Animal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Mice, Inbred C57BLMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Huntington Disease: A familial disorder inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and characterized by the onset of progressive CHOREA and DEMENTIA in the fourth or fifth decade of life. Common initial manifestations include paranoia; poor impulse control; DEPRESSION; HALLUCINATIONS; and DELUSIONS. Eventually intellectual impairment; loss of fine motor control; ATHETOSIS; and diffuse chorea involving axial and limb musculature develops, leading to a vegetative state within 10-15 years of disease onset. The juvenile variant has a more fulminant course including SEIZURES; ATAXIA; dementia; and chorea. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1060-4)Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Neurodegenerative Diseases: Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.Neuroprotective Agents: Drugs intended to prevent damage to the brain or spinal cord from ischemia, stroke, convulsions, or trauma. Some must be administered before the event, but others may be effective for some time after. They act by a variety of mechanisms, but often directly or indirectly minimize the damage produced by endogenous excitatory amino acids.Drug Evaluation, Preclinical: Preclinical testing of drugs in experimental animals or in vitro for their biological and toxic effects and potential clinical applications.Mice, Inbred BALB CBrain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine: A dopaminergic neurotoxic compound which produces irreversible clinical, chemical, and pathological alterations that mimic those found in Parkinson disease.Parkinson Disease: A progressive, degenerative neurologic disease characterized by a TREMOR that is maximal at rest, retropulsion (i.e. a tendency to fall backwards), rigidity, stooped posture, slowness of voluntary movements, and a masklike facial expression. Pathologic features include loss of melanin containing neurons in the substantia nigra and other pigmented nuclei of the brainstem. LEWY BODIES are present in the substantia nigra and locus coeruleus but may also be found in a related condition (LEWY BODY DISEASE, DIFFUSE) characterized by dementia in combination with varying degrees of parkinsonism. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1059, pp1067-75)Models, Genetic: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Access to Information: Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Publishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.Peer Review, Research: The evaluation by experts of the quality and pertinence of research or research proposals of other experts in the same field. Peer review is used by editors in deciding which submissions warrant publication, by granting agencies to determine which proposals should be funded, and by academic institutions in tenure decisions.Journalism, Medical: The collection, writing, and editing of current interest material on topics related to biomedicine for presentation through the mass media, including newspapers, magazines, radio, or television, usually for a public audience such as health care consumers.Animal DiseasesInternet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Biological Ontologies: Structured vocabularies describing concepts from the fields of biology and relationships between concepts.Software: Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.Veterinary Medicine: The medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of diseases in animals.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.User-Computer Interface: The portion of an interactive computer program that issues messages to and receives commands from a user.Drug Discovery: The process of finding chemicals for potential therapeutic use.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Charities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.Skin DiseasesPatient Dropouts: Discontinuance of care received by patient(s) due to reasons other than full recovery from the disease.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Happiness: Highly pleasant emotion characterized by outward manifestations of gratification; joy.Infectious Disease Medicine: A branch of internal medicine concerned with the diagnosis and treatment of INFECTIOUS DISEASES.Neuroglia: The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.Mass Media: Instruments or technological means of communication that reach large numbers of people with a common message: press, radio, television, etc.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive: A disease of chronic diffuse irreversible airflow obstruction. Subcategories of COPD include CHRONIC BRONCHITIS and PULMONARY EMPHYSEMA.Sodium Channels: Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.Epithelial Sodium Channels: Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Lung Diseases, Obstructive: Any disorder marked by obstruction of conducting airways of the lung. AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION may be acute, chronic, intermittent, or persistent.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.MassachusettsHospitals, General: Large hospitals with a resident medical staff which provides continuous care to maternity, surgical and medical patients.BostonLupus Vasculitis, Central Nervous System: Central nervous system vasculitis that is associated with SYSTEMIC LUPUS ERYTHEMATOSUS. Clinical manifestations may include DEMENTIA; SEIZURES; CRANIAL NERVE DISEASES; HEMIPARESIS; BLINDNESS; DYSPHASIA; and other neurological disorders.Nerve Tissue Proteins
  • As wild-type mice are resistant to lesion development, the current mouse models for atherosclerosis are based on genetic modifications of lipoprotein metabolism with additional dietary changes. (hindawi.com)
  • Treated animals in this model, which usually die prematurely, lived 13 percent longer than untreated R6/2 mice. (massgeneral.org)
  • In the experiments with the 140 CAG Htt knock-in model, treated animals maintained activity levels similar to those of normal mice for several months, while untreated mice showed a rapid decline in motor activity. (massgeneral.org)
  • In a recently completed study of TNBS-induced colitis, which is a well accepted animal model of inflammatory bowel disease, administration of CGEN-25007 protected mice from the effects of lethal colitis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Here, we found that genetic or drug induced ablation of adult-born new neurons significantly ameliorated synaptic and cognitive impairments in APP/PS1 and hAPP-J20 mice, two commonly used mouse models of AD. (ssrn.com)
  • Importantly, in vivo studies using MPTP, LPS, or 6-OHDA models revealed a greater attenuation of neuroinflammatory responses in Fyn −/− and PKCδ −/− mice compared with wild-type mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • This is the first genetic disease affecting the central nervous system to be successfully treated in an animal larger than mice and rats. (innovations-report.com)
  • CRISPR-Cas9 knockin mice for genome editing and cancer modeling. (phys.org)
  • Recent evidence derived from transgenic mice ubiquitously overexpressing mutant Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ superoxide dismutase (mSOD1), a chronic neurodegenerative model of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), indicates that glia with either a lack of or reduction in mSOD1 expression enhance motoneuron protection and slow disease progression. (pnas.org)
  • Here we show that when mSOD1 mice were bred with mice lacking functional T cells or CD4+ T cells, motoneuron disease was accelerated, accompanied by unexpected attenuated morphological markers of gliosis, increased mRNA levels for proinflammatory cytokines and NOX2, and decreased levels of trophic factors and glial glutamate transporters. (pnas.org)
  • Thus, to assess the role of T cells in a chronic neurodegenerative disease such as ALS, immunodeficient mice were bred with mSOD1 G93A transgenic mice and selective reconstitution experiments with bone marrow transplants (BMT) were used to elucidate the roles of T cells. (pnas.org)
  • To examine possible contributions of the peripheral immune system on disease progression, mSOD1 G93A /PU.1 −/− mice on a B6/SJL genetic background [ supporting information (SI) ] received BMT from CCR2 −/− mice lacking the receptor for monocyte-chemoattractant protein−1 (MCP-1/CCL2) ( 6 ). (pnas.org)
  • Existing animal models as alternative sources of human tissues (e.g., humanized mice and swine). (sbir.gov)
  • Whereas mice and rats are often not susceptible to human pathogens, replicate them at low levels or require rodent-adapted pathogen strains, the cotton rat has proven susceptible to a wide variety of human pathogens and to be a model system to simulate a number of important parameters of human disease. (osu.edu)
  • This hypothesis has been confirmed by studies using mice models which have shown that the gut microbiota is likely to play a role in the development of oral tolerance. (intechopen.com)
  • The specific gut microbiota observed in mice with food allergy by Noval-Rivas et al was able of transmitting disease susceptibility to naive germ-free recipients [ 9 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Lactobacillus casei cell wall extract (LCWE)-induced coronary arteritis in mice is a well-validated model of KD. (jimmunol.org)
  • The researchers used two animal models: mice with an engineered MTM1 mutation and dogs carrying a naturally occurring MTM1 gene mutation. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The temporospatial pattern of cystine accumulation in Ctns-/- mice parallels that of patients and validates the mice as a model for the ocular anomalies of cystinosis. (cnrs.fr)
  • Therefore, we analyzed the impact of ACE inhibition on signs of neurodegeneration of aged Tg2576 mice as a transgenic animal model of AD. (uzh.ch)
  • Mice were genotyped by southern blots, and generally an equal number of male and female animals were apportioned to each study group. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Specifically, 56 kDa oligomeric species were shown to be correlated with impaired cognitive function in AD model mice. (pubfacts.com)
  • Furthermore, oral administration of CEppt to an aggressive AD transgenic mice model led to marked decrease in 56 kDa Aβ oligomers, reduction of plaques and improvement in cognitive behavior. (pubfacts.com)
  • More recently a dodecameric form of Aβ with a 56 kDa molecular weight, denoted Aβ*56, was shown to cause memory impairment in AD model mice. (pubfacts.com)
  • Recent advances in molecular biology have made possible the identification of genetic defects responsible for Wilson's disease, Indian childhood cirrhosis and copper toxicosis in Long Evans Cinnamon rats, toxic milk mice, and Bedlington terriers. (islandscholar.ca)
  • A genetic defect similar to that of Wilson's disease occurs in Long Evans Cinnamon rats and toxic milk mice. (islandscholar.ca)
  • Behaviors measured in these models include "approach to olfactory pheromones emitted by other mice, approach to familiar and new conspecifics, reciprocal social interactions, ultrasonic vocalizations, communal nesting, sexual and parenting behaviors, territorial scent marking, and aggressive behaviors. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fleming operates its own Animal House, which can house up to 20,000 mice and has its own complete mouse histopathology unit. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Animal House has a capacity to house more than 20,000 mice and is currently the largest Mouse Unit in Greece in terms of number and variety of mice. (wikipedia.org)
  • As Huntington disease is an inherited condition that can be detected decades before any clinical symptoms are seen in humans, a better understanding of the earliest changes in brain cell (neuronal) function, and the molecular pathways underlying those changes, could lead to preventive treatments that delay the onset of symptoms and neurodegeneration. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Understanding the body's functions requires scientific discoveries from animal research, and because humans and animals share more than 250 common illnesses, testing on animals is extremely beneficial to humans. (brightkite.com)
  • This book provides a timely and comprehensive introduction to the modeling of infectious diseases in humans and animals, focusing on recent developments as well as more traditional approaches. (dymocks.com.au)
  • Such models are usually the result of genetic and/or nutritional modifications, considering metabolic and histological changes commonly seen in humans. (intechopen.com)
  • Thus, it is important to evaluate different animal models of obesity able to induce the profile of NAFLD and NASH disease in humans, assessing their mechanisms of action. (intechopen.com)
  • Neuronal ceroid lipofuscinoses (NCL) are a group of lethal inherited neurodegenerative disorders in humans and many animal species. (calpoly.edu)
  • Critical reflections on a range of ethical issues concerning NCL have been instigated by my research on sheep and cattle affected with NCL, the claim that these sheep and cattle are useful models for the disease in humans, and engagement with families and support groups. (calpoly.edu)
  • If this approach can be successfully applied to humans, say the researchers, it might one day treat an entire class of diseases called lysosomal storage disorders, which cause severe, sometimes fatal, disabilities in about one in 5,000 births. (innovations-report.com)
  • The animals involved in the study are born with a genetic disorder directly analogous to alpha-mannosidosis or AMD, an inherited disease in humans that causes severe mental retardation and skeletal abnormalities. (innovations-report.com)
  • As we move toward the clinical use of this therapy in humans, we must develop and utilize non-invasive methods to monitor the regression of the disease following treatment," Vite said. (innovations-report.com)
  • The large animal study also demonstrated that only a limited number of injections are necessary to introduce the working LAMAN gene, one of the first steps that will prepare this particular gene therapy for practical use in humans. (innovations-report.com)
  • According to the World Health Organization, any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans and vice-versa is classified as a zoonosis. (org.in)
  • Development of suitable experimental models is critical in identifying risk factors for disease, elucidating fundamental molecular mechanisms in disease progression, and providing guidance as to whether or not a particular treatment is safe and effective for humans. (springer.com)
  • This Funding Opportunity Announcement (FOA) encourages small business concerns to submit Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant applications that propose innovative approaches to further develop, improve and facilitate the use of animal models and related biological materials to meet new biomedical challenges related to improvements in the health of humans and animals. (nih.gov)
  • We think it self-e- dent, however, that humans can only be experimented upon in severely proscribed circumstances and alternative pro- dures using cell or tissue culture are inadequate in any models requiring assessments of behavioral change or of complex in vivo processes. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Typically they are induced by artificially inserting or removing genes in animals to create symptoms that only approximate the real disease in humans. (all-creatures.org)
  • Additional tests are needed in alternative animal models to ensure translation to humans. (iavi.org)
  • Overall, the zebrafish models included display conserved biochemical and neurobehavioral features of the phenomenology in humans. (frontiersin.org)
  • Frank Conlon, PhD, co-led a study showing which proteins and pathways are conserved in four major animal models and humans, providing insights into which models are best for specific research of human disease. (unchealthcare.org)
  • More importantly, they allow researchers to understand which animal models can be used to study heart disease and ultimately test treatments for cardiac disease seen in humans. (unchealthcare.org)
  • But to their surprise, Conlon and Cristea's labs found that each species shares a unique set of proteins with humans, and that these proteins are mutated in human disease states. (unchealthcare.org)
  • Certain copper-associated disorders, such as chronic active hepatitis in Doberman pinschers and Skye terrier hepatitis are characterized by copper retention secondary to the underlying disease, thus resembling primary biliary cirrhosis in humans. (islandscholar.ca)
  • This review describes the similarities between the clinico-pathological features of spontaneous copper-associated diseases in humans and domestic animals. (islandscholar.ca)
  • Another goal of the use of rodent models to study autism is to identify the mechanism by which autism develops in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2012, a researcher from the University of Nebraska at Kearney published a study reviewing research that had been done using the songbird as a model for autism spectrum disorders, noting that the neurobiology of vocalization is similar between humans and songbirds, and that, in both species, social learning plays a central role in the development of the ability to vocalize. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other research using this model has been done by Stephanie White at the University of California Los Angeles, who studied mutations in the FOXP2 gene and its potential role in learned vocalization in both songbirds (specifically the zebra finch) and humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, genetic and environmental factors play a significant role in cardiovascular pathophysiology, making difficult to match a particular disease, with a single experimental model. (hindawi.com)
  • Despite the pre-eminence of the mouse in modelling human disease, several aspects of murine biology limit its routine use in large-scale genetic and therapeutic screening. (nih.gov)
  • After more than a decade of research on the pre-symptomatic phase of Huntington disease, markers are being developed to facilitate assessment of interventional therapy in individuals carrying the genetic mutation for Huntington disease, before they become ill. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Recent advances have allowed for the development of models to study targeted injuries of Type II alveolar epithelial cells, fibroblastic autonomous effects, and targeted genetic defects. (nih.gov)
  • Cystic fibrosis (CF) is among the most prevalent, lethal diseases of genetic origin. (google.com)
  • I believe that the drug efficacy demonstrated in two distinct genetic HD mouse models is quite unique and highly encouraging," says Aleksey Kazantsev, PhD, of the MassGeneral Institute for Neurodegenerative Disorders , senior author of the study. (massgeneral.org)
  • Obesity induced in rodents occur mainly through HFD, HCD, FFD or genetic alterations like in Lep, Acox, KKy models. (intechopen.com)
  • By injecting a therapeutic gene directly into the brain, researchers have treated a naturally occurring genetic disease in cats. (innovations-report.com)
  • In recent years, genetic studies have found thousands of links between genes and various diseases. (phys.org)
  • Previously, scientists working with animal models have had to knock out one gene at a time, or cross animal models to produce one with the needed genetic modifications, processes that are challenging and time consuming. (phys.org)
  • Animal models are defined in regard to genetic, phenotypic and health-related characteristics. (sbir.gov)
  • Today we have amassed a multitude of animal models, developed through genetic, chemical, and/or lesions in multiple species with the goal of faithfully mimicking these diseases and uncover the complex nature of disease-associated mechanisms. (iospress.nl)
  • Animals within Resources are characterized in regard to genetic, phenotypic and health-related characteristics. (nih.gov)
  • It s a scalable model that can be engineered to carry the genetic variants that give rise to all these diseases and it gives us incredible access to things we never have done before, Dr. Anand told The Washington Post. (all-creatures.org)
  • Pompe disease or Glycogen Storage Disease is a rare genetic disease caused by the buildup of a sugar called glycogen in the body s cells. (medindia.net)
  • Differences between studies are most likely due to differences in the populations studied - in terms of type of allergy, evolutionary stage of the disease, environment, genetic background - but also to the various probiotic used in terms of strain, dose, duration and time of administration in relation to the development of allergy, and finally the follow-up period [ 13 , 19 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) affects over 25,000 people in the USA alone, making it one of the most prevalent genetic diseases. (biologists.org)
  • These results are the culmination of four years of research and show how gene therapy is effective for this genetic muscle disease," said Buj-Bello. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Despite an understanding of both pathophysiologic and correlative molecular genetic processes, effective and safe treatments for PKD are not currently available, and recent interventional trials for the disease have been disappointing. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Recently, this pathway was implicated in fundamental cellular processes of PKD: active TNF-α interferes with processing and membrane presentation of PKD2, effectively phenocopying genetic ablation of the disease locus. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, we sought to translate the promising activity of etanercept in additional rodent genetic models where cysts are present at the onset of intervention. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Different gene editing techniques are also being explored that may one day be able to correct the exact mutations observed in genetic lung diseases in infants," Morrisey said. (technologynetworks.com)
  • In a separate article [ 2 ], Aiden Corvin, a psychiatrist and member of the Psychiatric Genetics Consortium responsible for recent genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on psychiatric disease, considers the implications of recent genetic findings for schizophrenia patients. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Corvin looks to a future in which diagnosis will be guided by molecular etiology, and patients may be treated with drugs known to be effective for the particular genetic subtype of disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The strong association of different disorders with the same mutation suggests they can be distinct phenotypic endpoints that can arise from a common genetic origin, rather than a polygenic effect, a possibility that can be explored using the modeling approach outlined by Mitchell and colleagues. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These two different outlooks reflect a lively and ongoing debate on the genetic architecture of neuropsychiatric disease, the value of proceeding to yet bigger GWAS studies in an effort to identify more common risk loci, and to what extent common risk variants may actually be tagging linked rare mutation responsible for the association with disease [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Large animal models, such as domesticated farm animals, offer some distinct advantages over rodent models, including a larger brain that is amenable to imaging and intracerebral therapy, longer lifespan, and a more human-like neuro-architecture. (medindia.net)
  • Translating preclinical results for gene-based therapies from rodent models to larger-brained models of HD is an important step along the path toward clinical testing. (medindia.net)
  • While numerous studies have now demonstrated that advanced liver fibrosis in patients and in experimental rodent models is reversible, there is currently no effective therapy for patients," said principal investigator David A. Brenner, MD, vice chancellor for Health Sciences and dean of the School of Medicine at the University of California, San Diego. (ucsd.edu)
  • These new approaches require more sophisticated tools to investigate the impact of therapy in rodent models. (criver.com)
  • Research on AD is currently being carried out in rodent models. (semanticscholar.org)
  • One of the more common rodent models is the Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus). (wikipedia.org)
  • Moreover, growing evidence suggests that there are several connections between the neuropathology that underlies AD and DM, and there is evidence that the experimental induction of DM can cause cognitive dysfunction, even in rodent animal models. (mdpi.com)
  • In interpreting the experimental results, the limitations of those animal models should be considered. (wiley.com)
  • This review aims to provide an update on the most recent evidence of therapeutically-relevant neuro-immuneinteractions following NPC transplants in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral stroke and traumas of the spinal cord, and consideration of the forthcoming challenges related to the early translation of some of these exciting experimental outcomes into clinical medicines. (wingsforlife.com)
  • It will highlight the various strengths and weaknesses of experimental approaches that have been used, and discuss potential directions for the development of such models for the future. (biologists.org)
  • This review seeks to examine the animal models that have been developed in the study of NEC over the past 30 years, and will highlight the various strengths and weaknesses of each experimental approach while discussing potential directions for the development of models for the future. (biologists.org)
  • Of interest here is a broad spectrum of tools and techniques for molecular, chemical, and biological measurements and procedures which are relevant to the care of and to experimental protocols involving research animal models. (sbir.gov)
  • In the current review, we provide a comprehensive summary of mostly used experimental models of chronic liver disease, starting from early stages of fatty liver disease (non-alcoholic and alcoholic) to steatohepatitis and alcoholic liver disease, advanced cirrhosis and end-stage primary liver cancer. (onmedica.com)
  • References of experimental use of animals to model diseases, novel experimental procedures, or test novel therapeutics date all the way back to 304-258 BCE. (iospress.nl)
  • Furthermore, once a decision to proceed with research is made, it is the researcher's responsibility to ensure that the animals' w- fare is of prime concern in terms of appropriate housing, feeding, and maximum reduction of any uncomfortable or distressing effects of the experimental conditions, and that these conditions undergo frequent formalized monitoring. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Many researchers who are interested in an embryologically and genetically tractable disease model have now turned to zebrafish. (nih.gov)
  • The researchers next tried their tweezers in a living animal, the zebrafish, a tropical freshwater fish commonly found in aquariums. (scienceblog.com)
  • To overcome the difficulty of organising and accessing the large amounts of information on the various models, a large consortium of researchers set up a searchable database - the MUGEN Mouse Database (MMdb) (Aidinis et al. (brightkite.com)
  • A first-ever tissue implant to safely treat a common jaw defect, temporomandibular joint dysfunction, has been successfully tested in animals by researchers from UC Irvine and UC Davis. (ucdavis.edu)
  • In findings that support a relationship between agricultural chemicals and Parkinson s disease, two groups of researchers have found new evidence that loss of DJ-1, a gene known to be linked to inherited Parkinson s disease, leads to striking sensitivity to the herbicide paraquat and the insecticide rotenone. (innovations-report.com)
  • During the past decade, researchers have also made remarkable progress in identifying genes responsible for inherited forms of Parkinson s disease, with the expectation that understanding the function of these genes will elucidate mechanisms behind sporadic Parkinson s disease. (innovations-report.com)
  • The model developed by University College London (UCL) researchers and based on climate change, population growth and land use can be used to prepare communities and respond to disease outbreaks efficiently, Kate Jones, the lead author of the study and professor in UCL Genetics, Evolution and environment and ZSL, said. (org.in)
  • The approach has already proved successful by predicting the current disease patterns of Lassa fever, the researchers said in a statement. (org.in)
  • Researchers from the Broad Institute and Massachusetts Institute of Technology have created a new mouse model to simplify application of the CRISPR-Cas9 system for in vivo genome editing experiments. (phys.org)
  • But in order to prove that a specific gene is playing a role in the development of the disease, researchers need a way to perturb it - that is, turn the gene off, turn it on, or otherwise alter it - and study the effects. (phys.org)
  • The goal in developing the mouse was to empower researchers so that they can more rapidly screen through the long list of genes that have been implicated in disease and normal biological processes. (phys.org)
  • In describing the most pertinent animal models of ophthalmic diseases, this book will be of interest to ophthalmologists, vision researchers, fellows, residents, and medical students. (springer.com)
  • This reference will equip researchers with pertinent information regarding current animal models, so that future work will not repeat experiments already performed, while at the same time minimizing the number of animals projected for future biodefense studies. (cdc.gov)
  • We focused on aspects such as reproducibility and practicality, and discussed advantages and weaknesses of available models for researchers who are planning to perform animal studies in the near future. (onmedica.com)
  • DCM/ORIP-funded Resources aid these efforts by developing, characterizing, preserving and distributing high quality animals and biological materials that are used by researchers in all disciplines of biomedical research. (nih.gov)
  • For example, optimal husbandry, including caging and other equipment, is required to maintain animals as healthy stocks that can be distributed to researchers. (nih.gov)
  • Altogether, our study provides a resource for cardiac proteomes in four major model systems, uncovering conserved and divergent protein pathways and providing insight into selection of appropriate model systems for either modeling cardiac development or investigating disease," the researchers said. (unchealthcare.org)
  • The development of an animal model of autism is one approach researchers use to study potential causes of autism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Given the complexity of autism and its etiology, researchers often focus only on single features of autism when using animal models. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other researchers have developed an autism severity score to measure the degree of severity of the mice's autism, as well as the use of scent marking behavior and vocalization distress as models for communication. (wikipedia.org)
  • In 2013, a study was published by Swiss researchers which concluded that 91% (31 out of the 34 studies reviewed) of valproic acid-autism studies using animal models suffered from statistical flaws-specifically, they had failed to correctly use the litter as a level of statistical analysis rather than just the individual (i.e., an individual mouse or rat). (wikipedia.org)
  • The vast number of murine models available encompasses a wide variety of immune disorders - from rheumatoid arthritis to multiple sclerosis. (brightkite.com)
  • Interaction between NAFLD and obesity still needs further clarification, and it is necessary to dertemine the mechanisms of these disorders in animal models of disease. (intechopen.com)
  • Murine GVHD experiments have been utilized to model the clinical disorders of acute and chronic GVHD (AGVHD and CGVHD) that occur after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation, and also to study T cell regulation, induction of tolerance, and autoimmune diseases. (currentprotocols.com)
  • to the Animal Models Volumes This and several other volumes in the Neuromethods series will describe a number of animal models of neuropsychiatric disorders. (foyles.co.uk)
  • Because of increasing public concern over the ethical treatment of animals in research, we felt it incumbent upon us to include this general preface to these volumes in order to indicate why we think further - search using animals is necessary and why animal models of psychiatric disorders, in particular, are so important. (foyles.co.uk)
  • The discovery of effective therapies for these disorders has been challenging and has also involved the development and characterization of accurate animal models for the screening of new drugs. (frontiersin.org)
  • Zebrafish constitutes an alternative vertebrate model for the study of movement disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • Therefore, it is central to critically analyze these zebrafish lines and understand their suitability as models of movement disorders. (frontiersin.org)
  • A systematic review of the literature was conducted by including all studies reporting the characterization of zebrafish models of the movement disorders selected from five bibliographic databases. (frontiersin.org)
  • The position is part of the project "Neurodevelopmental disorders and the synapse" funded by the Lundbeckfonden call "What Causes Brain Disease? (dsfn.dk)
  • The Mitochondrial Research Society estimates that more than 50 million adults in the U.S. suffer from diseases in which mitochondrial dysfunction is involved and that mitochondrial dysfunction is found in a broad spectrum of diseases - from diabetes and infertility to cancer and age-related neurodegenerative disorders (see http://www.mitoresearch.org). (taylorfrancis.com)
  • About 22 percent of all pediatric hospital admissions are because of respiratory disorders, and congenital causes of respiratory diseases are often lethal, despite advances in care and a deeper understanding of their molecular causes. (technologynetworks.com)
  • For neuropsychiatric disorders, however, this thinking has been challenged by recent findings of an increasing number of rare mutations that have a large effect on disease susceptibility. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Familial copper storage disorders in Bedlington and West Highland white terriers are associated with early subclinical disease, and copper accumulation with subsequent liver injury culminating in cirrhosis. (islandscholar.ca)
  • The current scientific consensus is that no convincing scientific evidence supports these claims, and major scientific and medical bodies such as the Institute of Medicine and World Health Organization (WHO) as well as governmental agencies such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) reject any role for thiomersal in autism or other neurodevelopmental disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • Transgenic and Knockout Models of Neuropsychiatric Disorders. (wikipedia.org)
  • A study published in the online journal Hepatology reports a potential new NADPH oxidase (NOX) inhibitor therapy for liver fibrosis, a scarring process associated with chronic liver disease that can lead to loss of liver function. (ucsd.edu)
  • A new opossum model has been developed to mimic nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, which resembles alcoholic liver disease but occurs in people who drink little or no alcohol. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • The development could be an important step in the study of the common liver disease. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • These opossums developed elevated cholesterol and fatty liver disease when fed a high cholesterol and high fat diet, just like people with nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
  • Obesity is one of the major risk factors for the Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) development, as the leading cause of chronic liver disease. (intechopen.com)
  • Obesity is associated with a number of health problems that are often summarized together as metabolic syndrome and involve the development of insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and fatty liver disease [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is the leading cause of chronic liver disease affecting 20-30% of the world's adult population, and is characterized by a buildup of fat, mainly in the form of triglycerides, in the hepatocyte cytoplasm, exceeding 5-10% of the cell weight, verified histologically or by imaging techniques. (intechopen.com)
  • Morrisey collaborated on a recent study led by Peranteau and Kiran Musunuru, MD, PhD, an associate professor of Cardiovascular Medicine at Penn, demonstrating the feasibility of in utero gene editing to rescue a lethal metabolic liver disease in a mouse model - the first time in utero CRISPR-mediated gene editing prevented a lethal metabolic disorder in animals. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Copper-associated liver disease has increasingly being recognized in Dalmatians. (islandscholar.ca)
  • Liver disease associated with periacinar copper accumulation has also been described in Siamese cats. (islandscholar.ca)
  • Vital and easy to use, Animal Models for Retinal Diseases serves to support the important future research of ocular investigators, ophthalmologists, and neuroscientists currently delving into this fascinating field of study. (springer.com)
  • Comprehensive study of these models has yielded vital evidence for the concept that autoimmunity to joint-specific antigens can lead to arthritis.The. (brightkite.com)
  • The current study was designed to evaluate in two mouse models of HD use of a new, brain-permeable SIRT2 inhibitor called AK-7, first identified by members of the MGH team in 2011. (massgeneral.org)
  • This new study provides important validation of the role of NOX in liver fibrosis, and suggests that a NOX inhibitor could provide an effective treatment for this devastating disease. (ucsd.edu)
  • These data highlight the excellent pharmacological properties of GKT137831 and the broad potential for its use in fibrotic diseases,'' said Patrick Page, chief development officer at Genkyotex and contributor to the study. (ucsd.edu)
  • To identify probable areas where West Point cadets as well as active duty service members stationed at West Point and their families might contract Lyme disease, this study used Geographic Information System mapping methods and remote sensing data to replicate an established spatial model to identify the likely habitat of a key host animal-the white-tailed deer. (health.mil)
  • This study used an established spatial analysis method to determine likely high-risk areas for contracting Lyme disease from ticks ( Ixodes scapularis ) near West Point, NY. (health.mil)
  • In our study, we could see that gene therapy used during this particular time led to a restoration of damaged neurons, even though the lesions that represent the disease were already extensive. (innovations-report.com)
  • The study published in the journal, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, tested the new model with Lassa fever. (org.in)
  • Besides its significance for the practitioner, Boma disease virus infection remains to be unique as a disease model: it allows to study most diverse alterations in neurobiological processes. (scialert.net)
  • This review seeks to examine the pros and cons of animal models that have been developed in the study of NEC over the past 30 years. (biologists.org)
  • As such, the development of reliable and reproducible animal models for the study of NEC remains a crucial component in our attempt to determine its underlying causes. (biologists.org)
  • Written by experts in the field with these advances and challenges in mind, this handbook provides an updated overview of the animal models being developed and used to study complex disease dynamics. (iospress.nl)
  • In addition to the study of infectious diseases, cotton rats have been used to study toxins in the environment and recently also as a tumor model. (osu.edu)
  • A new study conducted on small- and large-animal models and published in the journal Science Translational Medicine suggests that gene therapy can be used in improving muscle strength among patients of a fatal congenital pediatric disease known as X-linked myotubular myopathy. (medindia.net)
  • In this study, we report rapid production of TNF-α in the peripheral immune system after disease induction in a murine model of Kawasaki disease. (jimmunol.org)
  • The implications of the pre-clinical findings are extraordinary for inherited muscular diseases," said Childers, co-senior author on the paper, and co-principal investigator of the study. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that pre-infusion values of several hemodynamic and perfusion parameters could help to predict fluid responsiveness in an infant animal model of hemorrhagic shock. (bmj.com)
  • The Taconic Animal Care and Use Committee approved all study protocols. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This proof-of-concept study, published today in Science Translational Medicine , showed that in utero editing could be a promising new approach for treating lung diseases before birth. (technologynetworks.com)
  • Similar to that study, Peranteau says "the current research is a proof-of-concept study highlighting the exciting future prospects for prenatal treatments including gene editing and replacement gene therapy for the treatment of congenital diseases. (technologynetworks.com)
  • The study aim was to review the animal MR models that have been developed using a mitral valve chordae tendineae rupture technique. (icr-heart.com)
  • In the current study, we examined the effects of L-NBP on learning and memory in a triple-transgenic AD mouse model (3xTg-AD) that develops both plaques and tangles with aging, as well as cognitive deficits. (pubfacts.com)
  • A recent study added North Ronaldsay sheep to the list of promising animal models to study Indian childhood cirrhosis. (islandscholar.ca)
  • This ability to perturb multiple genes at the same time may be particularly useful in studying complex diseases, such as cancer, where mutations in more than one gene may be driving the disease. (phys.org)
  • Particularly, zebrafish models of PD have contributed to a better understanding of the role of several genes implicated in the disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • SCID pig models depict numerous types of immune cell profiles due to defects in different signaling pathways and mutations in different genes. (bmbreports.org)
  • The expectation is that answers will come with the increasing number of patient genomes or exomes being sequenced, alongside those of family members - though this is not without difficulties, as a typical person is estimated to carry about 150 rare coding variants affecting about 1% of his or her genes, making it a challenge to identify those with a causal role in disease. (biomedcentral.com)
  • A comprehensive description of the techniques applied to induce disease is provided, the advantages and limitations of mouse, rat, and rabbit models used to mimic pneumonia, sepsis, and meningitis are discussed, and a section on otitis media models is also included. (mysciencework.com)
  • Since the first murine model of AD was reported one and a half decades ago, many other models have been generated by modification of transgenes that cause familial AD. (springer.com)
  • Gene Therapy Prolongs Survival and Restores Function in Murine and Canine Models of Myotubular Myopathy," by M.K Childers et al. (medicalxpress.com)
  • This meeting is unique in that our program is not limited to a sin-gle disease, discipline, or species, and thereby will provide a breadth and diversity of topics not seen in more narrowly focused conferences. (xenbase.org)
  • Some animal species show typical intranuclear inclusion bodies (Joest-Degen inclusions) , which are composed of specific antigen and are located in ganglion cells of the Ammon`s hom, the piriform lobe and the retina. (scialert.net)
  • The great adaptability of the virus to different animal species and its affinity for neurons allow to investigate clinical alterations involving the CNS and to quantitate the virological and immunological interactions of the agent with nerve cells in the brain and the eye. (scialert.net)
  • Pathologic changes comparable to the lesions of AD are described in several other animal species, although their clinical significance and effect on cognitive function are poorly documented. (uu.nl)
  • When administered to an AD fly model, CEppt rectified their reduced longevity, fully recovered their locomotion defects and totally abolished tetrameric species of Aβ in their brain. (pubfacts.com)
  • More recent research has used the house mouse (Mus musculus) to model autism because it is a social species. (wikipedia.org)
  • Dr. Raymond and her team were able, by using a drug that selectively blocks extra-synaptic NMDARs early, before the appearance of any symptoms, to delay the onset of Huntington-like symptoms in a mouse model of the disease. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Despite continuing debate over the ethics of using animal models in research, progress in the field has been phenomenal in recent times, and a whole host of models, particularly mouse models, have been developed. (brightkite.com)
  • The Psoriasis SCID Mouse Model: A Tool for Drug Discovery? (springer.com)
  • They assessed the effectiveness of treatment with GKT137831 - a NOX1/4 inhibitor developed by Genkyotex SA of Geneva, Switzerland - in mouse models, and found that treatment with this NOX inhibitor suppressed ROS production, as well as NOX and fibrotic gene expression. (ucsd.edu)
  • To demonstrate a potential application for cancer research, the authors used the "Cas9 mouse" to model lung adenocarcinoma . (phys.org)
  • When the inducible DUX4 mouse model is crossed onto the p53 -null background, we find no suppression of the male-specific lethality or skin phenotypes that are characteristic of the DUX4 transgene, and find that primary myoblasts from this mouse are still killed by DUX4 expression. (biologists.org)
  • So we screened seven FDA -approved anti-epileptic medications including levetiracetam in our Alzheimer's mouse model to see if minimizing these network disruptions could improve memory. (medicalxpress.com)
  • We are now building on these findings and working to identify the precise mechanism by which this drug reduces brain-network dysfunction and improves memory in our mouse models," said Dr. Sanchez. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Based on seminal work on local and systemic administration in a mouse model of the disease performed by Anna Buj-Bello at Généthon since 2009, Martin K. Childers, a professor of rehabilitation medicine and a regenerative medicine researcher at the University of Washington, worked with the Buj-Bello and Beggs groups. (medicalxpress.com)
  • You will perform double patch- clamp recordings in the hippocampus and neocortex of novel mouse disease models. (dsfn.dk)
  • In the work presented here we combine the comparison of patient phenotypes to known disease as well as mouse and zebrafish phenotypes for each candidate variant in the exome. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In PCK rat and PKD2 (ws25/w183) mouse models, entanercept was administered once every three days at 5 or 10 mg/kg, once daily. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The most common transgenic mouse model mimics familial AD, which accounts for a small percentage of cases. (semanticscholar.org)
  • This webinar discusses the evolution of tools to analyze motor deficits in animal models, how that evolution is being informed by clinical strategies and how Charles River is working to support the discovery of future PD treatments. (criver.com)
  • Overlap in susceptibility is also seen in the GWAS that have to date identified 10 common variants with small effects on disease risk, though here the major overlap is seen with bipolar disorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biodefense: Research Methodology and Animal Models, edited by James R. Swearengen, is a timely and invaluable reference for those performing animal experimentation to develop medical countermeasures and diagnostics against infectious agents and toxins identified as potential biological weapons. (cdc.gov)
  • Inflammation and excessive fibrosis are prominent histologic features of chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). (arvojournals.org)
  • The zebrafish is a popular animal for research because it is easily manipulated genetically, develops rapidly and is transparent, making the measurement of biological processes easier. (scienceblog.com)
  • In each of the eight chapters, they deal with a specific modeling approach or set of techniques designed to capture a particular biological factor. (dymocks.com.au)
  • It clearly and concisely provides extensive details about the animal models, both past and present, that have been used to investigate a selected number of disease processes caused by exposure to plausible biological threat agents. (cdc.gov)
  • The animal models and biological materials to be developed must address the research interests of two or more of the categorical NIH Institutes and Centers. (sbir.gov)
  • DCM-supported Resources and the research community will benefit from development and commercialization of technologies that support the husbandry, characterization, improvement and use of animal models and related biological materials. (nih.gov)
  • The Office of Research Infrastructure Programs (ORIP) supports research-related resources that create, develop, preserve and supply a variety of high-quality animal models, and related biological materials. (nih.gov)
  • Dysfunction or death of specific neuronal populations most at risk for dominantly inherited neurodegenerative diseases is not mediated solely by the expression of the mutant protein within target neurons ( 1 ). (pnas.org)
  • This review describes the commonly reported age-associated neurologic lesions in domestic and laboratory animals and the relationship of these lesions to cognitive dysfunction. (uu.nl)
  • Calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), once thought to be a degenerative disease, is now recognized to be an active pathobiological process, with chronic inflammation emerging as a predominant, and possibly driving, factor. (hindawi.com)
  • Over the course of the disease, chronic synovitis (inflammation of the synovial lining of joints, tendon sheaths or bursae with a infiltration of macrophages, T-cells, polymorphs, etc.) leads to erosions of normal articular tissue. (brightkite.com)
  • Histopathologically, Boma disease often goes along with a non-purulent inflammation of the brain and the spinal cord. (scialert.net)
  • Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is the leading cause of death and long-term disability from gastrointestinal disease in preterm infants, and is characterized by acute and chronic intestinal inflammation that may lead to systemic sepsis and multi-system organ failure. (biologists.org)
  • a finding that further distinguishes NEC from other intestinal inflammation diseases that may predominantly affect the colon, such as infection. (biologists.org)
  • We have a large and expanding data set on RNS60's ability to reduce inflammation, and these findings are a significant advancement in our understanding of how RNS60 may be a treatment for neuro-degenerative diseases. (nanowerk.com)
  • Parkinson s disease occurs both sporadically and as a result of inheritance of single gene mutations. (innovations-report.com)
  • Betts V, Leissring MA, Dolios G, Wang R, Selkoe DJ, Walsh DM (2008) Aggregation and catabolism of disease-associated intra-Abeta mutations: reduced proteolysis of AbetaA21G by neprilysin. (springer.com)
  • Dominant mutations in the Cu 2+ /Zn 2+ superoxide dismutase (mSOD1) gene are the most frequent cause of inherited amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), an inexorably progressive and fatal neuromuscular disease, and current evidence suggests that motoneuron injury is non− cell-autonomous and involves damage caused by mSOD1 proteins within glia of the central nervous system (CNS) ( 1 - 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Mitchell and coauthors espouse the proposition, gaining ground of late [ 3 - 5 ], that the disease-associated rare variants reported so far (mostly short deletions or duplications) represent only the tip of the iceberg, and that as sequencing studies uncover more functionally relevant mutations, most cases of neuropsychiatric disease will be found to be attributable, in large part, to single rare mutations of large effect. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Corvin on the other hand takes the view that with only 5% of cases so far explained by rare mutations, it is too early to judge to what extent they account for the heritability of the disease, and that the combined effect of common alleles, together with environmental factors, may still explain a considerable fraction of cases [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • however, they have been shown to modulate microglial activation and provide neuroprotection in acute models of neuronal injury ( 10 - 16 ). (pnas.org)
  • Emerging infections provide clues about how pathogens might evolve when farm animals are protected from infection. (the-scientist.com)
  • In this disease, abnormal ion transport across the respiratory epithelia leads to dehydrated, viscous and poorly-cleared airway secretions that contribute to chronic infection of the airways and early death. (google.com)
  • Spread through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick, infection with the bacterial cause of Lyme disease can have lasting effects that may lead to medical discharge from the military. (health.mil)
  • Experimentally, the infection is possible via different routes, but the age of the animal is also decisive. (scialert.net)
  • The models have been classified into five main categories based on the methods of induction: gene knockout (KO), transgenic, chemical, adoptive transfer, and spontaneous (each with subcategories). (nih.gov)
  • Our results suggest that clinical studies of memantine and similarly-acting drugs in Huntington disease, particularly in the pre-symptomatic stage, are warranted,"says Dr. Raymond. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • World expert clinicians discuss each model based on their clinical experience, and the text is supported by numerous photos and diagrams. (springer.com)
  • The diagnosis of Boma disease is established intra vitam on the basis of the clinical symptoms and the presence of antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), as well as by new ELISA methods measuring specific antigen and immune complexes. (scialert.net)
  • These results demonstrate the efficacy of gene replacement therapy for myotubular myopathy in animal models and pave the way to a clinical trial in patients. (medindia.net)
  • Despite discrepancies between clinical studies, the likely relationship between the intestinal microbiota and allergy assess the usefulness of modulation of the gut microbiota that may help prevent and manage allergic diseases. (intechopen.com)
  • The results, appearing in the Jan. 22 issue of Science Translational Medicine , also demonstrate the feasibility of future clinical trials of gene therapy for this devastating disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Given the large medical burden of polycystic kidney disease (PKD) and recent clinical trial failures, there is a need for novel, safe and effective treatments for the disorder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Atherosclerosis is a complex multifactorial disease with different etiologies that synergistically promote lesion development. (hindawi.com)