Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds that contains a naphthalene moiety linked to a sulfonic acid salt or ester.Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates: A class of organic compounds which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. They are frequently used as fluorescent dyes and sulfhydryl reagents.Thiosulfate Sulfurtransferase: An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of the planetary sulfur atom of thiosulfate ion to cyanide ion to form thiocyanate ion. EC, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Protein Denaturation: Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Chemistry, Clinical: The specialty of ANALYTIC CHEMISTRY applied to assays of physiologically important substances found in blood, urine, tissues, and other biological fluids for the purpose of aiding the physician in making a diagnosis or following therapy.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Clinical Chemistry Tests: Laboratory tests demonstrating the presence of physiologically significant substances in the blood, urine, tissue, and body fluids with application to the diagnosis or therapy of disease.Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Medical Laboratory Personnel: Health care professionals, technicians, and assistants staffing LABORATORIES in research or health care facilities.Pathology, Clinical: A subspecialty of pathology applied to the solution of clinical problems, especially the use of laboratory methods in clinical diagnosis. (Dorland, 28th ed.)Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Explosive Agents: Substances that are energetically unstable and can produce a sudden expansion of the material, called an explosion, which is accompanied by heat, pressure and noise. Other things which have been described as explosive that are not included here are explosive action of laser heating, human performance, sudden epidemiological outbreaks, or fast cell growth.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Hematocrit: The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Capillaries: The minute vessels that connect the arterioles and venules.Indicators and Reagents: Substances used for the detection, identification, analysis, etc. of chemical, biological, or pathologic processes or conditions. Indicators are substances that change in physical appearance, e.g., color, at or approaching the endpoint of a chemical titration, e.g., on the passage between acidity and alkalinity. Reagents are substances used for the detection or determination of another substance by chemical or microscopical means, especially analysis. Types of reagents are precipitants, solvents, oxidizers, reducers, fluxes, and colorimetric reagents. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed, p301, p499)Sample Size: The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)Lactoglobulins: Globulins of milk obtained from the WHEY.Amyloid: A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.Protein Multimerization: The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.alpha-Synuclein: A synuclein that is a major component of LEWY BODIES that plays a role in neurodegeneration and neuroprotection.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Qi: The vital life force in the body, supposedly able to be regulated by acupuncture. It corresponds roughly to the Greek pneuma, the Latin spiritus, and the ancient Indian prana. The concept of life-breath or vital energy was formulated as an indication of the awareness of man, originally directed externally toward nature or society but later turned inward to the self or life within. (From Comparison between Concepts of Life-Breath in East and West, 15th International Symposium on the Comparative History of Medicine - East and West, August 26-September 3, 1990, Shizuoka, Japan, pp. ix-x)Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Liposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Egg Yolk: Cytoplasm stored in an egg that contains nutritional reserves for the developing embryo. It is rich in polysaccharides, lipids, and proteins.Dipterocarpaceae: A plant family of the order Theales.Quinolinium CompoundsExtracellular Matrix: A meshwork-like substance found within the extracellular space and in association with the basement membrane of the cell surface. It promotes cellular proliferation and provides a supporting structure to which cells or cell lysates in culture dishes adhere.PeroxidasesBenzidines: Very toxic industrial chemicals. They are absorbed through the skin, causing lethal blood, bladder, liver, and kidney damage and are potent, broad-spectrum carcinogens in most species.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Hydrogen Bonding: A low-energy attractive force between hydrogen and another element. It plays a major role in determining the properties of water, proteins, and other compounds.Membrane Lipids: Lipids, predominantly phospholipids, cholesterol and small amounts of glycolipids found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. These lipids may be arranged in bilayers in the membranes with integral proteins between the layers and peripheral proteins attached to the outside. Membrane lipids are required for active transport, several enzymatic activities and membrane formation.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Fiber Optic Technology: The technology of transmitting light over long distances through strands of glass or other transparent material.Optical Fibers: Thin strands of transparent material, usually glass, that are used for transmitting light waves over long distances.Structure Collapse: Failure in built environment with loss of functional integrity.Energy Transfer: The transfer of energy of a given form among different scales of motion. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed). It includes the transfer of kinetic energy and the transfer of chemical energy. The transfer of chemical energy from one molecule to another depends on proximity of molecules so it is often used as in techniques to measure distance such as the use of FORSTER RESONANCE ENERGY TRANSFER.Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer: A type of FLUORESCENCE SPECTROSCOPY using two FLUORESCENT DYES with overlapping emission and absorption spectra, which is used to indicate proximity of labeled molecules. This technique is useful for studying interactions of molecules and PROTEIN FOLDING.Microfluidic Analytical Techniques: Methods utilizing the principles of MICROFLUIDICS for sample handling, reagent mixing, and separation and detection of specific components in fluids.Transition Temperature: The temperature at which a substance changes from one state or conformation of matter to another.Microfluidics: The study of fluid channels and chambers of tiny dimensions of tens to hundreds of micrometers and volumes of nanoliters or picoliters. This is of interest in biological MICROCIRCULATION and used in MICROCHEMISTRY and INVESTIGATIVE TECHNIQUES.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Inventions: A novel composition, device, or process, independently conceived de novo or derived from a pre-existing model.Intellectual Property: Property, such as patents, trademarks, and copyright, that results from creative effort. The Patent and Copyright Clause (Art. 1, Sec. 8, cl. 8) of the United States Constitution provides for promoting the progress of science and useful arts by securing for limited times to authors and inventors, the exclusive right to their respective writings and discoveries. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 5th ed, p1014)

Opposite behavior of two isozymes when refolding in the presence of non-ionic detergents. (1/531)

GroEL has a greater affinity for the mitochondrial isozyme (mAAT) of aspartate aminotransferase than for its cytosolic counterpart (cAAT) (Mattingly JR Jr, Iriarte A, Martinez-Carrion M, 1995, J Biol Chem 270:1138-1148), two proteins that share a high degree of sequence similarity and an almost identical spatial structure. The effect of detergents on the refolding of these large, dimeric isozymes parallels this difference in behavior. The presence of non-ionic detergents such as Triton X-100 or lubrol at concentrations above their critical micelle concentration (CMC) interferes with reactivation of mAAT unfolded in guanidinium chloride but increases the yield of cAAT refolding at low temperatures. The inhibitory effect of detergents on the reactivation of mAAT decreases progressively as the addition of detergents is delayed after starting the refolding reaction. The rate of disappearance of the species with affinity for binding detergents coincides with the slowest of the two rate-limiting steps detected in the refolding pathway of mAAT. Limited proteolysis studies indicate that the overall structure of the detergent-bound mAAT resembles that of the protein in a complex with GroEL. The mAAT folding intermediates trapped in the presence of detergents can resume reactivation either upon dilution of the detergent below its CMC or by adding beta-cyclodextrin. Thus, isolation of otherwise transient productive folding intermediates for further characterization is possible through the use of detergents.  (+info)

Effect of the hemolytic lectin CEL-III from Holothuroidea Cucumaria echinata on the ANS fluorescence responses in sensitive MDCK and resistant CHO cells. (2/531)

The addition of CEL-III to sensitive MDCK cells preincubated with 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonate (ANS) caused an increase in the fluorescence intensity of the probe. The increase in the ANS fluorescence caused by CEL-III was Ca2+-dependent and strongly inhibited by 0.1 M lactose, indicating that Ca2+-dependent binding of CEL-III to specific carbohydrate receptors on the plasma membrane is responsible for this phenomenon. In contrast, no significant effect of CEL-III on the ANS fluorescence was observed in CHO cells, which are highly resistant to CEL-III cytotoxicity. In MDCK cells, energy transfer from tryptophan residues to bound ANS molecules was observed in the presence of CEL-III, but not in CHO cells. Furthermore, the amount of ANS bound to MDCK cells increased as the concentration of CEL-III increased. Therefore, a simple interpretation is that the CEL-III-induced increase in ANS fluorescence is attributable to an increase of the hydrophobic region in the plasma membrane where ANS could bind. Immunoblotting analysis of proteins from cells treated with CEL-III indicated that CEL-III oligomers were irreversibly bound to the cells, and the amount of oligomer bound to MDCK cells was much greater than that bound to CHO cells under any conditions tested. The oligomerization may be accompanied by an enhancement of the hydrophobicity of CEL-III molecules, which in turn provides new ANS-binding sites. The difference in susceptibility of MDCK and CHO cells to CEL-III cytotoxicity may be due to a difference in oligomerization of bound CEL-III.  (+info)

The Mycobacterium tuberculosis small heat shock protein Hsp16.3 exposes hydrophobic surfaces at mild conditions: conformational flexibility and molecular chaperone activity. (3/531)

Hsp16.3, the alpha-crystallin-related small heat shock protein of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that is maximally expressed during the stationary phase and is a major membrane protein, has been reported to form specific trimer-of-trimers structure and to act as an effective molecular chaperone (Chang Z et al., 1996, J. Biol Chem 271:7218-7223). However, little is known about its action mechanism. In this study, Hsp16.3 conformational intermediates with dramatically increased chaperone activities were detected after treatment with very low concentrations of guanidine hydrochloride (0.05 M), urea (0.3 M), or mild heating (30 degrees C). The intermediates showed a significant increase in their capacity to bind the hydrophobic probe 1-anilino-8-naphthalene sulfonate (ANS), indicating an increased exposure of hydrophobic surfaces. Interestingly, the greatest chaperone activities of Hsp16.3 were observed in the presence of 0.3 M guanidine HCl or when heated to 35 degrees C. CD spectroscopy studies revealed no significant changes in protein secondary and tertiary structures at these mild treatments. Our in vitro studies also indicate that long-time-heated Hsp16.3, heated even to temperatures as high as 85 degrees C, has almost the same, if not a slightly greater, chaperone activities as the native protein when cooled to room temperature and its secondary structures also almost recovered. Together, these results suggest that Hsp16.3 modulates its chaperone activity by exposing hydrophobic surfaces and that the protein structure is highly stable and flexible, thus highly adapted for its function.  (+info)

Fluorescence measurements detect changes in scallop myosin regulatory domain. (4/531)

Ca2+-induced conformational changes of scallop myosin regulatory domain (RD) were studied using intrinsic fluorescence. Both the intensity and anisotropy of tryptophan fluorescence decreased significantly upon removal of Ca2+. By making a mutant RD we found that the Ca2+-induced fluorescence change is due mainly to Trp21 of the essential light chain which is located at the unusual Ca2+-binding EF-hand motif of the first domain. This result suggests that Trp21 is in a less hydrophobic and more flexible environment in the Ca2+-free state, supporting a model for regulation based on the 2 A resolution structure of scallop RD with bound Ca2+ [Houdusse A. and Cohen C. (1996) Structure 4, 21-32]. Binding of the fluorescent probe, 8-anilinonaphthalene-1-sulphonate (ANS) to the RD senses the dissociation of the regulatory light chain (RLC) in the presence of EDTA, by energy transfer from a tryptophan cluster (Trp818, 824, 826, 827) on the heavy chain (HC). We identified a hydrophobic pentapeptide (Leu836-Ala840) at the head-rod junction which is required for the effective energy transfer and conceivably is part of the ANS-binding site. Extension of the HC component of RD towards the rod region results in a larger ANS response, presumably indicating changes in HC-RLC interactions, which might be crucial for the regulatory function of scallop myosin.  (+info)

Conformational intermediates and fusion activity of influenza virus hemagglutinin. (5/531)

Three strains of influenza virus (H1, H2, and H3) exhibited similar characteristics in the ability of their hemagglutinin (HA) to induce membrane fusion, but the HAs differed in their susceptibility to inactivation. The extent of inactivation depended on the pH of preincubation and was lowest for A/Japan (H2 subtype), in agreement with previous studies (A. Puri, F. Booy, R. W. Doms, J. M. White, and R. Blumenthal, J. Virol. 64:3824-3832, 1990). While significant inactivation of X31 (H3 subtype) was observed at 37 degrees C at pH values corresponding to the maximum of fusion (about pH 5.0), no inactivation was seen at preincubation pH values 0.2 to 0.4 pH units higher. Surprisingly, low-pH preincubation under those conditions enhanced the fusion rates and extents of A/Japan as well as those of X31. For A/PR 8/34 (H1 subtype), neither a shift of the pH (to >5.0) nor a decrease of the temperature to 20 degrees C was sufficient to prevent inactivation. We provide evidence that the activated HA is a conformational intermediate distinct from the native structure and from the final structure associated with the conformational change of HA, which is implicated by the high-resolution structure of the soluble trimeric fragment TBHA2 (P. A. Bullough, F. M. Hughson, J. J. Skehel, and D. C. Wiley, Nature 371:37-43, 1994).  (+info)

Role of regulatory exosite I in binding of thrombin to human factor V, factor Va, factor Va subunits, and activation fragments. (6/531)

The blood coagulation proteinase, thrombin, converts factor V into factor Va through a multistep activation pathway that is regulated by interactions with thrombin exosites. Thrombin exosite interactions with human factor V and its activation products were quantitatively characterized in equilibrium binding studies based on fluorescence changes of thrombin covalently labeled with 2-anilinonaphthalene-6-sulfonic acid (ANS) linked to the catalytic site histidine residue by Nalpha-[(acetylthio)acetyl]-D-Phe-Pro-Arg-CH2Cl ([ANS]FPR-thrombin). Exosite I was shown to play a predominant role in the binding of factor V and factor Va from the effect of the exosite I-specific ligand, hirudin54-65, on the interactions. Factor V and factor Va bound to exosite I of [ANS]FPR-thrombin with similar dissociation constants of 3.4 +/- 1.3 and 1.1 +/- 0.4 microM and fluorescence enhancements of 182 +/- 41 and 127 +/- 17%, respectively. Native thrombin and labeled thrombin bound with similar affinity to factor Va. Among factor V activation products, the factor Va heavy chain was shown to contain the site of exosite I binding, whereas exosite I-independent, lower affinity interactions were observed for activation fragments E and C1, and no detectable binding was observed for the factor Va light chain. The results support the conclusion that the factor V activation pathway is initiated by exosite I-mediated binding of thrombin to a site in the heavy chain region of factor V that facilitates the initial cleavage at Arg709 to generate the heavy chain of factor Va. The results further suggest that binding of thrombin through exosite I to factor V activation intermediates may regulate their conversion to factor Va and that similar binding of thrombin to the factor Va produced may reflect a mode of interaction involved in the regulation of prothrombin activation.  (+info)

The membrane topology of proton-pumping Escherichia coli transhydrogenase determined by cysteine labeling. (7/531)

The membrane topology of proton-pumping nicotinamide-nucleotide transhydrogenase from Escherichia coli was determined by site-specific chemical labeling. A His-tagged cysteine-free transhydrogenase was used to introduce unique cysteines in positions corresponding to potential membrane loops. The cysteines were reacted with fluorescent reagents, fluorescein 5-maleimide or 2-[(4'-maleimidyl)anilino]naphthalene-6-sulfonic acid, in both intact cells and inside-out vesicles. Labeled transhydrogenase was purified with a small-scale procedure using a metal affinity resin, and the amount of labeling was measured as fluorescence on UV-illuminated acrylamide gels. The difference in labeling between intact cells and inside-out vesicles was used to discriminate between a periplasmic and a cytosolic location of the residues. The membrane region was found to be composed of 13 helices (four in the alpha-subunit and nine in the beta-subunit), with the C terminus of the alpha-subunit and the N terminus of the beta-subunit facing the cytosolic and periplasmic sides, respectively. These results differ from previous models with regard to both number of helices and the relative location and orientation of certain helices. This study constitutes the first in which all transmembrane segments of transhydrogenase have been experimentally determined and provides an explanation for the different topologies of the mitochondrial and E. coli transhydrogenases.  (+info)

Evidence of heterogeneous 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate binding to beta-lactoglobulin from fluorescence spectroscopy. (8/531)

Steady-state and dynamic fluorescence titrations show that: (a) the complex between beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) and 1-anilinonaphthalene-8-sulfonate (ANS) displays a heterogeneous equilibrium with large changes in the binding strength vs. pH and ion concentration; and (b) the fluorescence response of bound ANS reveals two separate lifetimes that suggest two different sites (or binding modes). While steady-state fluorescence titrations yield effective values of the binding constant and of the bound ANS quantum efficiency, it is shown that, by combining steady-state fluorescence and lifetime decay of ANS, it is possible to give quantitative estimates of the association constants for each site. When heading from the acid (pH approximately 2) to the native state (pH approximately 6) the main result is a very large reduction of the effective binding constant. This and the results of titrations vs. ionic strength suggest that electrostatic interactions are a major contribution to ANS binding to BLG.  (+info)

  • PAβN treatment caused a significant increase in uptake of 8-anilino-1-naphthylenesulfonic acid, a fluorescent hydrophobic probe, and sensitized P. aeruginosa to bulky antibiotics (e.g. vancomycin) that are normally incapable of crossing the outer membrane, as well as to detergent-like bile salts. (
  • 8-Anilinonaphthalene-1-sulfonic acid (ANS), also called 1-anilino-8-naphthalenesulfonate, is an organic compound containing both a sulfonic acid and an amine group. (
  • 3. The composition according to claim 1 further comprising a third dye component selected from the group consisting of 3,3-methylaminobenzoic acid, 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 8-anilino-1-naphthelenesulfonate, N-(3-sulfopropyl)aniline or salts thereof. (
  • 10. The device according to claim 8 wherein the dry chemistry reagent system further comprises a third dye component selected from the group consisting of 3,3-dimethylaminobenzoic acid, 3,5-dichloro-2-hydroxybenzenesulfonic acid, 8-anilino-1-naphthelenesulfonate, N-(3-sulfopropyl)aniline or salts thereof. (
  • Two small molecules, the paramagnetic relaxation agent 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidinyl-1-oxy (HyTEMPO) and the fluorescent dye 8-anilino-1-naphthalenesulfonic acid (ANS), were used to alter and simplify the spectrum. (
  • Anilino Naphthalenesulfonates are an aniline compound class of organic naphthalenesulfonate compounds , which contain an anilino (phenylamino) group linked to a salt or ester of naphthalenesulfonic acid. (