Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Genes, Plant: The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.Plant Roots: The usually underground portions of a plant that serve as support, store food, and through which water and mineral nutrients enter the plant. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982; Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Arabidopsis: A plant genus of the family BRASSICACEAE that contains ARABIDOPSIS PROTEINS and MADS DOMAIN PROTEINS. The species A. thaliana is used for experiments in classical plant genetics as well as molecular genetic studies in plant physiology, biochemistry, and development.Arabidopsis Proteins: Proteins that originate from plants species belonging to the genus ARABIDOPSIS. The most intensely studied species of Arabidopsis, Arabidopsis thaliana, is commonly used in laboratory experiments.DNA, Plant: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of plants.Plants, Toxic: Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.Plant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plant Shoots: New immature growth of a plant including stem, leaves, tips of branches, and SEEDLINGS.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Tobacco: A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.Vegetable Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from vegetables or vegetable products used as food. The concept is distinguished from PLANT PROTEINS which refers to non-dietary proteins from plants.Plant Development: Processes orchestrated or driven by a plethora of genes, plant hormones, and inherent biological timing mechanisms facilitated by secondary molecules, which result in the systematic transformation of plants and plant parts, from one stage of maturity to another.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Plant Cells: Basic functional unit of plants.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Eleusine: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. Finger millet or raggee (E. coracana) is an important food grain in southern Asia and parts of Africa.Ribosome Inactivating Proteins, Type 2: Ribosome inactivating proteins consisting of two polypeptide chains, the toxic A subunit and a lectin B subunit, linked by disulfide bridges. The lectin portion binds to cell surfaces and facilitates transport into the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Genome, Plant: The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.Plants, Edible: An organism of the vegetable kingdom suitable by nature for use as a food, especially by human beings. Not all parts of any given plant are edible but all parts of edible plants have been known to figure as raw or cooked food: leaves, roots, tubers, stems, seeds, buds, fruits, and flowers. The most commonly edible parts of plants are FRUIT, usually sweet, fleshy, and succulent. Most edible plants are commonly cultivated for their nutritional value and are referred to as VEGETABLES.Plant Structures: The parts of plants, including SEEDS.Lycopersicon esculentum: A plant species of the family SOLANACEAE, native of South America, widely cultivated for their edible, fleshy, usually red fruit.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Plant Lectins: Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Pollen: The fertilizing element of plants that contains the male GAMETOPHYTES.Plant Growth Regulators: Any of the hormones produced naturally in plants and active in controlling growth and other functions. There are three primary classes: auxins, cytokinins, and gibberellins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Soybeans: An annual legume. The SEEDS of this plant are edible and used to produce a variety of SOY FOODS.Gene Expression Regulation, Plant: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.Plant Immunity: The inherent or induced capacity of plants to withstand or ward off biological attack by pathogens.Antigens, Plant: Substances found in PLANTS that have antigenic activity.Peas: A variable annual leguminous vine (Pisum sativum) that is cultivated for its rounded smooth or wrinkled edible protein-rich seeds, the seed of the pea, and the immature pods with their included seeds. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1973)DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Plant Epidermis: A thin layer of cells forming the outer integument of seed plants and ferns. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Food, Formulated: Food and dietary formulations including elemental (chemically defined formula) diets, synthetic and semisynthetic diets, space diets, weight-reduction formulas, tube-feeding diets, complete liquid diets, and supplemental liquid and solid diets.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Soybean Proteins: Proteins which are present in or isolated from SOYBEANS.Two-Hybrid System Techniques: Screening techniques first developed in yeast to identify genes encoding interacting proteins. Variations are used to evaluate interplay between proteins and other molecules. Two-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for protein-protein interactions, one-hybrid for DNA-protein interactions, three-hybrid interactions for RNA-protein interactions or ligand-based interactions. Reverse n-hybrid techniques refer to analysis for mutations or other small molecules that dissociate known interactions.Plant Stomata: Closable openings in the epidermis of plants on the underside of leaves. They allow the exchange of gases between the internal tissues of the plant and the outside atmosphere.Angiosperms: Members of the group of vascular plants which bear flowers. They are differentiated from GYMNOSPERMS by their production of seeds within a closed chamber (OVARY, PLANT). The Angiosperms division is composed of two classes, the monocotyledons (Liliopsida) and dicotyledons (Magnoliopsida). Angiosperms represent approximately 80% of all known living plants.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Plant Diseases: Diseases of plants.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Plant Poisoning: Poisoning by the ingestion of plants or its leaves, berries, roots or stalks. The manifestations in both humans and animals vary in severity from mild to life threatening. In animals, especially domestic animals, it is usually the result of ingesting moldy or fermented forage.Plant Transpiration: The loss of water vapor by plants to the atmosphere. It occurs mainly from the leaves through pores (stomata) whose primary function is gas exchange. The water is replaced by a continuous column of water moving upwards from the roots within the xylem vessels. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Flowers: The reproductive organs of plants.Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Nutritional Requirements: The amounts of various substances in food needed by an organism to sustain healthy life.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Plant Tumors: A localized proliferation of plant tissue forming a swelling or outgrowth, commonly with a characteristic shape and unlike any organ of the normal plant. Plant tumors or galls usually form in response to the action of a pathogen or a pest. (Holliday, P., A Dictionary of Plant Pathology, 1989, p330)Chromosomes, Plant: Complex nucleoprotein structures which contain the genomic DNA and are part of the CELL NUCLEUS of PLANTS.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Plant Components, Aerial: The above-ground plant without the roots.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Plant Preparations: Material prepared from plants.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Protein Kinases: A family of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of ATP and a protein to ADP and a phosphoprotein.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Seedling: Very young plant after GERMINATION of SEEDS.Herbivory: The act of feeding on plants by animals.Power Plants: Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.Proteomics: The systematic study of the complete complement of proteins (PROTEOME) of organisms.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Proteome: The protein complement of an organism coded for by its genome.Databases, Protein: Databases containing information about PROTEINS such as AMINO ACID SEQUENCE; PROTEIN CONFORMATION; and other properties.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.Fabaceae: The large family of plants characterized by pods. Some are edible and some cause LATHYRISM or FAVISM and other forms of poisoning. Other species yield useful materials like gums from ACACIA and various LECTINS like PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS from PHASEOLUS. Many of them harbor NITROGEN FIXATION bacteria on their roots. Many but not all species of "beans" belong to this family.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Plant Nectar: Sugar-rich liquid produced in plant glands called nectaries. It is either produced in flowers or other plant structures, providing a source of attraction for pollinating insects and animals, as well as being a nutrient source to animal mutualists which provide protection of plants against herbivores.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Phosphoprotein Phosphatases: A group of enzymes removing the SERINE- or THREONINE-bound phosphate groups from a wide range of phosphoproteins, including a number of enzymes which have been phosphorylated under the action of a kinase. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Oxylipins: Eighteen-carbon cyclopentyl polyunsaturated fatty acids derived from ALPHA-LINOLENIC ACID via an oxidative pathway analogous to the EICOSANOIDS in animals. Biosynthesis is inhibited by SALICYLATES. A key member, jasmonic acid of PLANTS, plays a similar role to ARACHIDONIC ACID in animals.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Plant Bark: The outer layer of the woody parts of plants.Symbiosis: The relationship between two different species of organisms that are interdependent; each gains benefits from the other or a relationship between different species where both of the organisms in question benefit from the presence of the other.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Photosynthesis: The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)Plant Physiological Processes: Physiological functions characteristic of plants.Cyclopentanes: A group of alicyclic hydrocarbons with the general formula R-C5H9.Indoleacetic Acids: Acetic acid derivatives of the heterocyclic compound indole. (Merck Index, 11th ed)Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Soil: The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Medicine, Traditional: Systems of medicine based on cultural beliefs and practices handed down from generation to generation. The concept includes mystical and magical rituals (SPIRITUAL THERAPIES); PHYTOTHERAPY; and other treatments which may not be explained by modern medicine.Computational Biology: A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.Plant Exudates: Substances released by PLANTS such as PLANT GUMS and PLANT RESINS.Ecosystem: A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Salicylic Acid: A compound obtained from the bark of the white willow and wintergreen leaves. It has bacteriostatic, fungicidal, and keratolytic actions.Root Nodules, Plant: Knobbed structures formed from and attached to plant roots, especially of LEGUMES, which result from symbiotic infection by nitrogen fixing bacteria such as RHIZOBIUM or FRANKIA. Root nodules are structures related to MYCORRHIZAE formed by symbiotic associations with fungi.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Germ Cells, Plant: The reproductive cells of plants.Mycorrhizae: Symbiotic combination (dual organism) of the MYCELIUM of FUNGI with the roots of plants (PLANT ROOTS). The roots of almost all higher plants exhibit this mutually beneficial relationship, whereby the fungus supplies water and mineral salts to the plant, and the plant supplies CARBOHYDRATES to the fungus. There are two major types of mycorrhizae: ectomycorrhizae and endomycorrhizae.Phytotherapy: Use of plants or herbs to treat diseases or to alleviate pain.Poaceae: A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Plant Infertility: The failure of PLANTS to complete fertilization and obtain seed (SEEDS) as a result of defective POLLEN or ovules, or other aberrations. (Dict. of Plant Genet. and Mol. Biol., 1998)Brassica: A plant genus of the family Cruciferae. It contains many species and cultivars used as food including cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, Brussel sprouts, kale, collard greens, MUSTARD PLANT; (B. alba, B. junica, and B. nigra), turnips (BRASSICA NAPUS) and rapeseed (BRASSICA RAPA).Germination: The initial stages of the growth of SEEDS into a SEEDLINGS. The embryonic shoot (plumule) and embryonic PLANT ROOTS (radicle) emerge and grow upwards and downwards respectively. Food reserves for germination come from endosperm tissue within the seed and/or from the seed leaves (COTYLEDON). (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Asteraceae: A large plant family of the order Asterales, subclass Asteridae, class Magnoliopsida. The family is also known as Compositae. Flower petals are joined near the base and stamens alternate with the corolla lobes. The common name of "daisy" refers to several genera of this family including Aster; CHRYSANTHEMUM; RUDBECKIA; TANACETUM.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Droughts: Prolonged dry periods in natural climate cycle. They are slow-onset phenomena caused by rainfall deficit combined with other predisposing factors.Botany: The study of the origin, structure, development, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of plants.Fungi: A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Abscisic Acid: Abscission-accelerating plant growth substance isolated from young cotton fruit, leaves of sycamore, birch, and other plants, and from potatoes, lemons, avocados, and other fruits.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.Phytosterols: A class of organic compounds known as STEROLS or STEROIDS derived from plants.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Pseudomonas syringae: A species of gram-negative, fluorescent, phytopathogenic bacteria in the genus PSEUDOMONAS. It is differentiated into approximately 50 pathovars with different plant pathogenicities and host specificities.Bryopsida: A class of plants within the Bryophyta comprising the mosses, which are found in both damp (including freshwater) and drier situations. Mosses possess erect or prostrate leafless stems, which give rise to leafless stalks bearing capsules. Spores formed in the capsules are released and grow to produce new plants. (Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990). Many small plants bearing the name moss are in fact not mosses. The "moss" found on the north side of trees is actually a green alga (CHLOROPHYTA). Irish moss is really a red alga (RHODOPHYTA). Beard lichen (beard moss), Iceland moss, oak moss, and reindeer moss are actually LICHENS. Spanish moss is a common name for both LICHENS and an air plant (TILLANDSIA usneoides) of the pineapple family. Club moss is an evergreen herb of the family LYCOPODIACEAE.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Disease Resistance: The capacity of an organism to defend itself against pathological processes or the agents of those processes. This most often involves innate immunity whereby the organism responds to pathogens in a generic way. The term disease resistance is used most frequently when referring to plants.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Protoplasts: The protoplasm and plasma membrane of plant, fungal, bacterial or archaeon cells without the CELL WALL.Chlorophyll: Porphyrin derivatives containing magnesium that act to convert light energy in photosynthetic organisms.Meristem: A group of plant cells that are capable of dividing infinitely and whose main function is the production of new growth at the growing tip of a root or stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Agrobacterium tumefaciens: A species of gram-negative, aerobic bacteria isolated from soil and the stems, leafs, and roots of plants. Some biotypes are pathogenic and cause the formation of PLANT TUMORS in a wide variety of higher plants. The species is a major research tool in biotechnology.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Aphids: A family (Aphididae) of small insects, in the suborder Sternorrhyncha, that suck the juices of plants. Important genera include Schizaphis and Myzus. The latter is known to carry more than 100 virus diseases between plants.Rhizobium: A genus of gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that activate PLANT ROOT NODULATION in leguminous plants. Members of this genus are nitrogen-fixing and common soil inhabitants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Transformation, Genetic: Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Cucumis sativus: A creeping annual plant species of the CUCURBITACEAE family. It has a rough succulent, trailing stem and hairy leaves with three to five pointed lobes.Cytokinins: Plant hormones that promote the separation of daughter cells after mitotic division of a parent cell. Frequently they are purine derivatives.Hydroponics: A technique for growing plants in culture solutions rather than in soil. The roots are immersed in an aerated solution containing the correct proportions of essential mineral salts. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Mustard Plant: Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.Stress, Physiological: The unfavorable effect of environmental factors (stressors) on the physiological functions of an organism. Prolonged unresolved physiological stress can affect HOMEOSTASIS of the organism, and may lead to damaging or pathological conditions.Hemiptera: A large order of insects characterized by having the mouth parts adapted to piercing or sucking. It is comprised of four suborders: HETEROPTERA, Auchenorrhyncha, Sternorrhyncha, and Coleorrhyncha.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Endophytes: An endosymbiont that is either a bacterium or fungus living part of its life in a plant. Endophytes can benefit host plants by preventing pathogenic organisms from colonizing them.Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Solanaceae: A plant family of the order Solanales, subclass Asteridae. Among the most important are POTATOES; TOMATOES; CAPSICUM (green and red peppers); TOBACCO; and BELLADONNA.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Bryophyta: A division of the plant kingdom. Bryophyta contains the subdivision, Musci, which contains the classes: Andreaeopsida, BRYOPSIDA, and SPHAGNOPSIDA.Ferns: Seedless nonflowering plants of the class Filicinae. They reproduce by spores that appear as dots on the underside of feathery fronds. In earlier classifications the Pteridophyta included the club mosses, horsetails, ferns, and various fossil groups. In more recent classifications, pteridophytes and spermatophytes (seed-bearing plants) are classified in the Subkingdom Tracheobionta (also known as Tracheophyta).Plant Dispersal: The physical distribution of plants in various forms and stages of development through time and space.Ascomycota: A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Gibberellins: A class of plant growth hormone isolated from cultures of Gibberella fujikuroi, a fungus causing Bakanae disease in rice. There are many different members of the family as well as mixtures of multiple members; all are diterpenoid acids based on the gibberellane skeleton.Medicago sativa: A plant species of the family FABACEAE widely cultivated for ANIMAL FEED.Gymnosperms: Gymnosperms are a group of vascular plants whose seeds are not enclosed by a ripened ovary (fruit), in contrast to ANGIOSPERMS whose seeds are surrounded by an ovary wall. The seeds of many gymnosperms (literally, "naked seed") are borne in cones and are not visible. Taxonomists now recognize four distinct divisions of extant gymnospermous plants (CONIFEROPHYTA; CYCADOPHYTA; GINKGOPHYTA; and GNETOPHYTA).Nuclear Power Plants: Facilities that convert NUCLEAR ENERGY into electrical energy.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Cell Wall: The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.Plantago: A plant genus of the family Plantaginaceae. The small plants usually have a dense tuft of basal leaves and long, leafless stalks bearing a terminal spike of small flowers. The seeds, known as PSYLLIUM, swell in water and are used as laxatives. The leaves have been used medicinally.Medicine, African Traditional: A system of traditional medicine which is based on the beliefs and practices of the African peoples. It includes treatment by medicinal plants and other materia medica as well as by the ministrations of diviners, medicine men, witch doctors, and sorcerers.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.Cotyledon: A part of the embryo in a seed plant. The number of cotyledons is an important feature in classifying plants. In seeds without an endosperm, they store food which is used in germination. In some plants, they emerge above the soil surface and become the first photosynthetic leaves. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Lamiaceae: The mint plant family. They are characteristically aromatic, and many of them are cultivated for their oils. Most have square stems, opposite leaves, and two-lipped, open-mouthed, tubular corollas (united petals), with five-lobed, bell-like calyxes (united sepals).Ethnopharmacology: The study of the actions and properties of medicinal agents, often derived from PLANTS, indigenous to populations or ETHNIC GROUPS.Soil Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the soil. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.Cucurbita: A plant genus of the family CUCURBITACEAE, order Violales, subclass Dilleniidae, which includes pumpkin, gourd and squash.Helianthus: A genus herbs of the Asteraceae family. The SEEDS yield oil and are used as food and animal feed; the roots of Helianthus tuberosus (Jerusalem artichoke) are edible.Hypocotyl: The region of the stem beneath the stalks of the seed leaves (cotyledons) and directly above the young root of the embryo plant. It grows rapidly in seedlings showing epigeal germination and lifts the cotyledons above the soil surface. In this region (the transition zone) the arrangement of vascular bundles in the root changes to that of the stem. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Agrobacterium: A genus of gram negative, aerobic, rod-shaped bacteria found in soil, plants, and marine mud.Phaseolus: A plant genus in the family FABACEAE which is the source of edible beans and the lectin PHYTOHEMAGGLUTININS.Caulimovirus: A genus of PLANT VIRUSES, in the family CAULIMOVIRIDAE, that are transmitted by APHIDS in a semipersistent manner. Aphid-borne transmission of some caulimoviruses requires certain virus-coded proteins termed transmission factors.Brassica napus: A plant species of the family BRASSICACEAE best known for the edible roots.Medicago truncatula: A plant species of the family FABACEAE used to study GENETICS because it is DIPLOID, self fertile, has a small genome, and short generation time.Host-Parasite Interactions: The relationship between an invertebrate and another organism (the host), one of which lives at the expense of the other. Traditionally excluded from definition of parasites are pathogenic BACTERIA; FUNGI; VIRUSES; and PLANTS; though they may live parasitically.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Carbon: A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.Botrytis: A mitosporic Leotiales fungal genus of plant pathogens. It has teleomorphs in the genus Botryotina.Embryophyta: Higher plants that live primarily in terrestrial habitats, although some are secondarily aquatic. Most obtain their energy from PHOTOSYNTHESIS. They comprise the vascular and non-vascular plants.GlucuronidaseLettuce: Any of the various plants of the genus Lactuca, especially L. sativa, cultivated for its edible leaves. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Oomycetes: Eukaryotes in the group STRAMENOPILES, formerly considered FUNGI, whose exact taxonomic level is unsettled. Many consider Oomycetes (Oomycota) a phylum in the kingdom Stramenopila, or alternatively, as Pseudofungi in the phylum Heterokonta of the kingdom Chromista. They are morphologically similar to fungi but have no close phylogenetic relationship to them. Oomycetes are found in both fresh and salt water as well as in terrestrial environments. (Alexopoulos et al., Introductory Mycology, 4th ed, pp683-4). They produce flagellated, actively motile spores (zoospores) that are pathogenic to many crop plants and FISHES.
... maintenance proteins Xu, Chunhui; Yu, Weichang (2009). "Engineered minichromosomes in plants". AccessScience. ... Minichromosomes have been reported in yeast and animal cells. These minichromosomes were constructed using the De novo approach ... Halpin, Claire (2005). "Gene stacking in transgenic plants - the challenge for 21st century plant biotechnology". Plant ... In plants, the telomere sequence is conserved which implies this strategy can be utilized to successfully construction ...
The proteins are formed from two copies of the same protein-a homodimer-though scientists have artificially combined subunits ... Three CLC subfamilies are found in animals. CLCN1 is involved in setting and restoring the resting membrane potential of ... Chloride channels are also important for maintaining safe ion concentrations within plant cells. The CLC channel structure has ... Inhibition or activation of the protein by these domains is specific to each protein. The CLC channels allow chloride to flow ...
... from animals to plants". IUBMB Life. 66 (7): 462-71. doi:10.1002/iub.1290. PMID 25045044. Palmieri F (June 1994). " ... phosphate carrier protein (SLC25A3; TC# 2.A.29.4.2) Tricarboxylate transport protein (SLC25A1, or citrate transport protein; ... Such proteins include: ADP/ATP carrier protein (ADP-ATP translocase; i.e., TC# 2.A.29.1.2) 2-oxoglutarate/malate carrier ... Yeast mitochondrial proteins MRS3 (TC# 2.A.29.5.1) and MRS4 (TC# 2.A.29.5.2) Yeast mitochondrial FAD carrier protein (TC# 2.A. ...
SQS belongs to squalene/phytoene synthase family of proteins. Squalene synthase has been characterized in animals, plants, and ... Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Additional screens ... The crystal structure of human SQS was determined in 2000, and revealed that the protein was composed entirely of α-helices. ... PHS serves a similar role to SQS in plants and bacteria, catalyzing the synthesis of phytoene, a precursor of carotenoid ...
Animals such as livestock and white-tailed deer find the herbage palatable. The seeds are also high in protein. Leucaena retusa ... This plant is a small tree that can reach 25 feet in height. The leaves are bright green to blue-green in color and each is ... It is often cultivated as an ornamental plant for its attractive appearance. It is easily grown from seed and it will reseed ... Leucaena retusa is a species of flowering plant in the legume family known by the common names littleleaf leadtree, goldenball ...
This plant is cultivated as an animal fodder and fed to ducks, pigs, and rabbits. Its leaves are relatively rich in protein. It ... This plant is a shrub or tree growing up to 5 meters tall, though a 15-meter specimen was reported once. It often produces ... The plant blooms in the afternoon and the flowers fall away during the night. The flowers are pollinated by bats. The bat ... This plant also has many uses for humans. It has uses in human medicine, including as a supplement to increase lactation in ...
"Animal Protein vs. Plant Protein for Dogs , Dog Health , Eukanuba". Eukanuba. Retrieved 2017-11-28. Sidhu, Kirpal S. (December ... There are a variety of supplements that can be given to and animal and getting the opinion of a veterinarian or an animal ... Supplements may also be useful in improving an animal's health, especially when that animal has specific health issues. Some ... A veterinarian from the National Animal Poison Control Center suggests that the diarrhea in animals that raw feeders attribute ...
... s occur in multicellular organisms (plants, animals, fungi, brown algae and red algae). These compounds occur also in ... Examples of protein hormones include insulin and growth hormone. More complex protein hormones bear carbohydrate side-chains ... Amino acid-based hormones (amines and peptide or protein hormones) are water-soluble and act on the surface of target cells via ... There are several benefits with the formation of a complex with a binding protein: the effective half-life of the bound hormone ...
Animal fibers generally comprise proteins such as collagen, keratin and fibroin; examples include silk, sinew, wool, catgut, ... Natural fibers are made from plant, animal, and mineral sources. Natural fibers can be classified according to their origin. ... Keratin has two forms, α-keratin and β-keratin and are used by different classes of animals. The naming convention for proteins ... Animal hair (wool or hairs): Fiber or wool taken from animals or hairy mammals. e.g. sheep's wool, goat hair (cashmere, mohair ...
... is a common name for a group of cellular proteins. They are mostly found in eukaryotic organisms (animal, plant and ... As of 2002 160 annexin proteins have been identified in 65 different species. The criteria that a protein has to meet to be ... The recognition that these proteins were members of a broad family first came from protein sequence comparisons and their cross ... Annexins can function as scaffolding proteins to anchor other proteins to the cell membrane. Annexins assemble as trimers, ...
Plants and Animals of Central Europe (Pflanzen und Tiere). "Astacus astacus". Slow Food Foundation. Archived from the original ... J. S. Bond & R. J. Benyon (1995). "The astacin family of metalloendopeptidases". Protein Science. 4 (7): 1247-1261. doi:10.1002 ... More than 20 enzymes of this group have since been discovered in animals from Hydra to humans. L. Edsman; L. Füreder; F. ... European crayfish are nocturnal and feed on worms, aquatic insects, molluscs, and plants, spending the day resting in a burrow ...
Animals eliminate excess inorganic materials; plants mostly deposit such material in their tissues. Such mineral matter is ... A well-known amorphous ergastic protein is gluten. Fats (lipids) and oils are widely distributed in plant tissues. Substances ... Although proteins are the main component of living protoplasm, proteins can occur as inactive, ergastic bodies-in an amorphous ... Cellulose and starch are the main ergastic substances of plant cells. Cellulose is the chief component of the cell wall, and ...
... is an essential trace element in plants and animals, but not all microorganisms. The human body contains copper at a ... Several copper proteins, such as the "blue copper proteins", do not interact directly with substrates, hence they are not ... Cytochrome c oxidase is the protein that binds the O2 between a copper and an iron; the protein transfers 8 electrons to the O2 ... The tobacco plant readily absorbs and accumulates heavy metals, such as copper from the surrounding soil into its leaves. These ...
The main organic fertilizers are, peat, animal wastes (often from slaughter houses), plant wastes from agriculture, and treated ... Other examples are natural enzyme-digested proteins. Decomposing crop residue (green manure) from prior years is another source ... Animal sources[edit]. Animal sourced materials include both animal manures and residues from the slaughter of animals. Manures ... and animals raised for meat and hide production. When any animal is butchered, only about 40% to 60% of the live animal is ...
CaCA2 family proteins are found in bacteria, archaea, yeast, plants and animals. This family, previously called the ... The yeast golgi Gcr1-dependent translation factor 1 protein (Gdt1p; TC# 2.A.106.2.3) contributes to Ca2+ homeostasis. A yeast ... "Newly characterized Golgi-localized family of proteins is involved in calcium and pH homeostasis in yeast and human cells". ... "The LysE Superfamily of Transport Proteins Involved in Cell Physiology and Pathogenesis". PLoS One. 10 (10): e0137184. doi: ...
They are widely distributed in animal species, but also found more sporadically in yeast, plant and bacterial proteins. ABI3BP ... The Fibronectin type III domain is an evolutionary conserved protein domain that is widely found in animal proteins. The ... Fibronectin domains are found in a wide variety of extracellular proteins. ... fibronectin protein in which this domain was first identified contains 16 copies of this domain. The domain is about 100 amino ...
... proteins exist not only in other animal species, but also in plants. Vicilin and legumin, from peas and other legumes ... The term "globulin" is sometimes used synonymously with "globular protein". However, albumins are also globular proteins, but ... function as protein storage within seeds. These proteins can cause allergic reactions if they bind with human IgE antibodies. ... The globulins are a family of globular proteins that have higher molecular weights than albumins and are insoluble in pure ...
Related proteins in other plant families and in animals have also been found. They have been used for decades as a model system ... "The role of weak protein-protein interactions in multivalent lectin-carbohydrate binding: crystal structure of cross-linked ... The legume lectins (or L-type lectins) are a family of sugar-binding proteins or lectins found in the seeds and, in smaller ... doi:10.1093/protein/14.10.735. PMID 11739891. PDBe Browser for legume lectin assemblies Hamelryck TW, Moore JG, Chrispeels MJ, ...
It is a group of structurally homologous proteins, conserved throughout the species as it was identified from plants to mammals ... There are four main groups of TIR domain-containing proteins in animals; Toll-like receptors, Interleukin-1 receptor (IL-1R), ... cytosolic adaptor proteins (such as MyD88 adaptor protein) and insect and nematode Toll. Each of these groups is involved ... If due to some mutation all of the three boxes are damaged, there is no surface expression of the protein. If only boxes one ...
Proteins of the CaCA family are found ubiquitously, having been identified in animals, plants, yeast, archaea and divergent ... Two clusters consist exclusively of animal proteins, a third contains several bacterial and archaeal proteins, a fourth ... and prevents protein unfolding. All of the characterized animal proteins catalyze Ca2+:Na+ exchange although some also ... The bacterial and archaeal proteins are in general smaller than the eukaryotic proteins. They have been suggested to traverse ...
After a certain growing period, the plants are harvested and used as soil amendment, compost material or protein source for ... Leng (1995). "Duckweed: A potential high-protein feed resource for domestic animals and fish". Livestock Research for Rural ... The sticky root enables the plant to adhere to the plumage or feet of birds and can thereby colonize new ponds. L. minor has a ... The plants then become dormant and sink to the ground for overwintering. The following spring, they restart growing again and ...
Although proteins containging this domain were originally identified as a family of animal lectins, there are also yeast ... In molecular biology the L-like lectin domain is a protein domain found in lectins which are similar to the leguminous plant ... Fiedler K, Simons K (June 1994). "A putative novel class of animal lectins in the secretory pathway homologous to leguminous ... ERGIC-53 is a 53kDa protein, localised to the intermediate region between the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus (ER ...
With few exceptions only class I proteins have been found in animals, plants, and green algae. With few exceptions only class ... The aldolase used by plants and algae in the Calvin cycle is usually a plastid-targeted protein encoded by a nuclear gene. ... The aldolase used in gluconeogenesis and glycolysis is a cytoplasmic protein. Three forms of class I protein are found in ... The Escherichia coli galactitol operon protein, gatY, and N-acetyl galactosamine operon protein, agaY, which are tagatose- ...
"A plant surface protein sharing structural properties with animal integrins". European Journal of Biochemistry. 253 (3): 552- ... ILRs play a role in protein-protein interaction and are found in the plasma membrane of plant cells in the leaf, root and ... These proteins are around 55 to 110 kDa and some studies have found them to react with animal anti-β1 antibodies suggesting the ... The plant cell wall is composed of a tough cellulose polysaccharide rather than the collagen fibers of the animal ECM. Even ...
The spun fibers are generally divided into animal fibers, plant and synthetic fibers. These fiber types are chemically ... different, corresponding to proteins, carbohydrates and synthetic polymers, respectively. Animal fibers include silk, but ... Plants used for fibers include cotton, flax (for linen), bamboo, ramie, hemp, jute, nettle, raffia, yucca, coconut husk, banana ... generally are long hairs of animals such as sheep (wool), goat (angora, or cashmere goat), rabbit (angora), llama, alpaca, dog ...
... carnivores eat other animals, herbivores eat plants, omnivores consume a mixture of both plant and animal matter, and ... 131-137 An omnivore eats both prey and plants. Carnivorous mammals have a simple digestive tract because the proteins, lipids ... Physiologically, animals must be able to obtain both energy and nutrients from plant and animal materials to be considered ... are varied and often include nectar, fruit, plants, seeds, carrion, and various small animals, including other birds.[43] ...
A diet high in animal protein, especially if its poor quality animal protein, ... Animal & Plant-based Proteins. In this section we will examine the social and cultural shifts that have contributed to our ... nutritionally inferior compared with animal-based proteins. But in fact the health benefits of substituting plant-based ... concentrations that these foods are called complete protein sources. In contrast, plant based protein sources like beans, ...
Most plant, animal and fungal centromeres also bind a large protein, centromere protein C (CENP-C), that is characterized by a ... Comparisons of CENP-C proteins in animals, yeast and plants. The CENPC motif and conserved regions found at the termini of CENP ... Adaptive evolution of centromere proteins in plants and animals.. Talbert PB1, Bryson TD, Henikoff S. ... In plants we find that CENP-C proteins have complex duplicated regions, with conserved amino and carboxyl termini that are ...
In our next round of protein insights, well explore North Americans sentiment toward both animal and plant-based proteins, ... protein. Protein, which can be derived from both animal- and plant-based food sources, helps boost energy levels, supports ... Animal or Plant? Understanding North American Protein Preferences. CPG, FMCG & Retail 09-07-2017. ... www.nielsen.com/us/en/insights/article/2017/animal-or-plant-understanding-north-american-protein-preferences/ ...
Isocaloric Diets High in Animal or Plant Protein Reduce Liver Fat and Inflammation in Individuals With Type 2 Diabet... ... Mariya Markova discusses her manuscript "Isocaloric Diets High in Animal or Plant Protein Reduce Liver Fat and Inflammation in ... Isocaloric Diets High in Animal or Plant Protein Reduce Liver Fat and Inflammation... ... The Worst Protein Powder for the Liver - Duration: 2:13. Dr. Eric Berg DC 33,224 views ...
... can be balanced out by combining different plant protein sources and also blending plant proteins with animal-based protein ... A study published in the journal Amino Acids looked at differences between plant-based and animal protein sources. ... There were also lower levels of the EAAs methionine and lysine in plant-based proteins. Amino acid profiles ... Levels of the Branched Chain Amino Acid Leucine also varied by protein type with around 5.1% in hemp and 13.5% in corn compared ...
Animal sources of protein are more potent than vegan sources for stimulating muscle growth but their significant impact on ... climate change means plant sources will be key for future diets, researchers will be told later this week as part of an online ... dairy and plant-based protein sources.. The total EAA content of animal-based proteins typically exceeds plant-based proteins. ... As a general rule, the leucine content of animal-based protein sources is typically greater than plant-based protein sources. ...
People who swap out animal protein for plant-based alternatives often end up eating healthier diets, but there are a few things ... you need to know before assuming that plant protein is always healthier.... ... We all need protein, but meat isnt the only place to find it. ... Either plant-based or animal-based proteins (or both) can have ... Plant protein has less protein, but often comes with fibre. Plant-based protein sources have their own pros and cons as well. ...
... how protein can affect your bodys performance, and when your body needs it most. ... Discover the different types of protein, whats best for you, ... MUSCLE AND MYTH: ANIMAL VERSUS PLANT PROTEIN by Prof. David ... but these differ between animal and plant foods. Animal foods generally contain "complete" proteins, while plant foods are ... How do animal and plant proteins differ?. We humans need all 20 of the amino acids that make up proteins, ...
... highly digestible feed ingredient that is favoured for addition to diets for young animals. Over the years, however, plant- ... Nutritionists typically acknowledge animal protein as being a quality, ... Switching to plant-based proteins. Plant-based proteins are a safe, and often cheaper, alternative. However, plant proteins are ... A similar tendency is probable for other animal protein sources.. Plant-based proteins can be highly digestible and help to ...
Translationally controlled tumor protein is a conserved mitotic growth integrator in animals and plants.. Brioudes F1, Thierry ... No AtTCTP protein accumulation is observed in tctp-1 and tctp-2 plants. Red Ponceau staining of total proteins is shown as ... Translationally controlled tumor protein is a conserved mitotic growth integrator in animals and plants ... Translationally controlled tumor protein is a conserved mitotic growth integrator in animals and plants ...
Reciprocal secretion of proteins by the bacterial type III machines of plant and animal pathogens suggests universal ... Reciprocal secretion of proteins by the bacterial type III machines of plant and animal pathogens suggests universal ... Reciprocal secretion of proteins by the bacterial type III machines of plant and animal pathogens suggests universal ... Reciprocal secretion of proteins by the bacterial type III machines of plant and animal pathogens suggests universal ...
Substituting one to two servings of animal proteins with plant proteins every day could lead to a small reduction in the three ... Health benefits of swapping animal proteins for plant proteins. From Science Daily , Posted on: 12/28/2017 , 9:33 Posted in ... The study looked at the impact of replacing animal protein with plant protein of three key markers for cholesterol: low-density ... Sievenpiper said the review indicated that replacing one to two servings of animal proteins with plant proteins every day - ...
Protein powder is one of the most commonly-used nutritional supplements, but which ones are the best for you and your fitness ... Second, all protein varieties can be further broken down into four categories: milk-, animal-, plant-, and animal collagen- ... Animal Collagen Protein Powder: The Silent Force. Pro: Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body and is a major ... Plant-Based Rice and Pea Protein Powder: The Trendsetters. Pros: Were grouping these two together because they are often mixed ...
... a manufacturer of vegetable proteins for food for young animals, recently opened its new manufacturing facility in Findlay, ... Hamlet Protein says the need to expand its manufacturing capacity came from sales growth for soy... ... Hamlet Protein opens new manufacturing plant for animal diets. Company to expand offerings of diets for pets, aquatic animals. ... Hamlet Protein investing in new US plant. Butchers Pet Care opens new petfood manufacturing plant in UK. New trademark rights ...
... and switching to plant protein provides a quick fix for both.. Understanding Plant Protein. Protein may be one of the most ... Benefits of Plant Protein vs. Animal Protein. By Hannah Vergara on February 16, [email protected] ... plant food contains almost twice as much protein as meat. The long chains of amino acids that make up proteins are utilized by ... In the three weeks following, the patients had a diet constructed mainly of plant-protein and little meat. By the end of the ...
People getting most of their protein from plants and consuming a healthful plant-based diet are more likely to live longer and ... Is It Better to Get Protein from Plants or Animals?. People getting most of their protein from plants and consuming a healthful ... The people who consumed more plant protein and less animal protein were less likely to suffer heart attacks or get cancer. ... If you want to try getting your protein from plants more than animals, you may want to listen to Show 1051. In it, we discuss ...
What Protein is. It is very interesting that todays culture views animal protein as better than plant protein. Many people ... Are Plant Proteins the Same as Animal Proteins?. By the Authors of The Mediterranean Diet eBook ... plant protein is actually the healthiest source of protein. They allow for slow, yet steady synthesis of new proteins. Because ... Low Quality Proteins. Proteins that come from other animals are very similar to ours, because they have the perfect balance of ...
Substitution of plant protein for animal protein, especially that from processed red meat, was associated with lower mortality ... The researchers calculated that opting for plant protein sources in place of animal protein would greatly reduce CVD deaths. ... The study authors concluded that high animal protein intake was positively associated with mortality and high plant protein ... Animal proteins, as found in meat, eggs, and dairy, are unaffected by the manner of animal husbandry and there are multiple ...
... a company aiming to bring a suite of plant-based seafood products to stores within six months, could change the tide of ... Plant-based meat alternatives mimicking beef and chicken may be getting all the attention right now, but Good Catch Foods, ... Good Catch Foods readies for entry into plant-based alternative animal protein space. By Mary Ellen Shoup ... Fish is the mostly widely consumed animal protein in the world and its also the one of the most endangered, according to ...
Using the numbers from this study, if you were to replace just 5 grams of animal protein with 5 grams of a plant-based protein ... In a new study published in the British Journal of Nutrition, scientists compared animal proteins to plant proteins and ... this was the first time an animal-based protein diet was compared to a plant-based protein diet. ... Egg protein was actually associated with a lower risk of T2D.. While a higher animal protein diet was associated with an ...
Much of our bodies dry weight is protein. Even our bones are about one-quarter protein. The animals we eat and the microbes ... What proteins do Proteins are extremely important components of all living organisms. The word protein itself means primary ... All proteins have at least two more levels of structure. The amino acid groups that make up a protein all carry electrical ... Protein structure The string of amino acids shown above represents only one level of protein structure, the simplest level. ...
Publication: Secreted venom allergen-like proteins of helminths: Conserved modulators of host responses in animals and plants. ... Publication: Secreted venom allergen-like proteins of helminths: Conserved modulators of host responses in animals and plants ... Secreted venom allergen-like proteins of helminths: Conserved modulators of host responses in animals and plants ... Although the habitats of animal- and plant-parasitic helminths are very distinct, their secretions share the presence of a ...
... provides information about gene and protein expression in animal and plant samples of different cell types, organism parts, ... Expression Atlas Update--An Integrated Database of Gene and Protein Expression in Humans, Animals and Plants Nucleic Acids Res ... provides information about gene and protein expression in animal and plant samples of different cell types, organism parts, ... Plant studies constitute a quarter of Atlas data. For genes of interest, the user can view baseline expression in tissues, and ...
In this study we describe a novel protein, TmpL, involved in development and virulence in both plant and animal pathogenic ... mechanism employed by both plant and animal pathogens and to develop efficient and novel therapeutics for both plant and animal ... the complex web of interactions between ROS and cell differentiation and the involvement of ROS for both plant and animal ...
Feed Fats & Proteins Market by Source (Animals, Plants & Others), by Livestock (Ruminant, Poultry, Aqua, Swine & Equine) & by ... What are the Known and Unknown Adjacencies Impacting the Feed Fats & Proteins Market ...
  • The Asia Pacific will provide the greatest growth in various protein forms in the years until 2019, growing almost six times faster than the next biggest mover, latin America. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Euromonitor said protein tonnage would stay flat in Europe until 2019 but Asia Pacific would move from 621,000 tonnes in 2014 to 786,000 tonnes in 2019. (nutraingredients.com)
  • Referencing Fuji Keizai, the size of protein and amino acid market in Japan is forecasted to reach JPY 52,550 million in 2019, compared to JPY 30,650 million in 2010. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The current plant protein market is estimated to be about $374.1M in 2018 and the future plant protein value is estimated to be $565.1M by 2023. (fastandup.in)
  • A notion that you would think would've been laid to rest after the release of a large meta-analysis from back in March 2018, which examined 49 different studies, with a total sample size of 1,863 participants, and found that protein source did not seem to matter when it came to resistance training-induced gains in muscle mass and strength. (strongerfastervegan.com)
  • On a gram for gram basis, animal proteins are more effective than plant proteins in supporting the maintenance of skeletal muscle mass with advancing age, shows research presented this week at The Physiological Society's virtual early career conference Future Physiology 2020. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Oliver Witard of King's College London is presenting research at The Physiological Society's Future Physiology 2020 conference about soy and wheat proteins showing that a larger dose of these plant proteins is required to achieve a comparable response of building muscles. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The market for alternative proteins, such as 'Impossible Burgers', is set to expand by over 8% a year and reach $5.2 billion by 2020. (thepigsite.com)
  • By now, you probably know that there's a good reason every guy in the locker room seems to pack a Ziploc bag of the stuff: Protein promotes a healthier weight and can help your muscles recover faster post-sweat, both of which are pretty desirable outcomes for those who elect to consume it. (gq.com)
  • Thereby, consuming plant proteins proves to be a much healthier option than animal proteins. (wikidifference.com)
  • Consumers want healthier and cleaner lifestyles - and they are looking for nutritional, protein-rich alternatives that are produced in a sustainable way. (novozymes.com)
  • As consumers continue to focus on their overall health and wellness , food and beverage products that are rich in protein have a unique opportunity to resonate with today's shoppers and the retailers that stock them on their shelves. (nielsen.com)
  • Hamlet Protein , a manufacturer of vegetable proteins for food for young animals, recently opened its new manufacturing facility in Findlay, Ohio, USA. (petfoodindustry.com)
  • Protein may be one of the most poorly understood food groups. (hivehealthmedia.com)
  • Some consumers have become excited about the option of a plant-based "burger" from their favorite fast-food franchise. (peoplespharmacy.com)
  • The process by which plants use light energy to manufacture their own food. (scienceclarified.com)
  • The tight association between the secretion of VALs and the onset of parasitism has triggered a particular interest in this group of proteins, as improved knowledge on their biological functions may assist in designing novel protection strategies against parasites in humans, livestock, and important food crops. (wur.nl)
  • Answer: "The breakneck advancement of plant-based food and beverages was easily the biggest surprise to our readership. (agri-pulse.com)
  • Grain commonly used for food (except rice) are 11 to 15 percent protein . (agri-pulse.com)
  • The Course "Food Proteins: Properties, Functionalities & Applications" is designed to give participants a theoretical and practical overview of vegetable and animal proteins currently available for food applications and to provide hands-on information about their properties and functionalities. (bridge2food.com)
  • This course is designed for all who are active in the food industry and who want to learn more about the properties, functionalities, and applications of a broad range of plant-based and animal-based proteins, and who want to obtain hands-on know-how and know-why. (bridge2food.com)
  • Rapid growth in the food & beverage industry, primarily in Asia Pacific countries including India, China, Malaysia and Indonesia, is anticipated to boost demand for plant & animal proteins over the projected period. (marketresearch.com)
  • While it is a possibility, there do exist certain minor differences between the proteins that are offered by plants and the type of proteins that is offered by animal food products. (wikidifference.com)
  • Animal proteins is the type of protein that is obtained from animal food products. (wikidifference.com)
  • Does the origin of the protein contained in food, i.e., plant or animal, have an impact on health? (myheart.net)
  • Improve your food process economy and increase nutritional value in your protein products with enzymes. (novozymes.com)
  • Fifteen years ago, there were very limited opportunities for soy protein in the food and beverages space. (novozymes.com)
  • The grains now being fed to animals for later human consumption can be used directly in human food, improving the overall efficiency of the food industry and reducing food waste. (novozymes.com)
  • More plant-based protein options, better use of food waste and healthy fast food are emerging trends. (novozymes.com)
  • The impact on the environment caused by animal farming will see consumers demand new solutions from the food industry. (novozymes.com)
  • Plants and the flavors and functionalities they add to food and beverages are exciting news for food manufacturers. (novozymes.com)
  • It forecast big things for the category going forward, especially as established food players through their weight behind protein. (nutraingredients.com)
  • The growing resistance to antibiotics and other antimicrobials due to their overuse and misuse both in humans and animals has become an alarming global threat to public health, food safety and security, causing the deaths of 700,000 people each year. (ipsnews.net)
  • Allergies usually occur from your immune system's reaction to food proteins, which your body cannot break down during the digestive process. (livestrong.com)
  • The real differences between plant-based and animal-based proteins come from the other molecules found in that food. (ataqfuel.com)
  • Many of them said they tried to take proteins but did not know how to take it effectively: "I don't know from which food I should take proteins. (nutraingredients.com)
  • FeedKind protein is a new sustainable feed ingredient that is critical to helping meet sharply rising global demand for food," said Alan Shaw, Ph.D., Calysta President and CEO. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • When we eat food, our bodies digest the protein in the food, breaking the bonds that link the amino acids together. (meatyourfuture.com)
  • However, until now, we did not know if one protein food source was better than another in accomplishing optimal results. (livefootball-bst.com)
  • Minerals are derived from the earth and make their way into the food supply via plants. (livefootball-bst.com)
  • Please note that 100% of the revenue from this book sale goes to benefit Mercy For Animals, a 501(c)(3) dedicated to preventing cruelty to farmed animals and promoting compassionate food choices and policies. (veganproteins.com)
  • Now, a $2.4 trillion investor coalition doubles support in 18 months, and calls on 16 food multinationals to plan for a shift to alternative proteins. (thepigsite.com)
  • A new report entitled Plant-based profits , backed by a $2.4 trillion coalition of 57 large investors, has urged global food companies to diversify their protein sourcing away from a reliance on animal proteins. (thepigsite.com)
  • Sustainable protein is a fast-emerging issue for the food industry, and it is important for long-term investors to know if the companies they invest in understand the related risks and opportunities. (thepigsite.com)
  • FAIRR's sustainable protein engagement offers practical guidance to companies to ensure they have a business strategy that is robust enough to respond to a changing food supply chain. (thepigsite.com)
  • From meatpackers to supermarket stackers the global food sector is rapidly taking notice of plant-based alternatives to animal protein products, and that is driving 8% annual growth in the alternative proteins market. (thepigsite.com)
  • It's significant that all of the food producers and retailers engaged by investors now market at least one own-brand alternative protein product. (thepigsite.com)
  • Domestic animals continue to make important contributions to global food supply and, as a result, animal feeds have become an increasingly critical component of the integrated food chain. (fao.org)
  • In the absence of concerted efforts to raise awareness on the dangers of aflatoxin to humans and domestic animals, advances in technology for early detection of aflatoxin in cereals and seeds such as maize will come to naught, experts warn. (ipsnews.net)
  • He planted cowpea seeds directly without tilling the land. (ipsnews.net)
  • Recently, an extensive research by Prof Dr Hans Stein at the University of Illinois, United States, was performed in cannulated weaning pigs to analyse in vivo digestibility of these protein concentrates in comparison with steam-dried Peruvian fishmeal. (pigprogress.net)
  • In the same period about 2m tonnes of vegetable proteins including soy concentrates and isolates, gluten (excluding pea protein) were sold. (nutraingredients.com)
  • In terms of revenue, animal type was the largest segment, accounting for 72.3% of the global industry share in 2016. (marketresearch.com)
  • Animal proteins emerged as the largest type segment in terms of revenue in 2016 and is estimated to reach USD 35.9 billion by 2025, and is anticipated to experience a steady growth over the years ahead. (marketresearch.com)
  • Bacterial pathogens of both animals and plants use type III secretion machines to inject virulence proteins into host cells. (pnas.org)
  • Although all type III machines are believed to catalyze similar reactions, i.e., the translocation of polypeptides across the bacterial envelope or their injection into the cytosol of eukaryotic cells, only 9 of the 21 ysc genes are conserved among all known type III machinery components of mammalian and plant pathogens ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • Members of the cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPS), antigen 5 (Ag5) and pathogenesis-related 1 (Pr-1) (CAP) superfamily of proteins are discovered throughout the bacterial, fungal, plant and animal kingdoms. (e-protein.org)
  • Bacterial cell surface and secreted proteins are also of interest for their potential as vaccine candidates or as diagnostic targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bacterial glycerol facilitator protein (gene glpF), which facilitates the movement of glycerol non-specifically across the cytoplasmic membrane. (wikipedia.org)