitro testing methods for predicting adverse effects in the pharmaceutical, chemical, and personal care industries.
Enrollment will be limited 16 per batch, on first-come first-served basis within the purview of regional representation. The participants will have to bear the cost of Travel, accommodation and Food. Food and accommodation can be arranged on request, for which the approximate cost will be Rs. 5000/- per participant. Payment is to be made only after receiving intimation from MGDC about the selection. This mail of intimation contains details about the mode of payment ...
Theresa wrote, , Im finding it difficult to accept that the ascites benefit can , justify the move away from non-animal production of AB because I , question the use of animals for production purposes when there is , a viable non-animal alternative. , Cell culture served our company well many years , prior to this change. Can the cost savings be so staggering that , its worth using this method? I too, would be reticent to move to an animal-based system if a cell-based system has been working for so long. Ive harvested ascites ,nuf said, and as another post alluded, it isnt clean, it needs to be processed to isolate the Ig. I welcome your concern ...
Embodiments of the present invention generally comprise stabilizers for biological products that are free from animal origin excipients/components, such stabilizers functioning well in lyophilization procedures.
A comprehensive summary of validated and alternative methods and the availability and international regulatory status of non-animal toxicity test methods.
17 July 2015 The EU Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL Ecvam), part of the Commissions Joint Research Centre, has just published a strategy calling for more integration of non-animal methods into testing. The [...] ...
Learn about PetLac Kitten Milk Replacement (Canada) for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information.
Learn about Vetericyn Plus Eye Wash (Active Sporting Dog) for animal usage including: active ingredients, directions for use, precautions, and storage information.
Achieve consistent and reproducible results in cell culture assays with Corning PureCoat amine and carboxyl surfaces-chemically defined, animal-free enhanced cell culture surfaces that are manufactured using a proprietary surface technology to deliver high lot-to-lot consistency. These surfaces offer a more consistent and defined alternative to the coating of cultureware with biological proteins and attachment factors, reducing the variability in your culture system and delivering more predictable biological outcomes.. ...
What we must move towards are clear restrictions on the use of [all] non-human primates, a ban on the use of wild-caught animals, an unequivocal obligation to use non-animal alternative methods when scientifically available, and a ban on experiments which involve severe and prolonged suffering - todays ruling fell woefully below this" (2 ...
Our R&D innovations over the decades find us today with highly specialized expertise in increasingly relevant technologies that inform modern healthcare.. Collagen, a component of film plays an important role in regenerative medicine. Fujifilm developed a non-animal based recombinant peptide which is applicable as a safe extracellular matrix for a variety of cells and a broad range of medical applications.. For over 80 years Fujifilm has continually invested in research and development resulting in world-class, highly versatile fundamental core technologies.. These technologies and knowledge were accumulated in the photographic film business. Today this expertise allows Fujifilm to design and innovate new products and services for diverse businesses that will shape the future for Fujifilm.. We describe this birth of new applications and technologies from Fujifilms extraordinary background of innovation as leveraging fundamental core technologies.. ...
After one early dog disaster, I was persistent in begging my "non-animal person" mom for a dog. I was in 7th grade when Mickey (named after Mickey Mouse) entered my life. He was about pocket size as a pup and did not grow much bigger for Mickey was a Toy Manchester. The most unusual thing Mickey did was to curl himself up in his blanket. It was a systemized technique he developed. First he bunched up the blanket with his front paws and push his nose underneath as he threw the covers up over his body. Then he would walk around in circles with his blanket over himself until he was satisfied and lay down in a manner that where the blanket would wrap around him. The funniest part was when someone came to the house. Mickey would bark and you would see this blanket moving across the floor until his head finally popped out ...
Hyadent BG Is the first worldwide product manufactured by BioScience GmbH - Germany containing a special type of hyaluronic acid from non-animal source, specifically designed to be used in dentistry.. Uses of Hyadent BG:. ...
We just attended the 14th meeting of AERA. It has been a great opportunity to meet colleagues and share our last research in the field. Dr. Felipe Martínez-Pastor participated in a satellite meeting on the problems and development of the research career, aimed at young researchers.. We also took the advantage to celebrate the first [...]. ...
As of the 170th meeting held on 8 June 2017, Medsafe will publish the reports presented to the Medicines Adverse Reactions Committee after each meeting.. ...
JaCVAM(Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods) 国立医薬品食品衛生研究所 安全性生物試験研究センター 薬理部 新規試験法評価室
Save 34% Universal - Animal Test 21 Pack Animal Test The Hypertrophic Test Stack Anabolic Response Amplifier Arachidonic Acid Divanillyl Cissus Trans Resveratrol Hesperetin Yohimbe What Animal Test Is Gear up. . Every training session, every meal, is another test to pass. Your approach is dead serious. Nothing is left to chance. You know the importance of testosterone. More test = more size & strength. It is that simple. That is why you gear up with Animal Test. Animal Test keeps it simple, breaking down the muscle-building process to its bare essence & amplifying the anabolic response. Animal Test is legal hypertrophic, pro-testosterone supplementation at its best. Animal Test helps enhance both testosterone output and utilization. Animal Test cuts to the core of the muscle-building process, modifying and enhancing the anabolic response. In other words, Test is money in the bank.* Who We Are In 1983 Animal was founded with the birth of Animal Pak, the venerable training pack that started it all. Born
Save 34% Universal - Animal Test 21 Pack Animal Test The Hypertrophic Test Stack Anabolic Response Amplifier Arachidonic Acid Divanillyl Cissus Trans Resveratrol Hesperetin Yohimbe What Animal Test Is Gear up. . Every training session, every meal, is another test to pass. Your approach is dead serious. Nothing is left to chance. You know the importance of testosterone. More test = more size & strength. It is that simple. That is why you gear up with Animal Test. Animal Test keeps it simple, breaking down the muscle-building process to its bare essence & amplifying the anabolic response. Animal Test is legal hypertrophic, pro-testosterone supplementation at its best. Animal Test helps enhance both testosterone output and utilization. Animal Test cuts to the core of the muscle-building process, modifying and enhancing the anabolic response. In other words, Test is money in the bank.* Who We Are In 1983 Animal was founded with the birth of Animal Pak, the venerable training pack that started it all. Born
February 22, 2016 GAITHERSBURG, MD - February 22, 2016 - The Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) has received a grant from the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) to develop non-animal test methods for the evaluation of fragrance materials for potential respiratory irritation and sensitization.. The grant was secured in collaboration with Liverpool John Moores University and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. The proposal, "The use of a novel non-animal platform to characterize respiratory effects of fragrance materials" combines computational approaches as well as in chemico techniques, and includes a testing plan in harmony with concepts for the OECD Adverse Outcome Pathway program.. "The ability to evaluate the effect of fragrance materials on the respiratory system is significant for many industries. This project is expected to deliver far-reaching benefits to the scientific community for evaluating respiratory irritation and sensitization," said Dr. ...
Task force member, Microbial risk analysis in food safety, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (2004-2005). Expert reviewer, Control of Listeria monocytogenes in foods, International Life Science Institute (2003-2004). Panel chair, Food Science and Post Harvest Technology, United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund (2002-2005). Food and Water Safety Committee member, U.S. Department of Defense (2002-2005). Working Group member, Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (2001-2005); Organizing committee member, Central Sciences Laboratory/JIFSAN Annual Symposium Series (2001-2005); Steering committee member, International Risk Assessment Training, International Life Science Institute (2001-2003). Senior Science Council member, Food and Drug Administration (2001-2005). Lead Scientist Council member, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (2001-2005). Science Council member, FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition ...
Alternatives to animal experimentation The in vitro core toxicology unit is studying placental transportation of substances and materials in a laboratory model with fresh placentas from births at the Rigshospitalet (RH). A variety of chemicals, such as pesticides, substances formed during food preparation, biological therapeutics, naturally occurring large biomolecules, as well as nanoparticles are studied in the system. In collaboration with clinicians and pathologists from the RH, the in vitro core unit is elaborating the model and also participating in international validation programs of alternatives to animal experimentation. The vision is, in collaboration with other in vitro toxicology researchers, to create a battery of toxicology tests to minimize the use of experimental animals, which is an action point in the research strategy of the EU. As the research activities of the in vitro core unit involve blood and tissue from participants, ethical issues related to recruitment, feedback and ...
Overall, the complexity of organs and events involved in the reproductive cycle simply prevents to find "the" alternative test for reproductive toxicology [13]. However, the reproductive cycle can be broken up in building blocks (components and/or pathways), so to set up a comprehensive battery of tests, each of them addressing one component. This led to a project structure with three major research areas dealing with cell/tissue specific approaches and with the ambition of providing an array of test targeting the essential steps of reproductive cycle: fertility; implantation; prenatal development. Whereas the developmental toxicity tests were closer to optimization phase, the test batteries dealing with male and female fertility and implantation were more complex to develop encompassing a number of cells/tissues (sperm, Leydig cells, oocytes, ovary granulosa cells, trophoblasts, etc.) and of targeted parameters (DNA integrity, steroidogenesis, etc.). Noticeably, during ReProTect some new ...
The EU Cosmetics Directive aims to phase out animal testing. It established a prohibition on the testing of finished cosmetic products (since 2004) and cosmetic ingredients (since 2009) on animals and a prohibition on the marketing in the EU of finished cosmetic products and ingredients included in cosmetic products which were tested on animals outside the EU. The latter marketing ban applies since 2009 for all human health effects with the exceptions of repeated-dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity and toxicokinetics. For these health effects, the ban will apply step by step but with a maximum cut-off date of 10 years after the entry into force of the directive (11 March 2013), irrespective of the availability of alternative non-animal tests.(1). 1. Does the Commission agree that a case-by-case derogation would mean a delay in the complete marketing ban on animal testing, and that with this third delay the Commission will lose credibility with the citizens of Europe?. 2. Given that 80-90 % of ...
This article summarizes the outcome of an international workshop organized by the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) on Modern science for better quality control of medicinal products: Towards global harmonization of 3Rs in biologicals. As regards the safety testing of biologicals, the workshop participants agreed to actively encourage the deletion of abnormal toxicity tests and target animal batch safety tests from all relevant legal requirements and guidance documents (country-specific guidelines, pharmacopoeia monographs, WHO recommendations). To facilitate the global regulatory acceptance of non-animal methods for the potency testing of, e. Read More ...
For the AHLA Life Sciences Institute, Epstein Becker Green attorney Bradley M. Thompson presented an update on combination products. ...
Anahad OConnor A prominent medical journal on Monday published a scathing attack on global health advice to eat less sugar. Warnings to cut sugar, the study argued, are based on weak evidence and cannot be trusted.. But the review, published in The Annals of Internal Medicine, quickly elicited sharp criticism from public health experts because the authors have ties to the food and sugar industries.. The review was paid for by the International Life Sciences Institute, a scientific group that is based in Washington, D.C., and is funded by multinational food and agrochemical companies including Coca-Cola, General Mills, Hersheys, Kelloggs, Kraft Foods and Monsanto. One of the authors is a member of the scientific advisory board of Tate & Lyle, one of the worlds largest suppliers of high-fructose corn syrup.. Critics say the medical journal review is the latest in a series of efforts by the food industry to shape global nutrition advice by supporting prominent academics who question the role of ...
Sacramento, CA (PRWEB) July 13, 2006 -- Ventria Bioscience announces the introduction of Cellastim™, an animal-free recombinant Human Serum Albumin. This
The Cosmetics Directive (76/768/EEC) is the overall piece of EC legislation that regulates the manufacture and placing on the market of cosmetic products. Its m
Corporate Europe Observatory (CEO) last week highlighted in a report that at least four members of EFSAs management board are employed by or otherwise linked with food industry lobby groups and other commercial interests, a situation that creates potential conflicts of interest. These board members are: Matthias Horst (director general of the German food industry lobby BVE), Milan Kováč (director of International Life Sciences Institute Europe), Jiří Ruprich (Danone Institute) and Piet Vanthemsche (farmers lobby COPA and Agri Investment Fund).. EFSAs press officer responded by arguing that according to EFSAs Founding Regulation, four of the 15 Management Board members "shall have their background in organisations representing consumers and other interests in the food chain". She said that these four members are currently Matthias Horst (industry), Piet Vanthemsche (farmers), Sue Davies (consumers) and Sinikka Turunen (consumers).. CEO does not find such a justification acceptable and ...
These so-called "second generation" crops modified for output traits will pose some regulatory and commercialization challenges. The first is that they will not, by definition, be substantially equivalent to isogenic non-GE varieties. Protocols have been developed to address the safety testing of these crops (International Life Sciences Institute, 2007). However, given the different regulatory approaches that are in place for crops that are compositionally equivalent, it is unclear how regulatory requirements may vary between countries in terms of the number and length of target animal feeding studies for these crops with altered output traits. Additionally, if the benefits derived from growing these crops accrue to the livestock producer or feeder and not directly to the farmer growing the crop, there will need to be some form of supply chain segregation in place to ensure a price premium is obtained for the value-added output trait.. An additional concern is the increasing problem of ...
The animal model qualification process provides a defined framework for the submission, review, and regulatory acceptance of an animal model as a drug development tool (DDT) for use in multiple drug[1] development programs. This framework provides for interactions between FDA and the submitter throughout the model development process, thereby allowing for ongoing consultation. A qualified animal model is developed independently of any specific drug (i.e., product-independent); the use of a qualified model in multiple drug development programs targeting a particular disease or condition eliminates the need to develop specific models for each investigational new drug. Overall, qualification of an animal model results in the reduction of time, animals, and resources committed by any one animal model development program ...
Health,The comet assay has gained rapid importance in detecting various forms...The comet assay attracts adherents by its simplicity speed vers...The principle is that strand breakage of the duplex DNA leads to d...The main requirement of the assay is a single cell or nuclei suspe...There is a positive movement towards formal regulatory acceptance ...,Detecting,DNA,Damage,With,In-Vivo,Alkaline,Comet,Assay,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
And there is no wane in sight. First, the extra-territorial "imitators" have been cast into disarray by the shrewd strategic move of the Prosecco producers to take their future back into their own hands. The Prosecco DOC was first awarded in 1969 and was restricted to wines produced in the Conegliano-Valdiobbadene region. Growers felt that the brand was under attack by "imitators" using just the grape variety and moved to isolate those competitors by changing both the rules and the venue of the game. Prosecco growers agitated for, and gained regulatory acceptance of: (i) extension of the Prosecco DOC to cover all of Friuli-Venezia-Giulia and approximately two-thirds of Veneto; (ii) promotion of the original Prosecco DOC to DOCG status; (iii) changing the name of the source grape from Prosecco to Glera; and (iv) restricting the use of the name Prosecco only to Glera sparkling wines produced within the delimited zones. The growers felt that these actions would serve to protect their territory, the ...
United Scientific Group (USG) cordially invites all the participants from all over the world to attend "International Conference on Infectious Diseases" during November 5-7, 2018 in Berlin, Germany (Infectious Diseases-2018). ...
The freeMD virtual doctor has found 3 conditions that can cause Eye Irritation and Skin Pain. There are 2 common conditions that can cause Eye Irritation and Skin Pain. There is 1 somewhat common condition that can cause Eye Irritation and Skin Pain.
The "In Vitro Toxicology Testing Market by Products (Assays) & Services, Toxicity Endpoints & Tests (ADME, Skin, Genotoxicity, Or
Committed to developing alternative testing methods; JRF Global offers a customized battery of in vitro tests for the chemical and cosmetic industry for new ingredients and finished products.
Liver transplantation for hepatocarcinoma. Highlights of the 9th Meeting of the International Liver Transplantation Society (ILTS) and the 13th Meeting of the Liver Intensive Care Group of Europe (LICAGE ...
The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). Before 2010, it was known as the Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons (SUSDP). The SUSMP classifies drugs and poisons into different Schedules signifying the degree of control recommended to be exercised over their availability to the public. The Schedules are referred to under State and Territory legislation for regulatory purposes. Although each State and Territory has its own laws, the vast majority of medicines and poisons are classified according to the SUSMP to achieve uniform national regulation. The current version, the SUSMP 16, is contained in the Poisons Standard February 2017. Medication that is available on the shelf at supermarkets, convenience stores, and pharmacies. These are considered to be low risk drugs, and have directions of use clearly labelled on both the packaging, and the receptacle. ...
... is a set of hybrid car technologies developed by Toyota and used in that companys Prius, Highlander Hybrid, Camry Hybrid, Lexus RX 400h, and Lexus GS 450h automobiles. It combines the characteristics of an electric drive and a continuously variable transmission, using electricity and transistors in place of toothed gears. The Synergy Drive is a drive-by-wire system with no direct mechanical connection between the engine and the engine controls: both the gas pedal and the gearshift lever in an HSD car merely send electrical signals to a control computer.. HSD is a refinement of the original Toyota Hybrid System (THS) used in the 1997â€"2003 Toyota Prius. As such it is occasionally referred to as THS II. The name was changed in anticipation of its use in vehicles outside the Toyota brand (Lexus).. When required to classify the transmission type of an HSD vehicle (such as in standard specification lists or for regulatory purposes), Toyota describes HSD-equipped ...
Even more alarming are internal documents suggesting that AstraZeneca was designing clinical trials as a covert method of marketing Seroquel. In 1997, when Dr. Andrew Goudie, a psychopharmacologist at the University of Liverpool, asked AstraZeneca to fund a research study he was planning, a company official replied that "R&D is no longer responsible for Seroquel research-it is now the responsibility of Sales and Marketing." The official also noted that funding decisions would depend on whether the study was likely to show a "competitive advantage for Seroquel.". Another set of documents from 2003 describes a glucose metabolism study apparently designed to fend off the charge that Seroquel causes patients to gain weight and become diabetic. One slide describes two purposes for the study: a "regulatory" purpose and a "commercial" purpose. The regulatory purpose was to "produce data that will help us defend the Seroquel label." The commercial purpose was to "produce data that will enable us to ...
Restriction Description: The information obtained during the conduct of this trial is considered confidential and can be used by Novo Nordisk for regulatory purposes and for the general development of the trial product. The information obtained during this trial may be made available to other physicians who are conducting other clinical trials with the trial product, if deemed necessary by Novo Nordisk ...
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set water quality standards for contaminants in water, soil and air. In order to ensure water resources are well protected and guarantee a safe supply of drinking water it is critical that these standards are enforced. The EPA allows for alternative methods for compliance monitoring through its Alternative Test Procedures (ATP) program.
FALSE negative tests can definitely be a BIG problem…and it can happen with several diseases, besides Lyme!! Rheumatoid Arthritis to syphilis…and many others disease processes in between. (False positives can also skew things for patients!). Thats why its so important to find a doctor who doesnt just TREAT TEST RESULTS! Yet this gets much harder to do, especially as technology advances! More and more doctors rely SOLELY on our tests and lab results…often not even repeating them if questioned by the patient, or not researching a possible alternative test…or a diagnosis based on other grounds or observed criteria! And they rely so much less now on taking good patient HISTORIES…and sadly even LESS on good PHYSICAL exam assessments!!. Weve all likely run into this! Where later we find out our histories are so incomplete…or just plain wrong! And also where we could honestly have a tennis shoe growing out of our bodies and the doctor wouldnt even KNOW…because he or she DIDNT EVEN ...
List of 6 disease causes of Minor eye irritation, patient stories, diagnostic guides, drug side effect causes. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Minor eye irritation.
The SBGrid Consortium is an innovative global research computing group operated out of Harvard Medical School. SBGrid provides the global structural biology community with support for research computing.
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Geron stops human embryonic stem cell tests Geron Corp., the company that started the first U.S.-approved trial of human embryonic stem cells, fell the most in more than 11 years after research costs and regulatory complexities caused it to end the program. The first trial testing Gerons embryonic stem-cell therapy in spinal-cord injury patients began in April. In October, it reported that none of the four patients in the trial had experienced negative reactions to the therapy, consisting of 2 million cells injected into their spines at the damaged site.
Assessment of eye irritation hazard has long been a core requirement in any chemical legislation. Nevertheless, publications focussing on the eye damaging potential of nanomaterials are scarce. Traditionally, eye irritation testing was performed using rabbits. The OECD Test Guideline 437 Bovine Corneal Opacity and Permeability (BCOP) test method allows determining severely irritating substances without animals, and the recently adopted OECD Test Guideline 492 Reconstructed human cornea-like epithelium test method allows identifying chemicals that neither induce eye irritation nor serious eye damage. For substances applicable to these tests, huge progress has been made in replacing animal testing. The in vitro eye irritation potential of 20 nanosized and 3 non-nanosized materials was investigated in a 2-tier EpiOcular™ Eye Irritation Test (EpiOcular™-EIT) and BCOP testing strategy including histopathology of the bovine corneas. Furthermore, applicability of the testing strategy for nanomaterials was
The virtual doctor has found 6 conditions that can cause Pain in the Lower Abdomen and Abnormal Eye Irritation. There is 1 somewhat common condition that can cause Pain in the Lower Abdomen and Abnormal Eye Irritation. There is 1 uncommon condition that can cause Pain in the Lower Abdomen and Abnormal Eye Irritation. There are 4 rare conditions that can cause Pain in the Lower Abdomen and Abnormal Eye Irritation.
Region sees growth in total number of companies and employment. For Release January 31, 2013. Kansas City, MO. - Despite economic turmoil the past three years, the hub of life sciences in the Kansas City region continues to grow and reveals a changing landscape. According to the 2012 Life Sciences Industry Census released Jan. 31 from the Kansas City Area Life Sciences Institute (KCALSI) the number life science companies in the region grew 17 percent since 2009. The increase in companies was accompanied by an increase of 21 percent in employment in the life sciences sector. When asked about future hiring trends, almost 90 percent of respondents indicated plans to add employees over the next 36 months.. "National statistics indicated that the biotechnology sector weathered the Great Recession very well," said Dr. Keith Gary, KCALSI director of program development. "Its great to see that trend validated in our region.". In 2009 the Kansas City region was home to 206 life science companies in 24 ...
In thein vitro evaluation of Sun Protection Factor (SPF), the photostability of the ultraviolet (UV) filters can have a major impact, especially for high-SPF formulations, but is generally not taken into consideration. In this study, we present a UV transmission spectrum measurement system utilizing a high-sensitivity UV photomultiplier tube with concomitant evaluation of photostability. We have developed an algorithm to estimate SPF in vitro by converting the amount of UV light transmission through the sunscreen layer into cumulative relative erythema effectiveness to obtain one minimal erythema dose. Thus, the algorithm uses the same endpoint as in vivo SPF methods, but with a photomultiplier tube as the detector instead of skin. The values obtained showed an excellent correlation with in vivo SPF values, even for high-SPF sunscreens exceeding SPF 50. This method should be suitable as an in vitro SPF testing method for regulatory purposes. ...
The article discusses animals and laboratory research in colonial India. The focus of the article is how India managed to procure the vast numbers of animals it needed to conduct animal experimentation in Indian laboratories. The author presents the use of animal experimentation from the perspective of Indias social history of colonialism arguing that is necessary to view animal experimentation in Indian laboratories within the context of Indian animals being subjects and resources of Great Britain. Topics include how the use of animals in Indian laboratories was shaped by Victorian moralities and Hindu animal sensibilities, the transformation of the animal body into a scientific object, and the importance of animals as part of colonialism.. ...
Animal welfare and rights in India regards the treatment of and laws concerning non-human animals in India. It is distinct from animal conservation in India. India is home to several religious traditions advocating non-violence and compassion towards animals, and has passed a number of animal welfare reforms since 1960. India is also one of the worlds leading producers of animal products. Indias first national animal welfare law, the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, criminalizes cruelty to animals, though exceptions are made for the treatment of animals used for food and scientific experiments. The 1960 law also created the Animal Welfare Board of India to ensure the anti-cruelty provisions were enforced and promote the cause of animal welfare. Subsequent laws have placed regulations and restrictions on the use of draught animals, the use of performing animals, animal transport, animal slaughter, and animal experimentation. The Breeding of and Experiments on Animals (Control and ...
The Consensus Document on Alternatives to Allogenic Blood Transfusion (AABT) has been drawn up by a panel of experts from 5 scientific societies. The Seville Consensus Document on Alternatives to Allogenic Blood Transfusion

होम्योपैथी प्रैक्टिस (हिंदी) folliculinum homeopathy glaucoma homeopathy | Health Booksहोम्योपैथी प्रैक्टिस (हिंदी) folliculinum homeopathy glaucoma homeopathy | Health Books

... ayurveda diet test,ayurveda doctors,ayurveda dosha test,ayurveda ebooks free download,ayurveda education,ayurveda elements, ... homeopathy for animals,homeopathy sepia,viscum album homeopathy,ledum homeopathy,homeopathy usa,carcinosin homeopathy,national ... alternative medicine,ama ayurveda,amazon ayurveda,ancient ayurveda,arthritis ayurveda,association ayurveda,astro jadi buti ...
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Cell-based alternative to animal testingCell-based alternative to animal testing

... 08.08.2011. European legislation restricts animal testing within the pharmaceutical ... Our lab-based alternative to animal testing, although in an early stage of production, is faster, out-performs present ... 1. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests Henrik ... Animal Testing »BioMed »Dermatitis »Genomics »Hypoallergenic »human cell »low immunogenicity »sensitizing potency ...
more infohttp://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/life-sciences/cell-based-alternative-animal-testing-179836.html

Alternatives to animal testing | News | CORDIS | European CommissionAlternatives to animal testing | News | CORDIS | European Commission

Background Animals are still used abundantly to assess the efficacy and safety of cosmetics, medicines, food additives,...,FP4- ... Human health and animal welfare both stand to gain from the development of new in vitro toxicology tests, based on cultured ... or refine animal testing. Directive 86/609/EEC bans the use of an animal test when an equally satisfactory alternative test is ... Alternatives to animal testing. Human health and animal welfare both stand to gain from the development of new in vitro ...
more infohttps://cordis.europa.eu/news/rcn/14402_en.html

Plan Expedites Alternatives To Animal Testing | EmaxHealthPlan Expedites Alternatives To Animal Testing | EmaxHealth

Alternative test methods are those that accomplish one or more of the 3Rs of reducing the number of animals used in testing, or ... new alternative test methods can be developed that will benefit animal welfare by reducing, refining, and replacing animal use ... and alternative testing methods that protect human and animal health and the environment. ... said a high priority for ICCVAM will be to focus on evaluating alternatives to test methods that use a large number of animals ...
more infohttps://www.emaxhealth.com/95/20760.html

Colipa Approves Animal Testing AlternativesColipa Approves Animal Testing Alternatives

... scientific committee now endorses new safety test methods that eliminate animal testing. ... Colipa announced yesterday that The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (EVCAM) ... scientific committee now endorses new safety test methods that eliminate animal testing. The tests, validated on May 2, ... Colipa Approves Animal Testing Alternatives. October 30, 2008 , Contact Author , By: Katie Schaefer. ...
more infohttp://www.cosmeticsandtoiletries.com/testing/animalalt/7312021.html

Animal Testing Alternatives | Foundation for Biomedical ResearchAnimal Testing Alternatives | Foundation for Biomedical Research

Alternatives to Animal Testing and Research. Alternatives to Animal Testing and Research ... As additional alternatives are developed, science will naturally reduce the need and use of animal models. This progression ... But there is no way to completely replace animal testing and research because the pathway to fully duplicating a whole, living ... The scientific community looks forward to the day when animal testing and research is no longer needed in the future. ...
more infohttps://fbresearch.org/biomedical-research/alternatives-to-animal-testing-and-research/

Scientific Alternatives to Animal Testing - Advocacy for AnimalsScientific Alternatives to Animal Testing - Advocacy for Animals

Animal abuse Animal cruelty Animal rescue Animal testing Animal welfare Animal Welfare Act Antibiotics Bears Birds California ... replacement of animal testing with other techniques, reduction of the number of animals tested, and refinement of animal tests ... And about 90% of test animals are rodents, by the way. And in the UK, only 3 animals are used in animal testing for 1 person ... Everyone is not aware how do the scientists do the cruetly test on animals. They do test DRUGS on animals.. Animals are ...
more infohttp://advocacy.britannica.com/blog/advocacy/2007/09/scientific-alternatives-to-animal-testing-a-progress-report/

First lab-grown epidermis points to animal testing alternativesFirst lab-grown epidermis points to animal testing alternatives

New skin test will create "faster and more accurate" alternative to animal testing ... said they had come up with a skin testing alternative that promised a faster and more accurate alternative to animal testing ... EC recommendation published for skin sensitivity test * P&G develops first approved non-animal alternative for skin allergy ... First lab-grown epidermis points to animal testing alternatives. By Simon Pitman ...
more infohttps://www.cosmeticsdesign-europe.com/Article/2014/04/25/First-lab-grown-epidermis-points-to-animal-testing-alternatives

Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing - WikipediaCenter for Alternatives to Animal Testing - Wikipedia

Alternatives to animal testing UCDavis Center for Animal Alternatives Dr Hadwen Trust Henry Spira Official website. ... a global clearinghouse for information on alternatives to animal testing, and publishes a general animal news blog, A Boundless ... The Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) has worked with scientists since 1981 to find new ... and use of alternatives to animals in research, product safety testing, and education. It is not an activist group; rather, it ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Center_for_Alternatives_to_Animal_Testing

Alternatives to Animal Testing: A Review of Trends and PerspectivesAlternatives to Animal Testing: A Review of Trends and Perspectives

This article summarizes validated alternatives to test the safety of cosmetic ingredients. It also illustrates how great a ... Alternative test methods have the potential to reduce animal testing; however, the extent to which in vitro methods can be ... challenge it is to devise a proper alternative method. ... The design of alternative methods to replace animal testing in ... Abstract: Alternative test methods have the potential to reduce animal testing; however, the extent to which in vitro methods ...
more infohttp://www.cosmeticsandtoiletries.com/testing/animalalt/216582541.html

Stemnovate: using new technologies as an alternative to animal testingStemnovate: using new technologies as an alternative to animal testing

The technology will improve drug testing and help patients by increasing drug safety, effectiveness, with the potential to ... Stemnovate is a biotech company which delivers innovative drug-screening and safety-testing platforms, and has recently been ... platforms as an alternative to animal testing for human drug development. ... For starters, it is more ethical as the process does not involve animal or human testing, and is therefore also safer for the ...
more infohttps://www.pwc.co.uk/who-we-are/regional-sites/south-east/insights/stemnovate--using-new-technologies-as-an-alternative-to-animal-t.html

Altweb: Alternatives to Animal Testing - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthAltweb: Alternatives to Animal Testing - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

ALTERNATIVES NEWS. Altweb News. News from Altweb: the latest in information about alternatives and humane science ... 2nd Pan-American Conference for Alternative Methods. August 23-24, 2018. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Eurotox 2018. September 2-5, ... Building a Better Epithelium: Breaking the Barrier to the Next Generation of Toxicity Testing. March 10, 2018. San Antonio, TX ... This award is available annually to young scientists to acknowledge and encourage researchers who focus on replacing animal ...
more infohttp://altweb.jhsph.edu

European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing - WikipediaEuropean Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing - Wikipedia

The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) promotes the application of Russell and Burchs ... systems biology and stem cells Alternatives to animal testing EPAA conference 2005 EPAA Mirror Group minutes EPAA partners ... Current and consolidated ragulations on cosmetics and animal testing are laid down in the Cosmetics Regulation 1223/2009. ... reduction and refinement of animal testing: applicability in food and feed risk assessment or the ECHAs Practical guide "How ...
more infohttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Partnership_for_Alternative_Approaches_to_Animal_Testing

Newsletter - Altweb: Alternatives to Animal Testing - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public HealthNewsletter - Altweb: Alternatives to Animal Testing - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health

Follow the latest news from CAAT and the field of alternatives to animal testing in our CAATwalk newsletter. We respect your ... 2nd Pan-American Conference for Alternative Methods. August 23-24, 2018. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Eurotox 2018. September 2-5, ... Building a Better Epithelium: Breaking the Barrier to the Next Generation of Toxicity Testing. March 10, 2018. San Antonio, TX ...
more infohttp://altweb.jhsph.edu/newsletter/index.html

European Union approves new alternatives to animal testing of drugs and chemicals | Times Higher Education (THE)European Union approves new alternatives to animal testing of drugs and chemicals | Times Higher Education (THE)

This test will not only reduce the number of animals used in labs, but also the costs of testing. An added bonus is that these ... The tests approved today will not only reduce the number of animals needed for testing, but will also increase the accuracy of ... approved six new alternative testing methods that will reduce the need for certain drugs and chemicals to be tested on animals ... European Union approves new alternatives to animal testing of drugs and chemicals. ...
more infohttps://www.timeshighereducation.com/news/european-union-approves-new-alternatives-to-animal-testing-of-drugs-and-chemicals/202087.article

The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) - Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the...The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) - Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the...

Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition , ... Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition. ... SIAT Swiss Institute for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Technopark, Pfingstweidstr. 30, CH-8005 Zürich ... in Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition (ed C. A. Reinhardt ...
more infohttp://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9783527616053.ch3/summary

Chip-chip Hooray!: Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - 
An Animal Rights Article from all...Chip-chip Hooray!: Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - An Animal Rights Article from all...

Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - All of Gods creatures have rights, includes both human and ... Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - An Animal Rights Article from All-Creatures.org. FROM. ... Citizens for Alternatives to Animal Research and Experimentation (CAARE). December 2015. These advances are ushering in a new ... animal research.. Our message to the world is that its time to stop apologizing for animal research as a necessary evil. CAARE ...
more infohttp://www.all-creatures.org/articles/ar-alt-chip-chip.html

Promoting the Uptake of Alternatives to Animal Testing Through the Development of eLearning ToolsPromoting the Uptake of Alternatives to Animal Testing Through the Development of eLearning Tools

https://iivs.org/2015/03/23/protocol-considerations-for-testing-surfactants-and-surfactant-based-formulations-in-the-bovine- ... https://iivs.org/2015/03/23/a-tiered-in-vitro-irritationcorrosion-testing-strategy-for-ghs-classification-of-pharmaceutical- ...
more infohttps://iivs.org/sitemap-pt-post-2015-03.html

Qlucore Omics Explorer Helps Researchers to Find Alternatives to Animal Testing for Allergen Studies - Drug Development...Qlucore Omics Explorer Helps Researchers to Find Alternatives to Animal Testing for Allergen Studies - Drug Development...

The aim of the Sens-it-iv project is to develop in vitro alternatives to animal tests currently used for the risk assessment of ... Qlucore Omics Explorer Helps Researchers to Find Alternatives to Animal Testing for Allergen Studies. 10 March 2010 ... but the possibility of finding alternatives to animal testing also motivates us to make new discoveries in this area." ... whilst also providing a viable alternative to animal testing.". Adverse reactions to sensitising agents are steadily increasing ...
more infohttps://www.drugdevelopment-technology.com/contractors/it/qlucore/pressreleases/press5-7/

Petition · Stop Animal Testing: Replace Animals in Research with Non-Animal Alternative Methods · Change.orgPetition · Stop Animal Testing: Replace Animals in Research with Non-Animal Alternative Methods · Change.org

Alternatives for Testing Alternatives to the use of animals in toxicity testing include replacing animal tests with non-animal ... Alternatives to animal tests are effective, reliable, affordable and humane. Proponents of non-animal testing methods in the ... C B needs your help with "Stop Animal Testing: Replace Animals in Research with Non-Animal Alternative Methods". Join C and ... C B needs your help with "Stop Animal Testing: Replace Animals in Research with Non-Animal Alternative Methods". Join C and ...
more infohttps://www.change.org/p/stop-animal-testing-replace-animals-in-research-with-non-animal-alternative-methods?javascript=false

How effective does animal testing alternatives work such as computer modelling and human tissue cultures? | ArticliciousHow effective does animal testing alternatives work such as computer modelling and human tissue cultures? | Articlicious

How effective does animal testing alternatives work such as computer modelling and human tissue cultures?. Animal Testing is ... How effective does animal testing alternatives work such as computer modelling and human tissue cultures?. November 22, 2013. ... admin alternatives, animal, computer, cultures, Effective, human, modelling, such, testing, tissue, work ... But given the legislation and higher expense of animal testing over other methods I would assume that is often the case, though ...
more infohttp://articlicious.com/1006927/how-effective-does-animal-testing-alternatives-work-such-as-computer-modelling-and-human-tissue-cultures/

animal testsanimal tests

... animal tests, chemicals testing, EU REACH system, non-animal tests, replacement alternative, tests, ... animal tests, chemicals testing, EU REACH system, non-animal tests, replacement alternative tests, ... animal tests, animal welfare, harmonisation, international guidelines, regulatory, replacement, testing, toxicity tests, ... Temp Worker 2017-01-09T06:06:16+00:00 Tags: alternatives and complementary methods, animal tests, in vitro tests, toxicology, ...
more infohttp://www.atla.org.uk/tag/animal-tests/

Stop The Insanity Alternatives To Animal TestingStop The Insanity Alternatives To Animal Testing

Alternatives to Animal Testing Every year, nearly 100 million animals die in research laboratories at the hands of curious ... scientists who perform outdated and inaccurate tests that prove no benefit to humans or animals.(Day 58) Before these animals ... animal experimentation has failed to provide any major breakthroughs this century in the treatment of cancer and heart disease ... Alternatives To Animal Testing Essay, Research Paper Stop The Insanity: ...
more infohttp://mirznanii.com/a/85270/stop-the-insanity-alternatives-to-animal-testing

Biograf 3R - Computational Alternatives to Animal TestingBiograf 3R - Computational Alternatives to Animal Testing

It tests the binding of small molecules against a total of 16 target proteins: AR, AhR, CYP1A2, CYP2C9, CYP2D6, CYP3A4, ERα, ER ... The new approach has been validated employing 1,288 test compounds. The results are shown → here. VirtualToxLab™ 5.0 March 15, ...
more infohttp://www.biograf.ch

Humane Society Internationals Global Campaign to End Animal Testing - Alternatives to Laboratory AnimalsHumane Society International's Global Campaign to End Animal Testing - Alternatives to Laboratory Animals

... introduction and use of alternatives to laboratory animals in biomedical research and testing. ... Humane Society Internationals Global Campaign to End Animal Testing. Home/ATLA 41, 2013/ATLA 41.6, December 2013/Humane ... Anne Jeffery 2017-01-09T06:38:57+00:00 Tags: Adverse Outcome Pathway, animal testing, AXLR8, chemical, cosmetic, data ... FRAME, and has been a key scientific journal in the field of laboratory animal alternatives for more than 30 years. Circulated ...
more infohttp://www.atla.org.uk/humane-society-internationals-global-campaign-to-end-animal-testing/
  • Refine, lessen, substitute - those are the 3 calls for that scientists have put upon themselves of their look for choices to animal trying out. (studentselect.work)
  • A number of replacement tests, validated by ECVAM and its partners or by other agencies, are now in use or are being discussed at European and OECD levels. (europa.eu)
  • In embryotoxic compound identification tests, ECVAM exploits the ability of embryonic stem cells to differentiate in vitro into various tissues (e.g. beating heart tissue). (europa.eu)
  • Tests validated by ECVAM must be approved by its Scientific Advisory Committee, composed of representatives of the 25 member states, academia, industry and animal welfare organizations before they can be used in labs across Europe. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • The work of ECVAM is funded from the EU's Research Framework Programme, with support from Member States, industry and animal welfare organisations. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • By using advances in scientific knowledge, ECVAM will help to increase patient safety and animal welfare. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • At the end of the 1980s, no scientific concept existed for the formal validation of in vitro toxicity tests, so a small group of European and American scientists met to develop a set of principles for experimental validation, which were first adopted by ECVAM in Europe in 1995, and, after harmonisation with experts from the USA and Japan, accepted internationally by the OECD in 1996. (atla.org.uk)
  • ECVAM has directly funded a number of validation studies, and a major breakthrough in the year 2000 was the acceptance for regulatory purposes in the EU of cientifically validated in vitro toxicity tests for phototoxic potential and for skin corrosivity. (atla.org.uk)
  • These, and other examples which are discussed, confirm that the internationally harmonised ECVAM/ICCVAM/OECD validation concept is a practical and effective way of making possible the replacement of regulatory testing in animals. (atla.org.uk)
  • A similar in vitro test is the IC50 test, which can be used to determine the cytotoxicity of a chemical in terms of the chemical's ability to inhibit the growth of half of a population of cells. (britannica.com)
  • Their innovative research will help to support Sens-it-iv, a large EU-funded research project that aims to develop and optimise in vitro test strategies that could reduce or replace animal testing for sensitisation studies. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
  • European legislation restricts animal testing within the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries and companies are increasingly looking at alternative systems to ensure that their products are safe to use. (innovations-report.com)
  • Cell and tissue culture (in vitro) studies are used to screen for anti-cancer, anti-AIDS, and other types of drugs, and they are also a means of producing and testing a number of other pharmaceutical products, including vaccines, antibiotics, and therapeutic proteins. (change.org)
  • The opportunities for replacing obligatory bioassays and safety tests are assessed, taking into account both pharmaceutical quality and animal welfare aspects. (atla.org.uk)
  • Cost-effective: testing pharmaceutical drugs and their effects using animal subjects can take up to five years per substance as well as cost millions of dollars. (wordpress.com)
  • We want to demonstrate the possibility of leveraging microengineered physiological organ models to challenge a century-long tradition of using animals as human surrogates in life sciences. (all-creatures.org)
  • For example, Pharmagene Laboratories, based in Royston, England, is the first company to use only human tissues and sophisticated computer technologies in the process of drug development and testing. (change.org)
  • While some companies have used animal tissues for this purpose, Pharmagene scientists believe that the discovery process is much more efficient with human tissues. (change.org)
  • But there is no way to completely replace animal testing and research because the pathway to fully duplicating a whole, living system does not yet exist. (fbresearch.org)
  • The scientific community looks forward to the day when animal testing and research is no longer needed in the future. (fbresearch.org)
  • Concern over the care and management of animals used in scientific research was initially raised in the 19th century in Great Britain, where the Cruelty to Animals Act was adopted in 1876. (britannica.com)
  • A significant step forward-for both supporters and opponents of animal research-occurred in 1959, when British zoologist William Russell and British microbiologist Rex Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique . (britannica.com)
  • These concepts became the foundation for the development of scientific alternatives to animal testing, and they continue to guide the treatment of animals in modern scientific research. (britannica.com)
  • I started my career as an academic and veterinarian, followed by almost 9 years of stem cell research that included working with cutting-edge technologies, like cellular reprogramming, before starting a biotech business, part of which is developing 'organ-on-chip' platforms as an alternative to animal testing for human drug development. (pwc.co.uk)
  • Animal research is a multi-billion dollar industry. (all-creatures.org)
  • Many scientists, companies and institutions - including government - sustain established programs and careers based on animal research. (all-creatures.org)
  • Because I know that it will take more than innovations in science to end the standard of using animals in research. (all-creatures.org)
  • CAARE demonstrates every day that research without animals is not just some hypothetical goal, but is happening right now in universities, labs and corporations around the world, yielding exciting new results that surpass animal research. (all-creatures.org)
  • Our message to the world is that it's time to stop apologizing for animal research as a necessary evil. (all-creatures.org)
  • Two of the main funders of animal-based research in North America, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, need to hear that you don't want your tax dollars used to underwrite animal experiments and urge them to stop requiring cruel and obsolete animal tests for pharmaceuticals and allow companies to substitute in vitro tests. (change.org)
  • Alternatives for Research Comparative studies of human populations allow doctors and scientists to discover the root causes of human diseases and disorders so that preventive action can be taken. (change.org)
  • Salem 284) In some cases, the level of statistical expertise appears to be so low that investigators are unable to obtain appropriate statistical analysis of experimental results, which leads to the inefficient use of animals and scientific resources in research (Salem 284). (mirznanii.com)
  • Scientific research and testing has been performed on animals for hundreds of years. (wordpress.com)
  • The specialist cannot effectively search for alternatives without a basic understanding of the type of research the investigator is proposing. (usda.gov)
  • Investigators can assist information specialists by being prepared to give precise and specific information about their research or testing procedures. (usda.gov)
  • Are you aware of any possible alternatives to your research, such as experiments conducted on alternative species, cell culture, or in vitro studies? (usda.gov)
  • The inaccuracy of the Draize test has been recognized for many years, but its replacement has not been a simple matter, and the development of better in vitro techniques has taken nearly a decade. (britannica.com)
  • It supports interlaboratory pre-validation and formal validation studies, and will itself also be practically involved in the development and validation of non-animal tests and testing strategies. (wiley.com)
  • These advances are ushering in a new era for replacing animals in drug discovery and development. (all-creatures.org)
  • Animals are still widely used in drug development and safety tests, despite evidence for their lack of predictive value. (atla.org.uk)
  • Pioneers in the development and application of non-animal testing alternatives for irritation and skin toxicity testing. (invitrointl.com)
  • Hendriksen and Koeter 99) This is also accomplished by careful consideration of animal disease status and genotype, appropriateness of strain or species and the quality of the animal husbandry, all to minimize experimental variation. (mirznanii.com)
  • EU requires cytotoxicity tests done to determine the potential of a product to cause skin irritation. (invitrointl.com)
  • In September 1999, the Centre was the principal organiser of the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in Bologna, Italy. (europa.eu)
  • Many countries - including the United States - have already established national centres to advance non-animal methodologies, but CCAAM is the first and only centre of its kind in Canada. (livekindly.co)
  • The first step in conducting a search for alternatives, involves communication between the investigator and the information specialist. (usda.gov)
  • Members of the EPAA as of March, 2012 included five Directorates-General of the EC, 36 companies and six European trade associations representing various sectors of the industry In recent decades, legislation aimed at the promotion of the 3Rs in regulatory testing have systematically been introduced into Europe. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animals used in experimental procedures are subjected to inhumane eugenics for the entire duration of their short and miserable lives. (wordpress.com)
  • When searching for alternatives, the staff at the Animal Welfare Information Center (AWIC) refer to the tenets of the 3 R's introduced by W.M.S. Russell and R.L Burch (1959) in their book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique 1. (usda.gov)
  • What makes your study unique from previous studies (e.g., testing a new technique, investigating a new compound, further understanding of a biochemical pathway)? (usda.gov)
  • The basic reason for animal trials is to determine two issues before any new compound is introduced into a human: safety and efficacy. (wordpress.com)
  • Rodents, particularly mice, have very short life spans, so you can see how a compound would react in a young animal, then in the same geriatric animal, and then in the next-generation animal, all in a time frame that is reasonable. (wordpress.com)
  • Margolis, a former journalist and former chairman of natural vitamin brand, Jamieson Laboratories, now dedicates his time to supporting animal welfare causes, including the Humane Society International's work to end the South Korean dog meat trade. (livekindly.co)