The use of animals as investigational subjects.
The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.
Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.
'Laboratory animals' are non-human creatures that are intentionally used in scientific research, testing, and education settings to investigate physiological processes, evaluate the safety and efficacy of drugs or medical devices, and teach anatomy, surgical techniques, and other healthcare-related skills.
The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.
Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.
The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.
Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.

An international survey of medical ethics curricula in Asia. (1/197)

SETTING: Medical ethics education has become common, and the integrated ethics curriculum has been recommended in Western countries. It should be questioned whether there is one, universal method of teaching ethics applicable worldwide to medical schools, especially those in non-Western developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the medical ethics curricula at Asian medical schools. DESIGN: Mailed survey of 206 medical schools in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Australia and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 100 medical schools responded, a response rate of 49%, ranging from 23%-100% by country. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The degree of integration of the ethics programme into the formal medical curriculum was measured by lecture time; whether compulsory or elective; whether separate courses or unit of other courses; number of courses; schedule; total length, and diversity of teachers' specialties. RESULTS: A total of 89 medical schools (89%) reported offering some courses in which ethical topics were taught. Separate medical ethics courses were mostly offered in all countries, and the structure of vertical integration was divided into four patterns. Most deans reported that physicians' obligations and patients' rights were the most important topics for their students. However, the evaluation was diverse for more concrete topics. CONCLUSION: Offering formal medical ethics education is a widespread feature of medical curricula throughout the study area. However, the kinds of programmes, especially with regard to integration into clinical teaching, were greatly diverse.  (+info)

A reply to Joseph Bernstein. (2/197)

Dr. Bernstein suggests that anti-vivisectionists should be able to fill in a directive requesting that they receive no medical treatment developed through work on animals. It is replied that this would only be reasonable if research not using animals had long been funded as adequately and its results were currently available.  (+info)

Animal experiments: conference report.(3/197)

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Methods in vascular infusion biotechnology in research with rodents. (4/197)

Infusion of experimental compounds into the vascular system of rodents and the need to collect blood and other biological fluids from small animals comprise an area of emerging importance to biomedical research and drug discovery and development. The advances in the development of transgenic rodents coupled with technical progress in the manufacture and commercial availability of various catheters, swivels, tethers, infusion pumps, and sample collection systems that are described have enabled biomedical scientists to miniaturize vascular infusion and sample collection systems previously used in animal species larger than the rat or mouse. Use of these advanced, miniature vascular infusion systems in rodents is possible only when careful planning of experimental design, expert surgical technique, adequate postoperative care, and fundamental animal welfare considerations are meticulously taken into consideration. Use of these vascular infusion systems in rodents promotes animal welfare and scientific progress through the reduction and refinement of animal models.  (+info)

Animal experimentation in sciences: sadistic nonsense or indispensable necessity? (5/197)

The history of biomedical research clearly shows that, with exception of a very few, scientific findings could be realised only with the help of animal experiments. Unfortunately, in the past the life of animals was treated negligently and, at times, in fact criminally. Only the researchers' willingness to apply ethical principles toward laboratory animals could create a climate in which research is opening up to constructive, active animal protection and is ready to co-operate through the implementations of such programmes as the 3R-principle into daily practice. Using a number of examples, the article at hand tries to show that the dimensions concerning animal protection is very old indeed and that only a change of consciousness by the public and in research has created a situation in which a gentler treatment of life and life conditions of laboratory animals could be realised. A further development of "constructive" animal protection within the industrialised nations is only possible with this back ground. Without such a development, biomedical research is bound for deficits in one way or another. It will be loosing it's medical and economical opportunities and with it, it's meaning for man.  (+info)

Use of animals in research: a science--society controversy? The American perspective: animal welfare issues. (6/197)

My paper will focus on those events happening within the United States during the last year. The issue of including or excluding rats, birds and mice from inclusion under the Animal Welfare Act has been a difficult battle for both those that wish to exclude them and those that wish to include these animals under this legislation. As of the writing of this abstract, the Senate, which originally intended to include rats, birds and mice under the Animal Welfare Act, has passed an amendment which will permanently exclude their listing under this Act. During the last several years it has become clear that refinement, as one of the 3Rs, has and will become the most important set of activities to add humanness to animal experimentation. It is clear that refinement approaches provide the opportunity to possibly eliminate or significantly minimize any pain or distress in animal protocol. My presentation will focus on CAAT's (http://caat.jhsph.edu) activities in this important area. Understanding potential health hazards to environmental industrial chemicals has become a major focus of activity both in the US, Europe and Japan. These programs offer the first opportunity to provide information, in the public domain, on these chemicals. One of the consequences, however, is the potential requirement for large numbers of animals. In the presentation, I will focus on two approaches to significantly including the 3Rs in these important programs. Although it is common practice in Japan to recognize contributions of laboratory animals through a day of memorialization, this has not been the case in the United States. During the last year, several activities have been initiated to begin to institutionalize memorial services for animals used in research. As the host institution of Altweb (http://altweb.jhsph.edu), the alternative web site internationally, current statistics and accomplishments will be provided on its worldwide utilization.  (+info)

An ergonomics process for the care and use of research animals. (7/197)

Personnel who work with laboratory animals incur potential occupational health risks that can lead to the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Demanding manual tasks may also result in increased errors, worker fatigue, poor human performance, and decreased productivity. Studies have shown that a comprehensive ergonomics program that utilizes a systematic risk management approach can reduce the likelihood of exposure to musculoskeletal disorder risk factors and remove barriers to human performance. Research has characterized the risk factors of musculoskeletal disorder exposure in terms of force, frequency, posture, and muscle exertion. Ergonomic risk factors for typical animal handling tasks and work areas are identified, and a method is suggested for prioritizing interventions using interrelated data indicators. An initial review of potential control measures is offered to improve the health, safety, and effectiveness of people involved in the care and use of research animals.  (+info)

Occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities. (8/197)

Occupational medicine is a key component of a comprehensive occupational health and safety program in support of laboratory animal research and production facilities. The mission of the department is to maximize employee health and productivity utilizing a population health management approach, which includes measurement and analysis of health benefits utilization. The department works in close cooperation with other institutional health and safety professionals to identify potential risks from exposure to physical, chemical, and biological hazards in the workplace. As soon as exposures are identified, the department is responsible for formulating and providing appropriate medical surveillance programs. Occupational medicine is also responsible for targeted delivery of preventive and wellness services; management of injury, disease, and disability; maintenance of medical information; and other clinic services required by the institution. Recommendations are provided for the organization and content of occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities.  (+info)

Animal experimentation, also known as animal testing, refers to the use of non-human animals in scientific research and testing to understand the effects of various substances, treatments, or procedures on living organisms. This practice is performed with the goal of advancing medical and veterinary knowledge, developing new medications, treatments, and surgical techniques, as well as studying basic biological processes and diseases.

In animal experimentation, researchers expose animals to specific conditions, treatments, or substances and then analyze their responses, behaviors, physiological changes, or other outcomes. The selection of animal species for these experiments depends on the research question and the similarities between the animal model and the human or target species under investigation. Commonly used animals include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, primates, and dogs.

Animal experimentation has been instrumental in numerous scientific breakthroughs and medical advancements throughout history. However, it remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding the treatment and welfare of animals used in research. Many organizations advocate for the reduction, refinement, or replacement (3Rs) of animal testing, aiming to minimize animal suffering and find alternative methods whenever possible.

"Animal rights" is a term that refers to the philosophical and moral stance that non-human animals have inherent value and basic rights to live free from exploitation, harm, and unnecessary suffering. This perspective holds that animals are not merely property or resources for human use, but sentient beings capable of experiencing pleasure and pain, just like humans.

The concept of animal rights is often associated with the abolitionist movement, which advocates for an end to all forms of animal exploitation, including farming, hunting, fishing, entertainment, experimentation, and clothing production. Instead, proponents of animal rights argue that animals should be treated with respect and compassion, and that their interests and well-being should be considered on par with those of humans.

It is important to note that the concept of animal rights can vary in scope and specifics, with some advocates focusing on certain species or issues, while others take a more comprehensive approach. Ultimately, the goal of the animal rights movement is to promote a more just and equitable relationship between humans and animals, based on respect for their inherent worth and dignity.

Animal testing alternatives, also known as alternative methods or replacement methods, refer to scientific techniques that can be used to replace the use of animals in research and testing. These methods aim to achieve the same scientific objectives while avoiding harm to animals. There are several categories of animal testing alternatives:

1. In vitro (test tube or cell culture) methods: These methods involve growing cells or tissues in a laboratory setting, outside of a living organism. They can be used to study the effects of chemicals, drugs, and other substances on specific cell types or tissues.
2. Computer modeling and simulation: Advanced computer programs and algorithms can be used to model biological systems and predict how they will respond to various stimuli. These methods can help researchers understand complex biological processes without using animals.
3. In silico (using computer models) methods: These methods involve the use of computational tools and databases to predict the potential toxicity or other biological effects of chemicals, drugs, and other substances. They can be used to identify potential hazards and prioritize further testing.
4. Microdosing: This method involves giving human volunteers very small doses of a drug or chemical, followed by careful monitoring to assess its safety and pharmacological properties. This approach can provide valuable information while minimizing the use of animals.
5. Tissue engineering: Scientists can create functional tissue constructs using cells, scaffolds, and bioreactors. These engineered tissues can be used to study the effects of drugs, chemicals, and other substances on human tissues without using animals.
6. Human-based approaches: These methods involve the use of human volunteers, donated tissues, or cells obtained from consenting adults. Examples include microdosing, organ-on-a-chip technology, and the use of human cell lines in laboratory experiments.

These animal testing alternatives can help reduce the number of animals used in research and testing, refine experimental procedures to minimize suffering, and replace the use of animals with non-animal methods whenever possible.

'Laboratory animals' are defined as non-human creatures that are used in scientific research and experiments to study various biological phenomena, develop new medical treatments and therapies, test the safety and efficacy of drugs, medical devices, and other products. These animals are kept under controlled conditions in laboratory settings and are typically purpose-bred for research purposes.

The use of laboratory animals is subject to strict regulations and guidelines to ensure their humane treatment and welfare. The most commonly used species include mice, rats, rabbits, guinea pigs, hamsters, dogs, cats, non-human primates, and fish. Other less common species may also be used depending on the specific research question being studied.

The primary goal of using laboratory animals in research is to advance our understanding of basic biological processes and develop new medical treatments that can improve human and animal health. However, it is important to note that the use of animals in research remains a controversial topic due to ethical concerns regarding their welfare and potential for suffering.

Animal welfare is a concept that refers to the state of an animal's physical and mental health, comfort, and ability to express normal behaviors. It encompasses factors such as proper nutrition, housing, handling, care, treatment, and protection from harm and distress. The goal of animal welfare is to ensure that animals are treated with respect and consideration, and that their needs and interests are met in a responsible and ethical manner.

The concept of animal welfare is based on the recognition that animals are sentient beings capable of experiencing pain, suffering, and emotions, and that they have intrinsic value beyond their usefulness to humans. It is guided by principles such as the "Five Freedoms," which include freedom from hunger and thirst, freedom from discomfort, freedom from pain, injury or disease, freedom to express normal behavior, and freedom from fear and distress.

Animal welfare is an important consideration in various fields, including agriculture, research, conservation, entertainment, and companionship. It involves a multidisciplinary approach that draws on knowledge from biology, ethology, veterinary medicine, psychology, philosophy, and law. Ultimately, animal welfare aims to promote the humane treatment of animals and to ensure their well-being in all aspects of their lives.

"Animal Use Alternatives" refers to the methods and techniques used in scientific research, testing, and education that avoid or reduce the use of animals. The three main categories of alternatives are:

1. Replacement: This involves using non-animal methods to entirely replace the use of animals in a particular procedure or experiment. Examples include the use of computer modeling, cell cultures, and tissue samples instead of live animals.
2. Reduction: This refers to methods that reduce the number of animals used in a given procedure or experiment while still achieving the same scientific objective. Examples include using statistical methods to design experiments that require fewer animals, or sharing data and resources between research groups.
3. Refinement: This involves modifying procedures to minimize suffering and improve animal welfare for those animals that are still used. Examples include using anesthesia and pain relief during surgical procedures, providing appropriate housing and enrichment, and implementing humane endpoints in experiments.

The development and implementation of animal use alternatives is a key goal in the ethical and responsible conduct of scientific research, testing, and education.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "human characteristics" is not a medical term or concept. It refers to the typical traits, attributes, and features that define humans as a species, both physically and behaviorally. Physical human characteristics include bipedal locomotion, large brains, and fine motor skills, while behavioral characteristics can include complex language use, self-awareness, and sociality.

However, if you have any specific medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to help answer them to the best of my ability!

Human experimentation is a branch of medical research that involves conducting experiments on human subjects. According to the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki, which sets ethical standards for medical research involving human subjects, human experimentation is defined as "systematic study designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge."

Human experimentation can take many forms, including clinical trials of new drugs or medical devices, observational studies, and interventional studies. In all cases, the principles of informed consent, risk minimization, and respect for the autonomy and dignity of the research subjects must be strictly adhered to.

Human experimentation has a controversial history, with many instances of unethical practices and abuse, such as the notorious Tuskegee syphilis study in which African American men were deliberately left untreated for syphilis without their informed consent. As a result, there are strict regulations and guidelines governing human experimentation to ensure that it is conducted ethically and with the utmost respect for the rights and welfare of research subjects.

Nontherapeutic human experimentation refers to medical research studies in which the primary goal is not to directly benefit the participants, but rather to advance scientific knowledge or develop new medical technologies. These studies often involve some level of risk or discomfort for the participants, and may include the administration of experimental treatments, procedures, or interventions.

Nontherapeutic human experimentation can take many forms, including clinical trials, observational studies, and other types of research involving human subjects. In these studies, researchers must carefully weigh the potential benefits of the research against the risks to the participants, and ensure that all participants are fully informed of the nature of the study, its purposes, and any potential risks or benefits before providing their consent to participate.

It's important to note that nontherapeutic human experimentation is subject to strict ethical guidelines and regulations, designed to protect the rights and welfare of research participants. These guidelines and regulations are intended to ensure that all research involving human subjects is conducted in a responsible and ethical manner, with the goal of advancing scientific knowledge while minimizing harm to participants.

Therapeutic human experimentation, also known as clinical research or clinical trials, is a branch of medical research that involves the testing of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or procedures on human subjects. The goal of this type of research is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these interventions in order to determine whether they should be approved for use in clinical practice.

The term "therapeutic" is used to distinguish this type of research from non-therapeutic research, which does not involve direct medical benefit to the participant. In therapeutic human experimentation, participants may receive some potential direct medical benefit from their participation, although they may also experience risks or side effects.

Therapeutic human experimentation is subject to strict ethical guidelines and regulations, including informed consent, risk-benefit analysis, and independent review by ethics committees or institutional review boards (IRBs). These safeguards are designed to protect the rights and welfare of research participants and ensure that the research is conducted in a responsible and transparent manner.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "war crimes" is a legal concept and does not fall under the category of medical definitions. War crimes are serious violations of international humanitarian law committed in armed conflicts. They include acts such as deliberate attacks on civilians or civilian infrastructure, torture, hostage-taking, and the use of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering or superfluous injury.

If you have any questions related to medical definitions or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

"Animal Experimentation". The Journal of the American Medical Association. 56 (1): 816-817. March 18, 1911. "Dr. W.B. Cannon, 73 ... Finally, he would compare the results of an animal with intact adrenal glands with those in an animal from which he had removed ... Cannon supported animal experimentation and opposed the arguments of anti-vivisectionists. In 1911, he authored a booklet for ... He would surgically excise the nerves supplying the heart of a laboratory animal such as a dog or cat. Then he would subject ...
"Animal Experimentation". BBC. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016. "EU statistics show decline in ... are hybrid animals; the name zodiac indeed means a circle of animals. All twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac are animals. In ... animal/human interfaces have been a neglected area of research, given the ubiquity of animals in human culture and history, and ... Animals used in these ways include fish, crustaceans, insects, molluscs, mammals and birds. Economically, animals provide meat ...
Animal rights. Animal welfare 4905-4959...........Animal experimentation. Anti-vivisection 4961-4995............Degeneration ...
"Animal Experimentation". BBC. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016. "EU statistics show decline in ... The signs of the Western and Chinese zodiacs are based on animals. Animal coloration Ethology Fauna List of animal names Lists ... meaning animal). Animals have several characteristics that set them apart from other living things. Animals are eukaryotic and ... and other animals on higher trophic levels typically acquire it indirectly by eating other animals. Animals oxidize ...
"Animal Experimentation". BBC. Retrieved 8 July 2016. "EU statistics show decline in animal research numbers". Speaking of ... are hybrid animals; the name zodiac indeed means a circle of animals. All twelve signs of the Chinese zodiac are animals. ... Many animals are hunted for sport. The aquatic animals most often hunted for sport are fish, including many species from large ... animal/human interfaces have been a neglected area of research, given the ubiquity of animals in human culture and history, and ...
... , also known as animal experimentation, animal research, and in vivo testing, is the use of non-human animals in ... The terms animal testing, animal experimentation, animal research, in vivo testing, and vivisection have similar denotations ... Animals and Animal Products. Code of Federal Regulations. Vol. 1 (1 January 2008). "Animal Testing and the Law - Animal Legal ... "Animal Testing and Animal Experimentation Issues , Physicians Committee". Pcrm.org. Archived from the original on 23 July 2011 ...
... animal transport, animal slaughter, and animal experimentation. The Breeding of and Experiments on Animals (Control and ... Animal Defenders International; National Anti-Vivisection Society (2003). "Animal Experimentation in India" (PDF). Retrieved 26 ... India's first national animal welfare law, the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals Act (1960), criminalizes cruelty to animals, ... to regulate animal experimentation. A 2003 report by Animal Defenders International and the U.K. National Anti-Vivisection ...
"Animal Experimentation and Ethics in India: The CPCSEA Makes a Difference". Alternatives to Laboratory Animals. Vol. 32, no. 1 ... Animal rescue groups, Animal rights organizations, Animal charities based in India, Dog welfare organizations, Animal welfare ... People For Animals has established shelters for animal refugees across India in order to rehabilitate laboratory animals. Of ... People For Animals also has a program enabling individuals to sponsor animals of their choice to contribute to the cost of ...
The study of hearing in animals. In: W Gay, ed., Methods of Animal Experimentation, IV. Academic Press, London, pp 43-143. ... "The top 10 animals with the best hearing". Retrieved 2021-06-02. "These 10 Animals Have the Best Hearing on the Planet". 17 ... Several animal species are able to hear frequencies well beyond the human hearing range. Some dolphins and bats, for example, ... Hearing range describes the range of frequencies that can be heard by humans or other animals, though it can also refer to the ...
Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated? Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated? Archived 2011-07-16 at ... used as a pejorative catch-all term for experimentation on live animals by organizations opposed to animal experimentation, but ... "Operation on a living animal for experimental rather than healing purposes; more broadly, all experimentation on live animals ... Alternatives to animal testing American Anti-Vivisection Society Animal testing regulations Bionics Cruelty to animals ...
Applying alcohol myopia to animal experimentation". Alcohol and Alcoholism. 40 (5): 373-378. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agh177. PMID ...
Bertoloni Meli, Domenico (2013). "Early Modern Experimentation on Live Animals". Journal of the History of Biology. 46 (2): 199 ...
Animal Experimentation Issues PCRM "Animal Testing and Animal Experimentation >> Research >> PCRM". Archived from the original ... "Animal research and medical progress". About animal testing. "Scientists Against Animal Testing". Archived from the original on ... "Animals in Experimentation - Everybody Loses" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-06-24. The Critical Role of Nonhuman Primates in Research, ... Some animal rights supporters believe that alternatives exist for animal models in research; however the vast majority of ...
"Does animal experimentation inform human healthcare? Observations from a systematic review of international animal experiments ... However, experiments on animals are lengthy, expensive and controversial. For example, animal models are often subjected to ... In the early phase of drug development, animal models were the only way of obtaining in vivo data that would predict the human ... Moreover, animal models offer very limited control of individual variables and it can be cumbersome to harvest specific ...
Alternatives to Animal Testing and Experimentation. 14: 1-7. Hughes, Michael. "The Principles of Humane Experimental Technique ... British animal welfare scholars, British animal welfare workers, Presidents of the Folklore Society, Scientists from Plymouth, ... In the UK the Fund for the Replacement of Animals in Medical Experiments (FRAME), established in 1969, was among the first to ... "Animals used for scientific purposes - Environment - European Commission". Ec.europa.eu. Retrieved 22 July 2017. (CS1 maint: ...
Animal testing regulations are laws and/or guidelines that permit and control the use of animals for experimentation. They are ... He also experimented with the injection of putrid fish into animals and was an advocate for experimentation in a time before ... Akhtar A (2015). "The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation". Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 24 (4): 407-19. doi:10.1017/ ... There are concerns that animal experimentation that has no translational benefit or reproducibility is likely unethical. There ...
Ethics of Animal and Human Experimentation, eds. P. P. De Deyn, R. D'Hooge, R. Clara, and A. Schafer, John Libbey Co.Ltd., ... "The moral anatomy and moral pathology of the randomized clinical trial", Ethics of animal and human experimentation, eds. De ... and co-editor of Ethics and Animal Experimentation. His curriculum vitae lists more than 90 scholarly articles and book ... "Experimentation with Human Subjects: A Critique of the Views of Hans Jonas", Journal of Medical Ethics, 1983. "Consent to ...
A Case Study of Home Office Enforcement of Animal Experimentation Legislation, Uncaged Campaigns, 2004. "Animal-to-Human ... Animals, 19, 2011, pp. 356-367. The Politics of Animal Experimentation, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Disrupted: Ludicrous ... Lyons specializes in the study of animal research, the philosophy of animal rights, and the political representation of animals ... The Politics of Animal Experimentation, Palgrave Macmillan. "Imutran Ltd v. Uncaged Campaigns Ltd and Daniel Louis Lyons", High ...
43-44 doi:10.2307/3561052 Why Knowledge Matters (1981) Animals in Research: New Perspectives in Animal Experimentation ed. ... Report by the Council for Science and Society Are You an Animal? (1989) Animal Experimentation: The Consensus Changes ed. Gill ... She argued that human beings are more similar to animals than many social scientists then acknowledged, while animals are in ... This means that thoughts and memories are an integral part of reality for both humans and animals and need to be studied as ...
"Senate Gets Committee Bill on Animal Experimentation". Toledo Blade. 7 June 1966. Retrieved 1 January 2011. Thompson, Richard C ... The dog was thought to be the same animal as it was traced to a farm which supplied two Dalmatians to that hospital, but by the ... Historically in the United States, dogs had been stolen and sold on for medical research, but the introduction of the Animal ... The United States Congress was already working on legislation to restrict the handling and sale of animals for research when a ...
Animal Experimentation: A Guide to the Issues. Cambridge University Press. An Act to Consolidate and Amend the Several Laws ... Animal welfare in the United Kingdom "1835: 5 & 6 William 4 c.59: Cruelty to Animals Act". The Statutes Project. 3 December ... "other Animal (whether of domestic or wild Nature or Kind)", which facilitated further legislation to protect animals, create ... Cruelty to animals, Animal welfare and rights legislation in the United Kingdom, All stub articles, United Kingdom statute ...
Because the animals are not like us.' Animal experimentation rests on a logical contradiction." In the 1980 edition of Henry S ... American animal rights activists, American animal rights scholars, American bibliographers, American ethicists, Animal ... He was an outspoken opponent of animal testing, once stating: "Ask the experimenters why they experiment on animals, and the ... In 1989, Magel authored Keyguide to Information Sources in Animal Rights a bibliography of works dealing with animal rights. It ...
New technologies, experimental methods and animal experimentation have led to an increased understanding of the workings of ... Although there is no single ideal animal model of a human, for each problem of interest there is an animal upon which it can be ... LaFollette, Hugh; Shanks, Niall (1994). "Animal Experimentation: The Legacy of Claude Bernard". International Studies in the ... How can one show that an animal has a good memory? There are many confounds when breeding for behaviours, however if animals ...
"The ethical discourse on animal experimentation, 1650-1900". Clio Medica. 24: 203-251. PMID 7516841. "Animal rights in the 18th ... Smith stated that animals have a "right to happiness". Smith held the view that animals are intellectual and sentient beings ... The stewardship of animals therefore entails responsibility for humans since they have deprived animals of their freedom and ... Smith was an advocate of animal rights and denounced animal experiments as immoral. He was an opponent of vivisection and ...
ISBN 978-1-4742-5597-4 Maehle, Andreas-Holger (1993). "The ethical discourse on animal experimentation, 1650-1900". Clio Medica ... He argued that humans beings are permitted to kill animals quickly and painlessly for food but to make animals suffer or to ... He is best known for his book Gerechtigkeit gegen Thiere (Justice Towards Animals) in 1787. The book is the oldest work to use ... Wilhelm Dietler (died 1797) was a German philosopher and early animal rights writer. Dietler was a Master of Philosophy and in ...
Mahatma Gandhi is noted for his compassion to all living things; he advocated against animal experimentation and animal cruelty ... The respect for animal rights in Jainism, Hinduism, and Buddhism derives from the doctrine of ahimsa. In Hinduism, animals ... Animals in Islam Christian vegetarianism Grant, Catharine (2006). The No-nonsense Guide to Animal Rights. New Internationalist ... This applies to humans and animals. The Jains' belief system takes the principle of ahimsa regarding animals so seriously that ...
Gruber, Franz P.; Hartung, Thomas (2004). "Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in Basic Research" (PDF). ALTEX. 21 (Suppl 1 ... Animal protection groups fought for years to end MAb production in mice because it causes intense suffering for the animals ... Even more startling, at least ten percent of the general population has been observed to carry some form of animal-derived ... It took considerable, sustained pressure from animal welfare groups, led by legal efforts initiated by the American Anti- ...
Experimentation in animals began in the early 1900s. As of 2023[update], no lasting successes have been achieved. There are ... The animals survived between 6 hours and 2 days. In 1970, he did four experiments in which he cut the head off of a monkey and ... There were few animal experiments on head transplantation for many years after this. In 2012, Xiaoping Ren published work in ... The animals died due to transplant rejection. In the 1950s and '60s, immunosuppressive drugs and organ transplantation ...
Medical Advances Without Animals Trust (Australia) Alternatives to Animal Experimentation Laboratory, Department of ... The animal welfare education association aims to improve the living conditions of pets, farm animals, laboratory animals and ... and enhance animal welfare for the animals used. Cell culture can be an alternative to animal use in some cases. For example, ... A Guide to the Alternatives of Animal Experimentation (2009; revised edition 2010). Eds. Syed Ziaur Rahman and Mohd Tariq ...
Akhtar A (October 2015). "The flaws and human harms of animal experimentation". Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare Ethics. 24 (4 ... Critics of animal testing have cited the case to argue that experiments on nonhuman animals, even in species closely related to ... Animal trials on mice were not necessarily predictive of human responses, as it would require a much greater dosage to get the ... Animals raised in a sterile lab would presumably have no 'memory' of previous illnesses, thus would not exhibit the severe ...
ALTEX - Alternatives to Animal Experimentation. Online ISSN: 1868-8551; Print ISSN: 1868-596X JCR Impact Factor 2022: 5.6. 5- ... Sonja von Aulock, Editorial , ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation: Vol. 34 No. 4 (2017) ... Sonja von Aulock, Corners , ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation: Vol. 34 No. 4 (2017) ... Sonja von Aulock, News , ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation: Vol. 34 No. 4 (2017) ...
Alternatives to animal experimentation: Vol. 22 No. 1 (2005) * Franz P. Gruber, Calendar , ALTEX - Alternatives to animal ... ALTEX - Alternatives to Animal Experimentation. Online ISSN: 1868-8551; Print ISSN: 1868-596X JCR Impact Factor 2022: 5.6. 5- ... experimentation: Vol. 22 No. 1 (2005) * Franz P. Gruber, Imprint , ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation: Vol. 22 No. ... Franz P. Gruber, Tierschutz und Umweltschutz , ALTEX - Alternatives to animal experimentation: Vol. 22 No. 2 (2005) ...
The Problems With Animal ExperimentationAlternatives and Animal-Free ScienceAnimals Used for Science in NZAnimals Used for ... The Problems With Animal ExperimentationAlternatives and Animal-Free ScienceAnimals Used for Science in NZAnimals Used for ... Ending Animal ExperimentationRehoming Animals Used or Bred for ScienceExposing Animal Testing in NZPromoting Cruelty-Free ... Ending Animal ExperimentationRehoming Animals Used or Bred for ScienceExposing Animal Testing in NZPromoting Cruelty-Free ...
"Animal Experimentation". The Journal of the American Medical Association. 56 (1): 816-817. March 18, 1911. "Dr. W.B. Cannon, 73 ... Finally, he would compare the results of an animal with intact adrenal glands with those in an animal from which he had removed ... Cannon supported animal experimentation and opposed the arguments of anti-vivisectionists. In 1911, he authored a booklet for ... He would surgically excise the nerves supplying the heart of a laboratory animal such as a dog or cat. Then he would subject ...
Bang the gavel: animal experimentation on trial-an interdisciplinary mock trial at the school of health sciences.. Ghimouz, Rym ... We designed an "Animal Experimentation Mock Trial" in which students are coached to search for scientific, legal, and ethical ... the plaintiffs attorney and expert witnesses contra animal research, 3) the defense attorney and expert witnesses pro animal ... arguments pro and contra animal experimentation in medical research. The mock trial is prepared and staged with student teams ...
Animal experimentation guidelines were followed. The jirds were monitored periodically (at least weekly; 26 times in 17.5 weeks ... Animal Inoculation. Five jirds, which are competent hosts for B. divergens (13), were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5 mL of ... found over the past century in nonhuman animals and because data about the morphologic features and host specificity of a ... of nonhuman animals, some named and some not, that were not known to be zoonotic. ...
ALTEX-ALTERNATIVES TO ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION. Verstraelen, S; Jacobs, A; Van Laer, J; Hollanders, K; Van Deun, M; Bertels, D; ... Do we still need animals? Surveying the role of animal-free models in Alzheimers and Parkinsons disease research Download ...
The main difference consists in the quantitative activity, in animal as well as human experimentation. The average active dose ... Most animals die from a lethal dose of LSD by respiratory arrest. The minute doses that cause death in animal experiments may ... Subtle psychic changes cannot be established in animals because, even if they should be occurring, the animal could not give ... the dose with which 50 percent of the treated animals die. In general it fluctuates broadly, according to the animal species, ...
Animals Used for Experimentation, including Medical Use of Animals. *. Animals Used for Food, including Downed Animals. ...
Open to animal experimentation.. *Experience in hematology, glycoscience, molecular techniques and/or mass spectrometry are ...
He is a contributor to Animal Experimentation: Good or Bad?, Hodder Murray, 2002 (buy this book from Amazon (UK) or Amazon (USA ... Furthermore, reining in experimentation carries the risk of not making life-enhancing breakthroughs. ...
All experimental animals must be obtained lawfully. If wild animals are to be used for experimentation, they must be procured ... The JNS Animal Experiment Committee will monitor the latest developments in animal experimentation in Japan and overseas and ... In Japan, animal studies are regulated by The Act on Welfare and Management of Animals (hereafter referred to as the "Animal ... Guidelines for Animal Experimentation in Neuroscience. Gender Equality, Inclusion and Diversity. For Members. Neuroscience News ...
Descriptive Toxicology is concerned with gathering toxicological information from animal experimentation. These types of ... G. Animal Toxins (2). These toxins can result from venomous or poisonous animal releases. Venomous animals are usually defined ... Trainer may want to provide examples of venomous animals, such as snakes, spiders, etc., and poisonous animals, such as puffer ... A toxicant is any chemical that can injure or kill humans, animals, or plants; a poison. The term "toxicant" is used when ...
Science is cold like an operating table, sharp like a scalpel, and unforgiving like animal experimentation. Emotion, on the ...
All animal experimentations were approved by the Tel Aviv University Animal Ethics Committee. ... When the animal crosses the walkway, the light leaves the glass and illuminates only the area of contact. In this way, the ... Animals and vector injections.. HB9::GFP (stock #005029) mice were originally obtained from The Jackson Laboratory. The colony ... We found that whereas the percentage of NMJs expressing Sema3A in SODG93A in P90 animals is similar to P60, the end-stage ...
Read Air Transats rules for flying with pets and service animals, and discover tips for making your trip with them hassle-free ... Animals destined for laboratory research and/or scientific experimentation, such as nonhuman primates and dogs ... The animal carrier counts as a carry-on item.. *The total weight of the carrier and animal must not exceed 10 kilos on flights ... Animals destined for laboratory research and/or scientific experimentation, such as nonhuman primates and dogs ...
All animal experimentation was conducted according to the Swiss National Institutional Guidelines on Animal Experimentation and ... The animal study was approved by the Swiss Cantonal Veterinary Office Committee for Animal Experimentation. The study was ... approved by the Swiss Cantonal Veterinary Office Committee for Animal Experimentation (License number: VD3389). ... 5-7-week-old animals). Here, we found (Figure 1B) that human neurons, from men 20 to 57 years old, have a systematically larger ...
Our series, Animals in Research, profiles the top organisms used for science experimentation. Here, we look at Danio rerio - ... As an animal model, the zebrafish offers many advantages that save researchers time and money. Uri Manor/NICHD via Flickr ... How animals got their spots and stripes - according to maths. Thomas Woolley, Cardiff University ... Flaws emerge in modeling human genetic diseases in animals. Gage Crump, University of Southern California ...
This finding indicates the need for caution in extrapolating results obtained in animal experimentation to man." ... "that people are not the same as animals (though there are *some* similarities).". In fact people are animals (unless your ... We definitely are animals, but many studies have shown that animal studies are not perfect representations of how substances ... It is important to note that much of the research on CBN, like many studies on cannabinoids, was done on animals not people, ...
Animal Experimentation: Issues for the 1980s.Anne Griffin, Joan E. Sieber, Jeri A. Sechzer & Judith C. Zola - 1984 - Science, ... Animal Law in Australasia: A Universal Dialogue of "Trading Off" Animal Welfare.Joan E. Schaffner - 2016 - Journal of Animal ... Animal Law in Australasia: Continuing the Dialogue provides a comprehensive, thoughtprovoking discussion and analysis of animal ... Cats and Conservationists: The Debate Over Who Owns the Outdoors.Joan E. Schaffner - 2021 - Journal of Animal Ethics 11 (1):84- ...
The US government must stop pumping money into horrific animal experimentation!. Its @POTUS Bidens responsibility to ... "The US government must stop pumping money into horrific animal experimentation! Its @POTUS Bidens responsibility to designate ... Nancy Mace and her colleagues on both sides of the aisle for holding the NIH accountable for this government waste and animal ... Fauci by name, animal rights organization PETA said President Biden must choose a new NIH director. " ...
Doctors dont trust animal experiments. We commissioned a survey of 500 GPs opinions on animal experimentation - ... We oppose animal experimentation, based on overwhelming scientific evidence that findings from animal models cannot be reliably ... 3) Would you support an independent scientific evaluation of the clinical relevance of animal experimentation? 83% yes, 8% no, ... Share these great reviews from Professor Thomas Hartung, Animal Aid and Animal Free Research UK (final page) and this great ...
Battista Gellis famous 16th century series of fantasy-philosophical essays in the form of dialogues with enchanted animals, a ... To many modern thinkers, Descartes philosophy can be used as a powerful argument against medical experimentation on animals. ... Animals, of course, can never come as far. Not even the most dedicated animal activist expects a cat to be elected President, ... Other animals, too, refuse humanity, pointing out the relative liberty, prudence, simplicity and honesty that prevail in animal ...
ETHICS COMMITTEE APPROVAL: This study was approved by the Ege University Local Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation ( ... The experimental protocol was approved by Ege University Local Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (process number 2005 ... The pharmacological study of snake venoms and toxins often involves the use of animals or animal tissues (39). Currently, ... Swiss albino mice weighing 28 to 32 g were used (n = 10 for each group). The venom dose required to kill 50% of animals within ...
Murray wrote a chapter for me in volume II of my book, Methods of Animal Experimentation. He gave a lot of credit to Calne ... Harden: Have the animal rights groups had any impact on the kinds and numbers of animal models that are available? ... The epidemiology of the animal and human disease was so similar that it seemed to us that we had a likely animal model. We took ... I indicated to one of my professors that I needed experience in treating small animals, so I went to work for a small animal ...
Three times R: Post Doc Karin Stenderup teaches on the mandatory course in animal experimentation at Aarhus University, and one ...
N. Stenstron, proved definitely, by animal experimentation, that cod-liver oil produces pathological changes in the heart ... Alimentary anaphylactic phenomena are confined almost exclusively to substances of animal origin. The more closely these animal ... The same with the milk of other animals. Each animal produces milk for its own young. ... of the animal (or of different animals) and frequently supplement this diet with fruits, berries and vegetables. Muscle meat, ...
W. W.), Animal Experimentation and Medical Progress, 170 Keith (Prof. A.), Palæolithic Man in South Africa, 616 Keith (J.), ... J. P.), Three Animal Diseases, 653 Michaelis (Prof. L.), the Dynamics of Surfaces, Translated by W. H. Perkin, 337 ... tion of Dextrose in Normal and Depancreatised Animals, 553 Knab (F.) and W. W. Yothers, Papaya Fruit-fly, 332 Knobel (E. B.), ... C. W. Burkett, Farm Animals, 256. Hunt (W. N.), Bequest to Dartmouth College, 414 Huntington (Prof. A. C.), Effects of Heat and ...
  • If you oppose animal experimentation as a whole, you would probably set that threshold pretty low. (discovermagazine.com)
  • We oppose animal experimentation, based on overwhelming scientific evidence that findings from animal models cannot be reliably extrapolated to humans. (safermedicines.org)
  • While agreeing with their premise, I would disagree with the conclusion and would argue that the authors fail to adequately describe how the One Health approach provides alternatives to traditional use of animal experimentation. (who.int)
  • The One Health paradigm, whether applied to zoonotic disease or other health issues affecting both animals and humans, can provide important alternatives to animal experimentation. (who.int)
  • equately describe how the One Health and cohort studies to assess correlation approach provides alternatives to tra- between environmental exposures and · Zoonoses are important threats to ditional use of animal experimentation. (who.int)
  • One Health supports a shared risk and humans, can provide important mane aspects of animal research as approach, wherein animals and humans alternatives to animal experimentation. (who.int)
  • Some animals are used in future experiments, but most are killed soon after the tests. (ipl.org)
  • Under the principles of 3Rs, the Standards have stated that, since animal experiments are "indispensable for advancing life sciences and developing medical technologies," laboratory animals "shall be appropriately cared for, managed, and used for scientific purposes with due appreciation of and responsibility for their role. (jnss.org)
  • Basic Guidelines on Animal Experiments etc. in Research Institutions, etc. (jnss.org)
  • Experiments on animals are cruel and expensive, and they produce dangerously misleading results that are generally inapplicable to humans. (peta.org.uk)
  • They have been shown to replicate human physiology, diseases, and drug responses more accurately than crude animal experiments do. (peta.org.uk)
  • The clinical relevance of animal research requires urgent evaluation - a fact now accepted amongst the medical profession but not by the government, which "has not commissioned or evaluated any formal research on the efficacy of animal experiments and has no plans to do so", according to Home Office Minister Caroline Flint (April 2004). (safermedicines.org)
  • An independent, transparent and public evaluation of the scientific value of animal experiments is clearly overdue. (safermedicines.org)
  • Today, medicine is much more evidence-based and it is time to weigh the real harm from animal experiments against the alleged benefits. (safermedicines.org)
  • While I utterly condemn the unlawful and intimidatory actions of a few extremists, it is wrong to suggest, as the media does all too often, that the scientific and medical community is all in favour of experiments on animals, and that they all feel safe with extrapolating the results. (safermedicines.org)
  • entitled "One health: perspectives on ethical issues and evidence from animal experiments" [1], touches on a number of important points, but fails to go far enough in exploring the innovative nature of a One Health approach to a number of scientific and ethical issues related to the overlap of human and animal health. (who.int)
  • Our article focuses on One Health in relation to ethics and a pathway to generating robust evidence from animal experiments and certainly not, as seems to be understood by Dr Lederman, that One Health provides an alternative to the conventional animal experiments. (who.int)
  • Evidence: Many systematic reviews published in the Cochrane library are inconclusive and unable to provide clinical recommendations after randomized controlled trials have been undertaken based on the results of animal experiments. (who.int)
  • Animal experiments are used for scientific purposes, mostly within research in medicine and science. (lu.se)
  • As far as possible, animal experiments are not used. (lu.se)
  • However, there are research studies in which animal experiments provide us with knowledge that we are not yet able to acquire in any other way. (lu.se)
  • Animal experiments are strictly regulated under Swedish legislation as well as EU legislation on the protection of animals. (lu.se)
  • Animal experiments are only permitted where no alternative methods are available. (lu.se)
  • In order to conduct animal experiments in Sweden, researchers must first apply for permission to an animal experiment ethical review board, which will run an ethical review of the proposed research study. (lu.se)
  • According to Cook, the earliest and most extensive series of animal experiments to understand exposure limits were those conducted by K.B. Lehmann and others under his direction at the same Hygienic Institute where Gruber had done his work with carbon monoxide. (cdc.gov)
  • researchers should not only avoid research and disease control and preven- evidence from animal experiments" using more animals for experiments tion methods are mutually beneficial to [1], touches on a number of important than needed, they should also aim to humans, animals and the environment. (who.int)
  • Rabinowitz P, Scotch M, Conti L. Human and animal sentinels and evidence from animal experiments. (who.int)
  • er in studies, and generating evidence in relation to ethics and a pathway to Ethics: Subjecting human volun- ethically from prospective registration generating robust evidence from animal teers to trials in the absence of adequate of animal experiments similar to regis- experiments and certainly not, as seems results generated from animal studies, tration of clinical trials in humans. (who.int)
  • AgResearch (their animal ethics committee parents approx. (nzavs.org.nz)
  • The mock trial with the lesson plan provides a learning mean to exemplify the complex relationship between animal experimentation , medical evidence, ethics , and law / regulations . (bvsalud.org)
  • As such, groups concerned with animal ethics would do well to further explore the applications of a One Health approach: what are the ethical guideposts as we move toward a future of health care that considers the health of multiple species as well as the environment? (who.int)
  • well as to address biases and difficul- are considered to be generally suscepti- As such, groups concerned with animal ties in extrapolating data from animal ble to the same environmental risks and ethics would do well to further explore research to humans. (who.int)
  • The ethical justification and scientific utility of laboratory animal experimentation are rightly criticized, necessitating efforts to enhance humane aspects of animal research as well as to address biases and difficulties in extrapolating data from animal research to humans. (who.int)
  • The authors also provide four proposals to improve the ability to apply data from laboratory animal experimentation to humans. (who.int)
  • Veterinary assistants and laboratory animal caretakers did not have higher likelihood of suicide. (cdc.gov)
  • The One Health paradigm, whether tific utility of laboratory animal ex- and globally, to attain optimal health for applied to zoonotic disease or other perimentation are rightly criticized, people, animals, and our environment" health issues affecting both animals necessitating efforts to enhance hu- [2]. (who.int)
  • Many will be able to defend the claim that animal testing is useful for medical development, but cosmetics are not needed for the health of humans. (ipl.org)
  • Instead of having, consenting humans agree to help find a treatment, they will use animals. (ipl.org)
  • Animals are living creatures, like humans, they are not test subjects. (ipl.org)
  • Zhao and Bhattacharyya, 2018 ) that the use of animal cell models whose properties may not match those of humans, could lead to therapies and predictions that are not directly transferable to human cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • But even if you accept doing things to animals, you wouldn't want to do the same things to humans. (discovermagazine.com)
  • These and other non-animal methods are not hindered by species differences that make applying animal-test results to humans difficult or impossible, and they usually take less time and money to complete. (peta.org.uk)
  • Microdosing can help screen out drug compounds that won't work in humans so that they won't needlessly advance to government-required animal testing. (peta.org.uk)
  • 1) Does it concern you that animal data can be misleading when applied to humans? (safermedicines.org)
  • Approaching zoonotic and environmental risks from a One Health perspective involves considering what research and disease control and prevention methods are mutually beneficial to humans, animals and the environment. (who.int)
  • One key type of research that of scientific and ethical issues related animal experimentation to humans. (who.int)
  • We designed an " Animal Experimentation Mock Trial" in which students are coached to search for scientific, legal, and ethical arguments pro and contra animal experimentation in medical research . (bvsalud.org)
  • Animal testing is an ethical issue that many agree and multiple disagree with. (ipl.org)
  • These ethical considerations underscore the importance of animal studies in neuroscientific research as mentioned above. (jnss.org)
  • The research is to be conducted according to a protocol which has been reviewed and approved by the regional animal experiment ethical review board in Malmö/Lund. (lu.se)
  • it entails preventing proach: what are the ethical guideposts cal approach which promotes better and treating disease in one species in as we move toward a future of health collaboration between human and order to indirectly prevent and treat care that considers the health of multi- animal health professionals in order disease in another species [3]. (who.int)
  • In Japan, animal studies are regulated by The Act on Welfare and Management of Animals (hereafter referred to as the " Animal Welfare Act ") and The Standards Relating to the Care and Management of Laboratory Animals and Relief of Pain (hereinafter referred to as the " Standards ") [1, 2, 12, 13]. (jnss.org)
  • The Animal Welfare Act has stipulated the principles of the "3Rs" of replacement, reduction, and refinement. (jnss.org)
  • Animal testing is taking us forward not only as a species, but as a civilization. (ipl.org)
  • Zoonoses are important threats to human and animal health, and animal research has played a role in assessing risk across species. (who.int)
  • The American Veterinary Medical disease control and prevention is the research has played a role in assessing Association has defined One Health as use of animal collars and vaccinations risk across species. (who.int)
  • At the molecular level, animal experimentation supports a mediator-driven inflammatory process further leading to respiratory insult after chest trauma. (medscape.com)
  • In a tweet and without mentioning Dr. Fauci by name, animal rights organization PETA said President Biden must choose a new NIH director. (techstartups.com)
  • The findings of the experimentation indicate that there may be no simple relationship between spontaneous activity and tinnitus at the level of the auditory nerve. (cdc.gov)
  • Feedback from the animal science and research community. (nzavs.org.nz)
  • We invited members of the animal science and research community in NZ to provide feedback on our Striking at the Source petition requests. (nzavs.org.nz)
  • The mock trial is prepared and staged with student teams to play the 1) presiding judge, 2) the plaintiff's attorney and expert witnesses contra animal research , 3) the defense attorney and expert witnesses pro animal research , and 4) the jury. (bvsalud.org)
  • The importance of interdisciplinary discussions is demonstrated by increasing the awareness of the multidisciplinary aspect of animal research . (bvsalud.org)
  • Is animal testing a humane way to conduct medical research? (ipl.org)
  • However, I do believe that animal testing is an inhumane way to conduct medical research. (ipl.org)
  • Animal testing is a procedure that is performed on living animals for research. (ipl.org)
  • The Humane Society states that animal testing is tests performed on live animals for basic biology, medicinal, safety, or health research. (ipl.org)
  • Animal testing, animal experimentation, and animal research all refer to the experimentation carried out on animals. (ipl.org)
  • It is important to note that much of the research on CBN, like many studies on cannabinoids, was done on animals not people, and it goes without saying, that people are not the same as animals (though there are *some* similarities). (hightimes.com)
  • PETA entities fund the development of many of these non-animal methods, publish research on their superiority to animal tests, and vigorously promote their use to governments and companies around the world. (peta.org.uk)
  • Studies show that these models can accurately predict the ways that new drugs will react in the human body and can end the use of animals in exploratory research and many standard drug tests. (peta.org.uk)
  • Patients will benefit because they will no longer be damaged by misleading data, and also because the resources currently pouring into animal research will be freed for clinical research. (safermedicines.org)
  • Replacement refers to proactively adopting methods which avoid or replace the use of animals, reduction relates to effective methods that reduce the number of animals being used, and refinement refers to efforts to improve animal care and experimental procedures to minimize study-related pain and distress out of respect for the life of experimental animals. (jnss.org)
  • With this in mind, the world's most forward-thinking scientists are developing and using methods for studying diseases and testing products that replace the use of animals and are actually relevant to human health. (peta.org.uk)
  • One Health is a comparative clinical approach which promotes better collaboration between human and animal health professionals in order to reduce the spread of zoonotic diseases. (who.int)
  • About Animal Testing) All of which, last I checked, could not consent to be a "guinea pig" to science. (ipl.org)
  • As an animal model, the zebrafish offers many advantages that save researchers time and money. (theconversation.com)
  • Some companies, such as the HµRel Corporation, have already turned these chips into products that researchers can use in place of animals. (peta.org.uk)
  • Of the twelve remaining members, one half are researchers, animal experiment technicians or animal experiment staff. (lu.se)
  • Animal studies are a mainstay for scientific and medical advances related to the human brain, and their use will allow for assessment of the safety and benefits of new diagnostic and therapeutic modalities. (jnss.org)
  • The American Veterinary Medical Association has defined One Health as "…the collaborative efforts of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally and globally, to attain optimal health for people, animals, and our environment" [2]. (who.int)
  • An animal, specially mouses and rabbits, are exposed to the test substance, either being forced to eat it, breathe it, have it rubbed on their skin, or have it injected. (ipl.org)
  • The non-animal methods avoid the cruel use of rabbits in this painful procedure. (peta.org.uk)
  • Quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR) are computer-based techniques that can replace animal tests by making a sophisticated prediction of a substance's likelihood of being hazardous, based on its similarity to existing substances and our knowledge of human biology. (peta.org.uk)
  • In fact, there is evidence that testing new drugs and treatments for human disease on animals endangers human health and safety - for example, hormone replacement therapy increases women's risk of heart disease and stroke, even though studies in monkeys predicted the opposite. (safermedicines.org)
  • A toxin is any poisonous substance of microbial (bacteria or other tiny plants or animals), vegetable, or synthetic chemical origin that reacts with specific cellular components to kill cells, alter growth or development, or kill the organism. (cdc.gov)
  • I believe that if we really wanted to, we could work steadily towards a day in 10 to 20 years' time when animal experimentation will have disappeared. (peta.org.uk)
  • After establishing reliable estimates of auditory sensitivity, the animals were exposed for 5 days to an octave band of noise centered at 0.5 kilohertz and having a sound pressure level of 95 decibels. (cdc.gov)
  • Cannon supported animal experimentation and opposed the arguments of anti-vivisectionists. (wikipedia.org)
  • With the animals they will test things that will benefit human health. (ipl.org)
  • These guidelines are intended to assist JNS members to understand the significance of, and legitimately implement, legally compliant animal studies. (jnss.org)
  • The studies described in the article would indicate that very small pieces of genetic material from plants and animals are, and always have been, a part of our diet. (price-pottenger.org)
  • the One Health approach encourages to the overlap of human and animal While agreeing with their premise, I is the use of epidemiological studies health. (who.int)
  • You must be at least 16 years of age to travel with an animal. (airtransat.com)
  • Dozens of treatments for stroke have tested safe and effective in animals in recent years but patients have been injured or killed by all of them. (safermedicines.org)
  • Over 25 million animals are used for experimentation each year in the United States alone. (ipl.org)
  • For the Eskimos of Alaska the native diet consisted of a liberal use of organs and other special tissues of the large animal life of the sea, as well as of fish. (price-pottenger.org)
  • The bulk of their diet, however, was fish and large animal life of the sea from which they selected certain organs and tissues with great care and wisdom. (price-pottenger.org)
  • This series of reports on animal experimentation with a large number of chemical substances by Lehmann and associates continued through Part 35 in Volume 83 (1914), followed by a final comprehensive paper of 137 pages on chlorinated hydrocarbons in Ref. 14. (cdc.gov)
  • The diversity of ALS-related mutations has given rise to the use of numerous animal models with diverse phenotypes, ranging from no effect on MN function to severe progressive paralysis ( Philips and Rothstein, 2015 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • However, and poor choice of animal models in standardization of procedures in animal he disagrees with our conclusion. (who.int)
  • Allocate funding towards the use and development of animal-free methods. (nzavs.org.nz)
  • The first group of six animals was tested daily and at 40 days after exposure. (cdc.gov)
  • Companies and governments are increasingly using QSAR tools to avoid testing chemicals on animals, and PETA US actively promotes and funds their use internationally. (peta.org.uk)
  • After that step is done, animals are observed for toxic reactions such as: vomiting, diarrhea, convulsions, respiratory distress, appetite or weight loss, rashes and allergic reactions, skin and eye irritation, and many other harmful effects. (ipl.org)
  • Would you have more confidence in a battery of these human-based tests than in data from animal tests? (safermedicines.org)
  • After the scientists collect all the needed information the animal is then killed to end the experiment, worse still, their internal organs are often examined for harmful effects- depending on the type of tests, the experiment may last for a few hours or may last up to several days or even months. (ipl.org)
  • This confirms what Europeans for Medical Progress suspected - that a silent majority of doctors today are aware that animal tests are not the safety net the public and the medical profession are frequently assured they are by the government and the pharmaceutical industry. (safermedicines.org)
  • This is an important survey result which rightly questions the extent to which it is safe to rely on extrapolated results from animal tests. (safermedicines.org)
  • Animals are not ours to experiment on, eat, wear, use for entertainment or abuse in any other way. (peta.org.uk)
  • The US government must stop pumping money into horrific animal experimentation! (techstartups.com)
  • However, animal glands have been valued as food and as medicine for centuries. (price-pottenger.org)
  • That is the most cost-effective thing to do, but because most people choose not to eat animal glands, you are not likely to find them in the meat counter at your local store. (price-pottenger.org)
  • Commit to phasing out the requirements for animal testing in NZ law. (nzavs.org.nz)
  • I will be defending the claim that not only is animal testing unethical, but it is unreliable. (ipl.org)
  • As far as animal testing for cosmetics, its absurd. (ipl.org)
  • Frankly, animal testing is unethical on many levels. (ipl.org)
  • Animal testing has been in existence for as long as recorded history. (ipl.org)