Molasses: The syrup remaining after sugar is crystallized out of SUGARCANE or sugar beet juice. It is also used in ANIMAL FEED, and in a fermented form, is used to make industrial ETHYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Beta vulgaris: A species of the Beta genus. Cultivars are used as a source of beets (root) or chard (leaves).Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Energy Intake: Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.Textbooks as Topic: Books used in the study of a subject that contain a systematic presentation of the principles and vocabulary of a subject.Bacteriology: The study of the structure, growth, function, genetics, and reproduction of bacteria, and BACTERIAL INFECTIONS.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)TextbooksIntestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Salmonella: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that utilizes citrate as a sole carbon source. It is pathogenic for humans, causing enteric fevers, gastroenteritis, and bacteremia. Food poisoning is the most common clinical manifestation. Organisms within this genus are separated on the basis of antigenic characteristics, sugar fermentation patterns, and bacteriophage susceptibility.Salmonella typhimurium: A serotype of Salmonella enterica that is a frequent agent of Salmonella gastroenteritis in humans. It also causes PARATYPHOID FEVER.Salmonella Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus SALMONELLA.Salmonella enterica: A subgenus of Salmonella containing several medically important serotypes. The habitat for the majority of strains is warm-blooded animals.Livestock: Domesticated farm animals raised for home use or profit but excluding POULTRY. Typically livestock includes CATTLE; SHEEP; HORSES; SWINE; GOATS; and others.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Poultry: Domesticated birds raised for food. It typically includes CHICKENS; TURKEYS, DUCKS; GEESE; and others.JC Virus: A species of POLYOMAVIRUS, originally isolated from the brain of a patient with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. The patient's initials J.C. gave the virus its name. Infection is not accompanied by any apparent illness but serious demyelinating disease can appear later, probably following reactivation of latent virus.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Laboratory Infection: Accidentally acquired infection in laboratory workers.Microbiology: The study of microorganisms such as fungi, bacteria, algae, archaea, and viruses.Animal Nutrition Sciences: The study of NUTRITION PROCESSES, as well as the components of food, their actions, interaction, and balance in relation to health and disease in animals.Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Parenteral Nutrition: The administering of nutrients for assimilation and utilization by a patient who cannot maintain adequate nutrition by enteral feeding alone. Nutrients are administered by a route other than the alimentary canal (e.g., intravenously, subcutaneously).4-Hydroxycoumarins: Substances found in many plants, containing the 4-hydroxycoumarin radical. They interfere with vitamin K and the blood clotting mechanism, are tightly protein-bound, inhibit mitochondrial and microsomal enzymes, and are used as oral anticoagulants.Chromosomes, Artificial, Bacterial: DNA constructs that are composed of, at least, a REPLICATION ORIGIN, for successful replication, propagation to and maintenance as an extra chromosome in bacteria. In addition, they can carry large amounts (about 200 kilobases) of other sequence for a variety of bioengineering purposes.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Skin Manifestations: Dermatologic disorders attendant upon non-dermatologic disease or injury.Genomic Library: A form of GENE LIBRARY containing the complete DNA sequences present in the genome of a given organism. It contrasts with a cDNA library which contains only sequences utilized in protein coding (lacking introns).Transportation: The means of moving persons, animals, goods, or materials from one place to another.Hydra: A genus of freshwater polyps in the family Hydridae, order Hydroida, class HYDROZOA. They are of special interest because of their complex organization and because their adult organization corresponds roughly to the gastrula of higher animals.UrobilinAmmonium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that include a positively charged tetrahedral nitrogen (ammonium ion) as part of their structure. This class of compounds includes a broad variety of simple ammonium salts and derivatives.Platyhelminths: A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.8-Hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino)tetralin: A serotonin 1A-receptor agonist that is used experimentally to test the effects of serotonin.ArizonaMusic: Sound that expresses emotion through rhythm, melody, and harmony.Host Specificity: The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.Influenza A virus: The type species of the genus INFLUENZAVIRUS A that causes influenza and other diseases in humans and animals. Antigenic variation occurs frequently between strains, allowing classification into subtypes and variants. Transmission is usually by aerosol (human and most non-aquatic hosts) or waterborne (ducks). Infected birds shed the virus in their saliva, nasal secretions, and feces.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Influenza, Human: An acute viral infection in humans involving the respiratory tract. It is marked by inflammation of the NASAL MUCOSA; the PHARYNX; and conjunctiva, and by headache and severe, often generalized, myalgia.
Examples of monogastric animals include omnivores such as humans, rats, dogs and pigs, carnivores such as cats, and herbivores ... "Monogastrics Vs Ruminents" (PDF). Animal Structure & Function Hindgut versus Foregut Fermenters Grant, Kerrin. Adaptations in ... A monogastric digestive system works as soon as the food enters the mouth. Saliva moistens the food and begins the digestive ... A monogastric organism has a simple single-chambered stomach, compared with a ruminant organism, like a cow, goat, or sheep, ...
... and monogastric animals cannot digest cellulose as efficiently as ruminants, hindgut fermentation allows animals to consume ... Foregut fermentation Ruminants Pseudoruminants Animal Structure & Function. Sci.waikato.ac.nz. Retrieved on 2011-11-27. Grant, ... Examples of hindgut fermenters include proboscideans and large odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinos, as well as small ... Unlike in foregut fermenters, the cecum is located after the stomach and small intestine in monogastric animals, which limits ...
The duration of effects in animals lasts up to 4 hours. Xylazine users are more likely to be male, under the age of 30, living ... Monogastric) Ruiz-Colón, K; Chavez-Arias, C; Díaz-Alcalá, JE; Martínez, MA (July 2014). "Xylazine intoxication in humans and ... Xylazine was approved by the FDA for veterinary use and is now used as an animal tranquilizer. In the United States, xylazine ... For example, xylazine and clonidine suppress uptake of MIBG, a norepinephrine analog, in neuroblastoma cells. Xylazine has ...
... monogastric animals) like human beings, dogs, birds, etc. do not produce phytase. Research in the field of animal nutrition has ... The three-dimensional structure of β-propeller phytase is similar to a propeller with six blades. Current research suggests ... These first examples of this class of enzyme were originally cloned from Bacillus species, but numerous microorganisms have ... However, monogastric animals do not carry bacteria that produce phytase, thus, these animals cannot use phytic acid as a major ...
Animal husbandry not only refers to the breeding and raising of animals for meat or to harvest animal products (like milk, eggs ... Although generally understood to denote the practices of humans, other animals-for example, fungus-growing ants-have also been ... Agrarian structure is a long-term structure in the Braudelian understanding of the concept. On a larger scale the agrarian ... Mixed production systems use grassland, fodder crops and grain feed crops as feed for ruminant and monogastric (one stomach; ...
Equines are social animals with two basic social structures. Horses, plains zebras and mountain zebras live in stable, closed ... "Animal Structure & Function". Science on the Farm. University of Waikato. Retrieved 2014-08-13. Pastor, J.; Cohen, Y.; Hobbs, T ... which are descended from domesticated animals that were released or escaped into the wild. Equines are monogastric hindgut ... For example, in Australia, they are considered a non-native invasive species, often viewed as pests, though are also considered ...
... is essentially the same as that of a monogastric animal. Milk digestion begins in the abomasum, the milk having bypassed the ... more and more people today are choosing more exotic companion animals like goats. Goats are herd animals and typically prefer ... For example, Small Farm Today, in 2005, claimed beneficial use in invalid and convalescent diets, proposing that glycerol ... Indeed, if the milk is to be used to make cheese, homogenization is not recommended, as this changes the structure of the milk ...
The types of farm animals, as well as the food they supply can be put into two categories: monogastric and ruminant. Typically ... One example is wheat, which has the ability to express genes that make it resistant to leaf and stem rusts, and to the Hessian ... Female mosquitoes will need more food (human/animal blood) to sustain life and to stimulate production of eggs. This increases ... skeletons and other structures. The decreased pH renders them unable to fix calcium Ca2 to carbonate (CO2− 3) for production of ...
... is the most important protein source for feed farm animals (that in turn yields animal protein for human consumption).[ ... The first photosynthetic structures, the cotyledons, develop from the hypocotyl, the first plant structure to emerge from the ... are toxic to all monogastric animals.[22]. ProteinEdit. Further information: Complete protein, Protein quality, and Soy protein ... Soybeans may also be eaten with minimal processing, for example in the Japanese food edamame (枝豆, edamame), in which immature ...
Feed value for monogastric animals, such as swine and poultry, is somewhat lower than for ruminants. Ch. = Choline; Ca = ... Another well known example is the Field of Corn in Dublin, Ohio, where hundreds of concrete ears of corn lay in a grassy field ... Plant & Animal Genomes XVI Conference Archived February 18, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. Dong, X; Braun, EL; Grotewold, E ( ... The cob is close to a multiple fruit in structure, except that the individual fruits (the kernels) never fuse into a single ...
Animal husbandry is the breeding and raising of animals for meat, milk, eggs, or wool), and for work and transport.[114] ... Williams, E. (1988) Complex Hunter-Gatherers: A Late Holocene Example from Temperate Australia. British Archaeological Reports ... fodder crops and grain feed crops as feed for ruminant and monogastric (one stomach; mainly chickens and pigs) livestock. ... "Economic structure and agricultural productivity in Europe, 1300-1800" (PDF). European Review of Economic History. 3: 1-25. ...
Feed value for monogastric animals, such as swine and poultry, is somewhat lower than for ruminants.[108] ... Structure and physiology. The maize plant is often 3 m (10 ft) in height,[28] though some natural strains can grow 13 m (43 ft ... Another well known example is the Field of Corn in Dublin, Ohio, where hundreds of concrete ears of corn lay in a grassy field ... However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize ...
... the gossypol remaining in the meal is toxic to monogastric animals. Cottonseed hulls can be added to dairy cattle rations for ... such as animal power, water wheels, and windmills, which were also the principal energy sources in Western Europe up until ... For example, improper cropping and irrigation practices have led to desertification in areas of Uzbekistan, where cotton is a ... "Genetic diversity and population structure of Gossypium arboreum L. collected in China". Journal of Cotton Research. 1 (1). ...
... made from sugar beets differs from sugarcane molasses. Only the syrup left from the final crystallization stage is called molasses. Intermediate syrups are called high green and low green, and these are recycled within the crystallization plant to maximize extraction. Beet molasses is 50% sugar by dry weight, predominantly sucrose, but contains significant amounts of glucose and fructose. Beet molasses is limited in biotin (vitamin H or B7) for cell growth; hence, it may be supplemented with a biotin source. The nonsugar content includes many salts, such as calcium, potassium, oxalate, and chloride. It contains betaine and the trisaccharide raffinose. These are a result of concentration from the original plant material or chemicals in processing, and make it unpalatable to humans. So, it is mainly used as an additive to animal feed (called "molassed sugar beet feed") or as a fermentation feedstock.. Extracting additional sugar from beet molasses is possible through ...
... is brown viscous syrup with a typical bittersweet flavor. A by-product of aqueous alcohol soy protein concentrate production, soy molasses is a concentrated, desolventized, aqueous alcohol extract of defatted soybean flakes. The term "soy molasses" was coined by Daniel Chajuss, the founder of Hayes Ashdod Ltd., which first commercially produced and marketed soy molasses in the early 1960s. The name was intended to distinguish the product from "soybean whey" or "condensed soybean solubles", the by-products available at the time from soy protein isolate and acid washed soy protein concentrate production. The alcohols are removed from the liquid extract by evaporation and the distillation residue is an aqueous solution of the sugars and other soy solubles. This solution is concentrated to viscous honey-like consistency to yield soy molasses. Typically, soy molasses contains 50% total soluble solids. These solids consist of carbohydrates (60%), proteins and other nitrogenous substances ...
This is a list of sugars and sugar products. Sugar is the generalized name for sweet, short-chain, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food. They are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen. There are various types of sugar derived from different sources. Agave nectar - very high in fructose and sweeter than honey Arabinose Barley malt syrup - around 65% maltose and 30% complex carbohydrate Barley sugar - similar to hard caramel Birch syrup - around 42-54% fructose, 45% glucose, plus a small amount of sucrose Brown sugar - Consists of a minimum 88% sucrose and invert sugar. Commercial brown sugar contains from 4.5% molasses (light brown sugar) to 6.5% molasses (dark brown sugar) based on total volume. Based on total weight, regular commercial brown sugar contains up to 10% molasses. Caramel - made of a variety of sugars Coconut sugar - 70-79% sucrose and 3-9% glucose and fructose Corn syrup - made from maize starch, made of varying quantities of maltose and higher oligosaccharides ...
Most distilled spirits that are labelled as "whisky" in India are a form of Indian-made foreign liquor, commonly blends based on neutral spirits that are distilled from fermented molasses with only a small portion consisting of traditional malt whisky, usually about 10 to 12 percent. Outside India, such a drink would more likely be labelled a rum. According to the Scotch Whisky Association's 2013 annual report, unlike the European Union (EU), "there is no compulsory definition of whisky in India, and the Indian voluntary standard does not require whisky to be distilled from cereals or to be matured. Very little Indian 'whisky' qualifies as whisky in the EU owing to the use of molasses or neutral alcohol, limited maturation (if any) and the use of flavourings. Such spirits are, of course, considerably cheaper to produce than genuine whisky." Such molasses-based blends make up 90 percent of the spirits consumed as "whisky" in India, although whisky wholly distilled from malt and other grains, is ...
... or light treacle is a thick, amber-coloured form of inverted sugar syrup made in the process of refining sugar cane or sugar beet juice into sugar, or by treatment of a sugar solution with acid. It is used in a variety of baking recipes and desserts. It has an appearance similar to honey and is often used as a substitute where honey is unavailable or prohibitively expensive. Many vegans also use it as a honey substitute. It is not to be confused with amber corn syrup or amber molasses. Regular molasses, or dark treacle, has both a richer colour and a strong, distinctive flavour. The sugar cane refining process produced a treacle-like syrup that usually went to waste. In 1883, Charles Eastick, a chemist at the Abram Lyle & Sons (now part of Tate & Lyle) refinery in Plaistow formulated how it could be refined to make a preserve and sweetener for cooking. The resulting product was marketed commercially in 1885 as "golden syrup". However, the name 'golden syrup' in connection with ...
A sugar refinery is a refinery which processes raw sugar into white refined sugar or that processes sugar beet to refined sugar. Many cane sugar mills produce raw sugar, which is sugar that still contains molasses, giving it more colour (and impurities) than the white sugar which is normally consumed in households and used as an ingredient in soft drinks and foods. While cane sugar does not need refining to be palatable, sugar from sugar beet is almost always refined to remove the strong, almost always unwanted, taste of beets from it. The refined sugar produced is more than 99 percent pure sucrose. Whereas many sugar mills only operate during a limited time of the year during the cane harvesting period, many cane sugar refineries work the whole year round. Sugar beet refineries tend to have shorter periods when they process beet but may store intermediate product and process that in the off-season. Raw sugar is either processed into white refined sugar in local refineries, and sold to the local ...
Despite the similarity in name, sodium lactate is not chemically similar to lactose (milk sugar), so need not be restricted by those with lactose intolerance.[4][10] In general, lactates such as sodium, calcium, and potassium lactate are salts derived from the neutralization of lactic acid and most commercially used lactic acids are fermented from dairy-free products such as cornstarch, potatoes, or molasses.[11] Sugar or tapioca additionally may be used. In some rare instances, some lactic acid is fermented from dairy products such as whey[4] and lactose.[11] Whey is made of up 6.5% solids of which 4.8% is solid lactose.[12] Waste whey is infrequently used to produce lactic acid when the whey itself is produced as waste during the manufacture of certain dairy products.[13] Such dairy-type lactic acid generally goes back into dairy products, such as ice cream and cream cheese,[11] rather than into nondairy products. Moreover, although the lactic-acid starter culture to ferment corn or beets may ...
... , also Khandsari and Khand, is a type of partially refined to unrefined sugar with a strong molasses content and flavour. It is technically considered either a non-centrifugal cane sugar or a centrifuged, partially refined sugar according to the process used by the manufacturer. Muscovado contains higher levels of various minerals than processed white sugar, and is considered by some to be healthier. Its main uses are in food and confectionery, and the manufacture of rum and other forms of alcohol. The largest producer and consumer of khandsari (muscovado) is India. The Indian English names for this type of sugar are Khandsari and Khand (sometimes spelt Khaand). In most other forms of English the name is Muscovado, which derives from the Portuguese açúcar mascavado (unrefined sugar). There is no legal definition of muscovado, and no international standards for it such as Codex Alimentarius or Protected Designation of Origin. This has led to manufacturers calling various sugar products ...
One species, Sorghum bicolor,[10] native to Africa with many cultivated forms now,[11] is an important crop worldwide, used for food (as grain and in sorghum syrup or "sorghum molasses"), animal fodder, the production of alcoholic beverages, and biofuels. Most varieties are drought- and heat-tolerant, and are especially important in arid regions, where the grain is one of the staples for poor and rural people. These varieties form important components of pastures in many tropical regions. S. bicolor is an important food crop in Africa, Central America, and South Asia, and is the fifth-most important cereal crop grown in the world.[12]. Some species of sorghum can contain levels of hydrogen cyanide, hordenine, and nitrates lethal to grazing animals in the early stages of the plants' growth. When stressed by drought or heat, plants can also contain toxic levels of cyanide and/or nitrates at later stages in growth.[13]. Another Sorghum species, ...
... is a sweetening agent extracted from the tuberous roots of the yacón plant (Smallanthus sonchifolius) indigenous to the Andes mountains. It was used by the Incas. In Peru, people eat yacón because of its nutritional properties-few calories and low sugar levels. In Bolivia, yacón roots are eaten by people with diabetes or other digestive and renal disorders. In Brazil, the dried leaves are used to make yacón tea, said to be antidiabetic. The syrup contains up to 50% of fructooligosaccharides (FOS). The consumption of FOS does not increase blood glucose; however, the root contains free fructose at about 35%. It is usually made with an evaporator, like the ones used to make maple syrup. It has a taste similar to molasses or caramelized sugar. In a study by Yoshida et al. (2002), an enzyme solution of yacón was determined to be a better antioxidant than enzyme solutions of potato, mushroom, eggplant and edible burdock. In a study by Genta et al., it was shown that a daily intake of ...
The cartoon, set in winter, finds Daffy Duck removing and burning every "Duck Season Open" sign he finds in order to warm himself in the winter, and prevent himself from being hunted. Elmer is out hunting and Daffy uses several signs to convince Elmer that it's rabbit season, making Elmer excited about "Fwesh Wabbit Stew!" just before Elmer follows the yellow trail to Bugs' rabbit hole. Daffy lures Bugs Bunny out by asking for a cup of blackstrap molasses. Just as Bugs Bunny comes out of his rabbit hole, Elmer points the gun at him and declares that he got his "Wabbit Stew". However, Bugs is already prepared for Daffy's trick and attempts to convince Elmer not to shoot him because he is obviously an endangered species. Bugs tricks Daffy into getting Elmer to shoot him multiple times. A fricasseeing rabbit (the irony being that fricassee is actually a type of stew) and that Elmer doesn't have a license to shoot fricasseeing rabbits.. This enrages Daffy, who attempts to convince Elmer Fudd that ...
The boom in franchising did not take place until after World War II. Nevertheless, the rudiments of modern franchising date back to the Middle Ages when landowners made franchise-like agreements with tax collectors, who retained a percentage of the money they collected and turned the rest over.[3] The practice ended around 1562 but spread to other endeavors.[4] For example, in 17th century England franchisees were granted the right to sponsor markets and fairs or operate ferries. There was little growth in franchising, though, until the mid-19th century, when it appeared in the United States for the first time. One of the first successful American franchising operations was started by an enterprising druggist named John S. Pemberton. In 1886, he concocted a beverage comprising sugar, molasses, spices, and cocaine. Pemberton licensed selected people to bottle and sell the drink, which was an early version of what is now known as Coca-Cola. His was one of the earliest-and most ...
... is, in the broadest sense, defined as an operational technique in biotechnological processes where one or more nutrients (substrates) are fed (supplied) to the bioreactor during cultivation and in which the product(s) remain in the bioreactor until the end of the run. An alternative description of the method is that of a culture in which "a base medium supports initial cell culture and a feed medium is added to prevent nutrient depletion". It is also a type of semi-batch culture. In some cases, all the nutrients are fed into the bioreactor. The advantage of the fed-batch culture is that one can control concentration of fed-substrate in the culture liquid at arbitrarily desired levels (in many cases, at low levels). Generally speaking, fed-batch culture is superior to conventional batch culture when controlling concentrations of a nutrient (or nutrients) affect the yield or productivity of the desired metabolite. The types of bioprocesses for which fed-batch culture is effective ...
With monogastric animals this may take the form of skim milk, blood meal, fish meal, soybean meal or dried yeast. In ruminants ... Fats and oils are the best examples of byproducts in this category. Animal fat canbe included in the diet of pigs and poultry ... At higher levels of use, these may be problems of physical structure and adverse effects on carcass composition. In the case of ... Bakery wastes: The use of bakery waste as animal feed has been reported in India and abroad as a substitute for comparatively ...
With almost 300 trials per year and over 1,600 different animal diets tested, the MiXscience Research Center (MRC) is an ... Animal diets or feed additives may look nice on paper, but it is all about how the feed and additives behave in real animals, ... The monogastric facility is shared with 2 other companies in a legal structure called Euronutrition. MiXscience does its own ... B vitamins for example are degraded to a great extent (95% for B9 and 78% for B5). This is why companies are developing rumen ...
... and increase dietary amino acids availability to monogastric animals," explained Dr. Nasser Odetallah, Global Product Champion ... "For example, the addition of CIBENZA® DP100 feed additive to a ration allows a poultry or swine producer to replace some ... One common problem is that indigestible proteins found in different feed grains can ferment in the animals intestine and ... Recently completed research shows that supplementing feed with protease enzymes helps break down complex protein structures in ...
... production structure change toward more intensification (SSP1c), production structure change toward more monogastric animals ( ... animalyield is the yield of meat, milk, or eggs (in kilogram head−1 year−1); animalnumber is the number of animals per animal ... Construction of large livestock farms near cities was, for example, facilitated even in the case where these farms did not have ... Relationships between livestock number (in LUs), the percentage of monogastric animals (in LUs) to total number of animals (in ...
Evolution of the various animal phyla, morphological characteristics and life cycles of parasitic and non-parasitic animals. ... Applications in Microbiology will be illustrated by specific examples i.e. bioremediation, animal-microbial symbiosis, plant- ... Atomic structure and periodicity. Molecular structure and chemical bonding using the VSEOR model. Nomenclature of iorganic ions ... Comparison of monogastric and ruminant metabolism. Cholesterol, polyunsaturated, essential fatty acids and dietary anti- ...
We develop nutritional specialities for ruminants (cows), monogastric animals (poultry, pigs), and marine animals (fish, shrimp ... For example, the imaging centre for Plant Nutrition and the nutritional efficiency centre for Animal Nutrition ... Soil structure, water management and climate change. *Biodiversity and soil functions. Making the animal production cycle more ... The CMI teams objectives also include ensuring efficient, high quality animal production while respecting animal wellbeing. ...
Todars Online Textbook of Bacteriology contains 46 chapters on bacteria including structure-function, growth, metabolism, ... or monogastric animals.) The rumen allows grazing animals to digest cellulose, a very. ... All animal cells require cholesterol for proper structure and function.. The vast majority of cholesterol in the body does not ... for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of. ... This chain structure is called the primary structure. This ...
Evolution of the various animal phyla, morphological characteristics and life cycles of parasitic and non-parasitic animals. ... Applications in Microbiology will be illustrated by specific examples i.e. bioremediation, animal-microbial symbiosis, plant- ... Structure, gas exchange and non-respiratory functions of the lungs; structure, excretory and non-urinary functions of the ... Comparison of monogastric and ruminant metabolism. Cholesterol, polyunsaturated, essential fatty acids and dietary anti- ...
Examples of monogastric animals include omnivores such as humans, rats, dogs and pigs, carnivores such as cats, and herbivores ... "Monogastrics Vs Ruminents" (PDF). Animal Structure & Function Hindgut versus Foregut Fermenters Grant, Kerrin. Adaptations in ... A monogastric digestive system works as soon as the food enters the mouth. Saliva moistens the food and begins the digestive ... A monogastric organism has a simple single-chambered stomach, compared with a ruminant organism, like a cow, goat, or sheep, ...
Infectivity of brain, distal ileum, and spleen from all animals was assessed in mouse bioassays; positive results were obtained ... can be transmitted orally and indicate that it has the potential for natural transmission and iatrogenic spread through animal ... the possibility of oral transmission of atypical scrapie in sheep and determine the distribution of infectivity in the animals ... for example, retrograde neuronal transportation either directly (33-35) or through lymphoid structures or hematogenously (36). ...
At the animal level, however, a pig in a time frame of five minutes, for example, consumes more pelleted feed than mash feed. ... Lignin is virtually indigestible for monogastric animals. Gidenne (2003) also defined the group "digestible fibre", which can ... Impact of feed structure. The structure of the feed is of great importance with regard to supporting intestinal health. This ... This structure is from a practical point of view classified as "well structured" and "perfect" and meets the requirements in ...
However, monogastric animals such as pig, poultry, and fish are deficient in gastrointestinal tract phytase. Therefore, the ... This network structure can offer an extra stability to the enzyme since it gives a better protection from external conditions. ... For example, a phytase supplemented diet leads to the dephosphorylation of phytase which improves the intestinal uptake of ... addition of phytase into animal feed in many forms to improve the utilization of phosphate from phytic acid has opened up its ...
... substantially lower costs than perishable animal products, even though the quantities are larger. For example, sea transport ... Table 4.1: Annual global nitrogen production in manure and losses of industrial monogastric systems (in million tons). ... Agrarian structure has favoured high livestock densities and the evolution of industrial-type systems where shrinking farm size ... Only 5 to 15 percent of metal additives are absorbed by animals, the rest is excreted. Soils, on which pig and poultry manure ...
Monogastric animals eat many molecules they cannot break down because they do not produce the appropriate digestive enzymes. ... There is also a requirement to reduce the discharge of nutrients by the animals in the form of manure. Animal production ... Examples of general functional indices useful for indicating optimum nutritional status and thus setting the limits for Total ... play an important role in nutrient absorption as powerful emulsifiers and by the formation of micelle structures in the gastro- ...
However, animals cannot make all 22 of these amino acids in their body. Amino acids that cannot be synthesized by the animal, ... The phosphorus in plants is not as readily available to monogastric animals (having a one-compartment stomach like pigs, dogs, ... the chemical structure of the PUFAs and therefore less energy is available to the animal. Prior to the development and use of ... For example, oil extracted from soybeans, corn, or cottonseed is rich in linoleic acid, an omega-6 fatty acid. Some oils, like ...
The microbiota of the distal digestive tract of monogastric animals is comprised mainly of obligately anaerobic bacteria, many ... The gnotobiotic animal as a tool in the study of host microbial relationships.Bacteriol. Rev. 35:390-429. ... Bacterial 1,3-1,4-beta-glucanases: structure, function and protein engineering. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1543:361-382. ... examples are shown in Fig. 1). Each BAC restriction pattern was unique, indicating that a variety of different DNA fragments ...
... following consumption by monogastric production animals. Another GM-LAB designed to improve the nutritional value of feed is an ... Examples of GM-LAB engineered via directed genetic alterations. Directed mutagenesis is widely applied in research to improve ... Moreover, ethical aspects could play a role in the debate about GMOs from animal or plant origins, but these are considered ... Secondly, foods with a new structure which date from before 1997 are not considered as novel foods. Thirdly, self cloning (. ...
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one ... Structures of plants and animal cells and functions of their components. 19. Similarity and differences between plant and ... Examples of diseases spread by insects and other small animal:. malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, sleeping sickness and ... Examples of air-borne diseases. are :small-pox, measles, mumps, common cold, Cough, pneumonia and tuberculosis.. 2.. Examples ...
... organic feed applicable to organic monogastric production systems across Europe that at the same time support animal health and ... Understanding how direct foraging in the outdoor area can contribute to meeting the animals nutritional needs • Assessing the ... To provide examples of innovative feeding strategies under different conditions for organic poultry and pig farmers. The ... and variations in production structure in different countries/agroecological zones in Europe. See CORE Organic website for ...
Lessons from field experiences in the development of monogastric animal production. by A. Verhulst ... There are numerous examples of such failures both in bilateral and multilateral projects, as well as in private enterprises. ... Thus in Cameroon, a country quite different from Burkina Faso so far as price structure of pig production is concerned, the ... Application of biotechnology to nutrition of animals in developing countries, 1991 (E F). ...
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For example, for ruminant meat, +19% in sub-Saharan Africa and +11% in Latin America; or for milk, +19% in Southeast Asia and + ... We project demand for monogastric meat and eggs to increase the most, by 63% between 2000 and 2030, and ruminant meat and milk ... This is because of the low share of animal calories in human diets (less than 20% on average). Targeting the livestock sector ... S6). Livestock system transitions actively contribute to mitigation, with a larger share of animals in the mixed systems, ...
Preferably, the subject is human, fish, farm animal or pets (such as cats, dogs, horses, pigs, and most monogastric mammals). ... Modification of the structure of 11S globulins from plant seeds by succinylation, In: Food Proteins: Structure and ... EXAMPLES. Example 1. Materials. The soybean isolate SPI 6000 used in the present study was a gift from Protient Inc. (Saint ... as used herein means any chemical or biological substance that has a physiological effect in human or in animals, when exposed ...
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOGASTRIC AND RUMINANT ANIMAL DIGESTIVE SYSTEM MONOGASTRIC ANIMAL RUMINANT ANIMALS Possesses only one ... Structures of plants and animal cells and functions of their components. 19. Similarity and differences between plant and ... In Amoeba for example, which changes its shape as it moves, the cytoplasm streams from the rear to the front of the organism ... FARM BUILDINGS AND STRUCTURES 1. Identify different types of farm buildings and structures. 2. Outline the uses of the various ...
The new Regulation states that for all animals: "primarily obtaining feed for livestock from the holding where the animals are ... The Netherlands, for example, export 80% of their organic egg production to Germany. The organic broiler production recently ... "Organic gluten corn is already available for food, but it is necessary to organize the same thing for animal feed with a ... "The use of fishmeal is limited by the obligation for mills to be specialised in monogastric feeds because fishmeal is forbidden ...
  • Innovative, natural solutions that combat rumen acidosis (an overly acidic rumen resulting from a diet that is too high in energy and low in fibre) to improve animal health and production. (roullier.com)
  • In animal nutrition, lignin is considered an antinutritive component of forages as it cannot be readily fermented by rumen microbes. (hindawi.com)
  • Growing pigs, for example, excrete 70 percent of the protein in feed while beef cattle excrete 80 to 90 percent and broiler chickens 55 percent (Jongbloed and Lenis, 1992). (fao.org)
  • Because goats' irises are usually pale, their contrasting pupils are much more noticeable than in animals such as cattle, deer, most horses and many sheep, whose similarly horizontal pupils blend into a dark iris and sclera . (wikipedia.org)
  • For cattle it must contain a certain structure to keep the stomach healthy, and for all animals it must contain dry matter, various groups of nutrients, minerals and trace-elements and should not be mouldy or mixed with dirt and soil nor contain poisonous ingredient s (for example pesticides or herbicide s on crop residues). (infonet-biovision.org)
  • In Amoeba for example, which changes its shape as it moves, the cytoplasm streams from the rear to the front of the organism along the direction of its movement. (fabioclass.com)
  • Since these procedures are not yet implemented, the current risk assessment procedure is shared for GMOs derived from micro organisms, plants, or animals. (archive.org)
  • A global leader in developing animal health and nutrition solutions, Novus's products include ALIMET® and MHA® feed supplements, ACTIVATE® nutritional feed acid, ACIDOMIX® preservative premixture, CIBENZA® feed additive, MINTREX® chelated trace mineral, SANTOQUIN® feed preservative, MERA™Met aquaculture feed additive, AGRADO® feed antioxidant and many other specialty ingredients. (novusint.com)
  • This competition is for researchers and it rewards the best Plant and Animal Nutrition projects. (roullier.com)
  • This leaves only avilamycin, flavomycin, salinomycin and monensin for use as growth promoters in animal nutrition. (gwfnutrition.com)
  • Efforts to achieve RAU in pork production involve a multidisciplinary approach involving genetics, health management, building engineering design and operation, animal husbandry and nutrition. (pigprogress.net)
  • Indigestible sugars (iS) have received particular interest in food and nutrition research due to their prebiotic properties and other health benefits in humans and animals. (syromonoed.com)
  • This review characterizes the role of lignin from the point of view of analytical chemistry, plant stress physiology, animal nutrition, bioenergy production, soil science, and crop breeding. (hindawi.com)
  • Inadequate nutrition is a major cause of low live-weight gains, infertility and low milk yields and other health issues in animals. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • The following will explain the principles of animal nutrition and some examples of how to make home feed rations based on the types of feed available in major agro ecological zones. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • AAK's focus in animal nutrition lies within fats and proteins. (aak.com)
  • The industrial scale implies large herd/flock sizes, large volumes of wastes, high animal health risks, and less attention to animal welfare. (fao.org)
  • Many of these molecules have been regularly consumed for thousands of years and play an important role in animal and human health and welfare. (gwfnutrition.com)
  • The working hypothesis is that it is possible - through an extended knowledge of the characteristics of different local feeds and their wider impact on growth, health and welfare and environment - to produce strategies which comply with the aims for high animal welfare, production economy and environmental concerns. (defra.gov.uk)
  • WP 6: to develop economical profitable feeding strategies based on 100% organic feed applicable to organic monogastric production systems across Europe that at the same time support animal health and welfare and have improved environmental impacts compared to the current prevailing systems. (defra.gov.uk)
  • Outright banning of antibiotics for use in animals is widely recognised as extreme and imprudent as it ignores the welfare of animals that have become infected by a pathogen. (pigprogress.net)
  • The objective favouring continued use would be maintenance of animal welfare and reduced cost of food to the general public. (pigprogress.net)
  • The microbial fermentation of iS also enhances excessive blood nitrogen (N) flowing into the cecum to be used as N source for bacterial growth, enhancing N retention in cecotrophic animals. (syromonoed.com)
  • In recent years, microbial phytases are being applied to animal and human food stuffs to improve food processing and mineral bioavailability. (mnpublishers.com)
  • Neutral Detergent Fibre (NDF) is the most common measure of fibre used for animal feed analysis, but it does not represent a unique class of chemical compounds. (allaboutfeed.net)
  • This mirrors the needs for i) increasing efficiency of utilization of fibrous materials in monogastrics, and ii) the maintenance and improvement of animal health in antibiotic-free production systems, on the other hand. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • At higher levels of use, these may be problems of physical structure and adverse effects on carcass composition. (expertsmind.com)
  • Also, the industrial system requires the use of uniform animals of similar genetic composition. (fao.org)
  • The composition of the large-bowel microbiota of monogastric animals such as humans, mice, chickens, and pigs is now well known through the application of nucleic acid-based methods of analysis ( 18 , 19 , 30 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • The composition of feeds in a ration depends on the type of animals being fed and their stage of production. (infonet-biovision.org)
  • Their download personality assessment via questionnaires: current issues in accepts convened surrounding the acid composition for the dense buildings in the intestinal equivalent Building Code, terrorists for surviving practice presence and incendiary evidence that Do required Also thrown for attack example soil tissue, and available limitations for Underlying if early buildings can act many associated. (physadvocates.com)
  • September 21/ Asian - Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences -- The soybean is the most widely used vegetable protein source for monogastric animals and is the most prevalent legume/oil seed crop in the world (FAO, 2008). (preparedfoods.com)
  • However, "protein peas" ( pois protéagineux in French) are field peas that have been developed in Europe from hortense (and hybrid) varieties in the 1980s as a high-protein, white-flowered, low-tannin, low-antitrypsin protein source for animal feeding ( GNIS, 2011 ). (feedipedia.org)
  • This definition includes arable farming or agronomy , and horticulture , all terms for the growing of plants, animal husbandry and forestry . (wikipedia.org)
  • The catalytic activity of enzymes depends on the three-dimensional structure of the proteins and the integrity of their native protein conformation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Proteins are essential to all animals in a large variety of ways as they are the important building blocks in, for example, muscles, hair, and skin. (aak.com)
  • Recently completed research shows that supplementing feed with protease enzymes helps break down complex protein structures in sorghum, improving protein digestibility and availability, which makes sorghum a more viable feed component. (novusint.com)
  • The most extensively used animal models to examine physiological effects of iS include rats, mice, hamster, guinea pigs, and rabbits [ 10 , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 ], and to a lesser extent the pig [ 15 ]. (syromonoed.com)
  • Previous studies have indicated that tannins may have either beneficial effects like bloat control and increased protein bypass, or deleterious effects like the reduction feed intake and digestibility of protein in animals fed on tanniferous feed. (ubc.ca)
  • Further, the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE) has determined that Nor98-like scrapie is distinct from classical scrapie and is not a listed disease of trade concern. (blogspot.com)
  • The Blast Mitigation for Structures Program( BMSP) provided Based in 1997 and is been a mobile angels of health-related and projectile parties that will perceive the email of shy, more protective injuries about usually as the mind of strategies to identify a longitudinal ventilation of qualified ventricular weapons. (tower-sh.de)
  • Therefore, modulation of one or more of these mechanisms may possibly lead to a control of the rate of release of a drug from a drug-excipient system or achieve targeting to a particular organ (for example: gastro-resistance favoring intestinal release). (google.com)
  • An aspect of this invention provides a strategy allowing to slow down one (or more) of these mechanisms in order to provide a controlled-release system of a protein-based compressed 3-dimensional system or matrix, such as, for example, a tablet. (google.com)
  • The ability of SCFAs to modulate physiological processes of the epithelium is well known to depend on two major mechanisms in monogastric animals. (biomedcentral.com)
  • If feed ingredients and (or) feed additives are to be used with greater regularity and reliability, then it is necessary to better understand the mechanisms whereby antibiotics and minerals such as ZnO influence animal physiology, in conjunction with the use of appropriate challenge models and in vitro and in vivo techniques. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In this regard, a better understanding of the mechanisms whereby antibiotics influence animal physiology, as well as appropriate use of disease models and in vitro techniques, will lead to the development of alternatives to current antimicrobial compounds. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The innovation teams are continually committed to improving and bolstering the unique functions of soil, plant, and animal through the development of technological and biological products that improve yield and quality, allowing for progress to be made in rejuvenating the agricultural world. (roullier.com)
  • Carbohydrate and lignin contents of plant materials used in animal feeding. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Choline is ubiquitously distributed in all plant and animal cells, mostly in the form of the phospholipids phosphatidylcholine (lecithin), lysophosphatidylcholine, choline plasmalogens and sphingomyelin-essential components of all membranes (Zeisel, 1990). (dsm.com)
  • In addition to lysine metabolism, this gene has been implicated in a number of metabolic and developmental pathways, which along with its production of multiple transcript types and complex exon/intron structure suggest an important node in plant metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The University of Florida academics observe that fishmeal is recognised by nutritionists as a high-quality, very digestible feed ingredient that is favored for addition to the diet of most farm animals, especially fish and shrimp. (thefishsite.com)
  • Too many animals per acre may result in soil degradation while too few may result in increased management resulting from uneven weed and fertility distribution. (rodaleinstitute.org)
  • These findings demonstrate that atypical scrapie can be transmitted orally and indicate that it has the potential for natural transmission and iatrogenic spread through animal feed. (cdc.gov)
  • The epidemiologic studies that have been undertaken suggest that atypical scrapie does not appear be transmitted between animals in the field situation ( 7 , 8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • Although early studies of atypical scrapie did not show PrP Sc or infectivity outside the brain, recent data indicate that peripheral tissues from naturally infected animals can harbor infectivity either in the presence or absence of PrP Sc ( 22 ). (cdc.gov)
  • The epidemiologic studies that have been undertaken that peripheral tissues from naturally infected animals suggest that atypical scrapie does not appear be transmitted can harbor infectivity either in the presence or absence of between animals in the fi eld situation ( 7,8 ). (cdc.gov)
  • As of May 31, 2017, no animals have tested positive for classical scrapie in FY 2017. (blogspot.com)
  • Animals in Nor98-like scrapie infected flocks are not removed and are free to move once they have been officially identified. (blogspot.com)
  • Unintended consequences associated with the consumption of food containing GMO by a genetically varied population of humans and animals cannot adequately be evaluated during pre-market risk assessment. (europa.eu)