Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Web Browser: Software application for retrieving, presenting and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Computer Graphics: The process of pictorial communication, between human and computers, in which the computer input and output have the form of charts, drawings, or other appropriate pictorial representation.Databases, Genetic: Databases devoted to knowledge about specific genes and gene products.Genomics: The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)North CarolinaHealth Literacy: Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Science: The study of natural phenomena by observation, measurement, and experimentation.South CarolinaGenes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.VirginiaMarylandFrozen FoodsDog Diseases: Diseases of the domestic dog (Canis familiaris). This term does not include diseases of wild dogs, WOLVES; FOXES; and other Canidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.Brucella canis: A species of gram-negative bacteria infecting DOGS, the natural hosts, and causing canine BRUCELLOSIS. It can also cause a mild infection in humans.Herpesvirus 1, Canid: A species of VARICELLOVIRUS virus that causes a disease in newborn puppies.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Strigiformes: An order of BIRDS with the common name owls characterized by strongly hooked beaks, sharp talons, large heads, forward facing eyes, and facial disks. While considered nocturnal RAPTORS, some owls do hunt by day.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Blogging: Using an INTERNET based personal journal which may consist of reflections, comments, and often hyperlinks.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Search Engine: Software used to locate data or information stored in machine-readable form locally or at a distance such as an INTERNET site.Legislation, Veterinary: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of veterinary medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Authorship: The profession of writing. Also the identity of the writer as the creator of a literary production.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Chronology as Topic: The temporal sequence of events that have occurred.Circadian Rhythm: The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.Medical Waste Disposal: Management, removal, and elimination of biologic, infectious, pathologic, and dental waste. The concept includes blood, mucus, tissue removed at surgery or autopsy, soiled surgical dressings, and other materials requiring special control and handling. Disposal may take place where the waste is generated or elsewhere.Manure: Accumulations of solid or liquid animal excreta usually from stables and barnyards with or without litter material. Its chief application is as a fertilizer. (From Webster's 3d ed)Writing: The act or practice of literary composition, the occupation of writer, or producing or engaging in literary work as a profession.Waste Management: Disposal, processing, controlling, recycling, and reusing the solid, liquid, and gaseous wastes of plants, animals, humans, and other organisms. It includes control within a closed ecological system to maintain a habitable environment.Animal Migration: Periodic movements of animals in response to seasonal changes or reproductive instinct. Hormonal changes are the trigger in at least some animals. Most migrations are made for reasons of climatic change, feeding, or breeding.Population Dynamics: The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Population Density: Number of individuals in a population relative to space.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Accidents, Traffic: Accidents on streets, roads, and highways involving drivers, passengers, pedestrians, or vehicles. Traffic accidents refer to AUTOMOBILES (passenger cars, buses, and trucks), BICYCLING, and MOTORCYCLES but not OFF-ROAD MOTOR VEHICLES; RAILROADS nor snowmobiles.Leontopithecus: The genus of lion tamarins in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE. The common name refers to the mane on the shoulders.Animal DiseasesExtinction, Biological: The ceasing of existence of a species or taxonomic groups of organisms.Bathing Beaches: Beaches, both natural and man-made, used for bathing and other activities.Bites and StingsContracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Nucleic Acid Conformation: The spatial arrangement of the atoms of a nucleic acid or polynucleotide that results in its characteristic 3-dimensional shape.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Commission on Professional and Hospital Activities: The non-profit, non-governmental organization which collects, processes, and distributes data on hospital use. Two programs of the Commission are the Professional Activity Study and the Medical Audit Program.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Africa, Southern: The geographical area of Africa comprising ANGOLA; BOTSWANA; LESOTHO; MALAWI; MOZAMBIQUE; NAMIBIA; SOUTH AFRICA; SWAZILAND; ZAMBIA; and ZIMBABWE.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Ceremonial Behavior: A series of actions, sometimes symbolic actions which may be associated with a behavior pattern, and are often indispensable to its performance.Galaxies: Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Astronomy: The science concerned with celestial bodies and the observation and interpretation of the radiation received in the vicinity of the earth from the component parts of the universe (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mind-Body Relations, Metaphysical: The relation between the mind and the body in a religious, social, spiritual, behavioral, and metaphysical context. This concept is significant in the field of alternative medicine. It differs from the relationship between physiologic processes and behavior where the emphasis is on the body's physiology ( = PSYCHOPHYSIOLOGY).

IA in Kenyon cells of the mushroom body of honeybees resembles shaker currents: kinetics, modulation by K+, and simulation. (1/578)

Cultured Kenyon cells from the mushroom body of the honeybee, Apis mellifera, show a voltage-gated, fast transient K+ current that is sensitive to 4-aminopyridine, an A current. The kinetic properties of this A current and its modulation by extracellular K+ ions were investigated in vitro with the whole cell patch-clamp technique. The A current was isolated from other voltage-gated currents either pharmacologically or with suitable voltage-clamp protocols. Hodgkin- and Huxley-style mathematical equations were used for the description of this current and for the simulation of action potentials in a Kenyon cell model. Activation and inactivation of the A current are fast and voltage dependent with time constants of 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms (means +/- SE) at +45 mV and 3.0 +/- 1.6 ms at +45 mV, respectively. The pronounced voltage dependence of the inactivation kinetics indicates that at least a part of this current of the honeybee Kenyon cells is a shaker-like current. Deactivation and recovery from inactivation also show voltage dependency. The time constant of deactivation has a value of 0.4 +/- 0.1 ms at -75 mV. Recovery from inactivation needs a double-exponential function to be fitted adequately; the resulting time constants are 18 +/- 3.1 ms for the fast and 745 +/- 107 ms for the slow process at -75 mV. Half-maximal activation of the A current occurs at -0.7 +/- 2.9 mV, and half-maximal inactivation occurs at -54.7 +/- 2.4 mV. An increase in the extracellular K+ concentration increases the conductance and accelerates the recovery from inactivation of the A current, affecting the slow but not the fast time constant. With respect to these modulations the current under investigation resembles some of the shaker-like currents. The data of the A current were incorporated into a reduced computational model of the voltage-gated currents of Kenyon cells. In addition, the model contained a delayed rectifier K+ current, a Na+ current, and a leakage current. The model is able to generate an action potential on current injection. The model predicts that the A current causes repolarization of the action potential but not a delay in the initiation of the action potential. It further predicts that the activation of the delayed rectifier K+ current is too slow to contribute markedly to repolarization during a single action potential. Because of its fast activation, the A current reduces the amplitude of the net depolarizing current and thus reduces the peak amplitude and the duration of the action potential.  (+info)

Interactions between the foot and bud patterning systems in Hydra vulgaris. (2/578)

In the freshwater coelenterate, hydra, asexual reproduction via budding occurs at the base of the gastric region about two-thirds of the distance from the head to the foot. Developmental gradients of head and foot activation and inhibition originating from these organizing centers have long been assumed to control budding in hydra. Much has been learned over the years about these developmental gradients and axial pattern formation, and in particular, the inhibitory influence of the head on budding is well documented. However, understanding of the role of the foot and potential interactions between the foot, bud, and head patterning systems is lacking. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of the foot in the initiation of new axis formation during budding by manipulating the foot and monitoring effects on the onset of first bud evagination and the time necessary to reach the 50% budding point. Several experimental situations were examined: the lower peduncle and foot (PF) were injured or removed, a second PF was laterally grafted onto animals either basally (below the budding zone) or apically (above the budding zone), or both the head and PF were removed simultaneously. When the PF was injured or removed, the onset of first bud evagination was delayed and/or the time until the 50% budding point was reached was longer. The effects were more pronounced when the manipulation was performed closer to the anticipated onset of budding. When PF tissue was doubled, precocious bud evagination was induced, regardless of graft location. Removal of the PF at the same time as decapitation reduced the inductive effect of decapitation on bud evagination. These results are discussed in light of potential signals from the foot or interactions between the foot and head patterning systems that might influence bud axis initiation.  (+info)

Olfactory adaptation depends on the Trp Ca2+ channel in Drosophila. (3/578)

Olfactory adaptation is shown to occur in Drosophila, at both behavioral and physiological levels. In a behavioral paradigm, the extent of adaptation is shown to depend on the dose and duration of the adapting stimulus. Half-maximal adaptation occurred after 15 sec of exposure to an odor, and recovery occurred with a half-time of 1. 5 min, under a set of test conditions. Cross-adaptation was observed among all odor combinations tested, although to a lesser extent than when the same odor was used as both the adapting and the test stimulus. Mutants of the transient receptor potential (Trp) Ca2+ channel were normal in olfactory response, but defective in olfactory adaptation, when measured either behaviorally or in tests of antennal physiology. These results indicate that olfactory response and adaptation can be distinguished. Trp expression was detected in the developing antenna but, surprisingly, not in the mature antenna. These results, together with temperature-shift analysis of a temperature-sensitive trp mutant, provide evidence of a role of Trp in olfactory system development.  (+info)

A lobster phospholipase C-beta that associates with G-proteins in response to odorants. (4/578)

A cDNA clone encoding a protein of 1116 amino acids with significant homology to beta-isoforms of phospholipase C was isolated from lobster olfactory organ cDNA libraries and named lobPLCbeta. This cDNA hybridized predominantly to a 9 kb transcript in RNA from olfactory organ, pereiopod, brain, and eye-eyestalk and to several smaller minor transcripts only in eye-eyestalk. An antiserum raised to the C terminus of lobPLCbeta detected immunoreactivity in a single 130 kDa band in olfactory aesthetasc hairs, olfactory organ, pereiopod, dactyl, and brain. In eye-eyestalk this 130 kDa band was abundant, and minor bands of 100, 79, and 57 kDa also were detected. In cross sections of the aesthetasc hairs, immunoreactivity was detected in the outer dendritic segments of the olfactory receptor neurons, the site of olfactory transduction. A complex odorant caused lobPLCbeta immunoreactivity to increase in membrane fractions and decrease in soluble fractions of homogenates of aesthetasc hairs. The odorant also increased the amount of lobPLCbeta in immunoprecipitates of Galphaq and Gbeta from homogenates of aesthetasc hairs. These results support the conclusion that lobPLCbeta mediates olfactory transduction.  (+info)

Differential expression of Tbx4 and Tbx5 in Zebrafish fin buds. (5/578)

In here we report the identification of two new members of the T-box gene family, zf-tbx5 and zf-tbx4, from the Zebrafish, Danio rerio. The amino acid sequences within the T-box domain share high homology with the mouse, chick, and newt orthologs. Whole mount in situ hybridization revealed specific expression of these genes in the eye and Fin buds. zf-tbx5 expression is restricted to the pectoral Fin bud, whilst zf-tbx4 transcripts are confined in the pelvic Fin bud. These results reveal the conserved expression pattern of Tbx5 and Tbx4 during appendage development in all animal species studied to date.  (+info)

Response characteristics of an identified, sexually dimorphic olfactory glomerulus. (6/578)

Partitioning of synaptic neuropil into glomeruli is a common feature of primary olfactory centers in most animal species. The functional significance of glomeruli, however, is not yet well understood. The present study is part of our effort to test the hypothesis that each glomerulus is a functional unit dedicated to processing information about a particular odorant or attribute of odor molecules and that the glomerular array constitutes a map of "odor space." We investigated the physiological and morphological features of uniglomerular projection neurons (PNs) associated with an identified glomerulus in each antennal lobe of the female sphinx moth, Manduca sexta. This "lateral large female glomerulus" (latLFG) is sexually dimorphic and therefore may play a female-specific role, such as processing of information about one or more odorants important for orientation of a female to host plants for oviposition. Together with the medial LFG (medLFG), the latLFG resides outside the array of spheroidal ordinary glomeruli, near the entrance of the antennal (olfactory) nerve. Each LFG is innervated by four to five PNs. Using intracellular recording and staining, we examined the responses of latLFG-PNs to odorants that represent major classes of volatiles released by host plants of M. sexta. All latLFG-PNs were excited when the ipsilateral antenna was stimulated with low concentrations of the monoterpenoid linalool. Dose-response analysis showed that neither other monoterpenoids nor representatives of other classes of host plant volatiles were similarly stimulatory to latLFG-PNs. These findings are consistent with the idea that each glomerulus has a characteristic, limited molecular receptive range.  (+info)

amos, a proneural gene for Drosophila olfactory sense organs that is regulated by lozenge. (7/578)

In a variety of organisms, early neurogenesis requires the function of basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. For the Drosophila PNS, such transcription factors are encoded by the proneural genes (atonal and the achaete-scute complex, AS-C). We have identified a proneural gene, amos, that has strong similarity with atonal in its bHLH domain. We present evidence that amos is required for olfactory sensilla and is regulated by the prepattern gene lozenge. Between them, amos, atonal, and the AS-C can potentially account for the origin of the entire PNS.  (+info)

Essential roles of Drosophila RhoA in the regulation of neuroblast proliferation and dendritic but not axonal morphogenesis. (8/578)

The pleiotropic functions of small GTPase Rho present a challenge to its genetic analysis in multicellular organisms. We report here the use of the MARCM (mosaic analysis with a repressible cell marker) system to analyze the function of RhoA in the developing Drosophila brain. Clones of cells homozygous for null RhoA mutations were specifically labeled in the mushroom body (MB) neurons of mosaic brains. We found that RhoA is required for neuroblast (Nb) proliferation but not for neuronal survival. Surprisingly, RhoA is not required for MB neurons to establish normal axon projections. However, neurons lacking RhoA overextend their dendrites, and expression of activated RhoA causes a reduction of dendritic complexity. Thus, RhoA is an important regulator of dendritic morphogenesis, while distinct mechanisms are used for axonal morphogenesis.  (+info)

*Basset Hound

This breed, like its ancestor the Bloodhound, has a hanging skin structure, which causes the face to occasionally look sad; ... ufaw.org.uk: Universities Federation for Animal Welfare. Retrieved 10 February 2015. "Breed Longevity Data". Users.pullman.com ... "Elbow Dysplasia (Ununited Anconeal Process)". Genetic Welfare Problems of Companion Animals. ... "the leading sculptor of animals in his day" exhibited bronze sculptures of Emperor Napoleon III's basset hounds at the Paris ...

*Irish Wolfhound

An easygoing animal, the Irish Wolfhound is quiet by nature. Wolfhounds often create a strong bond with their family and can ... Once used to hunt wolves, an Irish Wolfhound's structure should appear as if it is "fast enough to catch a wolf, and strong ... However, the wolfhound is not to be confused with being the heaviest, as its structure should be similar to that of a Greyhound ... "Summary results of the Purebred Dog Health Survey for Irish Wolfhound" (PDF). Kennel Club/British Small Animal Veterinary ...

*Structures built by animals

Materials used by animals in building structures need to not only be suitable for the kind of structure to be built but also to ... Nature abounds with structures built by animals other than humans, or animal architecture, as it is commonly termed, such as ... It is virtually absent from all the other animal phyla. Animals create structures primarily for three reasons: to create ... Birds form the majority of the group of animals which collect building material of animal origin. They collect animal fur and ...

*Equus (genus)

Equines are social animals with two basic social structures. Horses, plains zebras and mountain zebras live in stable, closed ... "Animal Structure & Function". Science on the Farm. University of Waikato. Retrieved 2014-08-13. Pastor, J.; Cohen, Y.; Hobbs, T ... The animals were used to help cope with the increased aridity of the Sahara and the Horn of Africa. Genetic evidence finds that ... In domestic horses, dun color and primitive markings exist in some animals across many breeds. The purpose of the bold black- ...

*Appendix (anatomy)

"Animal Structure & Function". Sci.waikato.ac.nz. Retrieved 2011-10-03. Smith H. F.; Fisher R. E.; Everett M. L.; Thomas A. D.; ... The human appendix had been proposed to be a vestigial structure, a structure that has lost all or most of its original ... This structure helps in the proper movement and removal of waste matter in the digestive system, contains lymphatic vessels ... The very long cecum of some herbivorous animals, such as found in the horse or the koala, appears to support this theory. The ...

*Spermatocyte

Starr, Taggart, Evers, Starr, Cecie, Ralph, Christine, Lisa (January 1, 2012). Animal Structure & Function. Cengage Learning. p ... All male animals produce spermatocytes, even hermaphrodites such as C. elegans, which exist as a male or hermaphrodite. In ... They are found in the testis, in a structure known as the seminiferous tubules. There are two types of spermatocytes, primary ... Primary cilia are common organelles found in eukaryotic cells; they play an important role in development of animals. ...

*Omasum

"Animal Structure & Function". sci.waikato.ac.nz. Retrieved 2017-11-18. "Rumen Physiology and Rumination". www.vivo.colostate. ... The omasum is not only bigger in grass and roughage eaters but there is greater differentiation in the book like structure; ... Different ruminants have different omasum structures and function based on the food that they eat and how they developed ... Yamamoto, Y; Kitamura, N (1994). "Morphological study of the sirface structure of the omasal laminae in cattle, sheep and goats ...

*African elephant

Animals of the Amboseli National Park. amboselinationalpark.co.uk Animal Structure & Function. Sci.waikato.ac.nz. Retrieved ... With a mass of just over 5 kg (11 lb), elephant brains are larger than those of any other land animal, and although the largest ... The elephant's brain is similar to that of humans in terms of structure and complexity. For example, the elephant's cortex has ... One species of African elephant, the bush elephant, is the largest living terrestrial animal, while the forest elephant is the ...

*Hindgut fermentation

Foregut fermentation Ruminants Pseudoruminants Animal Structure & Function. Sci.waikato.ac.nz. Retrieved on 2011-11-27. Grant, ... Unlike in foregut fermenters, the cecum is located after the stomach and small intestine in monogastric animals, which limits ... Hindgut fermentation is a digestive process seen in monogastric herbivores, animals with a simple, single-chambered stomach. ... While foregut fermentation is generally considered more efficient, and monogastric animals cannot digest cellulose as ...

*Alexander Pagenstecher (zoologist)

... basic laws of animal structure and life. Pagenstecher, Heinrich Alexander In: Neue Deutsche Biographie (NDB). Band 20, Duncker ... "Researches upon some of the lower marine animals" (1859). Beiträge zur Anatomie der Milben (2 volumes, 1860-61) - Contributions ... Researches upon some of the lower marine animals Biodiversity Heritage Library HathiTrust Digital Library published works. ...

*Cuvier-Geoffroy debate

The debate centered primarily on animal structure; Cuvier asserted that animal structure was determined by an organism's ... whether animal structure was determined by functional needs of an animal or the "conditions of existence" (Cuvier), or a basic ... It was in his memoir Philosophie anatomique, published in 1818, that he first put his ideas on animal form and structure into ... While the two biologists had disagreed on animal structure subtly through their publications, talks with other scientists at ...

*Joel Hedgpeth

Animal structure and function [by] Joel W. Hedgpeth. [New York] McGraw-Hill [1974] 32 p. illus. 28 cm. ISBN 0-07-005343-X ... Animal diversity: organisms [by] Joel W. Hedgpeth. [New York] McGraw-Hill [1974] 31 p. illus. 28 cm. ISBN 0-07-005345-6 ... He was an expert on the marine arthropods known as sea spiders (Pycnogonida), and on the seashore plant and animal life of ...

*Monogastric

"Monogastrics Vs Ruminents" (PDF). Animal Structure & Function Hindgut versus Foregut Fermenters Grant, Kerrin. Adaptations in ... Examples of monogastric animals include omnivores such as humans, rats, dogs and pigs, carnivores such as cats, and herbivores ... and cecal fermenters are smaller animals such as rabbits and rodents. Great apes (other than humans) derive significant amounts ...

*Leg

As an anatomical animal structure it is used for locomotion. The distal end is often modified to distribute force (such as a ... A leg is a structure of gross anatomy, meaning that it is large enough to be seen unaided. The components depend on the animal ... A leg is a weight bearing and locomotive anatomical structure, usually having a columnar shape. During locomotion, legs ... which does not occur naturally in healthy animals Quadruped: 4 legs, such as dogs and horses Many taxa are characterized by the ...

*Nyau

Most animal structures usually have a barrel-like shape, with an entry hole at the bottom. Inside the structure, bars are ... The Nyau members wearing animal structures resemble wild animals or nyama za ku tchire, which appear at the time of death of ... Each dancer represents a special character relating to the mask or animal structure he wears. The zilombo ("wild animals") are ... The variety of masks resembling ancestors is huge and ever growing, unlike the animal structures. Some mask carvers are ...

*Felted

Other examples of felted material in animal structures include fibrous structures coating the integument of some insects. ... Many species of animals actively employ felting behaviour in preparing shelters for themselves or their young. It is not always ... Examples of the description of animal tissues as "felted" include classes of connective tissue such as the dermis which the ... Ground nesting birds often use felted material rather than woven; it usually suffices and some of the structures can be ...

*Evolutionary history of life

doi:10.1111/j.1472-4669.2007.00125.x. Davidson, Michael W. (May 26, 2005). "Animal Cell Structure". Molecular Expressions. ... All animals are motile, if only at certain life stages. All animals except sponges have bodies differentiated into separate ... Animals had to change their feeding and excretory systems, and most land animals developed internal fertilization of their eggs ... Plants employ antioxidants to defend their structures against reactive oxygen species produced during photosynthesis. Animals ...

*Marine life

124-136 Davidson, Michael W. (26 May 2005). "Animal Cell Structure". Molecular Expressions. Tallahassee, Fla.: Florida State ... a general biology of animals, Parts of Animals, a comparative anatomy and physiology of animals, and Generation of Animals, on ... Zhang, Z (2013). "Animal biodiversity: An update of classification and diversity in 2013. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal ... However, there seems little doubt that Kimberella was at least a triploblastic bilaterian animal, in other words, an animal ...

*Marine invertebrates

Davidson, Michael W. (May 26, 2005). "Animal Cell Structure". Molecular Expressions. Tallahassee, FL: Florida State University ... Zhang, Z (2013). "Animal biodiversity: An update of classification and diversity in 2013. In: Zhang, Z.-Q. (Ed.) Animal ... The earliest animals were marine invertebrates, that is, vertebrates came later. Animals are multicellular eukaryotes, and are ... However, there seems little doubt that Kimberella was at least a triploblastic bilaterian animal, in other words, an animal ...

*Sardul Singh Guraya

ISBN 978-3-540-63690-8. Sardul S. Guraya (1 January 1999). Comparative Testicular Biology in Animals: Structure, Functions, and ... Sardul S. Guraya (1 January 1999). Comparative Testicular Biology in Animals: Structure, Functions, and Intercellular ... His studies dealt with the correlation between the structure and function of reproductive organs and elucidated its ... and Autocrine Regulation of Structure and Functions, Cellular And Molecular Biology For Human, (all on Cell and Molecular ...

*Habit (biology)

Animal structure is described by its body plan, which encompasses the body symmetry, the type of germ layers and of body ... Bryophytes structure is described as foliose or thallose. The structure of a given species of algae is referred to as its type ... Habitat Animal migration Habit (psychology) Jackson, Benjamin, Daydon; A Glossary of Botanic Terms with their Derivation and ... The habits of plants and animals often change in response to changes in their environment. For example: if a species develops a ...

*History of evolutionary psychology

He introduced the concepts of sexual selection to explain the presence of animal structures that seemed unrelated to survival, ... The Moral Animal: Why We Are, the Way We Are: The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology. Vintage. 1995. Shermer (2004). The ... Only after the second world war, in the 1950s, did interest increase in the systematic study of animal behavior. It was during ... Thus we may be sure that, however mysterious some animals' instincts may appear to us, our instincts will appear no less ...

*Niche construction

Nest-building in primates Structures built by animals Odling Smee, John; Laland, Kevin; Feldman, Marcus (2003). Niche ... 2000). "Chapter 7". The extended organism: the physiology of animal-built structures. Cambridge (MA): Harvard University Press ... Examples of niche construction include the building of nests and burrows by animals, and the creation of shade, influencing of ... He drew his attention to the many ways in which animals modify their selective environments throughout their lives, by choosing ...

*Thescelosaurus

... and cardiac cellular structures were absent. There was one possible patch with animal cellular structures. The authors found ... The animals may have been able to move on all fours, given its fairly long arms and wide hands, but this idea has not been ... The animal's size has been estimated in the 2.5-4.0 m range for length (8.2-13.1 ft) for various specimens, and a weight of 200 ... The form of the teeth and jaws suggest a primarily herbivorous animal. This genus of dinosaur is regarded as a specialized ...

*J. Scott Turner

The Extended Organism: The Physiology of Animal-Built Structures. Harvard University Press. Laland, K. Review of The Extended ... Turner's current research focuses on the emergence of super-organismal structure and function in mound-building termites of ... Organism in Perspectives in Biology and Medicine Schwenk, K. (2000) The Apian Way From beehives to burrows, animal building ...

*Chilean art

Animal figures and symbols abound but images of people did not appear unless they were important or had some magical ... "The 90s saw the emergence of an art with a commercial purpose within a highly structured system," Gonzalez Lohsen is quoted as ... animals and cities by Claudio Gay, Charles Thorold Wood and the scientist Charles Darwin. Painting in the previous period was ...

*Cell theory

This was a major advancement in the field of biology since little was known about animal structure up to this point compared to ... animals are composed of cells or the product of cells in their structures. ... The structure of the membrane is now known in great detail, including 3D models of many of the hundreds of different proteins ... The cells in animal tissues were observed after plants were because the tissues were so fragile and susceptible to tearing, it ...
Grade 4. 2015. 16 pages. Plant and Animal Structures encourages students to think about form and function related to plants and animals, and how form and function enable these organisms to grow, survive, and reproduce. Topics include: Animal Structures; Plant Structures; the Science and Engineering ...
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This course is an introduction to principles underlying how animals are designed. Topics to be covered include: tree thinking (how to place animals and their parts into a phyolgenetic context), scaling (mechanical and physiological consequences of body size), an introduction to fluid dynamics (life at low and high Reynolds number, surface tension, cavitation, particle feeding, waves), an introduction to biomechanics (materials, structures, adhesion, cost-benefit analysis, safety factors). Examples (drawn primarily from marine invertebrates) of how animals are designed will include: hydrostatic and rigid skeletons, various modes of aquatic locomotion (burrowing, crawling, swimming), vision, bioluminescence and buoyancy. Laboratory exercises will include hands-on experience to illustrate principles covered in lectures as well as team-projects to study how live marine invertebrates actually work.. Boat Use: You will be given the opportunity to drive boats if you choose to do so. Boat driving ...
Animal organs and organ systems constantly adjust to internal and external changes through a process called homeostasis ("steady state"). These changes might be in the level of glucose or calcium in blood or in external temperatures. Homeostasis means to maintain dynamic equilibrium in the body. It is dynamic because it is constantly adjusting to the changes that the bodys systems encounter. It is equilibrium because body functions are kept within specific ranges. Even an animal that is apparently inactive is maintaining this homeostatic equilibrium.. ...
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Effect of CIAP treatment of lipid A on its ability to induce juvenile light organ apoptosis. (A) Fluorescence micrographs of light organs that had been incubate
Nudibranchs (/ˈnjuːdɪbræŋk/) are a group of soft-bodied, marine gastropod molluscs which shed their shells after their larval stage. They are noted for their often extraordinary colours and striking forms, and they have been given colourful nicknames to match, such as "Clown", "Marigold", "Splendid", "Dancer" and "Dragon". Currently, about 2,300 valid species of nudibranchs are known. The word "nudibranch" comes from the Latin nudus, naked, and the Greek βραγχια, brankhia, gills. Nudibranchs are often casually called sea slugs, as they are a family of Opistobranchs (sea slugs), with the phylum Mollusca (molluscs) but many sea slugs belong to several taxonomic groups which are not closely related to nudibranchs. A number of these other sea slugs, such as the photosynthetic Sacoglossa and the colourful Aglajidae, are often confused with nudibranchs. Nudibranchs occur in seas worldwide, including in the tropics and the Southern Ocean. Nudibranchs live at virtually all depths of salt ...
Nudibranchs are gastropods that have naked branches ("gills") hanging off their backs (hence the "nudi"), many with outlandish color schemes that appear to be a defense mechanism. But their alien characteristics are not just that they look stranger than anything that sci-fi has yet to produce. Some nudibranchs are Borg-like, assimilating weaponry and technology of other species into their own toxic arsenals. Many nudibranchs eat critters that have toxic weapons (stingers, nematocysts, poisons) then secrete the previously digested arsenal when attacked ...
Two pore segment channel 2 (TPC2) is a human protein encoded by the TPCN2 is a protein which in humans is encoded by the TPCN2 gene. TPC2 is an ion channel, however, in contrast to other calcium and sodium channels which have four homologous domains, each containing 6 transmembrane segments (S1 to S6), TPCN1 only contains two domain (each containing segments S1 to S6). TPC2 is homologous to TPC1, the best characterized member of the TPC family. The structure of a TPC1 ortholog from Arabidopsis thaliana has been solved by two laboratories. The structures were solved using X-ray crystallography and contained the fold of a voltage-gated ion channel and EF hands. Genetic knockout and pharmacological inhibition experiments demonstrate that Two-pore Channels, TPC1 and TPC2, are required for infection by Filoviruses Ebola and Marburg in mice. Two-pore channel GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000162341 - Ensembl, May 2017 GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000048677 - Ensembl, May 2017 "Human PubMed ...
Identifying Features:. Dendronotus rufus have rectangular bodies with cerata that branch out at the edges. Their bodies are generally white and often have colors on the ends of the cerata. They are usually red, dark brown, or a light pink. They are sometimes known as the Giant Red Sea Slug, because of their size.. Habitat:. The Red Dendronotid is usually found in the South Alaskan waters down to north Washington. They are mostly found in sub-tidal waters.. Prey:. All known nudibranchs are carnivorous. Nudibranchs usually eat live prey such as soft corals, sea pens, and gorgonians, and will often starve to death in captivity without the appropriate foods.. Predators: There is no documented information on what hunts the Red Dendronotid, but generally certain fish, turtles, sea stars, and a few species of crabs prey on these animals.. Reproduction: Nudibranchs are hermaphrodites, and can mate with any member of their species. When mating, two nudibranchs come together side by side and pass sperm ...
Find out whats known about Heron Ardeadoris Nudibranchs, Ardeadoris egretta, Gastropoda, Nudibranchia, Chromodorididae, including their world range and habitats, feeding behaviors, life history, ecology, reproduction, and conservation status.
Sea slugs, or nudibranchs, had not been studied at all in Norway the past 60 years, until our project was initialised in 1997. We have been studying diversity of species and their distribution in Norwegian waters.
Stock Photo of Blue-fin Trevally Caranx melampygus. High Quality Blue-fin Trevally Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
Stock Photo of Dart Trevally sheltering in Mangrove roots. High Quality Dart Trevally Images and Gloss Prints are available from Oceanwide Images Stock Photo Library.
Dorsal spines (total): 14-16; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8-10; Anal spines: 1-1; Anal soft rays: 17-20. Diagnosis: Dorsal fins III + XI-XIII + 8-10 (usually III + XII + 10); anal fin I,17-20 (usually 19); pectoral fin 14: 1-3, 4-6, 6-8 (usually 2, 5, 7). LL, pored scales 13-16, notched scales 21-25, starting at 2 scale rows below the end of the pored series; transverse scales 2/6; nape and abdomen scaleless, first dorsal fin base also without scales. Body depth 4.8-5.2 in SL. Head 3.4-4.0 in SL; eyes large, diameter 3.0-3.7 in head length; orbital cirrus moderate, lobate; supratemporal sensory canal U-shaped and embraces 1st dorsal spine; dentary pores 3+1+3. Male first dorsal fin slightly higher than second; slightly lower in females. Key features are: overall olive green; anal fins black and white barred. Males head black; first dorsal fin, lower pectoral-fin rays and proximal portion of the pelvic-fin rays yellow females (Ref. 57774, 88983 ...
Dorsal spines (total): 10 - 11; Dorsal soft rays (total): 22-24; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 6 - 7. Tubed lateral line scales 55-57; outer row of teeth in jaws slightly enlarged, movable; swim bladder with 3 short anterior projections; third or fourth dorsal spine longest, 1.8-1.9 in head; first dorsal spine 1.7-2.3 in length of second; interspinous membrane of dorsal fin not incised; pelvic fins reaching vent or slightly beyond, 1.2-1.3 in head; body light yellow dorsally, shading to pale silvery grey on sides and ventrally, with numerous small dark brown spots, which are smaller and form oblique rows on body below lateral line; head light purplish grey with numerous small dark brown spots, opercular membrane black; dorsal fin and upper 3/4 of caudal fin with small dark spots; lower 1/4 of caudal fin black; anal and pelvic fins mainly black (Ref. 44143); dorsal and caudal fins mainly yellow, caudal fin with broad black lower edge margin, caudal fin may be slightly emarginate to truncate; ...
Dorsal spines (total): 0; Dorsal soft rays (total): 8; Anal spines: 0; Anal soft rays: 7 - 9; Vertebrae: 39 - 44. Couesius plumbeus is distinguished by having the following characters: barbel at corner of large, barely subterminal mouth; moderately pointed snout; large eye; head flattened above and below; dorsal fin origin over or slightly behind pelvic fin origin; complete lateral line, 53-70 lateral scales; 8 anal rays, and pharyngeal teeth 2,4-4,2 (Ref. 86798). Spineless fins, normal jaws, and tiny barbel at the corner of the mouth (Ref. 27547). Body moderately compressed and slender, coloration include brown to green above, dark stripe along silver gray side, darkest on young and large male, sometimes black specks on side and belly, dusky caudal spot. Large male may have red at pectoral and pelvic fin origins, corners of mouth (Ref. 86797). In some populations, breeding males develop bright orange-red patches on sides of head and at bases of pectoral fins, but the presence of this color ...
Dorsal spines (total): 7; Dorsal soft rays (total): 9-11; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 8 - 10; Vertebrae: 25 - 26. First dorsal fin distally rounded without filamentous spines. Posterior margin of caudal fin rounded. Scales small, 39-55 scales in a longitudinal row and 19-25 scales in transverse row. Color of specimens before fixation: nuchal crest with transversely alternating reddish-brown and light greenish-brown areas; body light greenish brown reticulated with brown on upper anterior part and having iridescent bluish or greenish spots surrounded by reticulation; first dorsal fin with red upper margin, submarginal row of contiguous yellow spots, grayish-red band on middle part, greenish gray on lower part, and large blackish spot with blue spots between fifth spine and fin terminus; second dorsal fin red with two or three irregular longitudinal yellow stripes on middle part, and greenish gray on basal part; anal fin proximally red and distally dark gray; pectoral fin with a red area on ...
Dorsal spines (total): 12; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 8. This species is distinguished by the following set of characters: D XII,10; pectoral fin rays usually 15 and rarely 16; small orbit diameterl, 2.66-3.87, mean 3.32, in head length; snout angle blunt, 82°-88°, mean 83°. Colour of the body: red dorsally, becoming pale red ventrally with a yellowish gold sheen, snout vivid yellow, 3 large fluorescent yellow blotches dorsally beneath dorsal fin base and a black iris sized yellow spot on base of posteriormost soft dorsal fin ray, clearly visible from oblique dorsal view; eye uniformly prominent reddish-gold; prominent yellow blotch on anterior nostril and snout region; dorsal fin membrane and rays orange-yellow to pale red but with a longitudinal hyaline stripe beneath fin base, and soft membrane and rays saffron-yellow (Ref. 75039). ...
Download A4 | US Letter PDF 132Kb About : a participant eNotebook for conference delegates to record and share their experiences at Enter Conference, Cambridge, April 2007 made by Proboscis as part of the Public Authoring Zone. Published April 2007 Proboscis is an artist-led creative studio based in London, UK.
Pola, M. et al. 2014: Going further on an intricate and challenging group of nudibranchs: description of five novel species and a more complete molecular phylogeny of the subfamily Nembrothinae (Polyceridae). Cladistics, 30(6): 607-634. doi: 10.1111/cla.12097 reference page ...
Proboscis lateralis is a rare congenital malformation of nose. A case has been reported with tubular process arising just above the inner canthus of left e
Espinas dorsales (total): 12; Radios blandos dorsales (total): 8. A broad dark, oblique band present on dorsal half of body directed anteroventrally from below posterior third of dorsal fin, dark band with pale marginal bands anteriorly and posteriorly. (Ref 9823) ...
Fish keep their dorsal fins clamped down when they are stressed. This can usually be rectified with up to 30% water change including gravel vacuuming. The ammonia level has probably risen to a dangerous level in the tank. Cut down on the amount of food given. Goldfish do not have a digestive system. Much waste is created. Less food is less waste ...
We also saw a pair of Chromodoris lineolata getting really intimate. However, the position didnt look quite right though. Nudibranchs are hermaphrodites, meaning they have both male and female reproductive organs. They often fertilise each other when they meet in a 69 position. These two, however, are not in the standard 69 position which allows mutual fertisilation. It is known that among nudibranchs, sometimes one will assume a male role and the other a female role, so I guess its possible that the two slugs above could just be doing that. (Update: Dont know what I was thinking when I wrote the above yesterday. The reproductive organs of the nudibranchs are always on their right side, so if they are facing the same direction side-by-side, their reproductive organs wont be able to meet, so they cant be mating here. So guess at the very most this could just be "foreplay", or they could be doing something else altogether. ...
It looks like simple mounds of earth from ground level, but when archaeologist Robert Benfer looked at Google Earth images of Peru, he discovered that they look like orcas, condors, and even a duck. Archaeological evidence at the sites pegged the mounds at more than 4,000 years old - making them the oldest animal-shaped structures made by man: Benfer discovered the mounds while looking at satellite photos of a site about which hed long held suspicions. The feature seemed shaped like a condor, he said, b...
Looking for online definition of proboscis in the Medical Dictionary? proboscis explanation free. What is proboscis? Meaning of proboscis medical term. What does proboscis mean?
The life cycle of the pearl mussel is complicated by the presence of the parasitic glochidial stage. Survivorship of this stage depends on locating a suitable host and the subsequent settlement of the post glochidial stage in a suitable habitat. The mortality of these stages is very high especially in the fast flowing habitats typical for the pearl mussel. To vercome this problem the life span is great (to 130 years) and the fecundity high. Mussels in large populations tend to be dioecius but in low density conditions can become self fertile hermaphrodites. Theoretically therefore small populations of adults could be viable. The period of viability however would depend on the life span of these adults and the survivorship of the offspring. Should recruitment cease any population will survive only through the remainder of the current individuals life span which could be as long as 100 years ...
Handling Time Body Size Handling Skills Proboscis Length Nectar Content Floral Complexity Nectar Tube Depth The length of time taken for an insect to extract rewards from a flower. Body size reflects energy needs ...
There are species of Red Bubble-eye with Dorsal Fin, Red and White Bubble-eye with Dorsal Fin, Black Bubble-eye with Dorsal Fin and Calico Bubble-eye with Dorsal Fin ...
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Dorsal spines (total): 8 - 9; Dorsal soft rays (total): 17-18; Anal spines: 3; Anal soft rays: 20 - 21. Diagnosis: body deep and strongly compressed, its anterior profile very steep up to dorsal-fin origin, and strongly compressed; head small; snout short; mouth small, terminal, strongly protrusible, with fleshy lips; teeth slender and pointed, set in bands in upper jaw; roof of mouth toothless; dorsal fin deeply notched; 1st dorsal fin spine small, forward-pointing and visible only in young individuals; pectorals falcate, very long, their tips almost reaching to caudal-fin base; hind margin of caudal fin slightly rounded; pelvic fins thoracic; scales finely ctenoid, covering body, bases of dorsal and anal fins and head, except snout and preopercle; preopercular margin denticulate; lateral line strongly arched (Ref. 81287). Coloration: silvery grey, darker on back, almost white on belly; sides with a series of 8 brown, more or less faded vertical bars, always more distinct in young individuals ...
Anal soft rays: 11 - 12. Head very broad (width 28-31% SL, 96-109% HL); body dark brown marbled or with narrow vermiculations, and low and anteriorly truncate first dorsal fin. Distinguished from highly similar species Cottus hispaniolensis by the following characters: pelvic fins hyaline or with faint brown marks; low and anteriorly truncate first dorsal fin; last dorsal-fin ray connected to body by a membrane along 1/3-2/3 of its length; last anal-fin ray not connected to body by a membrane; and fewer lateral line pores (31-32+1). Differs also from other Cottus in Atlantic drainages by the following characters: caudal peduncle stout (length 14-18% SL, depth 8-10% SL and 1.5-2.1 times in its length); no prickling in adults, a few prickles under pectoral fin in juveniles; eye diameter 20-25% of HL; interorbital distance 1.1-1.4 times in eye diameter; no membrane between last pelvic-fin ray and body; membranes between pelvic-fin rays wider distally (Ref. 55856). ...
Distinctive Characters: Dorsal fin with 10 spines and 10 (rarely 11) rays. Anal fin with 3 spines and 8 (rarely 9) rays. Pectoral fin with 16 rays. Body depth 2.6-3.1 in standard length. Body moderately deep, fusiform. Large eyes. Interorbital space convex. Maxilla with or without scales. Dorsal and anal fins scaleless. Pectoral fins long, reaching level of anus. Caudal fin deeply forked ...
We welcome your input and comments. Please use this form to recommend updates to the information in ZFIN. We appreciate as much detail as possible and references as appropriate. We will review your comments promptly ...
Duri punggung (Keseluruhan (total)): 18 - 19; duri punggung lunak (Keseluruhan (total)): 11-12; Duri dubur 3; Sirip dubur lunak: 10 - 11; vertebrata, bertulang belakang: 34 - 36. Diagnosis: more elongated, more slender and somewhat more depressed than Gobiocichla wonderi (Ref. 52307), with a shallower caudal peduncle and smaller eyes (Ref. 53766). Scales reduced; dorsal fin never with "tilapiine" spot (Ref. 53784, Ref. 53766, Ref. 31256, Ref. 7378). Upper jaw relatively non-protrusible; groove between upper jaw and snout greatly reduced, insignificant or absent near snout-tip; mouth slightly narrower and more subterminal; snout tip visible from below; body horizontally oval in cross-section; 18-19 dorsal fin spines and 11-12 soft rays; 3 anal fin spines and 10-11 branched rays (Ref. 53766). ...
pigmentation definition: Biology Coloration of areas by pigment.; Biology Deposition of pigment by cells.; Coloration of personal, plant or animal structure, specifically by pigment.; A deposition, esp.…
Another cool gene all my strains carry is the double tail gene, my all time favorite. A Double Tail betta (dt) has two tail lobes instead of one. It also has twice (sometimes more) as many rays in the dorsal fin (top fin) as a regular Single Tail (ST) betta, resulting in a dorsal fin that is twice (or more) larger than a ST betta. Yes, you get twice as much for the price of one! hehehehe. The ideal Double Tail betta is one with two large even lobes (such as the yellow betta to the left, born in my fishroom and with which I started my Gorgeous Yellow line). Notice how even both lobes are, and how the entire finnage looks like a perfect circle. This is an outstanding Double Tail. DT is recessive, but ST bettas that carry the DT gene have better finnage and larger dorsals then bettas who dont carry DT. Pretty much all my ST bettas carry the DT gene. (indicated by the symbol: ST/dt). ...
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MacFarlands long and intensive study of the nudibranchs brought him world-wide recognition as an authority on the life and habits of these animals.
Dorsal spines (total): 7; Dorsal soft rays (total): 10; Anal spines: 1; Anal soft rays: 10. Scales in lateral series 52-59; cheek scaled; opercle scaled; pectoral base scaled; breast scaled; belly anteriorly scaled next to pelvic base; predorsal midline usually with naked patches, seldom fully scaled; four blackish crescentic bars between second dorsal and anal fins, and two blackish crescentic bars below first dorsal fin, these markings extend to ventral surface (Ref. 34009). ...
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The mutualistic association between the squid Euprymna scolopes and the bacterium Vibrio fischeri is an emerging experimental system for the study of the influence of bacteria on animal development. Taking advantage of the ability to raise both this host and its microbial partner independently under laboratory conditions, we describe the effects of bacterial interactions on morphogenesis of the juvenile host symbiotic organ. Our results show that bacteria are essential for normal postembryonic development of the symbiotic organ, which involves changes in both the surface epithelium and the epithelial tissue within the organ where the bacterial culture will take up residence. Cell death induced by exposure to symbiotic V. fischeri results in the regression of a complex ciliated surface epithelium, a tissue that apparently functions to facilitate inoculation of the juvenile organ with the appropriate specific bacterial species. Regression of this tissue begins within hours of exposure to ...
Posted by on August 25, 2008 at 08:59:45:. In Reply to: Re: Dive Gear quarantined by DFG posted by Don on August 25, 2008 at 08:39:21:. After inspecting bodies of water known or suspected to contain live quagga mussels at any life stage, all field equipment that was in some way in contact with the water should be thoroughly cleaned before moving to another site. If sampling is being performed to determine whether quagga mussels are present at a given site, assume that they are present and thoroughly clean all diving and sampling equipment before moving to another site.. Divers ...
The developmental changes bobtail squid undergo when colonized by the bacteria are both dramatic and accessible for biologists to study. The bobtail squid, Euprymna scolopes, hatches as a fully formed squid. They have no larval stage. However, theres a vestige of the ciliated structures seen in other mollusks. (Cilia are like tiny hairs on the surface of individual cells.) These ciliated cells cover the surface of a pair of "appendages" in the undeveloped light organ (Koropatnick, 2014). After hatching, the bobtail squid has no association with any bacteria, and is not capable of luminescence. The light organ can only complete its development once it is colonized by a specific species of bacteria, Vibrio fischeri. Once V. fischeri is obtained from the surrounding seawater, the bacteria become suspended in mucus and migrate to the light organ. The cells smell their way! They follow a trail of chemical cues left by the squids cells (Koropatnick, 2014). Approximately 12 hours after hatching, the ...
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Synonyms for quill in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for quill. 6 synonyms for quill: quill pen, flight feather, quill feather, pinion, calamus, shaft. What are synonyms for quill?
Dorsal soft rays (total): 11; Anal soft rays: 6; Vertebrae: 31 - 32. Dorsum of head, body and paired fin bases with whitish reticulated or whitish spotted pattern; faint dark grey axial stripe covering three scale rows; skin around lateral line pores whitish; posterior part of pectoral fin with 5-7 faint annular bands; 20-21 branched pelvic fin rays; 49-54+2 lateral line scales; pelvic fin origin below dorsal fin origin; pectoral fin origin posterior to corner of mouth; pelvic fin reaching anal fin origin; small soft elevated patches of fine tubercles on first pectoral fin rays in males; tubercles on simple pectoral fin ray not enlarged; absence of cavity around mouth and absence of skin-fold between oropectoral membrane and ventral surface of head (Ref. 51729). ...
Body elongate and subcylindrical, its depth 4.1 to 5.2 times in standard length; belly rounded, abdominal scutes present but with very poorly developed keel so that belly feels smooth, usually 17 pre-pelvic and 13 to 15 post-pelvic scutes. Pseudobranch short, flat; gillrakers 29 to 42 on lower arm of first arch. Maxilla reaching vertical from anterior margin of eye. Dorsal fin with 14 or 15 branched rays, its origin slightly before midpoint of body. Anal fin with 15 to 17 branched rays, its origin far behind dorsal fin. Pelvic fin with 8 rays, its origin below anterior part of dorsal fin. Scales cycloid, thin, deciduous; predorsal median ridge covered by a single longitudinal series of scales ...
Body deep and compressed; dorsal and ventral profiles of body strongly and equally convex. Scales smll and deciduous, and almost completely covering dorsal and anal fins. Mouth terminal with upper jaw unrestricted dorsally and ending below and slightly before anterior margin of eye; both jaws with a single row of small conical teeth. Gill openings unrestricted laterally and ventrally. Dorsal fin with 4-5 short spines (embedded and not apparent in adults) followed by I + 41-44 soft rays. Anal fin with 2 (embedded and not apparent in adults) followed by I + 35-39 soft rays; profile of second dorsal and anal fins nearly identical, with elevated, broadly rounded anterior lobes. Pelvic fins absent in specimens larger than about 10 cm fork and falcate. Lateral line very weakly arched anteriorly, with junction of straight and curved parts below posterior third of dorsal fin; straight part of lateral line with 8 to 19 weak scutes, forming a slight keel on caudal peduncle. Colour in life, adults ...
The fourth species is the Carpintero; more widely distributed and better known than the other members of the genus to which it belongs, and also of great interest in reference to the erroneous account of its habits in Mr. Darwins work, which makes it worthy of particular attention. However close an observer a naturalist may be, it is not possible for him to know much of a species from seeing perhaps one or two individuals in the course of a rapid ride across the pampas. Certainly, if Mr. Darwin had truly known the habits of the bird, he would not have attempted to adduce from it an argument in favour of his theory of the origin of species. In Chap. VI. of his well-known work on this subject the author speaks of the altered habits, caused by change of habitat and other extraneous circumstances, and infers that it would be an easy matter for natural selection to step in and alter an animals structure so as to make a new species of it, after its habits have been so altered. He then proceeds to ...
The fourth species is the Carpintero; more widely distributed and better known than the other members of the genus to which it belongs, and also of great interest in reference to the erroneous account of its habits in Mr. Darwins work, which makes it worthy of particular attention. However close an observer a naturalist may be, it is not possible for him to know much of a species from seeing perhaps one or two individuals in the course of a rapid ride across the pampas. Certainly, if Mr. Darwin had truly known the habits of the bird, he would not have attempted to adduce from it an argument in favour of his theory of the origin of species. In Chap. VI. of his well-known work on this subject the author speaks of the altered habits, caused by change of habitat and other extraneous circumstances, and infers that it would be an easy matter for natural selection to step in and alter an animals structure so as to make a new species of it, after its habits have been so altered. He then proceeds to ...
A substantially completely water-soluble and pepsin-digestible protein is obtained by the hydrolysis of the keratin contained in animal structures with saturated steam at a pressure of from about 50 to about 250 p.s.i.g. or higher and from about 5 to about 30 parts of liquid water per part of the keratin source, by weight, at the temperature of saturated steam at the pressure employed. Conversion of the keratin to soluble protein and meal is about 80%; the yield of water-soluble protein being as high as about 70%. The water-soluble protein is an excellent animal food.
Members of the class Cephalopoda are gonochoric. Male and female adults usually die shortly after spawning and brooding, respectively. Mating behavior: Males perform various displays to attract potential females for copulation. During copulation, male grasp the female and inserts the hectocotylus into the females mantle cavity where fertilization usually occurs. Life cycle: Embryos hatch into planktonic stage and live for some time before they grow larger and take up a benthic existence as adults (Ref. 833). ...
Nuvolumbrosus Navás female genitalia. a spermathecal complex b colleterial complex [Brazil, Rondônia, CAT]. b.c. bursa copulatrix b.gl. bursal gland col.d. co
A common aquarium fish shows the typical external anatomy of a fish. Set includes 3-part photo cards for 13 parts: fish, anal fin, dorsal fin, pectoral fins, pelvic fins, tail, lateral lines, head, gill covers, nostrils, eyes, mouth, and torso.
Cuttlefish, squid, snails and scallops are molluscs, as are clams, sea hares, nudibranchs, mussels, oysters and limpets. As of 2015, there are roughly 100,000 existing mollusc species, which makes...
Second messenger-induced Ca2+-release from intracellular stores plays a key role in a multitude of physiological processes. In addition to 1,4,5-inositol trisphosphate (IP3), Ca2+, and cyclic ADP ribo
Publicacions (Download from Research gate here) 2019 130. Moles, J., Wagele, H., Cutignano, A., Fontana, A., Ballesteros, M., & Avila, C., 2018. Giant embryos and hatchlings of Antarctic nudibranchs (Mollusca : Gastropoda : Heterobranchia. Marine Biology, 164: 114. 129. Moles, J.; Avila, C.; Malaquías, M.A. 2018. Unmasking Antarctic cryptic lineages: novel evidence from philinoid snails (Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea).…
We collected egg masses and adults of 15 lineages of nudibranchs from McMurdo Sound from several sites within a 50-mile radius of McMurdo Station. We collected CO1 and 18S sequence which we deposited ... ...
Well I moved some of my breeders around today and noticed one of the females telson is black on one side of it. It is hard to capture it in a picture. Could it
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I dont know if this is the proper forum, but Im looking to have a custom titanium quill stem made. Does anybody even do these anymore?
Author Summary The transition of vertebrates from water to land is a fundamental step in the evolution of terrestrial life. Innovations that were critical to this transition were the evolution of a weight bearing pelvis, hindlimbs and their associated musculature, and the development of the
The needles are pushed through the fish below the dorsal fin. wires that hold the tag are attached to the needles and pulled back through the fish.
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In traumatic insemination, males pierce females with hypodermic genitalia and ejaculate into the body cavity rather than into the genital tract. This has resulted in the evolution of female counter-adaptations in the form of paragenitalia to reduce the direct physical costs of mating. While rare in the animal kingdom, traumatic insemination is oddly prevalent in the true bug infraorder Cimicomorpha (Heteroptera), where it occurs in six families and is thought to have arisen twice. Here, we report the discovery of traumatic insemination and elaborate paragenital development in the plant bug genus Coridromius (Miridae), representing a third, independent emergence of traumatic insemination in this infraorder. ...
The frequent wounding of female bedbugs (Cimex lectularius: Cimicidae) during copulation has been shown to decrease their fitness, but how females have responded to this cost in evolutionary terms is unclear. The evolution of a unique anatomical structure found in female bedbugs, the spermalege, into which the males intromittent organ passes during traumatic insemination, is a possible counteradaptation to harmful male traits. Several functions have been proposed for this organ, and we test two hypotheses related to its role in sexual conflict. We examine the hypotheses that the spermalege functions to (i) defend against pathogens introduced during traumatic insemination; and (ii) reduce the costs of wound healing during traumatic insemination. Our results support the defence against pathogens hypothesis, suggesting that the evolution of this unique cimicid organ resulted, at least partly, from selection to reduce the costs of mating-associated infection. We found no evidence that the ...
Tracheal cytotoxin (TCT) is a bacterial virulence factor in whooping cough (and other infections) that triggers leukocyte infiltration and strips airways of ciliated epithelium. However, not all host-bacterial encounters are negative. In the relationship between the glow-in-the dark squid Euprymna scolopes and its luminescent bacterial symbiont Vibrio fischeri, Koropatnick et al. have discovered that the same toxin plays a benign role. In this association, TCT still initiates apoptosis of ciliated cells and host cell infiltration. However, these cellular responses are triggered when juvenile squid first encounter V. fischeri and constitute a normal developmental stage in the generation of the specialized light organ that allows it to accommodate the incoming symbiont.. T. A. Koropatnick, J. T. Engle, M. A. Apicella, E. V. Stabb, W. E. Goldman, M. J. McFall-Ngai, Microbial factor-mediated development in a host-bacterial mutualism. Science 306, 1186-1188 (2004). [Abstract] [Full Text]. ...
Genetically altered or tagged Vibrio fischeri strains can be observed in association with their mutualistic host Euprymna scolopes, providing powerful experimental approaches for studying this symbiosis. Two limitations to such in situ analyses are the lack of suitably stable plasmids and the need for a fluorescent tag that can be used in tandem with green fluorescent protein (GFP). Vectors previously used in V. fischeri contain the p15A replication origin; however, we found that this replicon is not stable during growth in the host and is retained by fewer than 20% of symbionts within a day after infection. In contrast, derivatives of V. fischeri plasmid pES213 were retained by ∼99% of symbionts even 3 days after infection. We therefore constructed pES213-derived shuttle vectors with a variety of selectable and visual markers. To include a visual tag that can be used in conjunction with GFP, we compared seven variants of the DsRed2 red fluorescent protein (RFP): mRFP1, tdimer2(12), DsRed.T3, ...
The work is important for understanding the genetics of biomineralization, the process by which living organisms produce minerals to harden existing tissues.. "These results provide a new perspective, and also suggest that the mechanism of shell formation in the invertebrate pearl oyster has some unique features in addition to its similarities with bone and teeth formation in mammals," wrote the authors of the The FEBS Journal article.. ...
Define Quill bit. Quill bit synonyms, Quill bit pronunciation, Quill bit translation, English dictionary definition of Quill bit. a bit for boring resembling the half of a reed split lengthways and having its end sharpened like a gouge. See also: Quill
Class Gastropoda, scientific classification for identification of nudibranch and sea slug and nudibranch of and photos » Nudi Pixel: Nudibranch Photos Collection
Order: Tetraodontiformes. Family: Molidae. Genus & Species: Mola mola. APPEARANCE. The ocean sunfish looks a bit like a huge lima bean with its round and flat body. Its body, shaped like a millstone, appears to be part of the head, and so is often called the "headfish". It is also called the "moonfish" after its round appearance.. The ocean sunfish has an oval body that is flat and covered with thick, leathery, scaleless skin protected by a layer of mucous. It is grey, olive-brown, or nearly black with silvery reflections. Its fins are dark. It has a small mouth with a snout that projects beyond it. Its teeth on both top and bottom jaws are fused together to form a single, sharp-edged beak. It has large and high anal and dorsal fins. Its body ends in a low tail fin that is short and wavy.. The ocean sunfish may grow to be 11 feet in length, and can weigh two tons. The ocean sunfish is taller than it is long (fins included).. The ocean sunfish has a small brain: a 200 kg specimen may have a brain ...
Locomotor strategies in terrestrial tetrapods have evolved from the utilisation of sinusoidal contractions of axial musculature, evident in ancestral fish species, to the reliance on powerful and complex limb muscles to provide propulsive force. Within tetrapods, a hindlimb-dominant locomotor strategy predominates, and its evolution is considered critical for the evident success of the tetrapod transition onto land. Here, we determine the developmental mechanisms of pelvic fin muscle formation in living fish species at critical points within the vertebrate phylogeny and reveal a stepwise modification from a primitive to a more derived mode of pelvic fin muscle formation. A distinct process generates pelvic fin muscle in bony fishes that incorporates both primitive and derived characteristics of vertebrate appendicular muscle formation. We propose that the adoption of the fully derived mode of hindlimb muscle formation from this bimodal character state is an evolutionary innovation that was ...
Our Aquatic Animal clip art gallery features this fish spiky dorsal fin graphic for personalized gifts & custom products. Free shipping!
Fins - D1 - VII, filamentous (?); D2 - 11; pectoral 16(15-17); anal- 10; caudal segmented 17; pelvic I,5 - 5th ray unbranched, fins seperate, frenum absent, extending to anus. Head - Maxilla extending to anterior of pupil; anterior nnostril erect tube; posterior nostril erect tube, shorter than anterior; interorbital wide greater than pupil diameter; no rostral frenum;. Papillae - A transverse pattern with three vertical rows anterior to row b; row 5i/6i continuous and at the anteriorof row b; row d divided into two sections.. Color - Generally mottled brownish; side of body with about 4-5 diffuse blackish, hourglassshaped bars, and black bar at base of caudal fin; a pair of creamy yellow bars below spinous dorsal fin; head with white spots, and diagonal brown bars radiating from eye; a small black spot at bottom of gill cover; median fins with white spots on rays, and white margin on both dorsal fins. (A&R 1994). Distribution - Pacific, Baja Calafornia Gulf of California (A&R 1994). Habitat - ...
Sitting on the back of many fishes, in between the dorsal fin and the tail, is an enigmatic little fatty flap of skin called the adipose fin. It looks a bit like an extra dorsal fin, and though its present in eight large groups of fishes, no one knows why its there. It might help prevent flow from wrapping over the top of the fish; it might help counteract forces from the anal fin, which is in about the same place, but on the ventral side; it might be a flow sensor; or it might not do anything, persisting due to developmental constraints. Whatever the fins function, most fisheries scientists think its not terribly important, because they regularly snip it off to mark millions of hatchery fish released into the wild each year.. Thomas Reimchen and Nicola Temple at the University of Victoria in Canada devised a simple test to find out how important the adipose fin really is. They swam steelhead trout at speeds between about one and three body lengths per second, measured the tail beat ...
Sitting on the back of many fishes, in between the dorsal fin and the tail, is an enigmatic little fatty flap of skin called the adipose fin. It looks a bit like an extra dorsal fin, and though its present in eight large groups of fishes, no one knows why its there. It might help prevent flow from wrapping over the top of the fish; it might help counteract forces from the anal fin, which is in about the same place, but on the ventral side; it might be a flow sensor; or it might not do anything, persisting due to developmental constraints. Whatever the fins function, most fisheries scientists think its not terribly important, because they regularly snip it off to mark millions of hatchery fish released into the wild each year.. Thomas Reimchen and Nicola Temple at the University of Victoria in Canada devised a simple test to find out how important the adipose fin really is. They swam steelhead trout at speeds between about one and three body lengths per second, measured the tail beat ...
Dorsal fin pointed, with distal margin straight and first and second branched rays longest. Pectoral-fin profile pointed. Tip of adpressed pectoral fin falls four or five scales short of vertical through pelvic-fin origin. Pelvic fin profile pointed. Tip of adpressed pelvic fin falls one or two scales short of anus. Caudal fin forked with tips of lobes somewhat pointed. Adipose fin well developed. Anal fin emarginate with first branched ray longest and about three times length of ultimate ray. Tip of adpressed anal fin falls five or six scales short of point of origin of ventral most caudal-fin ray.. Head profile anteriorly pointed overall from lateral view, but rounded in region of mouth and snout. Upper jaw very slightly longer than lower jaw with mouth slightly subterminal or jaws equal. Nostrils very close; anterior circular to ovoid, posterior crescent-shaped with aperture closed by thin flap of skin separating nostrils. Adipose eyelid well developed and extending posteriorly onto ...
I have recently found specimens like this at about 15-20m depth on areas of sand mixed with coral rubble, inside the reefs of Veracruz (Mexico). I am at odds with the identification.. They do not have any blue dots or markings on the body, which, according to the ReefNet DVD would be an ID marking for Lancer Dragonet (Paradiplogrammus bairdi), although these blue markings are not mentioned in the REEF Fish ID book by Humann & DeLoach. The general tan-white mottled background and the orange first dorsal fin would indicate Spotted Dragonets (Diplogrammus pauciradiatus), as the ReefNet DVD suggests, but these specimens lack the fleshy keel, which is present in all photographs of Spotted Dragonet of the ReefNet series, and also an ID marking according to this material. I have seen 3 of these, two with orange dorsal fins and one with a black dorsal fin (an orange and the black were a pair), all of them without keels or blue markings.. So what do you think, are they Lancer or Spotted Dragonets, or are ...
A pretty elongated fish with a pointed snout. The body is silver-blue in colour with vertical white bands from the dorsal to the mid second of the body, with a darker mark on the top section of the body at the beginning of the dorsal fin. The caudal, anal and dorsal fins are yellow with slender black banding, while the pelvic fins are pale blue and the pectoral fins are clear ...
Looking for Quill pig? Find out information about Quill pig. river, 448 mi long, rising in the Ogilvie Mts., NW Yukon, Canada. It flows in a great arc NE through the Eagle Plain, then W into Alaska and to the Yukon... Explanation of Quill pig
Short-lived and blind, Spanish Shawl nudibranchs (Flabellinopsis iodinea) use their red rhinophores and their long purple oral tentacles to find fresh hydroids to behead. Their fiery orange cerata double as digestive and respiratory systems.
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Yuka Taniguchi, Thomas Kurth, Daniel Meulemans Medeiros, Akira Tazaki, Robert Ramm, Hans-Henning Epperlein].
Sometimes I think that those of us studying minor phyla do so in order to prevent from developing some secret (potentially peverse) obsessions. Example: I
The torpedo scad is a moderately large fish, growing to a maximum recorded length of 80 cm and a weight of 4 kg, however is more common between 30 to 40 cm length. It is rare at lengths greater than 80 cm. The species is often considered to have a rather unusual body form, having features superficially similar to tunas, mackerels and other carangids. The body is elongate and subcylindrical, becoming highly compressed toward the tail and caudal fin, with a marked median keel on the caudal peduncle. The dorsal and ventral profiles of the fish are nearly evenly convex, with the two profiles intersecting at the pointed snout. There are two separate dorsal fins; the first consisting of 8 moderately high spines and the second of a single spine followed by 18 to 20 soft rays. The anal fin consists of two anteriorally detached spines followed by a single spine attached to 16 or 17 soft rays. In both the dorsal and anal fins, the posterior 7-10 rays are detached and form a series of diagnostic finlet. ...
Egg: This egg has only been seen on two DNA confirmed occasions, but was easily recognised by its red chorion. It was only confused with CDIA1 when that species lacked a furry chorion, and HIA2. Incubation is at least 10 days (23 C).. Larva description: The newly hatched larva has lightly pigmented eyes, with long dorsal and pelvic fin elements (D). The larva resembles other lampriformes, but instead of a single dorsal fin thread with leaflike expansions as seen in Regalecus (CDIA1) and Zu cristatus larvae ( HIA2), has 4 elongate dorsal spines, and long threadlike extensions to the pelvic fins. D: 2 days PH, 14 days post collection; E: NH 13 days post collection. Four larvae, hatched from eggs, have been barcoded, submitted under my egg codes CDIA1, CDIA1A and HIA2 (2x). They provided a match with adult fish identified as Lampris guttatus, from Australia (BOLD). The barcode of an adult collected off Durban and identified as L. guttatus (TZMSA442-04,ADC117.1-1 in BOLD), does not match these four ...
Finally he said, Now we come to the magnificent Sphinx, which has long. when the Great Sphinx was created because radio carbon dating techniques are. The sphinx in the Giza Plateau. The goal of Ancient Origins is to. Which by so many lines of evidence including 14. Carbon dating by professional. The Sphinx. May 7, 2012. Posts about Sphinx written by kmtsesh.. Extensive carbon dating of the Giza pyramids, conducted in two rounds of testing, have established.
Quill Nymphs - posted in Beginners Corner: Is it possible to tie up a quill nymph and use epoxy for the finish? (As opposed to a UV light and UV resin? It seems an expensive up front cost for all the UV gear.)
Though our nesting birds have left us, there was still lots to see in the intertidal last week. HRAP interpreters stumbled onto some kind of sea slug party when they came across ten opalescent nudibranchs all gathered together on one rock-- and the next day they found even more ...
Pictures of and information about Sphinx istar, the Laurel Sphinx, with caterpillar images and foodplants lists and links to other related species
If you read my earlier thread, i had some peppered corydoras which passed away rather suddenly due to some kind of bacterial issue. The symptoms of the first cories to get sick were lethargy, sitting at the bottom of the tank with whitish spots forming at base of fins and fin erosion. This new case, so far, is only affecting one fish, but it is another peppered cory. The only potential similarity is the posterior dorsal fin is missing, but no white discoloration and the whole fin is
Author, fly tier and blogger Matt Grobert ties a Blue-Winged Olive Quill Nymph with a bright orange hot spot. He was introduced to the fly by Doug Freeman, a
2012 the Quill Group. All rights reserved. Professional land surveying, civil engineering & materials testing laboratory in Connecticut (CT). ...
Download this Antique Feather Quill Inkwell And Letter photo now. And search more of the webs best library of royalty-free stock images from iStock.
Incised Pinctada Margaritifera (black lip pearl oyster = Linnaeaus 1758) shell with drilled dotted design of a horse and rider in profile, facing to the right. The bearded horseman wears a cuirass and headdress, with streamers flying behind and holds a lance. The horse has a ribbon on its head harness; repaired.
The spiny dogfish has a slim, long body and a flattened head. The snout is narrow, with a pointed tip. The eyes of this species are quite large. The first dorsal fin is located about halfway between the pectoral fins and the pelvic fins. The second dorsal fin is about two-thirds the size of the first one and is located behind the pelvic fins.. On the front of each dorsal fin there is a sharp spine attatched to them, giving the spiny dogfish its name. The first spine is about half as long as the second spine. The pectoral fins form nearly perfect equilateral triangles, with rounded rear tips, and slightly concave rear margins. The pelvic fins are closer to the second dorsal fin than to the first dorsal fin. One the caudal fin, there is no notch on the upper lobe and the lower lobe is not well-developed. There is no anal fin on the Spiny dogfish.. The dorsal surface of the dogfish is slate-coloured and may have a brownish cast. There are rows of white spots along each side, from above the pectoral ...
Zebrafish have the capacity to regenerate several organs, including the heart and fins. Fin regeneration is epimorphic, involving the formation at the amputation plane of a mass of undifferentiated, proliferating mesenchymal progenitor-like cells, called blastema. This tissue provides all the cell types that form the fin, so that after damage or amputation the fin pattern and structure are fully restored. How blastema cells remain in this progenitor-like state is poorly understood. Here, we show that the Notch pathway plays an essential role during fin regeneration. Notch signalling is activated during blastema formation and remains active throughout the regeneration process. Chemical inhibition or morpholino-mediated knockdown of Notch signalling impairs fin regeneration via decreased proliferation accompanied by reduced expression of Notch target genes in the blastema. Conversely, overexpression of a constitutively active form of the Notch1 receptor (N1ICD) in the regenerating fin leads to ...
Under sperm competition, a males fertilization success depends largely on the ejaculate characteristics of competing males. Theoretical models predict that, in external fertilizers, increased risk of
Ticks are important vectors of serious human and animal disease-causing organisms, but their innate immunity can fight invading pathogens and may have the ability to reduce or block transmission to mammalian hosts. Lectins, sugar-binding proteins, can distinguish between self and non-self oligosaccharide motifs on pathogen surfaces. Although tick hemolymph possesses strong lectin activity, and several lectins have already been isolated and characterized, little is known about the implementation of these molecules in tick immunity. Here, we have described and functionally characterized fibrinogen-related protein (FReP) lectins in Ixodes ticks. We have shown that the FReP family contains at least 27 genes (ixoderins, ixo) that could, based on phylogenetic and expression analyses, be divided into three groups with differing degrees of expansion. By using RNA interference-mediated gene silencing (RNAi) we demonstrated that IXO-A was the main lectin in tick hemolymph. Further, we found that ixoderins were

Animal Structures Lab - Curious About Crickets | TpTAnimal Structures Lab - Curious About Crickets | TpT

In this research lab, students will observe actual crickets. They will discuss questions posed to them on their lab directions sheet, and then record their predictions on the recording sheet. Students will then conduct a research investigation, using either
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Volume 5 - Animal Structure and Function (Biology: the Unity & Diversity of Life) 14th Edition | Rent 9781305251281 | 1305251288Volume 5 - Animal Structure and Function (Biology: the Unity & Diversity of Life) 14th Edition | Rent 9781305251281 | 1305251288

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Animal Structure and Function (ZOOL20005) - The University of Melbourne HandbookAnimal Structure and Function (ZOOL20005) - The University of Melbourne Handbook

In this subject you will explore how form and function are related, starting with simple animals like ... Animals show remarkable diversity in form and function. ... Animal Structure and Function. Animal Structure and Function ( ... animals have evolved to solve the problem of how to move and feed. In the practicals, you will learn how to classify animals ... skills in dissection of animals and drawing to show structure; an insight into the evolutionary history, diversity and ...
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Molecular Expressions Cell Biology: Animal Cell Structure - PeroxisomesMolecular Expressions Cell Biology: Animal Cell Structure - Peroxisomes

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Lecture 1 - Multicellular Life BILD 2 80 comes from board onto exam Lecture#1 Intro/Animal Structure of Evolution I Course...Lecture 1 - Multicellular Life BILD 2 80 comes from board onto exam Lecture#1 Intro/Animal Structure of Evolution I Course...

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Largest animal structure [Marine]Largest animal structure [Marine]

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I have not uploaded any contents on my own. I have got all these resources from the internet which are public and obtained as such from search engines. If these contents are objectionable or violating anyone copyrights please contact me. I will do the needful immediately and assure full assistance. No files are hosted on my server; they are only indexed much like how Google works. The hosting server or the administrator cannot be held responsible for the contents of any linked sites or any link contained in a linked site, or changes / updates to such sites. All stuff on this blog is for Entertainment and private Purposes only. It is not the purpose of this blog to infringe on anybodys copyrights. Mail @ rajeshk_pec99-blog AT yahoo DOT com ...
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Animal cell structure, computer artwork - Stock Image G450/0112 - Science Photo LibraryAnimal cell structure, computer artwork - Stock Image G450/0112 - Science Photo Library

Computer artwork of a section through an animal cell. At the centre is the nucleus, which contains the cells genetic ... Keywords: animal cell, artwork, biological, biology, cell, cell structure, computer artwork, cytology, endoplasmic reticulum, ... Caption: Animal cell. Computer artwork of a section through an animal cell. At the centre is the nucleus, which contains the ...
more infohttp://www.sciencephoto.com/media/214753/view

Animal Structures & Barns for Sale | Amish Built Animal BarnAnimal Structures & Barns for Sale | Amish Built Animal Barn

View our animal structures and barns for sale in MD! We provide Amish built wood barns, houses, kennels, cages, hutches and ... Animal Structures & Barns for Sale. We offer many types of animal structures that are made by the Amish. Whether you are ... In the meantime, browse through our wide selection on animal structures today to give your animals a cozy and sturdy new home. ... If you like what you see but are interested in a custom animal structure, please feel free to contact us today so we can make ...
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Animal Structure & Function | Bamfield Marine Sciences CentreAnimal Structure & Function | Bamfield Marine Sciences Centre

... of animals in which we learned about tons of different phylas of animals. I thought the material covered in this course was ... This course is an introduction to principles underlying how animals are designed. Topics to be covered include: tree ... of how animals are designed will include: hydrostatic and rigid skeletons, various modes of aquatic locomotion (burrowing, ... structures, adhesion, cost-benefit analysis, safety factors). Examples (drawn primarily from marine invertebrates) ...
more infohttp://www.bamfieldmsc.com/education/prospective-students/courses/detail/animal-structure-function

Anatomical Structure Of Animal Cell Stock Photo & More Pictures of Anatomy | iStockAnatomical Structure Of Animal Cell Stock Photo & More Pictures of Anatomy | iStock

Download this Anatomical Structure Of Animal Cell photo now. And search more of iStocks library of royalty-free stock images ... Anatomical structure of animal cell - Stock image. .... Anatomy, Animal, Biology, Biomedical Illustration, Biotechnology. ...
more infohttps://www.istockphoto.com/dk/photo/anatomical-structure-of-animal-cell-gm514218224-87972457
  • When you purchase one of these shelters for your beloved animals, you know you can count on its quality to protect your animals and last for years to come. (amishshedsqueenstownmaryland.com)
  • In endothermic animals, construction of shelters, coupled with behavioural patterns, reduces the quantity and energy cost of thermoregulation, as in the case of the Arctic ground squirrels. (wikipedia.org)
  • The dynamics of heat in animal shelters is influenced by the construction material which may act as a barrier, as a heat sink or to dissipate heat. (wikipedia.org)
  • Examples (drawn primarily from marine invertebrates) of how animals are 'designed' will include: hydrostatic and rigid skeletons, various modes of aquatic locomotion (burrowing, crawling, swimming), vision, bioluminescence and buoyancy. (bamfieldmsc.com)
  • Carbohydrates are the most abundant biological molecules, and fill numerous roles, such as the storage and transport of energy (starch, glycogen) and structural components (cellulose in plants, chitin in animals). (wikipedia.org)
  • In the practicals, you will learn how to classify animals and interpret their features, and develop an understanding of how birds fly, fish feed, worms burrow and parasites infect us. (edu.au)
  • Some species have a pair of these light-detecting structures on their front end, but larger species may have numerous pairs along the body. (jrank.org)
  • I thought the material covered in this course was really valuable because it forced us to think critically and could be applied to many animals, and some concepts could even be applied to other areas (i.e. general mechanics, building structures). (bamfieldmsc.com)
  • The 'AnimalAnatomicalStructure' entity domain provides information about body structures of popular domestic animals. (wolfram.com)
  • These animals have a complex but incomplete digestive tract, meaning they have no anus (AY-nuhs) and all waste leaves the body through the mouth. (jrank.org)
  • These constructions may arise from complex building behaviour of animals such as in the case of night-time nests for chimpanzees, from inbuilt neural responses, which feature prominently in the construction of bird songs, or triggered by hormone release as in the case of domestic sows, or as emergent properties from simple instinctive responses and interactions, as exhibited by termites, or combinations of these. (wikipedia.org)
  • The process of building such structures may involve learning and communication, and in some cases, even aesthetics. (wikipedia.org)
  • Tool use may also be involved in building structures by animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • We offer many types of animal structures that are made by the Amish. (amishshedsqueenstownmaryland.com)
  • The tension between these two ideas informs Chamber Made Opera's Dwelling Structure , which is perhaps the most beautifully judged site-specific work I have seen. (blogspot.com)
  • You can use the ClipPlanes option to selectively cut skin and muscles to expose the internal structures in the graphics. (wolfram.com)
  • In ectothermic animals, moderation of temperature, along with architectural modifications to absorb, trap or dissipate energy, maximises the rate of development, as in the case of the communal silk nests of the small eggar moth Eriogaster lanestris. (wikipedia.org)
  • Controlled shape  3d structure optimized for special functions (eg. (coursehero.com)
  • Turbellarians have no circulatory system, a factor that restricts the size and shape of the animals. (jrank.org)
  • In a case apparently of masquerade, the red-faced spinetail Cranioleuca erythrops places bits of grass and other material loosely streaming both above and below the nest chamber to break the shape of the nest and to cause it to resemble random debris without any underlying structure. (wikipedia.org)