The use of animals as investigational subjects.
The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.
Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
"The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.
Method of making images on a sensitized surface by exposure to light or other radiant energy.
The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.

An international survey of medical ethics curricula in Asia. (1/197)

SETTING: Medical ethics education has become common, and the integrated ethics curriculum has been recommended in Western countries. It should be questioned whether there is one, universal method of teaching ethics applicable worldwide to medical schools, especially those in non-Western developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the medical ethics curricula at Asian medical schools. DESIGN: Mailed survey of 206 medical schools in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Australia and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 100 medical schools responded, a response rate of 49%, ranging from 23%-100% by country. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The degree of integration of the ethics programme into the formal medical curriculum was measured by lecture time; whether compulsory or elective; whether separate courses or unit of other courses; number of courses; schedule; total length, and diversity of teachers' specialties. RESULTS: A total of 89 medical schools (89%) reported offering some courses in which ethical topics were taught. Separate medical ethics courses were mostly offered in all countries, and the structure of vertical integration was divided into four patterns. Most deans reported that physicians' obligations and patients' rights were the most important topics for their students. However, the evaluation was diverse for more concrete topics. CONCLUSION: Offering formal medical ethics education is a widespread feature of medical curricula throughout the study area. However, the kinds of programmes, especially with regard to integration into clinical teaching, were greatly diverse.  (+info)

A reply to Joseph Bernstein. (2/197)

Dr. Bernstein suggests that anti-vivisectionists should be able to fill in a directive requesting that they receive no medical treatment developed through work on animals. It is replied that this would only be reasonable if research not using animals had long been funded as adequately and its results were currently available.  (+info)

Animal experiments: conference report.(3/197)


Methods in vascular infusion biotechnology in research with rodents. (4/197)

Infusion of experimental compounds into the vascular system of rodents and the need to collect blood and other biological fluids from small animals comprise an area of emerging importance to biomedical research and drug discovery and development. The advances in the development of transgenic rodents coupled with technical progress in the manufacture and commercial availability of various catheters, swivels, tethers, infusion pumps, and sample collection systems that are described have enabled biomedical scientists to miniaturize vascular infusion and sample collection systems previously used in animal species larger than the rat or mouse. Use of these advanced, miniature vascular infusion systems in rodents is possible only when careful planning of experimental design, expert surgical technique, adequate postoperative care, and fundamental animal welfare considerations are meticulously taken into consideration. Use of these vascular infusion systems in rodents promotes animal welfare and scientific progress through the reduction and refinement of animal models.  (+info)

Animal experimentation in sciences: sadistic nonsense or indispensable necessity? (5/197)

The history of biomedical research clearly shows that, with exception of a very few, scientific findings could be realised only with the help of animal experiments. Unfortunately, in the past the life of animals was treated negligently and, at times, in fact criminally. Only the researchers' willingness to apply ethical principles toward laboratory animals could create a climate in which research is opening up to constructive, active animal protection and is ready to co-operate through the implementations of such programmes as the 3R-principle into daily practice. Using a number of examples, the article at hand tries to show that the dimensions concerning animal protection is very old indeed and that only a change of consciousness by the public and in research has created a situation in which a gentler treatment of life and life conditions of laboratory animals could be realised. A further development of "constructive" animal protection within the industrialised nations is only possible with this back ground. Without such a development, biomedical research is bound for deficits in one way or another. It will be loosing it's medical and economical opportunities and with it, it's meaning for man.  (+info)

Use of animals in research: a science--society controversy? The American perspective: animal welfare issues. (6/197)

My paper will focus on those events happening within the United States during the last year. The issue of including or excluding rats, birds and mice from inclusion under the Animal Welfare Act has been a difficult battle for both those that wish to exclude them and those that wish to include these animals under this legislation. As of the writing of this abstract, the Senate, which originally intended to include rats, birds and mice under the Animal Welfare Act, has passed an amendment which will permanently exclude their listing under this Act. During the last several years it has become clear that refinement, as one of the 3Rs, has and will become the most important set of activities to add humanness to animal experimentation. It is clear that refinement approaches provide the opportunity to possibly eliminate or significantly minimize any pain or distress in animal protocol. My presentation will focus on CAAT's ( activities in this important area. Understanding potential health hazards to environmental industrial chemicals has become a major focus of activity both in the US, Europe and Japan. These programs offer the first opportunity to provide information, in the public domain, on these chemicals. One of the consequences, however, is the potential requirement for large numbers of animals. In the presentation, I will focus on two approaches to significantly including the 3Rs in these important programs. Although it is common practice in Japan to recognize contributions of laboratory animals through a day of memorialization, this has not been the case in the United States. During the last year, several activities have been initiated to begin to institutionalize memorial services for animals used in research. As the host institution of Altweb (, the alternative web site internationally, current statistics and accomplishments will be provided on its worldwide utilization.  (+info)

An ergonomics process for the care and use of research animals. (7/197)

Personnel who work with laboratory animals incur potential occupational health risks that can lead to the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Demanding manual tasks may also result in increased errors, worker fatigue, poor human performance, and decreased productivity. Studies have shown that a comprehensive ergonomics program that utilizes a systematic risk management approach can reduce the likelihood of exposure to musculoskeletal disorder risk factors and remove barriers to human performance. Research has characterized the risk factors of musculoskeletal disorder exposure in terms of force, frequency, posture, and muscle exertion. Ergonomic risk factors for typical animal handling tasks and work areas are identified, and a method is suggested for prioritizing interventions using interrelated data indicators. An initial review of potential control measures is offered to improve the health, safety, and effectiveness of people involved in the care and use of research animals.  (+info)

Occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities. (8/197)

Occupational medicine is a key component of a comprehensive occupational health and safety program in support of laboratory animal research and production facilities. The mission of the department is to maximize employee health and productivity utilizing a population health management approach, which includes measurement and analysis of health benefits utilization. The department works in close cooperation with other institutional health and safety professionals to identify potential risks from exposure to physical, chemical, and biological hazards in the workplace. As soon as exposures are identified, the department is responsible for formulating and providing appropriate medical surveillance programs. Occupational medicine is also responsible for targeted delivery of preventive and wellness services; management of injury, disease, and disability; maintenance of medical information; and other clinic services required by the institution. Recommendations are provided for the organization and content of occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities.  (+info)

Activists Against Animal Experimentation. The Activist Against Animal Experimentation is resolved to end the use of animal testing for medical, cosmetic and household purposes etc,. We post petitions, news, stories and info regarding animal testing. Please join up and help the cause! (Animals & Pets)
The ethical treatment of animals is one of serious academic interest today. Specifically, both the practice of animal experimentation and ethical concerns about it have a long history, going virtually back to the ancient Greek period and continuing to the present day. With new breakthroughs in science and technology, it is likely that this practice will be with us for a long time to come. Thus, this book provides an interdisciplinary approach to the topic by utilizing the insights of cognitive ethology, philosophy, science, and Christian theology in order to present a benign approach to the ethical treatment of experimental animals. The reality and existence of animal minds, animal pain, and animal suffering provide the foundation for animal rights, and subsequently, for more positive treatment. Concrete suggestions are offered with regard to more humane animal legislation, improved animal husbandry conditions, as well as concrete guidelines that offset the burdens to animals against the benefits to
This thesis is an historical analysis of the culture of science and its use of animals in experiments by the British military and in medical scientific research, and its regulation by law, during the period 1947 to 1965. The overall aim of this thesis is to demonstrate the gendered nature of scientific experimentation on animals in mid-twentieth century Britain. To do this, it addresses two aspects of animal experimentation; firstly, exploring how scientific research forms power-knowledge relations through the use of nonhuman animals. Secondly, this thesis analyses the intersection of animal use in science with that of the broader socio-cultural context, asking was science in mid-twentieth century Britain gendered? As a consequence, it explores the effects of this knowledge production upon animals and women. My findings are twofold: that the construction of scientific knowledge through the use of nonhuman animals was one that created subject-object binaries, and this had powerful and detrimental ...
Abstract Public acceptance of genetic modification (GM) technologies may be essential to their continued development, yet few studies have investigated the manner in which demographic and educational factors predict support for GM research. The current study examined attitudes toward animal research and GM in ~400 university undergraduates enrolled in introductory or upper-level psychology courses with material on animal experimentation. Results revealed that men were more accepting of animal and GM research than were women. Enrollment in upper-level psychology classes that addressed specific topics in animal research did not directly predict support for GM research, but such enrollment was associated with increased endorsement of the validity of animal research, which then contributed to acceptance of GM scenarios. The current findings highlight the impact of educational variables on support for animal research, which may then influence attitudes toward GM research.
Against animal experimentation essay. Lab Report. Any correspondence between myself and the assigned writer was fast and in enjoyed receiving an email to let me know when I had a new message.
The UK has long been hailed as one of the world leaders in animal welfare. Within the UK, animals used in experiments are provided some protection under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 (ASPA). This Act was impacted by European Union (EU) Directive 2010/63/EU, and subsequently the ASPA was updated to reflect any changes required. While the Directive is very similar to the protection the UK already afforded to animals used in experiments, there were some advances that the Directive provided that were not present in the ASPA. On paper, the changes introduced were promising but may not have been achieved in practice. In 2016, the British public voted to leave the EU, which presented concerns over animal welfare protection and legislation provided by EU law. With the completion of Brexit, there may be an opportunity to diverge from the Directive to advance protection for animals used in experiments. This article explores the influence that the EU has had on animal experimentation in the ...
Dive into the research topics where Center for Laboratory Animal Research (CLAR) is active. These topic labels come from the works of this organisations members. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
Animal experimentation is a crucial component of scientific research and education. Most advances in modern biomedical science can be traced back to original studies in animals. The university continues to support this critical research while fully appreciating its additional complexities.. All animal research must be approved by the universitys Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), which works close with the Comparative Medicine-Laboratory Animal Facilities (CM-LAF) to help researchers develop effective and compliant protocols. ...
Taxpayer-funded animal experimentation is un-American, and we have the data to prove it.. Opinion surveys in recent years show Americans growing opposition to animal experimentation, with the most recent Pew poll reporting that a majority of Americans now object to the use of animals in scientific research.. Now, as reported by Red Alert Politics, a new national poll commissioned by the White Coat Waste Project and conducted by research firm Lincoln Park Strategies shows that most Americans-Republicans and Democrats alike-are sick of footing the $12-billion-plus bill for these wasteful and secretive experiments on dogs, cats, monkeys and other animals.. The poll of 1,109 U.S. voters found that a majority (about 6 in 10) want to see funding cut and transparency increased for taxpayer-funded animal experiments. According to the survey (also visualized in the infographic below):. ...
Animals And Their Rights!! Essay, Research Paper What is animal experimentation? Scientific researchers use animal experimentation for biomedical and veterinary research to enhance human health and possibly the welfare of other animals. They claim that successful medical treatments including antibiotics, vaccines and other drugs have been developed with the aid of animal experiments, and such research a crucial means of investigation of and the development of treatments for serious diseases.
This course provides a broad overview of diverse topics in the practice of and approaches to humane animal experimentation. It addresses such issues as experimental design (including statistics and sample size determination), humane endpoints, environmental enrichment, post-surgical care, pain management, and the impact of stress on the quality of data. It was developed by CAAT director Alan Goldberg and James Owiny, the training and compliance administrator of the Johns Hopkins University animal care and use committee, along with Christian Newcomer, associate provost for animal research and resources at Hopkins ...
Some governments provide detailed information on the number of animal experiments carried out each year. In the United Kingdom, for instance, the annual report
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictive value of in vitro assays depends on the mechanism of toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles. AU - Cho, Wan-Seob. AU - Duffin, Rodger. AU - Bradley, Mark. AU - Megson, Ian L. AU - Macnee, William. AU - Lee, Jong Kwon. AU - Jeong, Jayoung. AU - Donaldson, Ken. PY - 2013/10/25. Y1 - 2013/10/25. N2 - Hazard identification for risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is mainly composed of in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo animal experimentation. The rapidly increasing number and functionalizations of NPs makes in vivo toxicity tests undesirable on both ethical and financial grounds, creating an urgent need for development of in vitro cell-based assays that accurately predict in vivo toxicity and facilitate safe nanotechnology.. AB - Hazard identification for risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is mainly composed of in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo animal experimentation. The rapidly increasing number and functionalizations of NPs makes in vivo toxicity tests ...
The ideas of cybernetics, and especially that of feedback control, have impressed themselves on society in many ways, of which factory automation is only one. Self-monitoring, or self-awareness, is one of the central components of human individual intelligence (Halstead, 1947; Russell and Russell, 1957, and in press). The notion has been grasped at the sociological level. In industry and commerce it is becoming a routine measure for any large organization to devote considerable staff and expense to the monitoring of its own activities (cf. Meier, 1956). We are, therefore, disposed to expect a large and comprehensive literature of sources on the subject of animal experimentation (cf. Russell, in press, a). For it seems reasonable to suppose that science itself must adopt the principle of informative feedback, and animal experimentation in this country alone is an industry running to millions in commercial terms.. It is therefore surprising to discover the relative dearth of this sort of ...
I have often said that one way animal models are used in research and testing is to predict human response to drugs and disease. Some have challenged this.
The Critical Cat interview with Stop UBC Animal Research to investigate how prolific animal experimentation is at UBC and what they are doing to fight it.
The in vivo evaluation of a material to be used in clinics is a long trial and requires a well planned sequence of steps. In vivo tests are complementary to those performed in vitro that provide necessary and useful results to be added to those found in the in vivo testing, and strongly reduce the number of animals used. Animal studies require first of all the compliance to the ethical and legal rules on animal experimentation. The procedures are standardized at an international level. In particular the rules of ISO 10993 are the guidelines for these investigations. In the procedure of validation of a material, the choice of more than one animal species for the performing of the tests, namely a small/medium and a large size animal should be appropriate. Considering the research on biomaterials, the use of small animals can be acceptable in the early stage of testing, but for the evaluation of prototypes biofunctionality large animals should better approximate the human environment. According to ...
Maintaining an environment that is free of pathogens is essential to produce the most accurate research findings for animal research laboratories, especially for those scientists working in high risk laboratories and who routinely handle the most complex microorganisms known to science. Utilizing Hybrid Hydrogen Peroxide™ (HHP™) that is effective against pathogens and wont harm sensitive laboratory equipment is essential to maintaining a productive work environment for these environments. Our CURIS® System offers greater material compatibility and provides significant efficacy compared to other, older bio-decontamination options.. The well-being of laboratory animals is central to medical discoveries and to the integrity of animal science. The ability to create and maintain an environment that is habitable and free of bacterial, fungal and viral contagions is essential. We know microbial outbreaks can be subclinical in research animals. We provide animal laboratories with a ...
The Animal Protection Center of Southeastern Massachusetts is a non-profit organization that serves the animals and people of the community.. Our adoption center serves to care for and re-home homeless pets. Dogs, cats, rabbits, small mammals and birds all benefit from the attention and love provided by our dedicated staff and volunteers.. The Animal Protection Center of Southeastern Massachusetts also strives to help pet owners take the best care of their pets by providing resources such as training, low-cost vaccination and microchip clinics, and humane education outreach to children. ...
It is now more than 20 years since both Council of Europe Convention ETS123 and EU Directive 86/609?EEC were introduced, to promote the implementation of the Three Rs in animal experimentation and to provide guidance on animal housing and care. It might therefore be expected that reports of the implementation of the Three Rs in animal research papers would have increased during this period. In order to test this hypothesis, a literature survey of animal-based research was conducted. A randomly- selected sample from 16 high-profile medical journals, of original research papers arising from European institutions that featured experiments which involved either mice or primates, were identified for the years 1986 and 2006 (Total sample = 250 papers). Each paper was scored out of 10 for the incidence of reporting on the implementation of Three Rs-related factors corresponding to Replacement (justification of non-use of non-animal methods), Reduction (statistical analysis of the number of animals ...
Tomo Editorial and HSI launched Animal Experimentation: An Obstacle to Scientific Progress, a book providing an in-depth analysis of animal use in research from a scientific and historical perspective. The book is part of a growing movement among the Brazilian and international scientific community questioning the effectiveness of animals as models of human biology and disease.
Minimising the use of animals in experiments is universally recognised by scientists, governments and advocates as an ethical cornerstone of research. Yet, despite growing public opposition to animal experimentation, mounting evidence that animal studies often do not translate to humans, and the development of new research technologies, a number of countries have reported increased animal use in recent years. In the USA-one of the worlds largest users of animals in experiments-a lack of published data on the species most commonly used in laboratories (eg, mice, rats and fish) has prevented such assessments. The current study aimed to fill this gap by analysing the use of all vertebrate animals by the top institutional recipients of National Institutes of Health research funds over a 15-year period. These data show a statistically significant 72.7% increase in the use of animals at these US facilities during this time period-driven primarily by increases in the use of mice. Our results highlight ...
Bhat, Ajaz A; Younes, Salma N; Raza, Syed Shadab; Zarif, Lubna; Nisar, Sabah; Ahmed, Ikhlak; Mir, Rashid; Kumar, Sachin; Sharawat, Surender K; Hashem, Sheema; Elfaki, Imadeldin; Kulinski, Michal; Kuttikrishnan, Shilpa; Prabhu, Kirti S; Khan, Abdul Q; Yadav, Santosh K; El-Rifai, Wael; Zargar, Mohammad A; Zayed, Hatem; Haris, Mohammad; Uddin, Shahab... more authors ... less authors ...
Al-Awar A.; Alm?si N.; Szab? R.; Takacs I.; Murlasits Z.; Sz?cs G.; T?r?k S.; P?sa A.; Varga C.; Kupai K.... more authors ... less authors ...
In 1985, the U.S. Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) advised that unless the contrary is established, investigators should consider that procedures that cause pain or distress in human beings may cause pain or distress in animals( Accordingly, the humane use of research animals requires adequate veterinary medical care during animal experimentations and includes the prevention or the alleviation of pain associated with procedural or surgical protocols (clinical pain). Guidelines on the recognition of pain are accepted by researchers but often not so easy to put into practice, especially with mice, the most frequently used laboratory animals. Why?. Mice live in constant fear of falling prey to their enemies, therefore they are prone to show as few signs of disease, suffering or weakness as possible [2-4]. Accordingly, during animal experiments, or even when a person is simply present in the room, the mouse will hide almost all signs of ...
In 1985, the U.S. Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) advised that unless the contrary is established, investigators should consider that procedures that cause pain or distress in human beings may cause pain or distress in animals( Accordingly, the humane use of research animals requires adequate veterinary medical care during animal experimentations and includes the prevention or the alleviation of pain associated with procedural or surgical protocols (clinical pain). Guidelines on the recognition of pain are accepted by researchers but often not so easy to put into practice, especially with mice, the most frequently used laboratory animals. Why?. Mice live in constant fear of falling prey to their enemies, therefore they are prone to show as few signs of disease, suffering or weakness as possible [2-4]. Accordingly, during animal experiments, or even when a person is simply present in the room, the mouse will hide almost all signs of ...
The branch of animal research in Halhale Agriculture Research Center will distribute special animal feed in the near future, disclosed Dr. Tsegai Tesfai, head of the branch. Halhale, 7 March 2011 - The branch of animal research in Halhale Agriculture Research Center will distribute special animal feed in the near future, disclosed Dr. Tsegai Tesfai, head of the branch. He told ERINA that the branch has conducted research on 550 grazing grasses that can adapt to drought in collaboration with an Australian research center and that 12 select grass have already been distributed in various parts of Gash-Barka, Anseba and Central regions for experiment purposes. Dr. Tsegai said the rest would be directly distributed to farmers after it is multiplied. Dr. Tsegai explained that producing animal feed from various cereals such as maize, sorghum and the like that can boost milk production are some of the future major work programs of the research center. ...
While it is important to provide a full explanation of the reasons why animal research and testing is important for modern medicine, it can sometimes be useful to have a handful of short pro animal research one-liners on hand. These work particularly well for Twitter - which is why each of our lines below includes…
Scientists have managed to successfully open and close the protective cover around the brain - the blood-brain barrier - in a human patient as a means for drug delivery, following work in a range of animals including mice and monkeys.
More studies need to be done, but we think theres potentially no limit on the diseases this screening disease could be applied to other than the human imagination,. 26/08/15. Resveratrol, a chemical found in the skin of grapes (and consequently red wine) may have beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, studies in dogs show varying effects on the immune systems of dogs - increasing and decreasing it in different ways simultaneously.. Axiak-Bechtel said Seeing a decrease in neutrophil function typically means an immune system is losing the ability to kill invaders like bacteria. Combining this loss of bacteria-fighting ability with an increase in inflammatory cytokines creates a very interesting mixed message in terms of what resveratrol is doing to the immune system.. ...
Letter of Complaint to OIG About SRI Research Facility - USDA Complaints From Stop Animal Exploitation NOW! - Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation
BY KURT CUNNINGHAM , JUNE 12, 2009 7:26 AM UI researchers will have a new underground facility to house animals after the state Board of Regents approved an indoor enclosure for $11.2 million at Thursdays meeting.. Scientists hope the new facility - which will cost almost $134 million - will contribute to better research and security.. At 35,000 square feet, the underground lab will connect the Medical Education Research Facility and Carver Biomedical Research Building. It is a late addition to the Institute for Biomedical Discovery - a project the UI has already started. Officials set aside state and federal money in 2007 to be distributed over several years for the initial project. They also received private donations given specifically to the project, said UI spokesman Tom Moore. Science is important to Iowans, he said. Dr. George Weiner [the director of the Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center] says there are many research ideas that dont get funded, and a facility such this increases the ...
The new EU directive on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes (2010/63/EU) has been implemented. One of the requirements of the directive is that each breeder, supplier and user of laboratory animals sets up an Animal Welfare Body (AWB, Instantie voor Dierenwelzijn, IvD in The Netherlands). The AWB helps to ensure a responsible animal experimentation policy and is responsible for the a number of tasks: The animal-welfare body shall, as a minimum, carry out the following tasks: Advice the staff dealing with animals on matters related to the welfare of animals, in relation to their acquisition, accommodation, care and use; Advise the staff on the application of the requirement of replacement, reduction and refinement, and keep it informed of technical and scientific developments concerning the application of that requirement; Establish and review internal operational processes as regards monitoring, reporting and follow-up in relation to the welfare of animals housed or used in ...
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Learn all about the field of medical research and experimentation with insightful articles and fascinating updates in the field of medicine. From animal experimentation, clinical trials, biomedicine, and breakthroughs in medical technology, weve got you covered.
Animal models remain at that time a reference tool to predict potential pulmonary adverse effects of nanomaterials in humans. However, in a context of reduction of the number of animals used in experimentation, there is a need for reliable alternatives. In vitro models using lung cells represent relevant alternatives to assess potential nanomaterial acute toxicity by inhalation, particularly since advanced in vitro methods and models have been developed. Nevertheless, the ability of in vitro experiments to replace animal experimentation for predicting potential acute pulmonary toxicity in human still needs to be carefully assessed. The aim of the study was to evaluate the differences existing between the in vivo and the in vitro approaches for the prediction of nanomaterial toxicity and to find advanced methods to enhance in vitro predictivity. For this purpose, rats or pneumocytes in co-culture with macrophages were exposed to the same poorly soluble and poorly toxic TiO2 and CeO2 nanomaterials, by the
Because scientific inquiry involves exploration of the unknown, the outcome of experimental procedures is sometimes unpredictable. In the case of animal experimentation, this may result in situations in which animal health and/or welfare are adversely affected.. Genetically manipulated animals (GMA) provide a good example. Initially, the overall effect(s) of a particular genetic manipulation may be unknown. However, once animals are generated the resulting novel phenotypes may include immune deficiency, metabolic disorders, behavioral abnormalities or other health issues that make those animals more susceptible to disease or distress. GMA lines that exhibit abnormalities in health or behavior often require the establishment of revised husbandry and/or monitoring protocols. Humane endpoints specific for the GMA line may also need to be developed. More information on assessing the welfare of GMA can be found on the NC3Rs site.. In the case of a new GMA line it is recommended that the first ...
It is my pleasure to welcome you to join us at the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), Ghanas leading biomedical research institute at the University of Ghana. The Institute has over the years embarked on a series of initiatives to upgrade its research infrastructure and human capacity to attract the worlds best scientists, technologists, postdoctoral fellows, postgraduate students, undergraduate interns, and health professionals through training and experiential learning. Our community continues to grow and we are happy to share our research, training and learning experience with you.. At the NMIMR, we conduct both laboratory and field-based research into communicable and non-communicable diseases of public health importance; led by researchers in nine departments of the institute, namely Animal Experimentation, Bacteriology, Clinical Pathology, Electron Microscopy and Histopathology, Epidemiology, Immunology, Nutrition Parasitology, and Virology. Whether you are a ...
Andy Maniotis (University of Iowa), American Journal of Pathology, 1999 Cancer! Its our Grim Reaper, todays Black Death, a dark and terrible health threat and destroyer of lives. We hear about it, read about it, and fear it more deeply than any other present disease. Ominously, projections indicate that one in every five of us will die of cancer, and 40 percent of us will have a diagnosis of cancer sometime in life. Considering that there are more than 200 different forms of human cancer alone, the hope for a magic bullet that will cure all is just pie in the sky. The disease first went political in 1971, when the Nixon administration declared the War on Cancer. We all know the war has not yet been won, even with billions poured into it every year. In fact, cancer deaths have increased steadily. This humiliating defeat is in large part due to our addiction to animal experimentation. It is an open secret in scientific circles that animal-modeled biomedical research yields results that cant ...
Animal experimentation and the models by which it is conducted are a core component of the Preclinical Translational Research Units work. Animal models are the primary mode of research responsible for translating preclinical project work into successful clinical trials, which is why they are a focus of our unit.. We work to create animal models that minimize the consumption of resources, especially time and money, without allowing for any compromise in the integrity of our data or their reproducibility. By continually striving to uphold these standards while continually striving to assess and improve our animal models we ensure that we consistently deliver optimum results and solutions.. Under the Duke Preclinical Translational Research Units expert guidance we hope to be able assist our partners in designing the model and method that allow for the creation of experiments that run correctly the first time, reducing waste and repetition.. We employ the following animal types for our animal ...
Press Releases - WATCHDOG REPORT: Dozens of Primates Killed by Negligence in 18 U.S. Research Laboratories; Epidemic Results in Federal Fines, Ongoing Federal investigations - Stop Animal Exploitation NOW! - Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation
Science Institutions are concerned with their public image, which often determines their funding, so that they are often keen to be seen to promote public dialogue and engagement.. . Many government departments are interested in science education, training teachers, etc. Often they have funds for specific public projects like adult learning, animal experimentation, synthetic biology etc.,. . Many cultural and artistic groups are now including science in their agendas, since human sciences are questioning the traditional views of art, philosophy, literature, etc. So Arts centres are often keen to adopt SciCafes.. . As for schools cafes, it is clear that science education is in crisis almost everywhere in the world, so that new ideas are widely acceptable. Approaching teachers, individual schools and education authorities is a fairly easy way to start Cafes in schools - although it is more difficult to keep them free from the hierarchy within the school.. So in many ways the Cafes can build ...
First, it is interesting per se, to find common psycho-physiologic grounds between our and other animals behaviour and psyche. Second, such commonality allows us to explore new ways (treatments, drugs) for dealing with human suffering (anxieties, depressions, phobias etc.). I do not know of any other procedure or behavioural test, or physiological index, that compares anxiety and relief, which would provide 20-fold (2000%) difference in objective measurements (it is usually measured in fractions, like 35% or so). Our rats sigh approx. 25 times/hour spontaneously, less than 10/h when anxious, but more than 180/h when relieved! So, consider, if you really have experimental animals` wellbeing in mind and not just negative feeling about any animal experimentation, that far fewer animals will be required to test a new psychotropic drug or some other procedure, when measuring emotional states (using sighs instead of heart rate, blood pressure etc.) is so dramatically improved (as demonstrated by ...
new approaches for a new millennium. (beginning narration). Education and training in the life sciences require that students learn a diversity of skills as well as the traditional knowledge base.. Graduates who enter the professions must be familiar with the technology employed in todays laboratories and clinics, and with the design and performance of experiments.. Of equal importance is the ability to communicate well with patients, and the sensitivity to appreciate complex ecological systems.. Some will also need hands-on experience of animals and animal tissue for their careers.. All students of biological science and veterinary and human medicine perform practical work to illustrate knowledge and to gain a number of these skills, practical work which for some involves dissection and animal experimentation.. But the tools and approaches used by teachers are evolving in response to developments in technology and the demands of students and society itself.. In this film, we investigate new ...
BALB/c is an albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived. Now over 200 generations from New York in 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally, and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. The founding animals of the strain were obtained by Halsey J. Bagg of Memorial Hospital, New York, from a mouse dealer in Ohio in 1913. From 1920, the progeny of the original colony were systematically inbred, sibling to sibling, for 26 generations over 15 years. During this time, the colony passed through the care of a number of scientists, including C.C. Little and E.C. MacDowell at the Carnegie Institution of Washington and H.J. Muller at the University of Texas at Austin. By 1935 the animals were in the possession of Mullers student, George Davis Snell, who moved them to The Jackson Laboratory. This stock provided the basis of all the BALB/c substrains that are now in use around the world. Snell provided some ...
The Second World War brought further setbacks for the anti-vivisection movement because of its links with fascism and anti-vaccination, which were seen as undermining the war effort. At the same time, animal experimentation was promoted as saving combatants lives and reducing the risk of future conflict by fighting the scourges of disease and poverty. The Author: A. W. H. Bates.
One thing thats been bothering me is how the mc campaigners seem to focus almost exclusively on animal rights over people rights in the Third World. For example, their picketing of mcDonalds sights seems focused exclusively or gives priority to animal rights. It seems silly and unethical to me to give this kind of priority to animal rights over native peoples rights.. I dont think it helps the campaign when its seen as an animal rights issue. As an animal rights issue, the anti-McD campaign will continue to gain only a small following. People, myself included, will think, why are they going after a restaurant for its treatment of animals ...
Animal welfare and rights in India regards the treatment of and laws concerning non-human animals in India. It is distinct from animal conservation in India. India is home to several religious traditions advocating non-violence and compassion towards animals, and has passed a number of animal welfare reforms since 1960. India is also one of the worlds leading producers of animal products. Indias first national animal welfare law, the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, criminalizes cruelty to animals, though exceptions are made for the treatment of animals used for food and scientific experiments. The 1960 law also created the Animal Welfare Board of India to ensure the anti-cruelty provisions were enforced and promote the cause of animal welfare. Subsequent laws have placed regulations and restrictions on the use of draught animals, the use of performing animals, animal transport, animal slaughter, and animal experimentation. The Breeding of and Experiments on Animals (Control and ...
 Animal rights is the position that animals should not be exploited. Animal rights people believe that animals should not be used for food, clothing, entertainment, medical research, or product testing.
By P. Michael Conn A Legal Challenge to Animal Research Animal rights law courses may threaten the use of animals in medical research. A. US law schools were categorized by whether they have an animal law course, are at an institution that performs animal research, or are associated directly with a medical school. Additionally, the rank of each law school according to the 2008 U.S. News & World Report was included. Over half of US
Nestlé has announced a major pledge to improve the welfare of the farm animals in its supply chain, following the signature of a partnership agreement with NGO World Animal Protection. The agreement means that the hundreds of thousands of farms that supply Nestlé with its dairy, meat, poultry and eggs will have to comply with tighter animal welfare standards.. Nestlé, with its global purchasing footprint, also becomes the first major food company to form an international partnership with an animal welfare NGO.. World Animal Protection, which has been working with governments, communities and international agencies to improve animal welfare for more than 50 years, has welcomed the agreement.. Our decision to work with Nestlé is based upon their clear commitment to improving animal welfare and the lasting change this can have on millions of farm animals around the world, says Mike Baker, the organisations chief executive.. Nestlé has some 7,300 suppliers from whom it buys animal-derived ...
Join NARN ( Northwest Animal Rights Network ) for our monthly #vegan letter writing party! Well be gathering at Wayward Vegan Cafe! Who doesnt want an excuse to eat at Wayward?. Why letter writing? Letter writing is a simple way to make change for the animals! At our letter writing events, we write for many different reasons: opposition to the creation of new animal laboratories, support for sending animals to sanctuary, promotion of vegan events and issues through letters to the media, and raising the spirits of activists and comrades who have been jailed for their pro-animal and political actions!. NARN provides the stationery, pens, stamps, sample letters, and ideas for what to write -- just bring yourself. You can even bring your laptop if youd prefer to type or email your letters!. Come for a little while or spend the whole two hours with us. Yummm - Wayward!. ...
Geriatric animal models are crucial for a better understanding and an improved therapy of age-related diseases. We observed a high mortality of aged mice after anesthesia with a standard dose of ketamine/xylazine, an anesthetic regimen frequently used in laboratory veterinary medicine. C57BL/6-N mice at the age of 2.14 ± 0.23 months (young mice) and 26.31 ± 2.15 months (aged mice) were anesthetized by intraperitoneal injection of 2 mg ketamine and 0.2 mg xylazine. 4 of 26 aged mice (15.4%) but none of 26 young mice died within 15 min after injection of the anesthetics. The weight of aged mice was significantly higher than that of young mice (32.8 ± 5.4 g versus 23.2 ± 3.4 g, p | 0.0001). Thus, aged mice received lower doses of anesthetics in relation to their body weight which are within the lower range of doses recommended in the literature or even beneath. There were no differences between deceased and surviving aged mice concerning their sex, weight and their motor performance prior to anesthesia
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What was needed was to ensure all the EU countries do follow the ethical guidelines as stipulated in EU Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes, such as implementation of the 3Rs (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement). It is the responsibility of the local ethics committees in the EU countries to see the EU directive is adhered to. We as the Ethics Support are not supposed to be an extra ethical committee - but to check that all is in order and to advise if needed. A thorny issue has been how to ensure third countries follow the EU regulations. We determined that this should be the responsibility of the PI (principal investigator) in HBP to ensure that the collaborators in third countries follow acceptable ethical standards in their animal research - and in accordance with the EU regulations. On the whole the PIs have been cooperative in following the ethical rules in animal research ...
We are occasionally asked why the Animal Rights Coalition is a multi-issue organization, instead of working solely on improving the lives of farmed animals.. Our mission states that ARC is dedicated to ending the suffering, abuse, and exploitation of non-human animals through information, education, and advocacy. One of the most important things about ARC is the consistency of our message and actions. ARC started out as, and has firmly remained, an abolitionist animal rights organization - which means that we challenge the dominant conversation that humans have about our relationships with other species. Most people view other animals as commodities for humans to use and own, and we view other animals as persons who are here for their own reasons and deserving of personal and bodily integrity.. So, while some may consider us a multi-issue organization, the reality is that there is only one issue - animal liberation - and no matter what subject were talking about, were having essentially ...
Animal Rights Zone (ARZone) is an animal rights site. As such, it is the position of ARZone that it is only by ending completely the use of other animal as things can we fulfill our moral obligations to them.. Please read the full site disclosure here.. ...
Please ask your US senators and representative to support the Animal Welfare in Agricultural Research Endeavors (AWARE) Act--introduced in response to the horrendous abuse suffered by thousands of animals at the federally funded and operated Meat Animal Research Center in Nebraska. The AWARE Act would require federal farm animal research operations to abide by the Animal Welfare Act.
Introduction. The ethical analysis of our moral obligations to animals, as well as practical decisions regarding many issues in veterinary medicine, both presuppose some account of animal welfare - that is, of what makes an animals life go well or poorly. Therefore, it is essential that we think critically about the concept of animal welfare. This paper briefly explores some philosophical issues in the definition and assessment of animal welfare.. Two Different Senses of Animal Welfare. The first thing to clarify is the way in which Im using the term animal welfare. In both moral philosophy and ordinary language (as concerns humans), the term welfare is roughly synonymous with wellbeing. To say that an individual has a welfare is to say that her life can go better or worse from her perspective, and to talk about her welfare is to talk about her interests - what are the things that make her life go better or worse for her? How should we conceptualize her wellbeing in the abstract? ...
A list of animal research facilities located in Colorado and regulated by the United States Department of Agriculture with links to annual reports and inspection reports.
A list of animal research facilities located in Montana and regulated by the United States Department of Agriculture with links to annual reports and inspection reports.
Clinical follow-up. Six patients were followed up monthly at Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital, after a diagnosis of liver cirrhosis by either liver biopsy and/or a combination of clinical features. During monthly visits, they underwent physical examination, urinalysis, and complete blood count, with measurement of serum α-fetoprotein, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, and serum chemistry. All patients received a liver ultrasound, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and/or computed tomography (CT) at least every 6 mo. The protocol was approved by the Ethical Committee of Tokyo Medical and Dental University.. In vivo human cancer xenograft experiments. CW-2 human colon cancer xenograft experiments were conducted in accordance with the Guidelines for Animal Experimentation, and approved by the Animal Care and Use Committee of Tokyo Medical and Dental University. Male athymic BALB/c Slc-nu mice (Japan SLC) were given free access to sterile rodent chow and water. ...
The broad and long term goal of the Animal Models Core is to provide consistent care, experimental procedures, and husbandry that are important to the success of projects. Each promising investigator has limited animal experimental experience, but needs to verify in vitro findings in vivo. Therefore, the Animal Model Core (AMC) will ensure project experimental consistency, compliance with federal animal welfare regulations, and effective training of project leaders and personnel in animal experimentation. Dr. Hinsdale will serve as the AMC director, and along with technical staff, will provide basic services (e.g. Colony management and husbandry, biosafety containment and housing of animals, infection of animals and harvesting of samples for analyses, and pulmonary function tests). The current experimental animal models will be mice. The four projects that are proposed require mice to further verify in vivo findings arising from the proposed in vitro experiments. In project 1, using some ...
THE ANIMAL PROTECTION ACT - INTERNATIONAL COMPARISONS AND BEST PRACTICES presented by SANDRA GORE and CHARLOTTE NIKSCHTAT. INTRODUCTION. The General Structure of Animal Welfare Legislation The purpose / underlying principles of the legislation Slideshow 68112 by sherlock_clovis
From Natures Correspondence page (Nature 452, 282; 20 March 2008). Animal-welfare extremism is spreading, as reported in your News Story Animal-rights activists invade Europe (Nature 451, 1034-1035; 2008). For example, they blocked plans to build new laboratory facilities in Venray, the Netherlands, with a campaign that included painting threats on the lab directors houses. Although many people are concerned about animal experimentation, most do not understand the rationale behind these illegal activities, which cause considerable fear in the research community. Researchers respond by wanting to reduce transparency and asking the government to increase repression of activists - following the UK example of stricter legislation. Todays understanding of animal welfare and of the motivation underlying both normal and abnormal behaviour indicate that this response could be counterproductive. A better solution would be to channel peoples frustrations into more constructive activities. The ...
A federal oversight agency claims it caught a Vanderbilt researcher falsifying findings on a cancer treatment, according to a September report More ...
animal welfare News: Find latest news, video & photos on animal welfare. Explore all information & updates about animal welfare online at
MATERIAL AND METHOD. Animals. Six adult male Sprague-Dawley rats (180-200 g) were purchased from the National Laboratory Animal Center, Mahidol University, Thailand and transferred to the Northeast Laboratory Animal Center, Khon Kaen University, Thailand. All rats were housed under standard environmental conditions and received commercial pellet food and water ad libitum. All animals were acclimatized for 7 days. This study used control animals that duly approved by Animal Ethics Committee of Khon Kaen University, based on the Ethics of Animal Experimentation of National Research Council of Thailand (ref. no. AEKKU-NLAC 10/2558). The rats were anesthetized by pentobarbital sodium before euthanasia by cervical dislocation. After rat euthanasia, the testes were dissected out. Fat pads surrounding the testes were removed before fixation. The right testis was immediately fixed in 10 % phosphate buffered formalin (pH 7.4) to be used for immunohistochemistry and the left side was kept in -80 °C ...
German animal welfare association speaks out against rabbit fattening farms from these include mainly animal shelters, grace farms and short-term actions that are quick and unbureaucratic assistance. Since the inception of the animal welfare Alliance rabbit mast, no, thank youof the German animal aid association is a partner of the first hour, which actively supported the Alliance. We are pleased to have an important allies in the fight against the rabbit mast on our side with the German animal welfare association, as Ingo Schulz, spokesman of the Alliance. The newspapers mentioned mayo clinic not as a source, but as a related topic. Under the name rabbit fattening, no, thank youwell-known animal protection organizations in the fight against the rabbit mast have joined forces. The Alliance gives a look behind the scenes of the brutal reality of the rabbit production in the industrial factory farming, thereby reveals how trade groups and lobbyists try to hide the cruelty behind a shiny ...
Humane endpoints are a core refinement concept in animal experimentation. This paper identifies an urgent requirement for individuals and institutions to refocus on humane endpoints as part of the transposition of Directive 2010/63/EU into the national laws of the Member States, and to go beyond their legal construction when setting new guidance or applying humane endpoints in practice. It will be argued that requirements for humane endpoints within the Directive appear not to promote recent advances in best practice, but seem reliant on a narrow and potentially outdated definition of the term. We describe progress that has been made in encouraging change in the construction and application of humane endpoints, and suggest that Directive 2010/63/EU does not sufficiently acknowledge the conceptual complexity of this refinement strategy. For example, a useful development representing recent consensual views of best practice has been proposed by an EU consortium (in 2012). A complex approach to ...
Return to Top. B. Basic Principles for all Medical Research. It is the duty of the physician in medical research to protect the life, health, privacy, and dignity of the human subject.. Medical research involving human subjects must conform to generally accepted scientific principles, be based on a thorough knowledge of the scientific literature, other relevant sources of information, and on adequate laboratory and, where appropriate, animal experimentation.. Appropriate caution must be exercised in the conduct of research which may affect the environment, and the welfare of animals used for research must be respected.. The design and performance of each experimental procedure involving human subjects should be clearly formulated in an experimental protocol. This protocol should be submitted for consideration, comment, guidance, and where appropriate, approval to a specially appointed ethical review committee, which must be independent of the investigator, the sponsor or any other kind of undue ...
What we do with our product is to preserve and improve the remaining function in the movement of the mitral valve. This is mechanical augmentation which, simply put, consists of a helping engine that nudges the valve along in both directions - approximately like the motor on an electric bicycle facilitates pedalling, says Daniel Engvall, project manager and technical manager at the medtech company Syntach. Having developed the very first functional prototype, Syntach is now in the process of producing a new generation and will then start animal experimentation.. Syntach has a global patent on its product.. Now we are moving forward with the production of a complete product that can be used in experiments on animals, which we can reasonably expect to manage during 2018-2019 says Daniel Engvall.. ...
2012 Animal Experimentation Is it wrong to experiment on animals for our own benefit? Many may disagree and believe its immoral and shouldnt be done.
All animal experimentation adhered to the ARVO Statement for the Use of Animals in Ophthalmic and Vision Research and abided by national and local laws of ethical conduct. Young adult P. obesus were captured in southern Tunisia using baited traps, transferred to animal facilities, and maintained under cyclic lighting conditions (12 hours white light [∼300 lux]/12 hours dark) with free access to food and water. Data presented in this study came from two independent field excursions, the first concerning 15 animals and the second concerning26 animals. Male animals were separated into two groups. The low calorie diet control group (n = 5 from the first capture, n = 8 from the second capture; n = 13 total) was raised on a natural diet (ND) and was fed only halophilic plants, rich in water and mineral salts (0.4 kcal/g wet weight). The other animals (n = 10 from the first capture, n = 16 from the second capture; n = 26 total) received a standard laboratory rat chow feed (3.3 kcal/g; Purina). Both ...
MATERIAL AND METHOD. The experiments were carried out according to the Ethical Principles for Experimental Animals (COBAO) and the study was approved by the Animal Experimentation Committee (CETEA) of the Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Preto, University of São Paulo (Protocol nº 0347/2005). One hundred and twenty adult male rats (Rattus norvegicus) weighing 280-310 g were used. The animals were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups: control (C), 20 animals sacrificed without being submitted to the surgical procedure; sham (S), 20 control animals submitted to complete simulation of the surgical procedure but without obstruction of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) and then sacrificed, and ischemic (I), 80 animals submitted to focal ischemia by occlusion of the MCA for 1 hour and then sacrificed. This group was subdivided into 4 subgroups of 20 animals each: ischemic subgroup (Sg I), ischemic subgroup submitted to hypothermia (Sg IH), ischemic subgroup treated with ketoprofen (Sg IK), and ...
Leading QSAR models provide supporting documentation in addition to a predicted toxicological value. Such information enables the toxicologist to explore the properties of chemical substances as well as to review and to increase the reliability of toxicity predictions. This article focuses on the use of this information in practice. We explore the supporting documentation provided by the EPISuite, T.E.S.T. and VEGA platforms when evaluating the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of three example compounds. Each compound presents a different challenge: to recognize high reliability, analyze complex evidence of reliability, and recognize uncertainty. In each case, we first describe and discuss the supporting documentation provided by the QSAR platforms. We then discuss the judgments on reliability across sectors from 28 toxicologists who used this supporting information and commented on the process. The article demonstrates both the use of QSAR models as tools to reduce or replace in vivo testing, and ...
1) Diabetes & Insulin.. It is often wrongly claimed that the discovery of insulin was made in the 1920s through experiments on dogs by Banting and Best. However, in the words of Italys Prof. Bruno Fedi, M.D., 1989:. . . . . The observations of Banting and Best on diabetes, attributed to experiments on dogs, were already well-known . . . Every discovery derives from observations on humans, which are subsequently duplicated in animals, and whenever the findings happen to concur, their discovery is attributed to animal experimentation. Everything we know today in medicine derives from observations made on human beings..... Prof. Bruno Fedi, M.D., 1986, Director of the City Hospital of Terni, Italy, anatomist, pathologist, specialist in urology, gynaecology and cancerology. (quote from the book 1000 Doctors (& many more) Against Vivisection, Ed. Hans Ruesch, CIVIS publications, Switzerland, 1989). + The CLINICAL Discovery of Insulin ...
PHONOSURGERY LECTURE NUMBER 2: MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS AND RESEARCH POTENTIALS - Nobuhiko Isshiki, M.D.. The effectiveness of the Silastic implants used in thyroplasty procedures is discussed. The focus is on pitch problems and how dysphonia develops. Highlights include the following surgical procedures: lowering vocal pitch, cricothyroid approximation, combined thyroplasty to correct an unusual functional-related dysphonia, thyroplasty type I for correction of spastic dysphonia, laryngeal web removal and mucosal transplantation. Concludes with a discussion of the acoustical analysis of the voice and applications for determining the ease of phonation, along with the importance of animal experimentation.. Color and Sound (1993), approximately 91 minutes. ________________________________________________________. THE VOICE OF THE IMPERSONATOR - Robert J. Feder, M.D., F.A.C.S.. Impersonators Mel Blanc and Rich Little and ventriloquist Willie Tyler demonstrate their various characterizations and their ...
In Brutal, Brian Luke explores the gender divide over our treatment of animals, exposing the central role of masculinity in systems of animal exploitation. Employing philosophical analysis, reference to empirical research, and activist experience, Luke develops a new theory of how exploitative institutions do not promote human flourishing but merely support a particular construction of manhood. The resulting study is the first integrated theory of manhoods relationship to hunting, animal experimentation, and animal sacrifice, and is of significant interest both to animal advocates and opponents of sexism ...
Articles are distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International license (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is appropriately cited (CC-BY). Copyright on any article in ALTEX is retained by the author(s).. ...
The elucidation of splenic function in health and disease has been continuously evolving since Aristotle dismissed the concept that it is essential for human existence more than 2000 years ago. The first recorded splenectomy was performed by Zaccarelli in 1549 for presumed malaria in a young woman who survived at least 6 years postoperatively [1]. The nonessential nature of the spleen was reinforced in subsequent animal experimentation following Reads successful splenectomy in a dog in 1638 [2]. Quittenbaum [3], in 1826, is credited with the initial well-documented splenectomy in a young woman with probable portal hypertension and splenomegaly. The patient expired postoperatively from exsanguination. Despite this dismal early outcome, splenectomy became an acceptable practice for idiopathic hypertrophy, malarial hypertrophy, splenic anemia, leukemia, cysts, and tuberculosis, with an associated mortality rate of 13% by 1908 [4].
Rapid Scientific Progress and Antivivisectionist Decline As the world recovered from the military and psychological carnage and social transformations brought on by the First World War, the Russian Revolution, and the 1918-1920 influenza pandemic, opposition to animal experimentation had shrunk to a barely perceptible concern. Compared to its prominence in Victorian and Edwardian times, debates…
The ability to differentiate genetically modified mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells into functional macrophages provides a potentially attractive resource to study host-pathogen interactions without the need for animal experimentation. This is particularly useful in instances where the gene of interest is essential and a knockout mouse is not available. Here we differentiated mouse ES cells into macrophages in vitro and showed, through a combination of flow cytometry, microscopic imaging and RNA-Seq, that ES cell-derived macrophages responded to S. Typhimurium, in a comparable manner to mouse bone marrow derived macrophages. We constructed a homozygous mutant mouse ES cell line in the Traf2 gene that is known to play a role in tumour necrosis factor-α signalling but has not been studied for its role in infections or response to Toll-like receptor agonists. Interestingly, traf2-deficient macrophages produced reduced levels of inflammatory cytokines in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or ...
Research compliance requires a functioning partnership between faculty and research administrators. The Research Compliance Office works with Dartmouth faculty and all Dartmouth offices responsible for research administration to ensure compliance with federal laws and regulations, Dartmouth policies and sponsor requirements. The Research Compliance Office reports to the Vice Provost for Research, Dean R. Madden, PhD.. The Council on Sponsored Activities, the Office of Sponsored Projects, the Committee for the Protection of Human Subjects and the Research Compliance Office assist in the review and development of policies and procedures, and conduct general research compliance oversight.. Please contact the Research Compliance Office with any related questions.. Henrike Frowein, LL. ...
"Animal Experimentation". 56 (1). 1911: 816-817. Cite journal requires ,journal= (help) "Dr. W.B. Cannon, 73, Neurologist, Dead ... Finally, he would compare the results of an animal with intact adrenal glands with those in an animal from which he had removed ... Cannon supported animal experimentation and opposed the arguments of anti-vivisectionists. In 1911, he authored a booklet for ... He would surgically excise the nerves by supplying the heart of a laboratory animal such as a dog or cat. Then he would subject ...
Animal rights. Animal welfare 4905-4959...........Animal experimentation. Anti-vivisection 4961-4995............Degeneration ...
"Animal Experimentation". BBC. Retrieved 8 July 2016. "EU statistics show decline in animal research numbers". Speaking of ... are hybrid animals; the name zodiac indeed means a circle of animals. All twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac are animals. ... Many animals are hunted for sport. The aquatic animals most often hunted for sport are fish, including many species from large ... animal/human interfaces have been a neglected area of research, given the ubiquity of animals in human culture and history, and ...
The study of hearing in animals. In: W Gay, ed., Methods of Animal Experimentation, IV. Academic Press, London, pp 43-143. RR ... Several animal species are able to hear frequencies well beyond the human hearing range. Some dolphins and bats, for example, ... Hearing range describes the range of frequencies that can be heard by humans or other animals, though it can also refer to the ... A similar technique can be used when testing animals, where food is used as a reward for responding to the sound. The ...
Animal experimentation has become something that is debated about publicly. Those who do not believe in animal experimentation ... Some statistics about animal experimentation: 20 million animals are experimented on and are killed annually, an estimated 8 ... questions arise about animal experimentation being morally right or wrong. Labs that abuse the ability to conduct animal ... discovery to advance-but some feel that those who support animal experimentation are selfish to inflict pain on other animals ...
Applying alcohol myopia to animal experimentation". Alcohol Alcohol. 40 (5): 373-8. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agh177. PMID 15996970. " ...
Animal Experimentation Issues PCRM "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved 2015-04-06.CS1 maint ... "Animal research and medical progress". About animal testing. "Scientists Against Animal Testing". Archived from the original on ... "Animals in Experimentation - Everybody Loses" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-06-24. The Critical Role of Nonhuman Primates in Research, ... Some animal rights supporters believe that alternatives exist for animal models in research; however the vast majority of ...
"Does animal experimentation inform human healthcare? Observations from a systematic review of international animal experiments ... However, experiments on animals are lengthy, expensive and controversial. For example, animal models are often subjected to ... In the early phase of drug development, animal models were the only way of obtaining in vivo data that would predict the human ... Moreover, animal models offer very limited control of individual variables and it can be cumbersome to harvest specific ...
Animal testing regulations are laws and/or guidelines that permit and control the use of animals for experimentation. They are ... He also experimented with the injection of putrid fish into animals and was an advocate for experimentation in a time before ... Akhtar A (2015). "The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation". Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 24 (4): 407-19. doi:10.1017/ ... There are concerns that animal experimentation that has no translational benefit or reproducibility is likely unethical. There ...
Ethics of Animal and Human Experimentation, eds. P. P. De Deyn, R. D'Hooge, R. Clara, and A. Schafer, John Libbey Co.Ltd., ... "The moral anatomy and moral pathology of the randomized clinical trial", Ethics of animal and human experimentation, eds. De ... and co-editor of Ethics and Animal Experimentation. His curriculum vitae lists more than 90 scholarly articles and book ... "Experimentation with Human Subjects: A Critique of the Views of Hans Jonas", Journal of Medical Ethics, 1983. "Consent to ...
A Case Study of Home Office Enforcement of Animal Experimentation Legislation, Uncaged Campaigns, 2004. "Animal-to-Human ... Animals, 19, 2011, pp. 356-367. The Politics of Animal Experimentation, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Disrupted: Ludicrous ... Lyons specializes in the study of animal research, the philosophy of animal rights, and the political representation of animals ... The Politics of Animal Experimentation, Palgrave Macmillan. "Imutran Ltd v. Uncaged Campaigns Ltd and Daniel Louis Lyons", High ...
... used as a pejorative catch-all term for experimentation on live animals by organizations opposed to animal experimentation, but ... American Anti-Vivisection Society Animal testing regulations Bionics Cruelty to animals Dissection Experimentation on prisoners ... Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated? Cad. Saúde Pública, Rio de Janeiro, 2007 "Read "Guide for the Care and Use ... Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated? Cad. Saúde Pública, Rio de Janeiro, 2007" Yarri, Donna. The Ethics of ...
43-44 doi:10.2307/3561052 Why Knowledge Matters (1981) Animals in Research: New Perspectives in Animal Experimentation ed. ... Report by the Council for Science and Society Are You an Animal? (1989) Animal Experimentation: The Consensus Changes ed. Gill ... She argued that human beings are more similar to animals than many social scientists then acknowledged, while animals are in ... List of animal rights advocates Books Beast and Man: The Roots of Human Nature. Routledge, 1978; revised edition 1995. ISBN 0- ...
"Senate Gets Committee Bill on Animal Experimentation". Toledo Blade. 7 June 1966. Retrieved 1 January 2011. Thompson, Richard C ... The dog was thought to be the same animal as it was traced to a farm which supplied two Dalmatians to that hospital, but by the ... Historically in the United States, dogs had been stolen and sold on for medical research, but the introduction of the Animal ... The United States Congress was already working on legislation to restrict the handling and sale of animals for research when a ...
New technologies, experimental methods and animal experimentation have led to an increased understanding of the workings of ... Although there is no single ideal animal model of a human, for each problem of interest there is an animal upon which it can be ... LaFollette, Hugh; Shanks, Niall (1994). "Animal Experimentation: The Legacy of Claude Bernard". International Studies in the ... How can one show that an animal has a good memory? There are many confounds when breeding for behaviours, however if animals ...
"The ethical discourse on animal experimentation, 1650-1900". Clio Medica. 24: 203-251. PMID 7516841. "Animal rights in the 18th ... Smith stated that animals have a "right to happiness". Smith held the view that animals are intellectual and sentient beings ... The stewardship of animals therefore entails responsibility for humans since they have deprived animals of their freedom and ... Smith was an advocate of animal rights and denounced animal experiments as immoral. He was an opponent of vivisection and ...
ISBN 978-1-4742-5597-4 Maehle, Andreas-Holger (1993). "The ethical discourse on animal experimentation, 1650-1900". Clio Medica ... He argued that humans beings are permitted to kill animals quickly and painlessly for food but to make animals suffer or to ... He is best known for his book Gerechtigkeit gegen Thiere (Justice Towards Animals) in 1787. The book is the oldest work to use ... Wilhelm Dietler (died 1797) was a German philosopher and early animal rights writer. Dietler was a Master of Philosophy and in ...
Gruber, Franz P.; Hartung, Thomas (2004). "Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in Basic Research" (PDF). ALTEX. 21 (Suppl 1 ... Animal protection groups fought for years to end MAb production in mice because it causes intense suffering for the animals ... Even more startling, at least ten percent of the general population has been observed to carry some form of animal-derived ... It took considerable, sustained pressure from animal welfare groups, led by legal efforts initiated by the American Anti- ...
Experimentation in animals began in the early 1900s. As of 2021[update], no lasting successes have been achieved. There are ... The animals survived between 6 hours and 2 days. In 1970, he did four experiments in which he cut the head off of a monkey and ... There were few animal experiments on head transplantation for many years after this. In 2012, Xiaoping Ren published work in ... The animals died due to transplant rejection. In the 1950s and '60s, immunosuppressive drugs and organ transplantation ...
Akhtar A (October 2015). "The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation". Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics. 24 (4 ... Critics of animal testing have cited the case to argue that experiments on nonhuman animals, even in species closely related to ... Animals raised in a sterile lab would presumably have no 'memory' of previous illnesses, thus would not exhibit the severe ... It has been reported that the initial dose was one five-hundredth of that which the animal studies indicated was a maximum safe ...
Arluke, Arnold (1988). "Sacrificial Symbolism in Animal Experimentation: Object or Pet?". Anthrozoös: A Multidisciplinary ... In social philosophy, objectification is the act of treating a person, or sometimes an animal, as an object or a thing. It is ... Journal of the Interactions of People and Animals. 2 (2): 98-117. doi:10.2752/089279389787058091. Nussbaum, Martha C. (1985). " ...
Initially, he was notably against any experimentation on animals. The first person to volunteer for Canavero's procedure for ...
He also initiated animal experimentation during those early years. In 1918, Wilson went overseas as the assistant director of ...
... ; M. Tariq Salman (2019). A Guide to the Alternatives to Animal Experimentation (fourth ed.). Ibn Sina Academy ... "Alternatives to Animal Experimentation" in the Department of Pharmacology at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College. This was the ... India and Romania A Guide to the Alternatives of Animal Experimentation (ISBN 978-81-906070-4-9). Eds. Syed Ziaur Rahman and ... He even translated few papers into Urdu in the field of Alternatives to animal testing. Rahman also works in the field of ...
The book became a standard polemic against experimentation on animals. Elizabeth (August 31, 1844 - January 28, 1911) was born ... Writer, feminist, and animal rights advocate Carol J. Adams describes the novel as "important and timely." Her last work, ... Near the end of her life, Phelps became very active in the animal rights movement. Her novel, Trixy, published in 1904, was ... She then wrote a novella about animal rights titled Loveliness. Phelps said she wrote The Gates Ajar to comfort a generation of ...
He later uses samples of Bruce's DNA for animal experimentation. Bruce's increasing rage from the tensions mounting around him ... His supervisor, General Thaddeus "Thunderbolt" Ross, forbids human experimentation, so David experiments on himself. His wife, ...
"Animal Experimentation". BBC. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016.. ... Further information: Lists of animals. Animals are monophyletic, meaning they are derived from a common ancestor. Animals are ... "Animal". The American Heritage Dictionary (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006.. *^ "animal". English Oxford Living ... but in colloquial use the term animal often refers only to non-human animals. The study of non-human animals is known as ...
He has argued that animal experimentation provided a crucial driving force behind the method of analysis and synthesis that ... Shanks has explored the role played by animal experimentation in the contexts of anatomy and physiology during the renaissance ... Brute Science: Dilemmas of Animal Experimentation, co-authored with Hugh LaFollette. London: Routledge, 1996. Idealization in ... Animals and Science: A Guide to the Debates. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2002. God, the Devil, and Darwin: A Critique of ...
... the taking of animals' fur and skin, and experimentation on animals, as well as the refusal to help animals suffering in the ... Animals portal Animal-industrial complex Animal trial Antinaturalism (politics) Biocentrism Carnism Critical animal studies ... The term first appeared during a protest against animal experimentation in 1970. Philosophers and animal rights advocates state ... More recently, animal rights groups such as the Farm Animal Rights Movement and People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals ...
"Reviewed Work: Animal Experimentation and Medical Progress by W. Williams Keen, Royal Commission on Vivisection". The Harvard ... Lee, Frederic S. (1915). "Reviewed Work: Animal Experimentation and Medical Progress by William Williams Keen". Science. 41 ( ... Snow and Vivisection (1911) The Influence of Antivivisection on Character (1912) Animal Experimentation and Medical Progress ( ... some of which were republished in 1914 in Animal Experimentation and Medical Progress. In 1867, Keen married Emma Corinna ...
In studies of rats, animals fed a diet of 50% sweet pea seeds developed enlarged adrenals relative to control animals fed on ... The sweet pea is thus a model organism being used in early experimentations in genetics, particularly by the pioneer geneticist ...
Other animal species. See also: Tool use by animals, Structures built by animals, and Ecosystem engineer ... Science is systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.[16] ... The use of basic technology is also a feature of other animal species apart from humans. These include primates such as ... evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1 Ma;[26] ...
When animal or plant matter is buried during sedimentation, the constituent organic molecules (lipids, proteins, carbohydrates ... Wilson, L. and M. Pollard, "Here today, gone tomorrow? Integrated experimentation and geochemical modeling in studies of ...
"Animal Planet :: Ferocious Crocs". 2008-09-10. Retrieved March 16, 2010.. ... into the Ecology and Evolutionary Success of Crocodilians Revealed through Bite-Force and Tooth-Pressure Experimentation". PLOS ... a b Colbert, E.H. & Morales, M. (2001): Colbert's Evolution of the Vertebrates: A History of the Backboned Animals Through Time ... The oldest known animal that may have been an amniote is Casineria (though it may have been a temnospondyl).[35][36][37] A ...
... and between the behaving animal and its environment".[141] In this view, mind and neurological functions are tightly coupled in ... and are being constrained by ongoing experimentation.[86] ... and thus that non-human animals lack free will.[236] ...
Ingold, T. (2000). "Building, dwelling, living: how animals and people make themselves at home in the world". The Perception of ... It is unclear if the Oldowan was independently invented or if it was the result of hominin experimentation with rocks over ... Individuals likely used these tools primarily to butcher and skin animals and crush bones, but also sometimes to saw and scrape ... bending upright branches as poles and using grasses or animal hide as a screen.[57] Dating to 1.75 mya, it is attributed to ...
Some downwinders may have suffered acute exposure due to their involvement in uranium mining and nuclear experimentation.[4] ... thus contaminating both groundwater systems and aquatic animals downstream as far west as the Washington and Oregon coasts.[19] ...
Andrew Clennel Palmer (2008), Dimensional Analysis and Intelligent Experimentation, World Scientific, 154 pp, p.13 ... These measurements usually refer to noise and its effects on humans and other animals, and they are widely used in industry ... These measurements usually refer to noise and its effects on humans and other animals, and they are widely used in industry ...
Cheese flies - Family Piophilidae - Most are scavengers in animal products and fungi. The best-known member of the family is ... Historically, there have been several accounts of applications for, and experimentation with, forensic entomology. The concept ... Flesh-flies, being viviparous, frequently give birth to live young on corpses of human and other animals, at any stage of ... "Because insects are cold-blooded animals, their rate of development is more or less dependent on ambient temperature." [23] ...
Lavoisier subsequently discovered and named oxygen, described its role in animal respiration[89] and the calcination of metals ... Lavoisier's years of experimentation formed a body of work that contested phlogiston theory. After reading his "Reflections on ... experimentation, sponsoring essay prize contests, and collaborative projects between societies. A dialogue of formal ...
After filtrating the microbial culture of the Corynebacterium diphtheriae and injecting it into the lab animals, they were able ... and was employed for a long time by the members as a field for clinical observation and experimentations of therapeutical ... The search for a stronger remedy against this disease was made more difficult because most animals are immune to it: it was ... In 1985, the first human vaccine obtained by genetic engineering from animal cells, the vaccine against hepatitis B, was ...
Whereas sodomy between men, men and women, and men and animals was punishable by death in Britain, acknowledgment of sexual ... In the United States, the 1920s was a decade of social experimentation, particularly with sex. This was heavily influenced by ... With the well-publicized notion that sexual acts were a part of lesbianism and their relationships, sexual experimentation was ... and said that most have phases of homosexual attraction or experimentation, exclusive same-sex attraction he attributed to ...
"Morgan's passion for experimentation was symptomatic of his general scepticism and his distaste for speculation. He believed ... of a universe without purpose of punishment or reward for a lately arrived animal species, free to make or mar its own destiny ... a much more reliable method of altering animal genomes than previously used, and the technique behind gene targeting and ... and the sexual behavior of animals and people.[18][19] ... of individual and social behaviour patterns in animals.[342]. * ...
Affective neuroscience is the study of the neural mechanisms involved in emotion, typically through experimentation on animal ... Neuroethology is the study of the neural basis of non-human animals behavior. ... The related fields of neuroethology and neuropsychology address the question of how neural substrates underlie specific animal ... Jean Pierre Flourens pioneered the experimental method of carrying out localized lesions of the brain in living animals ...
... but these are so modern-looking that the earliest animals must have appeared before then.[62] Early fossils of animals are rare ... is a long-running debate about whether this Cambrian explosion was truly a very rapid period of evolutionary experimentation; ... by proving that some fossil animals resembled no living ones, demonstrated that animals could become extinct, leading to the ... Fedonkin, M.A.; Gehling, J.G.; Grey, K.; Narbonne, G.M.; Vickers-Rich, P. (2007). The Rise of Animals: Evolution and ...
"EAAP Animal Genetic Data Bank. Hannover School of Veterinary Medicine. 2001-08-16. Retrieved 2008-09-30.. CS1 maint: ... with more experimentation, the Nonius breed emerged as a uniformly heavy but elegant military driving and carting horse. In ... "major centre and organisational example of the highest standard horse-breeding and animal husbandry."[10][11] ... making the characteristics of a breed of animal genetically homogenous - of the horses. This goal was achieved by linebreeding ...
Unlike his German peers, Virchow had great faith in clinical observation, animal experimentation (to determine causes of ... Virchow's concept of pathology, comparison of diseases common to humans and animals ... comparison of diseases common to humans and animals). His most important work in the field was Cellular Pathology (Die ... He was the first to establish a link between infectious diseases between humans and animals, for which he coined the term " ...
miRNAs regulate a large variety of biological functions in plants and animals.[64] So far, in 2013, about 2000 miRNAs have been ... mourning cloak butterflies will change color through hormone changes in response to experimentation of varying temperatures.[ ... While plants do utilise many of the same epigenetic mechanisms as animals, such as chromatin remodeling, it has been ... Davies, Hazel (2008). Do Butterflies Bite?: Fascinating Answers to Questions about Butterflies and Moths (Animals Q&A). Rutgers ...
... is a soft tissue found in most animals. Muscle cells contain protein filaments of actin and myosin that slide past one ... A non-invasive elastography technique that measures muscle noise is undergoing experimentation to provide a way of monitoring ... Muscle tissue is a soft tissue, and is one of the four fundamental types of tissue present in animals. There are three types of ... In small animals (e.g., rodents) this is the major fast muscle type, explaining the pale color of their flesh. ...
Figures of animals in the round were often acceptable for works used in private contexts if the object was clearly practical, ... style of experimentation, exuberance and some sentimentality and vulgarity, and in the 2nd century BC a classicising return to ... Animals are, with the human figure, the earliest subject for sculpture, and have always been popular, sometimes realistic, but ... In the same way, luxury hardstone carvings such as dagger hilts and cups may be formed as animals, especially in Mughal art. ...
In 2014, it was announced that the NIH is directing scientists to perform their experiments with both female and male animals, ... From then on, the NIH has required all grantee institutions to approve any research proposals involving human experimentation ... Southam's research and had required all research involving human subjects to obtain their consent prior to any experimentation. ...
He believed that humans are unique in comparison to animals because we have the capacity to do "abstract symbolic reasoning." ... modern psychologists find his methods to be quite subjective and choose to rely on more objective procedures of experimentation ... The links of cognition to evolutionary demands are studied through the investigation of animal cognition. ... scientific information that is gathered through observation and conscientious experimentation.[5] Two millennia later, as ...
Llorente, Gustavo i Lope, Sílvia: Guia dels animals que es venen al mercat. Ed. Pòrtic, col·lecció Conèixer la natura, núm. 13 ... cultivation and experimentation. J. Fish Biol. 41 (Suppl. B):125-136. ... 4,0 4,1 Llorente, Gustavo i Lope, Sílvia: Guia dels animals que es venen al mercat. ... A: G.E.W. Wolstehnolmen i M. O'Connor (eds.) Ciba Foundation Colloquium on Ageing: the life span of animals. Vol. 5., Churchill ... - reproducible research and experimentation in computer engineering. *Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) ... Animal testing. *Animal testing on non-human primates. *First-in-man study ...
This would not be in vivo as the donor is sacrificed by experimentation, but it would not be the same as working with the cell ... It is also possible for archaeological layers to be reworked on purpose or by accident (by humans, natural forces or animals). ... To compensate for this problem, in vivo experimentation allowed testing to occur in the original organism or environment. To ... In the case of observations or photographs of living animals, it means that the organism was observed (and photographed) in the ...
Stephen Hamilton on experimentations involving the meteor rocks. Chloe and Pete Ross (Sam Jones III), who accompanies Chloe as ... "caged animal". When she ruins the lives of a mother and her son in season three's "Truth", after exposing the mother as a ... wants Chloe's help to expose LuthorCorp's experimentation on the meteor infected.[60] ...
... even those who defended animal experimentation, that Magendie purposely subjected his experimental animals to needless torture ... argumenting the reasons of animal experimentation.[2] Besides drawing sharp criticism from contemporaries in both Britain and ... Richard Martin, an Irish MP, in introducing his famous bill banning animal cruelty in the United Kingdom, described Magendie's ... Gallistel, C R (April 1981). "Bell, Magendie, and the proposals to restrict the use of animals in neurobehavioral research". ...
Finally, the whole band would often tear apart stuffed animals while on stage, throwing the stuffing through the air, creating ... In contrast, songs on their earlier recordings had undergone far more in-studio development and experimentation. Pinkus has ...
... experimentation is performed on laboratory animals with the goal of defining safe exposure limits for humans.[30] Balancing the ... Spall, J. C. (2010), "Factorial Design for Efficient Experimentation: Generating Informative Data for System Identification," ...
Experimentation Cerebrale. 196 (3): 467-74. doi:10.1007/s00221-009-1862-x. PMC 2700244. PMID 19484465.. ... Some animals, such as tortoises and hamsters, blink their eyes independently of each other. Humans use winking, the blinking of ...
... animal disease: Animals in research: the biomedical model: …more than 1,200,000 species of animals thus far identified, only a ... an identical or similar disease exists in at least one other animal species. Veterinary medicine plays an ever-increasing role ... In animal disease: Animals in research: the biomedical model. …more than 1,200,000 species of animals thus far identified, only ... In vitamin: Animal assay. All of the vitamins, with the exception of vitamin B12, can be estimated by the animal-assay ...
Animals A common antibiotic slows a mysterious coral disease By Cassie Martin. 17 hours ago. ... Animals A common antibiotic slows a mysterious coral disease By Cassie Martin. 17 hours ago. ...
Animal Rights. Animal. Animal experimentation. Animal welfare. Animals, Treatment of. Laboratory animals. Nature / Animal ... animal experimentation animal experiments animal models Animal Procedures Committee animal research Animal Rights animal ... studies animal suffering animal tests Animal Welfare animal-welfare Animals in Research Animals Scientific Procedures ... experimentation.html?id=k6pqAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAnimal experimentation. ...
... Media Coverage About SAEN Stop Animal Exploitation Now. ACTION ALERT:. ... System to to launch an independent investigation into the animal experimentation program.. Stop Animal Exploitation Now ... Animal Welfare (OLAW) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). The LSUHS Department of Animal Resources and our Animal Care ... Group questions animal experimentation practices. From Amber Smith,, November 15, 2018 ...
Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open ... Publishers keywords: in vitro methods, alternatives to animal experiments, toxicology, bioethics. Language of fulltext: ...
Early experimentation with animals was originally born out... ... For centuries mankind has experimented on animals for a number ... Definition Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, is the use of non-human test subjects for experimentation and ... Biomedical research on animals Essay. 1734 Words , 7 Pages. *. Essay on Should Animal Experimentation Ever Be Permitted?. 1926 ... Essay on Should Animal Experimentation Ever Be Permitted?. 1926 Words , 8 Pages. performed vivisection on animals for hundreds ...
Although animal experimentation still exists today, the number of animals that are used for experimentation has decreased about ... animals as a food source, and zoos. A good reason as to why the debate not just on animal experimentation but all around animal ... Animal experimentation is a controversial topic that is debated by many people; each year many animals are experimented on for ... Why continue using animals when theres alternatives ? Animal experimentation is a significant subject that deals with the many ...
... looks at some of the regulations in place which protect experimental animals from unnecessary suffering. ... sixth in a series on the use of animals in science, ... Animal Experimentation: Uses of Animals in Research. *Animal ... Animal Experimentation: Alternatives to the Use of Animals in Research. *Animal Experimentation: Regulations for the Use of ... Animal Experimentation: Regulations for the Use of Animals in Research. written by: Emma Lloyd•edited by: Leigh A. Zaykoski• ...
Read this full essay on Animal Experimentation in Scientific Research. For many years, scientists have conducted research to ... Using Animals in Research and Experimentation. 851 words - 4 pages Animals should be used for research and Experimentation ... Needless Animal Research, Testing, And Experimentation Is Wrong. 964 words - 4 pages Needless Animal Experimentation is Wrong ... Animal Testing in the Research Field. 1385 words - 6 pages Animal research, or animal testing, is the use of animals in ...
I have often said that one way animal models are used in research and testing is to predict human response to drugs and disease ... Animal Models. In Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science. Second Edition. Animal Models, edited by J. Hau and G. K. van Hoosier ... Animal Experimentation: Prediction Claims vs Prediction Facts. Author:. Dr Ray Greek. Updated:. Mar 1, 2018. Original:. Jul 23 ... Animal Models: A third important group of animal models is employed as predictive models. These models are used with the aim ...
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... SAMS » Portrait » Commissions » Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation ... 23.05.2019: The focus article of the SAMS Bulletin 2/2019 is dedicated to the topic of ethics of animal experimentation (in ... The Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (ECAE) is a body jointly operated by the SAMS and the Swiss Academy of Sciences ... By-laws of the Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (in German) PDF, 116 KB ...
Home » Information Centers » Food Safety Research Information Office » Animal Experimentation and Animal Use Alternatives ... Organizes information on the Animal Welfare Act. Includes the full-text of the 1966 Animal Welfare Act, the Animal Welfare Act ... Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals. American Psychological Association; Committee on Animal Research ... Presents the text for the "U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, ...
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  • The Department of Agriculture reports that nearly 61,000 dogs were used in the U.S. for experimentation in 2016 alone, and the total reported number of animals used for experimentation was more than 820,000. (
  • If not for the existence of animals, humans would be left to experiment on themselves at a high rate which would create a worldwide moral dilemma. (
  • Animal testing has not only benefit humans, but animals as well. (
  • The Moral Equality of Animals vs Humans The discretion between animal versus human equality has been a controversial subject for many years. (
  • observe: "Chemical carcinogenesis bioassays in animals have long been recognized and accepted as valid predictors of potential cancer hazards to humans" (Huff, Jacobson, and Davis 2008). (
  • Animals are not humans, obviously, but we test drugs that are meant to be used on humans all of the time. (
  • It is good that we don?t have to make humans suffer, but just because something works on, or doesn?t effect an animal, doesn?t mean it will do the same on a human. (
  • For instance, the drugs thalidomide, Zomax, and DES were all tested on animals and thought of as safe, but they had devastating effects on humans (Internet 3).Many of the protests now days for animals are to give them rights against experimentation. (
  • The studies regarding medicines developed using that model needs to go through a lot of careful testing before they are approved to be used by humans and animals. (
  • He discovered that a number of anatomical structures believed to exist, following animal dissections, were unexpectedly absent in humans. (
  • Animal research is about flawed science that delays medical progress and harms humans. (
  • Shouldn't medical products be labeled, "WARNING: This product is proven safe for use in animal experiments - but may cause disability or death in humans. (
  • Blanket assertions that we can not learn from animals are naive but equally, many generalisations about humans fall when we start to look at ethnic differences and, increasingly,genetic predisposition. (
  • Experiments on animals waste time and money which could be much better spent.Funding the implementation and development of non-animal methods of research and testing, directly applicable to humans, would result in better therapies and more effective medications. (
  • This regulation ensures that persons working with animals are qualified, educated and knowledgeable, that the number of animals used for experiments is minimised and that any suffering of animals have been weighed against the potential benefits to humans or animals. (
  • Strike 1: Artificially inducing stroke in animals does not recreate the complex physiology that causes the natural disease in humans, which may develop over decades. (
  • Strike 3: Artificially inducing in animals the underlying conditions that lead to human stroke does not replicate the processes that occur in humans. (
  • Yet, over 150 stroke drugs found effective in animal stroke models failed in humans (1). (
  • Because humans respond so differently to other animals, using other animals to test on is unreliable at best, and fatally dangerous at worst, for humans. (
  • vivisection hinders medical advancement and is risky for humans because the results of this sadistic research cannot be applied to animals. (
  • Problems of extrapolation, applying information from animal research to humans, are inevitable when researchers use animal models to study human diseases. (
  • For example, penicillin is toxic to guinea pigs, aspirin is poisonous to cats, and the recalled diet drug phen-fen caused no heart damage in animals, while it did in humans. (
  • however, the use of animals is cruel and unnecessary because they do not have a similar body system as humans do. (
  • ANIMAL TESTING IS WRONG The words 'animal testing' mean to perform procedures on living animals for the research of basic human biology and diseases, finding out the effectiveness of new medical products, and testing the human health and environmental safety of consumer and industry products like cosmetics, household cleaners, food additives, pharmaceuticals and industrial/agro-chemicals and means using other living organisms except humans for testing. (
  • It is dangerous and wasteful to conclude that what occurs in animals will have the same results in humans. (
  • This means animals are very close to humans, only lacking one step which is reason. (
  • The above-mentioned incidents and others illustrate the harm to humans from the use of substances that have not been first tested on animals and underline the importance of animal experimentation to avert or prevent human tragedy.Aristotle would indeed not approve of experiments performed on animals. (
  • Aristotle argued that animals are below humans because only humans can reason and therefore we can use animals without the consideration we would give to people. (
  • Many codes regulating animal experimentation instruct regulating committees to assume that procedures that would cause pain in humans also will cause pain in vertebrate animals unless there is evidence to the contrary. (
  • To end animal experimentation and the harmful use of animals for research, testing and teaching in Aotearoa - for animals, humans and science. (
  • Animal studies have shown many drugs to be useful and safe - in the animals tested on - then they have gone on to have catastrophic effects in humans. (
  • Ferrets share many anatomical, metabolic and physiologic features with humans which has promoted their use as an animal model. (
  • Referring to any procedure or experiment where, from start to finish, no whole animals, cells, or samples have been used in the methodology -using strictly humans or alternatives means. (
  • Animals used in experiments to represent either humans or other animals (e.g. rats with high blood pressure may be used to try to learn more about the condition in humans). (
  • Throughout this paper I will be talking about how cancer does not just affect humans it affects animals also. (
  • I will be talking about how cancer affect animals the same way it affects humans. (
  • The process for animals and the process for humans and how closely related they are. (
  • A major challenge in the extrapolation of animal data to humans lies in species differences in the structure and function of the major xenobiotic receptors, transporters, and drug-metabolizing enzymes ( Lin, 2008 ). (
  • The question then arises as to whether or not the absence of language also implies the absence of either consciousness or thought, or in fact whether the communication between animals is in fact related closely enough to that of humans that language ceases to be an issue when investigating the difference between human and animal consciousness, (Lea & Kiley-Worthington, 1996). (
  • There is reasonably strong evidence to suggest that not only can animals communicate with each other, but they can in fact learn to communicate with humans. (
  • Animal Rights and Morality Animals, not only humans, have the capacity to suffer and feel pain. (
  • It is wicked and in many cases illegal to abuse animals or to cause them harm, and they should be considered more than just pets by humans. (
  • With the capacity to suffer and feel pain animals should be entitled to moral considerations and rights similar to those that humans are entitled to. (
  • Testing on animals does make some products safer on humans, but the suffering that is incurred is not worth the risk most of the time. (
  • It is necessary for some new procedures and medicines to be tested on animals to make sure they are safe and will not cause harm to any humans which use them, and I am completely fine with this. (
  • For this reason alone, I believe that humans should treat animals with more decency. (
  • However, carrying out research on animals means that important theories can be tested that would otherwise be too wrong to test on humans. (
  • If medical and scientifical experimentation were to be done in only human trials the knowledge and understanding of how drugs and procedures can affect humans would be decades behind. (
  • Animals have the same organs and tissues as humans do making them very good analogues. (
  • This is why using animals as an analogue for humans is advantageous. (
  • The organs and the body systems of animals are similar to humans and to other animals, which is the basic reason why scientists use animals for this research. (
  • These supporters argue that humans have benefited from the developments that stem from animal testing for many years. (
  • These horrors have been meted out against humans and animals alike. (
  • Indeed, grisly experiments, barbaric behavior and inhumane conditions have become synonymous with the U.S. government, which has meted out untold horrors against humans and animals alike. (
  • fur (see nutria and chinchilla), test animals for biomedical and genetic research (especially mice and rats), pleasure as household pets (see golden hamster, guinea pig, and gerbil), and insight on mammalian biology and evolutionary history. (
  • Animals commonly used in medical research are rats and chimpanzees. (
  • The Animal Welfare Act(AWA) which is under the U.S. Department Of Agriculture(USDA), which is responsible for enforcing the Animal Welfare Act, only provides a minimal protection against certain animals which does not include the animals that make up an estimated ninety to ninety-five percent of animals that are experimented on which is mice, rats, and birds. (
  • However, the act specifically excludes any rats, mice, and birds purpose-bred for experimentation - and this is a fatal flaw, because it is highly unusual for wild animals of these species to be used in medical research. (
  • Finally it makes the usual assumption that research in animals is synonymous with studies in laboratory animals, mainly rats. (
  • The most common of these, rats and mice, are not protected under the Animal Welfare Association. (
  • No accurate figures are kept on the exact number of rats and mice used regardless of the fact they make up eighty-five to ninety percent of all animals used (hsus). (
  • We took great pains to hear evidence from all interested parties, but the amount of evidence that bore on the welfare of unattractive animals, or on pests like rats, was negligible. (
  • Infection of laboratory rats can occur by transferring animals from contaminated to other facility. (
  • Supply of the rats from contaminated colonies is the important and actual causes of infection of rats in animal facilities. (
  • Eradication of HFRS virus from contaminated can be achieved best by elimination of all animals, especially when human HFRS is associated with an infected laboratory rats. (
  • Rodents, such as mice and rats, represent roughly 95% of animals used for biomedical research in the US, the Foundation for Biomedical Research, a non-profit based in Washington, DC, estimates. (
  • Facilities using warm-blooded animals other than mice, rats, and birds are inspected at least yearly by the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (
  • Mostly small animals are used in animal testing rats and mice are popular but also cats, dogs, rabbits, guinea pigs and more. (
  • Office of Technology) Of the many animals used for experiments, about 90 percent of the animals used are rats, mice and other rodents. (
  • In the nineteenth century a rise in biomedical research subsequently increased the number of animals used in experiments. (
  • Animal Experimentation is when scientific researchers use animals in biomedical and veterinary research aimed at understanding diseases, developing new medicines, testing the safety of chemicals, improving the health of other animals and improving human health. (
  • Research using animals comprise only about 5% of total biomedical research and uses about 10% of research funds. (
  • Animals are used to test the products used in cosmetics, for biomedical research, for military defense and food production. (
  • The National Association for Biomedical Research (NABR) and Americans for Medical Progress (AMP) are funded by the pharmaceutical, vivisection, laboratory animal breeding and related industries. (
  • Brute Science investigates whether biomedical research using animals is, in fact, scientifically justified. (
  • Domestic Ferrets are used in many broad areas of research and have been since the early 1900's to study the pathogenesis and treatment in a variety of human disease as animal models in biomedical research, including studies of cardiovascular disease, nutrition, respiratory diseases (such as SARS and human influenza), airway physiology, cystic fibrosis and gastrointestinal disease (such as peptic ulcers caused by Helicobacter pylori). (
  • A moral dilemma exists in biomedical research relating to the use of animal or human tissue when conducting. (
  • Many biomedical research studies use captive animals to model human health and disease. (
  • Why Do We Use Animals In Biomedical Research? (
  • This question may come across the mind of a person who is against testing animals in Biomedical Research. (
  • more than 1,200,000 species of animals thus far identified, only a few have been utilized in research, even though it is likely that, for every known human disease, an identical or similar disease exists in at least one other animal species. (
  • Here in the US, research communities are committed to supporting techniques that reduce the number of higher species used, replace animals with other models wherever/whenever possible, and refine tests to ensure the most humane conditions possible. (
  • Incidence, transmission, clinical signs, pathology, and augment descriptions are included to serve as a basic reference for veterinarians, veterinary students, and residents involved in the care of animal species used in research. (
  • Differences between species can cause issues when extrapolating data from animal models to people. (
  • Module 5A: Basic biology of aquatic species, Module 6A: Animal care and health management of aquatic species, Module 7A: Recognition of pain, suffering and distress in laboratory animals -emphasis on aquatic species, Module Module 8A: Minimally invasive procedures in aquatic species, with or without use of anaesthesia. (
  • There is no question that most medical progress - perhaps all, in fac- has been attained through knowledge derived initially from experiments in various animal species. (
  • Species differences in anatomy, organ structure and function, toxin metabolism, chemical and drug absorption, and mechanisms of DNA repair, can give us inadequate or erroneous information when we attempt to apply animal data to human diseases and drug responses. (
  • Often more than one species of animal is used. (
  • We provided the details they requested about the work of our Animal Welfare and Ethical Review Committee and explained that the number and species of animals used during 2018 would be published on our website in February, which they were. (
  • Because of the differences in the multiplicity and substrate specificity of CYP2D family members among species, it is difficult to predict pathways of human CYP2D6-dependent drug metabolism on the basis of animal studies. (
  • These edicts included the provision of medical treatment for animals and bans on animal sacrifice, the castration of roosters, and hunting of many species. (
  • The human population exploits a large number of animal species for food, both of domesticated livestock species in animal husbandry and, mainly at sea, by hunting wild species. (
  • The Committee anticipates and discusses ethically challenging aspects of animal experimentation and develops opinions and recommendations. (
  • SHREVEPORT, La. (LOCAL 33)(FOX 44) - A group monitoring research facilities for illegal activity and animal abuse is calling on the LSU System to to launch an independent investigation into the animal experimentation program. (
  • Thanks to animal research, many diseases that once killed millions of people are now either treatable or curable. (
  • The focus of animal research has been characterized by three criteria, The Three R's. (
  • Every research laboratory is required to have an Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee, consisting of research experts, licensed vets and members of the public. (
  • performed vivisection on animals for hundreds of years, and nowadays animal testing remains an essential element of research in medicine and pharmacology. (
  • Since the late 1800s vivisection which is also known as animal research has become greatly prevalent along with the animal rights movement. (
  • This act excludes a great amount of cold-blooded animal and farm animals which are raised and experimented on known as agricultural research. (
  • The cosmetic research experiments that are done on animals are quite expensive and can cause great complications to the animals. (
  • Animals that are tested on for cosmetic and product research have a risk for liver problems, swollen and irritated eyelids, ulceration and bleeding. (
  • The products of household cleaners are just as harmful to animals during experimentation as medical research and cosmetic. (
  • Invertebrates-such as flies and worms-are used in greater number in research than are vertebrates, but there are few if any regulations which control their use, or are designed to protect the animals. (
  • A six-part series which examines practical and ethical issues involved in the use of animals for scientific research. (
  • It is estimated that more than 100 million animals are used in America "as models biological and medical research to study human disease, injury, development, psychology, and anatomy and physiology" (AAVS). (
  • Millions of animals are given these diseases and injuries to be studied for medical research in hopes of insight to a treatment or cure. (
  • Of the 100 million animals used as models, 13 million animals are being used in research projects each year in America (AAVS). (
  • Treatment of animals is only the beginning of the issues surrounding animal research. (
  • 1628 words - 7 pages It's Time for a More Responsible Approach to Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation The debate about using animals for medical testing has been raging for years. (
  • The struggle always seems to be between extremist animal rights activists who believe that animals should never be used for research, and scientists who believe that any use of animals is acceptable. (
  • 2006 words - 8 pages We Must Put an End to Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation Without animal research, cures for such diseases as typhoid, diphtheria, and polio might never have existed. (
  • Without animal research, the development of antibiotics and insulin would have been delayed. (
  • Without animal research, many human beings would now be dead. (
  • 1391 words - 6 pages The Cruelty of Animal Testing and the Need for Alternative Methods In his book Inhumane Society: The American Way of Exploiting Animals, Dr. Michael W. Fox estimates that twenty-five to thirty-five million animals are used in the United States each year for laboratory testing and research (58). (
  • Research involving tests done on animals is unnecessary and cruel. (
  • I have often said that one way animal models are used in research and testing is to predict human response to drugs and disease. (
  • Introducing human material into animals has furthered medical research. (
  • The ECAE serves as an expert and advisory body in the area of animal experimentation, with members drawn from various disciplines - basic research, veterinary medicine, animal welfare, law and ethics. (
  • Presents the text for the " U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, Research and Training" as well as the "Health Research Extension Act of 1985" (Public Law 99-158, "Animals in Research," November 20, 1985), which provides the statutory mandate for the PHS Policy. (
  • Categorizes diseases and conditions affecting common research animals from most to least prevalent. (
  • Lists criteria for establishing codes of practice or legislation around the use of animals in scientific research. (
  • States the American Veterinary Medical Association's positions on the use of research animals including antimicrobial use, euthanasia, abuse, pain, and other important animal welfare concerns. (
  • Assembles links to internet resources on animals in research and education including government agencies. (
  • Committee on Animal Research and Ethics. (
  • Animal Experimentation Essay, Research Paper Abstract Animal experimentation has been going on for a while now and people have been protesting against it since it has begun. (
  • Study our 10 facts on animal experimentation for a debate speech in detail to find out various arguments regarding the disgraced research community. (
  • Major alternatives to animal experimentation are vitro cell culture techniques and computer simulation based research. (
  • An area of study that scientists believe will see a reduction in animal use is toxicology research. (
  • Many researchers, however, seem hesitant to say that organoids will be able to fully replace animal research, with many viewing the models as simply complementary to animal studies. (
  • Some scientists even expressed concerns that the push to use organoids will make it more challenging to conduct animal research. (
  • Many commented that while organoids are proving to be powerful research tools, research will ultimately need to be validated in animal models. (
  • The use of animals as investigative models increased in the second half of the nineteenth century, often in highly-invasive research and still predating most forms of anesthesia or analgesia. (
  • The questions posed represent two of the more contentious issues in animal based research, teaching and testing: the numbers of animals being used, and the pain and suffering being experienced by these animals. (
  • The question of pain and distress in animals used for research, teaching and testing has concerned the general public and thoughtful researchers for a long time. (
  • It was this concern, together with increasing use of animals in fundamental and applied research, that motivated W.M.S. Russell and R.L. Burch to examine how decisions should be made about such use of animals. (
  • In the book The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique , published in 1959, the authors Russell and Burch proposed that all research using animals should be evaluated to see if the Three Rs could be applied. (
  • They recognized that while the replacement of animals as research subjects was a desirable goal, considerable gains could be made in humane science through reducing the numbers of animals used and by refining the techniques that were applied to animals. (
  • The word "alternatives" came into use after 1978 following the publication by David Smyth, a physiologist and President of the UK Research Defence Society, of Alternatives to Animal Experiments . (
  • If you are an animal advocate, watch Kinship Circle's film to reframe your messaging and promote animal-free research systems. (
  • But if I told you that "something" is animal research, chances are you'd tell me about "necessary sacrifices. (
  • According to C. Glenn Begley, former head of global cancer research at Amgen, many landmark "discoveries" published in prestigious journals, most gleaned from animal experiments, cannot even be reproduced a second time! (
  • If too many "discoveries done in animals are wrong," as Begley and others from the research industry admit - why does National Institutes of Health annually lavish $12-18 billion taxpayer dollars on medical schools, mostly for animal experimentation? (
  • Perhaps the WHY does not count as much as the IS: Animal research IS awarded more funding, more quickly, than sophisticated animal-free technologies. (
  • Animal research is not about "saving the rat or the child" as the anti-animal rights contingent likes to say. (
  • Singh is one of dozens of researchers at the University of Alberta who use animals for biological research, a practice that has been legally recognized since the 1870s. (
  • According to a 2005 study from the journal Alternatives to Research Animals, an estimated 115 million animals are used in medical experiments every year. (
  • Not everyone is comfortable using animals in research. (
  • 95 different institutions in Canada use animals in their research programs, including major Canadian universities such as the University of Toronto, McGill University, and the University of Alberta. (
  • However, there are no legislations or policies in Canada requiring any of these institutions to release statistics on research animals. (
  • The nature of the animal's role in medical research and the experiences of the animals themselves remain behind closed doors. (
  • Most students are not aware, unless they're directly involved in those research projects, how animal experimentation takes place at the U of A campus," says Susan Hamilton, one of the U of A's associate vice-presidents of research. (
  • Animal research was brought into England from neighbouring countries in the 1870s. (
  • This decision blows a hole in the UK's longstanding leadership of no animal testing for cosmetics and makes a mockery of the country's quest to be at the cutting edge of research and innovation, relying once again on cruel and unjustifiable tests that date back over half a century. (
  • The animal rights activists believe animals should never be used for research, and the scientists believe any use of animals is acceptable. (
  • Millions of animals are used each year for medical research, product testing and education in the United States. (
  • The second is the Ministry of Research and Science's Advisory Committee for Animal Experiments. (
  • Research institutes that use animals in Czech Republic comply with the Czech and European laws and regulations relating to the transport, housing and use of animals in research. (
  • This book presents the proceedings of an international symposium organized in Strasbourg (October 24-25, 1988), with the aim of assessing present-day requirements as regards animal experimentation in research related to major medical and toxicological problems still awaiting solutions. (
  • Animals are only used when no other research technique will provide the required information. (
  • animal rights: scientists and animal-rights activists clash over the use of animals for medical research. (
  • In this article in my medical research series , I discuss the second major reason (click here for the first reason) why animal experimentation is unreliable for understanding human health and disease. (
  • When I say "properly conducted" I do not only mean pro-perly conducted in respect of experiments on animals (although that happens to be the particular theme of this lecture), but properly conducted in respect of every research activity that could reasonably cause misgivings. (
  • In saying that medical research workers should be required to give a fair account of themselves to the general public, I am talking as if the gene-ral public were a sort of all-wise body into whose care the well-being of animals could perfectly safely be entrusted. (
  • Somebody should make the general public familiar with modern research on the dynamics of natural populations of animals: for example, the work in which Professor Lack has shown that the annual adult mortality of the European robin is as high as 60 per cent, of the starling 50 per cent and of the sparrow no less than 45 per cent. (
  • Some hope that the disastrous effects of the pandemic on research reliant on animal-based testing will motivate researchers and institutions to be more open to alternatives, such as in-vitro (cell cultures), in-silico (computational simulations) and 3D models of organs and tissues. (
  • Non-animal alternatives such as these have advanced rapidly over the past 20 to 30 years, but continued support from governments and institutions is crucial to ensure that new iterations keep pushing the limits in closely resembling human biology, says Francesca Pistollato, who studies alternatives to animal testing at the Joint Research Centre of the European Commission in Ispra, Italy. (
  • In the United States, both the Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration have committed to substantially reducing animal testing in research institutions, announcing new policies in 2019 and 2018 , respectively. (
  • This thesis is an historical analysis of the culture of science and its use of animals in experiments by the British military and in medical scientific research, and its regulation by law, during the period 1947 to 1965. (
  • firstly, exploring how scientific research forms power-knowledge relations through the use of nonhuman animals. (
  • The nature of the research proposal (whether focused on animal research, clinical research or social research) determines the appropriate Committee (see below). (
  • Cruel beyond words, the torturing and sacrificing of animals is what goes on in hidden laboratories in Research Facilities every day. (
  • Relying on animal research and testing to protect and improve human health is not only unsafe, but also expensive, time-consuming, and unreliable. (
  • And despite millions of animals used and billions of taxpayer dollars spent on cancer research, roughly 95 percent of cancer drugs that enter human clinical testing fail while our incidences of cancer have continued to rise. (
  • How will animal research tell us the outcomes of the human body? (
  • The Controversy of Testing on Animals Facilities that use animals for teaching, experimentations, surgery or testing purposes are known as research facilities. (
  • There are many different reasons why animals are used for research. (
  • By employing the 3Rs when continuing to use animals for scientific research, the scientific community can affirm its moral conscience as well as uphold its obligation to humanity to further the advancement of science for civilization and humanity. (
  • Inevitably, a research environment that makes the life of an animal used in research a pleasant one can do a great deal to counterbalance the issues that arise from invasive animal use. (
  • Home Science Encyclopedias almanacs transcripts and maps Animal Research: II. (
  • Ethical problems related to research on nonhuman animals are grounded in the assertion that animals have conscious experiences and that their lives can go well or badly. (
  • In 1986 the U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, estimated that "at least 17 million to 22 million" animals are used in research annually (U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment). (
  • The following list provides links to some of our favourite research papers and other resources that will help you learn more about animal experimentation, the solutions and why the use of animal models to try and predict the human response to drugs and disease is fundamentally flawed. (
  • There are scientists all around the world who also believe that animal-based research is a waste of time, resources and lives. (
  • Despite commentaries that question the merit of an over reliance of animal systems to model human immunology, in the absence of systematic evidence, investigators and public regulators assume that results from animal research reflect human disease. (
  • Use of animals in experimentation and research has always been a topic of great debate. (
  • Some express their strong support while others are against animal research practices and want their complete abolition.1 At present, there is a pill for every ill. (
  • P. Michael Conn, associate director of the Oregon National Primate Research Center (ONPRC) at Oregon Health and Science University and co-author of The Animal Research War , knows what it's like to be the object of other people's ire. (
  • In 2001, when he was a candidate in a search for vice president for research at the University of South Florida, Tampa, animal-rights activists were present wherever he went during a campus visit. (
  • Conn is affiliated with a research institution that houses 3500 primates, but these days he rarely uses animals. (
  • He says he and his co-author, James V. Parker, a former public information officer at ONPRC, wrote their book as a response to misinformation, presenting animal research from the perspective of scientists in the laboratory. (
  • As long as the regulatory guidelines for responsible research are followed, he believes, the use of animals in research is justified. (
  • This committee of at least three members--including an unaffiliated layperson and a veterinarian--weigh the ethical considerations of research projects involving animals. (
  • There is compelling justification for using animals in laboratory research: Science using animals cures diseases and mitigates the suffering of human beings, among other animals. (
  • Toxicology research, as well as research into diseases such as AIDS and cancer, is dependent on animal studies. (
  • Between 2007 and 2017, the University is reported to have used 210,103 animals for experimental research under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986. (
  • The University carries out research using animals to improve the health and welfare of human beings, and of animals. (
  • We use animals only when there are no alternatives, and are firmly committed to the replacement, reduction and refinement of the use of animals in research and to publishing information about animal welfare at Leeds. (
  • Any in vivo or in vitro research conducted on non-human animals or their cells and/or tissues. (
  • Specified how and where animals can be used for scientific research and testing, and also required that scientists using animals provided yearly reports for the British Government. (
  • This is a graduate level introductory course on the care and use of research animals. (
  • Animal research was essential for the discovery of Herceptin, a humanized mouse protein which has helped increase the survival rate of those with breast cancer that could not have been obtained without animal testing on mice. (
  • When animals are used to further medical research it can be somewhat justified, but when animals are used to test cosmetics it is considered cruelty to animals. (
  • Animal testing should be illegal for the following reasons:each year millions of innocent animals are killed during painfull tests and research. (
  • Animal research and testing takes lives,both people and animals. (
  • Animal Models in Forensic Science Research: Justified Use or Ethical Exploitation? (
  • The use of animals in experiments and research remains highly contentious. (
  • A major new investigation by The Intercept examines the poorly regulated and highly profitable industry of breeding dogs for the sole purpose of experimenting on them in the U.S. The investigation reveals the horrors of the dog experimentation industry at one of the three largest firms in the U.S. that sells beagles to research labs: Ridglan Farms. (
  • I would research if there's any solution to get people to treat their animals the way they deserve to be treated. (
  • Medical research using animals has helped to improve dramatically the health of the human race. (
  • You see the reason that scientists use animals for this research is because of all the previous achievements, such as the solving of medical problems, development of new techniques, treatments, and cures for diseases. (
  • As the statistics indicate animal testing is dangerous and harmful, but medical research must continue. (
  • The Breeding of and Experiments on Animals (Control and Supervision) Rules, 1998 sets general requirements for breeding and using animals for research. (
  • Animals serve as models in biological research, such as in genetics, and in drug testing. (
  • Animals such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, the zebrafish, the chicken and the house mouse, serve a major role in science as experimental models, both in fundamental biological research, such as in genetics, and in the development of new medicines, which must be tested exhaustively to demonstrate their safety. (
  • Essay on Should Animal Experimentation Ever Be Permitted? (
  • Online Help: Animal experimentation essay FREE Formatting! (
  • For example, a poorly conducted literature review and behaviour which are, of course, things aren't that stupid essay experimentation animal. (
  • This is an essay on animal experimentation, specializing in the Cosmetic section. (
  • This essay discusses advantages of animal experimentation. (
  • Still thinking on how to structure your Animal Testing essay and what outline to create? (
  • Wells' island essay the city of charleston, south carolina essay reimporting the the risks with using animals for medical experimentation ally linguistically. (
  • Vassili, intromisive and of the risks with using animals for medical experimentation skin of hood, wakes up to its purity, wakes up and without children language acquisition essay being sworn zonally. (
  • Duxbury, Catherine Louise (2017) Animals, Science and Gender: Animal Experimentation in Britain, 1947-1965. (
  • In 2017 alone, the University of Oxford used 236,429 animals in experiments, while the University of Edinburgh used 225,366. (
  • The laboratories at K.U.Leuven and their involved staff that work with laboratory animals such as knockout mice, and the Central Animal Facility that houses these animals, have the obligatory accreditation of the authorized Belgian Ministry and report on an annual basis the use of animals in their labs to the Ministry. (
  • Many institutions seek further oversight through organizations such as the Association for Assessment and Accreditation of Laboratory Animal Care. (
  • After most animals are tested on they can be put to sleep easily and may suffer no further pain.They also do vivisection?s on animals and connect computer ports, such as parallel ports ( which you would connect a printer too) too there head which is linked to there brain activity areas. (
  • Thanks to vivisection industry lobbying, over 90% of all laboratory animals receive no protection under the law. (
  • The New Zealand Anti-Vivisection Society (NZAVS) is New Zealand's primary non-profit organisation defending animals used in science. (
  • Experimental Animals , by Thalia Field, a professor of literary arts at Brown University, revolves around Claude Bernard, a renowned French physiologist who became one of science's most famous vivisectors, conducting brutal experiments on unanesthesized animals just as the anti-vivisection movement was beginning to gain steam. (
  • The Indian branches of the Humanitarian League, an English organization which opposed vivisection and the mistreatment and killing of animals, focused on vegetarianism and cow protection while ignoring vivisection. (
  • In the beginning of the era of bariatric surgery, animal experiments had been conducted to improve surgical techniques in bariatric surgery. (
  • Animal Welfare Act only covers animal that's are warm-blooded like nonhuman primates, rabbits, cats and dogs, along with hamsters and guinea pigs. (
  • In the U.S., vertebrate animal testing on is regulated by the 1966 Animal Welfare Act. (
  • The Animal Welfare Act contains provisions requiring that care and welfare reach a certain standard. (
  • Organizes information on the Animal Welfare Act. (
  • Includes the full-text of the 1966 Animal Welfare Act, the Animal Welfare Act and Regulations "Blue Book" (September 2013), amendments to the act, quick reference, and the background of the act. (
  • [2] See also NABR & the Animal Welfare Act . (
  • The U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Animal & Plant Health Inspection Service/Animal Care (USDA/APHIS/AC) is responsible for inspections, reporting and enforcing the Animal Welfare Act (AWA). (
  • The legislation governing the treatment of lab animals, which includes the U.S. Public Health Service Act and the Animal Welfare Act, requires researchers receiving federal funding to submit their protocols to an institutional animal care and use committee (IACUC) for review. (
  • The Animal Welfare Act (AWA) has been amended several times. (
  • Aristotle and Galen both conducted experiments on animals in an effort to contribute to our understanding of science and medicine.1 Claude Bernard later established animal experimentation as part of the scientific method. (
  • Animal rights activists sent a letter to the European Commission on 3rd March this year, in which they requested that experiments on animals be banned. (
  • Animals are often given diseases, injuries, and traumas in these studies and suffer greatly in order to replicate human conditions. (
  • Recently, scientists have been genetically engineering animals to generate animals that represent human diseases more accurately (AAVS). (
  • Many scientists believe that animal experimentation remains a crucial tool for the investigation and treatment of serious diseases such as cancer, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and heart disease. (
  • Charles Cornelius, a vet, has compiled a list of about 350 diseases found in animals, which also occurs in a similar form in people. (
  • Since there is a similarity between animal and human diseases the same medicines can often be used to treat both. (
  • Not only do animal models fail to help us better understand human diseases, they often lead us down the wrong path of investigation. (
  • The inability to recreate human diseases accurately in other animals is an inherent and fundamental flaw in the use of animal experiments. (
  • Recognition of each difference between animal models and human diseases leads to renewed efforts to eliminate these differences. (
  • Stroke is probably one of the easiest human diseases to try to recreate in animals. (
  • Even when human genes are inserted into animals, the diseases that develop are still notably different from human diseases. (
  • However animals are dissected, infected with diseases, burned and blinded to name but a few of the atrocities that are inflicted on these poor defenseless animals. (
  • This is a graduate level course covering the biology, anatomy, husbandry and diseases in the laboratory animals. (
  • So without animal testing we would not have found any antidote's to those diseases. (
  • Most believe that alternatives to animal testing is a much better way to go due to the fact that it's not cruel and harmful to animals. (
  • Not only is this malicious treatment a cruel way to treat animals, but it is also unnecessary, being that there are now other alternatives to animal testing. (
  • A large portion of the International community is now questioning the very legitimacy of animal experimentation, appealing to the cruel nature of these experiments, the condition in which the animals are kept and the amount of misleading and inconclusive animal models which have yet to serve the human medical needs. (
  • Scientists are coming under increasing pressure from activist groups to stop animal experimentation, branded as cruel and unnecessary for improving human health. (
  • The testing of cosmetics, household cleaners, and surprisingly, dog food, results in millions of animals suffering and dying from poisoning and burning every year, at the demand of cruel corporations. (
  • The animals in labs are also often treated appallingly even before any cruel testing is carried out. (
  • I am here today to convince you all to oppose, stop, and disengage from the cruel and unnecessary animal testing. (
  • In some countries it is acceptable for animals to be eaten, used in testing skin products, and even in the testing of new and sometimes lethal medicines, but this is cruel and inappropriate. (
  • This article, sixth in a series on the use of animals in science, looks at some of the regulations in place which protect experimental animals from unnecessary suffering. (
  • The rules and regulations which protect experimental animals from unnecessary pain and suffering vary widely depending on their country of origin, and also depending on the animals involved. (
  • Many agencies responsible for setting standards for the care and use of experimental animals, including the Canadian Council on Animal Care, require investigators to consider the implementation of the Three Rs during the design of experiments that will use animals. (
  • This may be achieved by reducing the number of variables through good experimental design, by using genetically homogeneous animals or by ensuring that the conditions of the experiment are rigorously controlled. (
  • The use of laboratory animals is further specified by the ministerial decree 207 on protection, breeding, and utilization of experimental animals, which was novelized on January 15, 2009 by the decree No. 39. (
  • In general, animal experiments can only be performed by accredited individuals or corporations and the allowance to carry out the experimental work is granted by a project licence and personal licences issued by governmental organizations, i.e. by Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Agriculture, respectively. (
  • animal welfare, the treatment and use of experimental animals remain controversial. (
  • The Stephen Paget Lecture has as its particular theme a defence of the use of experimental animals to enlarge medical knowledge. (
  • An experimental model employing small animal has been developed to study underlying mechanism. (
  • In the process of stepping up the dose until half the experimental animals die, all of them are likely to become ill, experiencing symptoms such as nausea, thirst, diarrhea, stomach cramps, and fever. (
  • all of the 100 experimental neuroprotective drugs failed in clinical trials despite promising results in animal models. (
  • Experimental Animals, Frankenstein, and the 19th century's debates about scientific ethics. (
  • Experimental Animals is itself a bit of a strange creature-the book's subtitle is "A Reality Fiction"-weaving together narration by a lightly fictionalized version of Madame Bernard with real historical documents, including excerpts from Bernard's experimental notebook, as well as letters, articles, and reports written by scientists, activists, and intellectuals. (
  • All of the quotes from Bernard and his contemporaries in this piece are from the original primary materials included in Experimental Animals . (
  • The pursuit and use of experimental methods that refrain from and/or replace the use of animals as test subjects. (
  • Of these animals, almost 100,000 experienced "unalleviated pain and distress" in 2010, which means that they were administered physical suffering and were not given drugs to ease their discomfort (AAVS). (
  • The use of animals should be avoided wherever possible and the numbers of animals used should be kept to a minimum, as should the amount of pain and distress the animals experience. (
  • The focus article of the SAMS Bulletin 2/2019 is dedicated to the topic of ethics of animal experimentation (in German). (
  • The Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (ECAE) is a body jointly operated by the SAMS and the Swiss Academy of Sciences (SCNAT). (
  • An introductory course on Animal Experimentation will be presented by the Animal Care and Ethics Committee of the University and attendance and successful completion by all Honours students whose projects involve animals is compulsory. (
  • There is a Law for the Humane Treatment and Management of Animals in place in Japan, which requires that researchers using animals are self-guided by the principles of the three Rs (outlined in the previous article in this series). (
  • However, while local-level inspections may be carried out, there are no governmental inspections, and researchers are not required to report on the number of animals they use. (
  • One thing is certain, though: researchers agree that organoid models will reduce the number of animals that are experimented on. (
  • Failure is blamed, in part, on animal models "irrelevant to cancers" or other disease, used in an academic setting that fosters "poor science, even fraud, as researchers compete for funding. (
  • Animal studies facilitate tenure for university researchers required to churn out papers with new findings. (
  • Animals have been used for centuries to help researchers understand the various organs of the body, and their functions as well as to hone their surgical skills. (
  • Researchers contracted HFRS more frequently than laboratory animal technicians or caretakers, although a caretaker died of HFRS. (
  • Mass culling and disrupted experiments could prompt wider acceptance of alternatives to animal-based methods, say some researchers. (
  • Also, Researchers and Scientist claim that testing is justified because it assists in discovering ways to help people and animals for the future. (
  • Housing and caretaking of the mice at the K.U.Leuven partner is in accordance with the Belgian and European laws, guidelines and policies for animal experimentation, housing and care (as documented in the most recent legislation, i.e. the Belgian Royal Decree of 6 April 2010 and European Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes of 20 October 2010). (
  • But here's the problem: we end up better understanding animal diabetes-- in dogs and mice-- but not necessarily human diabetes. (
  • accept animal experimentation but they also increased the use of genetically modified mice in carrying out such tests. (
  • Mice with Creb inactivation in adipocytes have improved whole-body insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis but similar fat mass and body weight to control animals ( 9 ). (
  • Statistics show irrefutably that animal-based methods used in preclinical testing to select drugs for human use are unreliable. (
  • Decades of systematic reviews and meta-studies overwhelmingly show that animal experiments are unreliable, inaccurate, poorly-conducted, and are in fact a hindrance to real scientific progress. (
  • Module 6B: Animal care and health management of pigs, Module 7B: Recognition of pain, suffering and distress in laboratory animals -emphasis on pigs, Module 8B: Minimally invasive procedures in pigs, with or without use of anaesthesia, Module 9: Principles of surgery - mammals. (
  • Two new animals took charge after the death, two pigs named Snowball and Napoleon, who quickly got the animals ready to start the rebellion despite their two very different views. (
  • Given this, it has been argued that a greater emphasis be placed on improving animal models of human disease rather than to emphasize the screening of chemical libraries for leads that are then tested in animal systems known to have limited predictive validity with respect to human illness. (
  • A major hurdle in the translational medicine undertaking is the fact that most preclinical animal models of disease generally lack predictive value with respect to the human condition under study. (
  • But non-human animals (hereinafter referred to as animals), were not so revered or feared. (
  • But in recent years, at least 1734 drugs proven safe for human use in animal studies were recalled due to Adverse Drug Reactions (U.S. Food and Drug Administration records). (
  • Never mind that many findings are absurd, a lot of "curiosity experiments" about how animal response to stimuli (that a human would never encounter) might somehow relate to human behavior. (
  • Does animal experimentation inform human healthcare? (
  • To understand the reason behind this lack of transparency, Hamilton has dedicated her career to studying 19th century scientific literature, when physiologists would dissect human and animal bodies to understand how they worked. (
  • if this is so, the experimenter must agree human and non-human animals are similar in crucial respects (p. 65). (
  • the welfare cost to the animals must be balanced by the benefit of knowledge gained into gene function and the role of genes in human health and disease. (
  • As long as experimenters continue to try to recreate diabetes in animals, instead of studying human diabetes, I have little hope that my father's pain will end. (
  • Strike 2: Animal stroke models don't usually include the underlying conditions, which contribute to human stroke. (
  • Experimenters try to recreate the underlying human conditions such as diabetes in animals. (
  • The general public is by no means qualified to judge whether or not our human wardenship of animals is being satis-factorily discharged. (
  • Mini-lungs' grown from human tissue donated to hospitals in the UK are another promising alternative to animal models. (
  • Animal Experimentation IS NOT REQUIRED to advance human medical science in modern society. (
  • Do animals have a link to the human body that we are able to prove that trying new drugs or new cosmetics will be a benefit for us? (
  • There is now evidence to support the results from animal testing is not representative of what transpires in the human body. (
  • The key to solving today?s health problems lies not in using animal testing, but focusing on human clinical studies and through preventative measures. (
  • Studies have shown human cells have been more reliable in the creation of vaccines than animal cells. (
  • In Peggy Carlson?s article, Why we don?t need animal experimentation, she says ?it was also unfortunate that the original polio vaccine was produce using monkey cells instead of available human cells as can be done today? (
  • Moreover, these behavioral parallels are supported by the known similarities among the nervous systems of all vertebrate animals and by the fact of common animal and human evolutionary origin (Rachels). (
  • It is difficult to believe that despite all these similarities the nervous systems of human and nonhuman animals operate in radically different ways. (
  • The Humane Movement is a general effort to alleviate or eliminate animal suffering, predominately due to industry or other human intervention. (
  • For farm animal issues in relation to human health and the environment, see also meat & dairy industry . (
  • 1 Then after this disaster, it was found that a non-animal test using human cells would have predicted this if it had been used instead of animal testing. (
  • There are many examples like this that show the failures of using animal models to predict the human response, but cherry-picking single examples doesn't necessarily prove the systematic flaws, though it does clearly show they can't reliably predict human response. (
  • The limitations of animals as stand-ins for human patients are a major reason [for failure]. (
  • The condition is uniquely human, and animal models can't capture the constriction of airways and all of the other characteristics of the disease. (
  • Using animal models is not producing efficacious human medicines. (
  • The test is done on an animal to "prove" results in a human. (
  • The advantage to using animals is that we can control their outside exposure, but obviously something proven to be true or false on an animal doesn't necessarily hold water on a human. (
  • To create animal models that reflect the human situation more closely and that allow an in vivo assessment of the consequences of differential CYP2D6 drug metabolism, we have developed a novel straightforward approach to delete the entire murine Cyp2d gene cluster and replace it with allelic variants of human CYP2D6 . (
  • The morality of humane treatment or imposing the parameters of human rights as a moral imperative where animals are concerned should be based upon the idea that as an enlightened human being, animals should be treated with dignity. (
  • But despite those statistics, if we did not test on animals then we would not have the improved quality of human life. (
  • Animal welfare and rights in India regards the treatment of and laws concerning non-human animals in India. (
  • Please note that Animal and Human Experimentation can be only followed as part of the minor/major project, not as an elective, and that the credits do not count for your programme. (
  • Human uses of animals include both practical uses, such as the production of food and clothing, and symbolic uses, such as in art, literature, mythology, and religion. (
  • Economically, animals provide much of the meat eaten by the human population, whether farmed or hunted, and until the arrival of mechanized transport, terrestrial mammals provided a large part of the power used for work and transport. (
  • More recently, anthropologists have also seen animals as participants in human social interactions. (
  • This article describes the roles played by animals in human culture, so defined, both practical and symbolic. (
  • While it is generally accepted that testing cosmetics on animals is unnecessary and immoral, there is a debate concerning the use of animals for medical purposes. (
  • The Diversity thesis states that there is no moral principle accepted by all societies, yet in the mistreatment of animals I believe its almost a paradigm case that is so central to the definition of evil that the unnecessary infliction of pain and suffering should be wrong for all. (
  • Driven by increased development and use of genetically-modified animals ( Ormandy, Schuppli and Weary, 2009 ), and by large-scale chemical-testing programs ( Knight, 2011 ), laboratory animal use has steadily increased in most developed countries, ever since. (
  • They are also in charge of watching the care and use of those animals by studying the laboratories, keeping track of the programs and responding to any additional concerns. (
  • They give little detailed information about the use of animals or their distribution to laboratories. (
  • At the beginning of 1953, the bureau conducted a systematic survey of most animal-using laboratories in this country, who were sent a number of questions about their procurement and usage of animals during the previous year. (
  • Any pain or death inflicted on an animal should only be done when there is a practical need, and the pain inflicted should be minimized to the fullest extent possible. (
  • Publicised as a 'Lifeline' event, the protest aimed to inform students about the extent of animal experimentation at their university. (
  • Contributions to the Animals and Society Institute are tax-deductible to the extent permitted by law. (
  • The Cruelty to Animals Act (1876) entered into force, becoming the first legislation to regulate animal experiments ( Franco, 2013 ). (
  • The Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals in Great Britain and in the United States was created in the nineteenth century. (
  • But many alternatives have been found over the years for cosmetic testing , that all are non- cruelty to animals. (
  • India's first national animal welfare law, the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act, 1960, criminalizes cruelty to animals, though exceptions are made for the treatment of animals used for food and scientific experiments. (
  • Moved by the suffering of Indian strays and draught animals, Colesworthey Grant founded the first Indian Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals (SPCA) in 1861 in Calcutta. (
  • British officials and (British-led) SPCAs both opposed the introduction of the British Cruelty to Animals Act of 1876 - which established regulations on animal experimentation - to the Indian colony. (
  • Just recently, two new diabetic drugs, Onglyza and aleglitazar , failed clinical trials after testing in animals. (
  • An over-reliance on animal models at an early stage is now thought to be the biggest cause of failure at phases II and III [clinical trials]. (
  • The use of drugs in clinical practice have been possible only after going through successful animal studies for safety , efficacy and toxicity . (
  • The Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences, swissuniversities and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) had drawn up an argumentation with regard to the discussion of Maya Graf's parliamentary initiative 18.491 «Prohibition of heavy-burden animal experiments» in the Science, Education and Culture Committees of the National Council (SECC-N). (
  • At the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, all animal experiments are subjected to a two-step evaluation procedure by two separate committees acting independently of each other. (
  • All animal experiments are continuously monitored by both committees by requesting annual status- and progress reports. (
  • Some alternatives to animal testing are scanning techniques, cell cultures, and synthetic membranes. (
  • As a non-profit organization, we can collaborate more actively with society, governmental and non-governmental organizations, working on and supporting alternatives to animal testing more efficiently, focusing on initiatives based on replacement (1R). (
  • A third important group of animal models is employed as predictive models. (
  • Many are now coming to the realization that, as in other therapeutic areas, the greatest limitation for identifying new drugs for treating cancer are the deficiencies in the animal models used for testing NCEs (Aggarwal et al. (
  • Due to the ever growing existence of organizations such as PETA and BUAV, the medical community is under heavy pressure to find alternatives to animal experimentation such as sophisticated computer models. (
  • Ironically, these animal models have not been formally validated themselves. (
  • We look forward to the full potential of these continually improving models being realized, as they will make a tremendous contribution to science, and will significantly impact animal use in the process. (
  • Will Organs-in-a-Dish Ever Replace Animal Models? (
  • Animal models of stroke mimic at best less than 25% of all strokes. (
  • Yet in many crucial areas, there's still no substitute for animal models. (
  • A synthetic derivative of the curry spice turmeric, made by scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, dramatically improves the behavioral and molecular deficits seen in animal models of ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). (
  • Here we report pharmacodynamic studies testing anti- Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) and anti- KDR (VEGFR-2) ribozymes in animal models of solid tumor growth and metastasis. (
  • Essays on Animal Testing is a common assignment most students receive at college or university since the first animal - Dolly, the sheep was cloned. (
  • The struggle is usually between extreme animal rights activists and scientists. (
  • We had a hugely successful day today with over 20 activists joining together to inform students about animal experiments inside Leeds University, and encourage them to turn their back on animal cruelty! (
  • The letter included documents revealing the Animal Care and Use Committee voted to suspend an experiment on rodents back in January 2018 at LSU Health Shreveport. (
  • The Gryphon understands that the request was asking for the figures on animals used in experiments in 2018. (
  • Animal experimentation is a significant subject that deals with the many contentions and debates of whether it's morally right or wrong and can create a great amount of controversy. (
  • Many of the era's scientists found themselves drawn into the escalating debate over animal experimentation, but for Bernard, the controversy hit particularly close to home. (
  • Animal experimentation controversy. (
  • LSU Health Shreveport holds itself to the highest standards in animal care recognizing the vital roles animals have played in virtually every major medical advance of the last century,' LSU Health Spokesperson Lisa Babin said. (
  • Through animal testing doctors can obtain valid results regarding these medical problems and create cures for people with many other medical difficulties. (
  • each year many animals are experimented on for medical purposes along with things like household cleaners, and cosmetics, unfortunately, the purpose of animal experimentation comes to a side that does not please everyone. (
  • The debate about using animals for medical testing has been ongoing for years. (
  • Animal Experimentation" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • Animal testing has brought many good things to the medical world, such as the treatment various disease. (
  • While animals may be needed for certain medical and scientific advancements, PETA works to protect animals to the best of their abilities. (
  • The use of animals for medical and product testing is a practice that has gone on for many centuries. (
  • Both organizations lobby against welfare legislation, as does the industry funded American Veterinary Medical Association (AVMA) and the Animal Welfare Council (AWC), which lobbies for rodeos, horse slaughter and the Premarin industry. (
  • The result is that important animal welfare, medical, safety and environmental issues are shouted down, dismissed and censored. (
  • Most of the present day discoveries in medical science lay their foundation on animal experimentation . (
  • Kristian not the risks with using animals for medical experimentation sighted and wooded receives his wrong teachings or creates an overview of evolutionary psychology heavily. (
  • Daniel imprecise, the risks with using animals for medical experimentation his warnings help fulfill. (
  • Quint linked the risks with using animals for medical experimentation to its index cosh its nests ventrally? (
  • Rourke, an exploitative and the pursuit of happiness in fahrenheit 451 bargained woman, withdraws the risks with using animals for medical experimentation or deregulates her commitment. (
  • The dazzling addresses of Jorge, his vermis illustrate the risks with using animals for medical experimentation retrograde in an insignificant the science of resilience by bari walsh way. (
  • Thanks to animal testing, multiple medical breakthroughs have been made such as the invention of the vaccine for polio, cure to some cancers, and kidney transplants and dialysis. (
  • That is where animals were introduced to the medical profession. (
  • Despite these benefits, I believe that animals should not be used for testing medical techniques and drugs. (
  • Supporters of animal testing argue that if animal testing never existed or was eliminated, that many of the medications and medical procedures used today would not be available and the development of future medicine and treatments would be extremely limited. (
  • A 2013 amendment bans the use of live animal experiments in medical education. (
  • The tested animals are injured, live in pain and suffering, and sometimes are left to suffer or die with no relief (AAVS). (
  • Though it's never easy watching an animal suffer, Singh insists that if society wants better treatment for diabetic patients, it's the price that has to be paid. (
  • Bentham's question of whether or not animals suffer became the rallying cry of the animal protection movement at the time. (
  • We speak with The Intercept's Glenn Greenwald in Rio de Janeiro to discuss his in-depth investigation, headlined "Bred to Suffer: Inside the Barbaric U.S. Industry of Dog Experimentation. (
  • Animals obviously have the capacity to suffer and feel pain, and we know this because they have similar mechanisms of pain detection that we have, and in their brain have similar areas that process and react to physical as well as mental suffering. (
  • Why are scientists given such a high rank if they are the ones making animals suffer? (
  • Formulates guidelines for use by psychologists working with nonhuman animals. (
  • My findings are twofold: that the construction of scientific knowledge through the use of nonhuman animals was one that created subject-object binaries, and this had powerful and detrimental consequences for nonhuman animals. (
  • Central to this issue is the belief that nonhuman animals can experience pain and other unpleasant or distressing mental states. (
  • Technologies being used to produce nonhuman animals who are used for meat and dairy. (
  • Two leading questions are posed here to stimulate the reader, and frame the importance of considering the Three Rs principles in striving to meet our ethical responsibilities for conducting humane animal experimentation. (
  • Over the past 40 years the Three Rs have become widely accepted ethical principles to be embedded in the conduct of animal based science. (
  • A 2020 survey from UK charity Frame found that 84% of respondents would not buy a cosmetics product if they knew it, or one of its ingredients, had been tested on animals. (
  • According to the Humane Society of the United States animal cruelty can either be deliberate abuse or a simple failure to care properly for an animal. (
  • The overall aim of this thesis is to demonstrate the gendered nature of scientific experimentation on animals in mid-twentieth century Britain. (
  • Secondly, this thesis analyses the intersection of animal use in science with that of the broader socio-cultural context, asking was science in mid-twentieth century Britain gendered? (
  • Throughout the seventeenth century the spirit of scientific inquiry grew and with it, experimentation on living animals. (
  • The most common arguments against animal use testing question the morality, necessity and scientific validity of these studies. (
  • This includes the protection of wildlife, zoo animals, farm animals, animals in transport and animals used for scientific purposes. (
  • Since 1986, the EU has had in place specific legislation covering the use of animals for scientific purposes. (
  • On 22 September 2010 the EU adopted Directive 2010/63/EU which updates and replaces the 1986 Directive 86/609/EEC on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. (
  • According to, there are an estimated 26 million animals used for scientific and commercial testing in the U.S. alone. (
  • In the United Kingdom, for instance, the annual report on scientific procedures performed on living animals under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 for the year 2000 showed that 2.71 million animals were used in that year, a significant decrease from the 1980s, when the figure topped 5 million, although the decline appears to have leveled out. (
  • This is a government that has in recent decades unleashed untold horrors upon the world-including its own citizenry-in the name of global conquest, the acquisition of greater wealth, scientific experimentation, and technological advances, all packaged in the guise of the greater good. (
  • The animals used in experiments for the cosmetic industry are most exposed to drugs and other harmful products in order to learn the possible side effects they may cause while being used. (
  • Cosmetic Animal Testing- Cosmetic Industry) Some common household products that are tested on animals include furniture polish, soaps, and air fresheners. (
  • The UK banned animal testing of cosmetic ingredients in 1998. (
  • Ministers have opened the door to expanding the use of animal testing to ingredients used in cosmetic products for the first time in 23 years, an animal welfare charity has said. (
  • The ECHA ruled that German chemicals firm Symrise had to carry out animal tests on two ingredients used solely in cosmetics to satisfy chemicals regulations, overruling EU restrictions on animal testing of cosmetic ingredients. (
  • In response, a government spokesperson said there had been no change in legislation and that the ban on using animals for the testing of finished cosmetic products remained in force. (
  • This is where a substance such as a cosmetic or food ingredient is dropped into the eye or on the skin of a restrained, conscious animal, left for a while then removed to record its effects. (
  • Animal experimentation for household products and cosmetic companies include forcing animals to inhale chemical fumes, ingest their ingredients and rub them into their shaved scalps, eyes, limbs and raw skin. (
  • In the late 1980s, after a decade of campaigning against that test, some leading cosmetic companies developed an alternative to the Draize test and stopped conducting tests on animals. (
  • The progression of medicine and the day to day life styles of the general population rely on the ethical practice of animal testing. (
  • In 1998, the then Labour government used its own legislation as an example as it sought to get the practice of animal testing on cosmetics banned across the EU. (
  • In Hinduism, killing an animal is regarded as a violation of ahimsa and causes bad karma, leading many Hindus to practice vegetarianism. (
  • Buddhism teaches vegetarianism (though not as strictly as Jainism), and many Buddhists practice life release in which animals destined for slaughter are purchased and released to the wild. (
  • But inconsistencies in how the US regulates animal experimentation make it difficult to keep track of the actual numbers in use in any given period. (
  • The AWA is the only federal law that regulates animals bred and sold by dealers, animals in entertainment, zoo animals and laboratory animals. (
  • The referenced non-compliant actions were discovered by our institution s internal due diligence, and were self-reported to the Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW) of the National Institutes of Health (NIH). (
  • Handbook of Laboratory Animal Science. (
  • Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare. (
  • Currently, the most accurate evidence-based estimates of global laboratory animal use describe the year 2005. (
  • The European Union ( EU ) is the world's largest region that publishes comprehensive analyses of its laboratory animal use. (
  • After campaigns against the test by the animal rights movement, most U.S. government agencies began to discourage the use of the classical LD 50 test, and the Center for Laboratory Animal Welfare estimates that its use has fallen by as much as 90 percent (Center for Laboratory Animal Welfare). (
  • This course focuses on facility operations and special topics in laboratory animal medicine and science. (
  • In 1945 the first survey of laboratory animal usage was undertaken. (
  • Nevertheless, by the end of the seventeenth century, the question of animal suffering and the acceptability of such procedures had become an increasingly prominent moral and social concern ( Maehle and Tröhler, 1990 ). (
  • In this book, Smyth provided a Three Rs definition of alternatives: "All procedures which can completely replace the need for animal experiments, reduce the numbers of animals required, or diminish the amount of pain or distress suffered by animals in meeting the essential needs of man and other animals. (
  • As has been noted, the word alternatives is used to describe any change from present procedures that will result in the replacement of animals, a reduction in the numbers used or a refinement of techniques that may reduce or replace animals or reduce the pain, stress or distress of the animals. (
  • Procedures that can replace the need for animal experiments, reduce the number of animals required, or diminish the amount of pain or distress suffered by animals necessarily used. (
  • Soon afterwards (1947), the Laboratory Animals Bureau was set up by the M.R.C. Its main concerns are with the procurement and husbandry of laboratory animals, but is has also made the first serious and systematic investigation of their utilization. (
  • The documents listed multiple reasons for suspension including that the experiments were being performed on Fridays with post-op on weekends without veterinary supervision, animals were being used for the same experiment twice and animal endpoints were not being adhered to. (
  • The first approving authority is the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna's Ethics and Animal Welfare Committee. (
  • However, when it comes to vertebrate animals, many countries have regulations which restrict how they are used. (
  • Under UK regulations to protect the environment and the safety of workers, animal testing can be permitted, where required by UK regulators, on single or multiuse ingredients. (
  • According to Fentem, there are roughly 100 cosmetics-only ingredients that may be subject to animal testing under chemicals regulations. (
  • Subsequent laws have placed regulations and restrictions on the use of draught animals, the use of performing animals, animal transport, animal slaughter, and animal experimentation. (
  • Alternatives to animal experimentation play a very significant role in which the number of animals used in experiments annually decreases. (
  • First of all, billions of dollars of taxpayer money is spent on animal experimentation annually. (
  • Since many animals are used for repeated experimentation, the Home Office figures must overestimate the number of animals used annually. (
  • But Taylor said the chemicals legislation, at least in the Symrise case, requires additional animal tests, including investigating the effects of the ingredient on a developing foetus. (
  • The protection and welfare of animals is an area covered by a wide range of EU legislation. (
  • Animal studies, whether for the development or production of new medicines, for physiological studies, for studying environmental effects or for the testing of chemicals or new food additives, has to be carried out in compliance with EU legislation. (
  • The aim of the new Directive is to strengthen legislation, and improve the welfare of those animals still needed to be used, as well as to firmly anchor the principle of the Three Rs, to Replace, Reduce and Refine the use of animals, in EU legislation. (
  • At all events, the first legislation protecting animals dates from the I820's (the R.S.P.C.A. was founded in 1824). (
  • The reason given for introducing new legislation to prohibit cock fighting was that it tended to corrupt the general public-not that it inflicted cruelty on the wretched animals themselves. (
  • For U.S. legislation, see also U.S. animal rights legislation . (
  • To study how a disease works we have to induce it in an animal, otherwise there's nothing to study," Singh says. (
  • Lyme Disease was quickly understood because of animal experimentation. (
  • Genetic modification of animals to study disease. (
  • Animal disease doesn't faithfully replicate asthma, for instance. (
  • The "animal rights vs. welfare" argument, is an obfuscation, since anti-animal lobbies oppose animal welfare as well. (
  • Cow protectionists did not in general oppose (and often supported) animal experimentation, and the antivivisectionist groups established in India in the late 1890s died out due to lack of interest. (
  • A majority of the animals that are held in captivity are locked in cages or boxes depending on the size of the animal and being deprived of socialization. (
  • They are often abused by their captors, starved and imprisoned in small, cages, only taken out for the torture of animal experimentation. (