Hepatitis B: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis C: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.Hepatitis A: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the HEPATOVIRUS genus, HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS. It can be transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water.Hepatitis B virus: The type species of the genus ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS which causes human HEPATITIS B and is also apparently a causal agent in human HEPATOCELLULAR CARCINOMA. The Dane particle is an intact hepatitis virion, named after its discoverer. Non-infectious spherical and tubular particles are also seen in the serum.Hepatitis B Surface Antigens: Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.Hepatitis: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER.Hepatitis C, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans that is caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS lasting six months or more. Chronic hepatitis C can lead to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Hepatitis B, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS B VIRUS lasting six months or more. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis, Viral, Human: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans due to infection by VIRUSES. There are several significant types of human viral hepatitis with infection caused by enteric-transmission (HEPATITIS A; HEPATITIS E) or blood transfusion (HEPATITIS B; HEPATITIS C; and HEPATITIS D).Hepatitis A virus: A species in the genus HEPATOVIRUS containing one serotype and two strains: HUMAN HEPATITIS A VIRUS and Simian hepatitis A virus causing hepatitis in humans (HEPATITIS A) and primates, respectively.Hepatitis B Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines containing inactivated hepatitis B or some of its component antigens and designed to prevent hepatitis B. Some vaccines may be recombinantly produced.Hepatitis B Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS B ANTIGENS, including antibodies to the surface (Australia) and core of the Dane particle and those to the "e" antigens.Hepatitis, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER with ongoing hepatocellular injury for 6 months or more, characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES and inflammatory cell (LEUKOCYTES) infiltration. Chronic hepatitis can be caused by viruses, medications, autoimmune diseases, and other unknown factors.Hepatitis B Core Antigens: The hepatitis B antigen within the core of the Dane particle, the infectious hepatitis virion.Hepatitis A Vaccines: Vaccines or candidate vaccines used to prevent infection with hepatitis A virus (HEPATOVIRUS).Hepatitis Antibodies: Immunoglobulins raised by any form of viral hepatitis; some of these antibodies are used to diagnose the specific kind of hepatitis.Hepacivirus: A genus of FLAVIVIRIDAE causing parenterally-transmitted HEPATITIS C which is associated with transfusions and drug abuse. Hepatitis C virus is the type species.Hepatitis B e Antigens: A closely related group of antigens found in the plasma only during the infective phase of hepatitis B or in virulent chronic hepatitis B, probably indicating active virus replication; there are three subtypes which may exist in a complex with immunoglobulins G.Hepatitis B Antigens: Antigens of the virion of the HEPATITIS B VIRUS or the Dane particle, its surface (HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS), core (HEPATITIS B CORE ANTIGENS), and other associated antigens, including the HEPATITIS B E ANTIGENS.Hepatitis E: Acute INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans; caused by HEPATITIS E VIRUS, a non-enveloped single-stranded RNA virus. Similar to HEPATITIS A, its incubation period is 15-60 days and is enterically transmitted, usually by fecal-oral transmission.Hepatitis C Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis E virus: A positive-stranded RNA virus species in the genus HEPEVIRUS, causing enterically-transmitted non-A, non-B hepatitis (HEPATITIS E).Hepatitis A Antibodies: Antibodies to the HEPATITIS A ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.Hepatitis, Viral, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in animals due to viral infection.Hepatitis, Autoimmune: A chronic self-perpetuating hepatocellular INFLAMMATION of unknown cause, usually with HYPERGAMMAGLOBULINEMIA and serum AUTOANTIBODIES.Hepatitis A Virus, Human: A strain of HEPATITIS A VIRUS which causes hepatitis in humans. The virus replicates in hepatocytes and is presumed to reach the intestine via the bile duct. Transmission occurs by the fecal-oral route.Hepatitis Viruses: Any of the viruses that cause inflammation of the liver. They include both DNA and RNA viruses as well viruses from humans and animals.Hepatitis Delta Virus: A defective virus, containing particles of RNA nucleoprotein in virion-like form, present in patients with acute hepatitis B and chronic hepatitis. It requires the presence of a hepadnavirus for full replication. This is the lone species in the genus Deltavirus.Hepatitis D: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS, a defective RNA virus that can only infect HEPATITIS B patients. For its viral coating, hepatitis delta virus requires the HEPATITIS B SURFACE ANTIGENS produced by these patients. Hepatitis D can occur either concomitantly with (coinfection) or subsequent to (superinfection) hepatitis B infection. Similar to hepatitis B, it is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.Hepatitis, Animal: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in non-human animals.Viral Hepatitis Vaccines: Any vaccine raised against any virus or viral derivative that causes hepatitis.Antiviral Agents: Agents used in the prophylaxis or therapy of VIRUS DISEASES. Some of the ways they may act include preventing viral replication by inhibiting viral DNA polymerase; binding to specific cell-surface receptors and inhibiting viral penetration or uncoating; inhibiting viral protein synthesis; or blocking late stages of virus assembly.Murine hepatitis virus: A species of the CORONAVIRUS genus causing hepatitis in mice. Four strains have been identified as MHV 1, MHV 2, MHV 3, and MHV 4 (also known as MHV-JHM, which is neurotropic and causes disseminated encephalomyelitis with demyelination as well as focal liver necrosis).Hepatitis C Antigens: Antigens of the virions of HEPACIVIRUS, their surface, core, or other associated antigens.Hepatovirus: A genus of PICORNAVIRIDAE causing infectious hepatitis naturally in humans and experimentally in other primates. It is transmitted through fecal contamination of food or water. HEPATITIS A VIRUS is the type species.RNA, Viral: Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Interferon-alpha: One of the type I interferons produced by peripheral blood leukocytes or lymphoblastoid cells. In addition to antiviral activity, it activates NATURAL KILLER CELLS and B-LYMPHOCYTES, and down-regulates VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR expression through PI-3 KINASE and MAPK KINASES signaling pathways.Hepatitis A Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS A VIRUS such as the human hepatitis A virus (HEPATITIS A VIRUS, HUMAN).Hepatitis delta Antigens: Antigens produced by various strains of HEPATITIS D VIRUS.Hepatitis Antigens: Antigens from any of the hepatitis viruses including surface, core, and other associated antigens.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Ribavirin: A nucleoside antimetabolite antiviral agent that blocks nucleic acid synthesis and is used against both RNA and DNA viruses.Hepatitis B Virus, Duck: A DNA virus that closely resembles human hepatitis B virus. It has been recovered from naturally infected ducks.Alanine Transaminase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-alanine and 2-oxoglutarate to pyruvate and L-glutamate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 126.96.36.199.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.DNA, Viral: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.Viral Nonstructural Proteins: Proteins encoded by a VIRAL GENOME that are produced in the organisms they infect, but not packaged into the VIRUS PARTICLES. Some of these proteins may play roles within the infected cell during VIRUS REPLICATION or act in regulation of virus replication or VIRUS ASSEMBLY.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Hepatitis B Virus, Woodchuck: An ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS causing chronic liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma in woodchucks. It closely resembles the human hepatitis B virus.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Models, Animal: Non-human animals, selected because of specific characteristics, for use in experimental research, teaching, or testing.Virus Replication: The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.Lamivudine: A reverse transcriptase inhibitor and ZALCITABINE analog in which a sulfur atom replaces the 3' carbon of the pentose ring. It is used to treat HIV disease.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Polyethylene Glycols: Polymers of ETHYLENE OXIDE and water, and their ethers. They vary in consistency from liquid to solid depending on the molecular weight indicated by a number following the name. They are used as SURFACTANTS, dispersing agents, solvents, ointment and suppository bases, vehicles, and tablet excipients. Some specific groups are NONOXYNOLS, OCTOXYNOLS, and POLOXAMERS.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Viral Core Proteins: Proteins found mainly in icosahedral DNA and RNA viruses. They consist of proteins directly associated with the nucleic acid inside the NUCLEOCAPSID.Hepatitis D, Chronic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS DELTA VIRUS in conjunction with HEPATITIS B VIRUS and lasting six months or more.Marmota: A genus of Sciuridae consisting of 14 species. They are shortlegged, burrowing rodents which hibernate in winter.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Liver Transplantation: The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.Viral Load: The quantity of measurable virus in a body fluid. Change in viral load, measured in plasma, is sometimes used as a SURROGATE MARKER in disease progression.Carrier State: The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.Genome, Viral: The complete genetic complement contained in a DNA or RNA molecule in a virus.Hepatocytes: The main structural component of the LIVER. They are specialized EPITHELIAL CELLS that are organized into interconnected plates called lobules.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Flaviviridae: A family of RNA viruses, many of which cause disease in humans and domestic animals. There are three genera FLAVIVIRUS; PESTIVIRUS; and HEPACIVIRUS, as well as several unassigned species.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Blood DonorsLiver Function Tests: Blood tests that are used to evaluate how well a patient's liver is working and also to help diagnose liver conditions.Liver Diseases: Pathological processes of the LIVER.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Jaundice: A clinical manifestation of HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA, characterized by the yellowish staining of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA. Clinical jaundice usually is a sign of LIVER dysfunction.Aspartate Aminotransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the conversion of L-aspartate and 2-ketoglutarate to oxaloacetate and L-glutamate. EC 188.8.131.52.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Substance Abuse, Intravenous: Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.Drug-Induced Liver Injury: A spectrum of clinical liver diseases ranging from mild biochemical abnormalities to ACUTE LIVER FAILURE, caused by drugs, drug metabolites, and chemicals from the environment.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Viral Envelope Proteins: Layers of protein which surround the capsid in animal viruses with tubular nucleocapsids. The envelope consists of an inner layer of lipids and virus specified proteins also called membrane or matrix proteins. The outer layer consists of one or more types of morphological subunits called peplomers which project from the viral envelope; this layer always consists of glycoproteins.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Replicon: Any DNA sequence capable of independent replication or a molecule that possesses a REPLICATION ORIGIN and which is therefore potentially capable of being replicated in a suitable cell. (Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Interferons: Proteins secreted by vertebrate cells in response to a wide variety of inducers. They confer resistance against many different viruses, inhibit proliferation of normal and malignant cells, impede multiplication of intracellular parasites, enhance macrophage and granulocyte phagocytosis, augment natural killer cell activity, and show several other immunomodulatory functions.DucksOrganophosphonates: Carbon-containing phosphonic acid compounds. Included under this heading are compounds that have carbon bound to either OXYGEN atom or the PHOSPHOROUS atom of the (P=O)O2 structure.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Cryoglobulinemia: A condition characterized by the presence of abnormal quantities of CRYOGLOBULINS in the blood. Upon cold exposure, these abnormal proteins precipitate into the microvasculature leading to restricted blood flow in the exposed areas.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Liver Failure: Severe inability of the LIVER to perform its normal metabolic functions, as evidenced by severe JAUNDICE and abnormal serum levels of AMMONIA; BILIRUBIN; ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE; ASPARTATE AMINOTRANSFERASE; LACTATE DEHYDROGENASES; and albumin/globulin ratio. (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed)Antibodies, Viral: Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.Drug Resistance, Viral: The ability of viruses to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents or antiviral agents. This resistance is acquired through gene mutation.Vaccination: Administration of vaccines to stimulate the host's immune response. This includes any preparation intended for active immunological prophylaxis.Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Coinfection: Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.Antigens, CD81: Tetraspanin proteins that are involved in a variety of cellular functions including BASEMENT MEMBRANE assembly, and in the formation of a molecular complexes on the surface of LYMPHOCYTES.Viremia: The presence of viruses in the blood.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Hepadnaviridae: A family of hepatotropic DNA viruses which contains double-stranded DNA genomes and causes hepatitis in humans and animals. There are two genera: AVIHEPADNAVIRUS and ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS. Hepadnaviruses include HEPATITIS B VIRUS, duck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, DUCK), heron hepatitis B virus, ground squirrel hepatitis virus, and woodchuck hepatitis B virus (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK).Blood Transfusion: The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Hepatitis Virus, Duck: Unassigned species, in the family PICORNAVIRIDAE, causing high mortality in ducklings 3 days to 3 weeks old.Egypt: A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Adenine: A purine base and a fundamental unit of ADENINE NUCLEOTIDES.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Hepadnaviridae Infections: Virus diseases caused by the HEPADNAVIRIDAE.Liver Failure, Acute: A form of rapid-onset LIVER FAILURE, also known as fulminant hepatic failure, caused by severe liver injury or massive loss of HEPATOCYTES. It is characterized by sudden development of liver dysfunction and JAUNDICE. Acute liver failure may progress to exhibit cerebral dysfunction even HEPATIC COMA depending on the etiology that includes hepatic ISCHEMIA, drug toxicity, malignant infiltration, and viral hepatitis such as post-transfusion HEPATITIS B and HEPATITIS C.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Tattooing: The indelible marking of TISSUES, primarily SKIN, by pricking it with NEEDLES to imbed various COLORING AGENTS. Tattooing of the CORNEA is done to colorize LEUKOMA spots.Gene Expression Regulation, Viral: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Hepatitis, Infectious Canine: A contagious disease caused by canine adenovirus (ADENOVIRUSES, CANINE) infecting the LIVER, the EYE, the KIDNEY, and other organs in dogs, other canids, and bears. Symptoms include FEVER; EDEMA; VOMITING; and DIARRHEA.Antigens, Viral: Substances elaborated by viruses that have antigenic activity.Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Inhibitors of reverse transcriptase (RNA-DIRECTED DNA POLYMERASE), an enzyme that synthesizes DNA on an RNA template.Virion: The infective system of a virus, composed of the viral genome, a protein core, and a protein coat called a capsid, which may be naked or enclosed in a lipoprotein envelope called the peplos.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Bilirubin: A bile pigment that is a degradation product of HEME.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.GB virus C: A species of virus (unassigned to a genus) in the family FLAVIVIRIDAE. It is genetically heterogeneous, of human origin, and transmitted by blood or blood products. Despite its alternate name (Hepatitis G virus), its pathogenicity remains controversial.5' Untranslated Regions: The sequence at the 5' end of the messenger RNA that does not code for product. This sequence contains the ribosome binding site and other transcription and translation regulating sequences.Flaviviridae Infections: Infections with viruses of the family FLAVIVIRIDAE.Saguinus: A genus in the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE consisting of 12 species and found in Panama as well as South America. Species seen most frequently in the literature are S. oedipus (cotton-top marmoset), S. nigricollis, and S. fusicollis.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Mice, Inbred C57BLSensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Blood-Borne Pathogens: Infectious organisms in the BLOOD, of which the predominant medical interest is their contamination of blood-soiled linens, towels, gowns, BANDAGES, other items from individuals in risk categories, NEEDLES and other sharp objects, MEDICAL WASTE and DENTAL WASTE, all of which health workers are exposed to. This concept is differentiated from the clinical conditions of BACTEREMIA; VIREMIA; and FUNGEMIA where the organism is present in the blood of a patient as the result of a natural infectious process.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Immunization Schedule: Schedule giving optimum times usually for primary and/or secondary immunization.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Coronavirus Infections: Virus diseases caused by the CORONAVIRUS genus. Some specifics include transmissible enteritis of turkeys (ENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF TURKEYS); FELINE INFECTIOUS PERITONITIS; and transmissible gastroenteritis of swine (GASTROENTERITIS, TRANSMISSIBLE, OF SWINE).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Sciuridae: A family of the order Rodentia which contains 49 genera. Some of the more common genera are MARMOTA, which includes the marmot and woodchuck; Sciurus, the gray squirrel, S. carolinensis, and the fox squirrel, S. niger; Tamias, the eastern and western chipmunk; and Tamiasciurus, the red squirrel. The flying squirrels, except the scaly-tailed Anomaluridae, also belong to this family.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.BrazilMice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Mice, Inbred BALB CCell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Disease Outbreaks: Sudden increase in the incidence of a disease. The concept includes EPIDEMICS and PANDEMICS.Hepatic Encephalopathy: A syndrome characterized by central nervous system dysfunction in association with LIVER FAILURE, including portal-systemic shunts. Clinical features include lethargy and CONFUSION (frequently progressing to COMA); ASTERIXIS; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; brisk oculovestibular reflexes; decorticate and decerebrate posturing; MUSCLE SPASTICITY; and bilateral extensor plantar reflexes (see REFLEX, BABINSKI). ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY may demonstrate triphasic waves. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1117-20; Plum & Posner, Diagnosis of Stupor and Coma, 3rd ed, p222-5)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Virus Internalization: The entering of cells by viruses following VIRUS ATTACHMENT. This is achieved by ENDOCYTOSIS, by direct MEMBRANE FUSION of the viral membrane with the CELL MEMBRANE, or by translocation of the whole virus across the cell membrane.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to obstruction of BILE flow (CHOLESTASIS) in the intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts (BILE DUCTS, INTRAHEPATIC; BILE DUCTS, EXTRAHEPATIC). Primary biliary cirrhosis involves the destruction of small intra-hepatic bile ducts and bile secretion. Secondary biliary cirrhosis is produced by prolonged obstruction of large intrahepatic or extrahepatic bile ducts from a variety of causes.RNA Replicase: An enzyme that catalyses RNA-template-directed extension of the 3'- end of an RNA strand by one nucleotide at a time, and can initiate a chain de novo. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992, p293)Immunization Programs: Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.Trans-Activators: Diffusible gene products that act on homologous or heterologous molecules of viral or cellular DNA to regulate the expression of proteins.Hemophilia A: The classic hemophilia resulting from a deficiency of factor VIII. It is an inherited disorder of blood coagulation characterized by a permanent tendency to hemorrhage.Tupaia: A genus of tree shrews of the family TUPAIIDAE which consists of about 12 species. One of the most frequently encountered species is T. glis. Members of this genus inhabit rain forests and secondary growth areas in southeast Asia.Sexually Transmitted Diseases, Viral: Viral diseases which are transmitted or propagated by sexual conduct.Gene Products, pol: Retroviral proteins coded by the pol gene. They are usually synthesized as a protein precursor (POLYPROTEINS) and later cleaved into final products that include reverse transcriptase, endonuclease/integrase, and viral protease. Sometimes they are synthesized as a gag-pol fusion protein (FUSION PROTEINS, GAG-POL). pol is short for polymerase, the enzyme class of reverse transcriptase.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Protein PrecursorsCells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Orthohepadnavirus: A genus of HEPADNAVIRIDAE causing hepatitis in humans, woodchucks (HEPATITIS B VIRUS, WOODCHUCK) and ground squirrels. hepatitis b virus is the type species.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.DNA Virus InfectionsPakistanVirus Activation: The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.Fatty Liver: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells resulting in a yellow-colored liver. The abnormal lipid accumulation is usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES, either as a single large droplet or multiple small droplets. Fatty liver is caused by an imbalance in the metabolism of FATTY ACIDS.Immunoglobulins: Multi-subunit proteins which function in IMMUNITY. They are produced by B LYMPHOCYTES from the IMMUNOGLOBULIN GENES. They are comprised of two heavy (IMMUNOGLOBULIN HEAVY CHAINS) and two light chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN LIGHT CHAINS) with additional ancillary polypeptide chains depending on their isoforms. The variety of isoforms include monomeric or polymeric forms, and transmembrane forms (B-CELL ANTIGEN RECEPTORS) or secreted forms (ANTIBODIES). They are divided by the amino acid sequence of their heavy chains into five classes (IMMUNOGLOBULIN A; IMMUNOGLOBULIN D; IMMUNOGLOBULIN E; IMMUNOGLOBULIN G; IMMUNOGLOBULIN M) and various subclasses.Prisons: Penal institutions, or places of confinement for war prisoners.Vaccines, Synthetic: Small synthetic peptides that mimic surface antigens of pathogens and are immunogenic, or vaccines manufactured with the aid of recombinant DNA techniques. The latter vaccines may also be whole viruses whose nucleic acids have been modified.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Virus Assembly: The assembly of VIRAL STRUCTURAL PROTEINS and nucleic acid (VIRAL DNA or VIRAL RNA) to form a VIRUS PARTICLE.Autoantibodies: Antibodies that react with self-antigens (AUTOANTIGENS) of the organism that produced them.Virology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of viruses, and VIRUS DISEASES.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.PrisonersGenetic Vectors: DNA molecules capable of autonomous replication within a host cell and into which other DNA sequences can be inserted and thus amplified. Many are derived from PLASMIDS; BACTERIOPHAGES; or VIRUSES. They are used for transporting foreign genes into recipient cells. Genetic vectors possess a functional replicator site and contain GENETIC MARKERS to facilitate their selective recognition.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.GuanineInterferon-gamma: The major interferon produced by mitogenically or antigenically stimulated LYMPHOCYTES. It is structurally different from TYPE I INTERFERON and its major activity is immunoregulation. It has been implicated in the expression of CLASS II HISTOCOMPATIBILITY ANTIGENS in cells that do not normally produce them, leading to AUTOIMMUNE DISEASES.Nucleosides: Purine or pyrimidine bases attached to a ribose or deoxyribose. (From King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)T-Lymphocytes: Lymphocytes responsible for cell-mediated immunity. Two types have been identified - cytotoxic (T-LYMPHOCYTES, CYTOTOXIC) and helper T-lymphocytes (T-LYMPHOCYTES, HELPER-INDUCER). They are formed when lymphocytes circulate through the THYMUS GLAND and differentiate to thymocytes. When exposed to an antigen, they divide rapidly and produce large numbers of new T cells sensitized to that antigen.Host-Pathogen Interactions: The interactions between a host and a pathogen, usually resulting in disease.Disease Transmission, Infectious: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).Taiwan
Silymarin is also devoid of embryotoxic potential in animal models. Silibinin is available as drug (Legalon SIL (Madaus) (D, CH ... In 2011, the same compound also received Orphan Medicinal Product Designation for the prevention of recurrent hepatitis C in ... as adjunctive therapy in chronic hepatitis and cirrhosis. For approved drug preparations and parenteral applications in the ...
Chang Yi Wang
Immunogenicity and protection in small-animal models with controlled-release tetanus toxois microparticles as a single-dose ... Patterns and prevalence of hepatitis type C infection in post-transfusion non-A, non-B hepatitis. J Inf Dis 1993; 167: 1296- ... Controlled release microparticles as a single dose diphtheria toxoid vaccine; immunogenicity in small animal models. Vaccine ... vaccinated animals for Foot and mouth disease. Since 1992, she has been encouraged by the support and guidance of Dr.James D. ...
Texas Biomedical Research Institute
Developed invaluable animal models for research on cancer, heart disease, obesity, AIDS, and hepatitis among other public ... Developing an animal model to test vaccines to protect people against the Zika virus. In 2015, it was announced that the ... Helped advance a new treatment which moved from animal to human trials for chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. ... Wendy, Rigby (12 September 2016). "SA Scientists Developing Animal Models For Zika Testing". Texas Public Radio. Reagan, Mark ( ...
This was shown in human Muse cells infused into animal models with fulminant hepatitis, partial hepatectomy, muscle ... observed by the infusion of green fluorescent protein-labeled naive human Muse cells into animal models wit fulminant hepatitis ... Muse cells from different sources demonstrate reparative effects in animal disease models. The neural regeneration capability ... A three-dimensional culture model was used to assess Muse cell-derived melanocytes. In that model, the dermis was mimicked by ...
This research incorporates animal models, electrophysiology, behavioral testing and automated high-throughput analyses. In ... Hepatitis C. Pathogenesis and targets for therapeutic intervention. Looking for new biological targets for drugs that will ... Using iPS technology to create a new model for testing a vaccine for HIV/AIDS. Translational Research The Gladstone Center for ... Such a transformation of cells may lead to better models for studying disease mechanisms and for testing drugs for devastating ...
Animal models showed that modulating microRNAs through anti-miRs effectively regulates biological processes and provides ... for the treatment of hepatitis C (HCV) infection. Most recently, multi-national pharmaceutical giant Sanofi -Aventis awarded ... "Comparison of different miR-21 inhibitor chemistries in a cardiac disease model". Journal of Clinical Investigation. 121 (2): ... therapeutic benefit to cardiac dysfunction, cancer and hepatitis C virus infection. Administration of anti-miR oligonucleotides ...
... is as active against influenza as ribavirin in animal models, with slightly less toxicity, so it may also ... These include hepatitis C and perhaps also hepatitis B and yellow fever. ... Valeant is testing the drug as a treatment for chronic hepatitis C. Note on formulas: The carboxamidine group of this molecule ... It is expected eventually to be the drug of choice for viral hepatitis syndromes in which ribavirin is active. ...
Tupaia glis is used by researchers as animal models for human diseases because of their close relationship to primates, and ... Rui Qi Yan, Jian Jia Su, Ding Rui Huang, You Chuan Gan, Chun Yang and Gua Hau Huang (1996). Human hepatitis B virus and ... The animal has a head and body length of 13-21 cm and a tail length of 12-20 cm. The common treeshrew usually has a white, pale ... Animal Behaviour 27: 381-393 Kawamichi, T., Kawamichi, M. (1982) Social System and Independence of Offspring in Tree shrews ...
... the molecular tweezers have been found to be effective and safe not only in the test tube but also in animal models of ... They were also shown to destroy the membranes of enveloped viruses, such as HIV, herpes, and hepatitis C, which makes them good ... from the test tube to animal models, Curr. Pharm. Des. 2014; 20: 2469-2483. T Schrader, G Bitan, and F-G Klärner, Molecular ... Chen C.-W.; Whitlock H. W. "Molecular Tweezers - A Simple-Model of Bifunctional Intercalation," J. Am. Chem. Soc. 1978, 100, ...
Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS
Because research in pathogenesis is difficult when precise animal models are unavailable, the disease-causing mechanisms in ... Similarly, some people infected with hepatitis B, for example, show no symptoms or only jaundice and clear their infection, ... In other animals, viral relatives of HIV with long and variable latency periods, such as visna virus in sheep, cause central ... The risk of contracting HIV via sex with animals is small, but the practice has its own health risks. Diagnosis of infection ...
Results are mixed in animal models, and no clinical evidence shows a health benefit in humans. One study shows the healing ... hepatitis B, and hepatitis C. The administration of phosphatidylcholine for chronic, active hepatitis resulted in significant ... Some researchers have used mutant mouse models with severe oxidative damage as a model of "accelerated aging" to investigate ... They are also a member of the lecithin group of yellow-brownish fatty substances occurring in animal and plant tissues. ...
Cell culture models, as well as in vivo animal studies will be employed for testing the drug candidates. The company believes ... The worldwide market size for an effective anti-dengue treatment may be as large as that for Hepatitis C virus treatment, or in ... Her group has developed an animal model for dengue virus infection and disease that effectively emulates the pathology seen in ... is reproduced in this animal model. When a person who was previously infected with one serotype of dengue virus is later ...
Studies of IL-28B in non-human primate models of vaccination confirmed the small animal models, leading to an increase in ... A single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) near the IL28B gene predicts response to hepatitis C treatment with interferon and ... Addition of IL-28 to vaccination results in 100% protection from a lethal H1N1 Influenza challenge in a small animal model when ... PGxNews.Org (August 2009). "New biomarker predicts response to hepatitis C treatment". PGxNews.Org. Archived from the original ...
Iannacone M, Sitia G, Ruggeri ZM, Guidotti LG (2007). "HBV pathogenesis in animal models: Recent advances on the role of ... World Hepatitis Day, observed July 28, aims to raise global awareness of hepatitis B and hepatitis C and encourage prevention, ... when combined with hepatitis B immunoglobulin and the hepatitis B vaccine, especially for pregnant women with high hepatitis B ... "Predictive factors for reactivation of hepatitis B following hepatitis B e antigen seroconversion in chronic hepatitis B". ...
"Rabbit as a novel animal model for hepatitis e virus infection and vaccine evaluation". PLoS ONE. 7 (12): e51616. doi:10.1371/ ... Hepatitis E is a viral hepatitis (liver inflammation) caused by infection with a virus called hepatitis E virus. It is one of ... Domestic animals have been reported as a reservoir for the hepatitis E virus, with some surveys showing infection rates ... Genotypes 3 and 4 infect humans, pigs, and other animal species and have been responsible for sporadic cases of hepatitis E in ...
New England Anti-Vivisection Society
... and the applicability of using chimpanzees as research models for cancer, hepatitis C, and AIDS. NEAVS also lobbied Congress in ... Gilliam, J.D. (1999). of Animal Law Vol 5.pdf "Fido Goes to the lab: Amending the Animal Welfare Act to Require Animal Rescue ... Animal Research is Hazardous Waste examines the millions of animals bred, used, and disposed as contaminated or hazardous waste ... Validity of the Chimpanzee Model". Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. 38 (5): 387-418. Bailey, Jarrod (2009). "An Examination ...
Duck hepatitis B virus
The virus has also provided as a useful animal model in the absence of one from the HBV. Jilbert AR, Kotlarski I (March-April ... The Duck Hepatitis B virus has provided a basis for the use of vaccines and prophylactic treatments for individuals at high ... Duck Hepatitis B virus, abbreviated DHBV, is part of the Avihepadnavirus genus of the Hepadnaviridae, and is the causal agent ... Cooper A, Paran N, Shaul Y (2003-07-11). "The earliest steps in hepatitis B virus infection". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. ...
Prenatal cocaine exposure
One way to address problems with uncertainty about cocaine's effects due to confounding factors is to use animal models; these ... Cocaine using mothers also have a higher rate of sexually transmitted infections such as HIV and hepatitis. In some cases, it ... Animals and humans metabolize drugs at different rates, and drugs that are highly teratogenic in animals may not be in humans ... Animals cannot be used to measure differences in abilities such as reasoning that are only found in humans. Animal studies in ...
as a treatment for Hepatitis C, but despite promising results in animal studies, it was ultimately unsuccessful in clinical ... in both in vitro and animal models. Since it has already failed in human clinical trials previously, it is unlikely MK-608 ... A dengue fever viremia model in mice shows reduction in viral replication and suppression of the inflammatory response after ... Sustained viral response in a hepatitis C virus-infected chimpanzee via a combination of direct-acting antiviral agents. ...
The study of viral disease is therefore only feasible with the generation of a small animal model. Though not susceptible to ... Methods of detecting hepatitis A virus, retrieved 2014-08-24 Almond, Jeffrey W.; Michael a Skinner; Vincent Racaniello; Philip ... Taking advantage of this observation, Racaniello's laboratory constructed the first small animal model of poliomyelitis. Mice ... In addition a small animal model of virus echovirus 1 pathogenesis has been established. Racaniello is also interested in ...
2006). "Post-exposure prophylaxis for SIV revisited: Animal model for HIV infection". AIDS Res Ther. 3: 29. doi:10.1186/1742- ... For chronic hepatitis B patients, tenofovir is indicated for patients 12 years of age and older. Tenofovir can be used for HIV ... It does not cure HIV/AIDS or hepatitis B. It is available as by mouth as a tablet or powder. Common side effects include nausea ... "WHO Model List of Essential Medicines (19th List)" (PDF). World Health Organization. April 2015. Archived (PDF) from the ...
Using CRISPR gene editing technology, researchers decreased the symptoms due to schistosomiasis in an animal model. ... doi:10.1002/hep.21173. PMID 16628669.. *^ Helmut Kloos; Rosalie David (2002). "The Paleoepidemiology of Schistosomiasis in ... Egypt has the world's highest hepatitis C infection rate, and the infection rates in various regions of the country closely ... Strickland G. T. (May 2006). "Liver disease in Egypt: hepatitis C superseded schistosomiasis as a result of iatrogenic and ...
Ensembl genome database of model organisms History of model organisms Animals in space Animal testing Animal testing on ... hepatitis, HIV, Parkinson's disease, cognition, and vaccines). The organisms below have become model organisms because they ... providing a more robust model of human diseases in an animal model. Animal models observed in the sciences of psychology and ... These test conditions are often termed as animal models of disease. The use of animal models allows researchers to investigate ...
Another study found that students preferred using clay modeling over animal dissection and performed just as well as their ... The body is tested for the presence of HIV and Hepatitis viruses. It is then evaluated for use as a "fresh" or "prepared" ... Furthermore, animals (whether dead or alive) can be used only once, while non-animal resources can be used for many years-an ... Concern for animal welfare is often at the root of objections to animal dissection. Studies show that some students reluctantly ...
Diabetic Animal Models. In: Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science. Second Edition. Volume II: Animal Models, edited by Jann Hau ... Although hepatitis delta virus genome may replicate independently once inside a host cell, it requires the help of hepatitis B ... Animal viruses. Main articles: Animal virus and Veterinary virology. Viruses are important pathogens of livestock. Diseases ... interferon for hepatitis B e antigen-positive hepatitis B treatment: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Liver ...
Model organisms have been used in the study of PEPD function. A conditional knockout mouse line called Pepdtm1a(KOMP)Wtsi was ... Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion. Additional screens ... Duygu F, Aksoy N, Cicek AC, Butun I, Unlu S (Sep 2013). "Does prolidase indicate worsening of hepatitis B infection?". Journal ... "Serum prolidase activity and oxidant-antioxidant status in children with chronic hepatitis B virus infection". Italian Journal ...
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
... and can even be used to visualize the biliary tract of small animal models of PSC. Most people with PSC have evidence of ... doi:10.1002/hep.27925. PMID 26044445. Tabiban JH, Lindor KD (Feb 2013). "Primary sclerosing cholangitis: a review and update on ... Various models have been developed to help predict survival, but their use is generally best suited for research and not ... doi:10.1002/hep.26993. Tabibian JH, Trussoni CE, O'Hara SP, Splinter PL, Heimbach JK, LaRusso NF (2014). "Characterization of ...
Sero-epidemiology of six viruses natural infection in <em>Tupaia belangeri...
The progress of tree shrew as animal models for hepatitis research [J].Chin J Comp Med, 18(2): 59-62. [陈瑾, 代解杰,孙晓梅. 2008. 树鼩肝炎动 ... The tree shrews: useful animal models for the viral hepatitis and hepatocellular carcinoma [J]. Hepatogastroenterol, 52(62): ... small animals and close to primates in evolution. Experimental animals infected with viruses will affect the animals health, ... Creating animal models, why not use the Chinese tree shrew (Tupaia belangeri chinensis)?[J]. Zoological Research, 2017, 38(3): ...
Pathogens | Free Full-Text | Animal Models of Chronic Hepatitis Delta Virus Infection Host-Virus Immunologic Interactions
Recently, more practical animal models in which to perform a deeper study of host virus interactions and to evaluate new ... Animal models like hepadnavirus-infected chimpanzees or the eastern woodchuck have been of great value for the characterization ... of this review is to discuss the current knowledge about HDV host interactions obtained from cell culture and animal models. ... and fulminant hepatitis. Importantly, no selective therapies are available for HDV infection. The mainstay of treatment for HDV ...
The Role of NKT Cells in Animal Models of Autoimmune Hepatitis - Critical Reviews™ in Immunology, Volumen 26, 2006, Ausgabe 5 -...
The Role of NKT Cells in Animal Models of Autoimmune Hepatitis. Gunther Dennert Department of Molecular Microbiology and ... The Role of NKT Cells in Animal Models of Autoimmune Hepatitis ... the putative function of NKT cells in autoimmune hepatitis is ... whereas expression of a hepatitis C virus protein in hepatocytes can protect against injury. Hepatocytes, therefore, can ... discussed based on results from various mouse models. Features and functions of invariant NKT cells are summarized to set the ...
New animal model to study chronic hepatitis B virus infection - On Biology
New animal model to study chronic hepatitis B virus infection. Ben Johnson 23 Aug 2012. ... has emerged as an important animal model to study HBV infection. This non-rodent, primate-like, animal is similar enough to ... One obstacle to developing new antiviral drugs is the lack of an animal model to study the virus, as HBV only infects humans ... Research published today in Virology Journal describes a new model to study chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, which ...
Small Animal Models for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis: Proceedings of an NIAID Workshop |...
While small animal models have practical advantages over large animal models, it is crucial to be aware of their limitations. ... While small animal models have practical advantages over large animal models, it is crucial to be aware of their limitations. ... Keywords:HIV, AIDS, co-infections, HBV, tuberculosis, animal models.. Abstract:The main advantage of animal models of ... Small Animal Models for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis: Proceedings of an NIAID Workshop. ...
Animal models for hepatitis C - Fingerprint - Albert Einstein College of Medicine
animal model Archives - Hepatitis B @HCVAdvocate
Category Archives: animal model. New model for hepatitis B helps identify potential new therapeutic approach Posted on October ... avenue for treating hepatitis B has been reported by researchers at Hiroshima University who have developed a new animal model ... About two million people worldwide have been exposed to hepatitis B virus. Liver transplantation … Continue reading → ...
Surgery Has a More Profound Effect than Anesthesia on Brain Pathology and Cognition in Alzheimer's Animal Model, Finds Penn...
Hepatitis. 01/22/2018 Hepatitis Cellular Mechanism for Severe Viral Hepatitis Identified ... Surgery Has a More Profound Effect than Anesthesia on Brain Pathology and Cognition in Alzheimers Animal Model, Finds Penn ... She points out that it is not yet clear whether results from AD mouse models will represent patients who eventually get late- ... Neither surgery nor anesthesia produced changes in normal non-transgenic animals.. "In the mice, there was a clear and ...
Antibody prevents hepatitis C in animal model - Hepatitis C Blog
Antibody prevents hepatitis C in animal model. Hepatitis C Blog. Posted on August 31, 2012. by HCV Advocate. August 31, 2012. ... and tested in an animal model at. the Texas Biomedical Research Institute, prevents infection by the. hepatitis C virus (HCV). ... Evaluation of Wirelessly Observed Therapy to Optimize Adherence in Patients With Hepatitis C and Increased Risk for Non- ... adherence to Treatment: Digimeds to Optimize Adherence in Patients With Hepatitis C and Increased Risk for Nonadherence (DASH) ...
New animal models for hepatitis C<...
New animal models for hepatitis C. Together they form a unique fingerprint. * Animal Hepatitis Medicine & Life Sciences ... Von Schaewen, M., Gaska, J. M., & Ploss, A. (2016). New animal models for hepatitis C. In Hepatitis C Virus I: Cellular and ... New animal models for hepatitis C. In Hepatitis C Virus I: Cellular and Molecular Virology. Springer Japan. 2016. p. 275-297 ... Von Schaewen, M, Gaska, JM & Ploss, A 2016, New animal models for hepatitis C. in Hepatitis C Virus I: Cellular and Molecular ...
Rats of New York and the Diseases They Carry | Columbia University Mailman School of Public Health
"With the loss of the chimpanzee model for hepatitis C, the availability of an animal model that has fidelity to the human model ... Animal Model for Hepatitis C. High throughput screening methods developed by the Center for Infection and Immunity employed to ... Study Finds Dangerous Pathogens Lurk in the Citys Rat Population, New Animal Model for Hepatitis C ... "New Yorkers are constantly exposed to rats and the pathogens they carry, perhaps more than any other animal," explains Dr. ...
Animal models for primary sclerosing chol... & related info | Mendeley
... investigators have studied a variety of animal models to gain insights into immunopathogenetic mecha... ... type-1 autoimmune hepatitis. *versus-host disease. Get free article suggestions today. Mendeley saves you time finding and ... To date, no animal model has been developed that exhibits all of the attributes of PSC. Rodent models instigated by bacteria] ... Future studies in either existing or new animal models should advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of PSC, the major ...
Animal Models and Their Value in Predicting Drug Efficacy and Toxicity | The New York Academy of Sciences
This eBriefing explores common hurdles and pathways to improving pre-clinical model systems for the evaluation of therapeutic ... A genetically humanized mouse model for hepatitis C virus infection. Nature 2011;474(7350):208-211.. Marukian S, Andrus L, ... Stem Cell Models and Organ Models*More Alternatives: Imaging & Data Mining*Optimizing and Replacing Animal Models ... Phenotyping animal models by imaging. The meetings second day featured an extended session on new technologies for animal ...
Defective endothelial nitric oxide synthase signaling is mediated by rho-kinase activation in rats with secondary biliary...
Animal Model of Portal Hypertension due to Liver Cirrhosis.. We induced portal hypertension by performing bile duct ligation ( ... DOI: 10.1002/hep.22089 View/save citation. *Cited by (CrossRef): 19 articles Check for updates Citation tools ... Prolonged bile duct obstruction: a new experimental model for cirrhosis in the rat. Br J Exp Pathol 1984; 65: 305-311.. *PubMed ... Evolution of portal hypertension and mechanisms involved in its maintenance in a rat model. Am J Physiol 1985; 248: G618-G625. ...
Press Clipping Arquivos | Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência
'liver failure acute' Protocols and Video...
The CYP2D6 Animal Model: How to Induce Autoimmune Hepatitis in Mice, Two-photon Intravital Imaging of Leukocytes During the ... Application to an Acute Hepatitis Model, Mouse Kidney Transplantation: Models of Allograft Rejection, Characterization of ... Feasible Animal Model to Induce Septic Acute Kidney Injury, Implantation of the Syncardia Total Artificial Heart, Use of a ... A Mouse Model of Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury, The Colon-26 Carcinoma Tumor-bearing Mouse as a Model for the Study of Cancer ...
JoVE Table of Contents: Issue 60, February 2012
The CYP2D6 Animal Model: How to Induce Autoimmune Hepatitis in Mice. Edith Hintermann1, Janine Ehser1, Urs Christen1 ... Investigating Intestinal Inflammation in DSS-induced Model of IBD. Janice J. Kim1, Md. Sharif Shajib1, Marcus M. Manocha1, ... Development of a Unilaterally-lesioned 6-OHDA Mouse Model of Parkinsons Disease. Sherri L. Thiele1, Ruth Warre1, Joanne E. ... MAME Models for 4D Live-cell Imaging of Tumor: Microenvironment Interactions that Impact Malignant Progression. Mansoureh ...
Hepatitis C Viruses - NCBI Bookshelf
The discovery of the causative agent, hepatitis C virus (HCV), in 1989 has initiated an almost unparalleled research activity ... Chronic hepatitis C is a serious public health problem and a disease burden in many parts of the world. ... Animal Models for HCV Study. Linda B Couto and Alexander A Kolykhalov. ... hepatitis C.[J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2002]. Review Management issues in chronic viral hepatitis: hepatitis C.. Sievert W. J ...
Hepatitis C Virus I | SpringerLink
New Animal Models for Hepatitis C Markus von Schaewen, Jenna M. Gaska, Alexander Ploss ... This is particularly important in understanding hepatitis C because HCV infection alone is not cell lytic. Mechanisms ... Lipid and Lipoprotein Components Play Important Roles the Egress and Infectivity of Hepatitis C Virions ...
Small Animal Models for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis: Proceedings of an NIAID Workshop. |...
While small animal models have practical advantages over large animal models, it is crucial to be aware of their limitations. ... Small Animal Models for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis: Proceedings of an NIAID Workshop.. ... Small Animal Models for Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Hepatitis B, and Tuberculosis: Proceedings of an NIAID Workshop.. ... Well-designed small animal models for HIV, hepatitis viruses and tuberculosis require, additionally, a thorough understanding ...
Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular ... Models, Animal * Molecular Sequence Data * Pan troglodytes * Protein Conformation * Viral Vaccines / immunology ... Structural basis of hepatitis C virus neutralization by broadly neutralizing antibody HCV1 Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jun ... Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular ...
Liver-homing of purified glucose oxidase: a novel in vivo model of physiological hepatic oxidative stress (H2O2)
Our in vivo model allows to study the effects of extracellular H2O2 in the liver as is released by inflammatory cells. Thus ... Animals * Aspergillus niger / enzymology * Bile / metabolism * Disease Models, Animal * Glucose Oxidase / administration & ... Hepatitis / metabolism * Hepatitis / physiopathology* * Hydrogen Peroxide / metabolism * Injections, Intravenous * Kupffer ... Liver-homing of purified glucose oxidase: a novel in vivo model of physiological hepatic oxidative stress (H2O2) J Hepatol. ...
Microbes in the City | The New York Academy of Sciences
3. Hepatitis C animal models; Kawasaki disease; Stillbirth research*. 18:38. 4. Infections triggering chronic diseases; ... Farmers have known for decades that low doses of antibiotics cause animals to grow faster and fatter. This use of sub- ... For example, Lipkins lab has found viruses in dogs that are closely related to human hepatitis C virus, providing a new ... His work has focused on human pathogens, including Campylobacter species and Helicobacter pylori, which are also model systems ...
PA-17-281: In Vitro and Animal Model Studies on HBV/HIV Co-Infection (R21)
In Vitro and Animal Model Studies on HBV/HIV Co-Infection (R21) PA-17-281. NIAID ... Studies of hepatitis other than HBV;. * Studies performed on human specimens (e.g., blood, tissue) and collection of clinical ... HBV in animal models, including transgenic HIV-infected animals. ... In Vitro and Animal Model Studies on HBV/HIV Co-Infection (R21 ... Discovering/developing small animal models (e.g., mouse, rat) to enhance drug discovery/development for HBV/HIV co-infection ...
Masking HIV target cells prevents viral transmission in animal model - Healthcanal.com : Healthcanal.com
New perspectives on risk of HIV and hepatitis among injecting drug users ... Home Infections HIV and AIDS Masking HIV target cells prevents viral transmission in animal model ... Ten out of 12 control animals became infected. In contrast, only one out of 12 a4b7-antibody-treated animals became infected by ... but also keep treated animals healthy for years, while control animals SIV infection progressed to AIDS diseases. ...
Occult lifelong persistence of infectious hepadnavirus and residual liver inflammation in woodchucks convalescent from acute...
The woodchuck animal model of hepatitis B. Viral Hepat Rev 1998; 4:139-165. ... Posttransfusion hepatitis B transmitted by blood from a hepatitis B surface antigen-negative hepatitis B virus carrier. ... The woodchuck model of hepatitis B virus infection. In: AriasIM, BoyerJL, FaustoN, JakobyWB, SchachterDA, ShafritzDA, eds. The ... Hepatitis B virus persistence after recovery from acute viral hepatitis. J Clin Invest 1994; 93:230-239.. MEDLINE *CrossRef, ...
Increased number of circulating exosomes and their microRNA cargos are potential novel biomarkers in alcoholic hepatitis. -...
We further validated findings from our animal model in human samples. Consistent with the animal model, total number of EVs, ... b-d Levels of miRNA-122, miRNA-192 and miRNA-30 were quantified in plasma-derived EVs isolated from alcoholic hepatitis ... Exosomes were isolated from sera of alcohol-fed mice or pair-fed mice, and plasma of alcoholic hepatitis patients or healthy ... a Number of EVs was measured in the plasma of patients with alcoholic hepatitis and healthy individuals using a Nanoparticle ...
Intrinsic Viral Factors Are the Dominant Determinants of the Hepatitis C Virus Response to Interferon Alpha Treatment in...
Aims & Methods We used two hepatitis C virus strains from patients with different interferon-sensitivities and three hepatocyte ... interferon-based therapy with pegylated interferon and ribavirin likely may remain a component of hepatitis C virus treatment ... Background Hepatitis C virus infection is a global health problem. New direct-acting antiviral agents have been recently ... 4 single nucleotide polymorphisms to investigate the contributions of viral and host factors to the response of hepatitis C ...
Liver Diseases Branch | NIDDK
... animal models of liver diseases. ... molecular pathogenesis of hepatitis B and C virus infection; (2 ... in particular hepatitis B and C virus infections; (2) immunobiology of the liver and liver cancer; and (3) memory T and B cell ... mechanisms of viral hepatocarcinogenesis; (3) viral and innate immunobiology of viral hepatitis; (4) molecular strategies for ... genetics and treatment of viral hepatitis; (2) natural history, management, genetics and treatment of nonalcoholic ...
Frontiers | Vaccine Development against Zoonotic Hepatitis E Virus: Open Questions and Remaining Challenges | Microbiology
... is a fecal-orally transmitted foodborne viral pathogen that causes acute hepatitis in humans and is responsible for hepatitis E ... is a fecal-orally transmitted foodborne viral pathogen that causes acute hepatitis in humans and is responsible for hepatitis E ... Purcell, R. H., and Emerson, S. U. (2001). Animal models of hepatitis A and E. ILAR J. 42, 161-177. doi: 10.1093/ilar.42.2.161 ... Chayama, K., Hayes, C. N., Hiraga, N., Abe, H., Tsuge, M., and Imamura, M. (2011). Animal model for study of human hepatitis ...
HVBS8 Gene - GeneCards
Hepatitis B Virus Integration Site 8, including: function, proteins, disorders, pathways, orthologs, and expression. GeneCards ... hepatitis B virus integration site 8 *HVBS8. Animal Model Products. * Taconic Biosciences: Generate A Custom CRISPR Mouse Model ... HVBS8 (Hepatitis B Virus Integration Site 8) is an Uncategorized gene. Diseases associated with HVBS8 include Hepatitis B. ... Taconic Biosciences: Generate A Custom CRISPR Mouse Model For Your Study. *Find your next knockout model in the Taconic ...
LiverPathogenesisFulminant hepatitisAutoimmuneGenotypesMiceExposed to hepatitis B virReplicationViral infectionInfectsAntibodyInfection with the hepatitis B virTherapiesImmune responsesHepaticPathogensMechanismsInfected with the hepatitis B virVaccines2016Established hepatitis C virus infectiMolecular VirologyAlcoholicPolymeraseHepatocellular carcinomaInfectionsChimpanzee2002SymptomsEpidemiologyCausative agentCellsVivoAcute viralTreat hepatitis
- HDV infection is usually associated with a worsening of HBV-induced liver pathogenesis, which leads to more frequent cirrhosis, increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), and fulminant hepatitis. (mdpi.com)
- Results are discussed which show that alcohol consumption can aggravate liver injury by NKT cells, whereas expression of a hepatitis C virus protein in hepatocytes can protect against injury. (begellhouse.com)
- The virus usually causes an acute, self-limiting, infection but it can also persist in the liver leading to chronic hepatitis and a greatly increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (biomedcentral.com)
- Notably, the two viruses replicate naturally in the animal's liver, which suggests that their lifecycle is similar to human hepatitis C virus. (columbia.edu)
- An estimated 3.2 million Americans and 130-150 million people worldwide have a chronic hepatitis C virus infection, which can lead to liver cancer and cirrhosis. (columbia.edu)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infects more than 2% of the global population and is a leading cause of liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma, and end-stage liver diseases. (nih.gov)
- Our in vivo model allows to study the effects of extracellular H2O2 in the liver as is released by inflammatory cells. (nih.gov)
- However, there is no potential biomarker to monitor the extent of liver injury in alcoholic hepatitis patients. (nih.gov)
- and (5) evaluation, management and therapy of primary biliary cirrhosis, autoimmune hepatitis and metabolic/genetic liver disease. (nih.gov)
- and (5) animal models of liver diseases. (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis B is an infectious disease caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV) that affects the liver . (wikipedia.org)
- Chronic infection with hepatitis B virus either may be asymptomatic or may be associated with a chronic inflammation of the liver (chronic hepatitis), leading to cirrhosis over a period of several years. (wikipedia.org)
- Hepatitis C is a disease of the liver that is caused by the hepatitis C virus. (thebody.com)
- Hepatitis C is a communicable (contagious) disease of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (thebody.com)
- The term 'hepatitis' means inflammation of the liver. (thebody.com)
- Others develop chronic (or long-lasting) hepatitis C, in which the virus stays in the liver, replicates itself, and injures the liver over time. (thebody.com)
- In 2011, the same compound also received Orphan Medicinal Product Designation for the prevention of recurrent hepatitis C in liver transplant recipients by the European Commission. (wikipedia.org)
- This method, involving intravenous injection (i.v.) of massive DNA in a short duration, gives a transient but high in vivo gene expression especially in the liver of small animals. (frontiersin.org)
- Given its ability to robustly mimic in vivo hepatitis B virus (HBV) production in liver, HGD has become a fundamental and important technology on HBV studies in our group and many other groups. (frontiersin.org)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV), a major causative agent of chronic liver disease, is spread throughout the world and around 170 million people are persistently infected. (springer.com)
- A gene mutation disrupts the activity of certain immune cells and causes the immune system to erroneously attack the liver, according to a new animal study from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The findings, published in the Journal of Clinical Investigation, will provide a new model for studying drug targets and therapies for Autoimmune Hepatitis (AIH), a condition for which the only treatment options are short-acting steroids or liver transplant. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Â Alexandropoulos and her team, consisting of Anthony Bonito, first author and PhD candidate at Mount Sinai and contributing author Costica Aloman, PhD, former assistant professor of medicine in the Division of Liver Diseases at Mount Sinai, created mutations in a gene called Traf6 in a mouse model, which caused depletion of mTECs. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Virological significance of low level hepatitis B virus infection in patients with hepatitis C liver disease. (nii.ac.jp)
- Testing of preventative and especially therapeutic vaccines in human trials without adequate preclinical safety assessment in animal models can be problematic, since vaccine induced and/or exacerbated responses may lead to more severe hepatitis and in worst-case scenario to acute liver failure. (medscape.com)
- The goal of this program is to better understand the immunological factors that contribute to pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases such as viral hepatitis, to assess how immune responses and chronic inflammation are regulated and to devise strategies that modulate the progression of chronic liver disease and/or induce protective immune responses. (nih.gov)
- This research will help decrease the burden of liver disease-in particular, chronic viral hepatitis-and the long-term consequences of chronic inflammation of the liver such as cancer. (nih.gov)
- Researchers studying hepatitis C virus have introduced small mutations into mouse liver cells to make the animals more susceptible to the virus, a step toward using mice in hepatitis C vaccine research. (brightsurf.com)
- Analysis of T cell repertoire in autoimmune human liver disease and viral hepatitis. (uab.edu)
- Animal model to study autoimmune liver disease/cholangiopathies. (uab.edu)
- A University of California, San Diego School of Medicine researcher has developed the first tissue culture of normal, human liver cells that can model infection with the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and provide a realistic environment to evaluate possible treatments. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- The hepatitis C virus infects in the region of 170 million people around the world and creates an increased risk of cirrhosis, liver failure and cancer. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
- Our aim is to evaluate the role of complement components in acute liver failure (ALF) caused by viral hepatitis, involving virus-induced ALF in human subjects using peripheral blood, samples of liver tissues, and ex vivo assays. (hindawi.com)
- A susceptible cell culture system and animal models are important to improve knowledge of viral liver pathogenesis and promising therapies. (hindawi.com)
- in addition, the diversity of liver cell lines is used to study therapy interventions and also to understand mechanisms related to liver diseases, such as viral hepatitis [ 19 , 20 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a 3.2-kb DNA virus, replicating almost exclusively in the liver.1 Although effective recombinant vaccines are available, HBV infection is still a major global health problem: Each year, acute and chronic HBV infection causes about 1 million deaths. (natap.org)
- 2 As a veterinarian, Dr. Tennant conducted research in comparative medicine focusing on hepatocarcinogenesis (development of liver cancer), hepatic injury mechanisms, viral hepatitis, and gastrointestinal and liver diseases of domestic animals. (hepb.org)
- 2 He developed the woodchuck as a successful animal model to learn how hepatitis B effects the liver, including the development of liver cancer. (hepb.org)
- Mice could be more useful in the study of hepatitis than previously thought, as research into the possibility of growing a human liver in a mouse has proven successful. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
- Hepatitis is a condition where the liver becomes inflamed and if left untreated can lead to permanent scarring of the liver. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
- Scientists hope that the new mouse model will be used to help future research into this condition as well us other diseases that affect the liver, such as malaria and cirrhosis. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
- Millions of people are infected with hepatitis C or hepatitis B viruses, which cause liver cancer and liver failure. (rockefeller.edu)
- Rice pioneered novel methods for growing and studying hepatitis C virus (HCV), including a mouse with a human liver that allowed the first studies of HCV replication and tests of candidate drugs in a small animal model. (rockefeller.edu)
- Rice's group has established the first immunocompetent mouse model of HCV infection, paving the way toward vaccine development and studies of HCV-associated liver cancer. (rockefeller.edu)
- Hepatitis B virus (HBV) also causes cirrhosis and liver cancer, and Rice's group is now applying the human liver mice, as well as new in vitro culture methods, to study HBV, which is often refractory to curative treatment due to the virus's highly stable covalently closed circular DNA genome (cccDNA). (rockefeller.edu)
- In severe cases, a viral hepatitis infection can result in liver failure. (innovations-report.com)
- Hepatitis viruses target the liver cells, or hepatocytes. (innovations-report.com)
- This agent successfully protected the mice from developing fulminant hepatitis, since the LSECs remained intact, preserving the blood supply to the liver cells. (innovations-report.com)
- Following treatment, the animals were sacrificed, and liver tissue samples were histopathologically evaluated using Roening grading and Bcl-2 antibody staining. (dovepress.com)
- Study of hepatitis E virus ORF2 antigen kinetics in human-liver chimeric mice and its impact on HEV diagnosis. (amedeo.com)
- Furthermore, we provide evidence that nAbs can abrogate an ongoing HCV infection in primary hepatocyte cultures and in a human liver chimeric mouse model. (natap.org)
- Hepatitis is a generic term for disease involving inflammation of the liver. (google.com)
- Additionally, hepatitis can arise secondary to non liver-related disorders. (google.com)
- 5) Safety and efficiency preclinical assessment of the corrected CNI-HEP-like cells by infusion into the liver of the CNI animal model. (europa.eu)
- Pharmaceutical companies predict drug metabolic stability, liver toxicity or drug clearance in patients based on rodent animal models or in vitro assays using enzyme extractions from human cells. (europa.eu)
- Although the small animal model at least needs to be susceptible to the pathogen under study to obtain meaningful data, key elements of pathogenesis should also be reflected when compared to humans. (eurekaselect.com)
- However, encouraging advances, especially in the refinement of humanized mouse models, have created new opportunities for studying HCV pathogenesis and host antiviral responses in vivo. (princeton.edu)
- Finally, models of extra-hepatic biliary obstruction continue to provide important information about the pathogenesis of portal fibrosis and secondary biliary cirrhosis that occurs in PSC and other diseases with obstruction of bile flow. (mendeley.com)
- Future studies in either existing or new animal models should advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of PSC, the major prerequisite for the development of effective therapies. (mendeley.com)
- The zebrafish is a useful model organism for in vivo studies of viral pathogenesis and neuroinvasion. (biologists.org)
- The pathogenesis of polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) is unknown, and no animal model is available for study. (medscape.com)
- Kremsdorf D, Brezillon N. New animal models for hepatitis C viral infection and pathogenesis studies. (wjgnet.com)
- His work in hepatitis started during his tenure as the James Law Professor of Comparative Medicine at Cornell University, where he studied the pathogenesis of serum hepatitis in horses. (hepb.org)
- Critical aspects of HCV pathogenesis and the viral replication cycle are not fully understood, and further refinement of cell culture systems and animal models is an urgent priority. (thebodypro.com)
- [ 47 , 119 ] However, the infectious cell culture system relies primarily on a single HCV molecular clone derived from a Japanese genotype 2a infected patient with fulminant hepatitis (JFH1), replicate efficiently both in tissue culture and in animal models. (medscape.com)
- Using their mouse model, the researchers were able to show that a new active substance can prevent fulminant hepatitis. (innovations-report.com)
- It was previously assumed that this process was also responsible for the severe organ damage during fulminant hepatitis. (tum.de)
- A relatively low level of mortality is due to acute B and C hepatitis (primarily due to fulminant hepatitis). (google.com)
- In this review, the putative function of NKT cells in autoimmune hepatitis is discussed based on results from various mouse models. (begellhouse.com)
- We have evidence that the CD72-deficient mice are more susceptible to the induced autoimmune disease experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, a mouse model of multiple sclerosis. (stanford.edu)
- Led by Konstantina Alexandropoulos, PhD, associate professor of medicine in the Division of Clinical Immunology at Mount Sinai, the research team sought to create a model for understanding why certain immune cells called T-cells inappropriately attack healthy tissues in the body, leading to inflammation and autoimmune diseases like lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and AIH. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- Human mAb HCV1 has broad neutralizing activity against HCV isolates from at least four major genotypes and protects in the chimpanzee model from primary HCV challenge. (nih.gov)
- The burden of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection, genotypes and drug resistance mutations in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients in Northwest Ethiopia. (annals.org)
- Humanized mice: models for evaluating NeuroHIV and cure strategies. (eurekaselect.com)
- The AD mice used, like all current mouse models of Alzheimer disease, more closely resemble the situation in familial Alzheimer disease, which constitutes only a small minority of patients. (healthcanal.com)
- Exosomes were isolated from sera of alcohol-fed mice or pair-fed mice, and plasma of alcoholic hepatitis patients or healthy controls by ExoQuick. (nih.gov)
- DALLAS Jan. 20, 2008 Using embryonic stem cells from mice, UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers have prompted the growth of healthy and more importantly, functioning muscle cells in mice afflicted with a human model of Duchenne muscular dystrophy. (bio-medicine.org)
- Similarly, human hepatocytes permissive to hepatitis B and C infection were transplanted into uPA mice ( 5 , 6 ). (pnas.org)
- The purpose of this study was to investigate the characteristics of genetically polydipsic mice from the higher function to genetics and the mechanisms of the neuroendocrine and immune responses to environmental stress in order to establish the animal model in response to the environmental stress. (nii.ac.jp)
- These results suggest that genetically polydipsic mice have multiple abnormality and useful animal model to investigate the responses to environmental stress. (nii.ac.jp)
- Of mice, rats and men: Small animal model of hepatitis C virus infection. (annals.org)
- But in a major breakthrough, Frieman and others around the country recently developed genetically altered mice and other animals to allow them to be infected. (baltimoresun.com)
- Based on the concept that natural microbiota co-evolved with their respective hosts under evolutionary pressure and confer host fitness-promoting traits we have established a mouse model that combines the tractable genetics of regular laboratory mice with the gastrointestinal microbiota of wild mice. (nih.gov)
- When infected with Hepatitis, mice were also successfully cured. (understandinganimalresearch.org.uk)
- Cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) control several viral infections in animals based on deletion and reconstitution experiments with CTL clones and use of CD8 genetically deficient (knock-out) mice. (worldcat.org)
Exposed to hepatitis B vir1
- Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a defective RNA virus that has an absolute requirement for a virus belonging to the hepadnaviridae family like hepatitis B virus (HBV) for its replication and formation of new virions. (mdpi.com)
- The focus of the subsequent chapters is on available cell culture and in vivo models before shifting to the molecular and cellular principles underlying the viral replication cycle. (springer.com)
- The rtA194T polymerase mutation impacts viral replication and susceptibility to tenofovir in HBeAg-positve and HBeAg-negative Hepatitis B Virus strains. (kompetenznetz-hepatitis.de)
- We employ in vitro models of primary cell cultures and viral infection to study innate immune responses. (nih.gov)
- Hepatitis B is a viral infection caused by the Hepatitis B virus (HBV). (askdrshah.com)
- This invention is in the field of immunomodulatory polynucleotides, more particularly their use in ameliorating or preventing hepatitis viral infection and/or symptoms of hepatitis virus infection. (google.com)
- Viral infection is the most common cause of hepatitis. (google.com)
- The hepatotropic hepatitis C virus (HCV) belongs to the Flaviviridae family and chronically infects 130-150 million people worldwide. (princeton.edu)
- The hepatitis B virus that infects woodchucks is closely related to the human hepatitis B virus. (hepb.org)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronically infects at least 170 million worldwide, and until recently, curative therapies were poorly tolerated and ineffective in most patients (1). (natap.org)
- A monoclonal antibody developed by MassBiologics of the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) and tested in an animal model at the Texas Biomedical Research Institute, prevents infection by the hepatitis C virus (HCV). (hcvadvocate.org)
- An antibody that "masks" these cells, targeting alpha-4-beta-7 integrin, can reduce the risk of viral transmission in a non-human primate model. (healthcanal.com)
- In contrast, only one out of 12 a4b7-antibody-treated animals became infected by week five. (healthcanal.com)
- The researchers also observed a decrease in the level of virus in gut tissues and the presence of residual virus in cervical tissues in alpha-4-beta-7-antibody-treated animals. (healthcanal.com)
- Type B hepatitis after transfusion with blood containing antibody to hepatitis B core antigen. (wiley.com)
- Zurück zum Zitat Mohd HK, Groeger J, Flaxman AD, Wiersma ST. Global epidemiology of hepatitis C virus infection: new estimates of age specifc antibody to HCV seroprevalence. (springermedizin.de)
Infection with the hepatitis B vir2
- Researchers at Helmholtz Zentrum München and the Technical University of Munich, working in collaboration with researchers at the University Medical Center Hamburg-Eppendorf and the University Hospital Heidelberg, have for the first time succeeded in conquering a chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus in a mouse model. (brightsurf.com)
- Researchers from Munich, Hamburg and Heidelberg have for the first time succeeded in conquering a chronic infection with the hepatitis B virus (HBV) in a mouse model. (tum.de)
- Clinical trials b are needed of CAM therapies that may show some potential for benefit for hepatitis C, such as milk thistle. (thebody.com)
- Stemmy said he was hopeful about potential therapies that have shown effectiveness in the animal models. (baltimoresun.com)
- Currently, there is no animal model that is effective for testing such therapies. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- This is the first efficient and consistent model system for HCV to be developed," said Buck, adding that it will now enable researchers not only to conduct mechanistic experiments in culture, such as blocking the virus pathways, but also to more effectively screen possible therapies for HCV. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
- This is an exciting time for basic research and drug development in hepatitis C. Since 2003, a number of important papers and presentations have substantially added to our body of knowledge about the hepatitis C virus (HCV) and offered hope for the advent of new therapies. (thebodypro.com)
- The histopathology of several models suggests a sequence of events beginning with secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by activated hepatic macrophages followed by peribiliary infiltration with CD4 and CD8 T cells with a T helper I phenotype. (mendeley.com)
- We established a novel model of sustained hepatic H2O2 release using intravenous administration of purified Aspergillus niger glucose oxidase (GOX) in rats. (nih.gov)
- Hepatic immune response against Hepatitis E virus genotype 1 infection among animal models. (amedeo.com)
- Alcoholic hepatitis (AH) is an acute hepatic inflammation accompanied with substantial morbidity and mortality and increasing health problems across the world. (biomedcentral.com)
- Precision mouse models with expanded tropism for human pathogens. (eurekaselect.com)
- New Yorkers are constantly exposed to rats and the pathogens they carry, perhaps more than any other animal," explains Dr. Firth, who conducted the study as a research scientist at Columbia's Center for Infection and Immunity. (columbia.edu)
- New research sheds light on how a hepatitis B viral protein stimulates the expansion of immune cells that impair antiviral responses, according to a study published April 18 in the open-access journal PLOS Pathogens by Haitao Guo of the Indiana University School of Medicine, Bin Wang and Jiming Zhang of Fudan University, and colleagues. (brightsurf.com)
- Review Mechanisms of hepatitis C virus infection. (nih.gov)
- and (3) study aspects of viral hepatitis that allow insight into disease mechanisms. (nih.gov)
- Discussion will focus on different kinds of modeling and how they may be used to predict functional consequences and to dissect the contribution of different mechanistic pathways, including potential mechanisms of action for trichloroethylene toxicity in different organ systems. (springer.com)
- The aim of this research is to understand the causative mechanisms, predictive markers and risk factors for hepatitis B disease flares during pregnancy. (nih.gov)
Infected with the hepatitis B vir1
- The lack of suitable and ethical animal model systems has hindered our abilities to mechanistically decipher interactions of HCV with its mammalian host and to develop vaccines. (princeton.edu)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) displays high genetic diversity, characterized by regional variations in the prevalence of genotype posing challenges to the development of vaccines and definitive treatment. (springermedizin.de)
- Hepatitis A vaccines. (ajtmh.org)
- Orally administered vaccine can protect millions from hepatitis B. Oral vaccines are both safer and less expensive than injections. (brightsurf.com)
- addressing the epub Adenovirus Methods and Protocols: Adenoviruses, Ad Vectors, Quantitation, and Animal for disciplinary 90s to lead the religious collaborations of Computation and vegan meetings( Arondekar and Patel 2016), we have be the base that our Indian events of able and Ancient students access in Unveiling the main class of stricken Asian role? (ballroomchicago.com)
- At the 2016 Hepatitis B Foundation Crystal Ball, Dr. Tennant was presented with the 2016 Baruch S. Blumberg Prize, the Foundation's highest honor. (hepb.org)
- 2016). HBF at the Forefront: Hepatitis B Foundation Hits Nearly $125,000 Monte Carlo Jackpot! (hepb.org)
Established hepatitis C virus infecti1
- Increased number of circulating exosomes and their microRNA cargos are potential novel biomarkers in alcoholic hepatitis. (nih.gov)
- Here, we hypothesized that the exosome-associated miRNAs can be used as potential biomarkers in alcoholic hepatitis (AH). (nih.gov)
- During the past decade, much progress has been made in understanding the pathobiology of alcoholic hepatitis. (annals.org)
- Alcoholic hepatitis occurs in only 10% to 30% of patients with a history of chronic alcoholism in which intake of alcoholic beverages is sufficient to interfere with work, social responsibilities, and proper food intake. (annals.org)
- LEEVY CM, ZETTERMAN R. Alcoholic Hepatitis and Corticosteroids. (annals.org)
- Do Corticosteroids Reduce Mortality from Alcoholic Hepatitis? (annals.org)
- Kinetic analysis of C-terminally truncated RNA-dependent RNA polymerase of Hepatitis C virus. (nii.ac.jp)
- Studies from model systems facilitated development of new drugs, such as a nucleotide prodrug that targets the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase, which have fewer side effects and a shorter treatment course. (asm.org)
- Hepatitis C virus (HCV) Core protein has been demonstrated to induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and is associated with cancer progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). (unboundmedicine.com)
- Assessment and comparison of magnetic nanoparticles as MRI contrast agents in a rodent model of human hepatocellular carcinoma," Contrast Media and Molecular Imaging , vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 363-372, 2012. (hindawi.com)
- To compare the epidemiologic profiles of hepatitis A virus (HAV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) infections in children in Mongolia, the prevalence of HAV and HEV infections was studied serologically and molecularly among 520 apparently healthy children 7-12 years of age (mean ± standard deviation, 8.5 ± 0.8 years) using serum samples obtained in 2004. (ajtmh.org)
- Comparison of hepatitis A and E virus infections among healthy children in Mongolia: evidence for infection with a subgenotype IA HAV in children, 2007. (ajtmh.org)
- Lack of de novo hepatitis C virus infections and absence of nosocomial transmissions of GB virus C in a large cohort of German haemodialysis patients. (kompetenznetz-hepatitis.de)
- That means it's kind of like a furry test tube - you can infect the animals, but they don't have the immune response we think is important for the pathology associated with chronic hepatitis C infections. (asm.org)
- Methods are provided for the treatment of hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections. (google.com)
- Hepatitis B and C can each give rise to acute and chronic infections. (google.com)
- Cloaking immune cells with antibodies that block T cell trafficking to the gut can substantially reduce the risk of viral transmission in a non-human primate model of HIV infection, scientists report. (healthcanal.com)
- At first, they activated a gene called Pax3, which is involved in creating muscle cells, and then injected those cells into the animals muscles. (bio-medicine.org)
- The final selection of cells, containing only one type, was again injected into the animals hind-limb muscles. (bio-medicine.org)
- The improved coordination is significant because it shows the embryonic stem cells have benefited the animals quality of life, not simply caused an isolated growth with no overall improvement, Dr. Perlingeiro said. (bio-medicine.org)
- The xenograft animal model was established by inoculation of HepG2 cells. (unboundmedicine.com)
- Yet the ability to propagate specialized human cells with intact biological functions in experimental animal models remains technically challenging. (pnas.org)
- Animal models suggest that donor-derived cells may exert a tolerogenic effect. (medhelp.org)
- A single dose of adult donor stem cells given to animals that have neurological damage similar to that experienced by adults with a stroke or newborns with cerebral palsy can significantly enhance recovery from these types of injuries, researchers say. (bio-medicine.org)
- Using a commonly utilized animal model for stroke, researchers administered a dose of 200,000-400,000 human stem cells into the brain of animals that had experienced significant loss of mobility and other functions. (bio-medicine.org)
- The problem with working with xenografts in a mouse model is that you're working with an animal that is basically deficient in T cells and B cells, and often NK cells as well. (asm.org)
- 4) Epigenetic analysis of patient CNI-HEP, CNI-iPSC and differentiated-corrected HEP-like cells (HLC). (europa.eu)