Communicable Diseases, Emerging
Disease Models, Animal
Epidemiological field studies of animal populations. (1/378)Numerous survey designs have been developed for epidemiological field studies of human populations, most of which are also applicable to field studies of animal poulations. Each design has its own advantages and disadvantages. The final design selected for a particular study depends upon such factors as the overall purpose of the study, the geographic dimensions of the study area, the diseases incidence or prevalence and species to be studied as well as the planned use for the data. Population dynamics including the distribution and density of the species to be studied are factors that should also be considered in the initial design of a study. A surveillance system, using mailed questionnaire data and a subsequent survey using direct interviews of validate the data in a statewide study of swine birth defects are used to illustrate some of the techniques that can be applied to domestic animal populations in a fairly large geographic area. The type of data collected, its use and its limitations are also considered. (+info)
Studies on time-kill kinetics of different classes of antibiotics against veterinary pathogenic bacteria including Pasteurella, Actinobacillus and Escherichia coli. (2/378)A systematic analysis of the bacteriostatic/bactericidal effect of several antibiotics used in veterinary medicine was carried out by time-kill kinetic analysis using P. haemolytica, P. multocida, A. pleuropneumoniae, and E. coli. The antibiotics tested were enrofloxacin, danofloxacin, erythromycin, tilmicosin, penicillin G, ceftiofur and tetracycline. Unexpectedly, the antibiotics well characterized as bacteriostatic agents against human pathogens such as tetracycline and macrolides, showed bactericidal activity against P. haemolytica and A. pleuropneumoniae. In contrast, tetracycline and erythromycin were bacteriostatic and tilmicosin was bactericidal against P. multocida. In addition, P. multocida was killed by fluoroquinolones at a slower rate than the other bacteria. Spectrum analysis revealed that ceftiofur and tilmicosin were good substrates of the universal efflux pump, AcrA/B, but penicillin and tetracycline were not. The fluoroquinolones were modest substrates for AcrA/B. (+info)
An antiserum raised against the recombinant cytoplasmic tail of the human CD43 glycoprotein identifies CD43 in many mammalian species. (3/378)Leukosialin or CD43 is a heavily O-glycosylated transmembrane protein expressed on all cells of the haematopoietic cell lineage with the exception of red blood cells and mature B cells. This antigen has been identified in human, mouse and rat with monoclonal antibodies. Although orthologues of many human and rodent leucocyte cell surface antigens have been described in recent years, CD43, despite its abundance on human and rodent cells, remained uncharacterized in other vertebrate species. The comparison of CD43 amino acid sequences from human, mouse and rat indicated a high level of homology in the cytoplasmic domain. A serum, (p.aCD43cp) raised against the recombinant cytoplasmic tail of the human CD43, was shown not only to recognize human CD43, but it bound to putative CD43 orthologues in many mammalian species. CD43 was found to be expressed in the same leucocyte subpopulations and circumstantial evidence suggested that CD43 is also regulated similarly during leucocyte ontogeny in all species investigated. As CD43+ cells were readily observed in fixed tissues, the p.aCD43cp serum may be used as a reliable reagent for the verification of the haematopoietic origin of infiltrations and, used together with other reagents, for the serological characterization of normal and pathological lymphoid tissues and lymphoid infiltrations in experimental work and in animal disease. (+info)
Proteoglycan turnover during development of spontaneous osteoarthrosis in guinea pigs. (4/378)OBJECTIVE: The study was performed to clarify the metabolic background of the variations in proteoglycan concentrations, relating to ageing and the spontaneous development of osteoarthrosis in guinea pigs. METHODS: Six-, 9- and 12-month-old Hartley guinea pigs were injected intraperitoneally with Na2(35)SO4. The incorporation and degradation of various proteoglycans were analyzed in different areas of tibial articular cartilage during the development of osteoarthrosis. RESULTS: Proteoglycan synthesis was most active in the uncalcified cartilage of 6-month animals and highest in the medial compartment with its presumably higher load. The breakdown of proteoglycans decreased with age. The onset of osteoarthrosis was associated with decreased synthesis of large and small proteoglycans, while the rate of degradation remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: During onset of osteoarthrosis the synthesis of large proteoglycans gradually becomes insufficient to compensate for the simultaneous degradation. This differs from findings in more rapidly progressing, experimental secondary osteoarthrosis, where a substantial increase in the rate of degradation is more conspicuous. (+info)
Development of an ELISA for detection of myxoma virus-specific rabbit antibodies: test evaluation for diagnostic applications on vaccinated and wild rabbit sera. (5/378)An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) was developed and compared with 2 reference diagnostic tests (indirect immunofluorescence [IF] and complement fixation) to detect myxoma virus-specific antibodies in sera from 50 rabbits experimentally vaccinated with an attenuated strain of myxoma virus or with a Shope fibroma virus. The ELISA was highly specific (100% specificity) and sensitive (100%, 21 days after homologous vaccination). In a comparison of the ELISA with the IF test in 128 wild rabbits from France, discrepant results were obtained in only 11 (8.6%) animals, which were positive with the ELISA and negative with the IF test. The higher sensitivity and the good specificity of the ELISA was confirmed in a serologic survey of 118 rabbits from 2 Kerguelen (Indian Ocean) islands, where the prevalence of myxomatosis varied considerably. The ELISA is an alternative serologic test for diagnosis, vaccine evaluation, and seroepidemiologic surveys of myxomatosis. (+info)
Public health response to a potentially rabid bear cub--Iowa, 1999. (6/378)On August 27, 1999, a 5-6 month-old black bear cub in a petting zoo in Clermont, Iowa, died after developing acute central nervous system signs; the initial direct fluorescent-antibody (DFA) test results available on August 28 indicated the bear had rabies. On August 29, in response to the positive laboratory report, the Iowa Department of Public Health (IDPH) initiated a campaign to identify and inform persons potentially exposed to the bear's saliva. Within 72 hours, IDPH staff verified contact and exposure information for approximately 350 persons. Subsequent testing found no evidence of rabies virus in brain or spinal cord tissues. This report describes the public health response to this potential rabies outbreak and reviews testing procedures and protocols for rabies. (+info)
Baroreflex sensitivity predicts the induction of ventricular arrhythmias by cesium chloride in rabbits. (7/378)Previous studies have shown that the autonomic nervous system plays an important role in the genesis of ventricular tachycardia (VT) in patients with long QT syndrome, and in cesium chloride (Cs)-induced VT in animals. The present study investigated whether baroreflex sensitivity predicts the induction of VT by Cs in the rabbit in vivo. Monophasic action potentials (MAPs) of the left ventricular endocardium were recorded simultaneously with the surface ECG in 27 rabbits. Rabbits were divided into 4 groups based on the Cs-induced ventricular arrhythmias: (1) no ventricular premature contractions (No-VPC group), (2) single or paired VPC (VPC group), (3) monomorphic VT (MVT group), and (4) polymorphic VT (PVT group). Baroreflex sensitivity was significantly lower in the MVT and PVT groups than in the No-VPC and VPC groups. The plasma norepinephrine concentration before Cs injection was significantly higher in the MVT group than in the other 3 groups, and the norepinephrine concentration after Cs injection was significantly higher in the MVT and PVT groups than in the No-VPC and VPC groups. Baroreflex sensitivity was negatively correlated with the norepinephrine concentration before Cs injection. These results suggest that autonomic nervous system dysfunction, as defined by reduced baroreflex sensitivity, and elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations predict increased susceptibility to Cs-induced VT. (+info)
In vitro microbiological characterization of novel cyclic homopentapeptides, CP-101,680 and CP-163,234, for animal health use. (8/378)Two cyclic homopentapeptides, CP-101,680 and CP-163,234 [6a-(3',4'-dichlorophenylamino) analogs of viomycin and capreomycin, respectively], were identified as novel antibacterial agents for the treatment of animal disease, especially for livestock respiratory disease. The in vitro microbiological characterization of both CP-101,680 and CP-163,234 was carried out using their parent compounds, viomycin and capreomycin, as controls. This characterization included antibacterial spectrum, influence of media, inoculum size, pH, EDTA, polymixin B nonapeptide (PMBN), serum, cell-free protein synthesis inhibition, and time-kill kinetics. Our results indicated that the capreomycin analog, CP-163,234, showed slightly improved in vitro potency over the viomycin analog, CP-101,680. Both analogs showed very potent cell-free protein synthesis inhibition activity and were bactericidal against Pasteurella haemolytica, P. multocida and Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae at the level of 4 times and 8 times MICs. CP-163,234 was bactericidal at the level of 4x and 8x MIC against E. coli, but re-growth was observed after 24 hours incubation at both concentrations of CP-101,680. (+info)
1. Rabies: A deadly viral disease that affects the central nervous system and is transmitted through the saliva of infected animals, usually through bites.
2. Distemper: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs, raccoons, and other carnivorous animals, causing symptoms such as seizures, vomiting, and diarrhea.
3. Parvo: A highly contagious viral disease that affects dogs and other animals, causing severe gastrointestinal symptoms and dehydration.
4. Heartworm: A parasitic infection caused by a worm that infects the heart and blood vessels of animals, particularly dogs and cats.
5. Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV): A viral disease that weakens the immune system of cats, making them more susceptible to other infections and diseases.
6. Avian influenza: A type of flu that affects birds, including chickens and other domesticated fowl, as well as wild birds.
7. Tuberculosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including cattle, pigs, and dogs.
8. Leptospirosis: A bacterial infection that can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and wildlife, and can cause symptoms such as fever, kidney failure, and death.
9. Lyme disease: A bacterial infection transmitted through the bite of an infected tick, primarily affecting dogs and humans.
10. Fungal infections: Fungal infections can affect a wide range of animals, including dogs, cats, and livestock, and can cause symptoms such as skin lesions, respiratory problems, and death.
Animal diseases can have a significant impact on animal health and welfare, as well as human health and the economy. They can also be transmitted between animals and humans, making it important to monitor and control animal disease outbreaks to prevent their spread.
Vaccination is an effective way to prevent animal diseases in pets and livestock. Regular vaccinations can help protect against common diseases such as distemper, hepatitis, parvovirus, and rabies, among others. Vaccines can be administered orally, through injection, or through a nasal spray.
Preventative care is key in avoiding animal disease outbreaks. Some of the best ways to prevent animal diseases include:
1. Regular vaccinations: Keeping pets and livestock up to date on their vaccinations can help protect against common diseases.
2. Proper sanitation and hygiene: Keeping living areas clean and free of waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
3. Avoiding contact with wild animals: Wild animals can carry a wide range of diseases that can be transmitted to domesticated animals, so it's best to avoid contact with them whenever possible.
4. Proper nutrition: Providing pets and livestock with a balanced diet can help keep their immune systems strong and better able to fight off disease.
5. Monitoring for signs of illness: Regularly monitoring pets and livestock for signs of illness, such as fever, vomiting, or diarrhea, can help identify and treat diseases early on.
6. Quarantine and isolation: Isolating animals that are showing signs of illness can help prevent the spread of disease to other animals and humans.
7. Proper disposal of animal waste: Properly disposing of animal waste can help prevent the spread of disease-causing bacteria and viruses.
8. Avoiding overcrowding: Overcrowding can contribute to the spread of disease, so it's important to provide adequate living space for pets and livestock.
9. Regular veterinary care: Regular check-ups with a veterinarian can help identify and treat diseases early on, and also provide guidance on how to prevent animal diseases.
10. Emergency preparedness: Having an emergency plan in place for natural disasters or other unexpected events can help protect pets and livestock from disease outbreaks.
Cattle diseases refer to any health issues that affect cattle, including bacterial, viral, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and environmental factors. These diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of cattle, as well as the livelihoods of farmers and ranchers who rely on them for their livelihood.
Types of Cattle Diseases
There are many different types of cattle diseases, including:
1. Bacterial diseases, such as brucellosis, anthrax, and botulism.
2. Viral diseases, such as bovine viral diarrhea (BVD) and bluetongue.
3. Parasitic diseases, such as heartwater and gapeworm.
4. Genetic disorders, such as polledness and cleft palate.
5. Environmental factors, such as heat stress and nutritional deficiencies.
Symptoms of Cattle Diseases
The symptoms of cattle diseases can vary depending on the specific disease, but may include:
1. Fever and respiratory problems
2. Diarrhea and vomiting
3. Weight loss and depression
4. Swelling and pain in joints or limbs
5. Discharge from the eyes or nose
6. Coughing or difficulty breathing
7. Lameness or reluctance to move
8. Changes in behavior, such as aggression or lethargy
Diagnosis and Treatment of Cattle Diseases
Diagnosing cattle diseases can be challenging, as the symptoms may be similar for different conditions. However, veterinarians use a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and medical history to make a diagnosis. Treatment options vary depending on the specific disease and may include antibiotics, vaccines, anti-inflammatory drugs, and supportive care such as fluids and nutritional supplements.
Prevention of Cattle Diseases
Preventing cattle diseases is essential for maintaining the health and productivity of your herd. Some preventative measures include:
1. Proper nutrition and hydration
2. Regular vaccinations and parasite control
3. Sanitary living conditions and frequent cleaning
4. Monitoring for signs of illness and seeking prompt veterinary care if symptoms arise
5. Implementing biosecurity measures such as isolating sick animals and quarantining new animals before introduction to the herd.
It is important to work closely with a veterinarian to develop a comprehensive health plan for your cattle herd, as they can provide guidance on vaccination schedules, parasite control methods, and disease prevention strategies tailored to your specific needs.
Cattle diseases can have a significant impact on the productivity and profitability of your herd, as well as the overall health of your animals. It is essential to be aware of the common cattle diseases, their symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention methods to ensure the health and well-being of your herd.
By working closely with a veterinarian and implementing preventative measures such as proper nutrition and sanitary living conditions, you can help protect your cattle from disease and maintain a productive and profitable herd. Remember, prevention is key when it comes to managing cattle diseases.
The symptoms of FMD can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the age of the animal. In mild cases, the only symptoms may be a slight fever and blisters on the feet, while in severe cases, the blisters may become ulcers, and the animal may develop difficulty swallowing or eating, leading to weight loss and dehydration.
The virus is transmitted through contact with infected animals or their secretions, such as saliva, mucus, and manure. It can also be spread by contaminated feed or equipment, and by insects such as flies and midges. The incubation period for FMD is typically 3-14 days, but it can range from 2 to 30 days.
FMD is a significant threat to animal health and welfare, and can have severe economic consequences for farmers and the livestock industry as a whole. In addition, the disease can be transmitted to humans through close contact with infected animals, although this is rare.
There are several tests available to diagnose FMD, including serological tests such as ELISAs and virus isolation techniques. The disease is typically controlled through a combination of stamping out (killing all animals in an affected herd) and vaccination. Vaccination can be used to protect animals that are not yet infected, or to reduce the severity of the disease in animals that are already infected.
In summary, foot-and-mouth disease is a highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals and can have severe economic and animal health consequences. It is characterized by fever, blisters on the feet and in the mouth, and difficulty swallowing or eating. Diagnosis is based on clinical signs and laboratory tests, and control measures include stamping out and vaccination.
Zoonoses (zoonosis) refers to infectious diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans. These diseases are caused by a variety of pathogens, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi, and can be spread through contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
Examples of Zoonoses
Some common examples of zoonoses include:
1. Rabies: a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through the bite of an infected animal, typically dogs, bats, or raccoons.
2. Lyme disease: a bacterial infection caused by Borrelia burgdorferi, which is spread to humans through the bite of an infected blacklegged tick (Ixodes scapularis).
3. Toxoplasmosis: a parasitic infection caused by Toxoplasma gondii, which can be transmitted to humans through contact with contaminated cat feces or undercooked meat.
4. Leptospirosis: a bacterial infection caused by Leptospira interrogans, which is spread to humans through contact with contaminated water or soil.
5. Avian influenza (bird flu): a viral infection that can be transmitted to humans through contact with infected birds or contaminated surfaces.
Transmission of Zoonoses
Zoonoses can be transmitted to humans in a variety of ways, including:
1. Direct contact with infected animals or contaminated animal products.
2. Contact with contaminated soil, water, or other environmental sources.
3. Through vectors such as ticks, mosquitoes, and fleas.
4. By consuming contaminated food or water.
5. Through close contact with an infected person or animal.
Prevention of Zoonoses
Preventing the transmission of zoonoses requires a combination of personal protective measures, good hygiene practices, and careful handling of animals and animal products. Some strategies for preventing zoonoses include:
1. Washing hands frequently, especially after contact with animals or their waste.
2. Avoiding direct contact with wild animals and avoiding touching or feeding stray animals.
3. Cooking meat and eggs thoroughly to kill harmful bacteria.
4. Keeping pets up to date on vaccinations and preventative care.
5. Avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, particularly poultry and pork.
6. Using insect repellents and wearing protective clothing when outdoors in areas where vectors are prevalent.
7. Implementing proper sanitation and hygiene practices in animal housing and husbandry.
8. Implementing strict biosecurity measures on farms and in animal facilities to prevent the spread of disease.
9. Providing education and training to individuals working with animals or in areas where zoonoses are prevalent.
10. Monitoring for and reporting cases of zoonotic disease to help track and control outbreaks.
Zoonoses are diseases that can be transmitted between animals and humans, posing a significant risk to human health and animal welfare. Understanding the causes, transmission, and prevention of zoonoses is essential for protecting both humans and animals from these diseases. By implementing appropriate measures such as avoiding contact with wild animals, cooking meat thoroughly, keeping pets up to date on vaccinations, and implementing proper sanitation and biosecurity practices, we can reduce the risk of zoonotic disease transmission and protect public health and animal welfare.
Veterinary abortion refers to the intentional termination of a pregnancy in an animal, typically a farm or domesticated animal such as a dog, cat, horse, cow, or pig. The procedure is performed by a veterinarian and is usually done for reasons such as unwanted breeding, disease or genetic disorders in the fetus, or to prevent overpopulation of certain species.
Types of Veterinary Abortion:
1. Spontaneous Abortion (Miscarriage): This occurs naturally when the pregnancy is terminated by natural causes such as infection or trauma.
2. Induced Abortion: This is performed by a veterinarian using various methods such as injection of drugs or surgical procedures to terminate the pregnancy.
Methods of Veterinary Abortion:
1. Drug-induced abortion: This method involves administering medication to the animal to cause uterine contractions and expulsion of the fetus.
2. Surgical abortion: This method involves surgical intervention to remove the fetus from the uterus, usually through a small incision in the abdomen.
3. Non-surgical abortion: This method uses a device to remove the fetus from the uterus without making an incision.
Complications and Risks of Veterinary Abortion:
1. Infection: As with any surgical procedure, there is a risk of infection.
2. Hemorrhage: Excessive bleeding can occur during or after the procedure.
3. Uterine rupture: In rare cases, the uterus may rupture during the procedure.
4. Incomplete abortion: In some cases, not all of the fetus may be removed, leading to complications later on.
5. Scarring: Scars may form in the uterus or abdomen after the procedure, which can lead to reproductive problems in the future.
Prevention of Unwanted Pregnancies in Animals:
1. Spaying/neutering: This is the most effective way to prevent unwanted pregnancies in animals.
2. Breeding management: Proper breeding management, including selecting healthy and fertile breeding animals, can help reduce the risk of unwanted pregnancies.
3. Use of contraceptives: Hormonal contraceptives, such as injection or implants, can be used in some species to prevent pregnancy.
4. Behavioral management: In some cases, behavioral management techniques, such as separation or rehoming of animals, may be necessary to prevent unwanted breeding.
Ethical Considerations of Veterinary Abortion:
1. Animal welfare: The procedure should only be performed when necessary and with the intention of improving the animal's welfare.
2. Owner consent: Owners must provide informed consent before the procedure can be performed.
3. Veterinarian expertise: The procedure should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian with experience in the procedure.
4. Alternative options: All alternative options, such as spaying/neutering or rehoming, should be considered before performing an abortion.
Veterinary abortion is a complex issue that requires careful consideration of ethical and practical factors. While it may be necessary in some cases to prevent the suffering of unwanted litters, it is important to approach the procedure with caution and respect for animal welfare. Owners must provide informed consent, and the procedure should only be performed by a licensed veterinarian with experience in the procedure. Alternative options, such as spaying/neutering or rehoming, should also be considered before performing an abortion. Ultimately, the decision to perform a veterinary abortion should be made with the intention of improving the animal's welfare and quality of life.
Examples of emerging communicable diseases include SARS (severe acute respiratory syndrome), West Nile virus, and HIV/AIDS. These diseases are often difficult to diagnose and treat, and they can spread rapidly due to increased travel and trade, as well as the high level of interconnectedness in today's world.
Emerging communicable diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, such as environmental changes, genetic mutations, or the transmission of diseases from animals to humans. These diseases can also be spread through various routes, including airborne transmission, contact with infected bodily fluids, and vector-borne transmission (such as through mosquitoes or ticks).
To prevent the spread of emerging communicable diseases, it is important to have strong surveillance systems in place to detect and monitor outbreaks, as well as effective public health measures such as vaccination programs, quarantine, and contact tracing. Additionally, research into the causes and transmission mechanisms of these diseases is crucial for developing effective treatments and prevention strategies.
Overall, emerging communicable diseases pose a significant threat to global health security, and it is important for healthcare professionals, policymakers, and the general public to be aware of these diseases and take steps to prevent their spread.
Sheep diseases can be caused by a variety of factors, including bacteria, viruses, parasites, and environmental factors. Here are some common sheep diseases and their meanings:
1. Scrapie: A fatal neurological disorder that affects sheep and goats, caused by a prion.
2. Ovine Progressive Pneumonia (OPP): A contagious respiratory disease caused by Mycobacterium ovipneumoniae.
3. Maedi-Visna: A slow-progressing pneumonia caused by a retrovirus, which can lead to OPP.
4. Foot-and-Mouth Disease (FMD): A highly contagious viral disease that affects cloven-hoofed animals, including sheep and goats.
5. Bloat: A condition caused by gas accumulation in the rumen, which can lead to abdominal pain and death if not treated promptly.
6. Pneumonia: An inflammation of the lungs, often caused by bacteria or viruses.
7. Cryptosporidiosis: A diarrheal disease caused by Cryptosporidium parvum, which can be fatal in young lambs.
8. Babesiosis: A blood parasitic disease caused by Babesia oviparasites, which can lead to anemia and death if left untreated.
9. Fascioliasis: A liver fluke infection that can cause anemia, jaundice, and liver damage.
10. Anthrax: A serious bacterial disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, which can be fatal if left untreated.
Sheep diseases can have a significant impact on the health and productivity of flocks, as well as the economy of sheep farming. It is important for sheep farmers to be aware of these diseases and take appropriate measures to prevent and control them.
1) They share similarities with humans: Many animal species share similar biological and physiological characteristics with humans, making them useful for studying human diseases. For example, mice and rats are often used to study diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, and cancer because they have similar metabolic and cardiovascular systems to humans.
2) They can be genetically manipulated: Animal disease models can be genetically engineered to develop specific diseases or to model human genetic disorders. This allows researchers to study the progression of the disease and test potential treatments in a controlled environment.
3) They can be used to test drugs and therapies: Before new drugs or therapies are tested in humans, they are often first tested in animal models of disease. This allows researchers to assess the safety and efficacy of the treatment before moving on to human clinical trials.
4) They can provide insights into disease mechanisms: Studying disease models in animals can provide valuable insights into the underlying mechanisms of a particular disease. This information can then be used to develop new treatments or improve existing ones.
5) Reduces the need for human testing: Using animal disease models reduces the need for human testing, which can be time-consuming, expensive, and ethically challenging. However, it is important to note that animal models are not perfect substitutes for human subjects, and results obtained from animal studies may not always translate to humans.
6) They can be used to study infectious diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study infectious diseases such as HIV, TB, and malaria. These models allow researchers to understand how the disease is transmitted, how it progresses, and how it responds to treatment.
7) They can be used to study complex diseases: Animal disease models can be used to study complex diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and heart disease. These models allow researchers to understand the underlying mechanisms of the disease and test potential treatments.
8) They are cost-effective: Animal disease models are often less expensive than human clinical trials, making them a cost-effective way to conduct research.
9) They can be used to study drug delivery: Animal disease models can be used to study drug delivery and pharmacokinetics, which is important for developing new drugs and drug delivery systems.
10) They can be used to study aging: Animal disease models can be used to study the aging process and age-related diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. This allows researchers to understand how aging contributes to disease and develop potential treatments.
A disease that affects pigs, including viral, bacterial, and parasitic infections, as well as genetic disorders and nutritional deficiencies. Some common swine diseases include:
1. Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome (PRRS): A highly contagious viral disease that can cause reproductive failure, respiratory problems, and death.
2. Swine Influenza: A viral infection similar to human influenza, which can cause fever, coughing, and pneumonia in pigs.
3. Erysipelas: A bacterial infection that causes high fever, loss of appetite, and skin lesions in pigs.
4. Actinobacillosis: A bacterial infection that can cause pneumonia, arthritis, and abscesses in pigs.
5. Parasitic infections: Such as gastrointestinal parasites like roundworms and tapeworms, which can cause diarrhea, anemia, and weight loss in pigs.
6. Scrapie: A degenerative neurological disorder that affects pigs and other animals, causing confusion, aggression, and eventually death.
7. Nutritional deficiencies: Such as a lack of vitamin E or selenium, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including muscular dystrophy and anemia.
8. Genetic disorders: Such as achondroplasia, a condition that causes dwarfism and deformities in pigs.
9. Environmental diseases: Such as heat stress, which can cause a range of health problems in pigs, including respiratory distress and death.
It's important to note that many swine diseases have similar symptoms, making accurate diagnosis by a veterinarian essential for effective treatment and control.
Lists of animal diseases
Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act
Diseases of Animals Act
Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act 1892
Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act 1893
Contagious Diseases (Animals) Act 1878
Blain (animal disease)
Foreign animal disease
Animal disease model
Familial renal disease in animals
Animal models of Parkinson's disease
National Animal Disease Information Service
Plum Island Animal Disease Center
National Centre for Foreign Animal Disease
Jessie Isabelle Price
Obesity in pets
United States Senate Committee on Agriculture, Nutrition, and Forestry
Deaths in December 2014
Benji (1974 film)
Uridine monophosphate synthase
Prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2
Robert Adams (spiritual teacher)
El Paso, Texas
World Organisation for Animal Health
Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 °C
History of the Jews in Poland
City of Glen Eira
Griffins Mills, New York
2022 monkeypox outbreak in North America
Harold Wolferstan Thomas
Resveratrol could counter metabolic diseases, animal study
Animal Diseases and Your Health: MedlinePlus
Infectious Diseases of Animals 2021/2022 - University of Bologna
The Animal Diseases Amendment Act
Compendium of Measures to Prevent Disease Associated with Animals in Public Settings, 2011
Integrated Human-Animal Disease Surveillance - Volume 11, Number 9-September 2005 - Emerging Infectious Diseases journal - CDC
Merck Animal Health Proudly Supports Vaccination Programs Targeted at Reducing Disease in Domestic Pets - Merck.com
animal diseases •
Animal models for the study of hepatitis C virus infection and related liver disease
Antihistamines for Integumentary Disease in Animals - Pharmacology - Merck Veterinary Manual
Sen. Murdock supports increased biosecurity measures to prevent foreign animal disease outbreaks | Oklahoma Senate
Researchers identify cells causing neuronal death in a mitochondrial disease animal model
Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals - Volume 25, Number 12-December 2019 - Emerging...
Transmission of the virus of foot and mouth disease between animals and man*
C‑reactive protein and cardiovascular disease: From animal studies to the clinic (Review)
Diseases from Animals & Insects Arkansas Department of Health
Better Farming Series 09 - Animal Husbandry: Animal Diseases; How Animals Reproduce (FAO - INADES, 1976, 33 p.): Reproduction:...
Animal Agents and Vectors of Human Disease in: The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene Volume 35 Issue 6 (1986)
Transgenic mouse models of tauopathies: Prospects for animal models of Pick's disease | Neurology
Mosquitoes | Animal diseases | Biosecurity | Agriculture Victoria
Dog Illness & Disease | MSAH - Metairie Small Animal Hospital - New Orleans, LA
Spring Ticks And Lyme Disease | Niles Animal Hospital & Bird Medical Center
जनावरांना रोगांचा प्रादुर्भाव; शेतकरी चिंतेत | The incidence of unknown diseases in animals is increasing
Disparities in the research effort to combat growing risk of animal-borne diseases amid climate change - Digital Science
Assessment of listing and categorisation of animal diseases within the framework of the Animal Health Law (Regulation (EU) No...
GM2 Gangliosidosis Variant 0 (Sandhoff Disease) in a Mixed-Breed Dog | Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association
Animal versus plant-based protein and risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes: a systematic review of randomized...
Turkiye Klinikleri Animal Nutrition and Nutritional Diseases - Special Topics 2015 - Volume 1 Issue 1 | Journals | Türkiye...
How To Tell If My Pet Has Lyme Disease | Loving Hands Animal Clinic & Pet Resort | Alpharetta Veterinarians
Assessment of the control measures of the Category A diseases of the Animal Health Law - Forskning - Aarhus Universitet
Centers for Diseas3
- The conclusions, findings, and opinions expressed by authors contributing to this journal do not necessarily reflect the official position of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, the Public Health Service, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, or the authors' affiliated institutions. (cdc.gov)
- The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) cannot attest to the accuracy of a non-federal website. (cdc.gov)
- Announcer] This program is presented by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (cdc.gov)
- Animal diseases that people can catch are called zoonoses. (medlineplus.gov)
- Zoonotic diseases (i.e., zoonoses) are diseases transmitted between animals and humans. (cdc.gov)
- Viral zoonoses: consequent to the direct contact with animals, vector-borne and food-borne viral diseases Bacterial zoonoses: consequent to the direct contact with animals, vector-borne and food-borne. (unibo.it)
- Animal health : programs and trends in the Americas, 1976 , proceedings of the IX Inter-American Meeting, at the ministerial level, on Foot-and-Mouth Disease and Zoonoses Control, Caracas, Venezuela, 5-8 April 1976. (who.int)
- Animal health in the Americas, 1979 : African swine fever, animal health laboratories and their support of health care programs in rural areas, proceedings of the XII Inter-American Meeting, at the Ministerial Level, on Foot-and-Mouth disease and Zoonoses Control, Willemstad, Cura ao, 17-20 April 1979. (who.int)
- Information on animal diseases , including zoonoses , is notified to the OIE in compliance with legally binding instruments between the OIE and its Members. (bvsalud.org)
- L'information sur les maladies animales , zoonoses incluses, est notifiée à l'OIE conformément aux instruments juridiquement contraignants mis en place entre l'OIE et ses Membres . (bvsalud.org)
- Although human-animal contact has many benefits, human health problems are associated with these settings, including infectious diseases, exposure to rabies, and injuries. (cdc.gov)
- However, an inadequate understanding of disease transmission and animal behavior can increase the likelihood of infectious diseases, rabies exposures, injuries, and other health problems among visitors, especially children, in these settings. (cdc.gov)
- 1 Copenhagen Hepatitis C Program (CO-HEP), Department of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Research Centre, Copenhagen University Hospital, Hvidovre, Denmark. (nih.gov)
- The goal of the Department of Health is to improve the health of Arkansans by reducing the impact of these infectious diseases using a comprehensive approach that includes human, animal, and environmental health. (arkansas.gov)
- Many diseases affecting humans can be traced to animals or animal products. (medlineplus.gov)
- Sometimes, animal diseases spread to humans, and scientists don't always know how that happens. (utahpeoplespost.com)
- the underlying concern, of course, is that antimicrobial use in animals results in illness and death in humans. (cdc.gov)
- All land-owners should take steps to remove mosquito habitats such as stagnant water and limit exposure to mosquitoes for humans and animals. (vic.gov.au)
- Whether it's diseases from bats, birds, pigs, or mosquitoes, climate change brings with it an increased risk of animal-borne (or "zoonotic") diseases that can transmit to humans. (digital-science.com)
- Human coronaviruses, which hitherto were causative agents of mild respiratory diseases of man, have recently become one of the most important groups of pathogens of humans the world over. (who.int)
- They exhibit considerable genetic and host diversity, causing diseases of gastrointestinal and respiratory system in a wide range of vertebrate hosts including humans. (who.int)
- This subtype was not known to cause disease in humans until the outbreak during February in China. (cdc.gov)
- CCHF spreads to humans either by tick bites, or through contact with affected animal tissues immediately after slaughter. (who.int)
- Studies have also documented the transmission of the bacteria from elephants to humans working in close proximity to the animals. (cdc.gov)
- During 1991--2005, the number of enteric disease outbreaks associated with animals in public settings increased ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- During 1996--2010, approximately 150 human infectious disease outbreaks involving animals in public settings have been reported to CDC (CDC, unpublished data, 2010). (cdc.gov)
- They write: "What is apparent is that governments around the world are investing large sums of money as part of the global mission to halt the spread of animal diseases and to protect the public against zoonotic disease outbreaks before they become pandemics that pose a risk globally. (digital-science.com)
- In less than two decades, three members of the group, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) coronavirus (CoV), Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS)-CoV, and SARS-COV-2, have emerged causing disease outbreaks that affected millions and claimed the lives of thousands of people. (who.int)
- Developing systems that link human and animal disease reporting systems can help identify and facilitate a response to known and emerging zoonotic diseases. (cdc.gov)
- Zoonotic diseases are those that are spread from animals to people. (arkansas.gov)
- Conducting active surveillance for zoonotic diseases (e.g. (arkansas.gov)
- Digital Science, a technology company serving stakeholders across the research ecosystem, has today released its analysis of the global research response to climate change and zoonotic diseases, in the context of the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) on climate and health. (digital-science.com)
- Research publications in the fields of zoonotic diseases and climate change have increased more than two-fold since the implementation of the SDGs in 2016. (digital-science.com)
- Despite being strongly represented in these fields, research carried out on zoonotic diseases and climate change in lower income countries is less well cited by higher income countries. (digital-science.com)
- Some wild animals may carry rabies . (medlineplus.gov)
- Animal Health outside the USA and Canada) is proud to support canine rabies vaccination programs in some of the most at-risk regions in the world. (merck.com)
- For this reason, Merck Animal Health has donated up to 300,000 doses of lifesaving veterinary rabies vaccine to those regions this year alone. (merck.com)
- Merck Animal Health's Nobivac ® vaccine, have their usage matched by a company donation of rabies vaccine. (merck.com)
- We are extremely proud to have been able to provide more than one million doses of rabies vaccine supporting important programs targeted in the most at-risk regions in the world," states David Hallas, Associate Vice President, Merck Animal Health. (merck.com)
- Merck Animal Health encourages pet owners to help veterinary professionals continue in the fight against rabies and vaccinate their pets today. (merck.com)
- Some of those diseases are transmitted through the bite of an animal, such as rabies from animals infected with the rabies virus, or diseases spread through the bite of a tick or mosquito. (arkansas.gov)
- Other important recommendations are that venues prohibit food in animal areas and include transition areas between animal areas and nonanimal areas, visitors receive information about disease risk and prevention procedures, and animals be properly cared for and managed. (cdc.gov)
- The director and any person acting under his or her direction may, for the purpose of disease control, management or prevention or the protection of animal or human health, share or disclose any information that is reported or that they discover about a reportable disease or a suspected occurrence of a reportable disease. (gov.mb.ca)
- Of 55 respondents, 24 (44%) indicated that these data would be used to increase disease awareness and 23 (42%) indicated the data would be used for risk assessment and prevention planning. (cdc.gov)
- Mosquito-borne viruses can affect livestock including horses, pigs, sheep, cattle and working dogs and other animals - bite prevention and mosquito control are key to keeping animals free from disease. (vic.gov.au)
- If your pet lives in an area that is a hotspot for Lyme disease, a good tick control program is the best prevention. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- Animal disease prevention in developing countries : its relationship to health, nutrition, and development. (who.int)
- The continuous improvement of the OIE disease notification process has had positive effects, both in terms of animal disease prevention , control and eradication at a global level, and by facilitating the international trade of animals , their products and by-products. (bvsalud.org)
- The information shared or disclosed may include personal information, as defined in The Freedom of Information and Protection of Privacy Act , about persons who report occurrences or suspected occurrences of reportable diseases or who may have been exposed to such diseases. (gov.mb.ca)
- Respondents evaluated the availability of a published list of reportable diseases (68 [89%] of 76) and the availability and quality of laboratory testing and disease confirmation (57 [75%] of 76) as Strongly Like/Like (Scale = Strongly Dislike, Dislike, No Opinion, Like, Strongly Like). (cdc.gov)
- Deer and deer mice carry ticks that cause Lyme disease . (medlineplus.gov)
- Along with enjoying the outdoors, comes the risk of exposure to ticks and Lyme disease. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- In North America, the tick responsible for transmitting Lyme disease is the Blacklegged tick, more commonly known as the Deer tick. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- However, in other regions of the world, other tick species have been known to spread Lyme disease. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- In different regions of the world, different species of this bacteria cause Lyme disease. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- Currently, at least 14 different types of bacteria cause Lyme disease worldwide. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- The vague signs are why regular Lyme disease testing for your pet is so important, especially if your pet has not had tick preventives in the past. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- If your pet tests positive for Lyme disease, your veterinarian will discuss treatment options with you based on the presence and signs of illness. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- Be sure to let your veterinarian know about any travel plans you have - the area you reside in may be not be a Lyme disease hotspot, but the area you are travelling to may be. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- Vaccines for Lyme disease are available in North America and other parts of the world that have high incidence rates. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- Your veterinarian may recommended the Lyme disease vaccine for your dog if you live in an area where Lyme disease is endemic, or if your dog is normally in an environment where ticks may be widespread. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- While there is no evidence that pets can transmit Lyme disease to people, if you (or your pet) frequent areas that are good tick habitat (tall grass, meadows, and wooded areas), you are at risk of acquiring Lyme disease either directly from the environment, or from your pet. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- Lyme disease has the distinction of being one of the most common tick-borne illnesses in the world. (lovinghands.com)
- Our Alpharetta vets are here to explain Lyme disease in pets, note some of the symptoms, and offer some treatment considerations. (lovinghands.com)
- What is Lyme disease? (lovinghands.com)
- The bacteria borrella is carried by deer ticks and causes infectious Lyme disease, which is transmitted when ticks feed on infected animals such as deer, birds and mice. (lovinghands.com)
- What symptoms of Lyme disease should I watch out for? (lovinghands.com)
- Some of the most common symptoms of Lyme disease in dogs, cats, and other pets may include anything from general discomfort or malaise to depression, lack of appetite, and lameness due to inflamed joints. (lovinghands.com)
- How can my vet diagnose Lyme disease? (lovinghands.com)
- Schedule an appointment with your vet if you suspect your pet may have Lyme disease. (lovinghands.com)
- What happens if my pet receives a Lyme disease diagnosis? (lovinghands.com)
- When diagnosed with Lyme disease, pets are usually treated on an outpatient basis. (lovinghands.com)
- How can I prevent Lyme disease? (lovinghands.com)
- Sprays, monthly products and vaccines are available, although many work best before dogs are exposed to the bacteria that cause Lyme disease. (lovinghands.com)
- Your vet may recommend appropriate boosters and vaccines if you live in an area where Lyme disease is common. (lovinghands.com)
- Though dogs will not directly infect people, our pets may bring infected ticks into the house, which may then attach to another person or animal and transmit Lyme disease. (lovinghands.com)
- Are you worried your pet may have contracted Lyme disease? (lovinghands.com)
- It's not actually the tick that causes the disease (the tick transmits it), it is Borrelia species bacteria that live in the gut of ticks that causes disease. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- Avoiding ticks as much as possible will go a long way to controlling and preventing disease. (lovinghands.com)
- You should promptly remove any ticks you find on your dog to help prevent Lyme and other diseases spreading. (lovinghands.com)
- A. Typically, people become infected through the bite of infected insects (most commonly, ticks and deerflies), by handling infected sick or dead animals, by eating or drinking contaminated food or water, or by inhaling airborne bacteria. (cdc.gov)
- The virus is primarily transmitted to people from ticks and livestock animals. (who.int)
- In this era of "superbugs" and rising antimicrobial resistance, Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals ( Figure ) is a valuable resource to better understand the contribution of animal-derived pathogens to this growing public health crisis. (cdc.gov)
- Antimicrobial Resistance in Bacteria from Livestock and Companion Animals presents a wealth of information and is a critical resource for anyone who studies, treats, or is affected by antimicrobial resistance in domesticated animals or the food products that come from them. (cdc.gov)
- A small number of bacteria (10-50 organisms) can cause disease. (cdc.gov)
- the TB bacteria became active, multiplied, and caused TB disease. (cdc.gov)
- This report has been endorsed by CDC, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, the United States Department of Agriculture-Animal Plant Health Inspection Service, the American Association of Extension Veterinarians, and the American Veterinary Medical Association. (cdc.gov)
- This report provides recommendations for public health officials, veterinarians, animal venue staff members, animal exhibitors, visitors to animal venues, physicians, and others concerned with minimizing risks associated with animals in public settings. (cdc.gov)
- The National Association of State Public Health Veterinarians (NASPHV) understands the positive benefits of human-animal contact. (cdc.gov)
- Managers of these venues should use the information in this report in consultation with veterinarians, public health officials, or other professionals to reduce risks for disease transmission. (cdc.gov)
- We assessed the surveillance and reporting needs of a small but diverse group of Michigan veterinarians by examining their perspective of the current animal disease reporting system, the system enhancements desired, and their computer and Internet accessibility. (cdc.gov)
- To ensure an integrated system that meets both human and veterinary public health needs, we developed a questionnaire for veterinarians to collect information on the current animal disease reporting system, system enhancements that are desired, and computer and Internet access capabilities (University Human Research Committee approved). (cdc.gov)
- Therefore, it will be important to continue educating veterinarians to ensure that suspected disease cases are reported as well as confirmed cases, which may have been reported by the laboratory also. (cdc.gov)
- Merck Animal Health offers veterinarians, farmers, pet owners and governments one of the widest range of veterinary pharmaceuticals, vaccines and health management solutions and services. (merck.com)
- Animal owners and veterinarians suspecting JE, Hendra and West Nile virus clinical disease should notify their vet or the Agriculture Victoria Animal Health and Welfare team, the Emergency Animal Disease Watch Hotline 1800 675 888 or the Notify Now App. (vic.gov.au)
Coronary heart d2
- Atherosclerosis is the pathological basis of several CVDs, including coronary heart disease, peripheral vascular disease and cerebral infarction. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Mousavi SM, Jayedi A, Jalilpiran Y, Hajishafiee M, Aminianfar A, Esmaillzadeh A. Dietary intake of total, animal and plant proteins and the risk of coronary heart disease and hypertension: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
- NASPHV recommends that local and state public health, agricultural, environmental, and wildlife agencies use these recommendations to establish their own guidelines or regulations for reducing the risk for disease from human-animal contact in public settings. (cdc.gov)
- Guidelines to reduce risk for disease from animals in health-care and veterinary facilities and from service animals (e.g., guide dogs) have been developed ( 2--6 ). (cdc.gov)
- Early identification of zoonotic disease occurrence through simultaneous monitoring of human and animal disease surveillance systems is critical to protect health in both populations. (cdc.gov)
- The system will be based on the Michigan Disease Surveillance System platform, a Web-based human disease reporting system implemented by the Michigan Department of Community Health ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- Sutton, Technical Director, Merck Animal Health. (merck.com)
- States and Canada, is the global animal health business unit of Merck. (merck.com)
- Health is dedicated to preserving and improving the health, well-being and performance of animals. (merck.com)
- Animal Health is present in more than 50 countries, while its products are available in some 150 markets. (merck.com)
- For more information, visit www.merck-animal-health.com . (merck.com)
- This is called One Health, defined as the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally and globally to obtain optimal health for people, animals and the environment. (arkansas.gov)
- ASF is an animal disease affecting only pigs with no human health implications. (oksenate.gov)
- Note: This article, written by LifeLearn Animal Health (LifeLearn Inc.) is licensed to this practice for the personal use of our clients. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- Many of the health impacts associated with climate change are a particular threat to the poorest people in low- and middle-income countries where the burden of climate sensitive diseases is the greatest. (digital-science.com)
- Replacing animal protein with plant protein for aspects of sustainability may also be a public health strategy to lower the risk of CVD mortality and T2D. (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
- Our experienced vets are passionate about the health of Alpharetta companion animals. (lovinghands.com)
- by World Organisation for Animal Health. (who.int)
- by Inter-American Meeting at the Ministerial Level, on Animal Health (9th: 1995: Washington, D.C. (who.int)
- Health and development in subregional integration initiatives : final report documents selected from the VIII Inter-American Meeting, at the Ministerial Level, on Animal Health, Washington, D.C., April 27-29, 1993. (who.int)
- International Symposium on Health Aspects of the International Movement of Animals, San Antonio, Texas, 28-30 August 1968. (who.int)
- His general health had been good, and he had no previous history of neurologic disease. (medscape.com)
- The World Organisation for Animal Health: notification of animal diseases. (bvsalud.org)
- It allows countries at risk to take appropriate action to prevent the spread of transboundary diseases or minimise their impact, and thus mitigate the associated risks to animal and public health . (bvsalud.org)
- In this context, the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE) is responsible for rapidly and transparently sharing accurate and complete information on the global animal health situation. (bvsalud.org)
- To do so, it collects, verifies, validates and disseminates the animal health information provided by its Members. (bvsalud.org)
- The high prevalence of coronaviruses in domestic and wild animals, especially bats and birds, and the propensity for their genomes to undergo mutation and recombination may lead to emergence of new coronaviruses that could pose a serious threat to human and animal health. (who.int)
- Outbreak alert information, easy access to regulatory requirements, and animal disease information were also desired. (cdc.gov)
- Instead, it provides a comprehensive account of a very complicated topic, delving into the nuances needed to understand the what, where, when, and why of antimicrobial resistance in companion animals and livestock. (cdc.gov)
- Foreign animal diseases are a constant threat to Oklahoma's livestock. (oksenate.gov)
- There is no vaccine available for either people or animals. (who.int)
- Microglia, a type of central nervous system cell, is primarily responsible for neuronal death in Leigh Syndrome and the neurological symptoms related to this mitochondrial disease. (worldhealth.net)
- Leigh Syndrome is the most common form of mitochondrial disease. (worldhealth.net)
- The cause of this group of diseases is a malfunction of the mitochondria -- the organelles responsible for generating energy for the cell to function properly -- caused by mutations in mitochondrial RNA or cellular DNA. (worldhealth.net)
- The study, which is a collaboration between the Neuroinflammation and Oxidative Stress research group and the Mitochondrial Neuropathology laboratory, both at the INC-UAB, is fundamental to understanding Leigh Syndrome and finding a therapy for mitochondrial diseases, which affect 1 in every 5,000 newborns. (worldhealth.net)
- C‑reactive protein (CRP) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) have long been important research topics. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide ( 1 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- To systematically review the evidence on the effect of replacing the intake of animal protein with plant protein on cardiovascular disease (CVD) and type 2 diabetes (T2D) and their intermediate risk factors. (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
- The structure of the hemagglutinin, or HA, protein in the virus and the lack of reports of severe disease in poultry indicate that the virus exhibits characteristics of low pathogenicity in birds. (cdc.gov)
- The substitution of animal protein with plant protein (percentage of energy intake) in cohort studies was associated with lower CVD mortality ( n = 4) and lower T2D incidence ( n = 2). (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
- Evidence that the substitution of animal protein with plant protein reduces risk of both CVD mortality and T2D incidence is limited-suggestive . (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
- The disease spreads very quickly and has an extremely high fatality rate for any pigs infected. (oksenate.gov)
- Whether one is interested in a specific pathogen or in policy to mitigate antimicrobial resistance, this text offers a comprehensive review of the increasingly urgent topic that is antimicrobial resistance in animal-derived pathogens. (cdc.gov)
- The hosts of the CCHF virus include a wide range of wild and domestic animals such as cattle, sheep and goats. (who.int)
- Wear respiratory protection (N95 filtering facepiece respirator or greater) when working within 25 feet of an elephant with known or suspected TB disease or within the elephant stall area, regardless of whether the ventilation systems are functioning or elephants are present. (cdc.gov)
- These updated 2011 guidelines provide new information on the risks associated with amphibians and with animals in day camp settings, as well as the protective role of zoonotic disease education. (cdc.gov)
- Many pets do not show outward signs of illness or can show signs that are difficult to recognize or may be mistaken for other diseases. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
- Simultaneous tracking of human and animal diseases was considered useful by 32 (84%) of 38 respondents because animals are sentinels of human (zoonotic) disease and by 7 (18%) respondents because of the threat of agroterrorism. (cdc.gov)
- Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease, chiefly manifested by activation of endothelial cells, adhesion and migration of monocytes, accumulation of foam cells, formation of atherosclerotic plaques, plaque rupture and thrombosis ( 4 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- This infection is then passed to other animals when the infected tick bites them. (lovinghands.com)
- and includes a syndrome, and a condition or group of characteristic symptoms or behaviours that is designated as a disease in the regulations. (gov.mb.ca)
- Provide general TB training during working hours to all employees when they are hired and then again each year to ensure a thorough understanding of the disease, its symptoms, its transmission, and ways to prevent it. (cdc.gov)
- Ensure that employees who test positive for TB receive a prompt medical evaluation and that employees who have tested positive for TB in the past but do not have active TB disease undergo a medical evaluation for symptoms of TB disease each year. (cdc.gov)
- Worms cost woolgrowers more than any other disease and SCIPS aims to promote parasite control methods that will be effective into the future. (bvsalud.org)
- Five insights from the global burden of disease study 2019. (foodandnutritionresearch.net)
- Introduction: dynamics of infection in human and animal populations mode of transmission and maintenance in the nature of the infection. (unibo.it)
- LAR Penh increase and airway (bronchoalveolar lavage) eosinophilia were completely inhibited in all animals when treated with dexametisone. (cdc.gov)
- The aim of the present review was to investigate the association between CRP and CVD, particularly atherosclerosis, from laboratory animal studies to clinical research. (spandidos-publications.com)
- Mosquito-borne viruses that can impact animals include Japanese encephalitis, Murray Valley encephalitis virus, Ross River virus, Barmah Forest virus, Dengue virus, and West Nile (Kunjin) virus. (vic.gov.au)
- This drug, although it is not a good candidate for treating the disease, has been a key tool in identifying the effect of the neuroinflammation process and understanding how neuronal loss occurs," he adds. (worldhealth.net)
- Because filamentous neuronal tau inclusions are neuropathologic hallmarks of Pick's disease and a number of other neurodegenerative disorders known as tauopathies, the authors generated lines of transgenic (Tg) mice that overexpress the shortest human tau isoform in the CNS. (neurology.org)
- Others are spread through non-bite animal contact or even result from contamination of the environment by animals. (arkansas.gov)
- It is the nymph and adult stages that are a concern for disease transmission. (nilesanimalhospital.com)
Human and animal1
- A system that allows simultaneous electronic capture and assessment of human and animal disease reports is being implemented in Michigan. (cdc.gov)
- The Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration is based on a large number of population studies and has found that CRP concentrations are closely associated with coronary arterial disease, cancer, ischemic stroke and vascular diseases ( 18 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- Anticholinergic properties lead to hypertension (and thus are contraindicated in cardiac disease patients), dry mouth, blurred vision (contraindicated in glaucoma), and urinary retention. (merckvetmanual.com)