Animal Experimentation: The use of animals as investigational subjects.Animal Rights: The moral and ethical bases of the protection of animals from cruelty and abuse. The rights are extended to domestic animals, laboratory animals, and wild animals.Animal Testing Alternatives: Procedures, such as TISSUE CULTURE TECHNIQUES; mathematical models; etc., when used or advocated for use in place of the use of animals in research or diagnostic laboratories.Animals, LaboratoryAnimal Welfare: The protection of animals in laboratories or other specific environments by promoting their health through better nutrition, housing, and care.Animal Use Alternatives: Alternatives to the use of animals in research, testing, and education. The alternatives may include reduction in the number of animals used, replacement of animals with a non-animal model or with animals of a species lower phylogenetically, or refinement of methods to minimize pain and distress of animals used.Human Characteristics: The fundamental dispositions and traits of humans. (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Human Experimentation: The use of humans as investigational subjects.Nontherapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.Therapeutic Human Experimentation: Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.War Crimes: Criminal acts committed during, or in connection with, war, e.g., maltreatment of prisoners, willful killing of civilians, etc.EssaysHistory, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.History, 18th Century: Time period from 1701 through 1800 of the common era.Ethology: The discipline pertaining to the study of animal behavior.Crows: Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).Chromatin Immunoprecipitation: A technique for identifying specific DNA sequences that are bound, in vivo, to proteins of interest. It involves formaldehyde fixation of CHROMATIN to crosslink the DNA-BINDING PROTEINS to the DNA. After shearing the DNA into small fragments, specific DNA-protein complexes are isolated by immunoprecipitation with protein-specific ANTIBODIES. Then, the DNA isolated from the complex can be identified by PCR amplification and sequencing.Dissection: The separation and isolation of tissues for surgical purposes, or for the analysis or study of their structures.Laboratory Animal Science: The science and technology dealing with the procurement, breeding, care, health, and selection of animals used in biomedical research and testing.Hemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome: An acute febrile disease occurring predominately in Asia. It is characterized by fever, prostration, vomiting, hemorrhagic phenonema, shock, and renal failure. It is caused by any one of several closely related species of the genus Hantavirus. The most severe form is caused by HANTAAN VIRUS whose natural host is the rodent Apodemus agrarius. Milder forms are caused by SEOUL VIRUS and transmitted by the rodents Rattus rattus and R. norvegicus, and the PUUMALA VIRUS with transmission by Clethrionomys galreolus.Education, Veterinary: Use for general articles concerning veterinary medical education.Hantaan virus: The type species of the genus HANTAVIRUS infecting the rodent Apodemus agrarius and humans who come in contact with it. It causes syndromes of hemorrhagic fever associated with vascular and especially renal pathology.Hemorrhagic Fevers, Viral: A group of viral diseases of diverse etiology but having many similar clinical characteristics; increased capillary permeability, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia are common to all. Hemorrhagic fevers are characterized by sudden onset, fever, headache, generalized myalgia, backache, conjunctivitis, and severe prostration, followed by various hemorrhagic symptoms. Hemorrhagic fever with kidney involvement is HEMORRHAGIC FEVER WITH RENAL SYNDROME.Carcinoma, Hepatocellular: A primary malignant neoplasm of epithelial liver cells. It ranges from a well-differentiated tumor with EPITHELIAL CELLS indistinguishable from normal HEPATOCYTES to a poorly differentiated neoplasm. The cells may be uniform or markedly pleomorphic, or form GIANT CELLS. Several classification schemes have been suggested.Cyclin E: A 50-kDa protein that complexes with CYCLIN-DEPENDENT KINASE 2 in the late G1 phase of the cell cycle.Liver Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.Cyclin-Dependent Kinases: Protein kinases that control cell cycle progression in all eukaryotes and require physical association with CYCLINS to achieve full enzymatic activity. Cyclin-dependent kinases are regulated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation events.Oncogene Proteins: Proteins coded by oncogenes. They include proteins resulting from the fusion of an oncogene and another gene (ONCOGENE PROTEINS, FUSION).Cell Line, Tumor: A cell line derived from cultured tumor cells.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Local Lymph Node Assay: The local lymph node assay (LLNA) is an alternative method for the identification of chemicals that have the ability to cause skin sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis. Endpoints have been established so fewer animals are required and less painful procedures are used.Dermatitis, Allergic Contact: A contact dermatitis due to allergic sensitization to various substances. These substances subsequently produce inflammatory reactions in the skin of those who have acquired hypersensitivity to them as a result of prior exposure.Laboratory Proficiency Testing: Assessments aimed at determining agreement in diagnostic test results among laboratories. Identical survey samples are distributed to participating laboratories, with results stratified according to testing methodologies.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Irritants: Drugs that act locally on cutaneous or mucosal surfaces to produce inflammation; those that cause redness due to hyperemia are rubefacients; those that raise blisters are vesicants and those that penetrate sebaceous glands and cause abscesses are pustulants; tear gases and mustard gases are also irritants.Galaxies: Large aggregates of CELESTIAL STARS; COSMIC DUST; and gas. (From McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Philosophy: A love or pursuit of wisdom. A search for the underlying causes and principles of reality. (Webster, 3d ed)Philosophy, MedicalBooksQuackery: The fraudulent misrepresentation of the diagnosis and treatment of disease.Hospices: Facilities or services which are especially devoted to providing palliative and supportive care to the patient with a terminal illness and to the patient's family.Natural History: A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.History, 17th Century: Time period from 1601 through 1700 of the common era.History, 15th Century: Time period from 1401 through 1500 of the common era.History, 16th Century: Time period from 1501 through 1600 of the common era.History, Medieval: The period of history from the year 500 through 1450 of the common era.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A: The original member of the family of endothelial cell growth factors referred to as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS. Vascular endothelial growth factor-A was originally isolated from tumor cells and referred to as "tumor angiogenesis factor" and "vascular permeability factor". Although expressed at high levels in certain tumor-derived cells it is produced by a wide variety of cell types. In addition to stimulating vascular growth and vascular permeability it may play a role in stimulating VASODILATION via NITRIC OXIDE-dependent pathways. Alternative splicing of the mRNA for vascular endothelial growth factor A results in several isoforms of the protein being produced.Neovascularization, Pathologic: A pathologic process consisting of the proliferation of blood vessels in abnormal tissues or in abnormal positions.Receptors, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: A family of closely related RECEPTOR PROTEIN-TYROSINE KINASES that bind vascular endothelial growth factors. They share a cluster of seven extracellular Ig-like domains which are important for ligand binding. They are highly expressed in vascular endothelial cells and are critical for the physiological and pathological growth, development and maintenance of blood and lymphatic vessels.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2: A 200-230-kDa tyrosine kinase receptor for vascular endothelial growth factors found primarily in endothelial and hematopoietic cells and their precursors. VEGFR-2 is important for vascular and hematopoietic development, and mediates almost all endothelial cell responses to VEGF.Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors: A family of angiogenic proteins that are closely-related to VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR A. They play an important role in the growth and differentiation of vascular as well as lymphatic endothelial cells.Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Agents and endogenous substances that antagonize or inhibit the development of new blood vessels.Endothelial Growth Factors: These growth factors are soluble mitogens secreted by a variety of organs. The factors are a mixture of two single chain polypeptides which have affinity to heparin. Their molecular weight are organ and species dependent. They have mitogenic and chemotactic effects and can stimulate endothelial cells to grow and synthesize DNA. The factors are related to both the basic and acidic FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS but have different amino acid sequences.

An international survey of medical ethics curricula in Asia. (1/197)

SETTING: Medical ethics education has become common, and the integrated ethics curriculum has been recommended in Western countries. It should be questioned whether there is one, universal method of teaching ethics applicable worldwide to medical schools, especially those in non-Western developing countries. OBJECTIVE: To characterise the medical ethics curricula at Asian medical schools. DESIGN: Mailed survey of 206 medical schools in China, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Korea, Mongolia, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Australia and New Zealand. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 100 medical schools responded, a response rate of 49%, ranging from 23%-100% by country. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The degree of integration of the ethics programme into the formal medical curriculum was measured by lecture time; whether compulsory or elective; whether separate courses or unit of other courses; number of courses; schedule; total length, and diversity of teachers' specialties. RESULTS: A total of 89 medical schools (89%) reported offering some courses in which ethical topics were taught. Separate medical ethics courses were mostly offered in all countries, and the structure of vertical integration was divided into four patterns. Most deans reported that physicians' obligations and patients' rights were the most important topics for their students. However, the evaluation was diverse for more concrete topics. CONCLUSION: Offering formal medical ethics education is a widespread feature of medical curricula throughout the study area. However, the kinds of programmes, especially with regard to integration into clinical teaching, were greatly diverse.  (+info)

A reply to Joseph Bernstein. (2/197)

Dr. Bernstein suggests that anti-vivisectionists should be able to fill in a directive requesting that they receive no medical treatment developed through work on animals. It is replied that this would only be reasonable if research not using animals had long been funded as adequately and its results were currently available.  (+info)

Animal experiments: conference report.(3/197)

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Methods in vascular infusion biotechnology in research with rodents. (4/197)

Infusion of experimental compounds into the vascular system of rodents and the need to collect blood and other biological fluids from small animals comprise an area of emerging importance to biomedical research and drug discovery and development. The advances in the development of transgenic rodents coupled with technical progress in the manufacture and commercial availability of various catheters, swivels, tethers, infusion pumps, and sample collection systems that are described have enabled biomedical scientists to miniaturize vascular infusion and sample collection systems previously used in animal species larger than the rat or mouse. Use of these advanced, miniature vascular infusion systems in rodents is possible only when careful planning of experimental design, expert surgical technique, adequate postoperative care, and fundamental animal welfare considerations are meticulously taken into consideration. Use of these vascular infusion systems in rodents promotes animal welfare and scientific progress through the reduction and refinement of animal models.  (+info)

Animal experimentation in sciences: sadistic nonsense or indispensable necessity? (5/197)

The history of biomedical research clearly shows that, with exception of a very few, scientific findings could be realised only with the help of animal experiments. Unfortunately, in the past the life of animals was treated negligently and, at times, in fact criminally. Only the researchers' willingness to apply ethical principles toward laboratory animals could create a climate in which research is opening up to constructive, active animal protection and is ready to co-operate through the implementations of such programmes as the 3R-principle into daily practice. Using a number of examples, the article at hand tries to show that the dimensions concerning animal protection is very old indeed and that only a change of consciousness by the public and in research has created a situation in which a gentler treatment of life and life conditions of laboratory animals could be realised. A further development of "constructive" animal protection within the industrialised nations is only possible with this back ground. Without such a development, biomedical research is bound for deficits in one way or another. It will be loosing it's medical and economical opportunities and with it, it's meaning for man.  (+info)

Use of animals in research: a science--society controversy? The American perspective: animal welfare issues. (6/197)

My paper will focus on those events happening within the United States during the last year. The issue of including or excluding rats, birds and mice from inclusion under the Animal Welfare Act has been a difficult battle for both those that wish to exclude them and those that wish to include these animals under this legislation. As of the writing of this abstract, the Senate, which originally intended to include rats, birds and mice under the Animal Welfare Act, has passed an amendment which will permanently exclude their listing under this Act. During the last several years it has become clear that refinement, as one of the 3Rs, has and will become the most important set of activities to add humanness to animal experimentation. It is clear that refinement approaches provide the opportunity to possibly eliminate or significantly minimize any pain or distress in animal protocol. My presentation will focus on CAAT's (http://caat.jhsph.edu) activities in this important area. Understanding potential health hazards to environmental industrial chemicals has become a major focus of activity both in the US, Europe and Japan. These programs offer the first opportunity to provide information, in the public domain, on these chemicals. One of the consequences, however, is the potential requirement for large numbers of animals. In the presentation, I will focus on two approaches to significantly including the 3Rs in these important programs. Although it is common practice in Japan to recognize contributions of laboratory animals through a day of memorialization, this has not been the case in the United States. During the last year, several activities have been initiated to begin to institutionalize memorial services for animals used in research. As the host institution of Altweb (http://altweb.jhsph.edu), the alternative web site internationally, current statistics and accomplishments will be provided on its worldwide utilization.  (+info)

An ergonomics process for the care and use of research animals. (7/197)

Personnel who work with laboratory animals incur potential occupational health risks that can lead to the development of musculoskeletal disorders. Demanding manual tasks may also result in increased errors, worker fatigue, poor human performance, and decreased productivity. Studies have shown that a comprehensive ergonomics program that utilizes a systematic risk management approach can reduce the likelihood of exposure to musculoskeletal disorder risk factors and remove barriers to human performance. Research has characterized the risk factors of musculoskeletal disorder exposure in terms of force, frequency, posture, and muscle exertion. Ergonomic risk factors for typical animal handling tasks and work areas are identified, and a method is suggested for prioritizing interventions using interrelated data indicators. An initial review of potential control measures is offered to improve the health, safety, and effectiveness of people involved in the care and use of research animals.  (+info)

Occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities. (8/197)

Occupational medicine is a key component of a comprehensive occupational health and safety program in support of laboratory animal research and production facilities. The mission of the department is to maximize employee health and productivity utilizing a population health management approach, which includes measurement and analysis of health benefits utilization. The department works in close cooperation with other institutional health and safety professionals to identify potential risks from exposure to physical, chemical, and biological hazards in the workplace. As soon as exposures are identified, the department is responsible for formulating and providing appropriate medical surveillance programs. Occupational medicine is also responsible for targeted delivery of preventive and wellness services; management of injury, disease, and disability; maintenance of medical information; and other clinic services required by the institution. Recommendations are provided for the organization and content of occupational medicine programs for animal research facilities.  (+info)

Activists Against Animal Experimentation. The Activist Against Animal Experimentation is resolved to end the use of animal testing for medical, cosmetic and household purposes etc,. We post petitions, news, stories and info regarding animal testing. Please join up and help the cause! (Animals & Pets)
The ethical treatment of animals is one of serious academic interest today. Specifically, both the practice of animal experimentation and ethical concerns about it have a long history, going virtually back to the ancient Greek period and continuing to the present day. With new breakthroughs in science and technology, it is likely that this practice will be with us for a long time to come. Thus, this book provides an interdisciplinary approach to the topic by utilizing the insights of cognitive ethology, philosophy, science, and Christian theology in order to present a benign approach to the ethical treatment of experimental animals. The reality and existence of animal minds, animal pain, and animal suffering provide the foundation for animal rights, and subsequently, for more positive treatment. Concrete suggestions are offered with regard to more humane animal legislation, improved animal husbandry conditions, as well as concrete guidelines that offset the burdens to animals against the benefits to
Abstract Public acceptance of genetic modification (GM) technologies may be essential to their continued development, yet few studies have investigated the manner in which demographic and educational factors predict support for GM research. The current study examined attitudes toward animal research and GM in ~400 university undergraduates enrolled in introductory or upper-level psychology courses with material on animal experimentation. Results revealed that men were more accepting of animal and GM research than were women. Enrollment in upper-level psychology classes that addressed specific topics in animal research did not directly predict support for GM research, but such enrollment was associated with increased endorsement of the validity of animal research, which then contributed to acceptance of GM scenarios. The current findings highlight the impact of educational variables on support for animal research, which may then influence attitudes toward GM research.
Animal experimentation is a crucial component of scientific research and education. Most advances in modern biomedical science can be traced back to original studies in animals. The university continues to support this critical research while fully appreciating its additional complexities.. All animal research must be approved by the universitys Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC), which works close with the Comparative Medicine-Laboratory Animal Facilities (CM-LAF) to help researchers develop effective and compliant protocols. ...
Animals And Their Rights!! Essay, Research Paper What is animal experimentation? Scientific researchers use animal experimentation for biomedical and veterinary research to enhance human health and possibly the welfare of other animals. They claim that successful medical treatments including antibiotics, vaccines and other drugs have been developed with the aid of animal experiments, and such research a crucial means of investigation of and the development of treatments for serious diseases.
Some governments provide detailed information on the number of animal experiments carried out each year. In the United Kingdom, for instance, the annual report
TY - JOUR. T1 - Predictive value of in vitro assays depends on the mechanism of toxicity of metal oxide nanoparticles. AU - Cho, Wan-Seob. AU - Duffin, Rodger. AU - Bradley, Mark. AU - Megson, Ian L. AU - Macnee, William. AU - Lee, Jong Kwon. AU - Jeong, Jayoung. AU - Donaldson, Ken. PY - 2013/10/25. Y1 - 2013/10/25. N2 - Hazard identification for risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is mainly composed of in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo animal experimentation. The rapidly increasing number and functionalizations of NPs makes in vivo toxicity tests undesirable on both ethical and financial grounds, creating an urgent need for development of in vitro cell-based assays that accurately predict in vivo toxicity and facilitate safe nanotechnology.. AB - Hazard identification for risk assessment of nanoparticles (NPs) is mainly composed of in vitro cell-based assays and in vivo animal experimentation. The rapidly increasing number and functionalizations of NPs makes in vivo toxicity tests ...
The ideas of cybernetics, and especially that of feedback control, have impressed themselves on society in many ways, of which factory automation is only one. Self-monitoring, or self-awareness, is one of the central components of human individual intelligence (Halstead, 1947; Russell and Russell, 1957, and in press). The notion has been grasped at the sociological level. In industry and commerce it is becoming a routine measure for any large organization to devote considerable staff and expense to the monitoring of its own activities (cf. Meier, 1956). We are, therefore, disposed to expect a large and comprehensive literature of sources on the subject of animal experimentation (cf. Russell, in press, a). For it seems reasonable to suppose that science itself must adopt the principle of informative feedback, and animal experimentation in this country alone is an industry running to millions in commercial terms.. It is therefore surprising to discover the relative dearth of this sort of ...
The Critical Cat interview with Stop UBC Animal Research to investigate how prolific animal experimentation is at UBC and what they are doing to fight it.
The Animal Protection Center of Southeastern Massachusetts is a non-profit organization that serves the animals and people of the community.. Our adoption center serves to care for and re-home homeless pets. Dogs, cats, rabbits, small mammals and birds all benefit from the attention and love provided by our dedicated staff and volunteers.. The Animal Protection Center of Southeastern Massachusetts also strives to help pet owners take the best care of their pets by providing resources such as training, low-cost vaccination and microchip clinics, and humane education outreach to children. ...
It is now more than 20 years since both Council of Europe Convention ETS123 and EU Directive 86/609?EEC were introduced, to promote the implementation of the Three Rs in animal experimentation and to provide guidance on animal housing and care. It might therefore be expected that reports of the implementation of the Three Rs in animal research papers would have increased during this period. In order to test this hypothesis, a literature survey of animal-based research was conducted. A randomly- selected sample from 16 high-profile medical journals, of original research papers arising from European institutions that featured experiments which involved either mice or primates, were identified for the years 1986 and 2006 (Total sample = 250 papers). Each paper was scored out of 10 for the incidence of reporting on the implementation of Three Rs-related factors corresponding to Replacement (justification of non-use of non-animal methods), Reduction (statistical analysis of the number of animals ...
Tomo Editorial and HSI launched Animal Experimentation: An Obstacle to Scientific Progress, a book providing an in-depth analysis of animal use in research from a scientific and historical perspective. The book is part of a growing movement among the Brazilian and international scientific community questioning the effectiveness of animals as models of human biology and disease.
Bhat, Ajaz A; Younes, Salma N; Raza, Syed Shadab; Zarif, Lubna; Nisar, Sabah; Ahmed, Ikhlak; Mir, Rashid; Kumar, Sachin; Sharawat, Surender K; Hashem, Sheema; Elfaki, Imadeldin; Kulinski, Michal; Kuttikrishnan, Shilpa; Prabhu, Kirti S; Khan, Abdul Q; Yadav, Santosh K; El-Rifai, Wael; Zargar, Mohammad A; Zayed, Hatem; Haris, Mohammad; Uddin, Shahab... more authors ... less authors ...
Al-Awar A.; Alm?si N.; Szab? R.; Takacs I.; Murlasits Z.; Sz?cs G.; T?r?k S.; P?sa A.; Varga C.; Kupai K.... more authors ... less authors ...
In 1985, the U.S. Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) advised that "unless the contrary is established, investigators should consider that procedures that cause pain or distress in human beings may cause pain or distress in animals"(http://www.aclam.org/pub_pain_distress.html). Accordingly, the humane use of research animals requires adequate veterinary medical care during animal experimentations and includes the prevention or the alleviation of pain associated with procedural or surgical protocols (clinical pain). Guidelines on the recognition of pain are accepted by researchers but often not so easy to put into practice, especially with mice, the most frequently used laboratory animals. Why?. Mice live in constant fear of falling prey to their enemies, therefore they are prone to show as few signs of disease, suffering or weakness as possible [2-4]. Accordingly, during animal experiments, or even when a person is simply present in the room, the mouse will hide almost all signs of ...
In 1985, the U.S. Interagency Research Animal Committee (IRAC) advised that "unless the contrary is established, investigators should consider that procedures that cause pain or distress in human beings may cause pain or distress in animals"(http://www.aclam.org/pub_pain_distress.html). Accordingly, the humane use of research animals requires adequate veterinary medical care during animal experimentations and includes the prevention or the alleviation of pain associated with procedural or surgical protocols (clinical pain). Guidelines on the recognition of pain are accepted by researchers but often not so easy to put into practice, especially with mice, the most frequently used laboratory animals. Why?. Mice live in constant fear of falling prey to their enemies, therefore they are prone to show as few signs of disease, suffering or weakness as possible [2-4]. Accordingly, during animal experiments, or even when a person is simply present in the room, the mouse will hide almost all signs of ...
The branch of animal research in Halhale Agriculture Research Center will distribute special animal feed in the near future, disclosed Dr. Tsegai Tesfai, head of the branch. Halhale, 7 March 2011 - The branch of animal research in Halhale Agriculture Research Center will distribute special animal feed in the near future, disclosed Dr. Tsegai Tesfai, head of the branch. He told ERINA that the branch has conducted research on 550 grazing grasses that can adapt to drought in collaboration with an Australian research center and that 12 select grass have already been distributed in various parts of Gash-Barka, Anseba and Central regions for experiment purposes. Dr. Tsegai said the rest would be directly distributed to farmers after it is multiplied. Dr. Tsegai explained that producing animal feed from various cereals such as maize, sorghum and the like that can boost milk production are some of the future major work programs of the research center. ...
While it is important to provide a full explanation of the reasons why animal research and testing is important for modern medicine, it can sometimes be useful to have a handful of short pro animal research one-liners on hand. These work particularly well for Twitter - which is why each of our lines below includes…
Scientists have managed to successfully open and close the protective cover around the brain - the blood-brain barrier - in a human patient as a means for drug delivery, following work in a range of animals including mice and monkeys.
More studies need to be done, but we think theres potentially no limit on the diseases this screening disease could be applied to other than the human imagination,". http://www.diabetes.co.uk/news/2015/aug/zebrafish-embryos-used-to-identify-potential-type-1-diabetes-drugs-95530698.html. 26/08/15. Resveratrol, a chemical found in the skin of grapes (and consequently red wine) may have beneficial cardiovascular effects. However, studies in dogs show varying effects on the immune systems of dogs - increasing and decreasing it in different ways simultaneously.. Axiak-Bechtel said "Seeing a decrease in neutrophil function typically means an immune system is losing the ability to kill invaders like bacteria. Combining this loss of bacteria-fighting ability with an increase in inflammatory cytokines creates a very interesting mixed message in terms of what resveratrol is doing to the immune system.". http://www.alnmag.com/news/2015/08/red-wine-compound-causes-conflicting-changes-dogs-immune-systems ...
BY KURT CUNNINGHAM , JUNE 12, 2009 7:26 AM UI researchers will have a new underground facility to house animals after the state Board of Regents approved an indoor enclosure for $11.2 million at Thursdays meeting.. Scientists hope the new facility - which will cost almost $134 million - will contribute to better research and security.. At 35,000 square feet, the underground lab will connect the Medical Education Research Facility and Carver Biomedical Research Building. It is a late addition to the Institute for Biomedical Discovery - a project the UI has already started. Officials set aside state and federal money in 2007 to be distributed over several years for the initial project. They also received private donations given specifically to the project, said UI spokesman Tom Moore. "Science is important to Iowans," he said. "Dr. George Weiner [the director of the Holden Comprehensive Cancer Center] says there are many research ideas that dont get funded, and a facility such this increases the ...
The new EU directive on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes (2010/63/EU) has been implemented. One of the requirements of the directive is that each breeder, supplier and user of laboratory animals sets up an Animal Welfare Body (AWB, Instantie voor Dierenwelzijn, IvD in The Netherlands). The AWB helps to ensure a responsible animal experimentation policy and is responsible for the a number of tasks: The animal-welfare body shall, as a minimum, carry out the following tasks: Advice the staff dealing with animals on matters related to the welfare of animals, in relation to their acquisition, accommodation, care and use; Advise the staff on the application of the requirement of replacement, reduction and refinement, and keep it informed of technical and scientific developments concerning the application of that requirement; Establish and review internal operational processes as regards monitoring, reporting and follow-up in relation to the welfare of animals housed or used in ...
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Learn all about the field of medical research and experimentation with insightful articles and fascinating updates in the field of medicine. From animal experimentation, clinical trials, biomedicine, and breakthroughs in medical technology, weve got you covered.
Because scientific inquiry involves exploration of the unknown, the outcome of experimental procedures is sometimes unpredictable. In the case of animal experimentation, this may result in situations in which animal health and/or welfare are adversely affected.. Genetically manipulated animals (GMA) provide a good example. Initially, the overall effect(s) of a particular genetic manipulation may be unknown. However, once animals are generated the resulting novel phenotypes may include immune deficiency, metabolic disorders, behavioral abnormalities or other health issues that make those animals more susceptible to disease or distress. GMA lines that exhibit abnormalities in health or behavior often require the establishment of revised husbandry and/or monitoring protocols. Humane endpoints specific for the GMA line may also need to be developed. More information on assessing the welfare of GMA can be found on the NC3Rs site.. In the case of a new GMA line it is recommended that the first ...
It is my pleasure to welcome you to join us at the Noguchi Memorial Institute for Medical Research (NMIMR), Ghanas leading biomedical research institute at the University of Ghana. The Institute has over the years embarked on a series of initiatives to upgrade its research infrastructure and human capacity to attract the worlds best scientists, technologists, postdoctoral fellows, postgraduate students, undergraduate interns, and health professionals through training and experiential learning. Our community continues to grow and we are happy to share our research, training and learning experience with you.. At the NMIMR, we conduct both laboratory and field-based research into communicable and non-communicable diseases of public health importance; led by researchers in nine departments of the institute, namely Animal Experimentation, Bacteriology, Clinical Pathology, Electron Microscopy and Histopathology, Epidemiology, Immunology, Nutrition Parasitology, and Virology. Whether you are a ...
Andy Maniotis (University of Iowa), American Journal of Pathology, 1999 Cancer! Its our Grim Reaper, todays Black Death, a dark and terrible health threat and destroyer of lives. We hear about it, read about it, and fear it more deeply than any other present disease. Ominously, projections indicate that one in every five of us will die of cancer, and 40 percent of us will have a diagnosis of cancer sometime in life. Considering that there are more than 200 different forms of human cancer alone, the hope for a magic bullet that will cure all is just pie in the sky. The disease first went political in 1971, when the Nixon administration declared the War on Cancer. We all know the war has not yet been won, even with billions poured into it every year. In fact, cancer deaths have increased steadily. This humiliating defeat is in large part due to our addiction to animal experimentation. It is an open secret in scientific circles that animal-modeled biomedical research yields results that cant ...
Animal experimentation and the models by which it is conducted are a core component of the Preclinical Translational Research Units work. Animal models are the primary mode of research responsible for translating preclinical project work into successful clinical trials, which is why they are a focus of our unit.. We work to create animal models that minimize the consumption of resources, especially time and money, without allowing for any compromise in the integrity of our data or their reproducibility. By continually striving to uphold these standards while continually striving to assess and improve our animal models we ensure that we consistently deliver optimum results and solutions.. Under the Duke Preclinical Translational Research Units expert guidance we hope to be able assist our partners in designing the model and method that allow for the creation of experiments that run correctly the first time, reducing waste and repetition.. We employ the following animal types for our animal ...
Science Institutions are concerned with their public image, which often determines their funding, so that they are often keen to be seen to promote public dialogue and engagement.. . Many government departments are interested in science education, training teachers, etc. Often they have funds for specific public projects like adult learning, animal experimentation, synthetic biology etc.,. . Many cultural and artistic groups are now including science in their agendas, since human sciences are questioning the traditional views of art, philosophy, literature, etc. So Arts centres are often keen to adopt SciCafes.. . As for schools cafes, it is clear that science education is in crisis almost everywhere in the world, so that new ideas are widely acceptable. Approaching teachers, individual schools and education authorities is a fairly easy way to start Cafes in schools - although it is more difficult to keep them free from the hierarchy within the school.. So in many ways the Cafes can build ...
First, it is interesting per se, to find common psycho-physiologic grounds between our and other animals behaviour and "psyche." Second, such commonality allows us to explore new ways (treatments, drugs) for dealing with human suffering (anxieties, depressions, phobias etc.). I do not know of any other procedure or behavioural test, or physiological index, that compares anxiety and relief, which would provide 20-fold (2000%) difference in objective measurements (it is usually measured in fractions, like 35% or so). Our rats sigh approx. 25 times/hour spontaneously, less than 10/h when anxious, but more than 180/h when relieved! So, consider, if you really have experimental animals` wellbeing in mind and not just negative feeling about any animal experimentation, that far fewer animals will be required to test a new psychotropic drug or some other procedure, when measuring emotional states (using sighs instead of heart rate, blood pressure etc.) is so dramatically improved (as demonstrated by ...
St. Lukes-Roosevelt Institute for Health Sciences, New York, NY - Facility Reports and Information - Resources and Links From Stop Animal Exploitation NOW! (SAEN) - Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation
University of Akron cited in the deaths of 2 voles in research lab - Media Coverage - Stop Animal Exploitation NOW! - Exposing the truth to wipe out animal experimentation
new approaches for a new millennium. (beginning narration). Education and training in the life sciences require that students learn a diversity of skills as well as the traditional knowledge base.. Graduates who enter the professions must be familiar with the technology employed in todays laboratories and clinics, and with the design and performance of experiments.. Of equal importance is the ability to communicate well with patients, and the sensitivity to appreciate complex ecological systems.. Some will also need hands-on experience of animals and animal tissue for their careers.. All students of biological science and veterinary and human medicine perform practical work to illustrate knowledge and to gain a number of these skills, practical work which for some involves dissection and animal experimentation.. But the tools and approaches used by teachers are evolving in response to developments in technology and the demands of students and society itself.. In this film, we investigate new ...
BALB/c is an albino, laboratory-bred strain of the house mouse from which a number of common substrains are derived. Now over 200 generations from New York in 1920, BALB/c mice are distributed globally, and are among the most widely used inbred strains used in animal experimentation. The founding animals of the strain were obtained by Halsey J. Bagg of Memorial Hospital, New York, from a mouse dealer in Ohio in 1913. From 1920, the progeny of the original colony were systematically inbred, sibling to sibling, for 26 generations over 15 years. During this time, the colony passed through the care of a number of scientists, including C.C. Little and E.C. MacDowell at the Carnegie Institution of Washington and H.J. Muller at the University of Texas at Austin. By 1935 the animals were in the possession of Mullers student, George Davis Snell, who moved them to The Jackson Laboratory. This stock provided the basis of all the BALB/c substrains that are now in use around the world. Snell provided some ...
​The Center For Ethical Science (CFES) is a non-profit animal advocacy organization dedicated to: educating the public on the inefficacy of invasive animal experimentation; exposing how tax dollars pay for much of it and what we can do to help eliminate it; and promoting effective and humane ways of conducting scientific and cosmetic research.
The Finnish Centre for Alternative Methods (FICAM) is the centre of expertise for alternative methods to animal experimentation in Finland.
The effect of nitrogen oxides on immunity was examined in animal experimentation and in clinical trials. In guinea pig, immunity was found to be lowered following 6 months exposure to 1 ppm; there...
All advances in medicine have an underlying basis in biomedical research. Animal research is done with great care and is done with special concern for the ethical treatment of the animals. The importance of medical research lies in the fact that new knowledge in medicine and innovative development is going to take place only when medical research is done." -Michael E. DeBakey, Jr., M.D. (Legendary Heart Surgeon and Inventor ...
This recognition is now prompting some AIDS activists to argue that experiments with other species are holding back the development of safer, more-effective anti-HIV drugs. One of Britains top researchers, Prof. Robin Weiss, has expressed serious doubt that information gathered from studies of laboratory animals can help illuminate the mechanisms by which HIV sabotages the immunity of humans. Another senior AIDS doctor in Britain has described the millions of dollars spent on animal research as ...
Scientists are quickly pointing out that the use of a single inbred mouse strain as was the case in this study, is not representative. Furthermore it is known that certain inbred mouse strains are resistant to septic shock, whereas others are much more susceptible. So yes the use of a certain inbred mouse strain in one study failed to translate into medicines for mankind and illustrates the limits of this particular strain for a given research or disease, however in my mind the article also reminds us of the importance of choosing the adequate or most valid animal model for a study. If I am not mistaken certain countries demand the use of two different animal species in studies such as for example rodents and primates. I now better understand the logic behind such a policy ...
Medical advancement, animal research, nonhuman primates, air transport, live animal cargo, pharmaceutical research, Opinion based blog.
ANIMAL RESEARCH ACT ……. 20 YEARS ON. the journey begins…. 1978 - Australian Veterinary Assoc receives brief from NSW government * Separate legislation * Comprehensive review of existing legislation * Ontario legislation as model * Extensive consultation. Slideshow 68142 by Philip
Supporters of animal research do their cause no good by justifying such work solely on the grounds that it helps to find cures for disease. The benefits are much broader
... , formerly Annales de Zootechnie, publishes original articles, reviews, notes and symposium proceedings concerning research on farm animals
... plays an important role in some of our work. While we make every effort to keep their use to a minimum, some research can only take place with the use of animals.
Emma was diagnosed with heartworms, but hanks to animal research, pets like Emma receive treatment for heartworms and other illnesses
Shop a large selection of Bio-Serv™ Mouse Diet, High Fat Paste products and learn more about Bio-Serv Mouse Diet, High Fat Paste Nonsterile:Animal Research Nonsterile.
Shop a large selection of Bio-Serv™ Mouse Diet, High Fat Paste products and learn more about Bio-Serv Mouse Diet, High Fat Paste:Animal Research:Animal Care Products
Safranin is used as a dye for textiles and as a stain for various scientific procedures. Scientific procedures that involve safranin include Gram counterstaining, endospore counterstaining, granule...
REFERENCES 1. Flegal KM. The obesity epidemic in children and adults: current evidence and research issues. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999; 31: S509-S514. 2. Bertram CE, Hanson MA. Animal models and programming of the metabolic syndrome. Br Med Bull. 2001; 60:103-21. 3. Buschard K. The Use of Diabetic Animal Models. Meet A Research Group. Diabetes Research Group, Bartholin Instituttets, Copenhagen, Denmark. Scand J Lab Sci. 2001; 28: 58-58. 4. Kaplan JR, Wagner JD. Type 2 Diabetes - An Introduction to the Development and Use of Animal Models. Institute for Laboratory Animal Research (ILAR) Journal. 2006; 47(3):181-185. 5. American Diabetes Association. Diagnosis and Classification of Diabetes Mellitus. Diabetes Care. 2008; 31: S55-S60. 6. Srinivasan K, Ramarao P. Animal models in type 2 diabetes research: An overview. Indian J Med Res. 2007; 125: 451-472. 7. Okamoto J, Kanemoto N, Ohbuchi Y, Okano M, Fukui H et al. Characterization of STZ-induced type 2 diabetes in Zucker fatty rats. Exp. Anim. ...
The study of hearing in animals. In: W Gay, ed., Methods of Animal Experimentation, IV. Academic Press, London, pp 43-143. RR ... Several animal species are able to hear frequencies well beyond the human hearing range. Some dolphins and bats, for example, ... Hearing range describes the range of frequencies that can be heard by humans or other animals, though it can also refer to the ... A similar technique can be used when testing animals, where food is used as a reward for responding to the sound. Physiological ...
Applying alcohol myopia to animal experimentation". Alcohol Alcohol. 40 (5): 373-8. doi:10.1093/alcalc/agh177. PMID 15996970. ... However, non-mammalian animal models have also been employed; in particular, the Ulrike Heberlein group at UC San Francisco has ... Animal models using mammals and invertebrates have been informative in studying the effects of ethanol on not only ... Ethanol-induced intoxication is not uncommon in the animal kingdom, as noted here: "Many of us have noticed that bees or yellow ...
"The Johns Hopkins Center for Alternatives to Animal Testing (CAAT)". Retrieved 2009-06-24. PETA. "Animals in Experimentation - ... "Animal research and medical progress". About animal testing. "Scientists Against Animal Testing". The Society for Neuroscience ... Animal Experimentation Issues PCRM "Archived copy". Archived from the original on July 23, 2011. Retrieved 2015-04-06. " ... Some animal rights supporters believe that alternatives exist for animal models in research; however the vast majority of ...
The Politics of Animal Experimentation, Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. "Protecting Animals versus the Pursuit of Knowledge: The ... Animals, 19, 2011, pp. 356-367. "Animal Ethics and Public Policy", Centre for Animals and Social Justice, July 2011. "Founding ... Lyons specializes in the study of animal research, the philosophy of animal rights, and the political representation of animals ... The Politics of Animal Experimentation, Palgrave Macmillan. "Imutran Ltd v. Uncaged Campaigns Ltd and Daniel Louis Lyons", High ...
... used as a pejorative catch-all term for experimentation on live animals by organizations opposed to animal experimentation but ... American Anti-Vivisection Society Animal testing regulations Bionics Cruelty to animals Dissection Experimentation on prisoners ... Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated? Cad. Saúde Pública, Rio de Janeiro, 2007 Brozan, Nadine. Out of Death, a ... Ethics and animal experimentation: what is debated? Cad. Saúde Pública, Rio de Janeiro, 2007" Yarri, Donna. The Ethics of ...
Gruber, Franz P.; Hartung, Thomas (2004). "Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in Basic Research" (PDF). ALTEX. 21 (Suppl 1 ... Animal protection groups fought for years to end MAb production in mice because it causes intense suffering for the animals ... Even more startling, at least ten percent of the general population has been observed to carry some form of animal-derived ... It took considerable, sustained pressure from animal welfare groups, led by legal efforts initiated by the American Anti- ...
Akhtar, Aysha (7 December 2014). "The Flaws and Human Harms of Animal Experimentation". Cambridge Quarterly of Healthcare ... Critics of animal testing have cited the case to argue that experiments on nonhuman animals, even in species closely related to ... Animals raised in a sterile lab would presumably have no 'memory' of previous illnesses, thus would not exhibit the severe ... It has been reported that the initial dose was one five-hundredth of that which the animal studies indicated was a maximum safe ...
"Sacrificial Symbolism in Animal Experimentation: Object or Pet?". Anthrozoös: A Multidisciplinary Journal of the Interactions ... In social philosophy, objectification is the act of treating a person, or sometimes an animal, as an object or a thing. ... of People and Animals. 2 (2): 98-117. doi:10.2752/089279389787058091. Retrieved 2 February 2016. Nussbaum, Martha (1995). " ...
1994). Animal Experimentation: The Legacy of Claude Bernard. International studies in the Philosophy of Science, 8, 3. ... New technologies, experimental methods and animal experimentation have led to an increased understanding of the workings of ... Although there is no single ideal animal model of a human, for each problem of interest there is an animal upon which it can be ... How can one show that an animal has a good memory? There are many confounds when breeding for behaviours, however if animals ...
Animal experimentation has become something that is debated about publicly. Those who do not believe in animal experimentation ... Some statistics about animal experimentation: 20 million animals are experimented on and are killed annually, an estimated 8 ... questions arise about animal experimentation being morally right or wrong. Labs that abuse the ability to conduct animal ... discovery to advance-but some feel that those who support animal experimentation are selfish to inflict pain on other animals ...
"Senate Gets Committee Bill On Animal Experimentation". Toledo Blade. 7 June 1966. Retrieved 1 January 2011. Thompson, Richard C ... The dog was thought to be the same animal as it was traced to a farm which supplied two Dalmatians to that hospital, but by the ... Historically in the United States, dogs had been stolen and sold on for medical research, but the introduction of the Animal ... The United States Congress was already working on legislation to restrict the handling and sale of animals for research when a ...
He also initiated animal experimentation during those early years. In 1918, Wilson went overseas as the assistant director of ...
... ; M. Tariq Salman (2017). "A Guide to the Alternatives to Animal Experimentation" (fourth ed.). Aligarh, India ... "Alternatives to Animal Experimentation" in the Department of Pharmacology at Jawaharlal Nehru Medical College. This was a first ... India and Romania A Guide to the Alternatives of Animal Experimentation (ISBN 978-81-906070-4-9). Eds. Syed Ziaur Rahman and ... He even translated few papers into Urdu in the field of Alternatives to animal testing. Rahman also works in the field of ...
The book became a standard polemic against experimentation on animals. Elizabeth (August 31, 1844 - January 28, 1911) was born ... She then wrote a novella about animal rights titled Loveliness. Phelps said she wrote The Gates Ajar to comfort a generation of ... A Journal of Human/Animal Interface Studies. 4 (2). Kelly, Lori Duin (2010). "Elizabeth Stuart Phelps, Trixy, and the ...
60:488-499). Animals, Science and Animal Science: Shanks has explored the role played by animal experimentation in the contexts ... He has argued that animal experimentation provided a crucial driving force behind the method of analysis and synthesis that ... dilemmas of animal experimentation (co-authored with Hugh LaFollette; London : Routledge, 1996). Idealization in Contemporary ... In the course of his explorations of the implications of the study of animals for the modern scientific view of the world, ...
It was used for animal experimentation and the production of reagents. The reagents produced there were provided to the ... Some sweepers were trained to feed and look after the animals. Gradually, the dependence on the use of animals had been ... During this period, a proper animal house was also constructed and a Departmental of Experiment Pathology was established. ...
Law, Animals, and Professors Instituto Abolicionista Animal Animal Experimentation in Brazil. ... Pensata Animal, v. 17, p. 01-06, 2008. - SILVA, T. T. A. ou TRAJANO, Tagore . Direito animal e hermenêutica jurídica da mudança ... Fundamentos do direito animal constitucional. Revista Brasileira de Direito Animal, v. 10, p. 235-276, 2012. - SILVA, T. T. A. ... Template:Citar news Trajano, Tagore (2013-12-31). "O Ensino Do Direito Animal: Um Panorama Global (Teaching Animal Law: A ...
"Animal Experimentation". BBC. Archived from the original on 1 July 2016. Retrieved 8 July 2016.. ... Further information: Lists of animals. Animals are monophyletic, meaning they are derived from a common ancestor. Animals are ... "Animal". The American Heritage Dictionary (4th ed.). Houghton Mifflin Company. 2006.. *^ "animal". English Oxford Living ... but in colloquial use the term animal often refers only to non-human animals. The study of non-human animals is known as ...
In most cases, it is a transfer of blood between a non-human animal and a human. However, further experimentation has been done ... To come up with this answer they tested many animals to see which one was the best candidate for blood donation. As a result, ... Xenotransfusion uses non-human animals to aid in the shortage of blood for blood transfusion in humans. Although there needs to ... Only 10% of the animal's blood volume will be used each time, therefore, it is ethically acceptable to raise pigs for ...
At this point, Gorham decided to avoid experimentation that involved harming animals. In 1947, he received an Overseas Science ...
Hewson had documented experimentation on the lymphatic system using both substances and animals. He died on 1 May 1774 as a ... His Copley work came when he showed the existence of lymph vessels in animals and explained their function by hypothesizing the ...
The group's purpose is to oppose practices of perceived unnecessary animal exploitation and experimentation. SAFE actively ... World Animal Protection, Animals Australia, People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals, Compassion in World Farming and the ... This group was renamed Save Animals from Experiments in 1972 and renamed again to Save Animals from Exploitation in 1987. The ... Leading up to the 2008 General Election, SAFE's Animal Welfare Policy Survey 2008 rated the country's political parties' animal ...
Rollins depicts unsanitary and inhumane conditions at the zoo, and inhumane animal experimentation there. In the "Author's Note ... The zoo and its aquarium have over 450 species of land animals and over 500 species of marine animals; in all, it is home to ... The restaurant manager commented that its dishes were within the law, as the animal products were supplied by exotic animal ... The Viceroy of Liangjiang, Duanfang, purchased a batch animals from Germany and deposited them there. The animal collection ...
However, Leatherhead's animal rages, already dangerous, were made more so by Bishop's experimentation. While in blind animal ... Peter Renaday voiced him in the episode "Night of the Rogues". Leatherhead starts as an animal mutated by mutagen in most ... Leatherhead later reappeared, surviving because of his tough skin, as a prisoner and object of experimentation in the lab of ...
Under the impulse of the public shocked by the conditions of experimentation on animals and the suffering that engenders, a ... the absence of animal testing of finished products -the absence of animal testing of the ingredients -the absence of animal ... "absolute right of animals to respect". He certifies: -the absence of animal testing of finished products -the absence of animal ... Moreover, manufacturers must provide an attestation affirming that they do not practice the animal experimentation. Finally, ...
Other animal species. See also: Tool use by animals, Structures built by animals, and Ecosystem engineer ... Science is systematic knowledge of the physical or material world gained through observation and experimentation.[16] ... The use of basic technology is also a feature of other animal species apart from humans. These include primates such as ... evidence of burnt animal bones at the Cradle of Humankind suggests that the domestication of fire occurred before 1 Ma;[26] ...
... animal disease: Animals in research: the biomedical model: …more than 1,200,000 species of animals thus far identified, only a ... an identical or similar disease exists in at least one other animal species. Veterinary medicine plays an ever-increasing role ... In animal disease: Animals in research: the biomedical model. …more than 1,200,000 species of animals thus far identified, only ... In vitamin: Animal assay. All of the vitamins, with the exception of vitamin B12, can be estimated by the animal-assay ...
Animal Rights. Animal. Animal experimentation. Animal welfare. Animals, Treatment of. Laboratory animals. Nature / Animal ... animal experimentation animal experiments animal models Animal Procedures Committee animal research Animal Rights animal ... studies animal suffering animal tests Animal Welfare animal-welfare Animals in Research Animals Scientific Procedures ... experimentation.html?id=k6pqAAAAMAAJ&utm_source=gb-gplus-shareAnimal experimentation. ...
Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in DOAJ. DOAJ is an online directory that indexes and provides access to quality open ... Publishers keywords: in vitro methods, alternatives to animal experiments, toxicology, bioethics. Language of fulltext: ...
Early experimentation with animals was originally born out... ... For centuries mankind has experimented on animals for a number ... Definition Animal testing, also known as animal experimentation, is the use of non-human test subjects for experimentation and ... Biomedical research on animals Essay. 1734 Words , 7 Pages. *. Essay on Should Animal Experimentation Ever Be Permitted?. 1926 ... Essay on Should Animal Experimentation Ever Be Permitted?. 1926 Words , 8 Pages. performed vivisection on animals for hundreds ...
Although animal experimentation still exists today, the number of animals that are used for experimentation has decreased about ... animals as a food source, and zoos. A good reason as to why the debate not just on animal experimentation but all around animal ... Animal experimentation is a controversial topic that is debated by many people; each year many animals are experimented on for ... Why continue using animals when theres alternatives ? Animal experimentation is a significant subject that deals with the many ...
... looks at some of the regulations in place which protect experimental animals from unnecessary suffering. ... sixth in a series on the use of animals in science, ... Animal Experimentation: Uses of Animals in Research. *Animal ... Animal Experimentation: Alternatives to the Use of Animals in Research. *Animal Experimentation: Regulations for the Use of ... Animal Experimentation: Regulations for the Use of Animals in Research. written by: Emma Lloyd•edited by: Leigh A. Zaykoski• ...
Read this full essay on Animal Experimentation in Scientific Research. For many years, scientists have conducted research to ... Using Animals in Research and Experimentation. 851 words - 4 pages Animals should be used for research and Experimentation ... Needless Animal Research, Testing, And Experimentation Is Wrong. 964 words - 4 pages Needless Animal Experimentation is Wrong ... Animal Testing in the Research Field. 1385 words - 6 pages Animal research, or animal testing, is the use of animals in ...
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... SAMS » Portrait » Commissions » Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation ... 23.05.2019: The focus article of the SAMS Bulletin 2/2019 is dedicated to the topic of ethics of animal experimentation (in ... The Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (ECAE) is a body jointly operated by the SAMS and the Swiss Academy of Sciences ... By-laws of the Ethics Committee for Animal Experimentation (in German) PDF, 116 KB ...
Home » Information Centers » Food Safety Research Information Office » Animal Experimentation and Animal Use Alternatives ... Organizes information on the Animal Welfare Act. Includes the full-text of the 1966 Animal Welfare Act, the Animal Welfare Act ... Guidelines for Ethical Conduct in the Care and Use of Animals. American Psychological Association; Committee on Animal Research ... Presents the text for the "U.S. Government Principles for the Utilization and Care of Vertebrate Animals Used in Testing, ...
Animal experimentation essay in sample resume for management students. National Autism Center life under water essay cuny ... research paper content › thesis hooks full width › thesis for cause essay ›Animal experimentation essay for free pdf books on ... Paper editor websites ca with animal experimentation essay. *Heart of darkness paper ... things arent that stupid essay experimentation animal. (ericksen, 2003, p. 37) note how efficiently truslow followed all six ...
The reality and existence of animal minds, animal pain, and animal suffering provide the foundation for animal rights, and ... Specifically, both the practice of animal experimentation and ethical concerns about it have a long history, going virtually ... Concrete suggestions are offered with regard to more humane animal legislation, improved animal husbandry conditions, as well ... The ultimate result is a more humane practice in experimentation, modeled somewhat on the practice of pet keeping, in which ...
nbsp10 Facts on Animal Experimentation for a Debate How to Debate about Animal Experimentation → ... Alternatives to Animal Experimentations. *Failures of Animal Experimentation in Improving Human Health and Scientific Discovery ... In the previous guide we explored animal experimentation and revealed some very disturbing facts. Study our 10 facts on animal ... Inconclusive Research of Spinal Cord Injury Recovery from Animal Experimentation. *Failure of Research Gained from Animal ...
Animal Action Animal Action Report Art for Animals NAVS News Science First Take Action for Dogs Take Action Thursday ... research will ultimately need to be validated in animal models. Ironically, these animal models have not been formally ... One thing is certain, though: researchers agree that organoid models will reduce the number of animals that are experimented on ... Many researchers, however, seem hesitant to say that organoids will be able to fully replace animal research, with many viewing ...
Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in Basic Research. . Alternatives to Animal Experimentation. ,. 21. , pp. 3. -. 31. . ... Science and Society: Different Bioethical Approaches Towards Animal Experimentation. . Alternatives to Animal Experimentation. ... Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in Basic Research. Alternatives to Animal Experimentation21 pp. 3-31. ... Alternatives to Animal Experimentation25(1) pp. 3-9.. Hartung. T.. (. 2008. ). Food for Thought … On Animal Tests. . ...
Alternatives to Animal Experimentation in Basic Research. Alternatives to Animal Experimentation21 pp. 3-31. ... HartungT. (2008). Food for Thought … On Animal Tests. Alternatives to Animal Experimentation25(1) pp. 3-9. ... Different Bioethical Approaches Towards Animal Experimentation. Alternatives to Animal Experimentation19 pp. 78-82. ... ObrinkK.J. and C.Rehbinder (2000). Animal Definition: A Necessity for the Validity of Animal Experiments?. Laboratory Animals34 ...
Control animals may represent up to 50% of the animals in a study. The investigator should try to minimize the number of ... The answers are presented as arguments for animal use, in terms of what is done to the animals, and in terms of how many are ... Targeted animal models: In the past, it was difficult to find animal models that accurately mimicked human conditions like many ... Such precisely targeted animal models will result in an overall reduction in animal use through a reduction in the variability ...
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Animal Experimentation - All of Gods creatures have rights, includes both human and non-human animals ... The Multi-Billion Dollar Lie: Animal Experimentation. An Animal Rights Article from All-Creatures.org. FROM. Kinship Circle. ... Return to Animal Rights Articles. Read more at Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection ... Animal research is not about "saving the rat or the child" as the anti-animal rights contingent likes to say. Animal research ...
Animal Experiments do not inform on human healthcare. In reply to the article Does animal experimentation inform human. ... Does animal.... *Does animal experimentation inform human healthcare? Observations from a systematic review of international ... international animal experiments on fluid resuscitation. fails to mention the ethical consideration of animal. experimentation ... Does animal experimentation inform human healthcare? Observations from a systematic review of international animal experiments ...
A hidden legacy of animal experimentation. Features. Behind closed doors: A hidden legacy of animal experimentation. An ... In Canada, animal experimentation was formally regulated in 1968, when the Canadian Council for Animal Care (CACC) was ... "But people can be assured that those of us in animal research are also animal lovers and we want to make sure that the animals ... Its a sentiment echoed by Stein, who believes that the reason animal experimentation remains so heavily used is due to ...
... and Experimentation. The debate about using animals for medica... ... essay on Its Time for a More Responsible Approach to Animal ... Needless Animal Research, Testing, And Experimentation Is Wrong. 964 words - 4 pages Needless Animal Experimentation is Wrong ... and Experimentation. The Cruelty of Animal Research, Testing, and Experimentation. 1391 words - 6 pages The Cruelty of Animal ... We Need More Animal Research, Testing, And Experimentation. 1477 words - 6 pages We Need More Animal Research, Testing, and ...
Experimentation and Dissection - All of Gods creatures have rights, includes both human and non-human animals ... Alternatives to Animal Testing, Experimentation and Dissection - An Animal Rights Article from All-Creatures.org. FROM. ... Citizens for Alternatives to Animal Research and Experimentation (CAARE). December 2015. These advances are ushering in a new ... surrounds animal experimentation. Our frequent action alerts provide a platform for compassionate people to speak up.. But none ...
This includes the protection of wildlife, zoo animals, farm animals, animals in transport and animals used for scientific ... EU regulationsThe protection and welfare of animals is an area covered by a wide range of EU legislation. ... This includes the protection of wildlife, zoo animals, farm animals, animals in transport and animals used for scientific ... Furthermore, the animal experimentation follows the European Convention for the protection of vertebrate animals used for ...
Scientists are coming under increasing pressure from activist groups to stop animal experimentation, branded as cruel and ... The necessity of animal experimentation in tumor immunology Guido Forni, Patrizia Caretto, Paola Ferraiorni, Maria Carla Bosco ... The need for animal experimentation in drug and vaccine development against tropical diseases ... The need for animal experimentation in studying the carcinogenic risk of substances ...
  • more than 1,200,000 species of animals thus far identified, only a few have been utilized in research, even though it is likely that, for every known human disease, an identical or similar disease exists in at least one other animal species. (britannica.com)
  • Here in the US, research communities are committed to supporting techniques that reduce the number of higher species used, replace animals with other models wherever/whenever possible, and refine tests to ensure the most humane conditions possible. (bartleby.com)
  • However, the act specifically excludes any rats, mice, and birds purpose-bred for experimentation - and this is a fatal flaw, because it is highly unusual for wild animals of these species to be used in medical research. (brighthub.com)
  • Incidence, transmission, clinical signs, pathology, and augment descriptions are included to serve as a basic reference for veterinarians, veterinary students, and residents involved in the care of animal species used in research. (usda.gov)
  • Differences between species can cause issues when extrapolating data from animal models to people. (navs.org)
  • There is no question that most medical progress - perhaps all, in fac- has been attained through knowledge derived initially from experiments in various animal species. (springer.com)
  • Species differences in anatomy, organ structure and function, toxin metabolism, chemical and drug absorption, and mechanisms of DNA repair, can give us inadequate or erroneous information when we attempt to apply animal data to human diseases and drug responses. (bartleby.com)
  • Often more than one species of animal is used. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Because of the differences in the multiplicity and substrate specificity of CYP2D family members among species, it is difficult to predict pathways of human CYP2D6-dependent drug metabolism on the basis of animal studies. (aspetjournals.org)
  • A major challenge in the extrapolation of animal data to humans lies in species differences in the structure and function of the major xenobiotic receptors, transporters, and drug-metabolizing enzymes ( Lin, 2008 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • These edicts included the provision of medical treatment for animals and bans on animal sacrifice, the castration of roosters, and hunting of many species. (wikipedia.org)
  • the size depends on the species of animal. (ostatic.com)
  • He would use the servants as care takers of the animals, they would feed, water, bathe, and take care of the animals when they were sick or injured.Rainsford would have atleast two of these endangered species delivered to his island. (ostatic.com)
  • Exotic animal - An animal which belongs to a species not indigenous to the geographical area where it lives or is kept. (ifaw.org)
  • Exotic pet - An animal not yet fully domesticated which belongs to a species not indigenous to that area where it is kept, but which nevertheless is kept in captivity by humans for the purpose of companionship, decoration, emotional and/or physical support. (ifaw.org)
  • Several animal species are able to hear frequencies well beyond the human hearing range. (wikipedia.org)
  • If not for the existence of animals, humans would be left to experiment on themselves at a high rate which would create a worldwide moral dilemma. (bartleby.com)
  • Animal testing has not only benefit humans, but animals as well. (bartleby.com)
  • The Moral Equality of Animals vs Humans The discretion between animal versus human equality has been a controversial subject for many years. (bartleby.com)
  • The studies regarding medicines developed using that model needs to go through a lot of careful testing before they are approved to be used by humans and animals. (customwritings.com)
  • He discovered that a number of anatomical structures believed to exist, following animal dissections, were unexpectedly absent in humans. (brill.com)
  • Animal research is about flawed science that delays medical progress and harms humans. (all-creatures.org)
  • Shouldn't medical products be labeled, "WARNING: This product is proven safe for use in animal experiments - but may cause disability or death in humans. (all-creatures.org)
  • Blanket assertions that we can not learn from animals are naive but equally, many generalisations about humans fall when we start to look at ethnic differences and, increasingly,genetic predisposition. (bmj.com)
  • Experiments on animals waste time and money which could be much better spent.Funding the implementation and development of non-animal methods of research and testing, directly applicable to humans, would result in better therapies and more effective medications. (bmj.com)
  • This regulation ensures that persons working with animals are qualified, educated and knowledgeable, that the number of animals used for experiments is minimised and that any suffering of animals have been weighed against the potential benefits to humans or animals. (infrafrontier.eu)
  • Strike 1: Artificially inducing stroke in animals does not recreate the complex physiology that causes the natural disease in humans, which may develop over decades. (huffpost.com)
  • Strike 3: Artificially inducing in animals the underlying conditions that lead to human stroke does not replicate the processes that occur in humans. (huffpost.com)
  • Yet, over 150 stroke drugs found effective in animal stroke models failed in humans (1). (huffpost.com)
  • Because humans respond so differently to other animals, using other animals to test on is unreliable at best, and fatally dangerous at worst, for humans. (animal-rights-action.com)
  • vivisection hinders medical advancement and is risky for humans because the results of this sadistic research cannot be applied to animals. (animal-rights-action.com)
  • Problems of extrapolation, applying information from animal research to humans, are inevitable when researchers use animal models to study human diseases. (bartleby.com)
  • For example, penicillin is toxic to guinea pigs, aspirin is poisonous to cats, and the recalled diet drug phen-fen caused no heart damage in animals, while it did in humans. (bartleby.com)
  • however, the use of animals is cruel and unnecessary because they do not have a similar body system as humans do. (bartleby.com)
  • ANIMAL TESTING IS WRONG The words 'animal testing' mean to perform procedures on living animals for the research of basic human biology and diseases, finding out the effectiveness of new medical products, and testing the human health and environmental safety of consumer and industry products like cosmetics, household cleaners, food additives, pharmaceuticals and industrial/agro-chemicals and means using other living organisms except humans for testing. (bartleby.com)
  • This means animals are very close to humans, only lacking one step which is reason. (ultimedescente.com)
  • The above-mentioned incidents and others illustrate the harm to humans from the use of substances that have not been first tested on animals and underline the importance of animal experimentation to avert or prevent human tragedy.Aristotle would indeed not approve of experiments performed on animals. (ultimedescente.com)
  • Aristotle argued that animals are below humans because only humans can reason and therefore we can use animals without the consideration we would give to people. (ultimedescente.com)
  • Many codes regulating animal experimentation instruct regulating committees to assume that procedures that would cause pain in humans also will cause pain in vertebrate animals unless there is evidence to the contrary. (encyclopedia.com)
  • To end animal experimentation and the harmful use of animals for research, testing and teaching in Aotearoa - for animals, humans and science. (nzavs.org.nz)
  • Ferrets share many anatomical, metabolic and physiologic features with humans which has promoted their use as an animal model. (answers.com)
  • Referring to any procedure or experiment where, from start to finish, no whole animals, cells, or samples have been used in the methodology -using strictly humans or alternatives means. (frame.org.uk)
  • Animals used in experiments to represent either humans or other animals (e.g. rats with high blood pressure may be used to try to learn more about the condition in humans). (frame.org.uk)
  • Throughout this paper I will be talking about how cancer does not just affect humans it affects animals also. (exampleessays.com)
  • I will be talking about how cancer affect animals the same way it affects humans. (exampleessays.com)
  • The process for animals and the process for humans and how closely related they are. (exampleessays.com)
  • The question then arises as to whether or not the absence of language also implies the absence of either consciousness or thought, or in fact whether the communication between animals is in fact related closely enough to that of humans that language ceases to be an issue when investigating the difference between human and animal consciousness, (Lea & Kiley-Worthington, 1996). (exampleessays.com)
  • There is reasonably strong evidence to suggest that not only can animals communicate with each other, but they can in fact learn to communicate with humans. (exampleessays.com)
  • Though the wolf is a very strong and agile animal, there numbers are declining due to humans hunting them and lack of food.The Lion PrideLiving deep in the grasslands of the Sahara in Africa, the Lion pride lives in its own territory that it has claimed. (ostatic.com)
  • Hiding from Animals", talked about observing animal behavior without humans being involved, to see if the animal's behavior will change. (ostatic.com)
  • Indeed, some have suggested that "[a]ll human viral infections were initially zoonotic in origin,"[ p6) although the precise animal source and route of transmission to humans is often a matter of some dispute. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Although some zoonoses are probably unavoidable, much human suffering resulting from zoonotic diseases could probably have been avoided had humans treated animals better. (organicconsumers.org)
  • The concentration of animals, their overlapping sojourns in the markets (allowing disease to spread through vast numbers of animals), and their interactions with humans (facilitating human infection) make these markets ripe for zoonoses. (organicconsumers.org)
  • If humans did not eat wet market animals, there would be fewer of them (because fewer would be bred), the animals would not suffer from being housed in close quarters, and they would not be slaughtered. (organicconsumers.org)
  • There is now an ample body of philosophical literature that compellingly demonstrates that the ways in which most humans treat animals is wrong. (organicconsumers.org)
  • 9-Almost all humans can now not only survive but also thrive without consuming animal flesh or using animal skins and furs. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Even those who deny that there is anything wrong with treating animals in this way should now recognize that thwarting important animal interests sometimes causes considerable harm to humans, even if some minor human interests are satisfied along the way. (organicconsumers.org)
  • It is curious, therefore, that changing the way humans treat animals - most basically, ceasing to eat them or, at the very least, radically limiting the quantity of them that are eaten - is largely off the radar as a significant preventive measure. (organicconsumers.org)
  • A principle of science that prescribes caution or conservative action in the face of scientific uncertainty or lack of data in order to reduce or alleviate threats of harm to the wellbeing of humans, animals or the environment pending further scientific investigation. (ifaw.org)
  • The use of nature, including animals, by humans, for any purpose in a manner that does not cause or contribute to its depletion or degradation. (ifaw.org)
  • Domestic animals - Animals that have been selectively bred over many generations by humans for companionship, food, fibre, or work. (ifaw.org)
  • Hearing range describes the range of frequencies that can be heard by humans or other animals, though it can also refer to the range of levels. (wikipedia.org)
  • Behavioural hearing tests or physiological tests can be used to find hearing thresholds of humans and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Fifth, scores of recalled drugs prove that the animal model does not keep bad drugs off market, and sixth and most importantly, when results from animals are extrapolated to humans, humans are harmed, even fatally. (k9magazine.com)
  • Where is the evidence that animal research benefits humans? (bmj.com)
  • What Is the Predictive Value of Animal Models for Vaccine Efficacy in Humans? (bmj.com)
  • A large portion of the International community is now questioning the very legitimacy of animal experimentation, appealing to the cruel nature of these experiments, the condition in which the animals are kept and the amount of misleading and inconclusive animal models which have yet to serve the human medical needs. (customwritings.com)
  • But non-human animals (hereinafter referred to as animals), were not so revered or feared. (brill.com)
  • But in recent years, at least 1734 drugs proven safe for human use in animal studies were recalled due to Adverse Drug Reactions (U.S. Food and Drug Administration records). (all-creatures.org)
  • Never mind that many findings are absurd, a lot of "curiosity experiments" about how animal response to stimuli (that a human would never encounter) might somehow relate to human behavior. (all-creatures.org)
  • Does animal experimentation inform human healthcare? (bmj.com)
  • To understand the reason behind this lack of transparency, Hamilton has dedicated her career to studying 19th century scientific literature, when physiologists would dissect human and animal bodies to understand how they worked. (thegatewayonline.ca)
  • if this is so, the experimenter must agree human and non-human animals are similar in crucial respects (p. 65). (brightkite.com)
  • We want to demonstrate the possibility of leveraging microengineered physiological organ models to challenge a century-long tradition of using animals as human surrogates in life sciences. (all-creatures.org)
  • Several drug companies, like Merck and Janssen, have signed partnerships with biotech firms that manufacture organ chips, acknowledging that animals fail to adequately model human medicine and biology. (all-creatures.org)
  • the welfare cost to the animals must be balanced by the benefit of knowledge gained into gene function and the role of genes in human health and disease. (infrafrontier.eu)
  • Scientists are coming under increasing pressure from activist groups to stop animal experimentation, branded as cruel and unnecessary for improving human health. (springer.com)
  • As long as experimenters continue to try to recreate diabetes in animals, instead of studying human diabetes, I have little hope that my father's pain will end. (huffpost.com)
  • But here's the problem: we end up better understanding animal diabetes-- in dogs and mice-- but not necessarily human diabetes. (huffpost.com)
  • Strike 2: Animal stroke models don't usually include the underlying conditions, which contribute to human stroke. (huffpost.com)
  • Experimenters try to recreate the underlying human conditions such as diabetes in animals. (huffpost.com)
  • The general public is by no means qualified to judge whether or not our human wardenship of animals is being satis-factorily discharged. (animalresearch.info)
  • Animal Experimentation IS NOT REQUIRED to advance human medical science in modern society. (animal-rights-action.com)
  • Statistics show irrefutably that animal-based methods used in preclinical testing to select drugs for human use are unreliable. (bartleby.com)
  • Do animals have a link to the human body that we are able to prove that trying new drugs or new cosmetics will be a benefit for us? (bartleby.com)
  • Moreover, these behavioral parallels are supported by the known similarities among the nervous systems of all vertebrate animals and by the fact of common animal and human evolutionary origin (Rachels). (encyclopedia.com)
  • It is difficult to believe that despite all these similarities the nervous systems of human and nonhuman animals operate in radically different ways. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The Humane Movement is a general effort to alleviate or eliminate animal suffering, predominately due to industry or other human intervention. (sourcewatch.org)
  • For farm animal issues in relation to human health and the environment, see also meat & dairy industry . (sourcewatch.org)
  • The test is done on an animal to "prove" results in a human. (answers.com)
  • The advantage to using animals is that we can control their outside exposure, but obviously something proven to be true or false on an animal doesn't necessarily hold water on a human. (exampleessays.com)
  • To create animal models that reflect the human situation more closely and that allow an in vivo assessment of the consequences of differential CYP2D6 drug metabolism, we have developed a novel straightforward approach to delete the entire murine Cyp2d gene cluster and replace it with allelic variants of human CYP2D6 . (aspetjournals.org)
  • Animal welfare and rights in India regards the treatment of and laws concerning non-human animals in India. (wikipedia.org)
  • But on the other side, "Tracking Ivory" talked about how human activities are affecting the population of animals, and trading ivory and hunting are killing elephants. (ostatic.com)
  • Not only is hunting legal murder, it creates numerous other problems concerning both our wildlife as well as ourselves.Hunting is a legal act of violence which a one living thing, a human, kills another living thing, an animal, usually for sport. (ostatic.com)
  • Cloning In this paper an overview of the history of animal and human cloning is given, starting as early as the year 1885 and ending with events that have occurred within the last decade. (antiessays.com)
  • Thus those who persist in these practices treat the most important animal interests - interests in continued life and the avoidance of suffering - as less important than very trivial human interests, including carnivorous gastronomic experiences. (organicconsumers.org)
  • Domestication - Domestication is a process through which animals are changed genetically through selective breeding to serve a particular human purpose. (ifaw.org)
  • Animal experiments are only part of a screening process and may be done before and after human studies. (frithwilliams.com)
  • Whilst most of this involves using techniques such as cell culture, computer modelling, clinical trials and human tissue analysis, some advances do require animal-based studies. (kidneyresearchuk.org)
  • Current knowledge of genetics and evolutionary biology can explain how and why studying animals has failed - and will continue to fail - the search for human medicines. (k9magazine.com)
  • More than 30 percent of promising medications have failed in human clinical trials because they are determined to be toxic despite promising pre-clinical studies in animal models. (care2.com)
  • While chips are already being used in some areas, this project intends improve upon existing test measures - cell cultures, human and animal testing - and overcome the limits of individual chips by creating and combining multiple chips to emulate the entire human body, in addition to designing software that can control and analyze different functions. (care2.com)
  • This is an exciting example of how modern-day innovation can produce a humane and more reliable approach to understanding the inner workings of human disease without the need for animal suffering. (care2.com)
  • They are also in charge of watching the care and use of those animals by studying the laboratories, keeping track of the programs and responding to any additional concerns. (bartleby.com)
  • The laboratories at K.U.Leuven and their involved staff that work with laboratory animals such as knockout mice, and the Central Animal Facility that houses these animals, have the obligatory accreditation of the authorized Belgian Ministry and report on an annual basis the use of animals in their labs to the Ministry. (infrafrontier.eu)
  • They give little detailed information about the use of animals or their distribution to laboratories. (jhsph.edu)
  • At the beginning of 1953, the bureau conducted a systematic survey of most animal-using laboratories in this country, who were sent a number of questions about their procurement and usage of animals during the previous year. (jhsph.edu)
  • This article, sixth in a series on the use of animals in science, looks at some of the regulations in place which protect experimental animals from unnecessary suffering. (brighthub.com)
  • The rules and regulations which protect experimental animals from unnecessary pain and suffering vary widely depending on their country of origin, and also depending on the animals involved. (brighthub.com)
  • Many agencies responsible for setting standards for the care and use of experimental animals, including the Canadian Council on Animal Care, require investigators to consider the implementation of the Three Rs during the design of experiments that will use animals. (ccac.ca)
  • This may be achieved by reducing the number of variables through good experimental design, by using genetically homogeneous animals or by ensuring that the conditions of the experiment are rigorously controlled. (ccac.ca)
  • The use of laboratory animals is further specified by the ministerial decree 207 on protection, breeding, and utilization of experimental animals, which was novelized on January 15, 2009 by the decree No. 39. (infrafrontier.eu)
  • In general, animal experiments can only be performed by accredited individuals or corporations and the allowance to carry out the experimental work is granted by a project licence and personal licences issued by governmental organizations, i.e. by Academy of Sciences and Ministry of Agriculture, respectively. (infrafrontier.eu)
  • animal welfare, the treatment and use of experimental animals remain controversial. (writework.com)
  • The Stephen Paget Lecture has as its particular theme a defence of the use of experimental animals to enlarge medical knowledge. (animalresearch.info)
  • An experimental model employing small animal has been developed to study underlying mechanism. (jmbs.or.kr)
  • In the process of stepping up the dose until half the experimental animals die, all of them are likely to become ill, experiencing symptoms such as nausea, thirst, diarrhea, stomach cramps, and fever. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Experimental Animals, Frankenstein, and the 19th century's debates about scientific ethics. (slate.com)
  • Experimental Animals is itself a bit of a strange creature-the book's subtitle is "A Reality Fiction"-weaving together narration by a lightly fictionalized version of Madame Bernard with real historical documents, including excerpts from Bernard's experimental notebook, as well as letters, articles, and reports written by scientists, activists, and intellectuals. (slate.com)
  • All of the quotes from Bernard and his contemporaries in this piece are from the original primary materials included in Experimental Animals . (slate.com)
  • The pursuit and use of experimental methods that refrain from and/or replace the use of animals as test subjects. (frame.org.uk)
  • For example, the OSHA bloodborne pathogens standard (29 CFR 1910.1030) requires institutions to provide hepatitis B vaccinations to employees who handle blood, organs, or other tissues from experimental animals infected with hepatitis B virus and to make a confidential medical evaluation available to the employee immediately after an exposure to animal tissues that are contaminated with a bloodborne pathogen. (nap.edu)
  • A good reason as to why the debate not just on animal experimentation but all around animal rights is that they are not able to prevent this action against them, they are not able to give their consent for the experiment. (smore.com)
  • When deciding whether a license is granted, a cost-benefit analysis weighs up the potential benefits of the experiment versus the likely suffering the test animals will experience. (brighthub.com)
  • Refinement means a change in some aspect of the experiment that results in a reduction or replacement of animals or in a reduction of any pain, stress or distress that animals may experience. (ccac.ca)
  • The aim is to find the dose which kills half the animal sample, which is a minimum of 50 animals per experiment. (animal-rights-action.com)
  • Moreover, experimenters often err on the side of caution in making their returns, one experiment on one animal being returned as one unit. (jhsph.edu)
  • The reason for this gap lies in the organization of animal experiment. (jhsph.edu)
  • There is a Law for the Humane Treatment and Management of Animals in place in Japan, which requires that researchers using animals are self-guided by the principles of the three Rs (outlined in the previous article in this series). (brighthub.com)
  • However, while local-level inspections may be carried out, there are no governmental inspections, and researchers are not required to report on the number of animals they use. (brighthub.com)
  • One thing is certain, though: researchers agree that organoid models will reduce the number of animals that are experimented on. (navs.org)
  • Failure is blamed, in part, on animal models "irrelevant to cancers" or other disease, used in an academic setting that fosters "poor science, even fraud, as researchers compete for funding. (all-creatures.org)
  • Animal studies facilitate tenure for university researchers required to churn out papers with new findings. (all-creatures.org)
  • Animals have been used for centuries to help researchers understand the various organs of the body, and their functions as well as to hone their surgical skills. (brightkite.com)
  • Researchers contracted HFRS more frequently than laboratory animal technicians or caretakers, although a caretaker died of HFRS. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Housing and caretaking of the mice at the K.U.Leuven partner is in accordance with the Belgian and European laws, guidelines and policies for animal experimentation, housing and care (as documented in the most recent legislation, i.e. the Belgian Royal Decree of 6 April 2010 and European Directive 2010/63/EU on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes of 20 October 2010). (infrafrontier.eu)
  • accept animal experimentation but they also increased the use of genetically modified mice in carrying out such tests. (bartleby.com)
  • MSTN +/- mice were mated to produce MSTN -/- (n = 9), MSTN +/+ (n = 10) and MSTN +/- (n = 10) animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Iowa State University Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved all procedures that involved mice. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The Swiss Academies of Arts and Sciences, swissuniversities and the Swiss National Science Foundation (SNSF) had drawn up an argumentation with regard to the discussion of Maya Graf's parliamentary initiative 18.491 «Prohibition of heavy-burden animal experiments» in the Science, Education and Culture Committees of the National Council (SECC-N). (samw.ch)
  • At the University of Veterinary Medicine Vienna, all animal experiments are subjected to a two-step evaluation procedure by two separate committees acting independently of each other. (infrafrontier.eu)
  • All animal experiments are continuously monitored by both committees by requesting annual status- and progress reports. (infrafrontier.eu)
  • What Methods Are Implemented on Animals During Induced Helplessness Tests? (customwritings.com)
  • There is practically no way of replacing animals in these investigations and so-called 'alternative methods' are in reality merely complementary. (springer.com)
  • Non-animal methods such as computer modelling, tissue culture and patient studies are widely used alongside animal studies but more often compliment animal studies than act as a replacement for them. (writework.com)
  • Experimenters artificially induce strokes by methods such as clamping off major blood vessels in animals' brains or artificially inserting clots into their vessels. (huffpost.com)
  • Current in vivo test methods for assessing DNT require the use of large numbers of laboratory animals. (altex.org)
  • The focus of this leaflet is safety testing of new drugs, highlighting the dangers of using animals and the improvements in safety that could be acheived with more modern methods. (safermedicines.org)
  • However, when it comes to vertebrate animals, many countries have regulations which restrict how they are used. (brighthub.com)
  • For the purposes of this glossary the use of the word 'animals' refers to those vertebrate animals that are broadly recognised as sentient. (ifaw.org)
  • Here we report pharmacodynamic studies testing anti- Flt-1 (VEGFR-1) and anti- KDR (VEGFR-2) ribozymes in animal models of solid tumor growth and metastasis. (aacrjournals.org)
  • When the cloned animal gets older the tumor that it developed causes problems. (antiessays.com)
  • 1. In considering cloning a pet, the individual would want a recreation of the beloved pet that has passed away and as we know scientists can clone animals which have success rates, The most famous cloned animal is a sheep called 'Dolly' in 1997, She was produced by reproductive cloning but died aged six which is half the normal age for a sheep due to arthritis and a lung tumor. (antiessays.com)
  • Through animal testing doctors can obtain valid results regarding these medical problems and create cures for people with many other medical difficulties. (bartleby.com)
  • Ironically, these animal models have not been formally validated themselves. (navs.org)
  • We look forward to the full potential of these continually improving models being realized, as they will make a tremendous contribution to science, and will significantly impact animal use in the process. (navs.org)
  • Will Organs-in-a-Dish Ever Replace Animal Models? (navs.org)
  • A synthetic derivative of the curry spice turmeric, made by scientists at the Salk Institute for Biological Studies, dramatically improves the behavioral and molecular deficits seen in animal models of ischemic stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). (opposingviews.com)
  • Two new animals took charge after the death, two pigs named Snowball and Napoleon, who quickly got the animals ready to start the rebellion despite their two very different views. (exampleessays.com)
  • Nevertheless, by the end of the seventeenth century, the question of animal suffering and the acceptability of such procedures had become an increasingly prominent moral and social concern ( Maehle and Tröhler, 1990 ). (brill.com)
  • In this book, Smyth provided a Three Rs definition of alternatives: "All procedures which can completely replace the need for animal experiments, reduce the numbers of animals required, or diminish the amount of pain or distress suffered by animals in meeting the essential needs of man and other animals. (ccac.ca)
  • As has been noted, the word alternatives is used to describe any change from present procedures that will result in the replacement of animals, a reduction in the numbers used or a refinement of techniques that may reduce or replace animals or reduce the pain, stress or distress of the animals. (ccac.ca)
  • In the United Kingdom, for instance, the annual report on scientific procedures performed on living animals under the Animals (Scientific Procedures) Act 1986 for the year 2000 showed that 2.71 million animals were used in that year, a significant decrease from the 1980s, when the figure topped 5 million, although the decline appears to have leveled out. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Procedures that can replace the need for animal experiments, reduce the number of animals required, or diminish the amount of pain or distress suffered by animals necessarily used. (frame.org.uk)
  • Of these animals, almost 100,000 experienced "unalleviated pain and distress" in 2010, which means that they were administered physical suffering and were not given drugs to ease their discomfort (AAVS). (brightkite.com)
  • Since 1986, the EU has had in place specific legislation covering the use of animals for scientific purposes. (infrafrontier.eu)
  • On 22 September 2010 the EU adopted Directive 2010/63/EU which updates and replaces the 1986 Directive 86/609/EEC on the protection of animals used for scientific purposes. (infrafrontier.eu)
  • The progression of medicine and the day to day life styles of the general population rely on the ethical practice of animal testing. (bartleby.com)
  • It mounts an an impressive scientific and moral case against the current practice of animal experimentation, demanding that we either provide an adequate defense of that practice or radically change it. (safermedicines.org)
  • Any pain or death inflicted on an animal should only be done when there is a practical need, and the pain inflicted should be minimized to the fullest extent possible. (brightkite.com)
  • Contributions to the Animals and Society Institute are tax-deductible to the extent permitted by law. (animalsandsociety.org)
  • A majority of the animals that are held in captivity are locked in cages or boxes depending on the size of the animal and being deprived of socialization. (smore.com)
  • They are often abused by their captors, starved and imprisoned in small, cages, only taken out for the torture of animal experimentation. (animal-rights-action.com)