Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE.
Nutritional physiology of adults aged 65 years of age and older.
Nutritional physiology of animals.
Physiological processes and properties of the DENTITION.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM and DENTITION as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiology of the human and animal body, male or female, in the processes and characteristics of REPRODUCTION and the URINARY TRACT.
Properties, and processes of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM or their parts.
Functional processes and properties characteristic of the BLOOD; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
The properties and relationships and biological processes that characterize the nature and function of the SKIN and its appendages.
Physiological processes, factors, properties and characteristics pertaining to REPRODUCTION.
The functions and properties of living organisms, including both the physical and chemical factors and processes, supporting life in single- or multi-cell organisms from their origin through the progression of life.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 13-18 years.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Properties, functions, and processes of the URINARY TRACT as a whole or of any of its parts.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Nutritional physiology of children aged 2-12 years.
The processes and properties of living organisms by which they take in and balance the use of nutritive materials for energy, heat production, or building material for the growth, maintenance, or repair of tissues and the nutritive properties of FOOD.
Processes and properties of the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM.
Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.
Biological properties, processes, and activities of VIRUSES.
Properties and processes of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Physiological processes and properties of the BLOOD.
Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.
Characteristic properties and processes of the NERVOUS SYSTEM as a whole or with reference to the peripheral or the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Cellular processes, properties, and characteristics.
Physiological processes and properties of the RESPIRATORY SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.
The physiological processes, properties, and states characteristic of plants.
Physiological processes and properties of BACTERIA.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.

Infleuce of dietary levels of vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters in pigs. (1/2840)

Eighteen barrows approximately three weeks of age were used in a 3 X 3 factorial arrangement to investigate the effect of level of supplemental vitamin E and selenium on tissue and blood parameters. Tissue selenium concentrations increased in a quadratic manner with increased selenium intake with kidney tissue containing considerably greater concentrations than liver, heart or muscle. Supplementation of the diet caused a three-fold increase in serum selenium within the first week with a slight tendency to further increases in subsequent weeks. Serum vitamin E of unsupplemented pigs declined by fifty percent during the experiment, whereas supplemental vitamin E resulted in increased serum vitamin E. There was a considerable viration in percent peroxide hemolysis. Correlation of -0.63 between percent peroxide hemolysis and vitamin E intake and -0.85 between percent peroxide hemolysis and serum vitamin E were observed.  (+info)

Evaluation of life-cycle herd efficiency in cow-calf systems of beef production. (2/2840)

A deterministic beef efficiency model (BEM) was used to evaluate life-cycle herd efficiency (LCHE) in cow-calf beef production systems using four breed groups of beef cattle. The breed groups were Beef Synthetic #1 (SY1), Beef Synthetic #2 (SY2), Dairy Synthetic (DS), and purebred Hereford (HE). The LCHE was defined over the lifetime of the herd as the ratio of total output (lean meat equivalent) to total input (feed equivalent). Breed differences in LCHE were predicted with the larger/slower maturing DS being most efficient at each age of herd disposal and reproductive rate. This was mainly because, at any average age at culling, the dams of DS breed group were less mature and so had been carrying relatively lower maintenance loads for shorter periods and positively influencing LCHE. Higher LCHE was predicted with improvement in reproductive performance if there were no associated extra costs. However, this declined markedly if there was a delay in marketing of offspring. As average age at culling increased from 4 to 6 yr, efficiency declined sharply, but it began to recover beyond this age in most breed groups. We concluded that the slower maturing DS breed group may be more efficient on a herd basis in cow-calf systems and that improvements in reproductive rate not associated with extra costs improve life-cycle efficiency. Culling cows soon after their replacements are produced seems efficient.  (+info)

Structural changes in intramuscular connective tissue during the fattening of Japanese black cattle: effect of marbling on beef tenderization. (3/2840)

We investigated changes in structures and mechanical properties of the intramuscular connective tissue during the fattening of Japanese Black steers, using the cell maceration method for scanning electron microscopy. During the early fattening period, from 9 to 20 mo of age, collagen fibrils of the endomysium in longissimus muscle associated more closely with each other, and collagen fibers in the perimysium increased in thickness and their wavy pattern became more regular. These changes were closely related to the increase in mechanical strength of the intramuscular connective tissue and resulted in a toughening of the beef during the period. The shear force value of longissimus muscle decreased after 20 mo of age, concomitantly with the rapid increase in the crude fat content. Scanning electron micrographs of the longissimus muscle dissected from 32-mo-old steers clearly showed that the adipose tissues were formed between muscle fiber bundles, that the honeycomb structure of endomysia was partially broken, and that the perimysium separated into thinner collagen fibers. In semitendinosus muscle, in which the crude fat content was lower (P<.05) than that in longissimus muscle, the structure of the intramuscular connective tissue remained rigid at 32 mo of age. The shear force value of the muscle increased even in the late fattening period, from 20 to 32 mo of age. Thus, the development of adipose tissues in longissimus muscle appears to disorganize the structure of the intramuscular connective tissue and contributes to tenderization of highly marbled beef from Japanese Black cattle during the late fattening period.  (+info)

Processing, mixing, and particle size reduction of forages for dairy cattle. (4/2840)

Adequate forage amounts in both physical and chemical forms are necessary for proper ruminal function in dairy cows. Under conditions in which total amounts of forage or particle size of the forage are reduced, cows spend less time ruminating and have a decreased amount of buoyant digesta in the rumen. These factors reduce saliva production and allow ruminal pH to fall, depressing activity of cellulolytic bacteria and causing a prolonged period of low ruminal pH. Insufficient particle size of the diet decreases the ruminal acetate-to-propionate ratio and reduces ruminal pH. The mean particle size of the diet, the variation in particle size, and the amount of chemical fiber (i.e., NDF or ADF) are all nutritionally important for dairy cows. Defining amounts and physical characteristics of fiber is important in balancing dairy cattle diets. Because particle size plays such an important role in digestion and animal performance, it must be an important consideration from harvest through feeding. Forages should not be reduced in particle size beyond what is necessary to achieve minimal storage losses and what can be accommodated by existing equipment. Forage and total mixed ration (TMR) particle sizes are potentially reduced in size by all phases of harvesting, storing, taking out of storage, mixing, and delivery of feed to the dairy cow. Mixing feed causes a reduction in size of all feed particles and is directly related to TMR mixing time; field studies show that the longest particles (>27 mm) may be reduced in size by 50%. Forage and TMR particle size as fed to the cows should be periodically monitored to maintain adequate nutrition for the dairy cow.  (+info)

Production systems comparing early weaning to normal weaning with or without creep feeding for beef steers. (5/2840)

A 2-yr study was conducted to determine the effects of three weaning management systems on cow and steer performance. Cow-calf pairs were randomly assigned to one of three treatments, in which the steer calves were 1) early-weaned (yr 1, 177 +/- 9 d; yr 2, 158 +/- 21 d of age) and placed on a finishing diet (EW), 2) supplemented with grain for 55 d on pasture (yr 1, 177 to 231 d; yr 2, 158 to 213 d of age) while nursing their dams and then placed on a finishing diet (NWC), and 3) on pasture for 55 d while nursing their dams (yr 1, 177 to 231 d; yr 2, 158 to 213 d of age) and then placed on a finishing diet (NW). In yr 2, potential breed differences were evaluated using steers of three breed types: 1) Angus x Hereford (BRI); 2) Angus x Simmental (CON); and 3) Angus x Wagyu (WAG). In yr 1, EW steers gained 100% faster (P = .0001) than the average of NWC and NW steers, and NWC steers gained 32% faster (P = .02) than NW steers before weaning. In the feedlot, EW steers had lower intakes (7.70 vs 8.16 kg/d, P = .008) and better feed conversions (.170 vs .153, P = .002) than the average of NWC and NW steers. Marbling score was improved for EW steers compared with the average of NWC and NW steers (P = .003). In yr 2, EW steers had higher gains (P = .0006) during the entire study than the average of NWC and NW steers, and NWC steers had higher gains (P = .003) than NW steers. The EW steers had lower intakes (7.29 vs 7.68 kg/d, P = .0008) and better feed conversions (.160 vs .141, P = .0001) than the average of NWC and NW steers. The CON steers were heavier at slaughter than BRI steers (P = .01), and BRI steers were heavier than WAG steers (P =.0004). Early weaning improved the percentage of steers grading Average Choice or higher by 40%. The percentage of BRI steers grading Choice or greater was 21% higher and percentage of steers grading Average Choice or greater was 33% higher than CON. Cows with EW steers had higher ADG than cows with NW steers (.38 vs -.17 kg/d, P = .0001) before weaning. Cows with EW steers gained in body condition score (.23 vs .00, P = .04), and cows with NW steers did not change. Early weaning improved feed efficiency and quality grades of beef steers.  (+info)

Performance and carcass traits of early-weaned steers receiving either a pasture growing period or a finishing diet at weaning. (6/2840)

A 2-yr study was conducted to evaluate 1) steers fed ad libitum high concentrate after weaning (CONC), or 2) steers grown on pasture for 82 d, followed by high-concentrate finishing (PAST), on the performance and carcass traits of 74 early-weaned (117 d of age) steers. Potential breed differences were evaluated using crossbred steers of three types: 1) 3/4 Angus x 1/4 Simmental (BRI), 2) 3/4 Simmental x 1/4 Angus (CON), and 3) 1/2 Wagyu x 1/4 Angus x 1/4 Simmental (WAG). Steers were randomly assigned within breed to the two treatments. There was no interactions (P > .10), so the data were pooled over years. The CONC steers had an ADG that was .17 kg/d higher (P = .0001), intake 1.09 kg/d lower (P = .0001), and gain:feed ratio .013 unit better (.190 vs .177, P = .008) than PAST steers overall. Growing treatment did not affect total concentrate consumed (P = .97). The BRI steers required 31 d less than did CON steers (P = .008), and 23 d less than WAG steers (P = .05) when fed to a constant fat end point (1.1 cm). The BRI steers exhibited an ADG .16 kg/d higher (P = .0003), tended (P = .07) to have an ADG intake .49 kg/d higher, and exhibited gain:feed .01 unit better (.189 vs 180) than WAG steers. When compared with CON steers, BRI steers consumed 310 kg less total concentrate (P = .0003). No differences (P > .38) were observed between growing treatments for carcass characteristics or sensory attributes except that CONC steers tended (P = .11) to improve percentage of steers grading Average Choice or higher by 47% over PAST steers. The WAG steers had a 76-unit higher marbling score (1,000 = Small00, 1,100 = Modest00) (P = .006) than BRI steers, resulting in 19% more (P = .09) steers grading > or = Choice and 82% more (P = .03) grading > or = Average Choice. Liver (P = .15) and rumen (P = .01) weights as a percentage of hot carcass weight were reduced for CONC steers. The CONC steers had higher gain, lower intake, better efficiency, reduced liver and rumen weights, and consumed the same amount of total concentrate when compared with PAST steers. The BRI steers had less finishing days and lower daily intake compared with CON steers. The WAG steers had more days finishing, lower gain, lower intake, more undesirable efficiencies, consumed the same amount of total concentrate, and improved quality grades compared with BRI steers.  (+info)

Nutrient-specific preferences by lambs conditioned with intraruminal infusions of starch, casein, and water. (7/2840)

We hypothesized that lambs discriminate between postingestive effects of energy and protein and associate those effects with a food's flavor to modify food choices. Based on this hypothesis, we predicted that 1) lambs would acquire a preference for a poorly nutritious food (grape pomace) eaten during intraruminal infusions of energy (starch) or protein (casein) and that 2) shortly after an intraruminal infusion of energy or protein (preload), lambs would decrease their preferences for foods previously conditioned with starch or casein, respectively. Thirty lambs were allotted to three groups and conditioned as follows. On d 1, lambs in each group received grape pomace containing a different flavor and water was infused into their rumens as they ate the pomace. On d 2, the flavors were switched so each group received a new flavor and a suspension of starch (10% of the DE required per day) replaced the water infusion. On d 3, the flavors were switched again, and a suspension of casein (2.7 to 5.4% of the CP required per day) replaced the starch infusion. Conditioning was repeated during four consecutive trials. Lambs in Trial 1 had a basal diet of alfalfa pellets (e.g., free access from 1200 to 1700) and 400 g of rolled barley. Lambs in Trials 2, 3, and 4 received a restricted amount of alfalfa pellets (990 g/d) as their basal diet. After conditioning, all animals received an infusion of water, and, 30 min later, they were offered a choice of the three flavors previously paired with water, starch, or casein. On the ensuing days, the choice was repeated, but starch, casein, and barley replaced the water preload. The nutrient density of the infused preloads was increased during consecutive trials. Lambs preferred the flavors paired with starch > water > casein during Trial 1 (P < .05) and the flavors paired with starch > casein > water during Trials 2 (P < .05), 3 (P < .001), and 4 (P < .001). Preloads of casein decreased preferences for flavors previously paired with casein (P < .10 [Trial 2]; P < .001 [Trial 3], and increased preferences for flavors paired with starch (P < .05 [Trial 2]; P < .001 [Trial 3]). Preloads of energy (barley) had the opposite effect (P < .05 [Trial 3]). These results indicate that lambs discriminated between the postingestive effects of starch and casein and associated the effects with specific external cues (i.e., added flavors) to regulate macronutrient ingestion.  (+info)

Nutrient management procedures to enhance environmental conditions: an introduction. (8/2840)

The advent of concentrated, large animal production units presents a monumental challenge for the effective management of nutrients in animal manure. This symposium was organized to address the issue of the environmental impact of animal production and to offer suggestions on nutrient management procedures for reducing the environmental impact. There were four presentations on environmental concerns of animal manure that covered the topics of using the severe Dutch legislation that limits the amounts of nitrogen and phosphate in the manure allowed for application on cropland, potential for reducing odorous compounds in swine manure, alternatives to reduce the environmental impact of large swine production units, and, finally, perspectives on nutrient management procedures from a swine integrator's viewpoint. This introduction to the symposium highlights the major areas discussed within each of the four presentations.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a broad concept that combines elements from sports nutrition, physiology, and potentially some biochemical phenomena.

1. Sports Nutrition: This involves the study of how diet can impact physical performance during sporting activities. It includes understanding the role of macronutrients (carbohydrates, proteins, and fats) and micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) in athletic performance and recovery.

2. Physiological Phenomena: This refers to the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including all physical and chemical processes. In the context of sports, this could include how the body responds to exercise, such as increased heart rate, respiratory rate, and metabolism.

If you're looking for a definition that encompasses these areas, it might be something like: "The study of how nutritional intake and physiological responses interact during sporting activities, including the impact on performance, recovery, and overall health." However, this is not a standard medical definition. If you could provide more context or clarify what specific aspects you're interested in, I might be able to give a more precise answer.

I cannot provide a medical definition for the term "Elder Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is not a widely recognized or established term in the field of medicine or nutrition. It seems to be a very specific and narrow term that may refer to certain age-related changes in nutritional status and physiological functions among older adults. However, I would recommend consulting with a healthcare professional or geriatric specialist for a more accurate and detailed explanation based on the context and specific phenomena being referred to.

"Animal nutritional physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical or scientific term. However, it seems to refer to the processes and functions related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Here's a breakdown of the possible components:

1. Animal: This term refers to non-human living organisms that are multicellular, heterotrophic, and have a distinct nervous system.
2. Nutritional: This term pertains to the nourishment and energy requirements of an animal, including the ingestion, digestion, absorption, transportation, metabolism, and excretion of nutrients.
3. Physiological: This term refers to the functions and processes that occur within a living organism, including the interactions between different organs and systems.
4. Phenomena: This term generally means an observable fact or event.

Therefore, "animal nutritional physiological phenomena" could refer to the observable events and processes related to nutrition and physiology in animals. Examples of such phenomena include digestion, absorption, metabolism, energy production, growth, reproduction, and waste elimination.

Dental physiological phenomena refer to the various natural and normal functions, processes, and responses that occur in the oral cavity, particularly in the teeth and their supporting structures. These phenomena are essential for maintaining good oral health and overall well-being. Some of the key dental physiological phenomena include:

1. Tooth formation (odontogenesis): The process by which teeth develop from embryonic cells into fully formed adult teeth, including the growth and mineralization of tooth enamel, dentin, and cementum.
2. Eruption: The natural movement of a tooth from its developmental position within the jawbone to its final functional position in the oral cavity, allowing it to come into contact with the opposing tooth for biting and chewing.
3. Tooth mobility: The normal slight movement or displacement of teeth within their sockets due to the action of masticatory forces and the elasticity of the periodontal ligament that connects the tooth root to the alveolar bone.
4. Salivary flow: The continuous production and secretion of saliva by the major and minor salivary glands, which helps maintain a moist oral environment, neutralize acids, and aid in food digestion, speech, and swallowing.
5. pH balance: The regulation of acidity and alkalinity within the oral cavity, primarily through the buffering capacity of saliva and the action of dental plaque bacteria that metabolize sugars and produce acids as a byproduct.
6. Tooth sensitivity: The normal response of teeth to various stimuli such as temperature changes, touch, or pressure, which is mediated by the activation of nerve fibers within the dentin layer of the tooth.
7. Oral mucosal immune response: The natural defense mechanisms of the oral mucosa, including the production of antimicrobial proteins and peptides, the recruitment of immune cells, and the formation of a physical barrier against pathogens.
8. Tooth wear and attrition: The normal gradual loss of tooth structure due to natural processes such as chewing, grinding, and erosion by acidic substances, which can be influenced by factors such as diet, occlusion, and bruxism.
9. Tooth development and eruption: The growth and emergence of teeth from the dental follicle through the alveolar bone and gingival tissues, which is regulated by a complex interplay of genetic, hormonal, and environmental factors.

The digestive system is a series of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which the body can absorb and use for energy, growth, and cell repair. The process begins in the mouth, where food is chewed and mixed with saliva, which contains enzymes that begin breaking down carbohydrates.

The oral physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in the mouth during eating and digestion. These include:

1. Ingestion: The process of taking food into the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: The physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces by chewing, which increases the surface area for enzymes to act on.
3. Chemical digestion: The chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler substances that can be absorbed and utilized by the body. In the mouth, this is initiated by salivary amylase, an enzyme found in saliva that breaks down starches into simple sugars.
4. Taste perception: The ability to detect different flavors through specialized taste buds located on the tongue and other areas of the oral cavity.
5. Olfaction: The sense of smell, which contributes to the overall flavor experience by interacting with taste perception in the brain.
6. Salivation: The production of saliva, which helps moisten food, making it easier to swallow, and contains enzymes that begin the digestion process.
7. Protective mechanisms: The mouth has several defense mechanisms to protect against harmful bacteria and other pathogens, such as the flow of saliva, which helps wash away food particles, and the presence of antibacterial compounds in saliva.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes related to human reproduction, which include:

1. Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Gonadal Axis: The regulation of reproductive hormones through a feedback mechanism between the hypothalamus, pituitary gland, and gonads (ovaries in females and testes in males).
2. Oogenesis/Spermatogenesis: The process of producing mature ova (eggs) or spermatozoa (sperm) capable of fertilization.
3. Menstrual Cycle: A series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over approximately 28 days, including follicular development, ovulation, and endometrial changes.
4. Pregnancy and Parturition: The process of carrying a developing fetus to term and giving birth.
5. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk by the mammary glands for nourishment of the newborn.

Urinary physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes related to the urinary system, which include:

1. Renal Filtration: The process of filtering blood in the kidneys to form urine.
2. Tubular Reabsorption and Secretion: The active transport of solutes and water between the tubular lumen and peritubular capillaries, resulting in the formation of urine with a different composition than plasma.
3. Urine Concentration and Dilution: The ability to regulate the concentration of urine by adjusting the amount of water reabsorbed or excreted.
4. Micturition: The process of storing and intermittently releasing urine from the bladder through a coordinated contraction of the detrusor muscle and relaxation of the urethral sphincter.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena refer to the mechanical, physical, and biochemical processes and functions that occur within the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, cartilages, and other tissues that provide support, shape, and movement to the body. Examples of musculoskeletal physiological phenomena include muscle contraction and relaxation, bone growth and remodeling, joint range of motion, and the maintenance and repair of connective tissues.

Neural physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the electrical and chemical processes and functions that occur within the nervous system. This system includes the brain, spinal cord, nerves, and ganglia that are responsible for processing information, controlling body movements, and maintaining homeostasis. Examples of neural physiological phenomena include action potential generation and propagation, neurotransmitter release and reception, sensory perception, and cognitive processes such as learning and memory.

Musculoskeletal and neural physiological phenomena are closely interrelated, as the nervous system controls the musculoskeletal system through motor neurons that innervate muscles, and sensory neurons that provide feedback to the brain about body position, movement, and pain. Understanding these physiological phenomena is essential for diagnosing and treating various medical conditions that affect the musculoskeletal and nervous systems.

Circulatory and respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the functions, processes, and mechanisms that occur in the cardiovascular and respiratory systems to maintain homeostasis and support life.

The circulatory system, which includes the heart, blood vessels, and blood, is responsible for transporting oxygen, nutrients, hormones, and waste products throughout the body. The respiratory system, which consists of the nose, throat, trachea, bronchi, lungs, and diaphragm, enables the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment.

Physiological phenomena in the circulatory system include heart rate, blood pressure, cardiac output, stroke volume, blood flow, and vascular resistance. These phenomena are regulated by various factors such as the autonomic nervous system, hormones, and metabolic demands.

Physiological phenomena in the respiratory system include ventilation, gas exchange, lung compliance, airway resistance, and respiratory muscle function. These phenomena are influenced by factors such as lung volume, airway diameter, surface area, and diffusion capacity.

Understanding circulatory and respiratory physiological phenomena is essential for diagnosing and managing various medical conditions, including cardiovascular diseases, respiratory disorders, and metabolic disorders. It also provides a foundation for developing interventions to improve health outcomes and prevent disease.

The integumentary system is the largest organ system in the human body, responsible for providing a protective barrier against the external environment. The physiological phenomena associated with the integumentary system encompass a range of functions and processes that occur within the skin, hair, nails, and sweat glands. These phenomena include:

1. Barrier Function: The skin forms a physical barrier that protects the body from external threats such as pathogens, chemicals, and radiation. It also helps prevent water loss and regulates electrolyte balance.
2. Temperature Regulation: The integumentary system plays a crucial role in maintaining core body temperature through vasodilation and vasoconstriction of blood vessels in the skin, as well as through sweat production by eccrine glands.
3. Sensory Perception: The skin contains various sensory receptors that detect touch, pressure, pain, heat, and cold. These receptors transmit information to the central nervous system for processing and response.
4. Vitamin D Synthesis: The skin is capable of synthesizing vitamin D when exposed to ultraviolet B (UVB) radiation from sunlight. This process involves the conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol in the skin into previtamin D3, which then undergoes further transformation into vitamin D3.
5. Excretion: Sweat glands within the integumentary system help eliminate waste products and excess heat through the production and secretion of sweat. The two types of sweat glands are eccrine glands, which produce a watery, odorless sweat, and apocrine glands, which produce a milky, odorous sweat primarily in response to emotional stimuli.
6. Immunological Function: The skin serves as an essential component of the immune system by providing a physical barrier against pathogens and housing various immune cells such as Langerhans cells, dendritic cells, and T-cells. These cells help recognize and respond to potential threats, contributing to the body's overall defense mechanisms.
7. Wound Healing: The integumentary system has the remarkable ability to repair itself following injury through a complex process involving inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. This process involves the coordinated efforts of various cell types, including keratinocytes, fibroblasts, endothelial cells, and immune cells, as well as the production and deposition of extracellular matrix components such as collagen and elastin.
8. Growth and Development: The integumentary system plays a crucial role in growth and development by producing hormones such as vitamin D and melatonin, which contribute to various physiological processes throughout the body. Additionally, the skin serves as an essential sensory organ, providing information about temperature, touch, pain, and pressure through specialized nerve endings called mechanoreceptors.
9. Social Communication: The integumentary system can convey important social signals through changes in coloration, texture, and odor. For example, blushing or sweating may indicate embarrassment or anxiety, while certain skin conditions such as psoriasis or eczema may signal underlying health issues. Additionally, the release of pheromones through sweat glands can influence social behavior and attraction.
10. Aesthetic Appeal: The integumentary system contributes significantly to an individual's appearance and self-esteem. Healthy skin, hair, and nails are often associated with youthfulness, attractiveness, and vitality, while skin conditions such as acne, wrinkles, or discoloration can negatively impact one's self-image and confidence. As a result, maintaining the health and appearance of the integumentary system is an essential aspect of overall well-being and quality of life.

Reproductive physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and changes that occur in the reproductive system, enabling the production, development, and reproduction of offspring in living organisms. These phenomena encompass a wide range of events, including:

1. Hormonal regulation: The release and circulation of hormones that control and coordinate reproductive functions, such as follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and inhibin.
2. Ovarian and testicular function: The development and maturation of ova (eggs) in females and sperm in males, including folliculogenesis, ovulation, spermatogenesis, and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics.
3. Menstrual cycle: The series of events that occur in the female reproductive system over a 28-day period, consisting of the follicular phase, ovulation, and luteal phase, resulting in the shedding of the uterine lining if fertilization does not occur.
4. Fertilization: The process by which a sperm penetrates and fuses with an egg to form a zygote, initiating embryonic development.
5. Implantation: The attachment and embedding of the developing blastocyst (early-stage embryo) into the uterine lining, leading to pregnancy.
6. Pregnancy: The physiological state of carrying a developing offspring within the female reproductive system, characterized by hormonal changes, growth and development of the fetus, and preparation for childbirth.
7. Lactation: The production and secretion of milk from the mammary glands to provide nutrition for newborn offspring.
8. Menopause: The permanent cessation of menstrual cycles and reproductive function in females, typically occurring in the fourth or fifth decade of life, characterized by a decline in hormone production and various physical and emotional symptoms.

These reproductive physiological phenomena are complex and highly regulated processes that ensure the continuation of species and the maintenance of genetic diversity.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functional and mechanical activities that occur within a living organism or in any of its parts. These phenomena are associated with the normal functioning of the body and its organs, including biological processes such as digestion, respiration, circulation, excretion, metabolism, and nerve impulse transmission. They can be studied at different levels, from molecular and cellular to organ system and whole-body levels, and are essential for maintaining homeostasis and promoting the survival and health of the organism.

I cannot provide a specific medical definition for the term "Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" as it is quite broad and can encompass various aspects related to nutrition and physiological changes that occur during adolescence. However, I can provide some insight into the nutritional and physiological changes that typically occur during adolescence.

Adolescence is a critical period of growth and development, and proper nutrition is essential to support these changes. During this time, adolescents experience significant increases in height, weight, and muscle mass, as well as sexual maturation and reproductive development. As a result, their nutrient needs are higher than those of children or adults.

Some key nutritional physiological phenomena that occur during adolescence include:

1. Increased energy needs: Adolescents require more calories to support their rapid growth and development. The estimated daily calorie needs for boys aged 14-18 years are 2,500-3,000 calories, while for girls aged 14-18 years, the estimated daily calorie needs are 2,200-2,400 calories.
2. Increased protein needs: Protein is essential for building and repairing tissues, including muscle mass. Adolescents require more protein to support their growth and development, with an estimated daily need of 46 grams for girls aged 14-18 years and 52 grams for boys aged 14-18 years.
3. Increased calcium needs: Calcium is essential for building and maintaining strong bones and teeth. Adolescents undergo significant bone growth during this time, making it crucial to meet their increased calcium needs. The recommended daily intake of calcium for adolescents is 1,300 milligrams.
4. Increased iron needs: Iron is essential for the production of red blood cells and the transport of oxygen throughout the body. Adolescent girls, in particular, have increased iron needs due to menstruation. The recommended daily intake of iron for adolescents is 8 mg for boys aged 14-18 years and 15 mg for girls aged 14-18 years.
5. Increased nutrient needs: Adolescents require a variety of vitamins and minerals to support their growth and development, including vitamin D, vitamin B12, folate, and magnesium. A balanced diet that includes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and dairy products can help meet these needs.

In summary, adolescents have increased nutrient needs to support their growth and development. Meeting these needs requires a balanced diet that includes a variety of foods from all food groups. It is essential to ensure adequate intake of protein, calcium, iron, and other vitamins and minerals during this critical period of growth and development.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a rather broad and vague phrase that combines several concepts: prenatal (occurring before birth), nutritional (relating to nutrition), physiological (relating to the functioning of living organisms and their parts), and phenomena (observable events or occurrences).

If you're interested in a specific aspect of maternal and fetal nutrition, physiology, or related processes during pregnancy, I would be happy to help further if you could provide a more precise term or question. For example, prenatal nutritional physiological phenomena could refer to the process of how certain nutrients are transported across the placenta, how maternal nutrition affects fetal growth and development, or how various hormonal and metabolic changes occur during pregnancy.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urinary Tract Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, I can provide information about the physiology of the urinary tract, which may be what you are looking for.

The urinary tract is a system responsible for producing, storing, and eliminating urine from the body. It includes two kidneys, two ureters, the bladder, and the urethra. The physiological phenomena associated with the urinary tract include:

1. Glomerular filtration: In the kidneys, blood is filtered through structures called glomeruli, which remove waste products and excess fluids from the bloodstream to form urine.
2. Tubular reabsorption: As urine moves through the tubules of the nephron in the kidney, essential substances like water, glucose, amino acids, and electrolytes are actively reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.
3. Hormonal regulation: The urinary system plays a role in maintaining fluid and electrolyte balance through hormonal mechanisms, such as the release of erythropoietin (regulates red blood cell production), renin (activates the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system to regulate blood pressure and fluid balance), and calcitriol (the active form of vitamin D that helps regulate calcium homeostasis).
4. Urine storage: The bladder serves as a reservoir for urine, expanding as it fills and contracting during urination.
5. Micturition (urination): Once the bladder reaches a certain volume or pressure, nerve signals are sent to the brain, leading to the conscious decision to urinate. The sphincters of the urethra relax, allowing urine to flow out of the body through the urethral opening.

If you could provide more context about what specific information you're looking for, I would be happy to help further!

Maternal nutritional physiological phenomena refer to the various changes and processes that occur in a woman's body during pregnancy, lactation, and postpartum periods to meet the increased nutritional demands and support the growth and development of the fetus or infant. These phenomena involve complex interactions between maternal nutrition, hormonal regulation, metabolism, and physiological functions to ensure optimal pregnancy outcomes and offspring health.

Examples of maternal nutritional physiological phenomena include:

1. Adaptations in maternal nutrient metabolism: During pregnancy, the mother's body undergoes various adaptations to increase the availability of essential nutrients for fetal growth and development. For instance, there are increased absorption and utilization of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids, as well as enhanced storage of glycogen and lipids in maternal tissues.
2. Placental transfer of nutrients: The placenta plays a crucial role in facilitating the exchange of nutrients between the mother and fetus. It selectively transports essential nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, vitamins, and minerals from the maternal circulation to the fetal compartment while removing waste products.
3. Maternal weight gain: Pregnant women typically experience an increase in body weight due to the growth of the fetus, placenta, amniotic fluid, and maternal tissues such as the uterus and breasts. Adequate gestational weight gain is essential for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and reducing the risk of adverse perinatal complications.
4. Changes in maternal hormonal regulation: Pregnancy is associated with significant changes in hormonal profiles, including increased levels of estrogen, progesterone, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and other hormones that regulate various physiological functions such as glucose metabolism, appetite regulation, and maternal-fetal immune tolerance.
5. Lactation: Following childbirth, the mother's body undergoes further adaptations to support lactation and breastfeeding. This involves the production and secretion of milk, which contains essential nutrients and bioactive components that promote infant growth, development, and immunity.
6. Nutrient requirements: Pregnancy and lactation increase women's nutritional demands for various micronutrients such as iron, calcium, folate, vitamin D, and omega-3 fatty acids. Meeting these increased nutritional needs is crucial for ensuring optimal pregnancy outcomes and supporting maternal health during the postpartum period.

Understanding these physiological adaptations and their implications for maternal and fetal health is essential for developing evidence-based interventions to promote positive pregnancy outcomes, reduce the risk of adverse perinatal complications, and support women's health throughout the reproductive lifespan.

"Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various physical and biological processes related to nutrition in children. While I couldn't find a precise medical definition for this specific phrase, I can provide you with some key physiological phenomena associated with child nutrition. These include:

1. Growth and Development: Proper nutrition is crucial for normal growth and development in children. Adequate intake of essential nutrients, vitamins, and minerals supports physical growth, brain development, and overall well-being.
2. Digestion and Absorption: The gastrointestinal tract undergoes significant changes during childhood, affecting the ability to digest and absorb various nutrients. For example, lactase production decreases in some children after weaning, leading to lactose intolerance.
3. Energy Metabolism: Children have higher energy requirements per unit of body weight compared to adults due to their rapid growth and development. Proper nutrition ensures efficient energy metabolism and prevents issues like obesity or undernutrition.
4. Immune Function: Nutrition plays a vital role in supporting the immune system. Adequate intake of nutrients like vitamin C, vitamin D, iron, zinc, and protein helps maintain immune function and resistance to infections.
5. Micronutrient Deficiencies: Inadequate nutrition can lead to micronutrient deficiencies, which may impair children's growth, cognitive development, and overall health. Examples include iron deficiency anemia, vitamin A deficiency, and iodine deficiency disorders.
6. Overnutrition and Obesity: Excessive energy intake, coupled with reduced physical activity, can lead to overweight and obesity in children. This increases the risk of developing non-communicable diseases like diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and certain types of cancer later in life.
7. Food Allergies and Intolerances: Children are more prone to food allergies and intolerances than adults. These can manifest as various symptoms, such as skin rashes, digestive issues, or respiratory problems, and may require dietary modifications.
8. Eating Behaviors and Preferences: Childhood is a critical period for shaping eating behaviors and food preferences. Exposure to a variety of healthy foods during this stage can help establish lifelong healthy eating habits.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may refer to the physiological processes and phenomena related to nutrition.

Nutrition, in a medical context, refers to the process of providing or obtaining food necessary for health and growth. Physiological phenomena, on the other hand, refer to the functional manifestations of living organisms and their parts.

So, "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could hypothetically refer to the various physiological processes that occur in the body in relation to nutrition, such as digestion, absorption, metabolism, transportation, and storage of nutrients. However, I would recommend consulting the specific source or context where this term was used for a more accurate definition.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena refer to the various functions, processes, and responses that occur in the musculoskeletal system. This system includes the muscles, bones, joints, cartilages, tendons, ligaments, and other connective tissues that work together to support the body's structure, enable movement, and protect vital organs.

Musculoskeletal physiological phenomena can be categorized into several areas:

1. Muscle contraction and relaxation: This involves the conversion of chemical energy into mechanical energy through the sliding of actin and myosin filaments in muscle fibers, leading to muscle shortening or lengthening.
2. Bone homeostasis: This includes the maintenance of bone mass, density, and strength through a balance between bone formation by osteoblasts and bone resorption by osteoclasts.
3. Joint movement and stability: The movement of joints is enabled by the interaction between muscles, tendons, ligaments, and articular cartilage, while stability is maintained through the passive tension provided by ligaments and the active contraction of muscles.
4. Connective tissue repair and regeneration: This involves the response of tissues such as tendons, ligaments, and muscles to injury or damage, including inflammation, cell proliferation, and matrix remodeling.
5. Neuromuscular control: The coordination of muscle activity through the integration of sensory information from proprioceptors (e.g., muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs) and motor commands from the central nervous system.
6. Skeletal development and growth: This includes the processes of bone formation, mineralization, and modeling during fetal development and childhood, as well as the maintenance of bone mass and strength throughout adulthood.
7. Aging and degeneration: The progressive decline in musculoskeletal function and structure with age, including sarcopenia (loss of muscle mass), osteoporosis (brittle bones), and joint degeneration (osteoarthritis).

Understanding these physiological phenomena is essential for the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of musculoskeletal disorders and injuries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard or widely recognized medical term. It seems to be a very specific phrase that may relate to various physiological processes and phenomena related to infant nutrition.

To try and provide some clarity, I can offer a brief explanation of the individual terms:

1. Infant: A young child, typically under one year of age.
2. Nutritional: Relating to food or nourishment, particularly in relation to energy and the balance of essential nutrients required for growth, repair, and maintenance of bodily functions.
3. Physiological: Describing processes and functions that occur within a living organism as part of normal bodily function, including biochemical reactions, organ function, and responses to environmental stimuli.
4. Phenomena: Observable events or occurrences.

So, "Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" could refer to observable events or processes related to an infant's nutrition and physiology. However, without further context, it is difficult to provide a more precise definition. Examples of such phenomena might include the development of feeding skills, growth patterns, or changes in metabolism related to dietary intake.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Virus Physiological Phenomena" is not a widely recognized or established medical term or concept. It seems to be a combination of two concepts: "virus" and "physiological phenomena."

1. A virus is a small infectious agent that replicates inside the living cells of an organism. Viruses can cause many different types of illnesses, from the common cold to more serious diseases like HIV/AIDS or hepatitis.

2. Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and activities of living organisms and their parts, including cells, tissues, and organs.

If you're looking for information about how viruses affect physiological processes in the body, I would be happy to help provide some general information on that topic! However, it would be best to consult a specific medical text or expert for more detailed or specialized knowledge.

The digestive system is a complex network of organs and glands that work together to break down food into nutrients, which are then absorbed and utilized by the body for energy, growth, and cell repair. The physiological phenomena associated with the digestive system include:

1. Ingestion: This is the process of taking in food through the mouth.
2. Mechanical digestion: This involves the physical breakdown of food into smaller pieces through processes such as chewing, churning, and segmentation.
3. Chemical digestion: This involves the chemical breakdown of food molecules into simpler forms that can be absorbed by the body. This is achieved through the action of enzymes produced by the mouth, stomach, pancreas, and small intestine.
4. Motility: This refers to the movement of food through the digestive tract, which is achieved through a series of coordinated muscle contractions called peristalsis.
5. Secretion: This involves the production and release of various digestive juices and enzymes by glands such as the salivary glands, gastric glands, pancreas, and liver.
6. Absorption: This is the process of absorbing nutrients from the digested food into the bloodstream through the walls of the small intestine.
7. Defecation: This is the final process of eliminating undigested food and waste products from the body through the rectum and anus.

Overall, the coordinated functioning of these physiological phenomena ensures the proper digestion and absorption of nutrients, maintaining the health and well-being of the individual.

"Blood physiological phenomena" is a broad term that refers to various functions, processes, and characteristics related to the blood in the body. Here are some definitions of specific blood-related physiological phenomena:

1. Hematopoiesis: The process of producing blood cells in the bone marrow. This includes the production of red blood cells (erythropoiesis), white blood cells (leukopoiesis), and platelets (thrombopoiesis).
2. Hemostasis: The body's response to stop bleeding or prevent excessive blood loss after injury. It involves a complex interplay between blood vessels, platelets, and clotting factors that work together to form a clot.
3. Osmoregulation: The regulation of water and electrolyte balance in the blood. This is achieved through various mechanisms such as thirst, urine concentration, and hormonal control.
4. Acid-base balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood. This involves the balance between acidic and basic components in the blood, which can be affected by factors such as respiration, metabolism, and kidney function.
5. Hemoglobin function: The ability of hemoglobin molecules in red blood cells to bind and transport oxygen from the lungs to tissues throughout the body.
6. Blood viscosity: The thickness or flowability of blood, which can affect its ability to circulate through the body. Factors that can influence blood viscosity include hematocrit (the percentage of red blood cells in the blood), plasma proteins, and temperature.
7. Immunological function: The role of white blood cells and other components of the immune system in protecting the body against infection and disease. This includes the production of antibodies, phagocytosis (the engulfing and destruction of foreign particles), and inflammation.

"Ocular physiological phenomena" is not a standardized medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some examples of ocular physiological phenomena, which refer to various normal functions and processes that occur in the eye. Here are a few examples:

1. Accommodation: The ability of the eye to change optical power to maintain a clear image or focus on an object as its distance varies. This is primarily achieved by changing the curvature of the lens through the action of the ciliary muscles.
2. Pupillary reflex: The automatic adjustment of the pupil's size in response to changes in light intensity. In bright light, the pupil constricts (miosis), while in dim light, it dilates (mydriasis). This reflex helps regulate the amount of light that enters the eye.
3. Tear production: The continuous secretion of tears by the lacrimal glands to keep the eyes moist and protected from dust, microorganisms, and other foreign particles.
4. Extraocular muscle function: The coordinated movement of the six extraocular muscles that control eyeball rotation and enable various gaze directions.
5. Color vision: The ability to perceive and distinguish different colors based on the sensitivity of photoreceptor cells (cones) in the retina to specific wavelengths of light.
6. Dark adaptation: The process by which the eyes adjust to low-light conditions, improving visual sensitivity primarily through changes in the rod photoreceptors' sensitivity and pupil dilation.
7. Light adaptation: The ability of the eye to adjust to different levels of illumination, mainly through alterations in pupil size and photoreceptor cell response.

These are just a few examples of ocular physiological phenomena. There are many more processes and functions that occur within the eye, contributing to our visual perception and overall eye health.

'Nervous system physiological phenomena' refer to the functions, activities, and processes that occur within the nervous system in a healthy or normal state. This includes:

1. Neuronal Activity: The transmission of electrical signals (action potentials) along neurons, which allows for communication between different cells and parts of the nervous system.

2. Neurotransmission: The release and binding of neurotransmitters to receptors on neighboring cells, enabling the transfer of information across the synapse or junction between two neurons.

3. Sensory Processing: The conversion of external stimuli into electrical signals by sensory receptors, followed by the transmission and interpretation of these signals within the central nervous system (brain and spinal cord).

4. Motor Function: The generation and execution of motor commands, allowing for voluntary movement and control of muscles and glands.

5. Autonomic Function: The regulation of internal organs and glands through the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system, maintaining homeostasis within the body.

6. Cognitive Processes: Higher brain functions such as perception, attention, memory, language, learning, and emotion, which are supported by complex neural networks and interactions.

7. Sleep-Wake Cycle: The regulation of sleep and wakefulness through interactions between the brainstem, thalamus, hypothalamus, and basal forebrain, ensuring proper rest and recovery.

8. Development and Plasticity: The growth, maturation, and adaptation of the nervous system throughout life, including processes such as neuronal migration, synaptogenesis, and neural plasticity.

9. Endocrine Regulation: The interaction between the nervous system and endocrine system, with the hypothalamus playing a key role in controlling hormone release and maintaining homeostasis.

10. Immune Function: The communication between the nervous system and immune system, allowing for the coordination of responses to infection, injury, or stress.

Cell physiological phenomena refer to the functional activities and processes that occur within individual cells, which are essential for maintaining cellular homeostasis and normal physiology. These phenomena include various dynamic and interrelated processes such as:

1. Cell membrane transport: The movement of ions, molecules, and nutrients across the cell membrane through various mechanisms like diffusion, osmosis, facilitated diffusion, active transport, and endocytosis/exocytosis.
2. Metabolism: The sum of all chemical reactions that occur within cells to maintain life, including catabolic (breaking down) and anabolic (building up) processes for energy production, biosynthesis, and waste elimination.
3. Signal transduction: The process by which cells receive, transmit, and respond to external or internal signals through complex signaling cascades involving various second messengers, enzymes, and transcription factors.
4. Gene expression: The conversion of genetic information encoded in DNA into functional proteins and RNA molecules, including transcription, RNA processing, translation, and post-translational modifications.
5. Cell cycle regulation: The intricate mechanisms that control the progression of cells through various stages of the cell cycle (G0, G1, S, G2, M) to ensure proper cell division and prevent uncontrolled growth or cancer development.
6. Apoptosis: Programmed cell death, a physiological process by which damaged, infected, or unwanted cells are eliminated in a controlled manner without causing inflammation or harm to surrounding tissues.
7. Cell motility: The ability of cells to move and change their position within tissues, which is critical for various biological processes like embryonic development, wound healing, and immune responses.
8. Cytoskeleton dynamics: The dynamic reorganization of the cytoskeleton (microfilaments, microtubules, and intermediate filaments) that provides structural support, enables cell shape changes, and facilitates intracellular transport and organelle positioning.
9. Ion homeostasis: The regulation of ion concentrations within cells to maintain proper membrane potentials and ensure normal physiological functions like neurotransmission, muscle contraction, and enzyme activity.
10. Cell-cell communication: The exchange of signals between neighboring or distant cells through various mechanisms like gap junctions, synapses, and paracrine/autocrine signaling to coordinate cellular responses and maintain tissue homeostasis.

Respiratory physiological phenomena refer to the various mechanical, chemical, and biological processes and functions that occur in the respiratory system during breathing and gas exchange. These phenomena include:

1. Ventilation: The movement of air into and out of the lungs, which is achieved through the contraction and relaxation of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles.
2. Gas Exchange: The diffusion of oxygen (O2) from the alveoli into the bloodstream and carbon dioxide (CO2) from the bloodstream into the alveoli.
3. Respiratory Mechanics: The physical properties and forces that affect the movement of air in and out of the lungs, such as lung compliance, airway resistance, and chest wall elasticity.
4. Control of Breathing: The regulation of ventilation by the central nervous system through the integration of sensory information from chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors in the respiratory system.
5. Acid-Base Balance: The maintenance of a stable pH level in the blood through the regulation of CO2 elimination and bicarbonate balance by the respiratory and renal systems.
6. Oxygen Transport: The binding of O2 to hemoglobin in the red blood cells and its delivery to the tissues for metabolic processes.
7. Defense Mechanisms: The various protective mechanisms that prevent the entry and colonization of pathogens and foreign particles into the respiratory system, such as mucociliary clearance, cough reflex, and immune responses.

"Skin physiological phenomena" is not a standard medical term with a specific definition. However, I can provide some information about the general concepts that might be encompassed by this term.

Physiological phenomena refer to the functions and processes that occur in living organisms. When it comes to the skin, there are many different physiological phenomena that take place, including:

1. Barrier function: The skin acts as a barrier to protect the body from external elements such as bacteria, viruses, chemicals, and UV radiation.
2. Temperature regulation: The skin helps regulate body temperature through sweat production and blood flow.
3. Sensation: The skin contains nerve endings that allow us to feel touch, pressure, pain, and temperature.
4. Vitamin D synthesis: The skin can produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight.
5. Moisture regulation: The skin helps maintain the body's moisture balance by producing sweat and preventing water loss.
6. Immunological function: The skin plays a role in the immune system by providing a physical barrier and containing immune cells that help fight off infections.
7. Excretion: The skin eliminates waste products through sweat.
8. Wound healing: The skin has the ability to repair itself after injury, through a complex process involving inflammation, tissue regeneration, and remodeling.

Therefore, "skin physiological phenomena" could refer to any or all of these functions and processes that take place in the skin.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Plant Physiological Phenomena" is not a standard medical term. It falls more within the domain of botany, which is a branch of biology focused on the study of plants.

However, I can provide a general explanation: Plant physiological phenomena refer to the functional processes and activities that occur within plants. This includes various aspects such as photosynthesis (the process by which plants convert light energy into chemical energy to fuel their growth), respiration, plant nutrition (the uptake and assimilation of nutrients from the soil), water relations (how plants absorb, transport, and use water), plant hormone functions, and many other processes.

If you have a term that is used in a medical context which you would like defined, I'd be happy to help with that!

Bacterial physiological phenomena refer to the various functional processes and activities that occur within bacteria, which are necessary for their survival, growth, and reproduction. These phenomena include:

1. Metabolism: This is the process by which bacteria convert nutrients into energy and cellular components. It involves a series of chemical reactions that break down organic compounds such as carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins to produce energy in the form of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
2. Respiration: This is the process by which bacteria use oxygen to convert organic compounds into carbon dioxide and water, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Some bacteria can also perform anaerobic respiration, using alternative electron acceptors such as nitrate or sulfate instead of oxygen.
3. Fermentation: This is a type of anaerobic metabolism in which bacteria convert organic compounds into simpler molecules, releasing energy in the form of ATP. Unlike respiration, fermentation does not require an external electron acceptor.
4. Motility: Many bacteria are capable of moving independently, using various mechanisms such as flagella or twitching motility. This allows them to move towards favorable environments and away from harmful ones.
5. Chemotaxis: Bacteria can sense and respond to chemical gradients in their environment, allowing them to move towards attractants and away from repellents.
6. Quorum sensing: Bacteria can communicate with each other using signaling molecules called autoinducers. When the concentration of autoinducers reaches a certain threshold, the bacteria can coordinate their behavior, such as initiating biofilm formation or producing virulence factors.
7. Sporulation: Some bacteria can form spores, which are highly resistant to heat, radiation, and chemicals. Spores can remain dormant for long periods of time and germinate when conditions are favorable.
8. Biofilm formation: Bacteria can form complex communities called biofilms, which are composed of cells embedded in a matrix of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). Biofilms can provide protection from environmental stressors and host immune responses.
9. Cell division: Bacteria reproduce by binary fission, where the cell divides into two identical daughter cells. This process is regulated by various cell cycle checkpoints and can be influenced by environmental factors such as nutrient availability.

Cardiovascular physiological phenomena refer to the various functions and processes that occur within the cardiovascular system, which includes the heart and blood vessels. These phenomena are responsible for the transport of oxygen, nutrients, and other essential molecules to tissues throughout the body, as well as the removal of waste products and carbon dioxide.

Some examples of cardiovascular physiological phenomena include:

1. Heart rate and rhythm: The heart's ability to contract regularly and coordinate its contractions with the body's needs for oxygen and nutrients.
2. Blood pressure: The force exerted by blood on the walls of blood vessels, which is determined by the amount of blood pumped by the heart and the resistance of the blood vessels.
3. Cardiac output: The volume of blood that the heart pumps in one minute, calculated as the product of stroke volume (the amount of blood pumped per beat) and heart rate.
4. Blood flow: The movement of blood through the circulatory system, which is influenced by factors such as blood pressure, vessel diameter, and blood viscosity.
5. Vasoconstriction and vasodilation: The narrowing or widening of blood vessels in response to various stimuli, such as hormones, neurotransmitters, and changes in temperature or oxygen levels.
6. Autoregulation: The ability of blood vessels to maintain a constant blood flow to tissues despite changes in perfusion pressure.
7. Blood clotting: The process by which the body forms a clot to stop bleeding after an injury, which involves the activation of platelets and the coagulation cascade.
8. Endothelial function: The ability of the endothelium (the lining of blood vessels) to regulate vascular tone, inflammation, and thrombosis.
9. Myocardial contractility: The strength of heart muscle contractions, which is influenced by factors such as calcium levels, neurotransmitters, and hormones.
10. Electrophysiology: The study of the electrical properties of the heart, including the conduction system that allows for the coordinated contraction of heart muscle.

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In addition to physiological roles, small amounts of carbon monoxide can be inhaled or administered in the form of carbon ... Hormesis has been observed in a number of cases in humans and animals exposed to chronic low doses of ionizing radiation. A- ... In toxicology, hormesis is a dose response phenomenon to xenobiotics or other stressors characterized by a low-dose stimulation ... However, in over 19 clinical trials, "nutritional and genetic interventions to boost antioxidants have generally failed to ...
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During certain physiological states such as hunger a food odor may seem more pleasant and rewarding due to the associations in ... The OFC contributes to this odor-reward association as well as it assesses the value of a reward, i.e. the nutritional value of ... a phenomenon generally known as convergent evolution. "The increase of brain size relative to body size-encephalization-is ... Depression models Further evidence of the link between the olfactory bulb and emotion and memory is shown through animal ...
Thus, few animals are required to form a productive breeding colony. This makes them an excellent model organism to study ... Juvenile veiled chameleons in captivity often develop nutritional metabolic bone disease but will not develop it if fed dietary ... developmental and evolutionary phenomena. Young chameleons have a heterodont dentition with multi-cuspid teeth in the caudal ... chameleons useful in providing information to study the molecular interaction at the tooth-bone interface in physiological and ...
In addition to physiological degradation, pacific salmon become more lethargic as mating goes on, which makes some individuals ... Other semelparous animals include many insects, including some species of butterflies, cicadas, and mayflies, many arachnids, ... Cole, Lamont C. (June 1954). "The Population Consequences of Life History Phenomena". The Quarterly Review of Biology. 29 (2): ... larvae only feed in restricted periods of the year because of the nutritional state of their host plants (as a result, they are ...
This phenomenon is called a red tide, from the color the bloom imparts to the water. Some colorless dinoflagellates may also ... Luo, H.; Lin, X.; Li, L.; Zhang, C.; Lin, L.; Lin, S. (2017). "Transcriptomic and physiological analyses of the dinoflagellate ... Some species are endosymbionts of marine animals and play an important part in the biology of coral reefs. Other ... Three nutritional strategies are seen in dinoflagellates: phototrophy, mixotrophy, and heterotrophy. Phototrophs can be ...
Like other animal groups, birds are affected by anthropogenic (human-caused) climate change. The research includes tracking the ... For many species, climate change already results in phenological mismatch, which is a phenomenon where the timing of one aspect ... However, many prey items differ in energetic and nutritional content and are responding to climate change at different rates ... "Physiological condition of nestling great tits (Parus major) declines with the date of brood initiation: a long term study of ...
Nutritional status is important for general health and affects physical fitness, so it may affect decompression safety. High ... The Physiological Basis of Decompression. 38th Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society Workshop. UHMS Publication Number 75 ( ... While not strictly speaking a phenomenon of decompression, it is a complication that can occur during decompression, and that ... been cited as a driver of bubble growth and a risk factor for symptomatic decompression sickness in humans and diving animals. ...
This phenomenon is known as the premature ovarian failure (POF) and it is used as the model for the study of the genetics of ... It is based in the natural and social sciences, and is based on theory and models deriving from human and animal biology, ... The assumption that energy measured in calories can be used as a universal measure of nutritional cost is criticized by a ... Lactation is one of the costliest forms of parental investment because it is taxing at a metabolic and physiological level, but ...
The first of these analyses produced no evidence for the view that total fat, or animal fat, or hydrogenated fat, was the ... His studies of the nutritional status of school children in Cambridge showed that supplementation of the diet with vitamins had ... His PhD thesis was on "adaptive enzymes" (subsequently termed "induced enzyme synthesis"). His account of the phenomenon ... following years the Department won an international reputation not only for the strength of its research in the physiological ...
larva (pl.) larvae A distinct juvenile form many animals undergo before metamorphosis into adults. Animals with indirect ... The phenomenon occurs naturally but is also frequently mimicked in industry and engineering. crista A fold in the inner ... ectotherm An organism in which internal physiological sources of heat are of relatively small or quite negligible importance in ... Drugs are typically distinguished from substances that provide nutritional support such as food. dimorphism The existence of a ...
Domesticated animals are also kept in laboratories for animal testing. Non-domesticated animals are sometimes kept in nature ... Physiological behavior accounts for actions to maintain the body. It is concerned with basic bodily functions as well as ... These foods may be chosen for their nutritional value, but they may also be eaten for pleasure. Eating often follows a food ... knowledge in a particular scientific field can use trial and error to develop theories that more accurately explain phenomena. ...
females are especially sensitive to nutritional regulation because they must contribute all of the nutritional support to a ... Scientists believe the phenomenon could be linked to obesity or exposure to chemicals in the food chain, and is putting females ... There is theoretical concern, and animal evidence, that environmental hormones and chemicals may affect aspects of prenatal or ... Mechanisms of these social effects are unknown, though a variety of physiological processes, including pheromones, have been ...
Synchronous behavior is also threatened when animals in a mixed-sex herd have differing nutritional or physical necessities. ... This phenomenon, also referred to as social facilitation, occurs in both free-range cattle that live in pastures, and cattle ... Gautrais believes that this physiological need is what prompted the first individual in his herd experiment to switch from ... Horses, like many animals, learn through imitation of their parents, most often the mother or "broodmare", or the owner of the ...
Adolescent Nutritional Physiological Phenomena* * Animals * Body Height / physiology* * Child * Child Development / physiology ...
... of extensive scientific interest because of its importance in cell and tissue cultures and its physiologic role in animals and ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena* Substances * Glutamine ... in cell and tissue cultures and its physiologic role in animals ... Provision of supplemental glutamine in specialized enteral or parenteral feeding may enhance nutritional management and augment ...
Animal Feed (MeSH) * Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena (MeSH) * Animals (MeSH) * Cattle (MeSH) ... The British Journal of Nutrition: an international journal of nutritional science Journal ...
MeSH headings : Animal Feed / analysis; Animal Husbandry; Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena; Animals; Animals, Zoo; ... Implications of Nutritional Management on Fatty Acid Profiles of Southern White Rhinoceroses (Ceratotherium simum simum) Housed ... MeSH headings : Animals; Fatty Acids; Temperature; Fatty Acids, Unsaturated; Freezing; Cold Temperature; Perissodactyla; Fatty ... implications for field collection and nutritional care ... Animals, 11(11), 3063. By: J. Wood n, L. Minter *, T. Tollefson ...
keywords = "Animal Feed, Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Animals, Diet, Dietary Supplements, Fatty Acids, Female, ...
Animal Feed * Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena * Animals * Animals, Newborn * Dietary Supplements * Extracellular ... These findings suggest the possibility of maternal glutamine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of IUGR in animal ...
Animal Feed * Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena * Animals * Cattle * Dairy & Animal Science * Diet ...
Animal FeedAnimal Nutritional Physiological PhenomenaAnimalsDietErythrocytesFatty Acids, Omega-3FemaleFish OilsFlaxHorsesMuscle ... Equine Science, Department of Animal Science, Colorado State University, Fort Collins 80523, USA. [email protected]. ... Journal of animal science JO - J Anim Sci VL - 90 IS - 9 N2 - The objective of this study was to examine the effects of ... Journal of Animal Science, 90(9), 3023-31. https://doi.org/10.2527/jas.2011-4412 ...
Filters: Keyword is Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena and Author is Moriel, P [Clear All Filters] ... and physiological responses of feeder cattle.", Journal of Animal Science, vol. 89, no. 11, pp. 3677-89, 2011. ...
Filters: Keyword is Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena and Author is M. R. Horney [Clear All Filters] ...
... nutritional physiological phenomena,phenotype,research,sdg 3 - good health and well-being ,/dk/atira/pure/ ... animals,disease models, animal,eating,environment,genetic variation,genome, human,genomics,humans,international cooperation, ... The case for strategic international alliances to harness nutritional genomics for public and personal health ... The case for strategic international alliances to harness nutritional genomics for public and personal health. British Journal ...
... bioavailability and physiological roles. The book explains the in vivo functions of food minerals and demonstrates why and how ... biochemistry and nutritional properties with the goal being to illustrate the necessity of minerals in physiological ... A Comparison of Minerals in Foods from Animals and Plants. 4.9. Summary. 4.10. References. 4.11. Problems ... and the unique differences between macrominerals and microminerals in all of these phenomena.... The layout of the text follows ...
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Plant Leaves/physiology, Probability, Trichosurus/physiology",. author = "Hannah Windley ... keywords = "Animals, Ecosystem, Herbivory/physiology, Introduced Species, Mammals/physiology, Models, Theoretical, New Zealand ... Foliar nutritional quality explains patchy browsing damage caused by an invasive mammal. In: PLoS One. 2016 ; Vol. 11, No. 5. ... Foliar nutritional quality explains patchy browsing damage caused by an invasive mammal. / Windley, Hannah; Barron, Mandy; ...
Animal Feed, Animal Husbandry, Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Animals, Cattle, Reproduction, Seasons, UNITED ... Nutritional and managerial considerations for range beef cattle production.. Title. Nutritional and managerial considerations ... After determining the nutritional value of the forages and animal requirements, prescription supplementation produces very ... Forage quality, animal requirements, and the animals ability to meet their requirements from the forage is presented. ...
Animal Feed G7.203.300.300.100 Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.161 G7.203.650.161 Animals, Congenic B1.50. ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610 G7.203.650 Nutritional Requirements G7.610.620 G7.203.650.620 Nutritional Status ... Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.220 G7.203.650.220 Chimera B1.50.50.530 B1.650.85 Chimerin 1 D12.776.402.150. ... Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.830 G7.203.650.830 Spouse Abuse I1.198.240.856.575.500 I1.880.735.900.688.500 ...
Animal Feed G7.203.300.300.100 Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.161 G7.203.650.161 Animals, Congenic B1.50. ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610 G7.203.650 Nutritional Requirements G7.610.620 G7.203.650.620 Nutritional Status ... Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.220 G7.203.650.220 Chimera B1.50.50.530 B1.650.85 Chimerin 1 D12.776.402.150. ... Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.830 G7.203.650.830 Spouse Abuse I1.198.240.856.575.500 I1.880.735.900.688.500 ...
Animal Feed G7.203.300.300.100 Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.161 G7.203.650.161 Animals, Congenic B1.50. ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610 G7.203.650 Nutritional Requirements G7.610.620 G7.203.650.620 Nutritional Status ... Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.220 G7.203.650.220 Chimera B1.50.50.530 B1.650.85 Chimerin 1 D12.776.402.150. ... Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.830 G7.203.650.830 Spouse Abuse I1.198.240.856.575.500 I1.880.735.900.688.500 ...
Animal Feed G7.203.300.300.100 Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.161 G7.203.650.161 Animals, Congenic B1.50. ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610 G7.203.650 Nutritional Requirements G7.610.620 G7.203.650.620 Nutritional Status ... Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.220 G7.203.650.220 Chimera B1.50.50.530 B1.650.85 Chimerin 1 D12.776.402.150. ... Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.830 G7.203.650.830 Spouse Abuse I1.198.240.856.575.500 I1.880.735.900.688.500 ...
Animal Feed G7.203.300.300.100 Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.161 G7.203.650.161 Animals, Congenic B1.50. ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610 G7.203.650 Nutritional Requirements G7.610.620 G7.203.650.620 Nutritional Status ... Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.220 G7.203.650.220 Chimera B1.50.50.530 B1.650.85 Chimerin 1 D12.776.402.150. ... Sports Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G7.610.830 G7.203.650.830 Spouse Abuse I1.198.240.856.575.500 I1.880.735.900.688.500 ...
Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Pregnancy, Protein Transport, Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2, Rats, Rats, Wistar ... Animals, Cofilin 1, Diet, Diet, Protein-Restricted, Female, Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental, Homeodomain Proteins, ...
Amino Acids, Animal Feed, Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Animals, Blood Proteins, Diet, Digestion, Fermentation, ... As such, FSBM can be potentially used as a specialized feed ingredient, especially for young animal diets in an attempt to ... Taken all together, the fermentation process improved the nutritional quality of SBM, due to ANF reduction, leading to ... the fermentation process was able to reduce the amount of anti-nutritional factors (ANF), including trypsin inhibitors, ...
Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. *Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. *Child Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. * ... "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" by people in this website by year, and whether "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" was a ... Nutritional Physiological Phenomena*Nutritional Physiological Phenomena. *Phenomena, Nutritional Physiological. *Physiological ... "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, ...
... have now shown that nutritional programming in early periods of life is a phenomenon that affects metabolic and physiological ... At 90 days of age, all animals were mated, and on day 11 of pregnancy, the animals were killed. Biochemical variables (glucose ... Most of the studies have been performed in rodents, whilst the use of large animals is scarce. Having in mind body-size, ... The nutritional imprinting, whose mechanisms remain still dark and which seem to continue through the following generations, ...
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena:physiology, Animals, Animals, Suckling:growth & development, Colostrum:metabolism, ... Journal Article 2013; 34(Suppl 2): 84-89 PubMed PMID: 24362098 Keywords: Animal Feed, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Biomarkers: ... Journal Article 2012; 33(5): 517-524 PubMed PMID: 23090270 Keywords: Animals, Animals, Newborn, Female, Hypothyroidism:blood, ... Journal Article 2015; 36(5): 481-489 PubMed PMID: 26707049 Keywords: Adult, Biomechanical Phenomena, Equine-Assisted Therapy, ...
Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena:physiology, Animals, Animals, Suckling:growth & development, Colostrum:metabolism, ... Journal Article 2013; 34(Suppl 2): 84-89 PubMed PMID: 24362098 Keywords: Animal Feed, Animals, Animals, Newborn, Biomarkers: ... Journal Article 2012; 33(5): 517-524 PubMed PMID: 23090270 Keywords: Animals, Animals, Newborn, Female, Hypothyroidism:blood, ... Journal Article 2010; 31(Suppl 2): 114-119 PubMed PMID: 21187833 Keywords: Animal Feed, Animals, Dose-Response Relationship, ...
... cell phenomena, and immunity G05 - genetic processes G06 - biochemical phenomena, metabolism, and nutrition G07 - physiological ... animals B02 - algae B03 - bacteria B04 - viruses B05 - fungi B06 - plants B07 - archaea B08 - mesomycetozoea C - Diseases C01 ... nutritional and metabolic diseases C19 - endocrine system diseases C20 - immune system diseases C21 - disorders of ... chemical and pharmacologic phenomena G13 - genetic phenomena G14 - genetic structures H - Physical Sciences H01 - natural ...
Breast Feeding, Oral Health, Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena, Dental Occlusion, Dental Arch, Dentition ... Castration/veterinary, Animal Identification Systems, Rabies Vaccines, Population Education Live APH: Perspectivas do ...
Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena G8.686.785.760.769.600 G8.686.784.769.600 Prenylation G2.111.87.679 G2.111.672 ... Animal J3.340.250 HSC70 Heat-Shock Proteins D12.644.276.87.391 D12.776.467.87.750 D23.529.87.672 Human Development G7.700. ... Physicochemical Phenomena G2.842 Physicochemical Processes G2.149.767 G2.842.750 Physiological Processes G7.700 Physostigmine ... Animal Assisted Therapy E2.831.83 E2.760.169.63.500.83 Anion Exchange Protein 1, Erythrocyte D12.776.157.530.937.625.249.500 ...
Animal Behavior. This course is a comparative study of animal behavior from an evolutionary perspective. Lectures will examine ... This course explores marine biology by focusing on the diversity of life and influence of oceanographic phenomena on the ... Morphological and physiological adaptations along with environmental threats will also be investigated. (Prerequisites: BIOL- ... Class discussions will focus on reading and interpretation of primary literature and investigating applied nutritional research ...
  • Effects of polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation on ruminal in situ forage degradability, performance, and physiological responses of feeder cattle. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The nonessential amino acid glutamine has recently been the focus of extensive scientific interest because of its importance in cell and tissue cultures and its physiologic role in animals and humans. (nih.gov)
  • The present book assembles and connects (such) insights into a cohesive description of the multiple functions of dietary minerals in animals and humans. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • Public health officials and others concerned with appropriate actions to take at hazardous waste sites may want information on levels of exposure associated with more subtle effects in humans or animals (LOAELs) or exposure levels below which no adverse effects (NOAELs) have been observed. (cdc.gov)
  • Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (rush.edu)
  • Overall, the fermentation process was able to reduce the amount of anti-nutritional factors (ANF), including trypsin inhibitors, raffinose and stachyose, in the FSBM diet, which were significantly reduced by 39.4, 92.2, and 92.9%, respectively, as compared to the SBM diet. (oregonstate.edu)
  • As such, FSBM can be potentially used as a specialized feed ingredient, especially for young animal diets in an attempt to reduce diet costs. (oregonstate.edu)
  • And when it comes to our dogs, we need to consider if the diet we provide them is appropriate from a physiological, psychological, and emotional perspective. (julibees.com)
  • It is believed that carbohydrate metabolism disorders may affect the progression of these diseases, as confirmed by both animal and human studies. (karger.com)
  • Nutritional and managerial considerations for range beef cattle production. (oregonstate.edu)
  • The goal of this project is to identify the mechanisms that regulate the diminished growth and altered metabolic responses to nutrition in premature and low birth weight infants and to develop new nutritional strategies to optimize their growth and development. (bcm.edu)
  • It aims to develop and accomplish projects in the area of ​​Food and Nutrition in Public Health with epidemiological studies on nutrition and determination of the nutritional status in health and disease while addressing studies in the Human and Social Sciences in Food and Nutrition. (usp.br)
  • Factors considered will be organ development and structure, evolutionary processes and biological diversity, and their effects on physiological mechanisms regulating the internal environment. (utdallas.edu)
  • These findings suggest the possibility of maternal glutamine supplementation in the prevention and treatment of IUGR in animal production and human medicine. (tamu.edu)
  • After determining the nutritional value of the forages and animal requirements, prescription supplementation produces very efficient additional gains. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Despite improvements in their nutritional management, most premature and low birth weight infants have experienced growth faltering by discharge. (bcm.edu)
  • This project is expected to have a positive impact by providing novel information that will be directly useful in optimizing the nutritional management of premature and low birth weight infants and improving their long-term metabolic health and growth. (bcm.edu)
  • These molecules play a crucial role across a broad range of physiological mechanisms. (lifeextension.com)
  • Management alternatives to compensate for poor quality forage on range in late summer and early fall, such as selling market animals, moving to better feed, chemical curing of forages, time of calving, time of weaning, and using the range as a feedlot are discussed. (oregonstate.edu)
  • This book forms a technical introduction to all major and trace minerals in foods, including their chemistry, transport, absorption, bioavailability and physiological roles. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • The focus however remains on the chemistry, biochemistry and nutritional properties with the goal being to illustrate the necessity of minerals in physiological functioning. (foodengineeringmag.com)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" by people in Profiles. (rush.edu)
  • Los principales resultados destacaran que los participantes recibieron una educación moralmente rígida que reforzaba los roles tradicionales de género generando desinformación, temores, vergüenza, incertidumbres y dudas sobre la feminidad y la sexualidad que fueran reformulados en el envejecimiento debido a las nuevas experiencias y conocimientos. (bvsalud.org)
  • Major concepts will be illustrated using a broad range of examples from plants, animals, and microorganisms. (middlebury.edu)
  • BIOL 2311 ( BIOL 1306 ) Introduction to Modern Biology I (3 semester credit hours) Presentation of some of the fundamental concepts of modern biology, with an emphasis on the molecular and cellular basis of biological phenomena. (utdallas.edu)
  • A number of nutritional and managerial schemes have been presented to help optimize range livestock production. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Provision of supplemental glutamine in specialized enteral or parenteral feeding may enhance nutritional management and augment recovery of the seriously ill while minimizing hospital stay. (nih.gov)
  • Management of antiretroviral-related nutritional problems: challenges and future directions. (rush.edu)
  • Management of antiretroviral-related nutritional problems: state of the science. (rush.edu)
  • Keithley JK, Swanson B. Outcome measures for nutritional research in HIV/AIDS. (rush.edu)
  • Laboratory and animal studies further reveal that fucoidans prevent certain infectious diseases, and block cancer cells from spreading and trigger their early death. (lifeextension.com)
  • We aimed to determine if the nutritional quality of foliage could predict the browsing preferences of an invasive mammalian herbivore, the common brushtail possum (Trichosurus vulpecula), in a temperate forest in New Zealand. (edu.au)
  • Simultaneously, we assessed the severity of browsing damage caused by possums on those trees in order to relate selective browsing to foliar nutritional quality. (edu.au)
  • We found significant spatial and temporal variation in nutritional quality among individuals of each tree species examined, as well as among tree species. (edu.au)
  • This study highlights the importance of nutritional quality, specifically, the foliar available nitrogen concentration of individual trees, in predicting the impact of an invasive mammal. (edu.au)
  • Forage quality, animal requirements, and the animals' ability to meet their requirements from the forage is presented. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Taken all together, the fermentation process improved the nutritional quality of SBM, due to ANF reduction, leading to improvement of digestibility of AA. (oregonstate.edu)
  • In the maintenance of optimal energy availability, increased energy expenditure ideally justifies increased nutritional intake. (medscape.com)
  • Nutritional physiology related to EXERCISE or ATHLETIC PERFORMANCE . (nih.gov)
  • An introduction to plants, their life cycles, and their relationships to each other, as well as to the animals that pollinate them, disperse their fruits, and eat them. (middlebury.edu)
  • La intervención resultó factible, dado que el 80% cumplió con las sesiones programadas y una aceptabilidad satisfactoria, el 76.5% de las participantes mencionó que la calidad del programa era excelente y el 100% mencionó que recibió la ayuda que esperaba.Conclusión: La intervención psicoeducativa favorece el control peso gestacional en el grupo experimental comparado con el grupo control. (bvsalud.org)
  • Title : Maternal Knowledge Of Nutritional Anemia Personal Author(s) : O'Connor, P. A.;DeCastro, F. (cdc.gov)
  • Insects are one of the most successful animal groups on Earth, accounting for roughly 75% of all animal species. (middlebury.edu)
  • In scientific usage, a phenomenon is any event that is observable, however common it might be, even if it requires the use of instrumentation to observe, record or compile data concerning it. (fao.org)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" by people in this website by year, and whether "Nutritional Physiological Phenomena" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (rush.edu)
  • Nutritional insight into preduodenal pouch reconstruction one year after total gastrectomy. (uchicago.edu)
  • Objective 2, containing three components, will determine the role of leptin and the leptin receptor in hepatic gluconeogenesis and investigate the nutritional significance of certain small molecules in reducing glucose production via gluconeogeneic pathway. (bcm.edu)
  • Long-distance migration is one of not fi gured prominently in many high-profi le studies that the most demanding activities in the animal world. (cdc.gov)
  • Supplements were offered and consumed at 0.6% of BW/animal daily (DM basis). (oregonstate.edu)