A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.
Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.
The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.
Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.
RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.
A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.
A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.
DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.
The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.
A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.
A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.
Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.
The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.
Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).
A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.
Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.
Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.
A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.
Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.
Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.
The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.
The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.
Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.
CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)
The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.
Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.
Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The three possible sequences of CODONS by which GENETIC TRANSLATION may occur from one nucleotide sequence. A segment of mRNA 5'AUCCGA3' could be translated as 5'AUC.. or 5'UCC.. or 5'CCG.., depending on the location of the START CODON.
A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.
Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.
An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.
A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).
Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.
Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.
Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.
A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.
A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.

Functional human corneal equivalents constructed from cell lines. (1/352)

Human corneal equivalents comprising the three main layers of the cornea (epithelium, stroma, and endothelium) were constructed. Each cellular layer was fabricated from immortalized human corneal cells that were screened for use on the basis of morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological similarity to their natural counterparts. The resulting corneal equivalents mimicked human corneas in key physical and physiological functions, including morphology, biochemical marker expression, transparency, ion and fluid transport, and gene expression. Morphological and functional equivalents to human corneas that can be produced in vitro have immediate applications in toxicity and drug efficacy testing, and form the basis for future development of implantable tissues.  (+info)

Comparison of a rabbit model of bacterial endocarditis and an in vitro infection model with simulated endocardial vegetations. (2/352)

Animal models are commonly used to determine the efficacy of various antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial endocarditis. Previously we have utilized an in vitro infection model, which incorporates simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of various antibiotics. In the present study, we compared four experimental rabbit endocarditis protocols to an in vitro infection model in an effort to determine if these models are comparable. We have evaluated the activity of clinafloxacin, trovafloxacin, sparfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin in rabbit models against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. In vitro models were performed simulating the antibiotic pharmacokinetics obtained in the in vivo studies. Models were dosed the same as rabbit models, and SEVs were evaluated at the same time the rabbit vegetations were examined. Clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin were evaluated against methicillin-susceptible (MSSA1199) and -resistant (MRSA494) strains of S. aureus. Ciprofloxacin was studied against MSSA1199 and MSSA487. Sparfloxacin and clinafloxacin were evaluated against Enterococcus faecium SF2149 and Enterococcus faecalis WH245, respectively. We found that reductions in SEV bacterial density obtained in the in vitro model were similar to those obtained in rabbit vegetations, indicating that the SEV model may be a valuable tool for assessing antibiotic potential in the treatment of bacterial endocarditis.  (+info)

Comparative in vitro-in vivo percutaneous absorption of the pesticide propoxur. (3/352)

In vitro and in vivo skin absorption of the pesticide propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methyl carbamate, commercially Baygon(TM) and Unden (TM); log Po/w 1.56, MW 209.2) was investigated. In vivo studies were performed in rats and human volunteers, applying the test compound to the dorsal skin and the volar aspect of the forearm, respectively. In vitro experiments were carried out in static diffusion cells using viable full-thickness skin membranes (rat and human), non-viable epidermal membranes (rat and human) and a perfused-pig-ear model. Percutaneous penetration of propoxur in human volunteers was measured by analysis of its metabolite (2-isopropoxyphenol) in blood and urine; in all other studies radiolabeled propoxur ([ring-U-(14)C]propoxur) was used. In order to allow for direct comparison, experimental conditions were standardized with respect to dose (150 microg propoxur per cm(2)), vehicle (60% aqueous ethanol) and exposure time (4 h). In human volunteers, it was found that approximately 6% of the applied dose was excreted via the urine after 24 h, while the potential absorbed dose (amount applied minus amount washed off) was 23 microg/cm(2). In rats these values were 21% and 88 microg/cm(2), respectively. Data obtained in vitro were almost always higher than those obtained in human volunteers. The most accurate in vitro prediction of the human in vivo percutaneous absorption of propoxur was obtained on the basis of the potential absorbed dose. The absorbed dose and the maximal flux in viable full-thickness skin membranes correlated reasonably well with the human in vivo situation (maximal overestimation by a factor of 3). Epidermal membranes overestimated the human in vivo data up to a factor of 8, but the species-differences observed in vivo were reflected correctly in this model. The data generated in the perfused-pig-ear model were generally intermediate between viable skin membranes and epidermal membranes.  (+info)

Prediction of eye irritation from organic chemicals using membrane-interaction QSAR analysis. (4/352)

Eye irritation potency of a compound or mixture has traditionally been evaluated using the Draize rabbit-eye test (Draize et al., 1944). In order to aid predictions of eye irritation and to explore possible corresponding mechanisms of eye irritation, a methodology termed "membrane-interaction QSAR analysis" (MI-QSAR) has been developed (Kulkarni and Hopfinger 1999). A set of Draize eye-irritation data established by the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) (Bagley et al., 1992) was used as a structurally diverse training set in an MI-QSAR analysis. Significant QSAR models were constructed based primarily upon aqueous solvation-free energy of the solute and the strength of solute binding to a model phospholipid (DMPC) monolayer. The results demonstrate that inclusion of parameters to model membrane interactions of potentially irritating chemicals provides significantly better predictions of eye irritation for structurally diverse compounds than does modeling based solely on physiochemical properties of chemicals. The specific MI-QSAR models reported here are, in fact, close to the upper limit in both significance and robustness that can be expected for the variability inherent to the eye-irritation scores of the ECETOC training set. The MI-QSAR models can be used with high reliability to classify compounds of low- and high-predicted eye irritation scores. Thus, the models offer the opportunity to reduce animal testing for compounds predicted to fall into these two extreme eye-irritation score sets. The MI-QSAR paradigm may also be applicable to other toxicological endpoints, such as skin irritation, where interactions with cellular membranes are likely.  (+info)

Pathology of ocular irritation with acetone, cyclohexanol, parafluoroaniline, and formaldehyde in the rabbit low-volume eye test. (5/352)

The ocular irritation responses to 11 different surfactants and two concentrations of acetic acid and sodium hydroxide have been shown to depend on the extent of initial injury, despite marked differences in the processes leading to tissue damage. The purpose of these studies was to determine the extent to which this fundamental relationship applies to other nonsurfactants. Ten microl of acetone (ACT). cyclohexanol (CY), parafluoroaniline (PF), or 37% formaldehyde (FA) was directly applied to the cornea of the right eye of each rabbit. Eyes and eyelids were macroscopically scored for signs of irritation beginning 3 hours after dosing and periodically until recovery or 35 days. Tissues were obtained for light microscopic examination after 3 hours and on days 1, 3, and 35. Initial corneal injury was characterized quantitatively at 3 hours and I day using in vivo confocal microscopy (CM) and by postmortem quantitation of dead corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes using a Live Dead Assay (L/D, Molecular Probes) and scanning laser CM. Corneal changes over time were characterized quantitatively using in vivo CM performed at 3 hours and 1, 3, 7, 14, and 35 days. The changes with ACT were consistent with mild irritation. Corneal injury was limited to the epithelium and superficial stroma, with the mean normalized depth of injury (NDI) being less than 10% with the majority of regions showing no stromal injury. Changes with CY and PF were consistent with moderate to severe irritation, and FA caused severe irritation. Specifically, corneal injury by CY and PF tended to involve the epithelium and anterior stroma, with the mean NDI being 10.4% to 23.8%, while injury with FA involved the epithelium, deep stroma, and at times the endothelium. Interestingly, with FA significantly less injury was observed at 3 hours with a dramatic increase in injury observed at 1 day and thereafter. In conclusion, these results continue to support and extend our hypothesis that ocular irritation is principally defined by the extent of initial injury despite clear differences in the means by which irritants cause tissue damage. We believe this approach can be applied to developing alternative assays based on injury to ex vivo eyes or injury to an in vitro corneal equivalent system.  (+info)

TestSmart-high production volume chemicals: an approach to implementing alternatives into regulatory toxicology. (6/352)

This article examines the status and application of alternatives defined as replacements, refinements, and reduction for screening high production volume (HPV) chemicals. It specifically focuses on the Screening Information Data Set (SIDS), a series of toxicological tests recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to screen such chemicals. Alternative tests associated with acute, repeat-dose, genetic, and reproductive and developmental toxicity were examined at 2 meetings of academic, industry, and regulatory scientists and their status determined. Tests were placed in 1 of 3 categories: ready for immediate use, in need of or currently undergoing validation, or needing research/developmental work. With respect to traditional acute toxicity testing, the basal cytotoxicity approach was placed in the category of research with the up-and-down, fixed-dose, limit test, and the acute toxic class categorized as available for immediate use and the neutral red assay under validation. Cell culture methods that could provide information on acute target organ toxicity were all categorized in the research stage. Studies of the Ah receptor were placed under validation. All alternative tests for repeat-dose toxicity were placed in the category of research. With regard to genetic toxicity, the Ames, mouse lymphoma, and Chinese hamster ovary methods were considered ready for immediate use, while the in vitro micronucleus and Syrian hamster ovary assays were placed in the validation category. All alternatives for developmental toxicity, with the exception of gene chip technology, were placed in the category of validation. Gene chip technology is considered to be in the research stage. For reproductive toxicity, sperm motility and morphology were considered as ready for immediate use, with the other assays categorized as needing validation or in the research stage. Follow-up to these results is obvious. Work needs to be conducted to move those tests from the research stage to the validation and use stage. This is one approach to the development of alternatives to SIDS. Progress along these lines would apply not only to SIDS but also to toxicology in general.  (+info)

A reply to Joseph Bernstein. (7/352)

Dr. Bernstein suggests that anti-vivisectionists should be able to fill in a directive requesting that they receive no medical treatment developed through work on animals. It is replied that this would only be reasonable if research not using animals had long been funded as adequately and its results were currently available.  (+info)

DNA repair-deficient Xpa and Xpa/p53+/- knock-out mice: nature of the models. (8/352)

Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease in which repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage is impaired or is totally absent due to mutations in genes controlling the DNA repair pathway known as nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP is characterized, in part, by extreme sensitivity of the skin to sunlight, and XP patients have a more than 1000-fold increased risk of developing cancer at sun-exposed areas of the skin. To study the role of NER in chemical-induced tumorigenesis in more detail, the authors developed Xpa-/- homozygous knockout mice with a complete defect in NER (designated as Xpa mice or XPA model). Xpa mice develop skin tumors at high frequency when exposed to UV light, and as such, they mimic the phenotype of human XP. Moreover, the Xpa mice also appear to be susceptible to genotoxic carcinogens given orally. Based on these phenotypic characteristics, the Xpa mice were considered to be an attractive candidate mouse model for use in identifying human carcinogens. In an attempt to further increase both the sensitivity and specificity of the XPA model in carcinogenicity testing, the authors crossed Xpa mice with mice having a heterozygous defect in the tumor suppressor gene p53. Xpa/p53+/- double knockout mice develop tumors earlier and with higher incidences upon exposure to carcinogens as compared to their single knockout counterparts. Here the authors describe the development and features of the Xpa mouse and present some examples of the Xpa and Xpa/p53+/- mouse models' sensitivity towards genotoxic carcinogens. It appeared that the Xpa/p53+/- double knockout mouse model is favorable over both the Xpa and p53+/- single knockout models in short-term carcinogenicity testing. In addition to the fact that the double knockout mice respond more robustly to carcinogens, they also appear to respond in a very discriminative way. All compounds identified thus far are true (human) carcinogens, and, therefore, the authors believe that the Xpa/p53+/- mouse model is an excellent candidate for a future replacement of the chronic mouse bioassay, at least for certain classes of chemicals.  (+info)

The Mid-Atlantic Society of Toxicology will present a webinar on Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods: Current Status and Future Directions. NICEATM Director Warren Casey will speak on Predicting in vivo effects using in vitro data: the future of alternatives. Other speakers include George DeGeorge of MB Research Labs, Rodger Curren of the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, and Thomas Hartung of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. The webinar will be presented on May 14, 2015 from 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.. Full Details and Registraton ...
The validation and regulatory acceptance of non-animal alternative tests is critical to the adoption of more humane scientific methodologies. Virtually all federally funded research is paid for with your tax dollars. Two of the main funders of animal-based research in North America, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, need to hear that you dont want your tax dollars used to underwrite animal experiments and urge them to stop requiring cruel and obsolete animal tests for pharmaceuticals and allow companies to substitute in vitro tests. (Government funded animal testing costs U.S. taxpayers $12 billion annually) Alternatives to animal tests are effective, reliable, affordable and humane. Proponents of non-animal testing methods in the scientific community have shown that these methods are quicker and cost-effective. Unlike crude, archaic animal tests, non-animal methods usually take less time to complete, cost only a fraction of what the animal ...
At the end of 1991, the Commission of the European Communities informed the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament of its decision to set up a European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), in line with its responsibilities under Directive 86/609/EEC. The main goal of ECVAM is to coordinate, at the European level, activities designed to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. ECVAM is assisted by a Scientific Advisory Committee representative of all parties concerned with the validation of alternative methods, namely the Member States, and European industries, animal welfare organizations and academia. ECVAM is currently establishing information services and a series of workshops, task forces and symposia. It supports interlaboratory pre-validation and formal validation studies, and will itself also be practically involved in ...
PubMed comprises more than 30 million citations for biomedical literature from MEDLINE, life science journals, and online books. Citations may include links to full-text content from PubMed Central and publisher web sites.
Who Scientific Group On Cardiovascular D, author of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: New Areas for Research (Technical…, on LibraryThing
As historic events go the approval of Osiris Pharmaceuticals stem cell treatment Prochymal in Canada, making it the first regulatory approval for the technology outside of China, received a relatively muted response both in the wider pharma community and the financial one.
Authors: S Fitzpatrick, M Wind, A Jacobs, D Hattan, J Kulpa-Eddy, V Malshet, M Mumtaz, M Snyder, D McCarley, S Morefield, C Sprankle, D Allen, W Stokes. Abstract - Poster - Text-only version of poster. Abstract Number 1810A: Establishment of the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM) and Its Role in the Validation and Regulatory Acceptance of Globally Harmonized Safety Assessment ...
In order to evaluate water-insoluble chemicals using the skin model which is more similar to real skin and detectable interaction among three kind cells, we established a test method which is a three-dimensional human skin model consisting of normal fibroblasts, normal keratinocytes and normal dendritic cells utilizing a collagen vitrigel membrane (VG-KDF-Skin). Nine sensitizers and five non-sensitizers were then examined. After 24 hr, the amount of IL-1α and IL-4 release was measured, and then positive/negative outcomes were evaluated (VG-KDF-Skin method ...
AFC TOMATO CHEESE CORN SAUCE Cream corn and V-8 VEGETABLE JUICE lay the foundation for a multi-dimensional culinary experience! Smooth sensations all the way around! Who would think from two common ingredients such a surprise package could catapult itself into the world of animal-free cuisine! Anything is possible when you cook animal-free!! Makes 3 cups…
The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) has recommended a non-animal test method to identify estrogen agonist and antagonist activity. In addition to recommending the test, ICCVAM also found the method to provide a number of benefits over the method currently employed in the United States.
The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) has recommended a non-animal test method to identify estrogen agonist and antagonist activity. In addition to recommending the test, ICCVAM also found the method to provide a number of benefits over the method currently employed in the United States.
This notice announces the broadly applicable alternative test method approval decisions that EPA has made under and in support of New Source Performance Standards (NSPS) and the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) in 2010.
THE BUSINESS TIMES Companies & Markets - CURRENT cancer screening methods are invasive and costly. Think of the mammographies, endoscopies, or biopsies that are presently done to detect cancer. Local biotechnology start-up Mirxes Pte Ltd is looking to revolutionise cancer detection methods by offering blood tests in place of current diagnostic methods to detect early stage cancer.. Read more at The Business Times.
In case of buried or semi soil-buried liquefied gas tanks, an inner coating is generally required (a water pressure test must also be conducted under certain circumstances). However, test procedures have been developed in recent years that allow these tanks to be tested, in many cases, without requiring the tanks to be opened. These test procedures involve a feed test and a sound emission test. The sound emission test is an alternative test procedure to detect changes in the material. This takes place by applying a load (pressure increase), which causes an emission of acoustic waves in the material. The feed test is also alternative test procedure. In this case, the effectiveness of the container insulation is tested. (The feed test also requires carrying out a random sound emission test for a reference test. The random noise emission test is carried out on 10% of these tanks in addition to the feed measurement that is carried out on 100% of these tanks.) Instead of coating the inner wall, an ...
Colonoscopies are highly effective screening tools used to detect colon cancer, rectal cancer, and other conditions. They are very safe, but not completely without risk. Learn more here.
Buy Products for non-animal specific by Shiny Hardware for your Non-Animal Specific from VioVet. FREE UK DELIVERY available over £29. Great prices and super easy to use website, see for yourself now.
As scientists around the world race to create COVID-19 therapeutics, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd. -- an organization dedicated to promoting human-relevant, non-animal testing strategies -- has co-launched a free, publicly available six-part webinar series focusing on the applications and benefits of animal-free recombinant antibodies. Antibodies are molecules produced by an organisms immune system in order to fight viruses, bacteria, or other foreign particles in the body.
The Executive Committee continued its discussions on HCFC production sector issues in the open-ended contact group which was initially formed at the 55th Meeting. The contact group was able to make progress and reach consensus on several issues. In preparation for the 57th Meeting, the Fund Secretariat was requested to provide a summary of information publicly available on relevant elements of the operation of the clean development mechanism (CDM) and the amounts of HCFC-22 production available for credits as a first step. The Committee also decided to constitute and convene the production sector sub-group at the 57th Meeting to continue the discussion on HCFC production sector phase-out issues including: the practices and procedures laid out in decision 19/36; the calculation of HCFC production sector phase out costs; the encouragement of a synchronized production/consumption phase-out as part of the first HPMP; incentives for early phase-out of HCFC production and/or providing disincentives ...
Anyone who wishes to use live animals in research or teaching at Western University and its affliates must disclose all procedures in an approved Animal Use Protocol (AUP). All AUPs are reviewed by the ACC, consisting of animal-using researchers, research lab animal technicians, grad students, non-animal-using researchers, a veterinarian, and members of the community at large who have never worked in animal research. Any subsequent changes to the AUP post-approval must also be reviewed and approved by the ACC via Protocol Modification. For more information on Animal Use Protocols, please visit the ACC Website.. To begin an AUP at Western, please contact [email protected] for more information.. ...
To date, recombinant human TGF-β1 has only been expressed in mammalian cell lines. Our protein experts have optimised TGF-β1, allowing us to produce highly bioactive protein in an E. coli expression system. This allows us to produce the first truly animal-free TGF-β1 for chemically-defined stem cell media.. As with Qkines other products, we provide full quantitative bioassay and biochemical data. Qkines TGF-β1 PLUS has also been validated for its ability to effectively maintain iPSC pluripotency by the specialist stem cell biotechnology company, Stemnovate, Cambridge, UK.. Benefits:. ...
Animal cell culture for the production of viral vaccines has been performed for more than 50 years, and currently this technology is expanding rapidly to meet present and future demands of the health sector. The development and regulatory approval of continuous cell lines for manufacturing viral vaccines has brought numerous benefits to production processes. However, greater advances in the last decade have been achieved in mammalian cell production of biological therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and clotting factors. We and others have contributed to these upstream advances by improving cell culture media with the development of animal-free and chemically-defined recombinant protein supplements. The supplements we have developed include recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (LONG®R3IGF-I), epidermal growth factor (LONG®EGF), transforming growth factor-á (LONG®TGF-á), transferrin (CellPrime™ rTransferrin AF), and albumin (CellPrime™ rAlbumin
Recombinant Mouse FGF-basic (Animal-Free) - FGF-basic, also known as FGFb and FGF-2, is a member of the fibroblast growth factor (FGF) family which includes 23 members.
Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I, Human, Recombinant, E. coli, Animal-Free CAS - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
In the EU and US regulators have noted this progress. In 2012 the European Medicines Agency (EMA) revised its concept paper on the replacement of animal studies with in vitro tests to more clearly define the process for regulatory acceptance of alternatives, recognizing the increased use of in vitro methods and the need for formal validation studies on some occasions, and proof of scientific validity on others. (Revised Concept paper on the need for revision of the position on the replacement of animal studies by in vitro models (CPMP/SWP/728/95). Regulatory bodies in the EU and US are both becoming increasingly favourable towards in vitro research, says ISAB in vitro manager Maria Malmlöf. She points out that regulatory change around in vitro testing has been slower in inhalation than other fields, given the notorious complexity of delivering drugs to the lung. Recent regulatory recommendations on, for example, the testing of biosimilars (low-cost generic copies of biologic drugs) ...
7/17/20 The United Kingdom reports a wealth of information every year on its use of animals in research. Every animal procedure must be categorized according to the overall purpose (and specific disease area or regulatory purpose if relevant), the genetic status of the animals and the severity of the procedure. Great Britain (England, Scotland and…
A new article by scientists at Unilever, a corporate member of the HTPC, describes several areas of safety science in which they are using a pathway-based approach to replace traditional animal tests with a combination of human cell-based in vitro assays and computational models. The article, Toxicity testing - non-animal approaches and safety science (by…
The U.S. Food and Drug Administrations insistence on keeping its 2007 predicate date has drawn protests not only from vapor companies but also from animal lovers.. Countless animals will suffer and die now that newer tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, will be required to FDA approval in order to enter or remain on the market, wrote the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) in response the new regulations.. To obtain FDA approval, tobacco manufacturers will be required to show that their products reduce the risk to current tobacco users and do not increase the risk to non-users. In a guidance document accompanying the rule, the FDA encourages manufacturers of electronic nicotine-delivery systems to meet with its Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) early in the development process to discuss what, if any, animal testing the agency considers appropriate or whether non-animal tests may be acceptable.. The FDA has stated that animal tests will still be required for toxicological ...
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The Tox21 partner agencies work together to develop, validate, and translate innovative in vitro HTS methods to characterize the impact of chemicals on key steps in toxicity pathways.. Data collected in the Tox21 initiative has been used to prioritize uncharacterized compounds for regulatory testing using both traditional and novel test methods. To more broadly address challenges in the field of toxicology, in 2018 Tox21 released a new strategic and operational plan (Thomas et al. 2018) that expands the focus of its research activities. New focus areas include expanding its portfolio of alternative test systems, addressing technical limitations of in vitro test systems, curating legacy in vivo toxicity testing data, establishing scientific confidence in in vitro test systems, and refining alternative methods for characterizing pharmacokinetics and in vitro assay disposition. The eventual goal of Tox21 is to use HTS methods to generate data that will allow risk assessors to more accurately ...
Foods of non-animal origin (FoNAO) are consumed in a variety of forms, being a major component of almost all meals. These food types have the potential to be associated with large outbreaks as seen in 2011 associated with VTEC O104. In order to identify and rank specific food/pathogen combinations most often linked to human cases originating from FoNAO in the EU, a semi-quantitative model was developed using seven criteria: strength of associations between food and pathogen based on the foodborne outbreak data from EU Zoonoses Monitoring (2007-2011), incidence of illness, burden of disease, dose-response relationship, consumption, prevalence of contamination and pathogen growth potential during shelf life. The top ranking food/pathogen combination was Salmonella spp. and leafy greens eaten raw followed by (in equal rank) Salmonella spp. and bulb and stem vegetables, Salmonella spp. and tomatoes, Salmonella spp. and melons, and pathogenic Escherichia coli and fresh pods, legumes or grains. ...
Although federal regulations require scientists to consider non-animal research methods fully in their proposals, there has been little training on the
Vegans can improve their omega-3 levels by taking non-animal formsof DHA. Also, browse our large selection of articles and products available at VitaNet®, LLC
The implementation of the SkinEthic™ HCE method, as a validated reference method in the OECD test guidelines TG 492 is already considered.. The draft of TG492 on Reconstructed human Cornea-like Epithelium test method for eye hazard potential is currently under review by the states members of OECD with an approval expected by summer 2017. Our corneal model and corresponding protocols (for liquids and for solids) are designed to comply with regulatory purposes to classify and label chemicals regarding in vitro ocular irritation assessment. ...
MEDICO REMEDIES PVT. LTD. - Manufacturer and Exporter of ClindaMed Oral Drops for Animal Use at most reasonable prices from India.
REACh is the regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on June 1, 2007. It streamlines and improves the former legislative framework on chemicals of the European Union (EU). The main aims of REACh are to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment from the risks that can be posed by chemicals, the promotion of alternative test methods, the free circulation of substances on the internal market and the enhancement of competitiveness and innovation. REACh makes industry responsible for assessing and managing the risks posed by chemicals and providing appropriate safety information to their users. In parallel, the European Union can take additional measures on highly dangerous substances, where there is a need for complementing action at EU level.4 As a result of REACh, the production and use of chemicals is regulated. Substances that are produced and/or used in amounts of more than 1000 kg/year must be ...
Formaldehyde Emissions Testing - GA 6000 uses EN717-2 gas analysis method that is approved by CARB as an Alternative test method.
This issue of ALTEX includes a Food for thought article from Joanne Zurlo, two t4 workshop reports, an article about an alternative QSAR-based approach for predicting the bioconcentration factor for regulatory purposes, and much more.
Cellular metabolism is essential to sustain life and underlies a vast number of mechanisms of pathogenesis. Among thousands of small-molecule metabolites, we are particularly interested in key intermediary metabolites that are shared by metabolic reactions for building cellular blocks and chemical modifications for regulatory purposes. These metabolites include S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) and acetyl-CoA, and they are kinetically stable but thermodynamically activated. We found that cellular SAM is substantially consumed by methylation of phospholipids and the histones. This bulk turnover of SAM can influences cell growth and the redox environment, as it subsequently fuels the synthesis of cysteine and glutathione. We also discovered that a unique carboxyl methylation of the major phosphatase PP2A can act as a cellular gauge of SAM. Metabolic processes that alter cellular SAM levels can thus signal SAM-sensitive PP2A methylation for phosphoproteomic control. We demonstrated a PP2A-governed ...
Genentech, Inc. (NYSE:DNA) and Biogen Idec (Nasdaq:BIIB) today announced that a global Phase III study of Rituxan(R) (rituximab) in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy met its primary endpoint of improving progression-free survival (PFS), as assessed by investigators, in patients with previously treated CD20-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) compared to chemotherapy alone. There were no new or unexpected safety signals reported in the study. An independent review of the primary endpoint is being conducted for U.S. regulatory purposes. Data from the study, REACH, will be submitted for presentation at a future medical meeting. Earlier this year, another European Phase III study, CLL-8, showed a similar treatment combination improved PFS in patients with CLL who had not previously received treatment. REACH, the largest relapsed CLL trial ever conducted, is the first Phase III study of this treatment combination to show an improvement in progression-free ...
A Proposed Definition of Microbiota Transplantation for Regulatory Purposes, Gut Microbes, Mar. 20, 2017 (with others).. Stopping Deceptive Health Claims: The Need for a Private Right of Action Under Federal Law, 42 American Journal of Law & Medicine 53 (2016) (with Jack Schwartz). [Full Text]. The Importance of Including the Deans, Journal of Law, 41 Medicine & Ethics 81 (Supp. 2016).. Access to Essential Medicines in African Countries: An Introduction, 31 Maryland Journal of International Law 1 (2016) (with Peter Danchin). [Full Text]. Increasing Access to Dental and Medical Care by Allowing Greater Flexibility in Scope of Practice, 105 American Journal of Public Health 1755 (2015) (with Richard J. Manski and Virginia Rowthorn).. Laying the Foundation for an Interprofessional, Comparative Health Law Clinic, 42 Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 392 (2014) (with Chikosa Banda and Kassim Amuli). [Abstract]. Probiotics: Achieving a Better Regulatory Fit, 69 Food & Drug Law Journal 237 (2014) (with ...
Proceeding/Conference:Preprints of the 4th Workshop on Harmonisation within Atmospheric Dispersion Modelling for Regulatory Purposes, Belgium, May 1996 ...
The Contrary Intention Report is used for reporting of contrary expiration quantities for Saturday expiring options. This information is required by options exchanges for regulatory purposes. Contrary Intention Report ...
Density and relative density measurements of light hydrocarbons, including LPG, are used for transportation, storage and regulatory purposes. The measurement is made by floating a thermohydrometer in a sample that has been introduced into a pressure cylin
ABRSM Alternative Aural Tests For Deaf And Hearing Impaired: Grade 1-8 Alternatives to aural tests for deaf and hearing-impaired Piano candidates. Alternative tests for other instruments, for blind and par
With the recent approval of the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) for skin sensitization (allergy), toxicologists now have a battery of methods that allows them to test for sensitization without using animals. Testing a chemical substance for skin irritation or corrosion is pretty straight-forward: the substance is applied to a skin sample (there are…
Your doctor may be able to rule out prostate cancer without a biopsy. Learn about alternative tests that can be used to determine your risk.
I think that the subjectee (i dont know if thats a word), even if they have no rights, should still be able to consent to this, this should be given as an option or as an alternative, if presented at all. For example, if someone is about to get the electric chair, they can opt for an alternative test subject. Put on max security, no contact by outside source, and the only contact they get is the docs that work on them. But i can only assume this would turn out to be a pointlessly small number of people ...
CRC cases, which had previously undergone targeted NGS with the Ion AmpliSeq Cancer Hotspot Panel version 2 (v2) (Thermo Fisher Scientific), were taken from the departmental archive at the John Radcliffe Hospital. Where possible, sample sizes (20 cases; equal numbers of positive and negative cases by NGS) for each validation were selected in line with recommendations.22 In some cases, limited material was available for testing, for example, only 5 mutated NRAS cases were identified in the archive and therefore 5 positive and 13 negative (only 18 cartridges were available) were used.. The Idylla KRAS Mutation Test and the Idylla NRAS-BRAF-EGFRS492R Mutation Assay were validated in this study, details of which are given in table 1 along with a comparison of the alternative tests used locally. The general principles and methods for Idylla testing have been described previously.15 Briefly, formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue was macrodissected from a single 5 μm unstained section for ...
Save 34% Universal - Animal Test 21 Pack Animal Test The Hypertrophic Test Stack Anabolic Response Amplifier Arachidonic Acid Divanillyl Cissus Trans Resveratrol Hesperetin Yohimbe What Animal Test Is Gear up. . Every training session, every meal, is another test to pass. Your approach is dead serious. Nothing is left to chance. You know the importance of testosterone. More test = more size & strength. It is that simple. That is why you gear up with Animal Test. Animal Test keeps it simple, breaking down the muscle-building process to its bare essence & amplifying the anabolic response. Animal Test is legal hypertrophic, pro-testosterone supplementation at its best. Animal Test helps enhance both testosterone output and utilization. Animal Test cuts to the core of the muscle-building process, modifying and enhancing the anabolic response. In other words, Test is money in the bank.* Who We Are In 1983 Animal was founded with the birth of Animal Pak, the venerable training pack that started it all. Born
Save 34% Universal - Animal Test 21 Pack Animal Test The Hypertrophic Test Stack Anabolic Response Amplifier Arachidonic Acid Divanillyl Cissus Trans Resveratrol Hesperetin Yohimbe What Animal Test Is Gear up. . Every training session, every meal, is another test to pass. Your approach is dead serious. Nothing is left to chance. You know the importance of testosterone. More test = more size & strength. It is that simple. That is why you gear up with Animal Test. Animal Test keeps it simple, breaking down the muscle-building process to its bare essence & amplifying the anabolic response. Animal Test is legal hypertrophic, pro-testosterone supplementation at its best. Animal Test helps enhance both testosterone output and utilization. Animal Test cuts to the core of the muscle-building process, modifying and enhancing the anabolic response. In other words, Test is money in the bank.* Who We Are In 1983 Animal was founded with the birth of Animal Pak, the venerable training pack that started it all. Born
Ocular irritation testing is a common requirement for the classification, labelling and packaging of chemicals (substances and mixtures). The in vivo Draize rabbit eye test (OECD Test Guideline 405) is considered to be the regulatory reference method for the classification of chemicals according to …
February 22, 2016 GAITHERSBURG, MD - February 22, 2016 - The Institute for In Vitro Sciences, Inc. (IIVS) has received a grant from the Research Institute for Fragrance Materials (RIFM) to develop non-animal test methods for the evaluation of fragrance materials for potential respiratory irritation and sensitization.. The grant was secured in collaboration with Liverpool John Moores University and the Physicians Committee for Responsible Medicine. The proposal, The use of a novel non-animal platform to characterize respiratory effects of fragrance materials combines computational approaches as well as in chemico techniques, and includes a testing plan in harmony with concepts for the OECD Adverse Outcome Pathway program.. The ability to evaluate the effect of fragrance materials on the respiratory system is significant for many industries. This project is expected to deliver far-reaching benefits to the scientific community for evaluating respiratory irritation and sensitization, said Dr. ...
Task force member, Microbial risk analysis in food safety, Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (2004-2005). Expert reviewer, Control of Listeria monocytogenes in foods, International Life Science Institute (2003-2004). Panel chair, Food Science and Post Harvest Technology, United States-Israel Binational Agricultural Research and Development Fund (2002-2005). Food and Water Safety Committee member, U.S. Department of Defense (2002-2005). Working Group member, Joint Institute for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (2001-2005); Organizing committee member, Central Sciences Laboratory/JIFSAN Annual Symposium Series (2001-2005); Steering committee member, International Risk Assessment Training, International Life Science Institute (2001-2003). Senior Science Council member, Food and Drug Administration (2001-2005). Lead Scientist Council member, Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition (2001-2005). Science Council member, FDA Center for Food Safety and Applied Nutrition ...
27th Meeting, 2009: Dissecting Genome Structure, Genetic Traits, and the Basis for Complex Diseases. 26th Meeting, October 6, 2008: Inflammation in Cancer. 25th Meeting, October 29, 2007: Current and Future Issues in Environmental Toxicology. 24th Meeting, October 26, 2006: Oxidative Stress and Damage. 23rd Meeting, October 26, 2005: Genetics of Aging. 22nd Meeting, November 10, 2004: DNA Methylation and its Toxicological Consequences. 21st Meeting, 2003:. 20th Meeting, October 22, 2002: The Science of Bioterrorism. 19th Meeting, November 6, 2001: Toxicogenomics. Annual Fall Meetings - 1991 through 2000. 18th Meeting, October 25, 2000: Genetically Modified Food: Benefits and Risks to Human and Environmental Health. 17th Meeting, October 25, 1999: Current Trends in Genetic Toxicology. 16th Meeting, October 2, 1998: Genetic Susceptibilities Affecting the Response of Children to Toxicants. 15th Meeting, 1997:. 14th Meeting, October 11, 1996: The Use of Transgenic Mice in Toxicology. 13th Meeting, ...
Animal-free testing methods are being increasingly explored and implemented as an alternative to animal models, in efforts to provide a more accurate prediction of a drug candidates efficacy and safety. InSphero recently hosted a virtual roundtable discussion on the topic of animal-free testing. |i|Technology Networks|/i| had the pleasure of speaking with Armin Wolf, chief scientific officer at InSphero, to learn more about the topics discussed.
PETA Science Consortium International organises workshops on various topics, including the development of non-animal methods to examine the subchronic inhalation toxicity of nanomaterials, alternative methods for the identification of acute systemic toxicity, in vitro approaches for medical device pyrogen testing, and the development of animal-free recombinant antibodies.. In addition, the Science Consortium organises webinars focused on the use of alternative approaches to meet REACH requirements, inhalation toxicity testing, recombinant antibodies, and the use of new approach methodologies in risk assessment.. The Science Consortium also funds hands-on training on the use of and interpretation of data from non-animal tests.. ...
Genomic data from foodborne pathogens, by itself and in combination with other information, is a robust resource that can help public health officials identify and understand the source of foodborne foodborne illness outbreaks.
The Animal Alternatives in Environmental Science Advisory Group was formed in 2008 to facilitate scientific discussion of relevant aspects of alternative tests in environmental science as a means to reduce, refine, or replace standard toxicity tests with vertebrates around the globe. Over the past 4 years, more than 400 candidate abstracts expressing interest to join regular sessions have been considered at SETAC North America and SETAC Europe regional meetings. During this same time frame, the burgeoning interest in systems biology, the maturation of genomic and other tools and the concepts of adverse outcome pathways have also become part of the discussion on alternatives. Past activities of the Animal Alternatives in Environmental Science Advisory Group have included sponsoring workshops on in vitro methods in environmental toxicology, providing a sounding board for SETAC leadership on use of animals in research and the commitment of SETAC to animal welfare and leading forums such as this ...
In 1957 Charles Hume and William Russell introduced the concept of the three Rs in their book Principles of Humane Experimental Technique. These techniques to reduce animals used in tests and their suffering include: replacement (eliminate an animal test altogether), reduction (fewer animals used in test by using statistical analysis) and refinement (making tests less painful).[4] In 1991 the European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) was established to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are important to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals.[5] Once the ECVAMs Scientific Advisory Committee approves a test it must be used under the Animal Protection Act, which does not allow the use of animals when an alternative exists. In 2012, British Union for the Abolition of Vivisection joined forces with New England Anti-Vivisection Society and the European Coalition to End Animal Experiments ...
A €50 million European public-private partnership (PPP) has paved the way to a new era of assessing chemical safety without using animals. SEURAT-1 -Towards the Replacement of In VivoRepeated Dose Systemic Toxicity Testing -showcases its achievements during a final symposium on 4 December 2015.. The EUs FP7 and Cosmetics Europe each contributed €25 million to the largest PPP initiative in the field. The project has successfully built on collective knowledge, taking advantage of the cross-disciplinary expertise of regulators and scientists from over 70 universities, research institutes and companies. Together they have defined a common research strategy and made a decisive step to overcome fragmentation in the research community. SEURAT-1s work not only meets the specific needs of the cosmetics industry but also contributes to a global safety assessment solution forany chemical.. SEURAT-1 marks a significant strategic milestone in the journey towards a future of animal-free testing; it ...
Overall, the complexity of organs and events involved in the reproductive cycle simply prevents to find the alternative test for reproductive toxicology [13]. However, the reproductive cycle can be broken up in building blocks (components and/or pathways), so to set up a comprehensive battery of tests, each of them addressing one component. This led to a project structure with three major research areas dealing with cell/tissue specific approaches and with the ambition of providing an array of test targeting the essential steps of reproductive cycle: fertility; implantation; prenatal development. Whereas the developmental toxicity tests were closer to optimization phase, the test batteries dealing with male and female fertility and implantation were more complex to develop encompassing a number of cells/tissues (sperm, Leydig cells, oocytes, ovary granulosa cells, trophoblasts, etc.) and of targeted parameters (DNA integrity, steroidogenesis, etc.). Noticeably, during ReProTect some new ...
The EU Cosmetics Directive aims to phase out animal testing. It established a prohibition on the testing of finished cosmetic products (since 2004) and cosmetic ingredients (since 2009) on animals and a prohibition on the marketing in the EU of finished cosmetic products and ingredients included in cosmetic products which were tested on animals outside the EU. The latter marketing ban applies since 2009 for all human health effects with the exceptions of repeated-dose toxicity, reproductive toxicity and toxicokinetics. For these health effects, the ban will apply step by step but with a maximum cut-off date of 10 years after the entry into force of the directive (11 March 2013), irrespective of the availability of alternative non-animal tests.(1). 1. Does the Commission agree that a case-by-case derogation would mean a delay in the complete marketing ban on animal testing, and that with this third delay the Commission will lose credibility with the citizens of Europe?. 2. Given that 80-90 % of ...
U-M Life Sciences Institute Saltiel Life Sciences Symposium Game Changers: Technologies that are Rewriting the Future of the Life ...
Michigan House Speaker Andy Dillon, right, visited the Life Sciences Institute on Friday to meet with stem cell researchers from across the U-M campus. Pictured from left are: Mark Burton of Dillons staff; Sean Morrison, director of the Center for Stem Cell Biology; Jack Mosher, assistant research scientist at the Life Sciences Institute; Kirk Profit, director of Governmental Consultant Services Inc.; Marty Fischoff, managing director of the A. Alfred Taubman Medical Research Institute; Cynthia Wilbanks, vice president for government relations; Liz Barry, managing director of the Life Sciences Institute; Gary Smith and Sue OShea, co-directors of the Consortium for Stem Cell Therapies; Dr. Eva Feldman, director of the A. Alfred Taubman Medical Research. (Photo by Jennifer Farina, Life Sciences Institute) ...
Scientists at the University of Michigan Life Sciences Institute have discovered how one type of enzyme allows a microorganism to produce molecules with a wide range of potentially beneficial activities - from fighting insects to killing fungus.. Hapalindoles compose a large class of structurally diverse natural products made by cyanobacteria. Their structural diversity is reflected in the widely varying activities of the products, including antibacterial, antifungal and insecticidal activities. Until recently, relatively little was known about how nature manages to develop these diverse organic compounds from the same starting material. Now, researchers in the lab of David Sherman, Ph.D., at the LSI have shown that the various structural arrangements in this class all arise from a central starting point and all begin their transformations through a novel class of enzymes.. By solving the structure of an enzyme called a Stig (for Stigonemataceae) cyclase, the U-M researchers were able to ...
For the AHLA Life Sciences Institute, Epstein Becker Green attorney Bradley M. Thompson presented an update on combination products. ...
Anahad OConnor A prominent medical journal on Monday published a scathing attack on global health advice to eat less sugar. Warnings to cut sugar, the study argued, are based on weak evidence and cannot be trusted.. But the review, published in The Annals of Internal Medicine, quickly elicited sharp criticism from public health experts because the authors have ties to the food and sugar industries.. The review was paid for by the International Life Sciences Institute, a scientific group that is based in Washington, D.C., and is funded by multinational food and agrochemical companies including Coca-Cola, General Mills, Hersheys, Kelloggs, Kraft Foods and Monsanto. One of the authors is a member of the scientific advisory board of Tate & Lyle, one of the worlds largest suppliers of high-fructose corn syrup.. Critics say the medical journal review is the latest in a series of efforts by the food industry to shape global nutrition advice by supporting prominent academics who question the role of ...
This thesis is an historical analysis of the culture of science and its use of animals in experiments by the British military and in medical scientific research, and its regulation by law, during the period 1947 to 1965. The overall aim of this thesis is to demonstrate the gendered nature of scientific experimentation on animals in mid-twentieth century Britain. To do this, it addresses two aspects of animal experimentation; firstly, exploring how scientific research forms power-knowledge relations through the use of nonhuman animals. Secondly, this thesis analyses the intersection of animal use in science with that of the broader socio-cultural context, asking was science in mid-twentieth century Britain gendered? As a consequence, it explores the effects of this knowledge production upon animals and women. My findings are twofold: that the construction of scientific knowledge through the use of nonhuman animals was one that created subject-object binaries, and this had powerful and detrimental ...
Alan Boobis and Angelo Moretto have ties to the International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI). ILSI Europe receives a majority of its operating and research funding from private companies, including glyphosate producers Dow and Monsanto. ILSIs Health and Environmental Sciences Institute (HESI) is primarily funded by private companies, including glyphosate producers Dow, Monsanto and Syngenta.. Most scientists involved in the glyphosate assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), which also contradicted the WHO cancer warning, refused to be named.. Greenpeace EU food policy director Franziska Achterberg said: The agencies contradicting the WHO cancer warning seem to either rely on officials who prefer not to be named, or lack a watertight policy to protect their impartiality. Any decision affecting millions of people should be based on fully transparent and independent science that isnt tied to corporate interests. It would be irresponsible to ignore the warnings on glyphosate and ...
Zebrafish models for human acute organophosphorus poisoning. Natalia Garcia-Reyero. Workshop on Alternative Approaches for Identifying Acute Systemic Toxicity: Moving From Research to Regulatory Testing. Bethesda, MD, USA, September 24-25, 2015. Scientific meeting agenda ...
And there is no wane in sight. First, the extra-territorial imitators have been cast into disarray by the shrewd strategic move of the Prosecco producers to take their future back into their own hands. The Prosecco DOC was first awarded in 1969 and was restricted to wines produced in the Conegliano-Valdiobbadene region. Growers felt that the brand was under attack by imitators using just the grape variety and moved to isolate those competitors by changing both the rules and the venue of the game. Prosecco growers agitated for, and gained regulatory acceptance of: (i) extension of the Prosecco DOC to cover all of Friuli-Venezia-Giulia and approximately two-thirds of Veneto; (ii) promotion of the original Prosecco DOC to DOCG status; (iii) changing the name of the source grape from Prosecco to Glera; and (iv) restricting the use of the name Prosecco only to Glera sparkling wines produced within the delimited zones. The growers felt that these actions would serve to protect their territory, the ...
Find local Science Research Health Scientific groups in Brussels and meet people who share your interests. Join a group and attend online or in person events.
Bio-Matrix Scientific Group, Inc. Due Diligence Report provides a complete overview of the companys affairs. All available data is presented in a comprehensive
United Scientific Group (USG) cordially invites all the participants from all over the world to attend International Conference on Infectious Diseases during November 5-7, 2018 in Berlin, Germany (Infectious Diseases-2018). ...
According to Stratistics MRC, the Global In Vitro Toxicology Testing Market is accounted for $12.30 billion in 2015 and is expected to reach $32.45 billion...
The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has regulatory authority over tobacco products, including conventional cigarettes and next generation products (NGPs) such as e-cigarettes and tobacco heating products (THPs). There is a desire by the industry, regulators and animal protection organizations to incorporate non-animal test methods for tobacco product and NGP assessment. When assessing respiratory effects in vitro, reliable exposure systems that deliver aerosols to cellular/tissue cultures (such as human reconstructed airways or lung slices) at the air-liquid interface are needed. Using nicotine dosimetry, we report the... Acute Respiratory Toxicity , Chronic Respiratory Toxicity , Goblet Cell Hyperplasia , Pulmonary Models , Respiratory Toxicology , Tobacco , Devin Sheehan , e-cigarette , Erin Hill , Holger Behrsing ...
Committed to developing alternative testing methods; JRF Global offers a customized battery of in vitro tests for the chemical and cosmetic industry for new ingredients and finished products.
ECHA is working closely with certain sectors of the chemical industry to develop guidance on how to identify substances for regulatory purposes. Where relevant, ECHA will do this within the framework of the OECD.. Under each sector link, you will find sector-specific substance identification guidance as it becomes available. This guidance is not official ECHA guidance and does not replace the ECHA guidance for identification and naming of substances under REACH and CLP. Instead, it should be seen as complementary to the official guidance by expanding further on the general concepts. This helps to ensure a consistent approach to identifying substances within industry sectors.. The sector-specific guidance, together with the official ECHA guidance, can help you to identify your substance correctly and achieve compliance with REACH in respect of substance identification.. ...
Introduction. A Quantitative Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) model was used to predict the Ready Biodegradability of the test item Tetrasodium 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonate. This QSAR model has been designed to be used for regulatory purposes and based on the QSAR results, this report predicts the consensus endpoint value which would be expected when testing the substance under experimental conditions in a laboratory following the OECD Guideline for Testing of Chemicals No. 301: Ready Biodegradability. Methods. The purpose of the in silico study was to predict the Ready Biodegradability of the test item Tetrasodium 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonate. This prediction was performed using the following QSAR models: · EPI Suite - BIOWIN · Battery of Leadscope, SciQSAR and CASE Ultra models integrated into the Danish QSAR Database Results. Based on multiple QSAR models applied, Tetrasodium 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonate was predicted as non-readily biodegradable. The final Ready Biodegradability was ...
The firm TOSOH Bioscience Inc., sent an URGENT: MEDICAL DEVICE RECALL letter dated March 23, 2018 to affected customers. The letter described the product, problem and action to be taken. The customers were instructed to do the following: *Based on our revised labeling, the assays identified in Table 1 should not be used for patients who are being treated with Asfotase Alfa. For patients that are being treated with Asfotase Alfa, use an alternative test method that does not utilize alkaline phosphatase technology. Inform all medical professionals that assays utilizing alkaline phosphatase-based technologies must not be used for patients receiving Asfotase Alfa treatment. Continue to use the assays listed in Table 1 for any patients who are not receiving Asfotase Alfa treatment. Complete and return the attached Acknowledgement Form to Tosoh Bioscience, Inc., within 15-days of receiving this notification via Fax: 1-650-636-8651, Email: [email protected] or Regular mail: 3600 Gantz ...
The Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Medicines and Poisons (SUSMP) is an Australian legislative instrument produced by the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA). Before 2010, it was known as the Standard for the Uniform Scheduling of Drugs and Poisons (SUSDP). The SUSMP classifies drugs and poisons into different Schedules signifying the degree of control recommended to be exercised over their availability to the public. The Schedules are referred to under State and Territory legislation for regulatory purposes. Although each State and Territory has its own laws, the vast majority of medicines and poisons are classified according to the SUSMP to achieve uniform national regulation. The current version, the SUSMP 16, is contained in the Poisons Standard February 2017. Medication that is available on the shelf at supermarkets, convenience stores, and pharmacies. These are considered to be low risk drugs, and have directions of use clearly labelled on both the packaging, and the receptacle. ...
Participation in FILL and USIDNET, as with any research, is completely voluntary. You have the right to stop your child from participating at any time. You can choose not to have your child participate now or even withdraw your childs participation in the future, and it will not affect your childs medical treatment or access to care in any way and will involve no penalty or loss of benefits to which your child is otherwise entitled.. The study doctor, local institution, or sponsor may remove your child/legal dependents information from the Registry at any time without your consent and may also remove the child/legal dependents information from the Registry at any time if they indicate that they no longer wish to participate in the study.. You will be asked to sign a separate form to authorize the use and disclosure of your childs medical information for research or regulatory purposes related to this study. You have the right, however, to cancel this authorization to use and disclose your ...
I cited the lysine requirement for children 2 to 5 years old (based on an old report apparently), which is what I saw multiple times in a few studies as the one for high biological value protein , but for adults the requirements are more modest (actually 45mg/g of protein, rice is still lower than this unfortunately) like the one you cited and depending on which report or study (the one of 1985, 1991 or 2007 by FAO) the source is being based the values may vary, and even the same report might recommend the intake of a different age class for all ages, excepting infants, for regulatory purposes (requirements of children from 6m to 3y old for all ages, recently). Different ages have different necessities making the claim for a complete protein based also on the stage of life, which explains the different requirements we both cited.. ...
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Restriction Description: The information obtained during the conduct of this trial is considered confidential and can be used by Novo Nordisk for regulatory purposes and for the general development of the trial product. The information obtained during this trial may be made available to other physicians who are conducting other clinical trials with the trial product, if deemed necessary by Novo Nordisk ...
Involvement of subcellular structures in miRNA-mediated gene regulatory processes is an underexplored research domain. Although the importance of endosomal trafficking for miRNA-mediated repression processes has been documented previously, the molecular details have never been investigated. In recent times, findings related to secretion of small RNAs via exosomes (7, 31) for intercellular cross talk or other regulatory purposes justify the possible link between the endocytic pathway and miRNA-mediated gene silencing. In this paper, we report that LE/MVB targeting is crucial for degradation of miRNA-targeted mRNAs. Our findings highlight how miRNA-mediated mRNA repression and the endocytic pathway interact. The work described here also reveals how the mRNA degradation process is compartmentalized in mammalian cells.. Cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells is subdivided into membrane-bound compartments called organelles. Compartmentalization of cellular processes to specific subcellular locales is a ...
Many EMRs read like Madlibs(for those of you old enough to remember what they are), because they are in fact cut-and-pasted snippets of data from other parts of the EMR, put in place to fulfill some billing documentation requirement or some regulatory imperative. Free text annotation is often discouraged, and frequently impossible to juxtapose next to the appropriate snippet of information in the chart. Some systems make it very difficult to generate any kind of free form documentation, and consequently critical events in the course of a hospitalization are never documented. In most or all hospitals, practitioners have developed a shadow chart that incorporates all of the critical information that practitioners need to know to care for a patient. The existence of these shadow charts has been driven by the hijacking of the medical record for billing and regulatory purposes. The creation of these charts represents additional effort for everyone who directly participates in the care of patients. ...
Study Finds No Advantage to Newer Tests for Cervical Cancer. Wang, Linda // JNCI: Journal of the National Cancer Institute;5/7/2003, Vol. 95 Issue 9, p644 Cites a study by researchers from the French Society of Clinical Cytology Study Group, which suggests that alternative tests do not outperform conventional testing and should not replace the Pap smear for cervical cancer screening. Comparison of the sensitivity, specificity, and reliability of... ...
FALSE negative tests can definitely be a BIG problem…and it can happen with several diseases, besides Lyme!! Rheumatoid Arthritis to syphilis…and many others disease processes in between. (False positives can also skew things for patients!). Thats why its so important to find a doctor who doesnt just TREAT TEST RESULTS! Yet this gets much harder to do, especially as technology advances! More and more doctors rely SOLELY on our tests and lab results…often not even repeating them if questioned by the patient, or not researching a possible alternative test…or a diagnosis based on other grounds or observed criteria! And they rely so much less now on taking good patient HISTORIES…and sadly even LESS on good PHYSICAL exam assessments!!. Weve all likely run into this! Where later we find out our histories are so incomplete…or just plain wrong! And also where we could honestly have a tennis shoe growing out of our bodies and the doctor wouldnt even KNOW…because he or she DIDNT EVEN ...
A blood test checking your level of FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) is the usual test to diagnose potential ovarian failure. Your GP may also arrange for alternative tests to confirm the diagnosis and/or refer you to a gynaecologist for specialist advice.. Women whose ovarian function is reduced from an earlier age are at a higher risk of osteoporosis. Bone scans are recommended for anyone diagnosed with premature ovarian failure. Women can be more susceptible to fractures, and a calcium rich diet with calcium supplements is recommended.. The most significant effect of premature ovarian failure, however, is the possibility of infertility. This can obviously be incredibly upsetting for the patient and can lead to long term psychological consequences.. Coming to terms with infertility can be a difficult process, and it is very important that women seek appropriate support and counselling. GPs should be able to suggest local support groups or networks with which women can talk to about their ...
List of 6 disease causes of Minor eye irritation, patient stories, diagnostic guides, drug side effect causes. Diagnostic checklist, medical tests, doctor questions, and related signs or symptoms for Minor eye irritation.
This webinar will provide an overview of the scientific and welfare benefits of moving to the use of animal-free antibodies and affinity reagents and will highlight the recent Recommendation on Non-Animal-Derived Antibodies from the EU Reference Laboratory for alternatives to animal testing (EURL ECVAM). The target audience is all researchers who use antibodies in their
Hydrogen Peroxide Cell Test Method: photometric 2.0 - 20.0 mg/l H₂O₂ Spectroquant® - Find MSDS or SDS, a COA, data sheets and more information.
Taxpayer-funded animal experimentation is un-American, and we have the data to prove it.. Opinion surveys in recent years show Americans growing opposition to animal experimentation, with the most recent Pew poll reporting that a majority of Americans now object to the use of animals in scientific research.. Now, as reported by Red Alert Politics, a new national poll commissioned by the White Coat Waste Project and conducted by research firm Lincoln Park Strategies shows that most Americans-Republicans and Democrats alike-are sick of footing the $12-billion-plus bill for these wasteful and secretive experiments on dogs, cats, monkeys and other animals.. The poll of 1,109 U.S. voters found that a majority (about 6 in 10) want to see funding cut and transparency increased for taxpayer-funded animal experiments. According to the survey (also visualized in the infographic below):. ...
Alternatives[edit]. As technology developed, outdated animal testing is being replaced with quicker, cheaper and more accurate ... "not tested on animals", "we do not conduct animal testing", "never tested on animals", "against animal testing" or "cruelty- ... Although companies can still use animal testing in countries outside Europe (such as China, which requires animal testing on ... These techniques to reduce animals used in tests and their suffering include: replacement (eliminate an animal test altogether ...
"Animal Testing Alternatives". pgbeautygroomingscience.com. Procter & Gamble. Archived from the original on 15 October 2012. " ... CoverGirl was once one of the largest global brands to conduct animal testing, but that is no longer the case. In January 2010 ...
"In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". Washington Post. April 12, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2011.. ... Administration approved an alternative product-safety testing method in response to increasing public concern that LD50 testing ... Other tests, such as brain scan and spinal fluid examination, may help to rule out other causes. If the symptoms of botulism ... in vitro assay for use in the stability and potency testing of Botox in response to increasing public concern that LD50 testing ...
"Animals and alternatives in testing". Archived from the original on 2006-02-25. Retrieved 2006-04-19. Schiff J (February 2002 ... Alternative strategies involve sourcing the animal blood from countries with minimum BSE/TSE risk, such as The United States, ... hPL has emerged as a safe and reliable alternative as a direct replacement for FBS or other animal serum. In addition, ... The growth factors used to supplement media are often derived from the serum of animal blood, such as fetal bovine serum (FBS ...
"Alternative toxicity test methods: reducing, refining and replacing animal use for safety testing" (PDF). Society of Toxicology ... Bans Cosmetics With Animal-Tested Ingredients". New York Times. Retrieved October 26, 2018. "Existing Non-animal Alternatives ... 2011). "Alternative (non-animal)methods for cosmetic testing: current status and future prospects - 2010". Arch Toxicol. 85 (1 ... The use of non-human animals for toxicology testing is opposed by some organisations for reasons of animal welfare, and it has ...
Similarly to objections to animal testing, animal rights activists have also objected to xenotransplantation on ethical grounds ... Xenotransplants are thus potentially a more effective alternative.[15][16][17] Xenotransplantation also is and has been a ... Many, including animal rights groups, strongly oppose killing animals to harvest their organs for human use.[46] None of the ... Patient derived tumor xenografts in animals can be used to test treatments.[19] ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "The Three Rs: The Way Forward". The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. ... in animal testing called "The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research". The board ... The focus of the centre is on the three Rs: the replacement, refinement, and reduction of animal testing. The three Rs were ... The UK government currently still regards animal testing as necessary, but science minister Lord Sainsbury of Turville said ...
"Animals and alternatives in testing". Archived from the original on 2006-02-25. Retrieved 2006-04-19. CS1 maint: discouraged ...
"FDA: Why are animals used for testing medical products?". FDA. 2019-06-18. "Society Of Toxicology: Advancing valid alternatives ... Animals in space Animal testing Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on rodents Cellular model (numerical), e.g., ... These test conditions are often termed as animal models of disease. The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate ... In the U.S., the Animal Welfare Act of 1970 (see also Laboratory Animal Welfare Act) set standards for animal use and care in ...
Animals and Alternatives in Testing: History, Science, Ethics. Mary Ann Liebert, 1994, ISBN 0913113670 The Scalpel and the ... "A balanced account of the battle over animal research and animal rights", Chicago Tribune, 10 September 2000. Byrne, Michael. " ... a history of the practice and politics of animal testing, The Riddle of Gender (2004), which examines scientists' attempts to ... The War Between Animal Research and Animal Protection. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2000. The Riddle of Gender: Science, Activism ...
... has had extensive use as a test organism and in some circumstances is an acceptable alternative to the toxicity testing of ... Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 20: 297-301.. *^ Muñoz J; Gómez A; Green AJ; Figuerola J; Amat F; Rico C (2008). " ... Toxicity testEdit. Artemia found favor as a model organism for use in toxicological assays, despite the recognition that it is ... Some eggs were kept on Earth as experimental controls to ensure a fair test. Also, as the take-off in a spacecraft involves a ...
... has received criticism from animal advocacy group PETA for the practice of testing on animals. On June 30, ... "Animal Welfare and Alternatives". Procter & Gamble. Archived from the original on March 19, 2014. Retrieved May 5, 2012. "Over- ... The company invested more than $275 million in the development of alternative testing methods. In 2002, P&G was sued for its ... Canedy, Dana (July 1, 1999). "P.& G. to End Animal Tests For Most Consumer Goods". The New York Times. Archived from the ...
Gaul, Gilbert M. (12 April 2008). "In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". The Washington Post. Whitehead, A.; Curnow ... As a result, in 1992 this test was proposed as an alternative to the LD50 test by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation ... approve non-animal alternatives in response to research cruelty concerns and the lack of validity/sensitivity of animal tests ... In comparison to the older LD50 test developed in 1927, this procedure produces similar results while using fewer animals and ...
"Professorial chair to lead search for animal testing alternatives". Times Higher Education. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 20 ... In January 2013, Queen Mary established the world's first professorial chair in animal replacement science. From 2014, Queen ...
Food and Drug Administration approved alternative methods to LD50 for testing the cosmetic drug Botox without animal tests. The ... Animal-rights and animal-welfare groups, such as Animal Rights International, have campaigned against LD50 testing on animals. ... Gaul, Gilbert M. (12 April 2008). "In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". Washington Post. Retrieved 2011-06-26. ... see Test Guideline 401, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences Vol 22, February 22, 2001). Animal testing Reed-Muench method The ...
... is an alternative to the LD50 test, in which animals are used for acute toxicity testing. It requires fewer animals to achieve ... Gaul, Gilbert M. (12 April 2008). "In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". The Washington Post. Dixon, W. J. (1965 ... It is usual to observe each animal for 1 or 2 days before dosing the next animal, however, surviving animals should be ... The U.S. Food and Drug Administration has begun to approve non-animal alternatives. Lipnick, R.L.; Cotruvo, J.A.; Hill, R.N.; ...
"Developing alternative approaches to animal testing". Unilever. Retrieved 8 June 2016. "Search results for 'soup'". Lipton Tea ... Unilever no longer tests their products on animals unless required to by governments as part of their regulatory requirements. ... Zelman, Joanna (2 February 2011). "Unilever Ends Animal Testing On Lipton Tea Products After PETA Threatens Major Campaign". ... According to the animal rights organization, Unilever decided to end the practice of Lipton products after receiving more than ...
He even translated few papers into Urdu in the field of Alternatives to animal testing. Rahman also works in the field of ... Rahman contributed in the area of Alternatives to animal testing. He believed in the philosophy of '3Rs" of Russell and Burch" ... Environmental Impact of Pharmaceutical Drugs Environmental pharmacology Pharmacovigilance Alternatives to animal testing ... getting survey related to the attitude of undergraduate medical students towards Alternatives to animal testing and Animal ...
Alternatives to animal testing "InterNICHE - Lush Prize 2012 Training Winner". Retrieved 6 June 2020. "Animal Concerns ... Encyclopedia of animal rights and animal welfare. School Library Journal. vol. 56 iss. 4 p. 10. Official website v t e v t e. ... Bekoff, Marc (2009-11-25). Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare: Second Edition - Google Books. ISBN 9780313352560 ... "InterNICHE Launches New Website for Humane Education and Alternatives". Altweb.jhsph.edu. Retrieved 2013-07-22. Patricia Ann ...
Alternatives to animal testing "ALTBIB - Alternatives to Animal Testing Home Page". www.nlm.nih.gov. Retrieved 12 January 2021 ... testing, application, and validation of alternatives to the use of vertebrates in biomedical research and toxicology testing. ... Bibliography on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing, or Altbib, is a bibliography ...
Similarly to objections to animal testing, animal rights activists have also objected to xenotransplantation on ethical grounds ... turning to animals as a "natural" alternative to allografts. While satirical plays mocked Xenografters such as Serge Voronoff, ... Patient derived tumor xenografts in animals can be used to test treatments. Since they are the closest relatives to humans, non ... Many, including animal rights groups, strongly oppose killing animals to harvest their organs for human use. In the 1960s, many ...
... the European consensus platform for alternatives, the European Society for Alternatives to Animal Testing, and the ... ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering alternatives to animal ... It is the official journal of Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, the American Society for Cellular and Computational ... Official website Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. ...
It is expected to become an alternative to animal testing. The lung-on-a-chip places two layers of living tissues-the lining of ... The response of the lung-on-a-chip to inhaled living pathogens was tested by introducing E. Coli bacteria into the air channel ... The engineered organ combination could be used to test inhaled drugs and to identify new and more effective therapeutics that ... It can be used to test the effects of environmental toxins, absorption of aerosolized therapeutics, and the safety and efficacy ...
Instead, the research should focus on new alternative test methods. The goal is to reduce its requests for, and funding of, ... Zaveri, Mihir; Padilla, Mariel; Peiser, Jaclyn (September 10, 2019). "E.P.A. Says It Will Drastically Reduce Animal Testing". ... In September 2019, Wheeler signed a directive to prioritize efforts to reduce animal testing. ... integrity testing, sampling, laboratory analysis, training, and reporting or certification obligations", if the EPA agreed that ...
CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Professorial chair to lead search for animal testing alternatives". Times Higher ... In January 2013, Queen Mary established the world's first professorial chair in animal replacement science. From 2014, Queen ... CS1 maint: discouraged parameter (link) "Thurston's DH4 Tests". Archived from the original on 12 March 2014. Retrieved 11 ...
... animals must be tested routinely, a repeat test is required if the first is positive, and apre-movement test is needed if a ... There is widespread public support for an alternative to culling. In October 2012, MPs voted 147 in favour of a motion to stop ... Defra are developing a test to differentiate between infected and vaccinated animals (so-called "DIVA" test). This test is ... The BCG vaccine can make cattle sensitive to the tuberculin skin test after vaccination. this means the animal may have a ...
In:The Economist (US) June 11, 2005 "Biograf 3R - Computational Alternatives to Animal Testing - Home". Biograf.ch. doi:10.1016 ... of reduction and replacement of animal experiments as well as to the refinement of the methodology in cases where animal tests ... In a future scenario, biosimulation would change the way substances are tested, in which in vivo and in vitro tests are ... The early prediction if a drug will fail in animals or humans would be a key to reduce both drug development costs and the ...
In silico modeling can also provide a humane alternative to animal testing. It has been purported by a company in the field, ... com/en/improving-the-welfare-of-animals-researchers-develop-computer-aided-models-to-replace-animal-testing "The Seventh ... that computer-aided models will make the use of testing on living organisms obsolete. The term in silico medicine is ...
"Animal Rights news in the UK , Animal testing lab faces ruin as bank cancels overdraft". Archived from the original on 25 ... The intimidation resulted in RBS withdrawing the company's overdraft facility, requiring the company to obtain alternative ... In 2000 and 2001, staff of the bank were threatened over its provision of banking facilities for the animal testing company ...
He is best known for his work on laboratory animal welfare and alternatives to animal testing. Balls was born in 1938 in ... He became Editor of Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ATLA) in 1983. He acted as an adviser to the British government during ... Alternatives To Laboratory Animals". Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR). Retrieved 4 December 2013. "London Gazette ... was a founder member of the Animal Procedures Committee (which advises the Home Secretary on all matters related to animal ...
Tests for bile acids are useful in both human and veterinary medicine, as they aid in the diagnosis of a number of conditions, ... An alternative (acidic) pathway of bile acid synthesis is initiated by mitochondrial sterol 27-hydroxylase (CYP27A1), expressed ... O'Keefe SJ, Kidd M, Espitalier-Noel G, Owira P (May 1999). "Rarity of colon cancer in Africans is associated with low animal ... bile acid malabsorption can be diagnosed by the SeHCAT test and treated with bile acid sequestrants.[30] ...
Still, test scores in the magnet schools did not rise; the black-white gap did not diminish; and there was less, not greater, ... a b Lange, C. M. & Sletten, S. J. (2002, February). Alternative education: A brief history and research synthesis (Project ... Other schools are built around elite-sporting programs or teach agricultural skills such as farming or animal breeding. ... Archive of profile) ("Alternatives a la segregació escolar als Estats Units: el cas de les magnet schools"/"Alternativas a la ...
Elton CS (1927) Animal Ecology. Republished 2001. University of Chicago Press. *^ Allee, W. C. (1932). Animal life and social ... Using these models they can measure and test for generalized patterns in the structure of real food web networks. Ecologists ... Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 253-269. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01460.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-16.. ... One of the earliest descriptions of a food chain was described by a medieval Afro-Arab scholar named Al-Jahiz: "All animals, in ...
... "set of practices that cannot be tested, refuse to be tested, or consistently fail tests."[192] Dawkins argued that if a ... Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments, with some animal products, and added minerals, including ... The meaning of the term "alternative" in the expression "alternative medicine", is not that it is an effective alternative to ... "The Alternative Fix - Introduction". www.pbs.org. Frontline - PBS.. *^ The New Age of Alternative Medicine, Why New Age ...
However, it was the stuffed animal that Mr. Yamada bought. So, they buy more stuffed animals to put on the windowsill so Chi ... "Chi Is Tested". Transcription: "Chi, tamesa reru" (Japanese: チー、試される。). June 22, 2009 (2009-06-22). ... Prince of Stride: Alternative (2016). *Alderamin on the Sky (2016). *All Out!! (2016-2017) ... Yamada buys a stuffed animal.. 36. "Chi Is Found". Transcription: "Chi, mitsuke rareru" (Japanese: チー、見つけられる。). May 29, 2008 ( ...
Small animal imagingEdit. PET technology for small animal imaging: A miniature PE tomograph has been constructed that is small ... Alternative methods of scanning include x-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional ... FDG-PET imaging of atherosclerosis to detect patients at risk of stroke is also feasible and can help test the efficacy of ... animal diagnosis. Because of cost as well as the marginal utility of detecting cancer metastases in companion animals (the ...
Other animals. Wild animals. Ebola has a high mortality rate among primates.[241] Frequent outbreaks of Ebola may have resulted ... Diagnostic tests. The diagnostic tests currently available require specialised equipment and highly trained personnel. Since ... Social anthropologists may help find alternatives to traditional rules for burials.[121] ... Animals may become infected when they eat fruit partially eaten by bats carrying the virus.[82] Fruit production, animal ...
In testing alternative explanations for the cognitive bias of illusory superiority, the study Why the Unskilled are Unaware: ... The participants' knowledge of geography was tested; some tests were intended to positively affect the participant's self-view ... the participants given tests with a positive intent reported better performance than did the participants given tests with a ... and logical reasoning overestimated their test performance and their abilities; despite test scores that placed them in the ...
The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animal.. *^ a b Sharman Apt Russell (2006). Hunger an unnatural ... Maintaining a rhythm while working may have helped people to become more efficient at daily activities.[81] An alternative ... "Finds test human origins theory". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-03-20 ... Bird and other animal species produce music such as calls to ... and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals (such as ...
Other animals[edit]. Acne can occur on cats,[198] dogs,[199] and horses.[200][201] ... Alternative medicine[edit]. Researchers are investigating complementary therapies as treatment for people with acne.[166] Low- ... she must have a confirmed negative pregnancy test and use an effective form of birth control.[20] In 2008, the United States ... Topical and oral preparations of nicotinamide (the amide form of vitamin B3) are alternative medical treatments.[147] ...
Animal[edit]. A multitude of animal studies have been conducted to help understand hearing loss and fatigue. It is difficult to ... Another alternative developed by Asius is a seal called the Ambrose Diaphonic Ear Lens (ADEL). The seal attaches to headphones ... Lin et al., conducted an experiment in Taiwan that tested the effect of generation of reactive oxygen species on temporary ... Studies[clarification needed] have been done on a variety of animal species, including guinea pigs[13] and dolphins.,[14] rats, ...
Sometimes these tests are performed by techs without a medical degree, but the interpretation of these tests is done by a ... Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, ... When adopted outside of its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often called alternative medicine.[61] Practices known ... After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests), take a biopsy ...
Alternatives[edit]. If one desires a simple shift interpretation, the Mann-Whitney U test should not be used when the ... Kasuya, Eiiti (2001). "Mann-Whitney U test when variances are unequal". Animal Behaviour. 61: 1247-1249. doi:10.1006/anbe. ... Relation to other tests[edit]. Comparison to Student's t-test[edit]. The Mann-Whitney U test is more widely applicable than ... Illustration of object of test[edit]. A second example race illustrates the point that the Mann-Whitney U test does not test ...
Laboratory testing[edit]. Tests for antibodies in the blood by ELISA and Western blot is the most widely used method for Lyme ... Host animals[edit]. Lyme and other deer tick-borne diseases can sometimes be reduced by greatly reducing the deer population on ... The resistance of a genospecies of Lyme disease spirochetes to the bacteriolytic activities of the alternative complement ... As all people with later-stage infection will have a positive antibody test, simple blood tests can exclude Lyme disease as a ...
Eric J. Bailey (2002). African American Alternative Medicine: Using Alternative Medicine to Prevent and Control Chronic ... Serious research to test chiropractic theories did not begin until the 1970s, and is continuing to be hampered by ... A related field, veterinary chiropractic, applies manual therapies to animals and is recognized in 40 US states,[66] but is not ... Chiropractic: Conventional or Alternative Healing?. The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 308-. ISBN 978- ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Various tests eliminated the possibility of the unknown element being thorium, radium, lead, bismuth, or thallium. The new ... 4) are very useful since they are permanently charged, and they are often used as an alternative to the expensive Cs+ to ... Flame test colour. Principal emission/absorption wavelength (nm) Crimson. 670.8. Yellow. 589.2. Violet. 766.5. Red-violet. ...
In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva (Sanskrit: जीव, jīva, alternative spelling jiwa; Hindi: जीव, jīv, alternative spelling jeev) is ... See also nefesh habehamit the "animal soul".) Scientology[edit]. The Scientology view is that a person does not have a soul, it ... tests and challenges could human souls be judged and credited for righteousness.[54][55] Judaism places great importance on the ... "animal") the living organism. Francis M. Cornford quotes Pindar by saying that the soul sleeps while the limbs are active, but ...
Research is being done testing various activated carbons' ability to store natural gas[1][2] and hydrogen gas.[1][2] The porous ... "Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology". All-craft.missouri.edu. Retrieved 2014-03-13.. ... In livestock production it is used as a pesticide, animal feed additive, processing aid, nonagricultural ingredient and ... Tests of adsorption behaviour are usually done with nitrogen gas at 77 K under high vacuum, but in everyday terms activated ...
N = Number of animals in the population. n = Number of animals marked on the first visit. K = Number of animals captured on the ... An alternative less biased estimator of population size is given by the Chapman estimator:[9] ... this assumption cannot be tested directly). ... Seber, G. A. F. (1982). The Estimation of Animal Abundance and ... Seber, G.A.F. (2002). The Estimation of Animal Abundance and Related Parameters. Caldwel, New Jersey: Blackburn Press. ISBN 1- ...
An alternative model, the job demands-resources (JD-R) model,[63] grew out of the DCS model. In the JD-R model, the category of ... Animal testing. *Archival research. *Behavior epigenetics. *Case study. *Content analysis. *Experiments. *Human subject ... A critique of existing measures and proposal for an alternative methodology. Journal of Occupational and Organizational ... suggesting that aggression-prevention training of existing employees may be an alternative to screening. Only a small number of ...
The United States Navy uses the Ishihara plates (and alternatives) for color vision screening. The current passing score is 12 ... Test procedures[edit]. Being a printed plate, the accuracy of the test depends on using the proper lighting to illuminate the ... The Ishihara test is a color perception test for red-green color deficiencies, the first in a class of successful color vision ... Color perception test. Example of an Ishihara color test plate. The number "74" should be clearly visible to viewers with ...
EBU subjective listening tests on low-bitrate audio codecs. *Audio Archiving Guide: Music Formats (Guide for helping a user ... However a new, alternative view can show compression algorithms implicitly map strings into implicit feature space vectors, and ... Commonly during explosions, flames, flocks of animals, and in some panning shots, the high-frequency detail leads to quality ... Interactive blind listening tests of audio codecs over the internet. *TestVid - 2,000+ HD and other uncompressed source video ...
An alternative explanation builds on the idea that subjects tend to confuse determinism with fatalism... What happens then when ... To test the effects of belief in determinism, future studies would need to provide articles that do not simply "attack free ... and between the behaving animal and its environment".[141] In this view, mind and neurological functions are tightly coupled in ... they were more likely to lie about their performance on a test where they would be rewarded with cash.[216] Provoking a ...
Animal Behaviour Abstracts. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts. 1998. Retrieved 22 March 2013.. *^ Ecology Abstracts. Cambridge ... Alternative urination tools. See also: Female urination device. Sometimes urination is done in a container such as a bottle, ... A container may be used so that the urine can be examined for medical reasons or for a drug test, for a bedridden patient, when ... Field Guide to Animal Tracks and Scat of California. Books.google.com. Retrieved 10 February 2013.. ...
In P.W. Price, T.M. Liwinsohn, G.W. Fernandes, and W.W. Benson (eds.), Plant-animal Interactions: Evolutionary Ecology in ... The decline of tree diversity on newly isolated tropical islands: A test of a null hypothesis and the implications. Evol. Ecol. ... Alternative stable state. *Balance of nature. *Biological data visualization. *Ecocline. *Ecological economics ...
The tetrapods, including all large- and medium-sized land animals, have been among the best understood animals since earliest ... Although tetrapods are widely thought to have inhaled through buccal pumping (mouth pumping), according to an alternative ... "Testing the Impact of Miniaturization on Phylogeny: Paleozoic Dissorophoid Amphibians". Systematic Biology. 58 (3): 312-327. ... Tetrapods (/ˈtɛtrəpɒdz/; from Greek τετρα- tetra- 'four' and πούς poús 'foot') are four-limbed animals constituting the ...
He claims the standard testing is ineffective in as many as 90% of cases and that a host of undetectable coinfections may ... His practice focuses on alternative therapies that are not yet standard practice with mainstream doctors, maintaining that ... and are more efficacious than their synthetic and animal derived counterparts. Until evidence is found to the contrary, ... Their position is that standard blood tests are an accurate means of determining the presence of Lyme disease. Holtorf and ...
Other human and animal behavior experiments[edit]. When an animal is given a task to complete, they are almost always more ... In subsequent tests the birds that had seen a tutor were more efficient feeders than the others.[47] ... an improbable action or action outcome that it has observed and the matching behavior cannot be explained by an alternative ... Further reading on animal social learning[edit]. *. Galef, B.G.; Laland, K.N. (2005). "Social learning in animals: Empirical ...
Barbiturate testing kit[edit]. In 2009 Nitschke made a barbiturate testing kit available, initially launched in the UK,[80] ... Nitschke said the kit was made available by Exit International in response to growing demand for something to test the Nembutal ...
Much of the study of invasive species has been influenced by Charles Elton's 1958 book The Ecology of Invasion by Animals and ... Chefs from around the world have begun seeking out and using invasive species as alternative ingredients. ... whereby ships loaded with cargo when they reached the Seaway were not tested because their ballast water tanks were empty. ... Elton, Charles S. (2000) [First published 1958]. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. University of Chicago Press. p ...
Background Animals are still used abundantly to assess the efficacy and safety of cosmetics, medicines, food additives,...,FP4- ... Human health and animal welfare both stand to gain from the development of new in vitro toxicology tests, based on cultured ... or refine animal testing. Directive 86/609/EEC bans the use of an animal test when an equally satisfactory alternative test is ... Alternatives to animal testing. Human health and animal welfare both stand to gain from the development of new in vitro ...
How do animals suffer in experiments? What alternatives exist? Learn more about the problems with testing on animals. ... Animal Testing Alternatives: Can Science Progress Without Tests on Animals?. Today-because experiments on animals are cruel and ... Check out these facts about animal testing to learn more:. What Is Animal Testing?. Animal testing refers to the practice of ... Alternatives to animal testing include sophisticated tests using human cells and tissues (also known as in vitro methods), ...
... Studies should focus on cells, National Research Council says by Cheryl Hogue and Jeff Johnson June ... He expects the alternatives to animal tests to include rapid, automated biologically based experiments that can evaluate ... Use of in vitro testing would also expand the number of substances that could be tested and save time, money, and animals, he ... For the foreseeable future, however, some animal tests will be needed to complement in vitro tests because current methods ...
Today, ethical alternatives are emerging. But can they replace animal studies? The Down to Earth team takes a closer look. ... humans have required all new drugs to be tested on animals. ... Recycling human skin: An alternative to animal testing?. 6 ... For more than half a century, humans have required all new drugs to be tested on animals. Today, ethical alternatives are ... But can they replace animal studies? The Down to Earth team takes a closer look. ...
Alternative test methods are those that accomplish one or more of the 3Rs of reducing the number of animals used in testing, or ... new alternative test methods can be developed that will benefit animal welfare by reducing, refining, and replacing animal use ... and alternative testing methods that protect human and animal health and the environment. ... said a high priority for ICCVAM will be to focus on evaluating alternatives to test methods that use a large number of animals ...
... 08.08.2011. European legislation restricts animal testing within the pharmaceutical ... Our lab-based alternative to animal testing, although in an early stage of production, is faster, out-performs present ... 1. A genomic biomarker signature can predict skin sensitizers using a cell-based in vitro alternative to animal tests Henrik ... Animal Testing »BioMed »Dermatitis »Genomics »Hypoallergenic »human cell »low immunogenicity »sensitizing potency ...
Alternatives to Animal Testing and Research. Alternatives to Animal Testing and Research ... As additional alternatives are developed, science will naturally reduce the need and use of animal models. This progression ... But there is no way to completely replace animal testing and research because the pathway to fully duplicating a whole, living ... The scientific community looks forward to the day when animal testing and research is no longer needed in the future. ...
Alternatives to animal testing are the development and implementation of test methods that avoid the use of live animals. There ... but does not oblige the test performer to do so; Article 25.1 - In order to avoid animal testing, testing on vertebrate animals ... Guthrie, Catharine (2008-03-27). "Putting Immunity in a Test Tube". TIME. Retrieved 2009-12-22. "alternatives to animal testing ... Institutes and organizations that research or fund alternatives to animal testing include: Medical Advances Without Animals ...
... scientific committee now endorses new safety test methods that eliminate animal testing. ... Colipa announced yesterday that The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (EVCAM) ... scientific committee now endorses new safety test methods that eliminate animal testing. The tests, validated on May 2, ... Colipa Approves Animal Testing Alternatives. October 30, 2008 , Contact Author , By: Katie Schaefer. ...
Animal testing alternatives fall into three main categories. replacement alternatives, reduction alternatives and refinement ... Animal testing alternatives fall into three main categories. A replacement alternative is a test method that has been endorsed ... There are a number of incentives for moving away from animal safety and toxicity testing and toward animal testing alternatives ... including the recognition that animal testing alternatives will not realistically replace traditional animal tests on a "like- ...
Alternatives to animal testing Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods List of animal rights groups Dr Hadwen Trust ... Goldberg, Alan M. (2015-06-01). "A History of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT): The First 28 ... The Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) has worked with scientists, since 1981, to find ... "Alan and Helene Goldberg In Vitro Toxicology Grants". Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School ...
In alternative animal testing, a pessimist really is a well-informed optimist * facebook ... In alternative animal testing, a pessimist really is a well-informed optimist. ... In alternative animal testing, a pessimist really is a well-informed optimist ... Animal testing has never undergone the extensive validation that in vitro tests are undergoing now. After 60 years were just ...
Alternatives for Testing Alternatives to the use of animals in toxicity testing include replacing animal tests with non-animal ... Alternatives to animal tests are effective, reliable, affordable and humane. Proponents of non-animal testing methods in the ... C B needs your help with "Stop Animal Testing: Replace Animals in Research with Non-Animal Alternative Methods". Join C and ... C B needs your help with "Stop Animal Testing: Replace Animals in Research with Non-Animal Alternative Methods". Join C and ...
New skin test will create "faster and more accurate" alternative to animal testing ... said they had come up with a skin testing alternative that promised a faster and more accurate alternative to animal testing ... EC recommendation published for skin sensitivity test * P&G develops first approved non-animal alternative for skin allergy ... First lab-grown epidermis points to animal testing alternatives. By Simon Pitman ...
This article summarizes validated alternatives to test the safety of cosmetic ingredients. It also illustrates how great a ... Alternative test methods have the potential to reduce animal testing; however, the extent to which in vitro methods can be ... challenge it is to devise a proper alternative method. ... The design of alternative methods to replace animal testing in ... Abstract: Alternative test methods have the potential to reduce animal testing; however, the extent to which in vitro methods ...
Animal abuse Animal cruelty Animal rescue Animal testing Animal welfare Animal Welfare Act Antibiotics Bears Birds California ... replacement of animal testing with other techniques, reduction of the number of animals tested, and refinement of animal tests ... And about 90% of test animals are rodents, by the way. And in the UK, only 3 animals are used in animal testing for 1 person ... Everyone is not aware how do the scientists do the cruetly test on animals. They do test DRUGS on animals.. Animals are ...
Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition , ... Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition. ... SIAT Swiss Institute for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Technopark, Pfingstweidstr. 30, CH-8005 Zürich ... in Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition (ed C. A. Reinhardt ...
Modern methods that are being pioneered by scientists make it clear that experiments on animals arent just cruel - theyre ... The chips can be used instead of animals in disease research, drug testing and toxicity testing. They have been shown to ... These and other non-animal methods are not hindered by species differences that make applying animal-test results to humans ... the first head of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Testing (EURL ECVAM), outlined his hope ...
Dasgip and Fraunhofer IZI to Find Alternatives to Animal Models in Drug Testing. April 14, 2008. 0 ... are partnering conducting stem-cell research to find alternatives to drug testing that do not require animals. The German ... Home News Dasgip and Fraunhofer IZI to Find Alternatives to Animal Models in Drug... ... About 50% of preclinical tests are performed to explore the bone harming and thus the embryotoxic potential of drug candidates ...
900,000 to University of California Riverside to Advance Research on Alternative Methods to Animal Testing ... refine and/or replace vertebrate animal testing. The grantees are advancing the science of non-vertebrate alternative test ... the need for animal testing.". "We are excited to support U.C. Riversides work in helping reduce the use of animal testing and ... EPA Awards Nearly $900,000 to University of California Riverside to Advance Research on Alternative Methods to Animal Testing ...
"Animal testing alternatives" is a phrase used to index citations regarding alternatives in the AGRICOLA, MEDLINE, TOXLINE, ... AWIC Tips for Searching for Alternatives to Animal Research and Testing. (Edited version of this document published in March ... Home » Information Center » Animal Welfare Information Center » AWIC Tips for Searching for Alternatives to Animal Research and ... and replacement of animal with non-animal techniques.. The first step in conducting a search for alternatives, involves ...
Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - All of Gods creatures have rights, includes both human and ... Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - An Animal Rights Article from All-Creatures.org. FROM. ... Citizens for Alternatives to Animal Research and Experimentation (CAARE). December 2015. These advances are ushering in a new ... animal research.. Our message to the world is that its time to stop apologizing for animal research as a necessary evil. CAARE ...
A Big Step in Reducing Animal Testing: FDA, EPA, OSHA and CPSC Accept Alternative Test for Allergic Contact Dermatitis ... The alternate test is also less stressful to the animals.. The alternate test, like the traditional one, is needed to determine ... Also, in most testing situations, fewer animals are required for each test. ... The animal does not have to develop allergic contact dermatitis. Thus, the new test refines the procedure so that it is less ...
animal testing, Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), laboratory animals ... Since this test causes severe suffering to the animals, alternative methods to replace it are now being developed worldwide. ... Alternative method to animal experiments used for testing Botulinum Neurotoxin-containing medical products. 39/2015, 17.12.2015 ... Until recently, the LD50 activity test was the standard test for BoNT products. As part of this test, mice are injected with ...
ALTERNATIVES NEWS. Altweb News. News from Altweb: the latest in information about alternatives and humane science ... 2nd Pan-American Conference for Alternative Methods. August 23-24, 2018. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Eurotox 2018. September 2-5, ... Building a Better Epithelium: Breaking the Barrier to the Next Generation of Toxicity Testing. March 10, 2018. San Antonio, TX ... This award is available annually to young scientists to acknowledge and encourage researchers who focus on replacing animal ...
Follow the latest news from CAAT and the field of alternatives to animal testing in our CAATwalk newsletter. We respect your ... 2nd Pan-American Conference for Alternative Methods. August 23-24, 2018. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Eurotox 2018. September 2-5, ... Building a Better Epithelium: Breaking the Barrier to the Next Generation of Toxicity Testing. March 10, 2018. San Antonio, TX ...
The technology will improve drug testing and help patients by increasing drug safety, effectiveness, with the potential to ... Stemnovate is a biotech company which delivers innovative drug-screening and safety-testing platforms, and has recently been ... platforms as an alternative to animal testing for human drug development. ... For starters, it is more ethical as the process does not involve animal or human testing, and is therefore also safer for the ...
This test will not only reduce the number of animals used in labs, but also the costs of testing. An added bonus is that these ... The tests approved today will not only reduce the number of animals needed for testing, but will also increase the accuracy of ... approved six new alternative testing methods that will reduce the need for certain drugs and chemicals to be tested on animals ... European Union approves new alternatives to animal testing of drugs and chemicals. ...
... ... and replace the use of animals for vaccine potency and safety testing. However, these tests still account for the largest ... of alternative methods for vaccine potency and safety testing while ensuring continued protection of human and animal health. ... and replace the use of animals for human and veterinary vaccine post-licensing potency and safety testing. The workshop was ...
  • Current methods of administering large doses of chemicals such as pesticides to laboratory animals-and then observing disease symptoms-may not be relevant to humans exposed to much lower levels of the substances, notes NRC committee member Melvin E. Andersen. (acs.org)
  • Fungi like Cunninghamella elegans can be used as a microbial model of mammalian drug metabolism thereby reducing the need for laboratory animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, the way in which animals and humans react to their environments, both physiologically and behaviorally, can be drastically different, and the conditions under which laboratory animals are kept can influence and alter experimental results. (britannica.com)
  • The husbandry and treatment of laboratory animals has been and continues to be a major topic of ethical debate. (britannica.com)
  • The main goal of ECVAM is to coordinate, at the European level, activities designed to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. (wiley.com)
  • The Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) has worked with scientists, since 1981, to find new methods to replace the use of laboratory animals in experiments, reduce the number of animals tested, and refine necessary tests to eliminate pain and distress (the Three Rs as described in Russell and Burch's Principles of Humane Experimental Technique). (wikipedia.org)
  • CAAT has offered grants since 1993 that fund development of non-animal in-vitro test methods that may replace the use of laboratory animals in certain tests. (wikipedia.org)
  • The first six symposia focused on the social housing of laboratory animals, since it has been shown that housing social species with other animals of their kind improves animal welfare. (wikipedia.org)
  • Over 200,000 laboratory animals already have been saved in recent years as a result of these collective efforts. (epa.gov)
  • It is our goal to restrict animal experiments to the indispensable amount and to ensure the best possible protection of laboratory animals. (bund.de)
  • Current in vivo test methods for assessing DNT require the use of large numbers of laboratory animals. (altex.org)
  • It covers the latest research relating to alternatives to the use of laboratory animals. (atla.org.uk)
  • ATLA is intended to cover all aspects of the development, validation, introduction and use of alternatives to laboratory animals in biomedical research and testing. (atla.org.uk)
  • It has been due, in large part, to the tension between researchers who view laboratory animals as essential to their work and individuals who oppose animal tests because the modern alternatives movement has evolved. (mirznanii.com)
  • Reduce - Improve existing methods so that fewer laboratory animals are required. (roche.com)
  • In a 2008 article in the journal Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, a group of animal activists estimated that the total number of research animals used in the U.S. is closer to 17 million, including rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. (latimes.com)
  • If animal tests are being performed, they should comply with the requirements for the protection of laboratory animals (Directive 2010/63/EU). (europa.eu)
  • The EU is committed to promoting methods that replace, reduce, or refine animal testing. (europa.eu)
  • The role of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, is to co-ordinate the development, validation and acceptance of alternative tests for specific purposes. (europa.eu)
  • At first, the emphasis was on replacing existing methods with in vitro testing. (europa.eu)
  • They also suffer and die for classroom biology experiments and dissection, even though modern, non-animal methods have repeatedly been shown to have more educational value and save schools money. (peta.org)
  • PETA's scientists are at the forefront of humane and modern methods, promoting groundbreaking non-animal tests and eliminating requirements for experiments on animals by sharing existing research and data with companies and governments. (peta.org)
  • Advances in systems biology and methods to test cells and tissues are fundamentally changing the way scientists can determine the risk chemicals pose to humans, the report says. (acs.org)
  • A new plan to further reduce, refine and replace the use of animals in research and regulatory testing commonly referred to as the 3Rs was unveiled today at a symposium marking the 10-year anniversary of the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM). (emaxhealth.com)
  • The plan identifies priority areas for research, development, translation, and validation activities necessary to achieve regulatory acceptance of alternative test methods. (emaxhealth.com)
  • ICCVAM has a proven track record of thoroughly reviewing test methods and has established an excellent blueprint for advancing the 3Rs, and for advancing the health and safety of our nation as well," said Marilyn Wind, Ph.D., deputy associate executive director of the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) and the chair, ICCVAM. (emaxhealth.com)
  • ICCVAM promotes the development, validation, and regulatory acceptance of scientifically sound new, revised, and alternative testing methods that protect human and animal health and the environment. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Traditionally, chemicals, consumer products, medical devices and new drugs are tested on animals to predict toxicity on humans, but scientists, like those involved in ICCVAM, are working to promote the development and validation of alternative test methods. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Alternative test methods are those that accomplish one or more of the 3Rs of reducing the number of animals used in testing, or refining procedures so animals experience less pain and distress, or replacinganimals with non-animal systems. (emaxhealth.com)
  • We've made great progress in the past decade, and with the help of our partners we can do even more to increase the pace of developing and introducing alternative methods. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Stokes, who is also an Assistant Surgeon General in the U.S. Public Health Service Commissioned Corps explained that ICCVAM itself does not conduct research but carefully evaluates alternative test methods brought forth by government and industry labs and makes recommendations about their usefulness to federal regulatory agencies. (emaxhealth.com)
  • We appreciate all of the public input we've received to develop this plan and look forward to working closely with our government and non-government stakeholders to promote good science and validation studies that will support the regulatory use of alternative methods," said Stokes. (emaxhealth.com)
  • By incorporating recent advances in science and technology, new alternative test methods can be developed that will benefit animal welfare by reducing, refining, and replacing animal use, and that will benefit public health by ensuring continued or improved protection of human and animal health and the environment. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Stokes said a high priority for ICCVAM will be to focus on evaluating alternatives to test methods that use a large number of animals or that can involve significant pain and stress, including safety tests for ocular (eye) injuries, dermal (skin) damage, acute poisoning and tests for biologics such as vaccines. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Computer models and cell cultures, as well as other adjunct research methods, reduce the number of animals used. (fbresearch.org)
  • The European Cosmetic Toiletry and Perfumery Association (Colipa) announced yesterday that The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (EVCAM) scientific committee now endorses new safety test methods that eliminate animal testing. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • This decision is a milestone in the development of alternative methods, and we are proud that the cosmetics industry played a significant role in the development and validation of these methods" said Bertil Heerink, director general, Colipa. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Descriptions of the testing methods can be accessed on ECVAM's Web site . (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • in vitro (primary cultures, cell lines, 3-D cell culture), ex-vivo (isolated animal tissues and organs) or in silico (mathematical models, computer simulations) methods. (navs.org)
  • One motivation is ethics, as these traditional safety and toxicity testing methods cause high levels of animal suffering. (navs.org)
  • To make this determination, representatives from government agencies, industry, and academia came together in the early 1990s to establish criteria and processes for evaluating new toxicity test methods. (navs.org)
  • Test method validation criteria were established by three organizations in the 1990s: the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD), the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) and the U.S.'s Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM). (navs.org)
  • They may prefer use of more traditional, less "risky" animal methods, in part, because they are more comfortable interpreting data from animal studies for which they have more experience. (navs.org)
  • Data generated from methods which use animal testing alternatives is different and regulatory bodies may be unsure how to interpret it with respect to human risk assessment. (navs.org)
  • I wonder if you could tell me if there is any real concern among toxicologists that the non-animal testing methods currently under development are not up to identifying problems with these new compounds? (scienceblogs.com)
  • Proponents of non-animal testing methods in the scientific community have shown that these methods are quicker and cost-effective. (change.org)
  • Unlike crude, archaic animal tests, non-animal methods usually take less time to complete, cost only a fraction of what the animal experiments they replace cost, and are not plagued with species differences that make extrapolation difficult or impossible. (change.org)
  • Alternatives for Testing Alternatives to the use of animals in toxicity testing include replacing animal tests with non-animal methods, as well as modifying animal-based tests to reduce the number of animals used and to minimize pain and distress. (change.org)
  • To date, several non-animal test methods have been formally validated and accepted by some countries as replacements for an existing animal test. (change.org)
  • Alternatives to animal testing are the development and implementation of test methods that avoid the use of live animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replacement refers to the preferred use of non-animal methods over animal methods whenever it is possible to achieve the same scientific aim. (wikipedia.org)
  • Reduction refers to methods that enable researchers to obtain comparable levels of information from fewer animals, or to obtain more information from the same number of animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Refinement refers to methods that alleviate or minimize potential pain, suffering, or distress, and enhance animal welfare for the animals used. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, even though cell or tissue culture methods may reduce the number of experiments performed on intact animals, the maintenance of cells in culture normally requires the use of animal-derived serum. (wikipedia.org)
  • For years, progress has been made in developing alternatives to animal testing as society has internationally sought methods to that end. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • The other crucial regulation pressing for alternative methods is REACH, which was adopted by the European Council and the European Parliament in December 2006. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • To facilitate the development of non-animal tests for the EU, the European Center for Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) was established in 1991. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • however, it is questionable as to what extent in vitro methods can be replaced since some testing requires the involvement of a whole organism. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • this was in response to Directive 86/609/EEC in the EU, 2 in which Article 23 states that the European Commission should encourage research for the development and validation of alternative methods. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • ECVAM became a unit of a Joint Research Centre of the EU Commission in Italy, and at an international level, ECVAM strictly cooperates with other organizations such as the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), which has been established in United States, as well as the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Marafante, E. and Balls, M. (1994) The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), in Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition (ed C. A. Reinhardt), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim, Germany. (wiley.com)
  • At the end of 1991, the Commission of the European Communities informed the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament of its decision to set up a European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), in line with its responsibilities under Directive 86/609/EEC. (wiley.com)
  • ECVAM is assisted by a Scientific Advisory Committee representative of all parties concerned with the validation of alternative methods, namely the Member States, and European industries, animal welfare organizations and academia. (wiley.com)
  • rather, it seeks to effect change by working with scientists in industry, government, and academia to find new ways to replace animals with non-animal methods, reduce the numbers of animals necessary, or refine methods to make them less painful or stressful to the animals involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • Alternatives to animal testing Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods List of animal rights groups Dr Hadwen Trust Henry Spira W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch (1959). (wikipedia.org)
  • With this in mind, the world's most forward-thinking scientists are developing and using methods for studying diseases and testing products that replace the use of animals and are actually relevant to human health. (peta.org.uk)
  • These modern methods include sophisticated tests using human cells and tissues (also known as in vitro methods), advanced computer-modelling techniques (often referred to as in silico models) and studies with human volunteers. (peta.org.uk)
  • These and other non-animal methods are not hindered by species differences that make applying animal-test results to humans difficult or impossible, and they usually take less time and money to complete. (peta.org.uk)
  • PETA and its affiliates fund the development of many of these non-animal methods, publish research on their superiority to traditional animal tests and vigorously promote their use to governments and companies around the world. (peta.org.uk)
  • The non-animal methods replace the cruel use of rabbits in this painful procedure. (peta.org.uk)
  • Riverside, Calif. - Today, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) awarded $849,811 to University of California Riverside as part of a total of $4.25 million in funding to five universities to research the development and use of alternative test methods and strategies that reduce, refine and/or replace vertebrate animal testing. (epa.gov)
  • We are also awarding $4.25 million to advance the research and development of alternative test methods for evaluating the safety of chemicals that will minimize, and hopefully eliminate, the need for animal testing. (epa.gov)
  • The research focuses on advancing the development and use of alternative test methods and strategies to reduce, refine and/or replace vertebrate animal testing. (epa.gov)
  • The grantees are advancing the science of non-vertebrate alternative test methods and strategies in chemical hazard assessment. (epa.gov)
  • Since this test causes severe suffering to the animals, alternative methods to replace it are now being developed worldwide. (bund.de)
  • The BoNT EWG is mandated to develop recommendations on the validation and acceptance by regulatory authorities of alternative methods to the mouse LD 50 activity test for the purpose of approval and batch-based release of BoNT products. (bund.de)
  • The Scientific Advisory Committee of the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods has today approved six new alternative testing methods that will reduce the need for certain drugs and chemicals to be tested on animals. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • The role of ECVAM, which is based at the European Commission's Joint Research Centre, is to replace, refine and reduce methods of animal testing for cosmetics, drugs and chemicals. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Identify knowledge and data gaps that must be addressed to develop alternative methods that can further reduce, refine, and replace the use of animals in vaccine potency and safety testing. (nih.gov)
  • Identify and prioritize research, development, and validation efforts needed to address these knowledge and data gaps in order to advance alternative methods for vaccine potency and safety testing, while ensuring continued protection of human and animal health. (nih.gov)
  • Nearly 200 scientists from 13 countries gathered at this workshop to review the current state of the science and to recommend future research, development, and validation needed to advance alternative methods that can reduce, refine (decrease or eliminate pain and distress), and replace the use of animals for human and veterinary vaccine post-licensing potency and safety testing. (nih.gov)
  • The workshop was organized NICEATM and ICCVAM in partnership with the European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods, the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods, and Health Canada. (nih.gov)
  • In recent years, efforts have increased to develop alternative methods that reduce, refine, and replace the use of animals for vaccine potency and safety testing. (nih.gov)
  • Implementation of the recommendations of this workshop is expected to advance the availability of alternative methods for vaccine potency and safety testing while ensuring continued protection of human and animal health. (nih.gov)
  • Much more attention has been given to the search for alternative test procedures in the hope that methods could be developed that would be both more humane and more predictive of human response. (invitroderm.com)
  • A key factor in effectively replacing animals with alternative methods is validation, which requires databases to correlate historical in vivo results with new in vitro results. (invitroderm.com)
  • Animal Testing is only 2% effective when it comes to finding human illessness in animals, i want to know how effective the other methods that don't have to invlove innocent animals work. (articlicious.com)
  • But given the legislation and higher expense of animal testing over other methods I would assume that is often the case, though I am sure not always. (articlicious.com)
  • Chapter 476 responds to this needless animal testing.12 It requires manufacturers and contract testing facilities13 to conduct alternative testing14 when certain *463 conditions are met: the alternative test methods must be scientifically approved and recommended by the federal Inter-Agency Coordinating Committee for the Validation of Alternative Methods15 (ICCVAM), and subsequently adopted by the appropriate federal regulatory agency. (animallaw.info)
  • The cosmetic industry is always looking for more innovative ways to test their products - preferably methods that don't require the use of animals. (invitrointl.com)
  • InVitro International (IVRO), headquartered in Placentia, CA was established in September 1985 and is a customer and technology driven provider of non-animal testing methods. (invitrointl.com)
  • Evidence-based absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion (ADME) and its interplay with alternative toxicity methods. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Alternatives to the carcinogenicity bioassay: in silico methods, and the in vitro and in vivo mutagenicity assays. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Our results for species including humans, NHPs, dogs, mice, rabbits, and rats, have major implications for the value of animal tests in predicting human toxicity, and demand that human-focused alternative methods are adopted in their place as a matter of urgency. (atla.org.uk)
  • The Galileo Data Bank on Toxicity Testing with Testing with In Vitro Alternative Methods. (atla.org.uk)
  • One focus of activity under this Directive is the use of animals and alternative methods in regulatory testing. (atla.org.uk)
  • Most alternative testing methods monitor readily quantifiable toxicological endpoints in cell culture, whereas the formation of a functional brain requires precisely timed navigation of axons within a complex tissue environment. (altex.org)
  • will be used to establish the Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods (CCAAM), a new facility that aims to develop, normalize, and promote animal-free testing methods in biomedical research, education, and chemical safety testing. (livekindly.co)
  • In recognition of the philanthropic gesture, the main research and training labs will be called the Eric S. Margolis Research and Training Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Methods. (livekindly.co)
  • According to Faculty of Science dean Chris Houser, the CCAM will make UWindsor a leader in animal-free, human-centered research methods. (livekindly.co)
  • "When 21st century technology is used to further medical research and chemical safety testing, the result is the Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods," said Eric Margolis of the Eric. (livekindly.co)
  • Last September, Ipsen, the manufacturer of Botox, announced that it is working on animal-free testing methods, sparing the lives of hundreds of thousands of rats each year. (livekindly.co)
  • And with alternative methods come not just new ways of thinking but new ways of doing. (livekindly.co)
  • The University of Windsor (UWinsor) received a $1 million donation to launch the Canadian Centre for Alternatives to Animal Methods for new testing methods. (livekindly.co)
  • The U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC or Commission) amends regulations on the CPSC's animal testing methods under the Federal Hazardous Substances Act (FHSA). (federalregister.gov)
  • The FHSA and the Commission regulations at 16 CFR part 1500 provide certain definitions and test methods related to testing on animals to determine the existence of the hazards addressed by the FHSA. (federalregister.gov)
  • On June 29, 2012, the Commission issued a notice of proposed rulemaking to amend and to update regulations on the CPSC's animal testing methods under the FHSA. (federalregister.gov)
  • The Commission proposed amendments to the regulations that interpret, supplement, or provide alternatives to definitions of animal test methods used to aid in the classification of hazardous substances under the FHSA. (federalregister.gov)
  • The Commission has also established a Web page on the CPSC's Web site at http://www.cpsc.gov/library/animaltesting.html regarding the ICCVAM recommendations and new developments in test methods that avoid or further reduce or refine animal testing. (federalregister.gov)
  • Refinement alternatives encompass those methods that alleviate or minimize potential pain and distress and enhance animal well-being. (mirznanii.com)
  • Alternative methods are actually cheaper, safer and provide faster results. (brighthub.com)
  • They point out that companies that rely on animal testing do use humane methods to feed, house and care for the animals. (brighthub.com)
  • The European Center for the Evaluation of Alternative Methods, (ECVAM) is responsible for researching alternatives to animal testing. (brighthub.com)
  • Refine - Improve existing methods so that animals experience as little discomfort and distress as possible. (roche.com)
  • Yet it is not necessary and we have effective alternative methods to testing our scientific result. (wordpress.com)
  • We are using artificial intelligence technologies and in silico methods instead of animal testing to simulate and predict drug efficacy. (caareusa.org)
  • 1391 words - 6 pages The Cruelty of Animal Testing and the Need for Alternative Methods In his book Inhumane Society: The American Way of Exploiting Animals, Dr. Michael W. Fox estimates that twenty-five to thirty-five million animals are used in the United States each year for laboratory testing and research (58). (brightkite.com)
  • Alternative testing methods have many advantages over traditional animal tests-including being more humane-but implementing an alternative from idea to acceptance can take years. (humanesociety.org)
  • Again, non-animal methods make an important contribution to the cure of disease and are increasingly replacing animals. (iaapea.com)
  • At present however, in vitro methods are usually seen as preliminary tests prior to experiments on animals. (iaapea.com)
  • What humane testing methods exist in place of animal testing? (vegetariantimes.com)
  • In fact, the FDA officially recommends that companies consider "scientifically valid alternative methods" first and use animal tests only as a last resort. (moneycrashers.com)
  • Some of them make cosmetics and other personal care products with proven ingredients that don't need to be tested, while others rely on new testing methods that are often more accurate - and less expensive - than animal testing. (moneycrashers.com)
  • The development and application of new test systems and test methods is central to the progress of in vitro toxicology. (altex.org)
  • The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) regulations require principal investigators to consider alternatives to procedures that may cause more than momentary or slight pain or distress to the animals and provide a written narrative of the methods used and sources consulted to determine the availability of alternatives, including refinements, reductions, and replacements. (olemiss.edu)
  • U.S. agencies have approved alternative methods to check safety. (latimes.com)
  • On the first day of the EuroTox 2013 conference in Interlaken Switzerland, the workshop "Alternative test methods: challenges and regulatory application", had contributions from the "holy trinity" of regulators, industry and academia. (cremeglobal.com)
  • While a number of alternative methods do exist, none are standardised and no single approach can be considered the "best" option in general. (cremeglobal.com)
  • Researchers working in all of these areas require alternative methods in order in to save time and costs when considering chemicals as potential candidates for the host of applications they are used in the world around us. (cremeglobal.com)
  • If no data are available, ecotoxicological and toxicological tests should be performed that comply with the requirements under the REACH Regulation, the OECD principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and any internationally recognised methods validated according to international procedures to ensure that the data are of high quality and reliable. (europa.eu)
  • A number of alternative methods have been developed to replace the use of animals with non-animal systems, reduce the number of animals in a test, or refine the procedures to make them less painful or stressful to the animals under study (3Rs principle). (europa.eu)
  • Only if all other means of generating information have been exhausted and data of adequate reliability and quality are not available, may testing be undertaken as a means of generating new information in compliance with the test methods referred to in Article 13(3) of REACH. (europa.eu)
  • His current focus is on exposure and adverse effects of anticoagulant rodenticides, flame retardants and pharmaceuticals, comparative toxicology, non-target secondary poisoning associated with rodenticides, alternative testing methods, and screening-level risk assessments. (usgs.gov)
  • Dr. Rattner actively represents the DOI as a member of the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods, and serves as a special consultant to the Fish and Wildlife Service on issues related to nontoxic shot used in hunting. (usgs.gov)
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  • NICEATM staff and ICCVAM members will present on current activities related to the development and validation of test methods and approaches that may replace, reduce, or refine animal use. (nih.gov)
  • NICEATM Deputy Director Nicole Kleinstreuer, Ph.D. will deliver the keynote address "Fit-for-Purpose Validation: The Key to Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods in the United States" at the first Pan-American Conference for Alternative Methods on April 12-14. (nih.gov)
  • EPA is one of the 15 members of the Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM), which NICEATM supports. (nih.gov)
  • We are excited at the progress they have made, once more underscoring the ability of non-animal methods to surpass decades of failed animal experiments. (caareusa.org)
  • and Avian infectious bronchitis vaccine (live) (0442) to encourage the development of alternative methods, such as Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), for the recovery of the virus from tracheal swabs. (edqm.eu)
  • First, Dr. X needs to perform a literature search to see if there are alternatives to different facets of his research materials and methods. (unc.edu)
  • Human health and animal welfare both stand to gain from the development of new in vitro toxicology tests, based on cultured cells and advanced technology. (europa.eu)
  • The test is named Skimune and uses human skin and immune cells to detect reactions to chemicals and drugs such as blistering or allergic reactions and toxicology testing. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
  • IIVS is proud to announce that the journal article Evaluation of a tiered in vitro testing strategy for assessing the ocular and dermal irritation/corrosion potential of pharmaceutical compounds for worker safety, co-authored by IIVS and Bristol-Myers Squibb, was awarded the Prize for the Outstanding Dermal Toxicology paper published in Cutaneous & Ocular Toxicology in 2018. (iivs.org)
  • The Impact of Novel Assessment Methodologies in Toxicology on Green Chemistry and Chemical Alternatives. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. (atla.org.uk)
  • While many studies take place in a petri glass in toxicology research, for some processes there is still a need for animal components such as serum or liver cell tissue. (idw-online.news)
  • Studies using cell cultures are necessary in toxicology research because they make it possible to test whether new substances exhibit undesirable effects. (idw-online.news)
  • Prof. Henner Hollert und Dr. Andreas Schiwy from the Department for Evolutionary Ecology and Environmental Toxicology at Goethe University and the LOEWE Centre TBG, together with the environmental toxicologist Prof. Beate Escher from the Helmholtz Centre for Environmental Research in Leipzig (UFZ) and the companies BiodetectionsSystems in Amsterdam and Scinora in Heidelberg seek to find alternatives to these animal components. (idw-online.news)
  • considerations and guidelines for basic test method descriptions in toxicology", ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation , 27(4), pp. 309-317. (altex.org)
  • These new tests could make animal toxicity experiments obsolete in the next 10 to 20 years, says David Jacobson-Kram, associate director for pharmacology and toxicology at the FDA's Center for Drug Evaluation and Research in Silver Spring, Md. (latimes.com)
  • For human health hazards, no in vitro tests or Q(SAR) predictions could currently fully replace toxicology studies performed to characterise the health effects of chemicals for a number of endpoints, including long-term exposure or exposure over multiple generations. (europa.eu)
  • However, in regulatory toxicology only highly standardised and commercially available reconstructed human skin models with declared reproducibility within the test batches and over production period are accepted. (fu-berlin.de)
  • I believe that if we really wanted to, we could work steadily towards a day in 10 to 20 years' time when animal experimentation will have disappeared. (peta.org.uk)
  • We educate journalists, scientists and legislators so they can be knowledgeable too, helping to dissolve the cloak of misinformation that surrounds animal experimentation. (all-creatures.org)
  • With your support, we can smash the myth that animal research is necessary for medical progress, and expose the cruel and painful world of animal experimentation. (all-creatures.org)
  • Besides reducing animal experimentation, an increase in the accuracy of predicting sensitising potencies is also expected. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
  • McCoy 76) Despite all of this cruelty, animal experimentation has failed to provide any major breakthroughs this century in the treatment of cancer and heart disease - two of our biggest killers, though both these diseases remain largely preventable. (mirznanii.com)
  • That animal experimentation is inherently unethical, inevitably wasteful, and wholly unreliable. (lcanimal.org)
  • With animal testing the pharmaceutical factory can ask more public money saying that they have to pay for the animals they have (animal experimentation is expensive! (envirolink.org)
  • Animal testing refers to the practice of performing unnatural and often painful experiments on animals held captive in stressful laboratory settings, often in the misguided belief that the results of the tests will be applicable to humans. (peta.org)
  • The unnatural and stressful conditions of captivity make it even more unlikely that the results of animal tests can be applied to humans. (peta.org)
  • The federal government and many health charities waste billions of dollars-including money from U.S. taxpayers-on animal experiments at universities and private laboratories, instead of supporting promising non-animal studies that could actually benefit humans. (peta.org)
  • For more than half a century, humans have required all new drugs to be tested on animals. (yahoo.com)
  • Also, there is the question of which humans are we expecting animals to model, as small genetic differences between humans leads to important variability not captured by lab animals. (navs.org)
  • Other alternatives include the use of humans for skin irritancy tests and donated human blood for pyrogenicity studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal research has provided valuable information about many physiological processes that are relevant to humans and has been fundamental in the development of many drugs, including vaccines, anesthetics, and antibiotics. (britannica.com)
  • Animals and humans are similar in many ways. (britannica.com)
  • Animal behaviour can be as complex as human behaviour, and the cellular structures, proteins, and genes of humans and animals are so similar that the prospect of using animal tissues to replace diseased human tissues is under intense investigation for patients who would otherwise never receive a potentially life-saving transplant. (britannica.com)
  • These tests result in the deaths of many animals and often produce data that are irrelevant to humans. (britannica.com)
  • Recognition of the inadequacy of animal toxicity testing has resulted in the development of better techniques that are able to produce comparable toxicity values of chemicals that are applicable to humans. (britannica.com)
  • The IC50 test is useful for comparing the toxicity of chemicals in human cells and thus produces data that are more relevant to humans than an LD50 value obtained from rats, mice, or other animals. (britannica.com)
  • Experiments on animals are cruel and expensive, and they produce dangerously misleading results that are generally inapplicable to humans. (peta.org.uk)
  • Microdosing can replace certain tests on animals and help screen out drug compounds that won't work in humans so that they won't needlessly advance to government-required animal testing. (peta.org.uk)
  • One of the biggest challenges in drug discovery is figuring out which new drugs are likely to be harmful before testing them on humans as there are physiological differences in animals and humans which range from genetic makeup, physiology, environment, and lifestyle - all of which may interact and limit the drug's success for individual patients. (pwc.co.uk)
  • Using bone marrow culture from mice and cord blood cells from humans, a test has been developed that will decrease the risk of a lethal overdose in the first cohort of patients to which they are administered, a risk that cannot be identified during current preclinical testing strategies. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • The importance of vaccines to human and animal health is underscored by a number of factors, including increasing occurrence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, the growing concern about diseases in domestic animals and wildlife that can be passed on to humans, and the priority given by the World Health Organization to the eradication of a number of diseases. (nih.gov)
  • As a scientist, I am interested to find out why otherwise harmless compounds can often elicit an adverse immune response in humans, and gene expression studies could provide us with some important insights in this area, whilst also providing a viable alternative to animal testing. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
  • The principal objective of a skin irritation test is to determine the irritation potential of a substance so that a hazard assessment can be made and possible risk to humans evaluated. (invitroderm.com)
  • In this regard, we recently showed, by producing Likelihood Ratios (LRs) for an extensive data set of over 3,000 drugs with both animal and human data, that the absence of toxicity in animals provides little or virtually no evidential weight that adverse drug reactions will also be absent in humans. (atla.org.uk)
  • Here, we present further data from analyses of other species pairs, including nonhuman primates (NHPs), which support our previous conclusions, and also show in particular that test results inferring an absence of toxicity in one species provide no evidential weight with regard to toxicity in any other species, even when data from NHPs and humans are compared. (atla.org.uk)
  • Since mechanisms of axonal guidance, such as growth cone navigation along molecular semaphorin gradients are conserved between locust and mammalian nervous systems, we will further explore the potential of this invertebrate preparation as an assay, including a prediction model, for testing the DNT potential of chemicals in humans. (altex.org)
  • According to CCAM founding executive director Charu Chandrasekera, millions of animals are used for Canadian medical research every year, despite the fact that evidence shows animals are not an accurate method of testing whether or not an ingredient is safe for humans. (livekindly.co)
  • Every year, nearly 100 million animals die in research laboratories at the hands of curious scientists who perform outdated and inaccurate tests that prove no benefit to humans or animals. (mirznanii.com)
  • Before any new treatment can be used in humans, it must first be tested in animals to determine that it is safe and effective. (roche.com)
  • This is because BOTOX is so toxic that is must be diluted down before it can be used on humans and this diluting process causes changes in the potency of the toxin and therefore each batch of BOTOX is tested on animals to ensure that it still has enough potency for it to be effective. (livingsafe.com.au)
  • FDA is considering the concept of accepting animal bioequivalence studies for oral generic cytotoxic drugs in place of bio studies in humans. (informa.com)
  • It is therefore illogical to utilize animals in order to test a hypothesis about humans. (lcanimal.org)
  • Substances that are safe for humans, such as chocolate, are toxic to dogs and other animals. (lcanimal.org)
  • Throughout this paper I will be talking about how cancer does not just affect humans it affects animals also. (exampleessays.com)
  • I will be talking about how cancer affect animals the same way it affects humans. (exampleessays.com)
  • The process for animals and the process for humans and how closely related they are. (exampleessays.com)
  • But of all the promising medical interventions that make it to animal trials, only a fraction seem to translate into major breakthroughs for humans. (wordpress.com)
  • There are several considerations to add as cons to animal testing like animals are surrogates for humans. (wordpress.com)
  • There is no question that, despite the excellent results that come out of lots of preclinical trials, the human is the ultimate animal model - and sometimes a potential downside to a new compound is not identified until it gets to a humans. (wordpress.com)
  • When you go back and look at how many compounds fail before they ever get to humans, it's clear animals do play a really important role in at least giving early signals - and it's a constantly evolving science. (wordpress.com)
  • Testing on humans and non-human primates is prohibited. (europa.eu)
  • 1). Animals are victims of human's power: with human animals are used to satisfy their desires, with animals humans' actions are their death sentence. (123helpme.com)
  • Although rabies is mostly found in animals, humans can also carry the virus and spread it amongst others. (123helpme.com)
  • There are many symptoms of rabies, in both animals and humans, that reveal themselves only after they have been bitten. (123helpme.com)
  • Unethical for using animals in an innatural and cruel way, I think animal testing is very dangerous for humans. (envirolink.org)
  • Holder tries to hide the reality and he denies that animals have equal moral status to humans. (envirolink.org)
  • It is often argued that humans are more important than animals. (envirolink.org)
  • They point out that animal testing receives far more funding than do clinical trials involving human because of the commonly agreed perception that thee tests benefit humans. (healthy.net)
  • There is a sequence of legal requirements and laboratory tests that has to be followed before a pesticide/drug/anything that may be consumed or in contact with humans (or animals! (envirolink.org)
  • This includes tests on chemicals used in other consumer products and not only cosmetics. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • A little while back some newspapers were reporting on concerns that the regulatory system for new "cosmaceuticals" is not adequate, due to these cosmetics containing ingredients such as nanoparticles that potentially have effects that current animal and in vitro tests don't look for. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Scientists from both sides of the Atlantic say they have successfully developed the first fully functioning lab-grown skin epidermis, pointing the way to a replacement for animal testing of cosmetics products. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
  • "Our new method can be used to grow much greater quantities of lab-grown human epidermal equivalents, and thus could be scaled up for commercial testing of drugs and cosmetics," ​ said Dr Dusko Ilic, leader of the team at King's College London. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
  • Last October, researchers at Newcastle University said they had come up with a skin testing alternative that promised a faster and more accurate alternative to animal testing for cosmetics. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
  • A variety of cell-based tests and tissue models can be used to assess the safety of drugs, chemicals, cosmetics and consumer products. (peta.org.uk)
  • As a result, in industries such as cosmetics animal testing has traditionally been used to address the risk of producing products that contain skin (contact) sensitisers. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
  • Humane Society International is praising a significant move by Chinese authorities away from an almost exclusively animal testing paradigm for cosmetics. (norecopa.no)
  • The National Institutes for Food and Drug Control released a proposal for a new in vitro test standard for cosmetic ingredients as part of China's ongoing efforts to align its regulatory frameworks with those of key international trading partners, providing technology supporting future trade in cosmetics, and further developing Chinese programs and infrastructures for non-animal test method development and validation. (norecopa.no)
  • The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. (semanticscholar.org)
  • A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Furthermore, the Food and Drug Administration does not require animal testing for general personal care, cosmetics or household cleaning products. (brighthub.com)
  • You can become a more compassionate consumer by making sure your cosmetics and personal care, household and pet care products aren't tested on animals. (humanesociety.org)
  • Support the Humane Cosmetics Act The Humane Cosmetics Act would end cosmetics testing on animals in the U.S. by. (humanesociety.org)
  • Is animal testing legally required for cosmetics sold in the United States? (humanesociety.org)
  • Can legislation help end animal testing for cosmetics? (humanesociety.org)
  • Be Cruelty-Free supporters The following companies support the Humane Society of the United States' and Humane Society International's Be Cruelty-Free campaign, a global effort to end animal testing for cosmetics and personal care products. (humanesociety.org)
  • And in some countries and regions - including the European Union, India, and Israel - animal testing for cosmetics is actually illegal, and products tested on animals can't be sold there. (moneycrashers.com)
  • Cosmetics and other personal care products aren't required to go through animal testing, but manufacturers do have to prove that the ingredients they use are safe, and many use animal tests to do that. (moneycrashers.com)
  • If we are right, what we hope to be able to do is to provide these kinds of human eyes in a Petri dish to drug companies so that they can test all of the chemicals and all of the pesticides and all of the cosmetics that they want without ever harming a rabbit and get better results and do it at a fraction of the cost. (podbean.com)
  • When animals are used to further medical research it can be somewhat justified, but when animals are used to test cosmetics it is considered cruelty to animals. (exampleessays.com)
  • The ban on animal testing in cosmetics does not mean that alternative approaches aren't needed in other areas. (cremeglobal.com)
  • prior to this, production required animals to undergo a procedure likely to cause pain and distress. (wikipedia.org)
  • The 3 R's represent reduction in the number of animals used, refinement of techniques and procedures that reduce pain and distress, and replacement of animal with non-animal techniques. (usda.gov)
  • However, these tests still account for the largest numbers of animals that experience unrelieved pain and distress. (nih.gov)
  • This critical component of any comprehensive program of veterinary care provides for frequent observation of the animals by a trained veterinary staff to detect and relieve pain and distress. (mirznanii.com)
  • Exact numbers aren't available, because mice, rats, birds, and cold-blooded animals-who make up more than 99% of animals used in experiments-are not protected under the federal Animal Welfare Act and their numbers don't even have to be reported. (peta.org)
  • An embryonic stem cell test, using mouse-derived cells to assess potential toxicity to developing embryos, has been validated as a partial replacement for birth-defect testing in rats and rabbits. (change.org)
  • The livers of laboratory rats, for example, are used to create an enzyme cocktail that helps investigate whether liver enzymes transform the substance being tested into toxic products. (idw-online.news)
  • In a second step, the researchers want to replace the enzyme cocktail from laboratory rats by having liver cell lines metabolise the substances to be tested instead. (idw-online.news)
  • The most common of these, rats and mice, are not protected under the Animal Welfare Association. (brightkite.com)
  • No accurate figures are kept on the exact number of rats and mice used regardless of the fact they make up eighty-five to ninety percent of all animals used (hsus). (brightkite.com)
  • Mice and rats are curious, social animals who can make excellent pets. (humanesociety.org)
  • Each year, millions of rabbits, mice, rats, guinea pigs, and other animals have an assortment of products rubbed on their skin, smeared in their eyes, or forced down their throats - often resulting in severe pain, illness, and death for the animals. (moneycrashers.com)
  • However, that number excludes mice and rats - the most popular laboratory workhorses - because the U.S. Animal Welfare Act does not cover them. (latimes.com)
  • Office of Technology) Of the many animals used for experiments, about 90 percent of the animals used are rats, mice and other rodents. (exampleessays.com)
  • The vast majority of animal testing today is in rodents, either rats or mice. (wordpress.com)
  • This has been confirmed in a new study by the Reviewing Animal Trials Systematically Group, which reduces to the appropriate acronym of RATS. (healthy.net)
  • The University of Windsor (UWindsor) has received a $1 million CAD donation to explore cruelty-free animal testing alternatives. (livekindly.co)
  • Across the globe, researchers, companies, and organizations are working to develop cruelty-free alternatives to animal testing. (livekindly.co)
  • Cruelty Free International , which campaigns for an end to animal testing, supports the "human-on-a-chip," a cellphone-sized piece of technology that mimics the human body. (livekindly.co)
  • The product may state "cruelty free" or "not tested on animals" To find out if products are really cruelty free, sites like CaringConsumer.com can be used. (brighthub.com)
  • So if you don't want your shopping dollars to support companies that harm animals, cruelty-free products offer a kinder alternative. (moneycrashers.com)
  • TESTING CHEMICALS on animals for human toxicity should be greatly reduced and can potentially be eliminated in favor of experiments using cells, cell lines, or cellular components, says a National Research Council report released last week. (acs.org)
  • Additional priorities include safety tests to determine if products and chemicals may cause other adverse health effects such as cancer, birth defects, infertility and allergic responses. (emaxhealth.com)
  • Research published in BioMed Central's open access journal BMC Genomics demonstrates that the response of laboratory grown human cells can now be used to classify chemicals as sensitizing, or non-sensitizing, and can even predict the strength of allergic response, so providing an alternative to animal testing. (innovations-report.com)
  • Prof Borrebaeck said, "REACH (Registration, Evaluation, and Authorization of Chemicals) regulation requires that all new and existing chemicals within the European Union are tested for safety. (innovations-report.com)
  • In August 2010, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) published the Test Guideline 439 which describes the new procedure for in vitro hazard identification of irritant chemicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • It is worth mentioning that the ban on the testing of chemicals on animals refers strictly to compliance with requirements of the Cosmetic Directive. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Companies and governments are increasingly using QSAR tools to avoid animal testing of chemicals, and PETA's affiliate in the US actively promotes and funds their use internationally. (peta.org.uk)
  • In a step that may reduce by thousands the number of guinea pigs used to test chemicals, the Consumer Product Safety Commission , the Environmental Protection Agency , the Occupational Safety and Health Administration , and the Food and Drug Administration are changing their procedures to accept results from a new test using mice - and fewer of them than the traditional guinea pig test. (nih.gov)
  • The European Union requires testing to detect potential eye damage from chemicals in the cosmetic. (invitrointl.com)
  • Embryos develop in serum-free culture with test chemicals, followed by immunolabeling of pioneer neurons. (altex.org)
  • The EU ban on animal testing for cosmetic products came into force in 2013, although testing is still allowed in Europe for healthcare products and pharmaceuticals, as well as some chemicals and food. (euractiv.com)
  • Chemical testing and animal welfare : proceedings from the international seminar arranged in Stockholm, Sweden, May 20-22 1986 by the National Chemicals Inspectorate under the patronage of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. (who.int)
  • Unilever use DEREK as the first stage in identifying suspect chemicals: test on animals usually follow. (iaapea.com)
  • Laws also require certain other products, such as garden chemicals, to be tested on animals to see how safe they are. (moneycrashers.com)
  • The first webinar, Current Testing Practices: Regulatory Requirements and Non-regulatory Testing, was held March 29 and featured presentations by Jon Hotchkiss, Ph.D., from the Dow Chemical Company, and Ian Indans from United Kingdom Chemicals Regulation Directorate. (nih.gov)
  • An important part of this thesis was the evaluation of the existing reconstructed human skin models for the testing of skin corrosion potential of industrial chemicals. (fu-berlin.de)
  • In addition to raising public concern for animal welfare, animal testing is costly, time-consuming, and not always predictive of human responses. (europa.eu)
  • Today, the accent is on new, advanced, human-based tests reflecting current knowledge of mechanisms. (europa.eu)
  • Studies published in prestigious medical journals have repeatedly shown that experiments on animals waste animals' lives and precious resources because they aren't even relevant to human health. (peta.org)
  • Recycling human skin: An alternative to animal testing? (yahoo.com)
  • Our lab-based alternative to animal testing, although in an early stage of production, is faster, out-performs present alternatives, and, because the cells are human in origin, is more relevant. (innovations-report.com)
  • Discovery requires living systems - both human and animal. (fbresearch.org)
  • The ex vivo materials are obtained form animals used for human (food) consumption, according to the committee. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Scientific drivers are also providing motivation, as inherent differences in the biology of human and non-human animals limits the value of animals serving as human stand-ins. (navs.org)
  • A new or alternative toxicity test method can be quite different from the existing animal test method, but it must provide the same or better prediction of human health effects for it to be accepted by regulatory agencies. (navs.org)
  • For example, Pharmagene Laboratories, based in Royston, England, is the first company to use only human tissues and sophisticated computer technologies in the process of drug development and testing. (change.org)
  • While some companies have used animal tissues for this purpose, Pharmagene scientists believe that the discovery process is much more efficient with human tissues. (change.org)
  • Alternatives for Research Comparative studies of human populations allow doctors and scientists to discover the root causes of human diseases and disorders so that preventive action can be taken. (change.org)
  • Animal experimenters face the unavoidable fact that their artificially created "animal model" can never fully reflect the human condition, whereas clinical investigators know that the results of their work are directly relevant to people. (change.org)
  • Grown from human pluripotent stem cells, the alternative is also said to be a cost-effective alternative lab model that will be appropriate for testing a vast range of skin care, colour cosmetic and other personal care products. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
  • This lab created a skin sample that was then tested against human skin and shown to have no significant structural or functional difference. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
  • Another alternative is so-called microdosing, in which the basic behaviour of drugs is assessed using human volunteers receiving doses well below those expected to produce whole-body effects. (wikipedia.org)
  • Human skin equivalent tests can be used to replace animal-based corrosive and irritative studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • T he use of animals to better understand human anatomy and human disease is a centuries-old practice. (britannica.com)
  • The European Union recently approved a replacement for the Draize test called the EpiSkin® test, which is an in vitro method that uses test-tube-sized models of human skin. (britannica.com)
  • They have been shown to replicate human physiology, diseases and drug responses more accurately than crude animal experiments do. (peta.org.uk)
  • Researchers at the EURL ECVAM have developed five different tests that use human blood cells to detect contaminants in drugs that cause a potentially dangerous fever response when they enter the body. (peta.org.uk)
  • Studies show that these models can accurately predict the ways that new drugs will react in the human body and can replace the use of animals in exploratory research and many standard drug tests. (peta.org.uk)
  • Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) are computer-based techniques that can replace animal tests by making sophisticated estimates of a substance's likelihood of being hazardous, based on its similarity to existing substances and our knowledge of human biology. (peta.org.uk)
  • It directs leadership and staff in the Office of Chemical Safety and Pollution Prevention and the Office of Research and Development to prioritize ongoing efforts and to direct existing resources toward additional activities that will demonstrate measurable impacts in the reduction of animal testing while ensuring protection of human health and the environment. (epa.gov)
  • We want to demonstrate the possibility of leveraging microengineered physiological organ models to challenge a century-long tradition of using animals as human surrogates in life sciences. (all-creatures.org)
  • Several drug companies, like Merck and Janssen, have signed partnerships with biotech firms that manufacture organ chips, acknowledging that animals fail to adequately model human medicine and biology. (all-creatures.org)
  • I started my career as an academic and veterinarian, followed by almost 9 years of stem cell research that included working with cutting-edge technologies, like cellular reprogramming, before starting a biotech business, part of which is developing 'organ-on-chip' platforms as an alternative to animal testing for human drug development. (pwc.co.uk)
  • For starters, it is more ethical as the process does not involve animal or human testing, and is therefore also safer for the patients themselves. (pwc.co.uk)
  • hese have been employed for almost 50 years and are regarded as standard requirements for estimating the hazards associated with human skin exposure to test materials. (invitroderm.com)
  • The test described here is based on in vitro cultured dendritic-like cells (DCs) derived from human peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (invitroderm.com)
  • How effective does animal testing alternatives work such as computer modelling and human tissue cultures? (articlicious.com)
  • Answer by tigris they don't go and search for human diseases in animals any more. (articlicious.com)
  • I do think while we try to come up with new medications and treatments for human diseases there is no way to omit experiments on animals. (articlicious.com)
  • Alternative approaches like in-vitro, human tissue and computer models tend to be less expensive and certainly easier to manage. (invitrointl.com)
  • The test is completed using cultured human or mammalian cell lines to pinpoint toxicity at the cellular level. (invitrointl.com)
  • The required skin inflammation test is: Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) test method (OECD 439). (invitrointl.com)
  • Mutagenicity tests identify genotoxic materials that may change or damage human DNA. (invitrointl.com)
  • Predicting Human Drug Toxicity and Safety via Animal Tests: Can Any One Species Predict Drug Toxicity in Any Other, and Do Monkeys Help? (atla.org.uk)
  • and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. (atla.org.uk)
  • One of the easiest ways that companies can avoid animal testing is to use products that have been extensively used in human history and have proven their safety over time. (brighthub.com)
  • To handle the need to test on live subjects, technologies have been developed that allow human cell cultures to be grown in a test tube and used for study. (brighthub.com)
  • Direct human testing through clinical trials where the product is released for use to a limited group of participants and skin patches are also effective alternatives to animal testing. (brighthub.com)
  • According to a 2008, Washington Post article titled "In U.S., Few Alternatives to Testing on Animals", the US manufacturer behind the drug, tests for the correct human dosage of each batch, by injecting it into lab mice. (brighthub.com)
  • However, if there is an extremely need to test on animals that otherwise would result in human disease or death, I think it should be allowed. (wordpress.com)
  • According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration , "The drug research process is complicated, time-consuming, and costly…only 5 in 5,000 compounds that enter preclinical testing make it to human testing, and only 1 of those 5 may be safe and effective enough to reach pharmacy shelves. (caareusa.org)
  • The bottom line: Some 95% of drugs fail to be deemed safe or effective for human use due to misleading test results from animal studies. (caareusa.org)
  • Basically one of the reasons why there is such a decline in research and development is because animal testing is not very representative of what the human outcome will be. (caareusa.org)
  • if this is so, the experimenter must agree human and non-human animals are similar in crucial respects (p. 65). (brightkite.com)
  • In the story, "Of Mice and Men," Fischell Department of Bioengineering (BioE) professor and chair William E. Bentley discusses how his research group and colleagues in the Maryland Biochip Collaborative are developing biomimetic devices that can simulate the behavior of human tissue, organs and systems, eliminating the need for certain kinds of testing on animals or people. (umd.edu)
  • Human epidemiological studies have the power to save millions of lives, showing that major advances can be achieved without animal experiments. (iaapea.com)
  • 14) The AIDS treatment AZT originated from in vitro experiments (15) (as did the drug combinations now being used against HIV), whilst anti-cancer agents can be assessed in the test tube using human cancer cells. (iaapea.com)
  • These include bacteria to test mutagens and carcinogens, yeast to measure phototoxicity, and human tissues to predict skin and eye irritancy. (iaapea.com)
  • Indeed, tests with human tissue have the advantage over animal experiments that results are directly relevant to people. (iaapea.com)
  • Human bone marrow cells can identify drugs such as chloramphenicol and phenyIbutazone which cause potentially fatal aplastic anaemia, (16) a side effect not predicted by the original animal tests. (iaapea.com)
  • Human liver tissue can detect hepatic toxicity associated with the anti-epileptic drug valproic acid (17) although extensive animal experiments prior to marketing failed to identify the problem. (iaapea.com)
  • Thalidomide's effect on the foetus can be studied with human embryonic tissue (18) although many animal species proved resistant to the drug. (iaapea.com)
  • Drugs, vaccines, and medical devices of all kinds have to go through animal testing before they're allowed to be used in human trials. (moneycrashers.com)
  • FDA met Jan. 29 to discuss possible alternatives to human bioequivalence testing of generic anticancer drugs. (informa.com)
  • Hepatitis drug Fialuridine did not harm dogs and monkeys during animal testing but killed 5 people in human clinical trials. (lcanimal.org)
  • Please take a moment to listen to International Stem Cell Corporation Chairman, Ken Aldrich, as he discusses the benefits of using human corneas developed in Petri dishes as an alternative to testing on the eyes of innocent rabbits. (podbean.com)
  • One of the things that most people don't know is that cosmetic companies, drug companies and pesticide makers all have to test their products to see whether they do damage to the human eye. (podbean.com)
  • We have developed in the Petri dish a human cornea that has all of the requisite layers of the human corneal tissue that would be necessary for such a test and we are right now determining whether or not that tissue has the same permeability as the normal human eye. (podbean.com)
  • The advantage to using animals is that we can control their outside exposure, but obviously something proven to be true or false on an animal doesn't necessarily hold water on a human. (exampleessays.com)
  • The basic reason for animal trials is to determine two issues before any new compound is introduced into a human: safety and efficacy. (wordpress.com)
  • ECHA promotes alternatives to animal testing that meet regulatory needs by assessing the risks of substances to human health and the environment, while avoiding unnecessary animal testing. (europa.eu)
  • Animals should be kept in the zoo to get protected from extinction due to climate change, human consumption and to build human-animal interaction for educational benefit. (123helpme.com)
  • They don't care about human or animal welfare, rights etc. (envirolink.org)
  • Animals and established cell lines are limited in their ability to mimic human disease, and results don't always translate to patient populations. (news-medical.net)
  • Those who have supported animal testing in medical trials always argue that it is better that an animal should suffer rather than a human. (healthy.net)
  • Their partnership has now produced a milestone when Emulate's human blood vessel-chip predicted toxicity of an autoimmune drug previously undetected in experiments using animals. (caareusa.org)
  • This latest research provides yet another clear and compelling example of how an organ chip has been able to model human physiological responses and predict adverse outcomes that animal tests could not. (caareusa.org)
  • As far as human and veterinary vaccines are concerned, an in vitro method has in many cases been introduced as an alternative to or replacement for in vivo testing. (edqm.eu)
  • These decisions are fully in line with the EDQM's mission to promote and protect human and animal health, and with its commitment to the 3Rs principles. (edqm.eu)
  • The Test for specific toxicity and the Test for residual toxicity - performed on the final lot for human and veterinary vaccines, respectively - and the Test for irreversibility of tetanus toxoid carried out on the bulk purified toxoid (all tests in guinea pigs) have been deleted. (edqm.eu)
  • Commission adopted 49 monographs, 36 of which were on vaccines for human use, which had been revised to remove the reference to the test for abnormal toxicity. (edqm.eu)
  • The answer is probably yes, because the pests that eat our crops and other plants needed for a still increasing human population (and their animals) adapt to resist pesticides. (envirolink.org)
  • Reconstructed human skin models are one of the most promising in vitro systems that have the potential to replace animal assays in area of topical toxicity testing. (fu-berlin.de)
  • In this thesis, it has been demonstrated that the reconstructed human skin models show excellent capability for the use in almost all domains of topical toxicity testing, e.g. skin corrosion, skin irritation, and phototoxicity. (fu-berlin.de)
  • But there is no way to completely replace animal testing and research because the pathway to fully duplicating a whole, living system does not yet exist. (fbresearch.org)
  • The scientific community looks forward to the day when animal testing and research is no longer needed in the future. (fbresearch.org)
  • One of the greatest threats to the preclinical research necessary for science-based medicine today is animal rights activism. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Two of the main funders of animal-based research in North America, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, need to hear that you don't want your tax dollars used to underwrite animal experiments and urge them to stop requiring cruel and obsolete animal tests for pharmaceuticals and allow companies to substitute in vitro tests. (change.org)
  • Concern over the care and management of animals used in scientific research was initially raised in the 19th century in Great Britain, where the Cruelty to Animals Act was adopted in 1876. (britannica.com)
  • A significant step forward-for both supporters and opponents of animal research-occurred in 1959, when British zoologist William Russell and British microbiologist Rex Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique . (britannica.com)
  • These concepts became the foundation for the development of scientific alternatives to animal testing, and they continue to guide the treatment of animals in modern scientific research. (britannica.com)
  • CAAT promotes humane science by supporting the creation, development, validation, and use of alternatives to animals in research, product safety testing, and education. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chips can be used instead of animals in disease research, drug testing and toxicity testing. (peta.org.uk)
  • Dasgip and the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology (IZI) are partnering conducting stem-cell research to find alternatives to drug testing that do not require animals. (genengnews.com)
  • The following guidelines were developed to assist researchers, information specialists, and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members, when conducting literature searches to determine if alternatives to the use of animals exist and whether a protocol unnecessary duplicates previous research. (usda.gov)
  • The specialist cannot effectively search for alternatives without a basic understanding of the type of research the investigator is proposing. (usda.gov)
  • Investigators can assist information specialists by being prepared to give precise and specific information about their research or testing procedures. (usda.gov)
  • Are you aware of any possible alternatives to your research, such as experiments conducted on alternative species, cell culture, or in vitro studies? (usda.gov)
  • Animal research is a multi-billion dollar industry. (all-creatures.org)
  • Many scientists, companies and institutions - including government - sustain established programs and careers based on animal research. (all-creatures.org)
  • Because I know that it will take more than innovations in science to end the standard of using animals in research. (all-creatures.org)
  • CAARE demonstrates every day that research without animals is not just some hypothetical goal, but is happening right now in universities, labs and corporations around the world, yielding exciting new results that surpass animal research. (all-creatures.org)
  • Our message to the world is that it's time to stop apologizing for animal research as a necessary evil. (all-creatures.org)
  • Nominations are currently being accepted for the Charles River Laboratories Excellence in Refinement Award, sponsored by Charles River's Commitment to Humane Animal Research Through Excellence and Responsibility (CHARTER) Program in cooperation CAAT. (jhsph.edu)
  • The work of ECVAM is funded from the EU's Research Framework Programme, with support from Member States, industry and animal welfare organisations. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Their innovative research will help to support Sens-it-iv, a large EU-funded research project that aims to develop and optimise in vitro test strategies that could reduce or replace animal testing for sensitisation studies. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
  • The term reduction alternative describes a method for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of fewer animals in scientific procedures or for obtaining more information from a given number of animals so that, in the long run, fewer animals are needed to complete a given research project or test. (mirznanii.com)
  • Salem 284) In some cases, the level of statistical expertise appears to be so low that investigators are unable to obtain appropriate statistical analysis of experimental results, which leads to the inefficient use of animals and scientific resources in research (Salem 284). (mirznanii.com)
  • For most of these products, animal testing was used at some point in its research and development. (brighthub.com)
  • 1) Have compassion for animals in research. (scienceblogs.com)
  • As someone who was in the room for that talk, I'd say that the Dali Lama's threshold for acceptible animal research is probably stricter than what is currently being done in science labs. (scienceblogs.com)
  • He clearly would prefer a system that focus on research with extremely clear and direct benefits to life (i.e. not necessarily basic research that causes animals pain and may or may not result in helping others 20 years in the future). (scienceblogs.com)
  • That said, he was clearly in favor of animal research. (scienceblogs.com)
  • We appreciate and take seriously public concern about the use of animals in medical research. (roche.com)
  • Like all research-based healthcare companies, Roche conducts animal tests as required by regulatory authorities. (roche.com)
  • Following this practice, we have substantially reduced animal experiments at Roche, despite a substantial increase in the number of research projects. (roche.com)
  • Additionally, Roche Group Research Centres are accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International. (roche.com)
  • We assess emerging technologies and quickly adopt the ones that can enhance our research efforts in finding new drugs and better diagnostic tests. (roche.com)
  • Their project won the "CRACK IT" innovation challenge by NC3Rs, a British organisation that works to reduce reliance on animal models in research. (idw-online.news)
  • Scientific research and testing has been performed on animals for hundreds of years. (wordpress.com)
  • The animal rights activists believe animals should never be used for research, and the scientists believe any use of animals is acceptable. (brightkite.com)
  • In the nineteenth century a rise in biomedical research subsequently increased the number of animals used in experiments. (brightkite.com)
  • Millions of animals are used each year for medical research, product testing and education in the United States. (brightkite.com)
  • Research involving tests done on animals is unnecessary and cruel. (brightkite.com)
  • Right now, animals like me are suffering in puppy mills, research labs and factory farms. (humanesociety.org)
  • Alternatives to animal use in research, testing, and education / Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States. (who.int)
  • The use of animals in research remains a controversial topic among animal lovers and scientists. (umd.edu)
  • And research is underway to make animal toxicity experiments obsolete within 20 years. (latimes.com)
  • Our hat is off to the company," says Martin Stephens, vice president for animal research issues at the Humane Society of the United States in Washington, D.C. (latimes.com)
  • None of us take any pleasure in using animals in research," Jacobson-Kram says. (latimes.com)
  • In 2016, the number of recorded animals (those covered by the Animal Welfare Act) used in research in the U.S. rose to 820,812 - up 6.9% from 767,622 the previous year. (lcanimal.org)
  • There are three categories of research animals: purpose bred, random source and conditioned. (lcanimal.org)
  • Purpose-bred animals are bred specifically for research and obtained from Class "A" dealers who raise all their animals in a closed colony on their own premises. (lcanimal.org)
  • Random source animals are not specifically bred for research and are purchased from pounds, Class "B" dealers or donated to re search. (lcanimal.org)
  • Animal research was essential for the discovery of Herceptin, a humanized mouse protein which has helped increase the survival rate of those with breast cancer that could not have been obtained without animal testing on mice. (exampleessays.com)
  • Animal abuse is the suffering or harm of an animal other than for self-defense or for survival, such as for food, research, clothes, etc. (123helpme.com)
  • He compares animals used for research to animals used for food: that's a crazy comparison. (envirolink.org)
  • Increasingly, organs-on-chips are demonstrating the ability to exceed results from cruel animal research. (caareusa.org)
  • you may have heard of the 'three Rs', reduction, refinement, replacement, which apply to animal research and testing equally. (envirolink.org)
  • Who wants (or even, in law, be allowed) to use animals in research or testing (and you know, of course, that animals are still protected in that use! (envirolink.org)
  • Directive 86/609/EEC bans the use of an animal test when an equally satisfactory alternative test is "reasonably and practicably" available. (europa.eu)
  • The 2009, 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive bans testing of cosmetic products and ingredients on animals meaning that there is currently no way of ensuring new products are hypoallergenic. (innovations-report.com)
  • the 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (2003/15/EC) was adopted by European Union (EU) institutions in 2003 and imposes strict deadlines to abolish in vivo animal studies for cosmetic ingredient testing. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Furthering these efforts, EPA Administrator Andrew Wheeler signed a memo titled, "Directive to Prioritize Efforts to Reduce Animal Testing. (epa.gov)
  • The Three Rs concept, which was developed by Russell & Burch in 1959, was implemented into the legal framework in the European Union (EU) for the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes, when Directive 86/609/EEC was adopted in 1986. (atla.org.uk)
  • Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes includes an explicit reference to the 3Rs principle. (europa.eu)
  • The Department's pursuit of alternative fueled vehicles has resulted in a directive from the Johnson County Manager that all departments are to give serious consideration to buying hybrid and/or alternative fueled vehicles when they are making new purchases. (jocogov.org)
  • Up to now, there have been only very few such systems for toxicological testing, because the amounts required are low in comparison with pharmaceutical production. (idw-online.news)
  • Subsequently, the metabolic products will be extracted and their effect tested in the adapted toxicological cell cultures that were developed in the first step. (idw-online.news)
  • Not all of them bring with them the necessary experience and training required for the development of toxicological test systems. (altex.org)
  • Furthermore, toxicological properties of substances may be predicted using information from test data on analogues by the 'read-across' approach or for a group of substances using the 'category' approach. (europa.eu)
  • 200,000 rabbits are used every year to test the drugs before they are put on the market. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • A first animal (rabbit) test was developed using the fact that rabbits do also develop a fever reaction when injected with pyrogens. (tentamus.com)
  • In addition to being more humane, these experiments often promise better results more quickly and cheaply than the classic tests with mice or rabbits. (latimes.com)
  • Burch and Russell 139) Distress is an aversive state in which an animal is unable to adapt completely to stressors and, as a result, shows maladaptive behavior. (mirznanii.com)
  • It is argued, we have a responsibility toward animals and a moral obligation to not cause them pain or distress (jhsph). (brightkite.com)
  • Organotypic tissue culture tests use ex vivo biological materials. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Two major alternatives to in vivo animal testing are in vitro cell culture techniques and in silico computer simulation. (wikipedia.org)
  • The traditional test for evaluating skin irritation has been in vivo tests in the rabbit, often referred to as Draize tests. (invitroderm.com)
  • To reduce or replace animal testing for regulatory purposes, non-animal tests must be independently validated to prove that they can provide information that is relevant and reliable for hazard prediction in relation to specific types of toxicity in vivo . (atla.org.uk)
  • What barriers stand in the way of widespread practice of non-animal testing approaches? (navs.org)
  • Regulatory acceptance of animal testing alternatives is limited, as regulators may be reluctant to accept new approaches. (navs.org)
  • These techniques are typically far more sophisticated and specific than traditional approaches to testing in whole animals, and many in vitro tests are capable of producing information about the biological effects of a test compound that are as accurate -and in some cases more accurate than-information collected from studies in whole animals. (britannica.com)
  • A conference in Brussels on 7 November 2005 entitled "Europe goes alternative" saw the adoption of a European Partnership with industry to promote alternative approaches to animal testing. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • We are also a member of the European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing, a joint initiative between the European Commission, companies and trade associations. (roche.com)
  • A number of alternative approaches exist currently, all of which can be applied with varying levels of success depending on what is already known. (cremeglobal.com)
  • Alternative approaches may also take into account chemical properties, (Q)SAR predictions and models, and in vitro tests on cells or tissues with current or new technologies including genomics and proteomics. (europa.eu)
  • NICEATM and the PETA International Science Consortium (PISC) are co-hosting a webinar series on Alternative Approaches for Acute Inhalation Toxicity to Address Global Regulatory and Non-regulatory Data Requirements. (nih.gov)
  • Future webinars will be presented monthly through August and include discussion of in silico and other non-testing approaches, adverse outcome pathways, and the additivity approach for hazard classification of mixtures. (nih.gov)
  • A number of replacement tests, validated by ECVAM and its partners or by other agencies, are now in use or are being discussed at European and OECD levels. (europa.eu)
  • In embryotoxic compound identification tests, ECVAM exploits the ability of embryonic stem cells to differentiate in vitro into various tissues (e.g. beating heart tissue). (europa.eu)
  • In addition to co-ordinating multi-laboratory prevalidation and validation studies, ECVAM gives advice on alternative tests and animal welfare issues, organises workshops and task forces, runs SIS - an information service providing factual, evaluated information on tests and their validation/acceptance status - and has created Olive(c)JRC, an information management system that can help laboratories to set up and operate a `Good Laboratory Practice' facility for alternative tests. (europa.eu)
  • Tests validated by ECVAM must be approved by its Scientific Advisory Committee, composed of representatives of the 25 member states, academia, industry and animal welfare organizations before they can be used in labs across Europe. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • By using advances in scientific knowledge, ECVAM will help to increase patient safety and animal welfare. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • At the end of the 1980s, no scientific concept existed for the formal validation of in vitro toxicity tests, so a small group of European and American scientists met to develop a set of principles for experimental validation, which were first adopted by ECVAM in Europe in 1995, and, after harmonisation with experts from the USA and Japan, accepted internationally by the OECD in 1996. (atla.org.uk)
  • ECVAM has directly funded a number of validation studies, and a major breakthrough in the year 2000 was the acceptance for regulatory purposes in the EU of cientifically validated in vitro toxicity tests for phototoxic potential and for skin corrosivity. (atla.org.uk)
  • These, and other examples which are discussed, confirm that the internationally harmonised ECVAM/ICCVAM/OECD validation concept is a practical and effective way of making possible the replacement of regulatory testing in animals. (atla.org.uk)
  • However, several are now in widespread use around the world for routine safety testing, resulting in notable reduction and refinement of animal use. (emaxhealth.com)
  • A reduction alternative is a method that reduces the number of animals used. (navs.org)
  • There is widespread agreement that a reduction in the number of animals used and the refinement of testing to reduce suffering should be important goals for the industries involved. (wikipedia.org)
  • This work introduced the goals of replacement, reduction, and refinement: replacement of animal testing with other techniques, reduction of the number of animals tested, and refinement of animal tests to reduce suffering. (britannica.com)
  • Today, Administrator Wheeler called for the agency to aggressively pursue a reduction in animal testing. (epa.gov)
  • Search strategies for alternatives may be divided into two phases, reduction and refinement, and replacement. (usda.gov)
  • Commission and its experts have worked continuously to ensure that the 3Rs principles of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal testing are applied when revising or drafting the texts published in the Ph. (edqm.eu)
  • History of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal testing (3Rs) at Ph. (edqm.eu)
  • Researchers can study diseases like cancer cells in a petri dish, but they don't behave the same way in a dish as in a living, breathing animal or person. (fbresearch.org)
  • Some companies, such as the HµRel Corporation , have already turned these chips into products that researchers can use in place of animals. (peta.org.uk)
  • This award is available annually to young scientists to acknowledge and encourage researchers who focus on replacing animal experiments. (jhsph.edu)
  • Three Rs 105) In the 1980s and 1990s, their philosophy has enabled researchers and animal welfare advocates to come together with a common goal: to find scientifically valid alternatives to animal tests, following the principle that humane science is good science. (mirznanii.com)
  • A team of researchers headed by Goethe University now seeks to develop a new cell culture technique to replace the use of animal components. (idw-online.news)
  • Animals have been used for centuries to help researchers understand the various organs of the body, and their functions as well as to hone their surgical skills. (brightkite.com)
  • When researchers first developed toxicity tests decades ago, animals were "convenient black boxes," Stephens says. (latimes.com)
  • Researchers claim that the "advantages" of using purpose-bred animals include: more uniform genetic control, fewer health problems, consistent vaccination histories, and animals accustomed to cage life. (lcanimal.org)
  • Researchers in the area of organ and cell transplantation, for example, prefer the use of "randomly outbred" animals. (lcanimal.org)
  • Ethically, animal e xperim entation presents a conundrum for researchers. (lcanimal.org)
  • And using animals the researchers can select the species of animals on the basis of the results they want obtain. (envirolink.org)
  • And when their drugs on the market will begin to kill people or to cause horrible diseases and reactions, the researchers will say that with animals the result was different, so it's not their fault. (envirolink.org)
  • Researchers want to know precisely what has been completed and authorized in possible choices to animal trying out in technological know-how and politics. (studentselect.work)
  • With leading medical researchers in the West looking anxiously for antibiotic alternatives, bacteriophage therapy is suddenly looking ''very promising,'' as Tomasz puts it. (nytimes.com)
  • 2.6.30) since 2010 and since the revision in 2016 recommendations have been given to replace the rabbit test with the MAT, wherever possible and after product specific validation (Ph. (tentamus.com)
  • About 50% of preclinical tests are performed to explore the bone harming and thus the embryotoxic potential of drug candidates, the collorators note. (genengnews.com)
  • Two recent studies in the journal Leukemia present a new approach for bone marrow donation and transplant that preclinical laboratory tests suggest could make the life-saving procedure safer and more effective for patients. (news-medical.net)
  • In fact, almost any useful drug effect can be identified in the test tube using cells, tissues and enzymes from the body. (iaapea.com)
  • The PETA International Science Consortium Ltd. works with agencies around the world to reduce the number of animals used in tests. (peta.org)
  • As additional alternatives are developed, science will naturally reduce the need and use of animal models. (fbresearch.org)
  • Alternative is the term traditionally used within the scientific community to describe the "3Rs" -methodologies to replace, reduce or refine animal use in an existing test or procedure. (navs.org)
  • Its creators claim that it has a quicker turnaround time than most similar tests and therefore allows companies to reduce their expense and time to market. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
  • EPA has already made significant efforts to reduce, replace, and refine the agency's animal testing requirements. (epa.gov)
  • Objective 3.3 of the FY2018 - FY2022 U.S. EPA Strategic Plan outlines a commitment to further reduce the reliance on animal testing within five years under both statutory and strategic directives. (epa.gov)
  • For example, the Frank R. Lautenberg Chemical Safety for the 21st Century Act, which amended the Toxic Substances Control Act, requires EPA to reduce reliance on animal testing. (epa.gov)
  • The tests approved today will not only reduce the number of animals needed for testing, but will also increase the accuracy of the tests, thereby making the products concerned safer. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • International studies have shown that this new test can provide more accurate predictions than testing on animals, so the new method will not only reduce the number of animals needed, but also increase the safety of patients. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • This test will not only reduce the number of animals used in labs, but also the costs of testing. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Dr. Qingsong Zhu, Insilico Medicine's chief operating officer told CAARE, "Insilico Medicine is contributing its efforts to reduce animal testing in drug development. (caareusa.org)
  • products (BoNT-products) was determined with a lethalitiy test (LD 50 activity test) using mice, which is required by the regulatory authorities. (bund.de)
  • As part of this test, mice are injected with different concentrations of BoNT. (bund.de)
  • Let My 'Mice' Answer… Does alternative required for animal testings? (wordpress.com)
  • Rodents, particularly mice, have very short life spans, so you can see how a compound would react in a young animal, then in the same geriatric animal, and then in the next-generation animal, all in a time frame that is reasonable. (wordpress.com)
  • 3 thoughts on " Let My 'Mice' Answer… Does alternative required for animal testings? (wordpress.com)
  • At its 162nd Session in November 2018, the European Pharmacopoeia Commission adopted the replacement of the Histamine sensitisation test (HIST) in mice with a standardised CHO cell clustering assay for residual pertussis toxin testing, in general chapter 2.6.33 Residual pertussis toxin and in ten individual monographs on acellular pertussis vaccines. (edqm.eu)
  • ICCVAM or ECVAM's advisory board then determines whether to recommend the test as scientifically valid for its intended purpose. (navs.org)
  • PETA's vivid demonstrations and undercover investigations alert the public to wasteful, cruel, and useless experiments on animals, often ones occurring right under their noses. (peta.org)
  • Reliability: for example, according to http://www.neavs.org , experiments on animals revealed false assumptions about the links between fiberglass and cancer. (wordpress.com)
  • U.S. agencies have already approved alternative tests to replace many experiments on animals' eyes and skin. (latimes.com)
  • Alternatives to animal testing are primarily based on biochemical assays, on experiments in cells that are carried out in vitro ("within the glass"), and on computational models and algorithms. (britannica.com)
  • The overall objective of Sens-it-iv is to produce in vitro alternatives for these assays and develop them up to the level of pre-validation. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
  • Correlation of the results of these assays with those of the rabbit irritation test was not exact. (invitroderm.com)
  • The testing of cosmetic products directly onto an animal can be minimized or eliminated by the use of in Vitro cell growth and development. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supporters also claim that alternatives to animal testing are not as far reaching, lacking the ability to determine how cosmetic products affect living tissue and organs. (brighthub.com)
  • However, regulations and consumer protection laws do require testing on certain cosmetic products to ensure safety and nontoxicity with federal safety rules. (brighthub.com)
  • In European Union, animal testing is prohibited for new cosmetic products being placed on the market since 2013. (sgsgroup.com.hk)
  • PETA scientists sat in as the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency made the historic announcement that it would end toxicity tests on mammals-something we've pushed the agency to do for nearly 20 years. (peta.org)
  • That's why a team of innovative scientists at Insilico Medicine in Baltimore is utilizing the powerful capabilities of deep learning - often referred to as artificial intelligence - to open the door to a new era of drug development without animals, one that can go from drug design to safety testing. (caareusa.org)
  • The struggle is usually between extreme animal rights activists and scientists. (brightkite.com)
  • To learn about body functions scientists would cut into a live animal to observe vital parts in action. (brightkite.com)
  • It took 10 years for Allergan scientists to perfect the new test. (latimes.com)
  • Scientists are now developing tests for toxins that cause organ damage, birth defects, and other problems. (latimes.com)
  • Even scientists who work with animals would prefer not to. (latimes.com)
  • Scientists didn't understand how a chemical could sicken an animal, but they could see whether the creature lived or died. (latimes.com)
  • Now, scientists have a much better understanding of the inner workings of animals and people. (latimes.com)
  • Increasingly scientists are also looking at non-animal models to provide more and more answers. (wordpress.com)
  • Refine, lessen, substitute - those are the 3 calls for that scientists have put upon themselves of their look for choices to animal trying out. (studentselect.work)
  • But, that's why they're trying to develop in vitro tests in the first place! (scienceblogs.com)
  • The aim of the Sens-it-iv project is to develop in vitro alternatives to animal tests currently used for the risk assessment of potential skin or lung sensitisers, as there are not yet any in vitro tests or test strategies available to test chemical compounds for their potential to induce hypersensitivity reactions. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
  • But can they replace animal studies? (yahoo.com)
  • Each agency makes its own determination of whether to accept data from the new method, and to what extent the new method can replace the existing regulatory test method (usually an animal test). (navs.org)
  • Non-animal tests are generally faster and less expensive than the animal tests they replace and improve upon. (change.org)
  • Others say that they cannot replace animals completely as they are unlikely to ever provide enough information about the complex interactions of living systems. (wikipedia.org)
  • Replace - Use alternatives to animal testing whenever possible. (roche.com)
  • It's everybody's hope that one day we could replace animal trials entirely with computer modelling. (wordpress.com)
  • Hendriksen and Koeter 99) This is also accomplished by careful consideration of animal disease status and genotype, appropriateness of strain or species and the quality of the animal husbandry, all to minimize experimental variation. (mirznanii.com)
  • All animal species are unique, particularly at the cellular level where diseases occur. (lcanimal.org)
  • The new EU law contemplates inescapable electric shocks (to induce helplessness), complete isolation for prolonged periods of social species like dogs or primates, forced swimming or exercise tests to exhaustion, destruction of animals' immune system - and so much more. (envirolink.org)
  • In September 1999, the Centre was the principal organiser of the 3rd World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences, held in Bologna, Italy. (europa.eu)
  • Many countries - including the United States - have already established national centres to advance non-animal methodologies, but CCAAM is the first and only centre of its kind in Canada. (livekindly.co)
  • Cell and tissue culture (in vitro) studies are used to screen for anti-cancer, anti-AIDS, and other types of drugs, and they are also a means of producing and testing a number of other pharmaceutical products, including vaccines, antibiotics, and therapeutic proteins. (change.org)
  • The routine testing of biological medicines, excluding vaccines and pyrogen tests, is examined. (atla.org.uk)
  • Commission adopted revised versions of its monographs on tetanus vaccines from which three animal tests have been suppressed. (edqm.eu)
  • The decision to remove the tests was taken following a re-assessment of toxicity testing requirements for these vaccines. (edqm.eu)
  • As part of the same revision exercise, the test for irreversibility of pertussis toxoid and the requirement to test the final lot for residual pertussis toxin have been removed from individual monographs on acellular pertussis vaccines. (edqm.eu)
  • The first step in conducting a search for alternatives, involves communication between the investigator and the information specialist. (usda.gov)
  • Why search for alternatives? (olemiss.edu)
  • the performance of a database search remains the most effective and efficient method for demonstrating compliance with the requirement to consider alternatives to painful/distressful procedures. (olemiss.edu)
  • Specific zoonotic diseases like cat scratch fever and bird flu can be found in the consumer health area, but not in the veterinary search strategy unless it involves the health of the animal. (nih.gov)
  • The validation and regulatory acceptance of non-animal alternative tests is critical to the adoption of more humane scientific methodologies. (change.org)
  • In addition, tests developed have to be validated to reach the regulatory acceptance. (fu-berlin.de)
  • Experimenting on animals is not only cruel but also completely unnecessary and unethical. (peta.org)
  • The EU also requires specific tests to ensure there is no skin inflammation or irreversible skin corrosion. (invitrointl.com)
  • Skin corrosion tests assess the potential of a substance/mixture to cause irreversible damage to the skin. (sgsgroup.com.hk)
  • It should be noted that the traditional Draize and LD50 tests were never subjected to a validation process). (navs.org)
  • Another example of a toxicity test performed on animals that often produces inaccurate results is the Draize test, in which a chemical, such as a cosmetic or pharmaceutical agent, is applied to the skin or eye of a rabbit. (britannica.com)
  • The inaccuracy of the Draize test has been recognized for many years, but its replacement has not been a simple matter, and the development of better in vitro techniques has taken nearly a decade. (britannica.com)
  • It recommends a new approach to chemical testing based on emerging scientific understanding of how genes, proteins, and small molecules interact for normal cell function. (acs.org)
  • The scientific committee noted the usefulness of 'organotypic' tests to identify severe eye irritants and the ICCVAM assessment conducted in the United States on these tests. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • FRAME , and has been a key scientific journal in the field of laboratory animal alternatives for more than 30 years. (atla.org.uk)
  • Animals and Alternatives 68) Alternatives to animal testing do exist and should be implemented throughout the scientific community. (mirznanii.com)
  • Burch and Russell 8) In more recent years, the term "alternative" has evolved as scientific advancements have been made in the fields of molecular and cellular biology. (mirznanii.com)
  • Should Animals Be Used for Scientific or Commerical Testing? (wordpress.com)
  • The most common arguments against animal use testing question the morality, necessity and scientific validity of these studies. (brightkite.com)
  • In vitro testing is a scientific way of analysis to diagnose the potential hazard under a controlled environment. (sgsgroup.com.hk)
  • These tests haven't kept pace with scientific progress. (latimes.com)
  • However, some claim they are not true alternatives because simulations use data from prior animal experiments and cell cultures often require animal derived products, such as serum or cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new tests use cell cultures rather than animals to establish the toxicity of cancer drugs and identify contaminated drugs. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • A lot of that work is done in cell cultures, but I have to tell you unless it is an immortalized cell culture a cell culture comes from an animal which may have to be killed to obtain the cells. (articlicious.com)
  • So not all cell cultures keep an animal alive. (articlicious.com)
  • In these studies, the serum of unborn calves (Foetal Calf Serum, FCS) is often used as animal component in the cell cultures. (idw-online.news)
  • In a first step, chemically defined nutrient solutions for cell cultures will be developed - without animal components. (idw-online.news)
  • The replacement method for skin irritation, Episkin, will not require animals to test the potential for irritation of any chemical substance. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Reliability is the measure of a test's reproducibility, which is the degree of variation in test results obtained when the same method is performed in the same lab over time, or performed in different laboratories or by different technicians. (navs.org)
  • Five university grants were awarded through the agency's Science to Achieve Results Request for Application Advancing Actionable Alternatives to Vertebrate Animal Testing for Chemical Safety Assessment. (epa.gov)
  • One alternative is an artificial intelligence system designed to analyze the toxicity test results of more than 10,000 chemical ingredients. (livekindly.co)
  • If, however, the same test results can be achieved using scientifically-acceptable alternatives to animal testing, we will always use these. (roche.com)
  • On the other hand, the MAT is not as sensitive as the LAL test and it needs more time to get the results. (tentamus.com)
  • Animal toxicity tests are classic experiments but don't necessarily yield the best possible results. (latimes.com)
  • One downside is that the results of animal tests often fail to predict what will happen in people. (latimes.com)
  • Animals used in experimental procedures are subjected to inhumane eugenics for the entire duration of their short and miserable lives. (wordpress.com)
  • Thrombosis studies in animals create artificial clots through painful and invasive procedures like clamping blood vessels, high dose radiation, instilling clot forming drugs directly into the trachea, or exposure to noxious substances like silica and asbestos. (caareusa.org)
  • There's almost no getting around it in order to bring the latest advances in medicine to market: at present, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration requires animal testing before new biomedical devices and drugs can be used on people. (umd.edu)
  • The 3T3 Neutral Red Uptake (NRU) Phototoxicity Test, approved by the OECD, detects the viability of 3T3 cells after exposure to a chemical in the presence or absence of light. (wikipedia.org)
  • Today, ethical alternatives are emerging. (yahoo.com)
  • Guiding principles for more ethical use of animals in testing are the Three Rs (3Rs) first described by Russell and Burch in 1959. (wikipedia.org)
  • People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, a leading international animal rights advocacy organization, has identified companies that 'either test on animals or pay a laboratory to conduct tests on animals. (ewg.org)
  • Contractors who carry out animal testing for Roche are also expected to apply the same ethical standards. (roche.com)
  • Quite apart from the moral and ethical concerns, animals are simply very expensive and need looking after, including nights and weekends - who would not prefer a tissue culture? (envirolink.org)
  • One of the tests is designed to assist the dosage of some highly toxic drugs used in chemotherapy for cancer, a disease which causes almost a million deaths in the EU every year. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • An added bonus is that these new tests are far more effective in finding contaminated drugs than the previous animal tests. (timeshighereducation.com)
  • Cost-effective: testing pharmaceutical drugs and their effects using animal subjects can take up to five years per substance as well as cost millions of dollars. (wordpress.com)
  • For instance, analysis of British figures shows that between 1977 and 1995, the use of living animals to develop and test drugs fell by around 60%, reflecting the increased use of more humane techniques. (iaapea.com)
  • At the meeting, animal bioequivalence studies were offered as one possible alternative for testing of generic oral anticancer drugs that companies might propose to the agency, according to Rheinstein. (informa.com)
  • It supports interlaboratory pre-validation and formal validation studies, and will itself also be practically involved in the development and validation of non-animal tests and testing strategies. (wiley.com)
  • What makes your study unique from previous studies (e.g., testing a new technique, investigating a new compound, further understanding of a biochemical pathway)? (usda.gov)
  • Studies of xenobiotic metabolism and the regulation of enzyme systems for their metabolism (Phase I and II enzyme systems) require large numbers of animals, intensive use of experimental aquarium systems and in some instances can pose major problems when the compounds are scarce, expensive or too toxic to be disposed of easily. (stir.ac.uk)
  • The method enabled rapid and easy determination of the structure/activity relationships of these compounds as inducers of these key Phase I and II enzymes, and is potentially useful for screening large numbers of compounds both as an invitro toxicity test and for mechanistic studies. (stir.ac.uk)
  • These findings have been replicated in animal studies. (jhunewsletter.com)
  • The draft EPA guidance document Retrospective Analysis & Guidance for Waiving Acute Dermal Toxicity Tests for Pesticide Formulations provides a rationale for waiving all acute dermal toxicity studies for pesticide formulations, thereby eliminating animal use for this purpose. (nih.gov)
  • But when they assessed various studies involving animals, they found that they were poorly constructed, or the analysis was faulty. (healthy.net)
  • This rabbit pyrogen test (RPT) is still the benchmark test for pyrogens (Ph. (tentamus.com)
  • MIVT:OTCBB), Vancouver, has announced that its proprietary Hydroxyapatite (HAp) ultra-thin "passive" stent coating has successfully passed the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (Material Mediated) - ISO confirming that the coating is non- pyrogenic and does not induce fever. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • ECVAM's co-ordinating role involves many partners worldwide: in animal welfare, academia, the chemical, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries, governmental departments and international organisations. (europa.eu)
  • European legislation restricts animal testing within the pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries and companies are increasingly looking at alternative systems to ensure that their products are safe to use. (innovations-report.com)
  • The opportunities for replacing obligatory bioassays and safety tests are assessed, taking into account both pharmaceutical quality and animal welfare aspects. (atla.org.uk)
  • A validation study is conducted to obtain the data needed to assess the reliability and relevance of a new or revised animal testing alternative to test toxicity. (navs.org)
  • The tests, validated on May 2, determine likelihood for skin irritation, eye irritation and skin allergic reactions. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • Pioneers in the development and application of non-animal testing alternatives for irritation and skin toxicity testing. (invitrointl.com)
  • The tests are integrated into multiple-approach strategies which include computer modelling. (europa.eu)
  • As an ever-increasing number of countries make moves to end the testing of consumer products on animals, Unilever has partnered up with the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to develop alternative testing strategies. (cosmeticsdesign.com)
  • In the Federal Register of June 29, 2012, we published a proposed rule on revisions to the animal testing regulations ( 77 FR 38754 ). (federalregister.gov)