Alternative Splicing: A process whereby multiple RNA transcripts are generated from a single gene. Alternative splicing involves the splicing together of other possible sets of EXONS during the processing of some, but not all, transcripts of the gene. Thus a particular exon may be connected to any one of several alternative exons to form a mature RNA. The alternative forms of mature MESSENGER RNA produce PROTEIN ISOFORMS in which one part of the isoforms is common while the other parts are different.Complement Pathway, Alternative: Complement activation initiated by the interaction of microbial ANTIGENS with COMPLEMENT C3B. When COMPLEMENT FACTOR B binds to the membrane-bound C3b, COMPLEMENT FACTOR D cleaves it to form alternative C3 CONVERTASE (C3BBB) which, stabilized by COMPLEMENT FACTOR P, is able to cleave multiple COMPLEMENT C3 to form alternative C5 CONVERTASE (C3BBB3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Complementary Therapies: Therapeutic practices which are not currently considered an integral part of conventional allopathic medical practice. They may lack biomedical explanations but as they become better researched some (PHYSICAL THERAPY MODALITIES; DIET; ACUPUNCTURE) become widely accepted whereas others (humors, radium therapy) quietly fade away, yet are important historical footnotes. Therapies are termed as Complementary when used in addition to conventional treatments and as Alternative when used instead of conventional treatment.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Protein Isoforms: Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.RNA Splice Sites: Nucleotide sequences located at the ends of EXONS and recognized in pre-messenger RNA by SPLICEOSOMES. They are joined during the RNA SPLICING reaction, forming the junctions between exons.RNA Splicing: The ultimate exclusion of nonsense sequences or intervening sequences (introns) before the final RNA transcript is sent to the cytoplasm.Introns: Sequences of DNA in the genes that are located between the EXONS. They are transcribed along with the exons but are removed from the primary gene transcript by RNA SPLICING to leave mature RNA. Some introns code for separate genes.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Complement Factor B: A glycine-rich, heat-labile serum glycoprotein that contains a component of the C3 CONVERTASE ALTERNATE PATHWAY (C3bBb). Bb, a serine protease, is generated when factor B is cleaved by COMPLEMENT FACTOR D into Ba and Bb.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Complement Activation: The sequential activation of serum COMPLEMENT PROTEINS to create the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Factors initiating complement activation include ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES, microbial ANTIGENS, or cell surface POLYSACCHARIDES.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Complement C3: A glycoprotein that is central in both the classical and the alternative pathway of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. C3 can be cleaved into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, spontaneously at low level or by C3 CONVERTASE at high level. The smaller fragment C3a is an ANAPHYLATOXIN and mediator of local inflammatory process. The larger fragment C3b binds with C3 convertase to form C5 convertase.Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Polyadenylation: The addition of a tail of polyadenylic acid (POLY A) to the 3' end of mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER). Polyadenylation involves recognizing the processing site signal, (AAUAAA), and cleaving of the mRNA to create a 3' OH terminal end to which poly A polymerase (POLYNUCLEOTIDE ADENYLYLTRANSFERASE) adds 60-200 adenylate residues. The 3' end processing of some messenger RNAs, such as histone mRNA, is carried out by a different process that does not include the addition of poly A as described here.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Complement C3 Convertase, Alternative Pathway: A serine protease that is the complex of COMPLEMENT C3B and COMPLEMENT FACTOR BB. It cleaves multiple COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A (anaphylatoxin) and COMPLEMENT C3B in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Complement Pathway, Classical: Complement activation initiated by the binding of COMPLEMENT C1 to ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES at the COMPLEMENT C1Q subunit. This leads to the sequential activation of COMPLEMENT C1R and COMPLEMENT C1S subunits. Activated C1s cleaves COMPLEMENT C4 and COMPLEMENT C2 forming the membrane-bound classical C3 CONVERTASE (C4B2A) and the subsequent C5 CONVERTASE (C4B2A3B) leading to cleavage of COMPLEMENT C5 and the assembly of COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Oxidoreductases: The class of all enzymes catalyzing oxidoreduction reactions. The substrate that is oxidized is regarded as a hydrogen donor. The systematic name is based on donor:acceptor oxidoreductase. The recommended name will be dehydrogenase, wherever this is possible; as an alternative, reductase can be used. Oxidase is only used in cases where O2 is the acceptor. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p9)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Properdin: A 53-kDa protein that is a positive regulator of the alternate pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It stabilizes the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb) and protects it from rapid inactivation, thus facilitating the cascade of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and the formation of MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Individuals with mutation in the PFC gene exhibit properdin deficiency and have a high susceptibility to infections.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.RNA Isoforms: The different gene transcripts generated from a single gene by RNA EDITING or ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of RNA PRECURSORS.Complement Factor D: A serum protein which is important in the ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY. This enzyme cleaves the COMPLEMENT C3B-bound COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form C3bBb which is ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Complement C3-C5 Convertases: Serine proteases that cleave COMPLEMENT C3 into COMPLEMENT C3A and COMPLEMENT C3B, or cleave COMPLEMENT C5 into COMPLEMENT C5A and COMPLEMENT C5B. These include the different forms of C3/C5 convertases in the classical and the alternative pathways of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Both cleavages take place at the C-terminal of an ARGININE residue.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Nuclear Proteins: Proteins found in the nucleus of a cell. Do not confuse with NUCLEOPROTEINS which are proteins conjugated with nucleic acids, that are not necessarily present in the nucleus.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Expressed Sequence Tags: Partial cDNA (DNA, COMPLEMENTARY) sequences that are unique to the cDNAs from which they were derived.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Complement C3b: The larger fragment generated from the cleavage of COMPLEMENT C3 by C3 CONVERTASE. It is a constituent of the ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE (C3bBb), and COMPLEMENT C5 CONVERTASES in both the classical (C4b2a3b) and the alternative (C3bBb3b) pathway. C3b participates in IMMUNE ADHERENCE REACTION and enhances PHAGOCYTOSIS. It can be inactivated (iC3b) or cleaved by various proteases to yield fragments such as COMPLEMENT C3C; COMPLEMENT C3D; C3e; C3f; and C3g.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Sequence Analysis, RNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, sequencing, and information analysis of an RNA SEQUENCE.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoproteins: A family of ribonucleoproteins that were originally found as proteins bound to nascent RNA transcripts in the form of ribonucleoprotein particles. Although considered ribonucleoproteins they are primarily classified by their protein component. They are involved in a variety of processes such as packaging of RNA and RNA TRANSPORT within the nucleus. A subset of heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins are involved in additional functions such as nucleocytoplasmic transport (ACTIVE TRANSPORT, CELL NUCLEUS) of RNA and mRNA stability in the CYTOPLASM.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Complement Factor H: An important soluble regulator of the alternative pathway of complement activation (COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION PATHWAY, ALTERNATIVE). It is a 139-kDa glycoprotein expressed by the liver and secreted into the blood. It binds to COMPLEMENT C3B and makes iC3b (inactivated complement 3b) susceptible to cleavage by COMPLEMENT FACTOR I. Complement factor H also inhibits the association of C3b with COMPLEMENT FACTOR B to form the C3bB proenzyme, and promotes the dissociation of Bb from the C3bBb complex (COMPLEMENT C3 CONVERTASE, ALTERNATIVE PATHWAY).Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Mitochondrial Proteins: Proteins encoded by the mitochondrial genome or proteins encoded by the nuclear genome that are imported to and resident in the MITOCHONDRIA.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Oligonucleotide Array Sequence Analysis: Hybridization of a nucleic acid sample to a very large set of OLIGONUCLEOTIDE PROBES, which have been attached individually in columns and rows to a solid support, to determine a BASE SEQUENCE, or to detect variations in a gene sequence, GENE EXPRESSION, or for GENE MAPPING.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Regulatory Sequences, Ribonucleic Acid: Sequences within RNA that regulate the processing, stability (RNA STABILITY) or translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) of RNA.Mice, Inbred C57BL5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Complement System Proteins: Serum glycoproteins participating in the host defense mechanism of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION that creates the COMPLEMENT MEMBRANE ATTACK COMPLEX. Included are glycoproteins in the various pathways of complement activation (CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; ALTERNATIVE COMPLEMENT PATHWAY; and LECTIN COMPLEMENT PATHWAY).Polypyrimidine Tract-Binding Protein: A RNA-binding protein that binds to polypyriminidine rich regions in the INTRONS of messenger RNAs. Polypyrimidine tract-binding protein may be involved in regulating the ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of mRNAs since its presence on an intronic RNA region that is upstream of an EXON inhibits the splicing of the exon into the final mRNA product.Complement C3b Inactivator Proteins: Endogenous proteins that inhibit or inactivate COMPLEMENT C3B. They include COMPLEMENT FACTOR H and COMPLEMENT FACTOR I (C3b/C4b inactivator). They cleave or promote the cleavage of C3b into inactive fragments, and thus are important in the down-regulation of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION and its cytolytic sequence.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Neoplasms: New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Sigma Factor: A protein which is a subunit of RNA polymerase. It effects initiation of specific RNA chains from DNA.Animal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).United StatesNucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein Group A-B: A class of closely related heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoproteins of approximately 34-40 kDa in size. Although they are generally found in the nucleoplasm, they also shuttle between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. Members of this class have been found to have a role in mRNA transport, telomere biogenesis and RNA SPLICING.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Ribonucleoproteins: Complexes of RNA-binding proteins with ribonucleic acids (RNA).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.3' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 3' end of messenger RNA that does not code for product. This region contains transcription and translation regulating sequences.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Genetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Tumor Cells, Cultured: Cells grown in vitro from neoplastic tissue. If they can be established as a TUMOR CELL LINE, they can be propagated in cell culture indefinitely.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Anti-Bacterial Agents: Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Transcription Initiation Site: The first nucleotide of a transcribed DNA sequence where RNA polymerase (DNA-DIRECTED RNA POLYMERASE) begins synthesizing the RNA transcript.Equipment Design: Methods of creating machines and devices.Codon, Initiator: A codon that directs initiation of protein translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC) by stimulating the binding of initiator tRNA (RNA, TRANSFER, MET). In prokaryotes, the codons AUG or GUG can act as initiators while in eukaryotes, AUG is the only initiator codon.Genome: The genetic complement of an organism, including all of its GENES, as represented in its DNA, or in some cases, its RNA.Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.COS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Genome, Human: The complete genetic complement contained in the DNA of a set of CHROMOSOMES in a HUMAN. The length of the human genome is about 3 billion base pairs.Spliceosomes: Organelles in which the splicing and excision reactions that remove introns from precursor messenger RNA molecules occur. One component of a spliceosome is five small nuclear RNA molecules (U1, U2, U4, U5, U6) that, working in conjunction with proteins, help to fold pieces of RNA into the right shapes and later splice them into the message.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Columbidae: Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Cell Nucleus: Within a eukaryotic cell, a membrane-limited body which contains chromosomes and one or more nucleoli (CELL NUCLEOLUS). The nuclear membrane consists of a double unit-type membrane which is perforated by a number of pores; the outermost membrane is continuous with the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM. A cell may contain more than one nucleus. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Mice, Inbred BALB CSequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Complement Inactivator Proteins: Serum proteins that negatively regulate the cascade process of COMPLEMENT ACTIVATION. Uncontrolled complement activation and resulting cell lysis is potentially dangerous for the host. The complement system is tightly regulated by inactivators that accelerate the decay of intermediates and certain cell surface receptors.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Reading Frames: The three possible sequences of CODONS by which GENETIC TRANSLATION may occur from one nucleotide sequence. A segment of mRNA 5'AUCCGA3' could be translated as 5'AUC.. or 5'UCC.. or 5'CCG.., depending on the location of the START CODON.Gene Deletion: A genetic rearrangement through loss of segments of DNA or RNA, bringing sequences which are normally separated into close proximity. This deletion may be detected using cytogenetic techniques and can also be inferred from the phenotype, indicating a deletion at one specific locus.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Poly A: A group of adenine ribonucleotides in which the phosphate residues of each adenine ribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the ribose moieties.HEK293 Cells: A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.Faith Healing: The use of faith and spirit to cure disease.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Toxicity Tests: An array of tests used to determine the toxicity of a substance to living systems. These include tests on clinical drugs, foods, and environmental pollutants.Nerve Tissue ProteinsComplement C2: A component of the CLASSICAL COMPLEMENT PATHWAY. C2 is cleaved by activated COMPLEMENT C1S into COMPLEMENT C2B and COMPLEMENT C2A. C2a, the COOH-terminal fragment containing a SERINE PROTEASE, combines with COMPLEMENT C4B to form C4b2a (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C3 CONVERTASE) and subsequent C4b2a3b (CLASSICAL PATHWAY C5 CONVERTASE).Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Bayes Theorem: A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Clinical Trials as Topic: Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Animal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Codon, Nonsense: An amino acid-specifying codon that has been converted to a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR) by mutation. Its occurance is abnormal causing premature termination of protein translation and results in production of truncated and non-functional proteins. A nonsense mutation is one that converts an amino acid-specific codon to a stop codon.Reinforcement (Psychology): The strengthening of a conditioned response.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Integrative Medicine: The discipline concerned with using the combination of conventional ALLOPATHIC MEDICINE and ALTERNATIVE MEDICINE to address the biological, psychological, social, and spiritual aspects of health and illness.Databases, Nucleic Acid: Databases containing information about NUCLEIC ACIDS such as BASE SEQUENCE; SNPS; NUCLEIC ACID CONFORMATION; and other properties. Information about the DNA fragments kept in a GENE LIBRARY or GENOMIC LIBRARY is often maintained in DNA databases.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.Administration, Oral: The giving of drugs, chemicals, or other substances by mouth.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in enzyme synthesis.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Genes, Reporter: Genes whose expression is easily detectable and therefore used to study promoter activity at many positions in a target genome. In recombinant DNA technology, these genes may be attached to a promoter region of interest.Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
Functional human corneal equivalents constructed from cell lines. (1/352)Human corneal equivalents comprising the three main layers of the cornea (epithelium, stroma, and endothelium) were constructed. Each cellular layer was fabricated from immortalized human corneal cells that were screened for use on the basis of morphological, biochemical, and electrophysiological similarity to their natural counterparts. The resulting corneal equivalents mimicked human corneas in key physical and physiological functions, including morphology, biochemical marker expression, transparency, ion and fluid transport, and gene expression. Morphological and functional equivalents to human corneas that can be produced in vitro have immediate applications in toxicity and drug efficacy testing, and form the basis for future development of implantable tissues. (+info)
Comparison of a rabbit model of bacterial endocarditis and an in vitro infection model with simulated endocardial vegetations. (2/352)Animal models are commonly used to determine the efficacy of various antimicrobial agents for treatment of bacterial endocarditis. Previously we have utilized an in vitro infection model, which incorporates simulated endocardial vegetations (SEVs) to evaluate the pharmacodynamics of various antibiotics. In the present study, we compared four experimental rabbit endocarditis protocols to an in vitro infection model in an effort to determine if these models are comparable. We have evaluated the activity of clinafloxacin, trovafloxacin, sparfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin in rabbit models against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus spp. In vitro models were performed simulating the antibiotic pharmacokinetics obtained in the in vivo studies. Models were dosed the same as rabbit models, and SEVs were evaluated at the same time the rabbit vegetations were examined. Clinafloxacin and trovafloxacin were evaluated against methicillin-susceptible (MSSA1199) and -resistant (MRSA494) strains of S. aureus. Ciprofloxacin was studied against MSSA1199 and MSSA487. Sparfloxacin and clinafloxacin were evaluated against Enterococcus faecium SF2149 and Enterococcus faecalis WH245, respectively. We found that reductions in SEV bacterial density obtained in the in vitro model were similar to those obtained in rabbit vegetations, indicating that the SEV model may be a valuable tool for assessing antibiotic potential in the treatment of bacterial endocarditis. (+info)
Comparative in vitro-in vivo percutaneous absorption of the pesticide propoxur. (3/352)In vitro and in vivo skin absorption of the pesticide propoxur (2-isopropoxyphenyl N-methyl carbamate, commercially Baygon(TM) and Unden (TM); log Po/w 1.56, MW 209.2) was investigated. In vivo studies were performed in rats and human volunteers, applying the test compound to the dorsal skin and the volar aspect of the forearm, respectively. In vitro experiments were carried out in static diffusion cells using viable full-thickness skin membranes (rat and human), non-viable epidermal membranes (rat and human) and a perfused-pig-ear model. Percutaneous penetration of propoxur in human volunteers was measured by analysis of its metabolite (2-isopropoxyphenol) in blood and urine; in all other studies radiolabeled propoxur ([ring-U-(14)C]propoxur) was used. In order to allow for direct comparison, experimental conditions were standardized with respect to dose (150 microg propoxur per cm(2)), vehicle (60% aqueous ethanol) and exposure time (4 h). In human volunteers, it was found that approximately 6% of the applied dose was excreted via the urine after 24 h, while the potential absorbed dose (amount applied minus amount washed off) was 23 microg/cm(2). In rats these values were 21% and 88 microg/cm(2), respectively. Data obtained in vitro were almost always higher than those obtained in human volunteers. The most accurate in vitro prediction of the human in vivo percutaneous absorption of propoxur was obtained on the basis of the potential absorbed dose. The absorbed dose and the maximal flux in viable full-thickness skin membranes correlated reasonably well with the human in vivo situation (maximal overestimation by a factor of 3). Epidermal membranes overestimated the human in vivo data up to a factor of 8, but the species-differences observed in vivo were reflected correctly in this model. The data generated in the perfused-pig-ear model were generally intermediate between viable skin membranes and epidermal membranes. (+info)
Prediction of eye irritation from organic chemicals using membrane-interaction QSAR analysis. (4/352)Eye irritation potency of a compound or mixture has traditionally been evaluated using the Draize rabbit-eye test (Draize et al., 1944). In order to aid predictions of eye irritation and to explore possible corresponding mechanisms of eye irritation, a methodology termed "membrane-interaction QSAR analysis" (MI-QSAR) has been developed (Kulkarni and Hopfinger 1999). A set of Draize eye-irritation data established by the European Center for Ecotoxicology and Toxicology of Chemicals (ECETOC) (Bagley et al., 1992) was used as a structurally diverse training set in an MI-QSAR analysis. Significant QSAR models were constructed based primarily upon aqueous solvation-free energy of the solute and the strength of solute binding to a model phospholipid (DMPC) monolayer. The results demonstrate that inclusion of parameters to model membrane interactions of potentially irritating chemicals provides significantly better predictions of eye irritation for structurally diverse compounds than does modeling based solely on physiochemical properties of chemicals. The specific MI-QSAR models reported here are, in fact, close to the upper limit in both significance and robustness that can be expected for the variability inherent to the eye-irritation scores of the ECETOC training set. The MI-QSAR models can be used with high reliability to classify compounds of low- and high-predicted eye irritation scores. Thus, the models offer the opportunity to reduce animal testing for compounds predicted to fall into these two extreme eye-irritation score sets. The MI-QSAR paradigm may also be applicable to other toxicological endpoints, such as skin irritation, where interactions with cellular membranes are likely. (+info)
Pathology of ocular irritation with acetone, cyclohexanol, parafluoroaniline, and formaldehyde in the rabbit low-volume eye test. (5/352)The ocular irritation responses to 11 different surfactants and two concentrations of acetic acid and sodium hydroxide have been shown to depend on the extent of initial injury, despite marked differences in the processes leading to tissue damage. The purpose of these studies was to determine the extent to which this fundamental relationship applies to other nonsurfactants. Ten microl of acetone (ACT). cyclohexanol (CY), parafluoroaniline (PF), or 37% formaldehyde (FA) was directly applied to the cornea of the right eye of each rabbit. Eyes and eyelids were macroscopically scored for signs of irritation beginning 3 hours after dosing and periodically until recovery or 35 days. Tissues were obtained for light microscopic examination after 3 hours and on days 1, 3, and 35. Initial corneal injury was characterized quantitatively at 3 hours and I day using in vivo confocal microscopy (CM) and by postmortem quantitation of dead corneal epithelial cells and keratocytes using a Live Dead Assay (L/D, Molecular Probes) and scanning laser CM. Corneal changes over time were characterized quantitatively using in vivo CM performed at 3 hours and 1, 3, 7, 14, and 35 days. The changes with ACT were consistent with mild irritation. Corneal injury was limited to the epithelium and superficial stroma, with the mean normalized depth of injury (NDI) being less than 10% with the majority of regions showing no stromal injury. Changes with CY and PF were consistent with moderate to severe irritation, and FA caused severe irritation. Specifically, corneal injury by CY and PF tended to involve the epithelium and anterior stroma, with the mean NDI being 10.4% to 23.8%, while injury with FA involved the epithelium, deep stroma, and at times the endothelium. Interestingly, with FA significantly less injury was observed at 3 hours with a dramatic increase in injury observed at 1 day and thereafter. In conclusion, these results continue to support and extend our hypothesis that ocular irritation is principally defined by the extent of initial injury despite clear differences in the means by which irritants cause tissue damage. We believe this approach can be applied to developing alternative assays based on injury to ex vivo eyes or injury to an in vitro corneal equivalent system. (+info)
TestSmart-high production volume chemicals: an approach to implementing alternatives into regulatory toxicology. (6/352)This article examines the status and application of alternatives defined as replacements, refinements, and reduction for screening high production volume (HPV) chemicals. It specifically focuses on the Screening Information Data Set (SIDS), a series of toxicological tests recommended by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development to screen such chemicals. Alternative tests associated with acute, repeat-dose, genetic, and reproductive and developmental toxicity were examined at 2 meetings of academic, industry, and regulatory scientists and their status determined. Tests were placed in 1 of 3 categories: ready for immediate use, in need of or currently undergoing validation, or needing research/developmental work. With respect to traditional acute toxicity testing, the basal cytotoxicity approach was placed in the category of research with the up-and-down, fixed-dose, limit test, and the acute toxic class categorized as available for immediate use and the neutral red assay under validation. Cell culture methods that could provide information on acute target organ toxicity were all categorized in the research stage. Studies of the Ah receptor were placed under validation. All alternative tests for repeat-dose toxicity were placed in the category of research. With regard to genetic toxicity, the Ames, mouse lymphoma, and Chinese hamster ovary methods were considered ready for immediate use, while the in vitro micronucleus and Syrian hamster ovary assays were placed in the validation category. All alternatives for developmental toxicity, with the exception of gene chip technology, were placed in the category of validation. Gene chip technology is considered to be in the research stage. For reproductive toxicity, sperm motility and morphology were considered as ready for immediate use, with the other assays categorized as needing validation or in the research stage. Follow-up to these results is obvious. Work needs to be conducted to move those tests from the research stage to the validation and use stage. This is one approach to the development of alternatives to SIDS. Progress along these lines would apply not only to SIDS but also to toxicology in general. (+info)
A reply to Joseph Bernstein. (7/352)Dr. Bernstein suggests that anti-vivisectionists should be able to fill in a directive requesting that they receive no medical treatment developed through work on animals. It is replied that this would only be reasonable if research not using animals had long been funded as adequately and its results were currently available. (+info)
DNA repair-deficient Xpa and Xpa/p53+/- knock-out mice: nature of the models. (8/352)Xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease in which repair of ultraviolet (UV)-induced DNA damage is impaired or is totally absent due to mutations in genes controlling the DNA repair pathway known as nucleotide excision repair (NER). XP is characterized, in part, by extreme sensitivity of the skin to sunlight, and XP patients have a more than 1000-fold increased risk of developing cancer at sun-exposed areas of the skin. To study the role of NER in chemical-induced tumorigenesis in more detail, the authors developed Xpa-/- homozygous knockout mice with a complete defect in NER (designated as Xpa mice or XPA model). Xpa mice develop skin tumors at high frequency when exposed to UV light, and as such, they mimic the phenotype of human XP. Moreover, the Xpa mice also appear to be susceptible to genotoxic carcinogens given orally. Based on these phenotypic characteristics, the Xpa mice were considered to be an attractive candidate mouse model for use in identifying human carcinogens. In an attempt to further increase both the sensitivity and specificity of the XPA model in carcinogenicity testing, the authors crossed Xpa mice with mice having a heterozygous defect in the tumor suppressor gene p53. Xpa/p53+/- double knockout mice develop tumors earlier and with higher incidences upon exposure to carcinogens as compared to their single knockout counterparts. Here the authors describe the development and features of the Xpa mouse and present some examples of the Xpa and Xpa/p53+/- mouse models' sensitivity towards genotoxic carcinogens. It appeared that the Xpa/p53+/- double knockout mouse model is favorable over both the Xpa and p53+/- single knockout models in short-term carcinogenicity testing. In addition to the fact that the double knockout mice respond more robustly to carcinogens, they also appear to respond in a very discriminative way. All compounds identified thus far are true (human) carcinogens, and, therefore, the authors believe that the Xpa/p53+/- mouse model is an excellent candidate for a future replacement of the chronic mouse bioassay, at least for certain classes of chemicals. (+info)
May 14th Webinar on Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods
The Mid-Atlantic Society of Toxicology will present a webinar on "Regulatory Acceptance of Alternative Methods: Current Status and Future Directions." NICEATM Director Warren Casey will speak on "Predicting in vivo effects using in vitro data: the future of alternatives." Other speakers include George DeGeorge of MB Research Labs, Rodger Curren of the Institute for In Vitro Sciences, and Thomas Hartung of the Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. The webinar will be presented on May 14, 2015 from 10:00 a.m. to 12:00 p.m.. Full Details and Registraton ...
Petition · Stop Animal Testing: Replace Animals in Research with Non-Animal Alternative Methods · Change.org
The validation and regulatory acceptance of non-animal alternative tests is critical to the adoption of more humane scientific methodologies. Virtually all federally funded research is paid for with your tax dollars. Two of the main funders of animal-based research in North America, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, need to hear that you dont want your tax dollars used to underwrite animal experiments and urge them to stop requiring cruel and obsolete animal tests for pharmaceuticals and allow companies to substitute in vitro tests. (Government funded animal testing costs U.S. taxpayers $12 billion annually) Alternatives to animal tests are effective, reliable, affordable and humane. Proponents of non-animal testing methods in the scientific community have shown that these methods are quicker and cost-effective. Unlike crude, archaic animal tests, non-animal methods usually take less time to complete, cost only a fraction of what the animal ...
The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) - Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the...
At the end of 1991, the Commission of the European Communities informed the Council of Ministers and the European Parliament of its decision to set up a European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM), in line with its responsibilities under Directive 86/609/EEC. The main goal of ECVAM is to coordinate, at the European level, activities designed to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. ECVAM is assisted by a Scientific Advisory Committee representative of all parties concerned with the validation of alternative methods, namely the Member States, and European industries, animal welfare organizations and academia. ECVAM is currently establishing information services and a series of workshops, task forces and symposia. It supports interlaboratory pre-validation and formal validation studies, and will itself also be practically involved in ...
Skin sensitisation: the Colipa strategy for developing and evaluating non-animal test methods for risk assessment. - PubMed -...
Who Scientific Group On Cardiovascular D | LibraryThing
Stem cell therapies needing more regulatory acceptance | Evaluate
Presentations at SOT 2010
Authors: S Fitzpatrick, M Wind, A Jacobs, D Hattan, J Kulpa-Eddy, V Malshet, M Mumtaz, M Snyder, D McCarley, S Morefield, C Sprankle, D Allen, W Stokes. Abstract - Poster - Text-only version of poster. Abstract Number 1810A: Establishment of the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods (ICATM) and Its Role in the Validation and Regulatory Acceptance of Globally Harmonized Safety Assessment ...
Development of an Alternative Test for Skin Sensitization Using a Three-dimensional Human Skin Model Consisting of Dendritic...
In order to evaluate water-insoluble chemicals using the skin model which is more similar to real skin and detectable interaction among three kind cells, we established a test method which is a three-dimensional human skin model consisting of normal fibroblasts, normal keratinocytes and normal dendritic cells utilizing a collagen vitrigel membrane (VG-KDF-Skin). Nine sensitizers and five non-sensitizers were then examined. After 24 hr, the amount of IL-1α and IL-4 release was measured, and then positive/negative outcomes were evaluated (VG-KDF-Skin method ...
ICCVAM Recommends Non-animal Endocrine Disruptor Screening
The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) has recommended a non-animal test method to identify estrogen agonist and antagonist activity. In addition to recommending the test, ICCVAM also found the method to provide a number of benefits over the method currently employed in the United States.
ICCVAM Recommends Non-animal Endocrine Disruptor Screening
The Interagency Coordinating Committee on the Validation of Alternative Methods (ICCVAM) has recommended a non-animal test method to identify estrogen agonist and antagonist activity. In addition to recommending the test, ICCVAM also found the method to provide a number of benefits over the method currently employed in the United States.
Federal Register :: Recent Postings of Broadly Applicable Alternative Test Methods
Startup creates alternative test for cancer, Companies & Markets - THE BUSINESS TIMES
THE BUSINESS TIMES Companies & Markets - CURRENT cancer screening methods are invasive and costly. Think of the mammographies, endoscopies, or biopsies that are presently done to detect cancer. Local biotechnology start-up Mirxes Pte Ltd is looking to revolutionise cancer detection methods by offering blood tests in place of current diagnostic methods to detect early stage cancer.. Read more at The Business Times.
Colonoscopy Risks: Side Effects, Alternative Tests, Complications
Products for non-animal specific by Shiny Hardware
New webinar series will highlight benefits of animal-free antibodies for COVID-19 | EurekAlert! Science News
As scientists around the world race to create COVID-19 therapeutics, the PETA International Science Consortium Ltd. -- an organization dedicated to promoting human-relevant, non-animal testing strategies -- has co-launched a free, publicly available six-part webinar series focusing on the applications and benefits of animal-free recombinant antibodies. Antibodies are molecules produced by an organisms immune system in order to fight viruses, bacteria, or other foreign particles in the body.
Animal Use Protocols - Animal Use Protocols - Western University
Anyone who wishes to use live animals in research or teaching at Western University and its affliates must disclose all procedures in an approved Animal Use Protocol (AUP). All AUPs are reviewed by the ACC, consisting of animal-using researchers, research lab animal technicians, grad students, non-animal-using researchers, a veterinarian, and members of the community at large who have never worked in animal research. Any subsequent changes to the AUP post-approval must also be reviewed and approved by the ACC via Protocol Modification. For more information on Animal Use Protocols, please visit the ACC Website.. To begin an AUP at Western, please contact [email protected] for more information.. ...
TGF-β1 PLUS - the first truly animal-free TGF-β1 - Doron Scientific
To date, recombinant human TGF-β1 has only been expressed in mammalian cell lines. Our protein experts have optimised TGF-β1, allowing us to produce highly bioactive protein in an E. coli expression system. This allows us to produce the first truly animal-free TGF-β1 for chemically-defined stem cell media.. As with Qkines other products, we provide full quantitative bioassay and biochemical data. Qkines TGF-β1 PLUS has also been validated for its ability to effectively maintain iPSC pluripotency by the specialist stem cell biotechnology company, Stemnovate, Cambridge, UK.. Benefits:. ...
"APPLICATION OF ANIMAL-FREE RECOMBINANT BIOACTIVE PROTEIN SUPPLEMENTS T" by Kenneth Bertram, Marina Ross et al.
Animal cell culture for the production of viral vaccines has been performed for more than 50 years, and currently this technology is expanding rapidly to meet present and future demands of the health sector. The development and regulatory approval of continuous cell lines for manufacturing viral vaccines has brought numerous benefits to production processes. However, greater advances in the last decade have been achieved in mammalian cell production of biological therapeutics, including monoclonal antibodies, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and clotting factors. We and others have contributed to these upstream advances by improving cell culture media with the development of animal-free and chemically-defined recombinant protein supplements. The supplements we have developed include recombinant insulin-like growth factor-I (LONG®R3IGF-I), epidermal growth factor (LONG®EGF), transforming growth factor-á (LONG®TGF-á), transferrin (CellPrime™ rTransferrin AF), and albumin (CellPrime™ rAlbumin
Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I, Human, Recombinant, E. coli, Animal-Free | 407251
Unilever's pathway-based, non-animal approaches to toxicity testing - Human Toxicology Project Consortium
A new article by scientists at Unilever, a corporate member of the HTPC, describes several areas of safety science in which they are using a pathway-based approach to replace traditional animal tests with a combination of human cell-based in vitro assays and computational models. The article, Toxicity testing - non-animal approaches and safety science (by…
Animal advocates fear more tests : Tobacco Reporter
The U.S. Food and Drug Administrations insistence on keeping its 2007 predicate date has drawn protests not only from vapor companies but also from animal lovers.. "Countless animals will suffer and die now that newer tobacco products, such as e-cigarettes, will be required to FDA approval in order to enter or remain on the market," wrote the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) in response the new regulations.. To obtain FDA approval, tobacco manufacturers will be required to show that their products reduce the risk to current tobacco users and do not increase the risk to non-users. In a guidance document accompanying the rule, the FDA encourages manufacturers of electronic nicotine-delivery systems to meet with its Center for Tobacco Products (CTP) early in the development process to discuss what, if any, animal testing the agency considers "appropriate" or whether non-animal tests may be acceptable.. "The FDA has stated that animal tests will still be required for toxicological ...
L-Valine From non-animal source Cell Culture Tested | Animal Cell Culture | Cell Culture Tested Chemicals | Amino Acids
L-Histidine From non-animal source Cell Culture Tested | Animal Cell Culture | Cell Culture Tested Chemicals | Amino Acids
NICEATM Support of the Tox21 Program
The Tox21 partner agencies work together to develop, validate, and translate innovative in vitro HTS methods to characterize the impact of chemicals on key steps in toxicity pathways.. Data collected in the Tox21 initiative has been used to prioritize uncharacterized compounds for regulatory testing using both traditional and novel test methods. To more broadly address challenges in the field of toxicology, in 2018 Tox21 released a new strategic and operational plan (Thomas et al. 2018) that expands the focus of its research activities. New focus areas include expanding its portfolio of alternative test systems, addressing technical limitations of in vitro test systems, curating legacy in vivo toxicity testing data, establishing scientific confidence in in vitro test systems, and refining alternative methods for characterizing pharmacokinetics and in vitro assay disposition. The eventual goal of Tox21 is to use HTS methods to generate data that will allow risk assessors to more accurately ...
Risk ranking of pathogens in ready-to-eat unprocessed foods of non-animal origin (FoNAO) in the EU: Initial evaluation using...
Foods of non-animal origin (FoNAO) are consumed in a variety of forms, being a major component of almost all meals. These food types have the potential to be associated with large outbreaks as seen in 2011 associated with VTEC O104. In order to identify and rank specific food/pathogen combinations most often linked to human cases originating from FoNAO in the EU, a semi-quantitative model was developed using seven criteria: strength of associations between food and pathogen based on the foodborne outbreak data from EU Zoonoses Monitoring (2007-2011), incidence of illness, burden of disease, dose-response relationship, consumption, prevalence of contamination and pathogen growth potential during shelf life. The top ranking food/pathogen combination was Salmonella spp. and leafy greens eaten raw followed by (in equal rank) Salmonella spp. and bulb and stem vegetables, Salmonella spp. and tomatoes, Salmonella spp. and melons, and pathogenic Escherichia coli and fresh pods, legumes or grains. ...
Vegans can improve their omega-3 levels by taking non-animal formsof DHA - Article
Ocular irritation assay
The implementation of the SkinEthic™ HCE method, as a validated reference method in the OECD test guidelines TG 492 is already considered.. The draft of TG492 on Reconstructed human Cornea-like Epithelium test method for eye hazard potential is currently under review by the states members of OECD with an approval expected by summer 2017. Our corneal model and corresponding protocols (for liquids and for solids) are designed to comply with regulatory purposes to classify and label chemicals regarding in vitro ocular irritation assessment. ...
ClindaMed Oral Drops for Animal Use - ClindaMed Oral Drops for Animal Use Manufacturer,Exporter
Cobalt-Free Zinc and Zinc-Alloy Passivation | Products Finishing
REACh" is the regulation on Registration, Evaluation, Authorisation and Restriction of Chemicals. It entered into force on June 1, 2007. It streamlines and improves the former legislative framework on chemicals of the European Union (EU). The main aims of REACh are to ensure a high level of protection of human health and the environment from the risks that can be posed by chemicals, the promotion of alternative test methods, the free circulation of substances on the internal market and the enhancement of competitiveness and innovation. REACh makes industry responsible for assessing and managing the risks posed by chemicals and providing appropriate safety information to their users. In parallel, the European Union can take additional measures on highly dangerous substances, where there is a need for complementing action at EU level."4 As a result of REACh, the production and use of chemicals is regulated. Substances that are produced and/or used in amounts of more than 1000 kg/year must be ...
Formaldehyde Testing - GA 6000 | Quality Measurement | GreCon
ALTEX Issue 31.1
Phase III Study Showed Rituxan in Combination With Chemotherapy Improved Progression-Free Survival in Patients With Relapsed...
Genentech, Inc. (NYSE:DNA) and Biogen Idec (Nasdaq:BIIB) today announced that a global Phase III study of Rituxan(R) (rituximab) in combination with fludarabine and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy met its primary endpoint of improving progression-free survival (PFS), as assessed by investigators, in patients with previously treated CD20-positive chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) compared to chemotherapy alone. There were no new or unexpected safety signals reported in the study. An independent review of the primary endpoint is being conducted for U.S. regulatory purposes. Data from the study, REACH, will be submitted for presentation at a future medical meeting. Earlier this year, another European Phase III study, CLL-8, showed a similar treatment combination improved PFS in patients with CLL who had not previously received treatment. "REACH, the largest relapsed CLL trial ever conducted, is the first Phase III study of this treatment combination to show an improvement in progression-free ...
UM Carey Law | Diane Hoffmann
A Proposed Definition of Microbiota Transplantation for Regulatory Purposes, Gut Microbes, Mar. 20, 2017 (with others).. Stopping Deceptive Health Claims: The Need for a Private Right of Action Under Federal Law, 42 American Journal of Law & Medicine 53 (2016) (with Jack Schwartz). [Full Text]. The Importance of Including the Deans, Journal of Law, 41 Medicine & Ethics 81 (Supp. 2016).. Access to Essential Medicines in African Countries: An Introduction, 31 Maryland Journal of International Law 1 (2016) (with Peter Danchin). [Full Text]. Increasing Access to Dental and Medical Care by Allowing Greater Flexibility in Scope of Practice, 105 American Journal of Public Health 1755 (2015) (with Richard J. Manski and Virginia Rowthorn).. Laying the Foundation for an Interprofessional, Comparative Health Law Clinic, 42 Journal of Law, Medicine & Ethics 392 (2014) (with Chikosa Banda and Kassim Amuli). [Abstract]. Probiotics: Achieving a Better Regulatory Fit, 69 Food & Drug Law Journal 237 (2014) (with ...
HKU Scholars Hub: Browsing DSpace
ABRSM Alternative Aural Tests For Deaf And Hearing Impaired: Grade 1-8
Animal-free skin allergy testing - Human Toxicology Project Consortium
With the recent approval of the human Cell Line Activation Test (h-CLAT) for skin sensitization (allergy), toxicologists now have a battery of methods that allows them to test for sensitization without using animals. Testing a chemical substance for skin irritation or corrosion is pretty straight-forward: the substance is applied to a skin sample (there are…
Prostate Biopsy Alternatives: Understand Your Options
post by ghaleon12
I think that the subjectee (i dont know if thats a word), even if they have no rights, should still be able to consent to this, this should be given as an option or as an alternative, if presented at all. For example, if someone is about to get the electric chair, they can opt for an alternative test subject. Put on max security, no contact by outside source, and the only contact they get is the docs that work on them. But i can only assume this would turn out to be a pointlessly small number of people ...
Job Announcement: ASSOCIATE PLANNER - City of Milwaukee
THE SELECTION PROCESS will be job related and will consist of one or more of the following: education and experience evaluation; written, oral, or performance tests, or other assessment methods. The Department of Employee Relations and the Department of City Development reserve the right to call only the most qualified candidates to oral and performance examinations. Oral examinations may include written exercises. Selection process component weights will be determined by further analysis of the job.. INITIAL FILING DATE - The examination will be held as soon as practical after Tuesday, October 10, 2017. Receipt of applications may be discontinued at any time after this date without prior notice. However, recruitment may continue until the needs of the City have been met. Qualified applicants will be notified of the date, time, and place of the examination. Unless otherwise required by law, the City of Milwaukee will not provide alternative test administration. The applicant is responsible for ...
News - Rapid Microbiology and Rapid Microbiological Methods
Believed by Great Basin to be superior to alternative tests on the market, the Companys Shiga Toxin Direct Test offers true sample-to-result testing with less than three minutes of hands-on time, no specimen enrichment step, and presents much higher sensitivity than either non-molecular or antigen-based rapid tests, thereby simplifying workflow for laboratory technicians and providing cost savings while facilitating better patient care. The Shiga Toxin Direct Test quickly detects Shiga toxin-producingE. coli - specifically stx1 and stx2 genes - in addition to identifying the serotype O157. E. coli O157 can lead to a life-threatening condition called hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS), characterized by hemolytic anemia and renal failure. By including identification of O157 in the test, a laboratory can avoid running additional tests or expensive panels to get the definitive answers clinicians need for timely and accurate course of care, providing the means to avoid health complications that may ...
Difference between revisions of "Chance News 15" - ChanceWiki
Joseph Stalins famous quote regarding elections, "The people who count the votes decide everything" has an analogy to the bizarre world of the No Child Left Behind Act. Regardless of the merits of the act, it is in the interests of those who will be judged by this law to look good. As a consequence, it appears that there are several ways, other than outright cheating or the students actually testing higher, to make the numbers come out better. In Minnesota, according to James Walsh of the Minneapolis Star Tribune (March 6, 2006), the trick is to have the low-scoring students take a different test. "To some, it may look like were gaming the system" says Tim Vansickle, the Minnesota director of assessments. Minnesota does have many students whose native language is not English and Vansickle denies that the alternative test is not meant to help schools keep off "the list" of schools deemed failing. Another technique according to Jay Mathews of the Washington Post (February 28, 2006), is to engage ...
College Surgery (Culm Valley)
CVS is estimated to give a definitive result in around 99% of cases. However, it cannot test for every birth defect and its not always possible to get a conclusive result.. In a very small number of cases, the results of CVS cannot establish with certainty that the chromosomes in the baby are normal or not. This might be because the sample of cells removed was too small or theres a possibility the abnormality is just in the placenta and not the baby.. If this happens, it may be necessary to have amniocentesis (an alternative test, in which a sample of amniotic fluid is taken from the mother) a few weeks later to confirm a diagnosis.. ...
15th Meeting of the GST Council to be held tomorrow, 3rd June, 2017 - Approval of amendments to the draft GST Rules and related...
The Union Minister for Finance, Defence and Corporate Affairs, Shri Arun Jaitley will chair the 15th Meeting of the GST Council scheduled to be held tomorrow, i.e., Saturday, 3rd June, 2017 at Vigyan Bhavan in the national capital. This meeting is important because it is likely to finalize the rates of tax and cess to be levied on the commodities remaining after the fitment exercise in the 14th GST Council Meeting. Besides it, approval of amendments to the draft GST Rules and related Forms are also on the agenda among others of the aforesaid one day meeting. The meeting is likely to be attended by the Finance Ministers of different States/UTs being the member of the GST Council along with the senior officers. ...
Comunicaciones a congresos > 36th meeting of the ebmt 2010 - Servicio de Hematologia Hospital...
8th Meeting of The American College of Wound Healing and Tissue Repair | WoundSource
Protease Inhibitor Cocktail III, Animal-Free, DMSO-Free | AG Scientific, Inc.
Fondation Recherches 3R / 3R Info Bulletins / Animal-free screening of biological materials for their contamination by rodent...
In order to validate the IMPAT, it was compared with the MAP test. Samples of known concentration (tissue culture infective dose) were generated for each of the 14 viruses on the screening panel (Table 1). For each virus four 100-fold serial dilutions were made.. MAP test: Groups of 2 mice were inoculated with each virus at each of the dilutions. After 30 days the animals were euthanized and exsanguinated. The serum was tested for antibodies specific to the respective viruses using immunofluoresence assays.. IMPAT: To mimic routine conditions, the virus dilutions were not analyzed directly by IMPAT, but rather used to inoculate a standard tumor cell suspension. The tumor cells were incubated with the virus samples for 1 hour (DNA viruses) or 5 minutes (RNA viruses) before DNA or RNA extraction. Nucleic acids isolated from the contaminated tumor material were analyzed using standard PCR and the TaqMan method.. Sensitivity: The three methods were equally sensitive in detecting two of the 14 ...
Going vegan, family style: New vegan fare makes an animal-free diet tastier than ever - Article Comments - View topic - Arts &...
Article Discussion on [quote=JPS:1ln2girj][quote=old enough:1ln2girj][quote=JPS:1ln2girj]I am really getting tire of all these people who talk about animal cruelty because they read it in a book. These people really dont have a clue what the vast majority of livestock producers do for their animals. I grew up on a dairy farm. Everything revolved around the cows. They were fed and taken care of before we ate. At the time we were one of the larger dairies in the area. All the cows had a name and we knew each and everyone by their name, their habits and manor when milking them. People who think that animal cruelty is theis the rule rather than the exception just dont get it. If you are cruel to the animals, they will not perform to their maximum and if they dont perform to their maximum you dont make money. You can be a vegan or vegatarian, thats your choice. Dont try to justify it with claims that animal cruelty is widespread because it isnt. I know people who are vegans or
Celliance Enters Agreement with Novozymes A/S to Develop Animal-Free Recombinant human Albumin
Animal-Free Recombinant Human/Murine/Rat Activin A (E.coli derived)
Alternatives to animal testing. ... testing, application, and validation of alternatives to the use ... Bibliography on Alternatives to the Use of Live Vertebrates in Biomedical Research and Testing, or Altbib, is a bibliography ... of vertebrates in biomedical research and toxicology testing. The bibliography is produced from MEDLARS database searches ...
"Animals and alternatives in testing". Archived from the original on 2006-02-25. Retrieved 2006-04-19. Schiff J (February 2002 ... Alternative strategies involve sourcing the animal blood from countries with minimum BSE/TSE risk, such as The United States, ... hPL has emerged as a safe and reliable alternative as a direct replacement for FBS or other animal serum. In addition, ... The growth factors used to supplement media are often derived from the serum of animal blood, such as fetal bovine serum (FBS ...
Leslie Turnberg, Baron Turnberg
"The Three Rs: The Way Forward". The Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. Archived from the original on 28 March 2007. ... in animal testing called "The National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research". The board ... The focus of the centre is on the three Rs: the replacement, refinement, and reduction of animal testing. The three Rs were ... The UK government currently still regards animal testing as necessary, but science minister Lord Sainsbury of Turville said ...
Animals and Alternatives in Testing: History, Science, Ethics. Mary Ann Liebert, 1994, ISBN 0913113670 The Scalpel and the ... "A balanced account of the battle over animal research and animal rights", Chicago Tribune, 10 September 2000. Byrne, Michael. " ... a history of the practice and politics of animal testing, The Riddle of Gender (2004), which examines scientists' attempts to ... The War Between Animal Research and Animal Protection. Farrar, Straus & Giroux, 2000. The Riddle of Gender: Science, Activism ...
"In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". Washington Post. 2 April 2008. Retrieved 2011-06-26. Stallard, N.; Whitehead ... As a result, in 1992 this test was proposed as an alternative to the LD50 test by the Organisation for Economic Co-operation ... approve non-animal alternatives in response to research cruelty concerns and the lack of validity/sensitivity of animal tests ... Depending on the results of the first test, either no further testing is needed or a higher or lower dose is tested: If ...
"FDA: Why are animals used for testing medical products?". "Society Of Toxicology: Advancing valid alternatives". Archived from ... of model organisms History of model organisms Animals in space Animal testing Animal testing on invertebrates Animal testing on ... These test conditions are often termed as animal models of disease. The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate ... In the U.S., the Animal Welfare Act of 1970 (see also Laboratory Animal Welfare Act) set standards for animal use and care in ...
History of Queen Mary University of London
"Professorial chair to lead search for animal testing alternatives". Times Higher Education. 16 January 2013. Retrieved 20 ... "Thurston's DH4 Tests". Retrieved 11 September 2011. "Spratt's". London Remembers. Retrieved 16 July 2015. "Information released ... In January 2013, Queen Mary established the world's first professorial chair in animal replacement science. From 2014, Queen ...
Median lethal dose
Food and Drug Administration approved alternative methods to LD50 for testing the cosmetic drug Botox without animal tests. The ... Animal-rights and animal-welfare groups, such as Animal Rights International, have campaigned against LD50 testing on animals. ... "In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". Washington Post. 12 April 2008. Retrieved 2011-06-26. REGISTRY OF TOXIC ... see Test Guideline 401, Trends in Pharmacological Sciences Vol 22, February 22, 2001). Animal testing Reed-Muench method IDLH ...
... is an alternative to the LD50 acute toxicity test. It requires fewer animals to achieve similar accuracy as the LD50 test. ... "In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". Washington Post. 12 April 2008. Retrieved 2011-06-26. ... However, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has begun to approve non-animal alternatives. Lipnick, RL; Cotruvo, JA; Hill, RN ... Lichtman, A (1998). "The up-and-down method substantially reduces the number of animals required to determine antinociceptive ...
"Developing alternative approaches to animal testing". Unilever. Retrieved 8 June 2016. "Search results for 'soup'". Lipton Tea ... Zelman, Joanna (2 February 2011). "Unilever Ends Animal Testing On Lipton Tea Products After PETA Threatens Major Campaign". ... campaign Unilever no longer test their products on animals unless required to by governments as part of their regulatory ... According to the animal rights organization, Unilever decided to end the practice for Lipton products after receiving more than ...
Syed Ziaur Rahman
He even translated few papers into Urdu in the field of Alternatives to animal testing. Rahman also works in the field of ... Rahman's contributed in the area of Alternatives to animal testing. He believed in the philosophy of '3Rs" of Russell and Burch ... getting survey related to the attitude of undergraduate medical students towards Alternatives to animal testing and Animal ... a presentation by InterNICHE Co-ordinator Nick Jukes about alternatives to animal testing in education: Urdu Translation ...
"Replacement of animal procedures: alternatives in research, education and testing". Laboratory Animals. 28 (3): 193-211. doi: ... "not tested on animals", "we do not conduct animal testing", "never tested on animals", "against animal testing" or "cruelty- ... Though companies can still use animal testing in countries outside Europe (such as China, which requires animal testing on all ... These techniques to reduce animals used in tests and their suffering include: replacement (eliminate an animal test altogether ...
... the European consensus platform for alternatives, the European Society for Alternatives to Animal Testing, and the ... ALTEX: Alternatives to Animal Experimentation is a quarterly peer-reviewed scientific journal covering alternatives to animal ... It is the official journal of Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing, the American Society for Cellular and Computational ... Official website Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing. ...
Lung on a chip
It is expected to become an alternative to animal testing. The lung-on-a-chip places two layers of living tissues-the lining of ... The response of the lung-on-a-chip to inhaled living pathogens was tested by introducing E. Coli bacteria into the air channel ... The engineered organ combination could be used to test inhaled drugs and to identify new and more effective therapeutics that ... It can be used to test the effects of environmental toxins, absorption of aerosolized therapeutics, and the safety and efficacy ...
Foundation for Biomedical Research
"The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT)". Retrieved 2009-06-24. PETA. "Animals in Experimentation - ... "Animal research and medical progress". About animal testing. "Scientists Against Animal Testing". The Society for Neuroscience ... Animal testing History of animal testing Foundation for Biomedical Research. "About FBR". Retrieved 2009-06-24. 2005 Report on ... Some animal rights supporters believe that alternatives exist for animal models in research; however the vast majority of ...
Alternatives to animal testing "Animal Concerns Community - InterNICHE - the International Network for Humane Education". ... Encyclopedia of animal rights and animal welfare. School Library Journal. vol. 56 iss. 4 p. 10. The International Network for ... "Encyclopedia of Animal Rights and Animal Welfare: Second Edition - Google Books". Books.google.com. 2009-11-25. Retrieved 2013- ... "InterNICHE Launches New Website for Humane Education and Alternatives". Altweb.jhsph.edu. Retrieved 2013-07-22. Patricia Ann ...
In:The Economist (US) June 11, 2005 "Biograf 3R - Computational Alternatives to Animal Testing - Home". Biograf.ch. doi:10.1016 ... of reduction and replacement of animal experiments as well as to the refinement of the methodology in cases where animal tests ... In a future scenario, biosimulation would change the way substances are tested, in which in vivo and in vitro tests are ... The early prediction if a drug will fail in animals or humans would be a key to reduce both drug development costs and the ...
In silico medicine
In silico modeling can also provide a humane alternative to animal testing. It has been purported by a company in the field, ... com/en/improving-the-welfare-of-animals-researchers-develop-computer-aided-models-to-replace-animal-testing "The Seventh ... that computer-aided models will make the use of testing on living organisms obsolete. The term in silico medicine is ...
"In U.S., Few Alternatives To Testing On Animals". Washington Post. April 12, 2008. Retrieved June 26, 2011.. ... Administration approved an alternative product-safety testing method in response to increasing public concern that LD50 testing ... Other tests, such as brain scan and spinal fluid examination, may help to rule out other causes. If the symptoms of botulism ... in vitro assay for use in the stability and potency testing of Botox in response to increasing public concern that LD50 testing ...
He is best known for his work on laboratory animal welfare and alternatives to animal testing. Balls was born in 1938 in ... He became Editor of Alternatives to Laboratory Animals (ATLA) in 1983. He acted as an adviser to the British government during ... "ATLA -Alternatives To Laboratory Animals". Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR). Retrieved 4 December 2013. "London ... "Ed Balls' father urges review of animal testing laws". Daily Mail. London. 23 July 2007. Retrieved 11 October 2010. Biography ...
Microtox has also been applied to animal testing as an in vitro alternative. Numerous studies and published data comparing ... There are five major Microtox tests including the Basic Test, the 100% Test, the Solid Phase Test, the Comparison Test, and the ... Of these five tests, three are used for sediment and soil testing including the Basic Test, the 100% Test and the Solid-Phase ... while either the Basic test or the 100% test is used for pore water. Sediment testing: Microtox is used to test and evaluate ...
Similarly to objections to animal testing, animal rights activists have also objected to xenotransplantation on ethical grounds ... Xenotransplants are thus potentially a more effective alternative. Xenotransplantation also is and has been a ... Many, including animal rights groups, strongly oppose killing animals to harvest their organs for human use. None of the ... Patient derived tumor xenografts in animals can be used to test treatments. ...
Transatlantic Economic Council
In vitro toxicology
... the quest for alternatives to animal testing has gained a new momentum. In many cases the in vitro tests are better than animal ... Measurement of these types of cellular responses can be windows into the interaction of the test article on the test models ( ... In vitro toxicity testing is the scientific analysis of the effects of toxic chemical substances on cultured bacteria or ... New testing platforms are now developed to solve problems related to cellular interactions. These new platforms are much more ...
She was one of the pioneers of cell culture in vitro and its applications in alternatives to animal testing. She is an Officier ... With Paul Lechat she was an ardent advocate of alternative methods to animal testing by promoting the use of in vitro ... "Tests in vitro, utiles mais pas suffisants: Entretien avec Monique Adolphe". Fondation pour la recherche médicale. 2000-04-11. ...
Patient derived tumor xenografts in animals can be used to test treatments. Since they are the closest relatives to humans, non ... This technique has also been proposed as an alternative source of human organs for future transplantation into human patients. ... Many, including animal rights groups, strongly oppose killing animals to harvest their organs for human use. None of the major ... Animal to human infection is normally rare, but has occurred in the past. An example of such is the avian influenza, when an ...
This method was first described in 1986 as a humane alternative to in vivo animal testing. Techniques such as static diffusion ... In some test protocols many animals may be tested and necropsies may occur at set intervals after exposure. Biomonitoring, such ... The test product is applied to the membrane via the top chamber. The bottom chamber contains fluid from which samples are taken ... This can be done in animals or humans with a dry chemical powder or a chemical in solution. Rats are commonly used for these ...
Still, test scores in the magnet schools did not rise; the black-white gap did not diminish; and there was less, not greater, ... a b Lange, C. M. & Sletten, S. J. (2002, February). Alternative education: A brief history and research synthesis (Project ... Other schools are built around elite-sporting programs or teach agricultural skills such as farming or animal breeding. ... Archive of profile) ("Alternatives a la segregació escolar als Estats Units: el cas de les magnet schools"/"Alternativas a la ...
Elton CS (1927) Animal Ecology. Republished 2001. University of Chicago Press. *^ Allee, W. C. (1932). Animal life and social ... Using these models they can measure and test for generalized patterns in the structure of real food web networks. Ecologists ... Journal of Animal Ecology. 78: 253-269. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01460.x. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2011-09-16.. ... One of the earliest descriptions of a food chain was described by a medieval Afro-Arab scholar named Al-Jahiz: "All animals, in ...
... "set of practices that cannot be tested, refuse to be tested, or consistently fail tests." Dawkins argued that if a ... Ayurveda stresses the use of plant-based medicines and treatments, with some animal products, and added minerals, including ... The meaning of the term "alternative" in the expression "alternative medicine", is not that it is an effective alternative to ... "The Alternative Fix - Introduction". www.pbs.org. Frontline - PBS.. *^ The New Age of Alternative Medicine, Why New Age ...
Positron emission tomography
Small animal imagingEdit. PET technology for small animal imaging: A miniature PE tomograph has been constructed that is small ... Alternative methods of scanning include x-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and functional ... FDG-PET imaging of atherosclerosis to detect patients at risk of stroke is also feasible and can help test the efficacy of ... animal diagnosis. Because of cost as well as the marginal utility of detecting cancer metastases in companion animals (the ...
Other animals. Wild animals. Ebola has a high mortality rate among primates. Frequent outbreaks of Ebola may have resulted ... Diagnostic tests. The diagnostic tests currently available require specialised equipment and highly trained personnel. Since ... Social anthropologists may help find alternatives to traditional rules for burials. ... Animals may become infected when they eat fruit partially eaten by bats carrying the virus. Fruit production, animal ...
In testing alternative explanations for the cognitive bias of illusory superiority, the study Why the Unskilled are Unaware: ... The participants' knowledge of geography was tested; some tests were intended to positively affect the participant's self-view ... the participants given tests with a positive intent reported better performance than did the participants given tests with a ... and logical reasoning overestimated their test performance and their abilities; despite test scores that placed them in the ...
The third chimpanzee: the evolution and future of the human animal.. *^ a b Sharman Apt Russell (2006). Hunger an unnatural ... Maintaining a rhythm while working may have helped people to become more efficient at daily activities. An alternative ... "Finds test human origins theory". BBC News. Retrieved 2008-03-20 ... Bird and other animal species produce music such as calls to ... and women may have procured small game animals for consumption and assisted men in driving herds of large game animals (such as ...
Other animals. Acne can occur on cats, dogs, and horses. ... Alternative medicine. Researchers are investigating complementary therapies as treatment for people with acne. Low- ... she must have a confirmed negative pregnancy test and use an effective form of birth control. In 2008, the United States ... Topical and oral preparations of nicotinamide (the amide form of vitamin B3) are alternative medical treatments. ...
Animal. A multitude of animal studies have been conducted to help understand hearing loss and fatigue. It is difficult to ... Another alternative developed by Asius is a seal called the Ambrose Diaphonic Ear Lens (ADEL). The seal attaches to headphones ... Lin et al., conducted an experiment in Taiwan that tested the effect of generation of reactive oxygen species on temporary ... Studies[clarification needed] have been done on a variety of animal species, including guinea pigs and dolphins., rats, ...
Sometimes these tests are performed by techs without a medical degree, but the interpretation of these tests is done by a ... Throughout history and in Europe right until the late 18th century, not only animal and plant products were used as medicine, ... When adopted outside of its traditional culture, traditional medicine is often called alternative medicine. Practices known ... After examination for signs and interviewing for symptoms, the doctor may order medical tests (e.g. blood tests), take a biopsy ...
Mann-Whitney U test
Alternatives. If one desires a simple shift interpretation, the Mann-Whitney U test should not be used when the ... Kasuya, Eiiti (2001). "Mann-Whitney U test when variances are unequal". Animal Behaviour. 61: 1247-1249. doi:10.1006/anbe. ... Relation to other tests. Comparison to Student's t-test. The Mann-Whitney U test is more widely applicable than ... Illustration of object of test. A second example race illustrates the point that the Mann-Whitney U test does not test ...
Eric J. Bailey (2002). African American Alternative Medicine: Using Alternative Medicine to Prevent and Control Chronic ... Serious research to test chiropractic theories did not begin until the 1970s, and is continuing to be hampered by ... A related field, veterinary chiropractic, applies manual therapies to animals and is recognized in 40 US states, but is not ... Chiropractic: Conventional or Alternative Healing?. The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience. 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 308-. ISBN 978- ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells, while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Various tests eliminated the possibility of the unknown element being thorium, radium, lead, bismuth, or thallium. The new ... 4) are very useful since they are permanently charged, and they are often used as an alternative to the expensive Cs+ to ... Flame test colour. Principal emission/absorption wavelength (nm) Crimson. 670.8. Yellow. 589.2. Violet. 766.5. Red-violet. ...
Research is being done testing various activated carbons' ability to store natural gas and hydrogen gas. The porous ... "Alliance for Collaborative Research in Alternative Fuel Technology". All-craft.missouri.edu. Retrieved 2014-03-13.. ... In livestock production it is used as a pesticide, animal feed additive, processing aid, nonagricultural ingredient and ... Tests of adsorption behaviour are usually done with nitrogen gas at 77 K under high vacuum, but in everyday terms activated ...
Occupational health psychology
An alternative model, the job demands-resources (JD-R) model, grew out of the DCS model. In the JD-R model, the category of ... Animal testing. *Archival research. *Behavior epigenetics. *Case study. *Content analysis. *Experiments. *Human subject ... A critique of existing measures and proposal for an alternative methodology. Journal of Occupational and Organizational ... suggesting that aggression-prevention training of existing employees may be an alternative to screening. Only a small number of ...
The United States Navy uses the Ishihara plates (and alternatives) for color vision screening. The current passing score is 12 ... Test procedures. Being a printed plate, the accuracy of the test depends on using the proper lighting to illuminate the ... The Ishihara test is a color perception test for red-green color deficiencies, the first in a class of successful color vision ... Color perception test. Example of an Ishihara color test plate. The number "74" should be clearly visible to viewers with ...
EBU subjective listening tests on low-bitrate audio codecs. *Audio Archiving Guide: Music Formats (Guide for helping a user ... However a new, alternative view can show compression algorithms implicitly map strings into implicit feature space vectors, and ... Commonly during explosions, flames, flocks of animals, and in some panning shots, the high-frequency detail leads to quality ... Interactive blind listening tests of audio codecs over the internet. *TestVid - 2,000+ HD and other uncompressed source video ...
An alternative explanation builds on the idea that subjects tend to confuse determinism with fatalism... What happens then when ... To test the effects of belief in determinism, future studies would need to provide articles that do not simply "attack free ... and between the behaving animal and its environment". In this view, mind and neurological functions are tightly coupled in ... they were more likely to lie about their performance on a test where they would be rewarded with cash. Provoking a ...
ادرار کردن - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
Animal Behaviour Abstracts. Cambridge Scientific Abstracts. 1998. Retrieved 22 March 2013.. *^ Ecology Abstracts. Cambridge ... Alternative urination tools. See also: Female urination device. Sometimes urination is done in a container such as a bottle, ... A container may be used so that the urine can be examined for medical reasons or for a drug test, for a bedridden patient, when ... Field Guide to Animal Tracks and Scat of California. Books.google.com. Retrieved 10 February 2013.. ...
Cascade effect (ecology)
In P.W. Price, T.M. Liwinsohn, G.W. Fernandes, and W.W. Benson (eds.), Plant-animal Interactions: Evolutionary Ecology in ... The decline of tree diversity on newly isolated tropical islands: A test of a null hypothesis and the implications. Evol. Ecol. ... Alternative stable state. *Balance of nature. *Biological data visualization. *Ecocline. *Ecological economics ...
He claims the standard testing is ineffective in as many as 90% of cases and that a host of undetectable coinfections may ... His practice focuses on alternative therapies that are not yet standard practice with mainstream doctors, maintaining that ... and are more efficacious than their synthetic and animal derived counterparts. Until evidence is found to the contrary, ... Their position is that standard blood tests are an accurate means of determining the presence of Lyme disease. Holtorf and ...
Other human and animal behavior experiments. When an animal is given a task to complete, they are almost always more ... In subsequent tests the birds that had seen a tutor were more efficient feeders than the others. ... an improbable action or action outcome that it has observed and the matching behavior cannot be explained by an alternative ... Further reading on animal social learning. *. Galef, B.G.; Laland, K.N. (2005). "Social learning in animals: Empirical ...
Much of the study of invasive species has been influenced by Charles Elton's 1958 book The Ecology of Invasion by Animals and ... Chefs from around the world have begun seeking out and using invasive species as alternative ingredients. ... whereby ships loaded with cargo when they reached the Seaway were not tested because their ballast water tanks were empty. ... Elton, Charles S. (2000) [First published 1958]. The Ecology of Invasions by Animals and Plants. University of Chicago Press. p ...
Other animalsEdit. Main article: Blindness in animals. Statements that certain species of mammals are "born blind" refers to ... A 2008 study tested the effect of using gene therapy to help restore the sight of patients with a rare form of inherited ... Closed-circuit televisions, equipment that enlarges and contrasts textual items, are a more high-tech alternative to ... Other animals, such as the blind mole rat, are truly blind and rely on other senses. ...
Happy Scenes from Animal Life), the 12-minute Прекрасная Люканида, или Война усачей с рогачами (The Cameraman's Revenge) (10- ... Those Phil Tippett's go motion tests acted as motion models for his first photo-realistic use of computers to depict dinosaurs ... Stop motion has occasionally been used to create the characters for computer games, as an alternative to CGI. The Virgin ... which had funny animals voicing vox pop interviews. Park then used the same format to produce a series of commercials between ...
Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory
Animal gut bacteria. Microbial gastrointestinal flora in a variety of animals have shown potential for the production of ... "Alternative & Advanced Fuels". US Department of Energy. Retrieved 7 March 2012.. *^ a b c Knothe, Gerhard (2010). "Biodiesel ... "Wal-Mart To Test Hybrid Trucks". Sustainable Business. February 3, 2009.. *^ Rock, Kerry; Maurice Korpelshoek (2007). " ... Alternative Fueling Station Locator (EERE). *Towards Sustainable Production and Use of Resources: Assessing Biofuels by the ...
The animal grave offerings made were cattle, sheep, goats and horses. *^ The "Storozhova mohyla" site is near Dnipro, Ukraine, ... Autosomal tests also indicate that the Yamnaya are the most likely vector for "Ancient North Eurasian" admixture into Europe.[5 ... Alternative and fringe. *Anatolian hypothesis. *Armenian hypothesis. *Indigenous Aryans. *Baltic homeland. *Paleolithic ... 2015), autosomic tests indicate that the Yamnaya people were the result of a genetic admixture between two different hunter- ...
A Test of Alternative Hypotheses". Ecology. Ecological Society of America. 76 (8): 2470-2481. doi:10.2307/2265821. JSTOR ... "Animal Guide: Giant Kangaroo Rat". Nature on PBS web site. Public Broadcasting System. 2014. Retrieved 2014-03-26.. ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service: Animal Damage Control, Great Plains Agricultural Council: Wildlife Committee). B101 ... Kangaroo rats are generally solitary animals with little social organization. Kangaroo rats communicate during competitive ...
Kin selection. That animals and humans are more altruistic towards close kin than to distant kin and non-kin has been ... concluded people are motivated to give for reasons of personal prestige and in a similar fMRI scanner test in 2007 with his ... Alternative giving. *Benefit concert. *Charity / thrift / op shop. *Click-to-donate site ... A constant concern for ALLAH (i.e. God) results in a careful attitude towards people, animals, and other things in this world.[ ...
Ellerman, David (2005). Helping People Help Themselves: From the World Bank to an Alternative Philosophy of Development ... Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty. *Criticism. *Delivering as One. *Flag *Honour Flag ... Animal rights. *Discrimination. *Freedom (political). *Global governance. *Human Responsibilities. *List of human rights ...
The Shawshank Redemption
Leading up to its release, the film was test screened with the public. These were described as "through the roof", and Glotzer ... Several alternative titles had been posited before the release due to concerns that it was not a marketable title. The low ... Robbins observed caged animals at a zoo, spent an afternoon in solitary confinement, spoke with prisoners and guards, and ... Gunton performed his screen test with Robbins, which was filmed by Deakins. After being confirmed for the role, he used the wig ...
In alternative medicine. Since the mid 1970s alternative medicine has perpetuated ideas of "cleansing the body" through ... certain medical tests, such as cholesterol testing (lipid panel) or certain blood glucose measurements require fasting for ... No animal products are consumed, including dairy, eggs and meat, and utensils that have touched such products must be washed ... 2009). "Fasting". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). American ...
... the male animal was a coyote-wolf hybrid sired by a male Mexican wolf. It has been suggested that the hybrid animal was ... In tests performed on a sample from a taxidermied carcass of what was initially labelled as a chupacabra, mitochondrial DNA ... However, the same study also countered that theory with an alternative possibility that it may have been the red wolves, who in ... animal guardians. Wolves were also sacrificed in religious rituals, which involved quartering the animals and keeping their ...
"Yohimbine Test Ligand Search". PDSP Ki Database.. *^ a b Arthur JM, Casañas SJ, Raymond JR (June 1993). "Partial agonist ... Holt S, Atkins RC, Krueger RJ, Sinatra ST, Taylor T (1999). The sexual revolution: natural and healthy alternatives to sex. ... Subsequent work on yohimbine, while confirming that it behaves as an aphrodisiac in animals, including rats, dogs and golden ... "Drug Testing and Analysis. 8 (3-4): 357-69. doi:10.1002/dta.1849. PMID 26391406.. ...
Some Scutellaria species, including S. baicalensis and S. lateriflora, have demonstrated anxiolytic activity in both animals ... Liao JF, Hung WY, Chen CF (2003). "Anxiolytic-like effects of baicalein and baicalin in the Vogel conflict test in mice". Eur. ... Edwin Lowell Cooper; Nobuo Yamaguchi (1 January 2004). Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Biomedicine. Springer ... have been confirmed to act as positive allosteric modulators and produce anxiolytic effects in animals, whereas oroxylin A acts ...
... and it is only used as the supporting reference for that claim in the first place because no higher-quality alternative to it ... Even animal studies have suggested that tryptophan itself "when ingested by susceptible individuals either alone or in ... including at least one case where the tryptophan was tested and found to lack the contaminants found in the contaminated lots ...
Times Beach, Missouri
It was not until 1973 that tests revealed the presence of trichlorophenol. When trace amounts of the crude trichlorophenol ... Looking for less costly alternatives, NEPACCO contracted the services of the Independent Petrochemical Corporation (IPC). ... and collected human and animal blood samples, as well as soil samples. Although initial results revealed that the soil at ... New soil samples revealed that concentrations of dioxin had not decreased since the last test results obtained by the CDC ...
In fact, these relationships were promoted as alternatives to and practice for a woman's marriage to a man.[note 3] ... Whereas sodomy between men, men and women, and men and animals was punishable by death in Britain, acknowledgment of sexual ... both of which tested the boundaries of sexuality and gender. A show directed at adolescents that had a particularly strong ... that the lower rate of lesbians tested by regular Pap smears makes it more difficult to detect cervical cancer at early stages ...
Ayhan Demirbas (2008). Biodiesel: A Realistic Fuel Alternative for Diesel Engines. Berlin: Springer. p. 74. ISBN 978-1-84628- ... In recent testing, PAH compounds were reduced by 75-85%, except for benz(a)anthracene, which was reduced by roughly 50%. ... Biodiesel is obtained from vegetable oil or animal fats (biolipids) which are mainly Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and ... "Alternative Transport Fuels - Courtesy of AIP". world-petroleum.org. World Petroleum Council. 2009. Archived from the original ...
Talk:Artificial consciousness/NPOV Version/discuss
... or possibly some higher animals) can have. I put you to the same test I put Tkorrovi: Magic spark or new physics? Paul ... Evidence from alternative sources should be provided to justify the original claim, and I have suggested that the alternative ... We may take imaginable human, who has average results in all tests (IQ test, mathematics test, art test, history test, whatever ... After testing their intelligence using the Turing test we will test their consciousness with the Stannard test. We will test ...
Green Party of England and Wales
It also takes a progressive approach to social policies such as civil liberties, animal rights, LGBT rights, and drug policy ... The party opposes High Speed 2 (HS2), in favour of alternative transport strategies. The party regards the planned railway ... "GPDG: news, research, and ecstasy testing kits". Green Party Drugs Group. Archived from the original on 14 March 2004. ... drug reform and animal rights. A major proposal within this section is a universal basic income. The new deal for tax and spend ...
Artificial cardiac pacemaker
... pacemakers constructed by engineer Wilson Greatbatch entered use in humans from April 1960 following extensive animal testing. ... Transvenous pacing, when used for temporary pacing, is an alternative to transcutaneous pacing. A pacemaker wire is placed into ... At the time of in-office follow-up, the device will be interrogated to perform diagnostic testing. These tests include: * ... Impedance: A test to measure lead integrity. Large and/or sudden increases in impedance can be indicative of a lead fracture ...
Animal fats are a by-product of meat production and cooking. Although it would not be efficient to raise animals (or catch fish ... train during summerlong test". Seattle Times. Retrieved 2009-03-01.. *^ "Disneyland trains running on biodiesel - UPI.com". www ... "Alternative Fuels Data Center: Fuel Prices". www.afdc.energy.gov. Retrieved 9 July 2017.. ... "Biodiesel from Animal Fat". E85.whipnet.net. Retrieved 2008-01-07.. *^ "Biodiesel produced from "tra", "basa" catfish oil". ...
In Hinduism and Jainism, a jiva (Sanskrit: जीव, jīva, alternative spelling jiwa; Hindi: जीव, jīv, alternative spelling jeev) is ... See also nefesh habehamit the "animal soul".). ScientologyEdit. The Scientology view is that a person does not have a soul, it ... tests and challenges could human souls be judged and credited - b'ezrat HaShem ("with God's help") - for righteousness and ... "animal") the living organism.. Francis M. Cornford quotes Pindar by saying that the soul sleeps while the limbs are active, but ...
List of atheists in science and technology
He helped revitalize the classical relativistic alternative to general relativity known as Einstein-Cartan gravity. He is ... and did theoretical work on the implosion method used in both the Trinity test and the "Fat Man" weapon dropped on Nagasaki, ... of a universe without purpose of punishment or reward for a lately arrived animal species, free to make or mar its own destiny ... a much more reliable method of altering animal genomes than previously used, and the technique behind gene targeting and ...
پرتو کیهانی - ویکیپدیا، دانشنامهٔ آزاد
During a test of his equipment for measuring the east-west effect, Rossi observed that the rate of near-simultaneous discharges ... and may become an alternative to the detection of atmospheric Cherenkov-light and fluorescence light, at least at high energies ... marine megafauna extinction event by substantially increasing radiation levels to hazardous amounts for large seafaring animals ... Peaked in 1963 with a spike in 1986; still high near nuclear test and accident sites.. For the United States, fallout is ...
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis
Based on the person's symptoms and findings from the examination and from these tests, the physician may order tests on blood ... in which viruses are used to deliver mutant genes to an animal model, and CRISPR/Cas9, which can be used to give an animal ... As ALS progresses, speech-language pathologists can recommend the use of augmentative and alternative communication such as ... appropriate tests must be conducted to exclude the possibility of other conditions. One of these tests is electromyography ( ...
Innate immune system
As with animals, plants attacked by insects or other pathogens use a set of complex metabolic responses which lead to the ... Klingemann HG (2010). "Development and testing of NK cell lines". In Lotze MT, Thompson AW (eds.). Natural killer cells - Basic ... There are three different complement systems: Classical, alternative, Lectin *Classical: starts when antibody bind to bacteria ... Toll-like receptors are a major class of pattern recognition receptor, that exists in all coelomates (animals with a body- ...
There are many alternative methods.. Addition of decimal fractions. Decimal fractions can be added by a simple ... Even some nonhuman animals show a limited ability to add, particularly primates. In a 1995 experiment imitating Wynn's 1992 ... According to a survey of the nations with highest TIMSS mathematics test scores; see Schmidt, W., Houang, R., & Cogan, L. (2002 ... which are less likely to be used in validation tests. One especially notable such error was the Y2K bug, where overflow ...
Both Rom and Romani have been in use in English since the 19th century as an alternative for Gypsy. Romani was ... Speaking in 1993, Václav Havel prophetically remarked that "the treatment of the Roma is a litmus test for democracy": and ... Some animals are also considered impure, for instance cats because they lick their hindquarters. Horses, in contrast, are not ...
Alternative medicineWikipedia:WikiProject Alternative medicineTemplate:WikiProject Alternative medicineAlternative medicine ... What an exceedingly curious suggestion: "as if testing the predictions of a model is equivalent to assuming it is true to prove ... animal magnetism, aether theories or witchcraft (as Feyerabend might add... though he might have been pleasantly surprised had ... Unless I can "find a better alternative" than what... the new ones WG found? Hello... Now, if you want to use that letter to ...
7 Testing for levels. *8 Biosynthesis *8.1 Animal pathway. *8.2 Plant pathways ... Singh S, Ernst E (2008). Trick or Treatment: The Undeniable Facts about Alternative Medicine. WW Norton & Company. pp. 15-18. ... Animal sources. Goats, like many animals but not humans, make their own vitamin C. An adult goat, weighing approx. 70 kg ... Testing for levels. Simple tests are available to measure the levels of vitamin C in the urine and in serum or blood ...
Platelet-derived growth factor
In experiments, it new bone fully covered skull wounds in test animals and stimulated growth in human bone marrow stromal cells ... Recombinant PDGF is used in medicine to help heal chronic ulcers and in orthopedic surgery and periodontics as an alternative ... both during development and in the adult animal. Other growth factors in this family include vascular endothelial ... "Two alternative mRNAs coding for the angiogenic factor, placenta growth factor (PlGF), are transcribed from a single gene of ...
... alternative views are that modern-looking animals began evolving earlier but fossils of their precursors have not yet been ... "Origin of the Eumetazoa: Testing ecological predictions of molecular clocks against the Proterozoic fossil record" ... but these are so modern-looking that the earliest animals must have appeared before then. Early fossils of animals are rare ... by proving that some fossil animals resembled no living ones, demonstrated that animals could become extinct, leading to the ...
SIDA, a enciclopedia libre
... dependen do tempo en que se considere que se produciu o paso do virus de animal a humano. Os estudos xenéticos do virus suxiren ... "HIV testing for children in resource-limited settings: what are we waiting for?". PLoS medicine 7 (7): e1000285. PMC 2907270. ... "Complementary and alternative medicine use among HIV-positive people: research synthesis and implications for HIV care". AIDS ...
If you only meant to make test edits, please use the sandbox for that. If you think I made a mistake, or if you have any ... "At the present time there is no definite answer as to which taxa is the base taxa for all other animals. There have been ... Briefly before your comments, I had already added the alternative Porifera-sister hypothesis to the article. Now, I added even ... As an aside, one of the reasons I favor Porifera is the discovery of fossil specimens of sponges or sponge like animals (they ...
... before the animal tests had been carried out. MDPV is the 3,4-methylenedioxy ring-substituted analog of the compound ... If this is not effective, haloperidol is an alternative treatment. It has been found that the use of any beta blockers to treat ... Drug Testing and Analysis. 3 (9): 569-75. doi:10.1002/dta.204. PMID 21960541. Westphal, F.; Junge, T.; Rösner, P.; Sönnichsen, ...
Of course, a main criticism of animal models is that development and cognition in animals and humans are starkly different. ... An alternative hypothesis is that these apparent memories are the result of educated guesses, general knowledge of what must ... Indirect tests of memory. *Lost in the mall technique. *Memory disorder. *Memory implantation ... Animal models. The phenomenon of infantile amnesia is not specific to humans. This initially was researched in rat models ...
New wave of British heavy metal
Fricke, David (1987). Animal Instinct: The Def Leppard Story. London, UK: Zomba Books. ISBN 978-0-946391-55-4.. ... "The Old Grey Whistle Test: BBC Two England, 8 April 1982". Genome Beta. BBC. Retrieved 26 April 2016.. ... EMI tested the market with the Neal Kay-compiled album Metal for Muthas and a UK tour of the bands that had contributed to the ... and The Old Grey Whistle Test. The emergence of many new bands in the period between 1978 and 1980 was another remarkable ...
Epigenetics of neurodegenerative diseases
... have been effective at treating symptoms in animal models of AD. While promising as a therapeutic in animal models, studies on ... Tested on: mouse (M), only mouse cells (MC), human (H), Drosophila (D), rat (R). Successful treatment: yes (y), yes but with ... SMN1 and SMN2 are nearly identical except for a single nucleotide change in SMN2 resulting in an alternative splicing site ... Epigenetic treatments tested in models of PD are few, though some promising research has been conducted. Most treatments ...
... so it has been suggested that the calorie-restricted test animals exercised more than their companions on higher calories, ... "Alternatives for macronutrient intake and chronic disease: a comparison of the OmniHeart diets with popular diets and with ... However, studies show that overall activity levels are no higher in calorie restriction than ad libitum animals in youth. ... Observations in some accounts of animals undergoing calorie restriction have noted an increase in stereotyped behaviors. ...
As a result, more health-conscious African Americans are using alternative methods of preparation, eschewing trans fats in ... Because of religious practices, such as animal sacrifice, which are no longer common among the larger American religions, these ... African-American children who are isolated by speaking only AAVE sometimes have more difficulty with standardized testing and, ... and emphasizing the consumption of more fruits and vegetables than animal protein. There is some resistance to such changes, ...
The infection may be confirmed by testing the throat, sputum, or nose for the virus. A number of rapid tests are available; ... Birds are thought to be the main animal reservoirs of influenza viruses. Sixteen forms of hemagglutinin and nine forms of ... An alternative hypothesis to explain seasonality in influenza infections is an effect of vitamin D levels on immunity to the ... maintains an up-to-date summary of available laboratory tests. According to the CDC, rapid diagnostic tests have a ...
Hits from these screens are then tested in cells and then in animals for efficacy. Even more recently, scientists have been ... Enovid was known to be much more effective than alternatives including the condom and the diaphragm. As early as 1960, oral ... "Schedule 7 - International Therapeutic Class Comparison Test". 30 April 2014.. *^ Fonseca, Massard da; Shadlen, Kenneth C. (20 ... In 1962, a subsequent amendment required new drugs to be tested for efficacy and safety in clinical trials.:24-26 ...
A computer can read the eartag of each animal to ration the correct individual supplement. A close alternative is to use 'out- ... The disease has been eradicated from many countries by testing for the disease and culling suspected animals. ... Report on Animal Welfare Aspects of the Use of Bovine Somatotrophin (PDF). The Scientific Committee on Animal Health and Animal ... The animals might serve multiple purposes (for example, as a draught animal for pulling a plough as a youngster, and at the end ...
It tests for delayed food reactions.. *Blood testing is another way to test for allergies; however, it poses the ... In 1998 Starlink brand corn restricted to animals was detected in was found in the human food supply, leading to first a ... or as an alternative, there must be a statement separate but adjacent to the ingredients list: "Contains milk" (and any other ... In these tests, a tiny amount of the suspected allergen is put onto the skin or into a testing device, and the device is placed ...
To test that the purpose of the contractions was to shorten mating time, researchers anesthetized the female to prevent the ... A look at the embryonic underpinning of hemipenes and penises of other animals suggests that there are fundamental differences ... Booth, W.; Schuett, G. (2011). "Molecular genetic evidence for alternative reproductive strategies in North American pitvipers ... In such circumstances, molecular testing techniques can be used to identify whether her offspring share all or some of their ...
Wild plants and animals do not perceive radiation as dangerous, and any slight reduction it may cause in their lifespans is far ... This is true of the land around Chernobyl, the bomb test sites of the Pacific, and areas near the United States' Savannah River ... In a follow up interview Lovelock stated his support for natural gas; he now favors fracking as a low-polluting alternative to ... His chromatographic work has led to investigation of blood lipids in various animals, including arteriosclerotic humans. He has ...
a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af Hill, W. R., Wyse, A. G., & Anderson, M. (2012). Animal ... Tests have shown that the wings are actively involved in rapid braking, turning and zigzag maneuvers. They have 50-60 tail ... with the alternative classification restricting the Struthioniformes to the ostrich lineage and elevating the other groups. ... The end-product of catabolism of protein metabolism in animals is nitrogen. Animals must excrete this in the form of ...
Culture of microalgae in hatcheries
Today cultured microalgae is used as direct feed for humans and land-based farm animals, and as feed for cultured aquatic ... Several closed systems have been tested to date for the purposes of culturing microalgae, few important ones are mentioned ... light can be controlled for and productivity can be enhanced so that FTR can become an alternative for products for the ... These properties are anticoagulants, antioxidants, anticancer agents that are being tested in research. Red microalgae are ...
Dual inheritance theory
In areas with lactase persistence, it is believed that by domesticating animals, a source of milk became available while an ... However, this is contested, with alternative modelling showing enough calories could be obtained within 5-6 hours per day. Some ... These behavioral economic techniques have been adapted to test predictions of cultural evolutionary models in laboratory ... An empirical test" (PDF). Current Anthropology. 36: 473-494. doi:10.1086/204381. Mace, R., C. Holden, and S. Shennan (Eds.) ...
The virus may circulate within a number of animals including birds and rodents. Diagnosis is by either testing the blood for ... Symptoms of bleeding should lead to consideration of alternative diagnoses or co-infection with dengue fever or coexisting ... A phase-II vaccine trial used a live, attenuated virus, to develop viral resistance in 98% of those tested after 28 days and 85 ... Studies in animals using passive immunotherapy have been effective, and clinical studies using passive immunotherapy in those ...
... acute and chronic animal toxicity tests, long-term data on health of livestock fed GE foods, and human epidemiological data, ... The alternative view is often presented as a literal interpretation of the Book of Genesis's creation myth. Many fundamentalist ... "Animals. 1 (1): 186-199.. *^ Reus, E.; Olivier, D. (2007). "Mind-matter for animals matters: Science and the denial of animal ... Carbone, L. (2004). What Animals Want: Expertise and Advocacy in Laboratory Animal Welfare Policy. Oxford University Press. p. ...
John Bingham, 7th Earl of Lucan
The basement light was not working, making it even more difficult to see into the room; its lightbulb (which was tested and ... but Lucan had declined and made the alternative suggestion to meet at the Clermont at 11:00 pm. He failed to arrive and did not ... prompting the police to search the house and the animal cages there. They searched fourteen country houses and estates, ... In September 1966 he unsuccessfully screen tested for a part in Woman Times Seven, prompting him to automatically decline a ...
Islam in Albania
Blumi, Isa (2011). Reinstating the Ottomans, Alternative Balkan Modernities: 1800-1912. New York: Palgrave MacMillan. ISBN ... In Albania Halal slaughter of animals and food is permitted, mainly available in the eateries of large urban centres and ... "This relative tolerance is tested daily by the anti-Islamic attitude of Western-minded laic democrats, various foreign ... "Islam in the post-Communist Balkans: Alternative pathways to God". Southeast European and Black Sea Studies. 15 (4): 457-471. ...
Posttraumatic stress disorder
mTBI abrogated both contextual fear and impairments in social behavior seen in PTSD animals. In comparison with other animal ... Individuals diagnosed with PTSD respond more strongly to a dexamethasone suppression test than individuals diagnosed with ... make other alternative treatments preferable (e.g., inpatient, residential, partial hospitalization, intensive outpatient, ... In this study, PTSD animals demonstrated recall of traumatic memories, anxiety, and an impaired social behavior, while animals ...
2017). "Stop This Waste of People, Animals and Money". Nature. 549 (7670): 23-25. Bibcode:2017Natur.549...23M. doi:10.1038/ ... To test the hypothesis that filtering is indeed unnecessary to quality control, many of the traditional publication practices ... A number of regional focal points and initiatives are now providing and suggesting alternative research assessment systems, ... Several initiatives provide an alternative to the English language dominance of existing publication indexing systems, ...
Aristotle asserted that man is a political animal in his Politics. ... Other fringe social theorists delve in alternative nature of research. These writers share social theory perspectives that ... as well as secondary sources such as scholarly articles are used in building and testing theories. Empirical methods include ... Without scarcity and alternative uses, there is no economic problem. Briefer yet is "the study of how people seek to satisfy ...
If a test of statistical significance is applied to randomly assigned groups to test the difference between sample means ... Random assignment or random placement is an experimental technique for assigning human participants or animal subjects to ... "What statistical testing is, and what it is not," Journal of Experimental Education, 1993, vol 61, pp. 293-316 by Shaver. ... That is, the groups will be sufficiently different on the variable tested to conclude statistically that they did not come from ...
Newcastle, New South Wales
Other alternative media in the city include the university's student publications Opus and Yak Magazine, Newcastle Mirage ( ... The umbrella program includes the independent festivals Electrofringe, the National Young Writers' Festival, Critical Animals, ... Hunter Stadium hosted the 2016 Anzac Test between Australia and New Zealand. ... Representative Round: Newcastle to host Test National Rugby League 25 January 2016 ...
In 2001, the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency found in testing various soy sauces manufactured in mainland China, Taiwan, ... The isolated solids are used as fertilizer or fed to animals while the liquid soy sauce is processed further. ... hydrolyzed vegetable protein products with no added sugar or colorings are sold as low-sodium soy sauce alternatives called " ... Hong Kong, and Thailand (made from hydrolyzed soy protein, rather than being naturally fermented) that 22% of tested samples, ...
Oily animals (birds and fish) were also used as lamps after being threaded with a wick. Fireflies have been used as lighting ... Field Test DELTA: Post-Top Photovoltaic Pathway Luminaire. Iss. 4. Lighting Research Center. Online at: "Archived copy" (PDF). ... Many manufactures are turning to LED headlights as an energy-efficient alternative to traditional headlamps. Tail and brake ... Lamps typically used animal or vegetable fats as fuel. Hundreds of these lamps (hollow worked stones) have been found in the ...
Other projective tests include the House-Tree-Person test, the Animal Metaphor Test. ... List of Common Psychological Tests. *International Item Pool, an alternative and free source of items available for research on ... IQ (or cognitive) tests and achievement tests are common norm-referenced tests. In these types of tests, a series of tasks is ... IQ/achievement tests. IQ tests purport to be measures of intelligence, while achievement tests are measures of the use ...
Other animals. Quinine is used as a treatment for Cryptocaryon irritans (commonly referred to as white spot, crypto or ... At the first opportunity, Salumbrino sent a small quantity to Rome for testing as a malaria treatment. In the years that ... risk is small and the physician should not hesitate to use quinine in people with G6PD deficiency when there is no alternative. ...
Stanovich, Keith (2009). What Intelligence Tests Miss: The Psychology of Rational Thought. New Haven (CT): Yale University ... He believed that humans are unique in comparison to animals because we have the capacity to do "abstract symbolic reasoning." ... Wolfe, J.; Cave, K.; Franzel, S. (1989). "Guided search: An alternative to the feature integration model for visual search". ... The serial position experiment is meant to test a theory of memory that states that when information is given in a serial ...
Although some alternative colors are semi-permanent, such as blue and purple, it could take several months to fully wash the ... To help prevent or limit allergic reactions, the majority of hair color products recommend that the client conduct a patch test ... the PPT appears to simply depress body weight of the animals, with no other clinical signs of toxicity observed in several ... Alternative hair coloring products are designed to create hair colors not typically found in nature. These are also referred to ...
Climate change in Australia
Approximately 3 billion animals were killed or displaced by the bushfires in the 2019-20 Australian bushfire season what make ... Hughes, L., Cawsey, E.M., Westoby, M. (1996) Geographic and climatic range sizes of Australian eucalyptus and a test of ... In addition, the network builds and lives-out alternative ideas and lifestyles through community projects such as co-operatives ... The Wildlife Hospital, founded by Steve Irwin and managed by his daughter Bindi Irwin help rescue animals hurt by the bushfires ...
Cretaceous-Paleogene extinction event
Extinction was more severe among animals living in the water column than among animals living on or in the sea floor. Animals ... Wood, D. Joseph (2010). The Extinction of the Multituberculates Outside North America: a Global Approach to Testing the ... Alternative hypotheses. Although the concurrence of the end-Cretaceous extinctions with the Chicxulub asteroid impact ... The blue graph shows the apparent percentage (not the absolute number) of marine animal genera becoming extinct during any ...
Evolution of mammals
... the animals are thought to have been drowned by a flash flood. The extensive shared burrows indicate that these animals were ... neither of which has been tested) and the fact that desert-dwelling mammals are as well adapted in this department as ... This animal must have been Triassic as it was an ancestor of the Triassic Tikitherium. More recently, the discovery of hair ... This animal has been lauded as the strongest bite of all Mesozoic mammals. It possibly specialized on eating freshwater crabs ...
Test accessibility. Test accessibility is defined as the extent to which a test and its constituent item set eliminates ... Augmentative and alternative communication technology is one such area of IT progress. It includes inventions such as speech- ... Referral information for veterinarian care for service animals. *Access to a place to rest during the day (if the conference ... Test accessibility involves an interaction between features of the test and individual test-taker characteristics. ...
Skin testing is the most common method of allergy testing. This may include a patch test to determine if a particular substance ... Alternative medicineEdit. Therapeutic efficacy of alternative treatments such as acupuncture and homeopathy is not supported by ... Exposure to animals early in life. Medication. Nasal steroids, antihistamines such as diphenhydramine, cromolyn sodium, ... The intradermal allergy test is more sensitive than the skin prick test but is more often positive in people that do not have ...
Vaccine - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
In some instances, populations of wild animals may be vaccinated. Sometimes, wild animals are vaccinated by spreading vaccine- ... To test this idea, Jenner gave a boy cowpox. Then he infected the boy with smallpox. The boy did not get sick because he had ... It found that 13% of these parents reported following an alternative vaccination schedule. However, of these parents, less than ... Animals are vaccinated to keep them from getting diseases, and to keep them from infecting humans with diseases. Pets as ...
In these individuals, an alternative test called "fructosamine level" can be used. It measures the degree of glycation (glucose ... Degradation in vertebrate animals. When red blood cells reach the end of their life due to aging or defects, they are ... For example, it is typically tested before or after blood donation. Results are reported in g/L, g/dL or mol/L. 1 g/dL equals ... This test is especially useful for diabetics. The functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) machine uses the signal from ...
Bruning, D. F. (2003). "Rheas". In Hutchins, Michael (ed.). Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia. 8 Birds I Tinamous and Ratites ... Laurin, M.; Gussekloo, S.W.S.; Marjanovic, D.; Legendre, L.; Cubo, J. (2012). "Testing gradual and speciational models of ... Re-evolution of flight in the tinamous would be an alternative explanation, but such a development is without precedent in ... Emus have tracts of 7 m (23 ft) length, and have a more omnivorous diet, including insects and other small animals. Cassowaries ...
"The hair pull test". Keratin.com. Retrieved 28 March 2012.. *^ Rudnicka L, Olszewska M, Rakowska A, Kowalska-Oledzka E, ... Alternative medicine. Dietary supplements are not typically recommended. There is only one small trial of saw palmetto ... The origin of this usage is because this animal sheds its coat twice a year, or because in ancient Greece foxes often lost hair ... The pluck test is conducted by pulling hair out "by the roots". The root of the plucked hair is examined under a microscope to ...
... animal testing is not appropriate to indicate human effects, anecdotal evidence is an effective means of proving a substance ... which are alternative and pseudoscientific practices of using unrefined plant or animal extracts as supposed medicines or ... Engel, Cindy (2002). Wild Health: How Animals Keep Themselves Well and What We Can Learn From Them. Houghton Mifflin. ISBN 978- ... "Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 5 (4): 429-34. doi:10.1093/ecam/nem054. PMC 2586310. PMID 18955214.. ...
Petition · Stop Animal Testing: Replace Animals in Research with Non-Animal Alternative Methods · Change.org
Alternatives for Testing Alternatives to the use of animals in toxicity testing include replacing animal tests with non-animal ... Alternatives to animal tests are effective, reliable, affordable and humane. Proponents of non-animal testing methods in the ... C B needs your help with "Stop Animal Testing: Replace Animals in Research with Non-Animal Alternative Methods". Join C and ... C B needs your help with "Stop Animal Testing: Replace Animals in Research with Non-Animal Alternative Methods". Join C and ...
The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) - Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the...
Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition , ... Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition. ... SIAT Swiss Institute for Alternatives to Animal Testing, Technopark, Pfingstweidstr. 30, CH-8005 Zürich ... in Alternatives to Animal Testing: New Ways in the Biomedical Sciences, Trends and Progress, Second Edition (ed C. A. Reinhardt ...
Development of an Alternative Test for Skin Sensitization Using a Three-dimensional Human Skin Model Consisting of Dendritic...
Animal Test. EXperiment.: Alternatives to Animal Testing and EXperimentation) ... Development of an Alternative Test for Skin Sensitization Using a Three-dimensional Human Skin Model Consisting of Dendritic ... key words: skin sensitization test, 3D human skin model, collagen vitrigel membrane return. (AATEX: Altern. ... In order to study the possibility of applying an established test method to cosmetic products such as milky lotion and cream, ...
Animal advocates fear more tests : Tobacco Reporter
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Skin sensitisation: the Colipa strategy for developing and evaluating non-animal test methods for risk assessment. - PubMed -...
Knowledge gained from this research is being used to support the development and evaluation of novel alternative approaches for ... At present three non-animal test methods (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA), Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitisation Test (MUSST) ... Skin sensitisation: the Colipa strategy for developing and evaluating non-animal test methods for risk assessment.. Maxwell G1 ... Data from all three test methods will now be used to support the study and development of testing strategy approaches for skin ...
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Unilever's pathway-based, non-animal approaches to toxicity testing - Human Toxicology Project Consortium
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Applied In Vitro Toxicology
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Alternatives to animal testing | News | CORDIS | European Commission
Background Animals are still used abundantly to assess the efficacy and safety of cosmetics, medicines, food additives,...,FP4- ... Human health and animal welfare both stand to gain from the development of new in vitro toxicology tests, based on cultured ... or refine animal testing. Directive 86/609/EEC bans the use of an animal test when an equally satisfactory alternative test is ... Alternatives to animal testing. Human health and animal welfare both stand to gain from the development of new in vitro ...
Animal Testing Alternatives
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Plan Expedites Alternatives To Animal Testing | EmaxHealth
Alternative test methods are those that accomplish one or more of the 3Rs of reducing the number of animals used in testing, or ... new alternative test methods can be developed that will benefit animal welfare by reducing, refining, and replacing animal use ... and alternative testing methods that protect human and animal health and the environment. ... said a high priority for ICCVAM will be to focus on evaluating alternatives to test methods that use a large number of animals ...
Cell-based alternative to animal testing
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Animal Testing Alternatives | Foundation for Biomedical Research
Alternatives to Animal Testing and Research. Alternatives to Animal Testing and Research ... As additional alternatives are developed, science will naturally reduce the need and use of animal models. This progression ... But there is no way to completely replace animal testing and research because the pathway to fully duplicating a whole, living ... The scientific community looks forward to the day when animal testing and research is no longer needed in the future. ...
Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing - Wikipedia
Alternatives to animal testing UCDavis Center for Animal Alternatives Dr Hadwen Trust Henry Spira Official website. ... a global clearinghouse for information on alternatives to animal testing, and publishes a general animal news blog, A Boundless ... The Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) has worked with scientists since 1981 to find new ... and use of alternatives to animals in research, product safety testing, and education. It is not an activist group; rather, it ...
Colipa Approves Animal Testing Alternatives
... scientific committee now endorses new safety test methods that eliminate animal testing. ... Colipa announced yesterday that The European Centre for the Validation of Alternative Methods (EVCAM) ... scientific committee now endorses new safety test methods that eliminate animal testing. The tests, validated on May 2, ... Colipa Approves Animal Testing Alternatives. October 30, 2008 , Contact Author , By: Katie Schaefer. ...
Alternatives to Animal Testing | National Anti-Vivisection Society
Animal testing alternatives fall into three main categories. replacement alternatives, reduction alternatives and refinement ... Animal testing alternatives fall into three main categories. A replacement alternative is a test method that has been endorsed ... There are a number of incentives for moving away from animal safety and toxicity testing and toward animal testing alternatives ... including the recognition that animal testing alternatives will not realistically replace traditional animal tests on a "like- ...
In alternative animal testing, a pessimist really is a well-informed optimist | ScienceBlogs
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First lab-grown epidermis points to animal testing alternatives
New skin test will create "faster and more accurate" alternative to animal testing ... said they had come up with a skin testing alternative that promised a faster and more accurate alternative to animal testing ... EC recommendation published for skin sensitivity test * P&G develops first approved non-animal alternative for skin allergy ... First lab-grown epidermis points to animal testing alternatives. By Simon Pitman ...
European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing - Wikipedia
The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) promotes the application of Russell and Burchs ... systems biology and stem cells Alternatives to animal testing EPAA conference 2005 EPAA Mirror Group minutes EPAA partners ... Current and consolidated ragulations on cosmetics and animal testing are laid down in the Cosmetics Regulation 1223/2009. ... reduction and refinement of animal testing: applicability in food and feed risk assessment or the ECHAs Practical guide "How ...
Alternatives to Animal Testing: A Review of Trends and Perspectives
This article summarizes validated alternatives to test the safety of cosmetic ingredients. It also illustrates how great a ... Alternative test methods have the potential to reduce animal testing; however, the extent to which in vitro methods can be ... challenge it is to devise a proper alternative method. ... The design of alternative methods to replace animal testing in ... Abstract: Alternative test methods have the potential to reduce animal testing; however, the extent to which in vitro methods ...
Scientific Alternatives to Animal Testing - Advocacy for Animals
Animal abuse Animal cruelty Animal rescue Animal testing Animal welfare Animal Welfare Act Antibiotics Bears Birds California ... replacement of animal testing with other techniques, reduction of the number of animals tested, and refinement of animal tests ... And about 90% of test animals are rodents, by the way. And in the UK, only 3 animals are used in animal testing for 1 person ... Everyone is not aware how do the scientists do the cruetly test on animals. They do test DRUGS on animals.. Animals are ...
Dasgip and Fraunhofer IZI to Find Alternatives to Animal Models in Drug Testing | GEN - Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology...
Dasgip and Fraunhofer IZI to Find Alternatives to Animal Models in Drug Testing. April 14, 2008. 0 ... are partnering conducting stem-cell research to find alternatives to drug testing that do not require animals. The German ... Home News Dasgip and Fraunhofer IZI to Find Alternatives to Animal Models in Drug... ... About 50% of preclinical tests are performed to explore the bone harming and thus the embryotoxic potential of drug candidates ...
AWIC Tips for Searching for Alternatives to Animal Research and Testing | Animal Welfare Information Center| NAL | USDA
"Animal testing alternatives" is a phrase used to index citations regarding alternatives in the AGRICOLA, MEDLINE, TOXLINE, ... AWIC Tips for Searching for Alternatives to Animal Research and Testing. (Edited version of this document published in March ... Home » Information Center » Animal Welfare Information Center » AWIC Tips for Searching for Alternatives to Animal Research and ... and replacement of animal with non-animal techniques.. The first step in conducting a search for alternatives, involves ...
Chip-chip Hooray!: Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - An Animal Rights Article from all...
Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - All of Gods creatures have rights, includes both human and ... Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - An Animal Rights Article from All-Creatures.org. FROM. ... Citizens for Alternatives to Animal Research and Experimentation (CAARE). December 2015. These advances are ushering in a new ... animal research.. Our message to the world is that its time to stop apologizing for animal research as a necessary evil. CAARE ...
Alternative method to animal experiments used for testing Botulinum Neurotoxin-containing medical products - BfR
animal testing, Centre for Documentation and Evaluation of Alternatives to Animal Experiments (ZEBET), laboratory animals ... Since this test causes severe suffering to the animals, alternative methods to replace it are now being developed worldwide. ... Alternative method to animal experiments used for testing Botulinum Neurotoxin-containing medical products. 39/2015, 17.12.2015 ... Until recently, the LD50 activity test was the standard test for BoNT products. As part of this test, mice are injected with ...
Altweb: Alternatives to Animal Testing - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
ALTERNATIVES NEWS. Altweb News. News from Altweb: the latest in information about alternatives and humane science ... 2nd Pan-American Conference for Alternative Methods. August 23-24, 2018. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Eurotox 2018. September 2-5, ... Building a Better Epithelium: Breaking the Barrier to the Next Generation of Toxicity Testing. March 10, 2018. San Antonio, TX ... This award is available annually to young scientists to acknowledge and encourage researchers who focus on replacing animal ...
Newsletter - Altweb: Alternatives to Animal Testing - Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health
Follow the latest news from CAAT and the field of alternatives to animal testing in our CAATwalk newsletter. We respect your ... 2nd Pan-American Conference for Alternative Methods. August 23-24, 2018. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Eurotox 2018. September 2-5, ... Building a Better Epithelium: Breaking the Barrier to the Next Generation of Toxicity Testing. March 10, 2018. San Antonio, TX ...
Stemnovate: using new technologies as an alternative to animal testing
The technology will improve drug testing and help patients by increasing drug safety, effectiveness, with the potential to ... Stemnovate is a biotech company which delivers innovative drug-screening and safety-testing platforms, and has recently been ... platforms as an alternative to animal testing for human drug development. ... For starters, it is more ethical as the process does not involve animal or human testing, and is therefore also safer for the ...
European Union approves new alternatives to animal testing of drugs and chemicals | Times Higher Education (THE)
This test will not only reduce the number of animals used in labs, but also the costs of testing. An added bonus is that these ... The tests approved today will not only reduce the number of animals needed for testing, but will also increase the accuracy of ... approved six new alternative testing methods that will reduce the need for certain drugs and chemicals to be tested on animals ... European Union approves new alternatives to animal testing of drugs and chemicals. ...
Workshop on Alternative Methods to Reduce, Refine, and Replace the Use of Animals in Vaccine Potency and Safety Testing
... ... and replace the use of animals for vaccine potency and safety testing. However, these tests still account for the largest ... of alternative methods for vaccine potency and safety testing while ensuring continued protection of human and animal health. ... and replace the use of animals for human and veterinary vaccine post-licensing potency and safety testing. The workshop was ...
Qlucore Omics Explorer Helps Researchers to Find Alternatives to Animal Testing for Allergen Studies - Drug Development...
The aim of the Sens-it-iv project is to develop in vitro alternatives to animal tests currently used for the risk assessment of ... Qlucore Omics Explorer Helps Researchers to Find Alternatives to Animal Testing for Allergen Studies. 10 March 2010 ... but the possibility of finding alternatives to animal testing also motivates us to make new discoveries in this area." ... whilst also providing a viable alternative to animal testing.". Adverse reactions to sensitising agents are steadily increasing ...
Promoting the Uptake of Alternatives to Animal Testing Through the Development of eLearning Tools
The fish embryo toxicity test as an animal alternative method in hazard and risk assessment and scientific research - Ecetoc
How effective does animal testing alternatives work such as computer modelling and human tissue cultures? | Articlicious
How effective does animal testing alternatives work such as computer modelling and human tissue cultures?. Animal Testing is ... How effective does animal testing alternatives work such as computer modelling and human tissue cultures?. November 22, 2013. ... admin alternatives, animal, computer, cultures, Effective, human, modelling, such, testing, tissue, work ... But given the legislation and higher expense of animal testing over other methods I would assume that is often the case, though ...
Regulations for Animal Alternative Testing in the Cosmetic Industry - invitrointl
Pioneers in the development and application of non-animal testing alternatives for irritation and skin toxicity testing. ... Regulations for Animal Alternative Testing in the Cosmetic Industry. The cosmetic industry is always looking for more ... Microscopical LiveDead Test. Testing for Skin Irritation and Corrosion. The EU also requires specific tests to ensure there is ... Ames test Fluctuation and contact plate method. • Comet tests. These companies must also conduct tests to determine the ...
MethodsChemicalsExperimentsRatsTissuesValidationHumanHumaneStudiesSkinLaboratoryExperimentationToxicologyCosmeticsRabbitsCrueltyHumanResearchDirectiveDistressPreclinicalReductionMiceECVAMScientificallyVertebrate animalsScientistsWelfare ActDevelop in vitroSpeciesVaccines2016PharmaceuticalDraizeReplaceDiseasesEthicalRabbit pyrogen testModelsToxicologicalDrugsRegulationsInhumaneDissectionChemicalInvolvesPredictEliminateHarmSafetySearchWorld Congress on Alternatives
- Proponents of non-animal testing methods in the scientific community have shown that these methods are quicker and cost-effective. (change.org)
- Unlike crude, archaic animal tests, non-animal methods usually take less time to complete, cost only a fraction of what the animal experiments they replace cost, and are not plagued with species differences that make extrapolation difficult or impossible. (change.org)
- Alternatives for Testing Alternatives to the use of animals in toxicity testing include replacing animal tests with non-animal methods, as well as modifying animal-based tests to reduce the number of animals used and to minimize pain and distress. (change.org)
- To date, several non-animal test methods have been formally validated and accepted by some countries as replacements for an existing animal test. (change.org)
- Skin sensitisation: the Colipa strategy for developing and evaluating non-animal test methods for risk assessment. (nih.gov)
- At present three non-animal test methods (Direct Peptide Reactivity Assay (DPRA), Myeloid U937 Skin Sensitisation Test (MUSST) and human Cell Line Activation Test (hCLAT)) have been evaluated in Colipa interlaboratory ring trials for their potential to predict skin sensitisation potential and were recently submitted to ECVAM for formal pre-validation. (nih.gov)
- Data from all three test methods will now be used to support the study and development of testing strategy approaches for skin sensitiser potency prediction. (nih.gov)
- Currently, the sensitising potential and potency of new chemicals is usually characterised using data generated via animal studies, such as the local lymph node assay (LLNA). (nih.gov)
- There are, however, increasing public and political concerns regarding the use of animals for the testing of new chemicals. (nih.gov)
- Knowledge gained from this research is being used to support the development and evaluation of novel alternative approaches for the identification and characterisation of skin sensitizing chemicals. (nih.gov)
- Two of the main funders of animal-based research in North America, the U.S. National Institutes of Health and the Canadian Institutes of Health Research, need to hear that you don't want your tax dollars used to underwrite animal experiments and urge them to stop requiring cruel and obsolete animal tests for pharmaceuticals and allow companies to substitute in vitro tests. (change.org)
- For example, Pharmagene Laboratories, based in Royston, England, is the first company to use only human tissues and sophisticated computer technologies in the process of drug development and testing. (change.org)
- While some companies have used animal tissues for this purpose, Pharmagene scientists believe that the discovery process is much more efficient with human tissues. (change.org)
- Alternatives for Research Comparative studies of human populations allow doctors and scientists to discover the root causes of human diseases and disorders so that preventive action can be taken. (change.org)
- Animal experimenters face the unavoidable fact that their artificially created "animal model" can never fully reflect the human condition, whereas clinical investigators know that the results of their work are directly relevant to people. (change.org)
- A new article by scientists at Unilever, a corporate member of the HTPC, describes several areas of safety science in which they are using a pathway-based approach to replace traditional animal tests with a combination of human cell-based in vitro assays and computational models. (humantoxicologyproject.org)
- In addition to co-ordinating multi-laboratory prevalidation and validation studies, ECVAM gives advice on alternative tests and animal welfare issues, organises workshops and task forces, runs SIS - an information service providing factual, evaluated information on tests and their validation/acceptance status - and has created Olive(c)JRC, an information management system that can help laboratories to set up and operate a `Good Laboratory Practice' facility for alternative tests. (europa.eu)
- Current methods of administering large doses of chemicals such as pesticides to laboratory animals-and then observing disease symptoms-may not be relevant to humans exposed to much lower levels of the substances, notes NRC committee member Melvin E. Andersen. (acs.org)
- Research published in BioMed Central's open access journal BMC Genomics demonstrates that the response of laboratory grown human cells can now be used to classify chemicals as sensitizing, or non-sensitizing, and can even predict the strength of allergic response, so providing an alternative to animal testing. (innovations-report.com)
- The Johns Hopkins University Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT) has worked with scientists since 1981 to find new methods to replace the use of laboratory animals in experiments, reduce the number of animals tested, and refine necessary tests to eliminate pain and distress. (wikipedia.org)
- However, the way in which animals and humans react to their environments, both physiologically and behaviorally, can be drastically different, and the conditions under which laboratory animals are kept can influence and alter experimental results. (britannica.com)
- The husbandry and treatment of laboratory animals has been and continues to be a major topic of ethical debate. (britannica.com)
- The main goal of ECVAM is to coordinate, at the European level, activities designed to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are of importance to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. (wiley.com)
- To maintain transparency of its activities and an external perspective, the EPAA has a mirror group composed of independent members from academia, animal welfare groups, laboratory animal science associations and national authorities. (wikipedia.org)
- It is our goal to restrict animal experiments to the indispensable amount and to ensure the best possible protection of laboratory animals. (bund.de)
- IVRO develops and commercializes globally both test kits, and laboratory services. (invitrointl.com)
- People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, a leading international animal rights advocacy organization, has identified companies that 'either test on animals or pay a laboratory to conduct tests on animals. (ewg.org)
- Current in vivo test methods for assessing DNT require the use of large numbers of laboratory animals. (altex.org)
- FRAME , and has been a key scientific journal in the field of laboratory animal alternatives for more than 30 years. (atla.org.uk)
- It covers the latest research relating to alternatives to the use of laboratory animals. (atla.org.uk)
- ATLA is intended to cover all aspects of the development, validation, introduction and use of alternatives to laboratory animals in biomedical research and testing. (atla.org.uk)
- In recognition of the philanthropic gesture, the main research and training labs will be called the Eric S. Margolis Research and Training Laboratory for Alternatives to Animal Methods. (livekindly.co)
- It has been due, in large part, to the tension between researchers who view laboratory animals as essential to their work and individuals who oppose animal tests because the modern alternatives movement has evolved. (mirznanii.com)
- In the late 1960s, a shy teenager in Georgia read an article in her local newspaper about animals being used in laboratory testing. (humanesociety.org)
- Animals used in laboratory testing, often go through extremely painful experiments and millions die every year. (brighthub.com)
- Even if a company does not conduct animal testing, they may still purchase ingredients tested on animals from another company or conduct animal experiments by outsourcing the task to a laboratory. (brighthub.com)
- Reduce - Improve existing methods so that fewer laboratory animals are required. (roche.com)
- Additionally, Roche Group Research Centres are accredited by the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care International. (roche.com)
- 1391 words - 6 pages The Cruelty of Animal Testing and the Need for Alternative Methods In his book Inhumane Society: The American Way of Exploiting Animals, Dr. Michael W. Fox estimates that twenty-five to thirty-five million animals are used in the United States each year for laboratory testing and research (58). (brightkite.com)
- However, that number excludes mice and rats - the most popular laboratory workhorses - because the U.S. Animal Welfare Act does not cover them. (latimes.com)
- In a 2008 article in the journal Alternatives to Laboratory Animals, a group of animal activists estimated that the total number of research animals used in the U.S. is closer to 17 million, including rodents, birds, reptiles, amphibians and fish. (latimes.com)
- If no data are available, ecotoxicological and toxicological tests should be performed that comply with the requirements under the REACH Regulation, the OECD principles of good laboratory practice (GLP) and any internationally recognised methods validated according to international procedures to ensure that the data are of high quality and reliable. (europa.eu)
- If animal tests are being performed, they should comply with the requirements for the protection of laboratory animals (Directive 2010/63/EU). (europa.eu)
- Two recent studies in the journal Leukemia present a new approach for bone marrow donation and transplant that preclinical laboratory tests suggest could make the life-saving procedure safer and more effective for patients. (news-medical.net)
- The Netherlands - based specialty chemical supplier announced this week the opening of its newest facility, a laboratory equipped to deliver formulations, testing, and more to clients in the US. (cosmeticsdesign.com)
- There is a sequence of legal requirements and laboratory tests that has to be followed before a pesticide/drug/anything that may be consumed or in contact with humans (or animals! (envirolink.org)
- Breeding colonies of any animal species that are held in legal sized caging and handled in accordance with the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals and other applicable regulations. (umass.edu)
- laboratory animals in the classroom is an extremely controversial issue. (123helpme.com)
- In 1991 the European Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (ECVAM) was established "to promote the scientific and regulatory acceptance of alternative methods which are important to the biosciences and which reduce, refine or replace the use of laboratory animals. (wikipedia.org)
- The EPAA is a public-private partnership involving the European Commission (EC) and European industry sectors involved in the development of alternative approaches toward animal experimentation. (wikipedia.org)
- We educate journalists, scientists and legislators so they can be knowledgeable too, helping to dissolve the cloak of misinformation that surrounds animal experimentation. (all-creatures.org)
- With your support, we can smash the myth that animal research is necessary for medical progress, and expose the cruel and painful world of animal experimentation. (all-creatures.org)
- Besides reducing animal experimentation, an increase in the accuracy of predicting sensitising potencies is also expected. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
- McCoy 76) Despite all of this cruelty, animal experimentation has failed to provide any major breakthroughs this century in the treatment of cancer and heart disease - two of our biggest killers, though both these diseases remain largely preventable. (mirznanii.com)
- That animal experimentation is inherently unethical, inevitably wasteful, and wholly unreliable. (lcanimal.org)
- With animal testing the pharmaceutical factory can ask more public money saying that they have to pay for the animals they have (animal experimentation is expensive! (envirolink.org)
- There are several types of animal experimentation. (answers.com)
- The University of California, Riverside should replace traditional animal dissection and experimentation with alternatives for the biological and life science courses. (123helpme.com)
- Human health and animal welfare both stand to gain from the development of new in vitro toxicology tests, based on cultured cells and advanced technology. (europa.eu)
- The test is named Skimune and uses human skin and immune cells to detect reactions to chemicals and drugs such as blistering or allergic reactions and toxicology testing. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
- The Impact of Novel Assessment Methodologies in Toxicology on Green Chemistry and Chemical Alternatives. (semanticscholar.org)
- The Research & Toxicology Department of Humane Society International (HSI) operates a multifaceted and science-driven global programme aimed at ending the use of animals in toxicity testing and research. (atla.org.uk)
- For human health hazards, no in vitro tests or Q(SAR) predictions could currently fully replace toxicology studies performed to characterise the health effects of chemicals for a number of endpoints, including long-term exposure or exposure over multiple generations. (europa.eu)
- This includes tests on chemicals used in other consumer products and not only cosmetics. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- A little while back some newspapers were reporting on concerns that the regulatory system for new "cosmaceuticals" is not adequate, due to these cosmetics containing ingredients such as nanoparticles that potentially have effects that current animal and in vitro tests don't look for. (scienceblogs.com)
- Scientists from both sides of the Atlantic say they have successfully developed the first fully functioning lab-grown skin epidermis, pointing the way to a replacement for animal testing of cosmetics products. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
- "Our new method can be used to grow much greater quantities of lab-grown human epidermal equivalents, and thus could be scaled up for commercial testing of drugs and cosmetics," said Dr Dusko Ilic, leader of the team at King's College London. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
- Last October, researchers at Newcastle University said they had come up with a skin testing alternative that promised a faster and more accurate alternative to animal testing for cosmetics. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
- The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) promotes the application of Russell and Burch's 3Rs principles (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal testing) in meeting regulatory requirements for products such as pharmaceuticals, chemicals, soaps, detergents and cosmetics. (wikipedia.org)
- The aim of the new Directive is to strengthen legislation, improve the welfare of those animals still needed to be used, as well as to firmly anchor the principles of the 3Rs in EU legislation In 2003, legislation introduced a ban on using animals for testing cosmetics. (wikipedia.org)
- Current and consolidated ragulations on cosmetics and animal testing are laid down in the Cosmetics Regulation 1223/2009. (wikipedia.org)
- As a result, in industries such as cosmetics animal testing has traditionally been used to address the risk of producing products that contain skin (contact) sensitisers. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
- The 7th amendment to the EU Cosmetics Directive prohibits to put animal-tested cosmetics on the market in Europe after 2013. (semanticscholar.org)
- A tiered approach to the use of alternatives to animal testing for the safety assessment of cosmetics: eye irritation. (semanticscholar.org)
- You can become a more compassionate consumer by making sure your cosmetics and personal care, household and pet care products aren't tested on animals. (humanesociety.org)
- Support the Humane Cosmetics Act The Humane Cosmetics Act would end cosmetics testing on animals in the U.S. by. (humanesociety.org)
- Is animal testing legally required for cosmetics sold in the United States? (humanesociety.org)
- Can legislation help end animal testing for cosmetics? (humanesociety.org)
- Be Cruelty-Free supporters The following companies support the Humane Society of the United States' and Humane Society International's Be Cruelty-Free campaign, a global effort to end animal testing for cosmetics and personal care products. (humanesociety.org)
- Furthermore, the Food and Drug Administration does not require animal testing for general personal care, cosmetics or household cleaning products. (brighthub.com)
- And in some countries and regions - including the European Union, India, and Israel - animal testing for cosmetics is actually illegal, and products tested on animals can't be sold there. (moneycrashers.com)
- Cosmetics and other personal care products aren't required to go through animal testing, but manufacturers do have to prove that the ingredients they use are safe, and many use animal tests to do that. (moneycrashers.com)
- If we are right, what we hope to be able to do is to provide these kinds of human eyes in a Petri dish to drug companies so that they can test all of the chemicals and all of the pesticides and all of the cosmetics that they want without ever harming a rabbit and get better results and do it at a fraction of the cost. (podbean.com)
- When animals are used to further medical research it can be somewhat justified, but when animals are used to test cosmetics it is considered cruelty to animals. (exampleessays.com)
- The ban on animal testing in cosmetics does not mean that alternative approaches aren't needed in other areas. (cremeglobal.com)
- Although companies can still use animal testing in countries outside Europe (such as China, which requires animal testing on all imported cosmetics), the Leaping Bunny applies to a company's global market, and does not certify product that use animal testing anywhere in the world. (wikipedia.org)
- An embryonic stem cell test, using mouse-derived cells to assess potential toxicity to developing embryos, has been validated as a partial replacement for birth-defect testing in rats and rabbits. (change.org)
- 200,000 rabbits are used every year to test the drugs before they are put on the market. (timeshighereducation.com)
- A first animal (rabbit) test was developed using the fact that rabbits do also develop a fever reaction when injected with pyrogens. (tentamus.com)
- Each year, millions of rabbits, mice, rats, guinea pigs, and other animals have an assortment of products rubbed on their skin, smeared in their eyes, or forced down their throats - often resulting in severe pain, illness, and death for the animals. (moneycrashers.com)
- Please take a moment to listen to International Stem Cell Corporation Chairman, Ken Aldrich, as he discusses the benefits of using human corneas developed in Petri dishes as an alternative to testing on the eyes of innocent rabbits. (podbean.com)
- Traditional skin corrosion and irritation studies using animals inflict a great deal of pain and suffering on large numbers of animals -- usually one to three rabbits for each test. (prezi.com)
- Mostly small animals are used in animal testing rats and mice are popular but also cats, dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and more. (answers.com)
- Animals such as rabbits , rats , mice , and guinea pigs are sometimes forced to eat or inhale substances, or have a cosmetic ingredient rubbed onto their shaved skin, eyes or ears every day for 28 or 90 days to see if they have an allergic reaction . (wikipedia.org)
- Concern over the care and management of animals used in scientific research was initially raised in the 19th century in Great Britain, where the Cruelty to Animals Act was adopted in 1876. (britannica.com)
- The University of Windsor (UWindsor) has received a $1 million CAD donation to explore cruelty-free animal testing alternatives. (livekindly.co)
- Across the globe, researchers, companies, and organizations are working to develop cruelty-free alternatives to animal testing. (livekindly.co)
- Cruelty Free International , which campaigns for an end to animal testing, supports the "human-on-a-chip," a cellphone-sized piece of technology that mimics the human body. (livekindly.co)
- The product may state "cruelty free" or "not tested on animals" To find out if products are really cruelty free, sites like CaringConsumer.com can be used. (brighthub.com)
- The general public does not know the extent of animal cruelty that occurs daily. (wordpress.com)
- The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in Great Britain and in the United States was created in the nineteenth century. (brightkite.com)
- So if you don't want your shopping dollars to support companies that harm animals, cruelty-free products offer a kinder alternative. (moneycrashers.com)
- Every year, thousands of animals like Scrunchy are the victims of malicious cruelty, but these crimes are perceived as less important than other crimes and thus many animal cruelty cases are never prosecuted. (123helpme.com)
- Creating stricter penalties for animal cruelty and making the community more aware of this horrific crime will prevent more animals from falling victim to this. (123helpme.com)
- A lot of these animals aren't even raised for dissection, they're captured from the wild or - like dogs and cats - bought from shelters (Dissection: Lessons in Cruelty). (123helpme.com)
- In the animal rights movement , cruelty-free is a label for products or activities that do not harm or kill animals anywhere in the world. (wikipedia.org)
- Products tested on animals are not considered cruelty-free, since these tests are often painful and cause the suffering and death of millions of animals every year. (wikipedia.org)
- Due to consumer demands for "cruelty-free" products, new regulations (especially in Europe) are restricting the use of live animals in product safety tests. (israel21c.org)
- In addition to raising public concern for animal welfare, animal testing is costly, time-consuming, and not always predictive of human responses. (europa.eu)
- Today, the accent is on new, advanced, human-based tests reflecting current knowledge of mechanisms. (europa.eu)
- Our lab-based alternative to animal testing, although in an early stage of production, is faster, out-performs present alternatives, and, because the cells are human in origin, is more relevant. (innovations-report.com)
- Discovery requires living systems - both human and animal. (fbresearch.org)
- The ex vivo materials are obtained form animals used for human (food) consumption, according to the committee. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- Scientific drivers are also providing motivation, as inherent differences in the biology of human and non-human animals limits the value of animals serving as human stand-ins. (navs.org)
- A new or alternative toxicity test method can be quite different from the existing animal test method, but it must provide the same or better prediction of human health effects for it to be accepted by regulatory agencies. (navs.org)
- For example, Pharmagene Laboratories, based in Royston, England, is the first company to use only human tissues and sophisticated computer technologies in the process of drug development and testing. (change.org)
- While some companies have used animal tissues for this purpose, Pharmagene scientists believe that the discovery process is much more efficient with human tissues. (change.org)
- Alternatives for Research Comparative studies of human populations allow doctors and scientists to discover the root causes of human diseases and disorders so that preventive action can be taken. (change.org)
- Animal experimenters face the unavoidable fact that their artificially created "animal model" can never fully reflect the human condition, whereas clinical investigators know that the results of their work are directly relevant to people. (change.org)
- Grown from human pluripotent stem cells, the alternative is also said to be a cost-effective alternative lab model that will be appropriate for testing a vast range of skin care, colour cosmetic and other personal care products. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
- This lab created a skin sample that was then tested against human skin and shown to have no significant structural or functional difference. (cosmeticsdesign-europe.com)
- T he use of animals to better understand human anatomy and human disease is a centuries-old practice. (britannica.com)
- The European Union recently approved a replacement for the Draize test called the EpiSkin® test, which is an in vitro method that uses test-tube-sized models of human skin. (britannica.com)
- We want to demonstrate the possibility of leveraging microengineered physiological organ models to challenge a century-long tradition of using animals as human surrogates in life sciences. (all-creatures.org)
- Several drug companies, like Merck and Janssen, have signed partnerships with biotech firms that manufacture organ chips, acknowledging that animals fail to adequately model human medicine and biology. (all-creatures.org)
- I started my career as an academic and veterinarian, followed by almost 9 years of stem cell research that included working with cutting-edge technologies, like cellular reprogramming, before starting a biotech business, part of which is developing 'organ-on-chip' platforms as an alternative to animal testing for human drug development. (pwc.co.uk)
- For starters, it is more ethical as the process does not involve animal or human testing, and is therefore also safer for the patients themselves. (pwc.co.uk)
- How effective does animal testing alternatives work such as computer modelling and human tissue cultures? (articlicious.com)
- Answer by tigris they don't go and search for human diseases in animals any more. (articlicious.com)
- Alternative approaches like in-vitro, human tissue and computer models tend to be less expensive and certainly easier to manage. (invitrointl.com)
- The test is completed using cultured human or mammalian cell lines to pinpoint toxicity at the cellular level. (invitrointl.com)
- The required skin inflammation test is: Reconstructed human epidermis (RhE) test method (OECD 439). (invitrointl.com)
- Mutagenicity tests identify genotoxic materials that may change or damage human DNA. (invitrointl.com)
- Predicting Human Drug Toxicity and Safety via Animal Tests: Can Any One Species Predict Drug Toxicity in Any Other, and Do Monkeys Help? (atla.org.uk)
- and c) advancing humane science by exposing failing animal models of human disease and shifting science funding toward human biology-based research and testing tools fit for the 21st century. (atla.org.uk)
- According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration , "The drug research process is complicated, time-consuming, and costly…only 5 in 5,000 compounds that enter preclinical testing make it to human testing, and only 1 of those 5 may be safe and effective enough to reach pharmacy shelves. (caareusa.org)
- The bottom line: Some 95% of drugs fail to be deemed safe or effective for human use due to misleading test results from animal studies. (caareusa.org)
- Basically one of the reasons why there is such a decline in research and development is because animal testing is not very representative of what the human outcome will be. (caareusa.org)
- One of the easiest ways that companies can avoid animal testing is to use products that have been extensively used in human history and have proven their safety over time. (brighthub.com)
- To handle the need to test on live subjects, technologies have been developed that allow human cell cultures to be grown in a test tube and used for study. (brighthub.com)
- Direct human testing through clinical trials where the product is released for use to a limited group of participants and skin patches are also effective alternatives to animal testing. (brighthub.com)
- According to a 2008, Washington Post article titled "In U.S., Few Alternatives to Testing on Animals", the US manufacturer behind the drug, tests for the correct human dosage of each batch, by injecting it into lab mice. (brighthub.com)
- However, if there is an extremely need to test on animals that otherwise would result in human disease or death, I think it should be allowed. (wordpress.com)
- if this is so, the experimenter must agree human and non-human animals are similar in crucial respects (p. 65). (brightkite.com)
- Drugs, vaccines, and medical devices of all kinds have to go through animal testing before they're allowed to be used in human trials. (moneycrashers.com)
- FDA met Jan. 29 to discuss possible alternatives to human bioequivalence testing of generic anticancer drugs. (informa.com)
- Hepatitis drug Fialuridine did not harm dogs and monkeys during animal testing but killed 5 people in human clinical trials. (lcanimal.org)
- One of the things that most people don't know is that cosmetic companies, drug companies and pesticide makers all have to test their products to see whether they do damage to the human eye. (podbean.com)
- We have developed in the Petri dish a human cornea that has all of the requisite layers of the human corneal tissue that would be necessary for such a test and we are right now determining whether or not that tissue has the same permeability as the normal human eye. (podbean.com)
- This latest research provides yet another clear and compelling example of how an organ chip has been able to model human physiological responses and predict adverse outcomes that animal tests could not. (caareusa.org)
- The advantage to using animals is that we can control their outside exposure, but obviously something proven to be true or false on an animal doesn't necessarily hold water on a human. (exampleessays.com)
- The basic reason for animal trials is to determine two issues before any new compound is introduced into a human: safety and efficacy. (wordpress.com)
- ECHA promotes alternatives to animal testing that meet regulatory needs by assessing the risks of substances to human health and the environment, while avoiding unnecessary animal testing. (europa.eu)
- Animals should be kept in the zoo to get protected from extinction due to climate change, human consumption and to build human-animal interaction for educational benefit. (123helpme.com)
- They don't care about human or animal welfare, rights etc. (envirolink.org)
- Animals and established cell lines are limited in their ability to mimic human disease, and results don't always translate to patient populations. (news-medical.net)
- Those who have supported animal testing in medical trials always argue that it is better that an animal should suffer rather than a human. (healthy.net)
- As far as human and veterinary vaccines are concerned, an in vitro method has in many cases been introduced as an alternative to or replacement for in vivo testing. (edqm.eu)
- These decisions are fully in line with the EDQM's mission to promote and protect human and animal health, and with its commitment to the 3Rs principles. (edqm.eu)
- The Test for specific toxicity and the Test for residual toxicity - performed on the final lot for human and veterinary vaccines, respectively - and the Test for irreversibility of tetanus toxoid carried out on the bulk purified toxoid (all tests in guinea pigs) have been deleted. (edqm.eu)
- Commission adopted 49 monographs, 36 of which were on vaccines for human use, which had been revised to remove the reference to the test for abnormal toxicity. (edqm.eu)
- The answer is probably yes, because the pests that eat our crops and other plants needed for a still increasing human population (and their animals) adapt to resist pesticides. (envirolink.org)
- How does testing on animals reflect how people value life other than human life? (prezi.com)
- Domestic Ferrets are used in many broad areas of research and have been since the early 1900's to study the pathogenesis and treatment in a variety of human disease as animal models in biomedical research, including studies of cardiovascular disease, nutrition, respiratory diseases (such as SARS and human influenza), airway physiology, cystic fibrosis and gastrointestinal disease (such as peptic ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori). (answers.com)
- The test is done on an animal to "prove" results in a human. (answers.com)
- It would be more scientific to test the substance on a human. (answers.com)
- However, it would be less ethical to test a substance with unknown results on a human. (answers.com)
- The act of vivisection or the practice of experimenting on animals began because of religious prohibitions against dissection of human corpses. (123helpme.com)
- For example, reconstructed human epidermis -which uses human skin donated from cosmetic surgery to replace the rabbit Draize skin test-is more relevant to human reactions. (wikipedia.org)
- And scientists are increasingly concerned that animal studies do not accurately predict the human response to a beauty product or pharmaceutical, especially one that is used on a regular basis. (israel21c.org)
- Using human cells for safety testing is not practical because the cells die after a few days outside the body. (israel21c.org)
- Yissum is also seeking a commercial partner for a human pluripotent stem cell platform developed at the university by Prof. Nissim Benvenisty as an alternative to animal testing for various human genetic diseases and pharmaceuticals for "orphan diseases. (israel21c.org)
- But there is no way to completely replace animal testing and research because the pathway to fully duplicating a whole, living system does not yet exist. (fbresearch.org)
- The scientific community looks forward to the day when animal testing and research is no longer needed in the future. (fbresearch.org)
- CAAT promotes humane science by supporting the creation, development, validation, and use of alternatives to animals in research, product safety testing, and education. (wikipedia.org)
- One of the greatest threats to the preclinical research necessary for science-based medicine today is animal rights activism. (scienceblogs.com)
- A significant step forward-for both supporters and opponents of animal research-occurred in 1959, when British zoologist William Russell and British microbiologist Rex Burch published The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique . (britannica.com)
- These concepts became the foundation for the development of scientific alternatives to animal testing, and they continue to guide the treatment of animals in modern scientific research. (britannica.com)
- Dasgip and the Fraunhofer Institute for Cell Therapy and Immunology (IZI) are partnering conducting stem-cell research to find alternatives to drug testing that do not require animals. (genengnews.com)
- The following guidelines were developed to assist researchers, information specialists, and Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC) members, when conducting literature searches to determine if alternatives to the use of animals exist and whether a protocol unnecessary duplicates previous research. (usda.gov)
- The specialist cannot effectively search for alternatives without a basic understanding of the type of research the investigator is proposing. (usda.gov)
- Investigators can assist information specialists by being prepared to give precise and specific information about their research or testing procedures. (usda.gov)
- Animal research is a multi-billion dollar industry. (all-creatures.org)
- Many scientists, companies and institutions - including government - sustain established programs and careers based on animal research. (all-creatures.org)
- Because I know that it will take more than innovations in science to end the standard of using animals in research. (all-creatures.org)
- CAARE demonstrates every day that research without animals is not just some hypothetical goal, but is happening right now in universities, labs and corporations around the world, yielding exciting new results that surpass animal research. (all-creatures.org)
- Our message to the world is that it's time to stop apologizing for animal research as a necessary evil. (all-creatures.org)
- Nominations are currently being accepted for the Charles River Laboratories Excellence in Refinement Award, sponsored by Charles River's Commitment to Humane Animal Research Through Excellence and Responsibility (CHARTER) Program in cooperation CAAT. (jhsph.edu)
- The work of ECVAM is funded from the EU's Research Framework Programme, with support from Member States, industry and animal welfare organisations. (timeshighereducation.com)
- Their innovative research will help to support Sens-it-iv, a large EU-funded research project that aims to develop and optimise in vitro test strategies that could reduce or replace animal testing for sensitisation studies. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
- The term reduction alternative describes a method for obtaining comparable levels of information from the use of fewer animals in scientific procedures or for obtaining more information from a given number of animals so that, in the long run, fewer animals are needed to complete a given research project or test. (mirznanii.com)
- Salem 284) In some cases, the level of statistical expertise appears to be so low that investigators are unable to obtain appropriate statistical analysis of experimental results, which leads to the inefficient use of animals and scientific resources in research (Salem 284). (mirznanii.com)
- Right now, animals like me are suffering in puppy mills, research labs and factory farms. (humanesociety.org)
- For most of these products, animal testing was used at some point in its research and development. (brighthub.com)
- 1) Have compassion for animals in research. (scienceblogs.com)
- As someone who was in the room for that talk, I'd say that the Dali Lama's threshold for acceptible animal research is probably stricter than what is currently being done in science labs. (scienceblogs.com)
- He clearly would prefer a system that focus on research with extremely clear and direct benefits to life (i.e. not necessarily basic research that causes animals pain and may or may not result in helping others 20 years in the future). (scienceblogs.com)
- That said, he was clearly in favor of animal research. (scienceblogs.com)
- We appreciate and take seriously public concern about the use of animals in medical research. (roche.com)
- Like all research-based healthcare companies, Roche conducts animal tests as required by regulatory authorities. (roche.com)
- We assess emerging technologies and quickly adopt the ones that can enhance our research efforts in finding new drugs and better diagnostic tests. (roche.com)
- Scientific research and testing has been performed on animals for hundreds of years. (wordpress.com)
- The animal rights activists believe animals should never be used for research, and the scientists believe any use of animals is acceptable. (brightkite.com)
- Millions of animals are used each year for medical research, product testing and education in the United States. (brightkite.com)
- Research involving tests done on animals is unnecessary and cruel. (brightkite.com)
- Alternatives to animal use in research, testing, and education / Office of Technology Assessment, Congress of the United States. (who.int)
- Our hat is off to the company," says Martin Stephens, vice president for animal research issues at the Humane Society of the United States in Washington, D.C. (latimes.com)
- None of us take any pleasure in using animals in research," Jacobson-Kram says. (latimes.com)
- In 2016, the number of recorded animals (those covered by the Animal Welfare Act) used in research in the U.S. rose to 820,812 - up 6.9% from 767,622 the previous year. (lcanimal.org)
- There are three categories of research animals: purpose bred, random source and conditioned. (lcanimal.org)
- Purpose-bred animals are bred specifically for research and obtained from Class "A" dealers who raise all their animals in a closed colony on their own premises. (lcanimal.org)
- Random source animals are not specifically bred for research and are purchased from pounds, Class "B" dealers or donated to re search. (lcanimal.org)
- Increasingly, organs-on-chips are demonstrating the ability to exceed results from cruel animal research. (caareusa.org)
- Animal research was essential for the discovery of Herceptin, a humanized mouse protein which has helped increase the survival rate of those with breast cancer that could not have been obtained without animal testing on mice. (exampleessays.com)
- Animal abuse is the suffering or harm of an animal other than for self-defense or for survival, such as for food, research, clothes, etc. (123helpme.com)
- He compares animals used for research to animals used for food: that's a crazy comparison. (envirolink.org)
- you may have heard of the 'three Rs', reduction, refinement, replacement, which apply to animal research and testing equally. (envirolink.org)
- Who wants (or even, in law, be allowed) to use animals in research or testing (and you know, of course, that animals are still protected in that use! (envirolink.org)
- Procedures producing pain or distress unrrelieved by analgesics such as toxicity studies, microbial virulence testing, radiation sickness, and research on stress, shock, or pain. (umass.edu)
- This controversy is not a new one, animal dissection has been disputed for well over a hundred years (National Research Council, 1988). (123helpme.com)
- Directive 86/609/EEC bans the use of an animal test when an equally satisfactory alternative test is "reasonably and practicably" available. (europa.eu)
- The 2009, 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive bans testing of cosmetic products and ingredients on animals meaning that there is currently no way of ensuring new products are hypoallergenic. (innovations-report.com)
- the 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (2003/15/EC) was adopted by European Union (EU) institutions in 2003 and imposes strict deadlines to abolish in vivo animal studies for cosmetic ingredient testing. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- It is worth mentioning that the ban on the testing of chemicals on animals refers strictly to compliance with requirements of the Cosmetic Directive. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
- EU Directive 2010/63/EU updates and replaces the 1986 Directive 86/609/EEC on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. (wikipedia.org)
- The Three Rs concept, which was developed by Russell & Burch in 1959, was implemented into the legal framework in the European Union (EU) for the protection of vertebrate animals used for experimental and other scientific purposes, when Directive 86/609/EEC was adopted in 1986. (atla.org.uk)
- The Department's pursuit of alternative fueled vehicles has resulted in a directive from the Johnson County Manager that all departments are to give serious consideration to buying hybrid and/or alternative fueled vehicles when they are making new purchases. (jocogov.org)
- Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes includes an explicit reference to the 3Rs principle. (europa.eu)
- Burch and Russell 139) Distress is an aversive state in which an animal is unable to adapt completely to stressors and, as a result, shows maladaptive behavior. (mirznanii.com)
- It is argued, we have a responsibility toward animals and a moral obligation to not cause them pain or distress (jhsph). (brightkite.com)
- An explanation of the procedures producing pain or distress in these animals and the justification for not using appropriate anesthetic, analgesic or tranquilizing drugs must be provided in Kuali. (umass.edu)
- If any procedures fall into USDA's Classification D or E, causing more than momentary or slight pain or distress to the animals, describe your consideration of alternatives and your determination that alternatives are not available. (umass.edu)
- that no valid alternative was identified to any described procedures which may cause more than momentary pain or distress, whether relieved or not. (umass.edu)
- However, several are now in widespread use around the world for routine safety testing, resulting in notable reduction and refinement of animal use. (emaxhealth.com)
- A reduction alternative is a method that reduces the number of animals used. (navs.org)
- This work introduced the goals of replacement, reduction, and refinement: replacement of animal testing with other techniques, reduction of the number of animals tested, and refinement of animal tests to reduce suffering. (britannica.com)
- Search strategies for alternatives may be divided into two phases, reduction and refinement, and replacement. (usda.gov)
- Commission and its experts have worked continuously to ensure that the 3Rs principles of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal testing are applied when revising or drafting the texts published in the Ph. (edqm.eu)
- History of Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of animal testing (3Rs) at Ph. (edqm.eu)
- These techniques to reduce animals used in tests and their suffering include: replacement (eliminate an animal test altogether), reduction (fewer animals used in test by using statistical analysis) and refinement (making tests less painful). (wikipedia.org)
- products (BoNT-products) was determined with a lethalitiy test (LD 50 activity test) using mice, which is required by the regulatory authorities. (bund.de)
- As part of this test, mice are injected with different concentrations of BoNT. (bund.de)
- Let My 'Mice' Answer… Does alternative required for animal testings? (wordpress.com)
- Rodents, particularly mice, have very short life spans, so you can see how a compound would react in a young animal, then in the same geriatric animal, and then in the next-generation animal, all in a time frame that is reasonable. (wordpress.com)
- 3 thoughts on " Let My 'Mice' Answer… Does alternative required for animal testings? (wordpress.com)
- Additionally, lab tests are commonly performed on mice. (answers.com)
- Drug therapies can also be tested on these mice. (answers.com)
- A number of replacement tests, validated by ECVAM and its partners or by other agencies, are now in use or are being discussed at European and OECD levels. (europa.eu)
- Tests validated by ECVAM must be approved by its Scientific Advisory Committee, composed of representatives of the 25 member states, academia, industry and animal welfare organizations before they can be used in labs across Europe. (timeshighereducation.com)
- By using advances in scientific knowledge, ECVAM will help to increase patient safety and animal welfare. (timeshighereducation.com)
- At the end of the 1980s, no scientific concept existed for the formal validation of in vitro toxicity tests, so a small group of European and American scientists met to develop a set of principles for experimental validation, which were first adopted by ECVAM in Europe in 1995, and, after harmonisation with experts from the USA and Japan, accepted internationally by the OECD in 1996. (atla.org.uk)
- ECVAM has directly funded a number of validation studies, and a major breakthrough in the year 2000 was the acceptance for regulatory purposes in the EU of cientifically validated in vitro toxicity tests for phototoxic potential and for skin corrosivity. (atla.org.uk)
- These, and other examples which are discussed, confirm that the internationally harmonised ECVAM/ICCVAM/OECD validation concept is a practical and effective way of making possible the replacement of regulatory testing in animals. (atla.org.uk)
- This progression will happen when viable alternatives exist and are scientifically validated. (fbresearch.org)
- ICCVAM or ECVAM's advisory board then determines whether to recommend the test as scientifically valid for its intended purpose. (navs.org)
- If, however, the same test results can be achieved using scientifically-acceptable alternatives to animal testing, we will always use these. (roche.com)
- That's why a team of innovative scientists at Insilico Medicine in Baltimore is utilizing the powerful capabilities of deep learning - often referred to as artificial intelligence - to open the door to a new era of drug development without animals, one that can go from drug design to safety testing. (caareusa.org)
- The struggle is usually between extreme animal rights activists and scientists. (brightkite.com)
- To learn about body functions scientists would cut into a live animal to observe vital parts in action. (brightkite.com)
- It took 10 years for Allergan scientists to perfect the new test. (latimes.com)
- Scientists are now developing tests for toxins that cause organ damage, birth defects, and other problems. (latimes.com)
- Even scientists who work with animals would prefer not to. (latimes.com)
- Scientists didn't understand how a chemical could sicken an animal, but they could see whether the creature lived or died. (latimes.com)
- Now, scientists have a much better understanding of the inner workings of animals and people. (latimes.com)
- Increasingly scientists are also looking at non-animal models to provide more and more answers. (wordpress.com)
- Refine, lessen, substitute - those are the 3 calls for that scientists have put upon themselves of their look for choices to animal trying out. (studentselect.work)
- This invention could be the solution sought by both scientists and animal-welfare activists seeking to put an end to live animal testing. (israel21c.org)
Develop in vitro2
- But, that's why they're trying to develop in vitro tests in the first place! (scienceblogs.com)
- The aim of the Sens-it-iv project is to develop in vitro alternatives to animal tests currently used for the risk assessment of potential skin or lung sensitisers, as there are not yet any in vitro tests or test strategies available to test chemical compounds for their potential to induce hypersensitivity reactions. (drugdevelopment-technology.com)
- Hendriksen and Koeter 99) This is also accomplished by careful consideration of animal disease status and genotype, appropriateness of strain or species and the quality of the animal husbandry, all to minimize experimental variation. (mirznanii.com)
- All animal species are unique, particularly at the cellular level where diseases occur. (lcanimal.org)
- The new EU law contemplates inescapable electric shocks (to induce helplessness), complete isolation for prolonged periods of social species like dogs or primates, forced swimming or exercise tests to exhaustion, destruction of animals' immune system - and so much more. (envirolink.org)
- Cell and tissue culture (in vitro) studies are used to screen for anti-cancer, anti-AIDS, and other types of drugs, and they are also a means of producing and testing a number of other pharmaceutical products, including vaccines, antibiotics, and therapeutic proteins. (change.org)
- The routine testing of biological medicines, excluding vaccines and pyrogen tests, is examined. (atla.org.uk)
- Commission adopted revised versions of its monographs on tetanus vaccines from which three animal tests have been suppressed. (edqm.eu)
- The decision to remove the tests was taken following a re-assessment of toxicity testing requirements for these vaccines. (edqm.eu)
- As part of the same revision exercise, the test for irreversibility of pertussis toxoid and the requirement to test the final lot for residual pertussis toxin have been removed from individual monographs on acellular pertussis vaccines. (edqm.eu)
- The opportunities for replacing obligatory bioassays and safety tests are assessed, taking into account both pharmaceutical quality and animal welfare aspects. (atla.org.uk)
- Cost-effective: testing pharmaceutical drugs and their effects using animal subjects can take up to five years per substance as well as cost millions of dollars. (wordpress.com)
- It should be noted that the traditional Draize and LD50 tests were never subjected to a validation process). (navs.org)
- The inaccuracy of the Draize test has been recognized for many years, but its replacement has not been a simple matter, and the development of better in vitro techniques has taken nearly a decade. (britannica.com)
- Each agency makes its own determination of whether to accept data from the new method, and to what extent the new method can replace the existing regulatory test method (usually an animal test). (navs.org)
- Non-animal tests are generally faster and less expensive than the animal tests they replace and improve upon. (change.org)
- Replace - Use alternatives to animal testing whenever possible. (roche.com)
- It's everybody's hope that one day we could replace animal trials entirely with computer modelling. (wordpress.com)
- Even though we are very similar to animals in many levels we are still very different, especially when it comes to complex systemic diseases. (caareusa.org)
- Specific zoonotic diseases like cat scratch fever and bird flu can be found in the consumer health area, but not in the veterinary search strategy unless it involves the health of the animal. (nih.gov)
- Contractors who carry out animal testing for Roche are also expected to apply the same ethical standards. (roche.com)
- Quite apart from the moral and ethical concerns, animals are simply very expensive and need looking after, including nights and weekends - who would not prefer a tissue culture? (envirolink.org)
Rabbit pyrogen test2
- This rabbit pyrogen test (RPT) is still the benchmark test for pyrogens (Ph. (tentamus.com)
- MIVT:OTCBB), Vancouver, has announced that its proprietary Hydroxyapatite (HAp) ultra-thin "passive" stent coating has successfully passed the Rabbit Pyrogen Test (Material Mediated) - ISO confirming that the coating is non- pyrogenic and does not induce fever. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Other incentives for using animal testing alternatives include significant cost savings benefits from non-animal models and regulatory drivers forcing companies to rethink animal use in toxicity testing. (navs.org)
- Alternative Animal and Non-Animal Models for Drug Discovery and Development: Bonus or Burden? (semanticscholar.org)
- Experimental infection models have long been recognized as an essential part of testing anti-infective therapies. (nih.gov)
- The new disease model system developed by Prof. Benvenisty offers a complementary approach that can address many of the hurdles inherent to animal models," said Yissum CEO Yaccov Michlin. (israel21c.org)
- The new tests use cell cultures rather than animals to establish the toxicity of cancer drugs and identify contaminated drugs. (timeshighereducation.com)
- One of the tests is designed to assist the dosage of some highly toxic drugs used in chemotherapy for cancer, a disease which causes almost a million deaths in the EU every year. (timeshighereducation.com)
- An added bonus is that these new tests are far more effective in finding contaminated drugs than the previous animal tests. (timeshighereducation.com)
- At the meeting, animal bioequivalence studies were offered as one possible alternative for testing of generic oral anticancer drugs that companies might propose to the agency, according to Rheinstein. (informa.com)
- Thrombosis studies in animals create artificial clots through painful and invasive procedures like clamping blood vessels, high dose radiation, instilling clot forming drugs directly into the trachea, or exposure to noxious substances like silica and asbestos. (caareusa.org)
- Animals used in experimental procedures are subjected to inhumane eugenics for the entire duration of their short and miserable lives. (wordpress.com)
- BOTOX is one of the most inhumane beauty treatments around as every batch is currently tested on animals using the horrific LD50 test (lethal dose 50 test). (livingsafe.com.au)
- Twenty million animals are killed each year in inhumane fashion for the purpose of classroom dissection, even though just as good options are available and don't cost animal lives (Peta). (123helpme.com)
- Animal dissection is like an autopsy. (answers.com)
- Not only alternatives make good replacements, but it will be for a good cause, cheaper, and can improve student's learning than dissection. (123helpme.com)
- Dissection for a course that no one is studying in the biological and life science is causing unneeded deaths of animals. (123helpme.com)
- Animal dissection is expensive and time consuming, especially that it can only be used once and then must be properly thrown away. (123helpme.com)
- Fleischmann, Kenneth R. 'Frog And Cyberfrog Are Friends: Dissection Simulation And Animal Advocacy. (123helpme.com)
- Dissection Alternatives Dissection in science classrooms is an experience that almost every student has to go through, but one that many will regret. (123helpme.com)
- What we need to start asking is, "Does dissection breed a cold view towards animals? (123helpme.com)
- Ethics as well as religion are challenged with the dissection of animals. (123helpme.com)
- There have been numerous court cases concerning this issue and laws have been enacted to give students the right to refrain from participating in animal dissection (NABT, 1990). (123helpme.com)
- An example of a toxicity test in animals that is being replaced by in vitro techniques is the LD50 test, in which the concentration of a chemical is increased in a population of test animals until 50 percent of the animals die. (britannica.com)
- A similar in vitro test is the IC50 test, which can be used to determine the cytotoxicity of a chemical in terms of the chemical's ability to inhibit the growth of half of a population of cells. (britannica.com)
- One alternative is an artificial intelligence system designed to analyze the toxicity test results of more than 10,000 chemical ingredients. (livekindly.co)
- The use of animals in evaluating chemical safety is costly, time-consuming and increasingly criticized by animal-welfare groups. (scientificamerican.com)
- Animal use skyrocketed again after World War II with developments in the chemical industry and increased government regulation. (brightkite.com)
- The first step in conducting a search for alternatives, involves communication between the investigator and the information specialist. (usda.gov)
- OTOH, it will probably always be a legal requirement that a final testing phase involves intact animals - including (as many anti-animal users do not seem to know) that animal we want to also protect, Homo sapiens. (envirolink.org)
- Since this section of our website addresses product safety and toxicity testing, the focus here will be on animal testing alternatives intended for toxicity testing applications that are being considered for acceptance by regulatory agencies. (navs.org)
- There are a number of incentives for moving away from animal safety and toxicity testing and toward animal testing alternatives. (navs.org)
- Stemnovate is a biotech company which delivers innovative drug-screening and safety-testing platforms, and has recently been awarded $1 million Innovate UK funding to advance 'Liver on a chip' technology. (pwc.co.uk)
- The technology will improve drug testing and help patients by increasing drug safety, effectiveness, with the potential to develop individually tailored medicine. (pwc.co.uk)
- Animals are still widely used in drug development and safety tests, despite evidence for their lack of predictive value. (atla.org.uk)
- "This next chapter will place our country on the forefront of future medical discoveries and safety testing and I am honoured to play an integral part in its inception," Margolis continued. (livekindly.co)
- So before bringing a new product to market, they test it for safety - often by feeding it or applying it to animals and seeing how it affects them. (moneycrashers.com)
- The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) , which is in charge of regulating safety for personal care products, requires companies to test the ingredients they use for safety, but they can use any test that's "appropriate and effective. (moneycrashers.com)
- Thalidomide, which came out on the German market late in the 1950s, had previously been safety tested on thousands of animals. (envirolink.org)