Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Fatty Liver, Alcoholic: Lipid infiltration of the hepatic parenchymal cells that is due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. The fatty changes in the alcoholic fatty liver may be reversible, depending on the amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES accumulated.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hepatitis, Alcoholic: INFLAMMATION of the LIVER due to ALCOHOL ABUSE. It is characterized by NECROSIS of HEPATOCYTES, infiltration by NEUTROPHILS, and deposit of MALLORY BODIES. Depending on its severity, the inflammatory lesion may be reversible or progress to LIVER CIRRHOSIS.Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Dextrorphan: Dextro form of levorphanol. It acts as a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, among other effects, and has been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. It is also a metabolite of DEXTROMETHORPHAN.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Chlorzoxazone: A centrally acting central muscle relaxant with sedative properties. It is claimed to inhibit muscle spasm by exerting an effect primarily at the level of the spinal cord and subcortical areas of the brain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoea, 30th ed, p1202)Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Melatonin: A biogenic amine that is found in animals and plants. In mammals, melatonin is produced by the PINEAL GLAND. Its secretion increases in darkness and decreases during exposure to light. Melatonin is implicated in the regulation of SLEEP, mood, and REPRODUCTION. Melatonin is also an effective antioxidant.Midazolam: A short-acting hypnotic-sedative drug with anxiolytic and amnestic properties. It is used in dentistry, cardiac surgery, endoscopic procedures, as preanesthetic medication, and as an adjunct to local anesthesia. The short duration and cardiorespiratory stability makes it useful in poor-risk, elderly, and cardiac patients. It is water-soluble at pH less than 4 and lipid-soluble at physiological pH.Receptors, Melatonin: A family of G-protein-coupled receptors that are specific for and mediate the effects of MELATONIN. Activation of melatonin receptors has been associated with decreased intracellular CYCLIC AMP and increased hydrolysis of PHOSPHOINOSITIDES.Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Aminopyrine N-DemethylaseKetosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Diet, High-Fat: Consumption of excessive DIETARY FATS.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Hebrides: A group of islands in the Atlantic Ocean west of Scotland, comprising the Outer Hebrides and the Inner Hebrides.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Antipyrine: An analgesic and antipyretic that has been given by mouth and as ear drops. Antipyrine is often used in testing the effects of other drugs or diseases on drug-metabolizing enzymes in the liver. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p29)Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Selenoproteins: Selenoproteins are proteins that specifically incorporate SELENOCYSTEINE into their amino acid chain. Most selenoproteins are enzymes with the selenocysteine residues being responsible for their catalytic functions.Octanols: Isomeric forms and derivatives of octanol (C8H17OH).Endosulfan: A polychlorinated compound used for controlling a variety of insects. It is practically water-insoluble, but readily adheres to clay particles and persists in soil and water for several years. Its mode of action involves repetitive nerve-discharges positively correlated to increase in temperature. This compound is extremely toxic to most fish. (From Comp Biochem Physiol (C) 1993 Jul;105(3):347-61)Aldrin: A highly poisonous substance that was formerly used as an insecticide. The manufacture and use has been discontinued in the U.S. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Psychopharmacology: The study of the effects of drugs on mental and behavioral activity.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Sulfur Dioxide: A highly toxic, colorless, nonflammable gas. It is used as a pharmaceutical aid and antioxidant. It is also an environmental air pollutant.Hydrocarbons, Chlorinated: Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.1-Octanol: A colorless, slightly viscous liquid used as a defoaming or wetting agent. It is also used as a solvent for protective coatings, waxes, and oils, and as a raw material for plasticizers. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Xylenes: A family of isomeric, colorless aromatic hydrocarbon liquids, that contain the general formula C6H4(CH3)2. They are produced by the destructive distillation of coal or by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthenic fractions. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.HydrocarbonsCytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.Enzyme Induction: An increase in the rate of synthesis of an enzyme due to the presence of an inducer which acts to derepress the gene responsible for enzyme synthesis.Cytochrome P-450 CYP1A2: A cytochrome P450 enzyme subtype that has specificity for relatively planar heteroaromatic small molecules, such as CAFFEINE and ACETAMINOPHEN.Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6: A cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of many drugs and environmental chemicals, such as DEBRISOQUINE; ADRENERGIC RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS; and TRICYCLIC ANTIDEPRESSANTS. This enzyme is deficient in up to 10 percent of the Caucasian population.

NO contribution to lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic damage in galactosamine-sensitized mice. (1/47)

To investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in hepatitis-induced endotoxemia, we injected mice intraperitoneally with 250 mg/kg galactosamine (GalN) and 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) separately and in combination. NO synthesis increased in a dose-dependent manner with LPS. NO generation at 5 hr after administration of LPS was greater than that at 24 hr. Enhancement of NO generation was demonstrated in mice administered GalN and LPS in combination. A nitrosyl-heme signal in 10,000 g supernatant of liver homogenate, due to cytochrome P450 (P450) combining with NO, NO-P450, was detected at more than ten hr and even more after administration of LPS by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements at 77 degrees K. The strongest NO-P450 signal and most extreme elevation of aspartate oxoglutarate aminotransferase (AST), alanine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum and of lysosomal enzyme activity in plasma were observed in the GalN + LPS group. Their potency was greater than in the 10 mg/kg LPS group, which was even greater than in the LPS 1 mg/kg group. The aniline hydroxylase activity was inversely proportional to NO-P450 signal intensity. It appears that NO might contribute to LPS-induced hepatic damage in GalN-sensitized mice through degeneration and inactivation of liver microsomal enzymes by binding P450 active sites.  (+info)

Studies on the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolic properties of miocamycin: evaluation of the possibility of a metabolic intermediate complex formation with CYP, and identification of the human CYP isoforms. (2/47)

Some macrolide antibiotics cause clinical drug interactions, resulting in altered metabolism of concomitantly administered drugs, via the formation of a metabolic intermediate (MI) complex with cytochrome P450 (CYP), or competitive inhibition of CYP. In this study, the possibility of MI complex formation by miocamycin (MOM) was assessed first. CYP contents and activities in rat liver microsomes were not affected and there were no detectable MI complexes after administration of MOM for either 3 or 10 days to rats. Furthermore, MOM did not form MI complexes in vitro even with microsomes from humans or dexamethasone-pretreated rats. Second, in vitro studies were conducted to identify the human CYP isoforms involved in four 14-hydroxylation reactions in the MOM metabolic pathway. The results showed that it was most likely CYP3A4 involved in the hydroxylations: 1) each hydroxylation in human liver microsomes from 10 different donors strongly correlated with testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation; 2) each hydroxylation was essentially inhibited by ketoconazole and troleandomycin; 3) only cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 catalyzed the hydroxylations, and the activities of CYP3A5 were below 5% of those of CYP3A4; and 4) the apparent K(M) values obtained with native human liver microsomes were comparable with those obtained with cDNA-expressed CYP3A4. In conclusion, MOM is not an inhibitor of CYP via the formation of an MI complex. Moreover, CYP3A4 is mainly responsible for catalyzing the hydroxylation of MOM metabolites. Because CYP3A4 is the most abundant form of CYP in the liver and intestine, this isoform probably accounts for the majority of drug-MOM interactions observed in clinical practice.  (+info)

Studies on the evaluation of the toxicity of various salts of lead, manganese, platinum, and palladium. (3/47)

Preliminary studies have been conducted on various parameters in order to assess the possible and relative toxicities of a number of metallic salts. Upon oral administration in lethal-dose experiments, two soluble Pt4+ salts were more toxic than the other salts tested. Following intraperiotneal injection in lethal-dose experiments, PbCl2 was less toxic than several of the soluble or partially soluble salts of Pt4+, Pd2+, and Mn2+. An intake of a total of approximately 250 mg of Pt4+ per rat in the drinking fluid over a 30-day interval did not affect the activities of aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase in rat liver microsomes. In rats receiving soluble Pt4+ salts in the drinking fluid, the highest concentration of Pt was found in the kidney and an appreciiable concentration was found in the liver.  (+info)

Dietary saturated fatty acids reverse inflammatory and fibrotic changes in rat liver despite continued ethanol administration. (4/47)

We investigated the potential of dietary saturated fatty acids to reverse alcoholic liver injury despite continued administration of alcohol. Five groups (six rats/group) of male Wistar rats were studied. Rats in groups 1 and 2 were fed a fish oil-ethanol diet for 8 and 6 weeks, respectively. Rats in groups 3 and 4 were fed fish oil and ethanol for 6 weeks before being switched to isocaloric diets containing ethanol with palm oil (group 3) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs, group 4) for 2 weeks. Rats in group 5 were fed fish oil and dextrose for 8 weeks. Liver samples were analyzed for histopathology, lipid peroxidation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, and mRNAs for cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Endotoxin in plasma was determined. The most severe inflammation and fibrosis were detected in groups 1 and 2, as were the highest levels of endotoxin, lipid peroxidation, activation of NF-kappaB, and mRNAs for Cox-2 and TNF-alpha. After the rats were switched to palm oil or MCT, there was marked histological improvement with decreased levels of endotoxin and lipid peroxidation, absence of NF-kappaB activation, and reduced expression of TNF-alpha and Cox-2. A diet enriched in saturated fatty acids effectively reverses alcohol-induced necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis despite continued alcohol consumption. The therapeutic effects of saturated fatty acids may be explained, at least in part, by reduced endotoxemia and lipid peroxidation, which in turn result in decreased activation of NF-kappaB and reduced levels of TNF-alpha and Cox-2.  (+info)

Hepatic microsomal enzyme induction in rats fed varietal cauliflower leaves. (5/47)

Leaves from a standard, insect-susceptible cauliflower variety and an insect-resistant strain were formulated at either 10 or 25% into semipurified diets for male and female weanling rats. After 3 weeks, relative liver weights, microsomal protein, cytochrome P-450, and activities of hepatic microsomal aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase, and N-methylaniline N-demethylase were determined. Growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of male rats were not affected by the inclusion of the dried cauliflower leaf in the diet. However, female rats exhibited a depressed feed intake and increased feed efficiency with cauliflower leaf supplemental diets. Relative liver weights increased with increasing percentage of cauliflower leaves in the diet. Hepatic microsomal enzyme response to cauliflower leaf supplementation of the diet was greater in males than in females. Only aniline hydroxylase activity remained unchanged by the test diets. Male rats showed significant increases in N- and O-demethylation with both the 10 and 25% cauliflower diets, and increased values for microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450 at the 25% supplemental level. Female rats did not show significant hepatic microsomal induction from cauliflower leaf consumption at the 10% level. However, cytochrome P-450 and the metabolism of aminopyrine and p-nitroanisole were enhanced by consumption of cauliflower leaves at 25% of their diet. None of the parameters tested in this study evidenced a difference between the two cauliflower cultivars fed to either sex.  (+info)

Differential mutagenicities of triamino benzenes against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the presence of S9 fractions from polychlorinated biphenyls-, phenobarbital- or 3-methylcholanthrene-pretreated rats, hamsters and mice. (6/47)

Mutagenicity of 6 aminobenzene derivatives against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was studied in the presence of various S9 fractions. S9, which has been prepared form the livers of rats, hamsters and mice after pretreatment with different types of inducers; polychlorinated biphenyls, phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene, was used as the methabolic activating enzyme in this mutation assay. The S9 fractions from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats and mice are most useful for mutation induction by the all aminobenzenes used. The mutagenic activity of the compounds was clearly correlated to 3-methylcholanthrene-induced cytochrome P-450. However, any significant correlation between aniline hydroxylase activity and the mutagenesis was not observed.  (+info)

The differential effects of chemical carcinogens on vitamin A status and on microsomal drug metabolism in normal and vitamin A-deficient rats. (7/47)

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a vitamin A-deficient diet for 5 weeks. Although serum and hepatic levels of vitamin A were significantly lower at this time, no outward signs of vitamin A deficiency were present. Hepatic microsomal levels of cytochrome P-450 in the vitamin A-deficient animals were 70% that of the control animals. Of the three microsomal enzymes studied, ethylmorphine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, and aminopyrine N-demethylase, only the last one was adversely affected by vitamin A deficiency. 3-Methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital, and 2-acetylaminofluorene had a greater inductive effect and cytochrome P-450 in vitamin A-deficient rats. 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene treatment decreased in the level of cytochrome P-450 in control rats more than in deficieny rats. The hepatic concentration of vitamin A was significantly reduced in control rats that were given injections of 3-methylcholanthrene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, or phenobarbital. Benzo(a)pyrene and 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene had less effect.  (+info)

Difference between effects of chlorpromazine and perphenazine on microsomal phospholipids and enzyme activities in rat liver. (8/47)

The effects of acute administration of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and perphenazine (PPZ) on hepatic microsomal phospholipids (PLs) and enzyme activities in the male rat were examined in order to elucidate the relationship between individual PLs and drug-metabolizing activity. Cytochrome P-450 and aniline (AN) hydroxylation activity were initially decreased in CPZ-treated rats, but cytochrome P-450 subsequently recovered to a level not significantly different from the control and AN hydroxylation was markedly increased, while in PPZ-treated rats, they remained depressed. CPZ increased the activities of glycerophosphate acyltransferase (GPA) and choline phosphotransferase (CPT), while PPZ increased the activities of phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (PCT), phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PPH) and CPT. Concurrently, CPZ raised microsomal phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine-inositol (PSI) and sphingomyelin (SM), while PPZ increased PC and PE, but did not affect the levels of PSI and SM. Acyl components of phospholipids were also modified. CPZ significantly decreased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, particularly in the PC and PE fractions, while the effect of PPZ was only slight. The results imply that an increase of AN hydroxylation activity may involve the incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into enzyme-associated PC and PE.  (+info)

*List of MeSH codes (D12.776)

... aniline hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.040.110 - benzopyrene hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.040.332 - cytochrome p- ... steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.730 - steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.737 - ... steroid 16-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.748 - steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.760 ... cholesterol 7 alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D12.776.422.220.453.915.212 - cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme MeSH D12.776.422.220. ...

*List of MeSH codes (D08)

... aniline hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.040.110 --- benzopyrene hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.040.555 --- cytochrome p-450 cyp1a1 ... aniline hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.040.110 --- benzopyrene hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.040.332 --- ... steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170.915.730 --- steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.811.682.690.708.170. ... steroid 11-beta-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.730 --- steroid 12-alpha-hydroxylase MeSH D08.244.453.915.737 --- steroid 16- ...

*Azo dye

Typical aniline partners are shown below. Since anilines are prepared from nitro compounds, some azo dyes are produced by ... Biological routes, which involve oxidase and hydroxylase enzymes, show promise. Mutagenic compounds isolated from water samples ... H+ Azo dyes are also prepared by the condensation of nitroaromatics with anilines followed by reduction of the resulting azoxy ...

*Neuron

Basophilic dyes such as aniline or (weakly) haematoxylin highlight negatively charged components, and so bind to the phosphate ... Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan by tryptophan hydroxylase, and then further by aromatic acid decarboxylase. A lack of ...

*O-Toluidine

Exposure was primarily to o-toluidine and aniline and a significant increase in incidences of bladder cancer was observed. ... Exposure to o-toluidine enhances the microsomal activity of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase (particularly in the kidney), NAPDH- ...

*CYP2E1

... metabolizes mostly small, polar molecules, including toxic laboratory chemicals such as dimethylformamide, aniline, and ... "Replacement of Thr-303 of P450 2E1 with serine modifies the regioselectivity of its fatty acid hydroxylase activity". Journal ...
Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 (P450IIE) is reported to be induced by ketosis. In the present study, the effects of a high fat diet on P450IIE induction and the relationship between ketone body concentration and P450IIE induction were studied by the following: 1) measurement of the activity of aniline hydroxylase, 2) immunoblot analysis for P450IIE protein, and 3) Northern blot analysis for P450IIE mRNA. The enzyme activities (aniline hydroxylase) in hepatic and renal microsomes were elevated about 2-3-fold by feeding with a high fat diet for 3 days. The increases in enzyme activities were also accompanied by 3-fold increases in immunoreactive P450IIE protein and its mRNA. In contrast, no differences were observed for the catalytic activities of N-alkoxyresorufin dealkylases or the amounts of immunoreactive P450IA and P450IIC, indicating a specific induction of P450IIE by high fat feeding. Furthermore, the increases in the levels of P450IIE mRNA correlated positively (r = 0.73) with plasma ...
Diphenylhydantoin (DPH) treatment increased hepatic drug metabolism of 5-and 10-day-old neonatal rats. In vitro metabolism was measured using the 9000 x g supernatant fraction as the enzyme source. Neonatal hepatic metabolism of p-nitroanisole, hexobarbital, benzphetamine, aminopyrine and -nitrobenzoic acid was significantly increased by DPH treatment. DPH treatment increased neonatal liver weight, but did not alter microsomal protein content per gram of liver or the ability of the 9000 x g supernatant fraction to generate reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH). Likewise, DPH treatment of adult rats significantly increased hepatic metabolism of benzphetamine and aminopyrine. Regardless of animal age, aniline hydroxylase and benzpyrene hydroxylase were apparently unaffected by DPH treatment. The amount of hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450 was significantly increased, but cytochrome b5 was unaffected by DPH treatment of all age groups. Rat liver microsomal P-450 was ...
Unscramble aniline, Unscramble letters aniline, Point value for aniline, Word Decoder for aniline, Word generator using the letters aniline, Word Solver aniline, Possible Scrabble words with aniline, Anagram of aniline
... Other names PhenylamineAminobenzeneBenzenamine Identifiers CAS number 62-53-3 SMILES NC1=CC=CC=C1 Properties Molecular formula C6H7N Molar mass
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4-(Methylmercapto)aniline 104-96-1 Precursor and Downstream products, 4-(Methylmercapto)aniline Precursor products, 4-(Methylmercapto)aniline Downstream products ect.
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Matter is composed of atoms or groups of atoms called molecules. The arrangement of particles in a material depends on the physical state of the substance. In a solid, particles form a compact structure that resists flow. Particles in a liquid have more energy than those in a solid. They can flow past one another, but they remain close. Particles in a gas have the most energy. They move rapidly and are separated from one another by relatively large distances. ...
The solvate structure of 3,4-dichloro-1-nitro-benzene with aniline, 2C6H3Cl2NO2·C6H7N, is reported. Ribbons of 3,4-dichloro-nitro-benzene, formed by ClCl and N - OCl inter-actions, are linked together via N - HO hydrogen bonds with aniline into an undulating two-dimensional sheet.. ...
After oral administration of bromazepam, 50 mg/kg/day for 14-28 days to rats, the rate of elimination of the unchanged drug from the blood increased by 20-40%, as determined from the half-lives of the blood decay curves during the first 4 hr after administration of an oral or intravenous test dose of bromazepam. During the chronic administration, the liver weight increased 30-40%, with concomitant enlargement of the liver. The hepatomegaly was associated with elevation of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities, including that responsible for the oxidation of bromazepam itself. Spectral characteristics of the isolated microsomes indicated that the manner by which bromazepam caused the elevation (induction) of the enzyme activities was of the "phenobarbital type" rather than the "methylcholanthrene type." Since certain steps of bromazepam metabolism take place in the liver, it appears reasonable to assume that the increase in the elimination rate found after chronic administration may ...
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... [= Indigofera erecta]. Life , eukaryotes , Archaeoplastida , Chloroplastida , Charophyta , Streptophytina , Plantae (land plants) , Tracheophyta (vascular plants) , Euphyllophyta , Lignophyta (woody plants) , Spermatophyta (seed plants) , Angiospermae (flowering plants) , Eudicotyledons , Core Eudicots , Rosids , Eurosid I , Fabales , Family: Fabaceae , Subfamily: Papilionoideae , Genus: Indigofera. ...
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N-benzyl-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)aniline,hydrochloride chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of N-benzyl-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)aniline,hydrochloride 2508-72-7, What are the physical properties of N-benzyl-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)aniline,hydrochloride ect.
Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Being a precursor to many industrial chemicals, its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane. Like most volatile amines, it possesses the somewhat unpleasant odour of rotten fish. It ignites readily, burning with a smoky flame characteristic of aromatic compounds. Aniline is colorless, but it slowly oxidizes and resinifies in air, giving a red-brown tint to aged samples.
Latest China HS Code & tariff for n dimethyl aniline - Tariff & duty, regulations & restrictions, landed cost calculator, customs data for n dimethyl aniline in ETCN. China customs statistics trade data.
Indigofera Candicans. White-Leaved Indigo. Class and Order: Diadelphia Decandria. Generic Character: Cal. patens. Cor. carina utrinque calcari subulato patulo. Legumen lineare. Specific Character...
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Structure, properties, spectra, suppliers and links for: 4-(8-Methyl-8,9-dihydro-7H-[1,3]dioxolo[4,5-h][2,3]benzodiazepin-5-yl)aniline.
Product Name: 2,8-diiododibenzofuranFormula: C12H6OI2Weight: 419.98344SMILES: IC1=CC2C3=C(C=CC(I)=C3)OC=2C=C1CAS NO: 127-48-0 Product: Trimethadione &
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Vapor-Liquid Equilibria in the System of Toluene/Aniline, Aniline/Naphthalene, and Naphthalene/Quinoline. AU - Lee, Chang-Ha. AU - Chen, Quen. AU - Mohamed, Rahoma S.. AU - Holder, Gerald D.. PY - 1992/4/1. Y1 - 1992/4/1. N2 - Vapor-liquid equilibria for the aniline/naphthalene, toluene/aniline, and naphthalene/quinoline systems have been determined at 0-1500 kPa and 490-623 K by using a static equilibrium cell. The data can be accurately correlated with the modified Peng-Roblnson equation of state by using density-dependent mixing rules. The binary interaction parameters and correction factors for the equation of state are reported at each isotherm. The presence of coal-derived solids in these binary systems did not influence any of the binary bubble pressures.. AB - Vapor-liquid equilibria for the aniline/naphthalene, toluene/aniline, and naphthalene/quinoline systems have been determined at 0-1500 kPa and 490-623 K by using a static equilibrium cell. The data can be accurately ...
D611 - 12(2016) Standard Test Methods for Aniline Point and Mixed Aniline Point of Petroleum Products and Hydrocarbon Solvents , aniline point, aromatics, mixed aniline point,,
34. Indigofera galegoides Candolle, Prodr. 2: 225. 1825. 假大青蓝 jia da qing lan Indigofera finlaysoniana Graham ex Ridley; I. mansuensis Hayata; I. uncinata Roxburgh.. Shrubs or shrublets, 1-2 m tall. Young branches angular, with appressed white or grayish brown medifixed symmetri-cally 2-branched trichomes, glabrescent. Stipules linear, 3-4 mm. Leaves ca. 20 cm, 11-25-foliolate; petiole and rachis with appressed white mixed brownish gray medifixed trichomes; petiole 1.5-3 cm; rachis adaxially grooved; stipels subulate, 0.5-1 mm; petiolules ca. 2 mm, with brown trichomes; leaflet blades opposite or subopposite, oblong to oblanceolate-oblong, 2-4 × 0.7-1.6 cm, membranous, both surfaces with appressed brown and white medifixed trichomes, midvein abaxially prominent and adaxially impressed, secondary veins 11 on each side of midvein, base broadly cuneate to rounded, apex rounded to acute and mucronate. Racemes 5-12 cm, densely flowered; peduncle and rachis with appressed white medifixed ...
Earlier we demonstrated that meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a specific inhibitor of arginine mono-ADP-ribosylation blocks proliferation and differentiation of chick skeletal myogenic cells in...
USDA, ARS, Germplasm Resources Information Network. Indigofera caroliniana in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Research Service. Accessed on 07-Oct-06 ...
CH421 Experiment 2 Nitration of Aniline: a three-step protecting group strategy to prepare p-nitroaniline Reading: Organic Chemistry by John McMurry, 8e, Chapter Techniques: recrystallization,
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genus indigofera definition: genus of tropical natural herbs and shrubs having odd-pinnate leaves and spurred plants in lengthy racemes or spikes; genus of exotic natural herbs and shrubs having odd-pinnate…
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The development of several hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in rats was studied in relation to its androgen dependence during the neonatal period. Rats with their androgen deprived during the neonatal period (female rats and male rats castrated at birth) respond less to androgen treatment at adulthood for the metabolism of aminopyrine, ethylmorphine and hexobarbital as compared to rats exposed to neonatal androgen (male rats, male rats castrated at birth but neonatally treated with androgen and male rats castrated at the age of 20 days). This difference in the degree of hepatic responsiveness, however, varied with the substrates: ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity was affected the most whereas aminopyrine N-demethylase and hexobarbital oxidase activities were only marginally affected. Furthermore, these differences in responsiveness seem to be a delayed event, since hepatic aminopyrine N-demethylase activity in rats castrated at birth did respond to androgen stimulation ...
DNA Demethylase Activity/Inhibition Assay Kit is use for measuring DNA demethylase activity/inhibition. (KA0677) - Products - Abnova
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment abundant in the root of the Chinese herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been widely used to treat inflammatory diseases for thousands of years. Whether shikonin changes drug metabolism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether shikonin modulates the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the possible mechanisms of this action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0-2 μM shikonin and the protein and mRNA levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intermediates in the reaction of aniline with formaldehyde catalyzed by acids. AU - Bochkarev, V. V.. AU - Soroka, L. S.. PY - 2000/5/1. Y1 - 2000/5/1. N2 - The relative stabilities and reactivities of possible intermediates in the reaction of aniline with formaldehyde under conditions of acid catalysis were estimated by the semiempirical MNDO method. According to the calculation results, protonated N-(hydroxymethyl)aniline and ortho-, meta-, and paraσ-complexes are formed through the ion-dipole complex. Further transformations of these intermediates, which determine the structure of the final products, depend on the possibility of proton abstraction from the σ-complexes with formation of a quinonimine structure, as well as on the lability of the hydroxymethyl group in the protonated amino alcohol.. AB - The relative stabilities and reactivities of possible intermediates in the reaction of aniline with formaldehyde under conditions of acid catalysis were estimated by the ...
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The theoretical approach to the study of aniline polymerization mechanism has been based on the MNDO-PM3 semi-empirical quantum chemical computations of the heat of formation of aniline dimer and trimer intermediates. The oxidation in aqueous medium without added acid is analyzed. The aniline nitrenium cation is proposed to be the reactive electrophilic species generated by the oxidation of aniline with a two-electron oxidant, ammonium peroxydisulfate, in the initiation phase. 4-Aminodiphenylamine and its fully oxidized form, N-phenyl-1,4-benzoquinonediimine, are the main dimeric products. 2-Aminodiphenylamine and its fully oxidized form, N-phenyl-1,2-benzoquinonediimine, are the most important side products of aniline dimerization. The influence of protonation on the oxidizability of aniline and reaction intermediates was studied. The dominant aniline oligomers have been shown to be linear as well as branched. The importance of reactivity difference between fully oxidized aniline oligomers ...
63. Indigofera Linnaeus, Sp. Pl. 2: 751. 1753. 木蓝属 mu lan shu Authors: Xinfen Gao & Brian D. Schrire Shrubs, shrublets, perennial herbs, or rarely annual herbs or small trees; trichomes typically medifixed (T-shaped), equally to very unequally 2-branched and sometimes crisped, or rarely simple multicellular hairs present with glandular tips. Stipules persistent or caducous. Leaves usually imparipinnate but for some species simple or reduced to 1 leaflet; stipels present or absent; leaflet blades usually opposite but sometimes subopposite or alternate, rarely with glands, margin entire. Racemes axillary; bracts usually cadu-cous. Calyx campanulate or cup-shaped; teeth 5, subequal or abaxial one longer. Corolla usually reddish, sometimes white or yellow; standard usually covered outside with appressed trichomes but occasionally glabrous, base shortly clawed, apex usually obtuse to emarginate and mucronate; wings narrow, base auricled; keel falcate or spatulate, with spur adnate to wings. ...
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Global Aniline Market was valued at US$ 9.75 Bn in 2013 and is likely to reach US$ 15.66 Bn by 2020, expanding at a CAGR of 7.0% during the forecast period between 2014 and 2020. In terms of volume, global demand for aniline stood at 5,470 kilo tons in 2013
Volume 12: Theoretical Ultrasonic Velocities in Binary Liquid Mixture Containing Aniline and Anisole at Different Temperatures - A Comparative Study
To start, 25 to 50 mg once a day. Usually taken in midmorning or midafternoon. The dose can be increased up to 150 mg per day, taken in 3 doses, if necessary and if the patient can tolerate this dosage without severe side effects. The magnitude of the increased weight loss associated with benzphetamine is a fraction of a pound a week, with the weight loss greatest in the first weeks of therapy ...
This site lists all substances and their properties which are reported on in the indexed Landolt-Börnstein volumes. In total, 160 000 organic and inorganic compounds are described by names, molecular structures, chemical abstract numbers and other identifiers. Properties are directly linked to the full documents at Springerlink. Landolt-Börnstein citations are given as "Vol. LB-Group/Volume Chapter: number [, page]: document title" and have a hyperlink to the full-text of the document containing the substance. The short identifier of the LB volume leads to a complete denotation of the reference with a direct link to the respective volume. For several compounds crosslinks to some derivatives are provided, e.g. isotope-marked compounds, hydrates and hydrochlorides. For benzenamine (aniline) for example there is a direct link to the related compounds benzenamine-d7 and aniline hydrochloride/hydrobromide/hydroiodide. Additionally, EINECS numbers (European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical ...
HOPA = Hemalaun, Orange G, Phosphormolybdenic acid, Aniline blue Cell nuclei are stained with hemalaun or Weigerts iron-hematoxylin and then counterstained with a dye mixture of orange-phosphormolybden with aniline blue.. ...
Synonyms for anilide in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for anilide. 3 synonyms for aniline: aminobenzine, aniline oil, phenylamine. What are synonyms for anilide?
Signs of the Side-chain Spin Couplings in Furans. II. 2-Methyl- and 3-Methylfuran, 2-Furfurylidenemalononitrile, and N-(2-Furfurylidene)aniline.. Rodmar, S ren; Fors n, Sture; Gestblom, Bo; Gronowitz, Salo; Hoffman, Ragnar A. ...
Trimethadione anticonvulsant drug molecule. Used in treatment of seizures. Atoms are represented as spheres with conventional colour coding: hydrogen (white), carbon (black), oxygen (red), nitrogen (blue). - Stock Image F011/3640
Rph1 and Gis1 are two related yeast zinc finger proteins that function as downstream effectors in the Ras/PKA, TOR and Sch9 nutrient signaling pathways. Both proteins also contain JmjC histone demethylase domains, but only Rph1 is known to be an active enzyme, demethylating lysine 36 of histone H3. We have studied to what extent the demethylase activity of Rph1 contributes to its role in nutrient signaling by performing gene expression microarray experiments on a yeast strain containing a catalytically inactive allele of RPH1. We find that the enzymatic activity of Rph1 is not essential for its role in growth phase dependent gene regulation. However, the ability of Rph1 to both activate and repress transcription is partially impaired in the active site mutant, indicating that the demethylase activity may enhance its function in vivo. Consistent with this, we find that the Rph1 mutation and a deletion of the histone H3 methylase Set2 affect the same target genes in opposite directions. Genes that ...
Induction of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases with phenobarbital (PB) or other hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme inducers in the rat is associated with enhanced cocaine hepatotoxicity both in vivo and in cultured rat hepatocytes. To demonstrate whether the major PB-inducible P-450 subfamily (P-450IIB) could be involved in the metabolic activation of cocaine, rates of cocaine N-demethylation (the first step of cocaine bioactivation) and the rate of irreversible (covalent) binding of tritiated cocaine to hepatic microsomal proteins (a measure for the overall bioactivation) were determined in microsomes from saline or PB-pretreated rats. PB pretreatment augmented Vmax (6-fold), but not KM, of cocaine N-demethylation. Similarly, the rate of irreversible protein binding was 3-fold increased in microsomes from PB-pretreated rats as compared with those from saline controls. Addition of benzphetamine, a substrate of P-450IIB, markedly inhibited cocaine irreversible binding. In addition, various ...
Electrically conducting polymers induce specific cellular responses at the molecular level. One of the crucial limitations of the use of conducting polymers in tissue engineering is their inability to degrade. The incorporation of conductivity into degradable polymers to obtain materials that are both electroactive and degradable is therefore highly anticipated. Architecture plays an important role in the performance of polymers. To be able to achieve the optimal mechanical, degradation, thermal and biological properties for a particular biomedical application, it is desirable to promote architectural diversity.. In the first part, by combining the electroactivity of conducting polymers and the degradability of aliphatic polyesters, we have designed and synthesized a series of linear, star-shaped, hyperbranched, and crosslinked degradable and electrically conducting polymers and hydrogels based on polylactide (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), and aniline oligomers such as aniline trimer, aniline ...
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A novel choline detection strategy is developed based on in situ polymerization of aniline on the surface of upconverting nanoparticles (UCNPs). In acidic buffer solution, aniline was protonated and attached to the surface of negatively charged UCNPs via electrostatic interactions. The in situ polymerization
Gold, M.S. and Ziegler, D.M. Dimethylanilin N-oxidase and aminopyrine N-demethylase activities of human liver tissue. Xenobiotica, 3(3): 179-189, 1972 ...
Article Removal of aniline from aqueous solutions by activated carbon coated by chitosan. In this work, activated carbon (AC) coated by chitosan was synthesized and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer and scanning electron m...
GPR88, an orphan receptor richly expressed in the striatum, is implicated in a number of basal ganglia-associated disorders. In order to elucidate the functions of GPR88, an in vivo probe appropriate for CNS investigation is required. We previously reported that 2-PCCA was able to modulate GPR88-mediated cAMP production through a G alpha(i)-coupled pathway. Early structure-activity relationship (SAR) studies suggested that the aniline moiety of 2-PCCA is a suitable site for diverse modifications.
Use of this information is subject to copyright laws and may require the permission of the owner of the information, as described in the ECHA Legal Notice.. ...
Pectosan Toux Seche Ethylmorphine information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Cooperation Pharmaceutique Francaise, Pectosan Toux Seche Ethylmorphine indications, usages and related health products lists
Growing demand for 4-Nitro Aniline from the paints and coatings and dye industry is the major factor driving the growth of global 4-Nitro Aniline market
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Modern medical science has made such tremendous strides in the field of therapeutics that many older drugs, especially if potentially productive of untoward and dangerous side-effects, have been discredited and have fallen into disuse. Admittedly, many such drugs have marked therapeutic value and are deserving of further investigation and clinical trial before they are completely discarded.. Aminopyrine, by force of historical circumstances, has been such a discredited drug for many years.1, 2a, 3c, 4b, 5, 6, 7, 8 The danger of agranulocytosis resulting from its use is real and well established, but undoubtedly has been overemphasized.1, 2a, 4b, 5, 6, ...
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thiourea dioxide [1758-73-2] 2,3-Dibromopropionic acid [600-05-5] 2,3-DibromoPropionyl chloride [18791-02-1] Meta Uriedo Aniline HCL (MUA) [59690-88-9] Acetyl J Acid [6334-97-0] Furfural [98-01-1] 2,4-diamino sodium benzene sulfonate (High Class Product) 2,4-Dichloroace...
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The current taxonomic study of Indigofera (Fabaceae) as it occurs in the New World has several aims. The first addresses taxonomic and nomenclatural issues related to North American taxa. Because such issues have not been well understood for many of these taxa at various ranks, a synopsis of all taxa known to be referable to North America is presented along with a thorough discussion of nomenclatural issues (including synonymy) for each. This discussion is initially placed within the framework of the species groups proposed by Rydberg in 1923. A preliminary cladistic analysis of these North American species groups is presented. In that analysis, woody species with opposite leaflets are basal with Platycarpae (possessing flat pods) most basal; the perennial herbaceous species (including Leptosepalae) are most highly derived. Certain difficult species groups are examined and discussed, most notably the Leptosepalae. As a result of preliminary phenetic and starch gel electrophoretic analyses and a
Hydrochloric acid, reaction products with aniline and nitrobenzene, neutralized,91671-69-1 - Buyers Guide for Chemicals is a directory of chemicals, chemical suppliers and producers. More than 140,000 products, 270,000 supply sources and 4,400 company addresses. Search for free and find new suppliers for chemical products, pharmaceuticals and APIs.
I. heterantha AGM (Was I. gerardiana) buy genuine xanax Spikes of small, purplish rose, pea-like, flowers from July to October. Light green leaves made up of many leaflets, deciduous. Height and Spread about 1 metre, larger against a wall. ...
Of the 6, acetanilide and aniline will have the highest melting points as they are polar. Between the two, I reasoned that acetanilide will have a higher melting point because it has a polar carbonyl group in addition to the h-bonding provided by the nitrogen bonded to a hydrogen. This stands in contrast to the mere nitrogen bonded to two hydrogens in the aniline. I have to admit, my reasoning here is fuzzy. As it stands, Im comparing carbonyl & N-H (acetanilide) to N-H & N-H (aniline). How do we know that dipole + hydrogen bonding is better than hydrogen bonding + hydrogen bonding? I know that hydrogen bonding is a stronger intermolecular interaction than dipole-dipole or dipole-hydrogen bond ...
Wear a self-contained breathing apparatus in pressure-demand, MSHA/NIOSH (approved or equivalent), and full protective gear. To extinguish fire use water spray, dry chemical, carbon dioxide, or chemical foam ...
Soil column was equipped with the sediments and aquifer media collected from Weihe Riverbed and its bank, and was used to research the...
HIGHLIGHTS Internal testing is underway, public release to happen in 2018 Latest version of Google Play Services required to get instant updates Feature not exclusive to Android Oreo The Check for update button on Pixel and Nexus devices has in recent times become a redundant feature, which ends up annoying users who love to press it despite knowing that it doesnt really work. All that is set to change, for good, in 2018 when Google issues an update that puts the button to good use. Back in September, Googler Elliott Hughes had posted on Google+ that the Check…. Read More ...
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At present, China has become one of the biggest producing areas of aniline around the world. As an important raw material of downstream products, such as MDI, rubber ingredients, the R&D of aniline in China started in 1958 by Jilin Chemical Industry Co., Ltd.
The Double Halides of Antimony with Aniline and the Toluidines by Howard Haines 1861- Higbee starting at $24.47. The Double Halides of Antimony with Aniline and the Toluidines has 4 available editions to buy at Alibris
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The approach involves protecting the benzylic phenol (or aniline) derivative with a function- ality hhelp can bepredictably hydrolyzed. ; Cohen, H. Am. There is rapid metabolism such that rapid dissolution and absorption are required for effectiveness.

Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids Reverse Inflammatory and Fibrotic Changes in Rat Liver Despite Continued Ethanol Administration |...Dietary Saturated Fatty Acids Reverse Inflammatory and Fibrotic Changes in Rat Liver Despite Continued Ethanol Administration |...

Aniline Hydroxylase Assay.. Aniline hydroxylase assays were performed as described previously (Imai et al., 1966; Waxman et al ... The activity of aniline hydroxylase, which reflects the activity of CYP 2E1 (Lieber, 1997) decreased about 50% with ... containing 8 mM aniline and 1 mM NADPH. Reactions were terminated with 90 μl of 40% trichloroacetic acid. Samples were then ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/299/2/638.long

Appendix D: Review of Other Chemical Contaminants of Concern | Contaminated Water Supplies at Camp Lejeune: Assessing Potential...Appendix D: Review of Other Chemical Contaminants of Concern | Contaminated Water Supplies at Camp Lejeune: Assessing Potential...

Appendix D 259 transaminase, and aniline hydroxylase activity at all doses. Males had significantly decreased glutathione at ...
more infohttps://www.nap.edu/read/12618/chapter/16

HKU Scholars Hub: Dietary saturated fatty acids reverse inflammatory and fibrotic changes in rat liver despite continued...HKU Scholars Hub: Dietary saturated fatty acids reverse inflammatory and fibrotic changes in rat liver despite continued...

Aniline Hydroxylase - metabolism. en_HK. dc.subject.mesh. Animals. en_HK. dc.subject.mesh. Central Nervous System Depressants ...
more infohttp://hub.hku.hk/handle/10722/67361

DDT and its derivatives: environmental aspects (EHC 83, 1989)DDT and its derivatives: environmental aspects (EHC 83, 1989)

Both aniline hydroxylase and benzphetamine demethylase activities were increased in treated birds; the yield of microsomal ... Both DDT and DDE inhibited aniline hydroxylase in vitro activity, when present at concentrations of 10-7 mol/litre or more. ... DDE was found to be a more potent inducer of microsomal protein, cytochrome P450, and aniline hydroxylase than was DDT. The ... SELL, J.L., DAVISON, K.L., & POONACHA, K.B. (1972) Decreased aniline hydroxylase activity in Japanese quail due to dietary DDT ...
more infohttp://www.inchem.org/documents/ehc/ehc/ehc83.htm

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... aniline hydroxylase, bufuralol 1′-hydroxylase, and midazolam 1′-hydroxylase. On the other hand, activities of phenacetin O- ... aniline hydroxylase (AN), bufuralol 1′-hydroxylase (BF), and midazolam 1′-hydroxylase (MDZ), which are not catalyzed by human ... aniline hydroxylase; BF, bufuralol 1′-hydroxylase; MDZ, midazolam 1′-hydroxylase; 13X, caffeine 7-demethylase; 17X, caffeine 3- ... Aniline Hydroxylase Assay. Aniline (5 mM) was incubated for 30 min at 37°C in 1 ml of a reaction mixture consisting of 50 mM ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/36/9/1903

411. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) (WHO Food Additives Series 8)411. Tertiary butyl hydroquinone (TBHQ) (WHO Food Additives Series 8)

Glucose-6-phosphatase, paranitroanisole demethylase (pNaD) and aniline hydroxylase (AHase) activities in liver microsomes were ... and aniline hydroxylase (AHase) activities determined. The expected elevation of pNaD (5X) and AHase (3X) occurred with ...
more infohttp://inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v08je11.htm

Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid from Kochiae Fructus reduce carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.Momordin Ic and oleanolic acid from Kochiae Fructus reduce carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

... momordin Ic and oleanolic acid resulted in significantly lower production of aminopyrine N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase ...
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708. Erythorbic acid and its sodium salt (WHO Food Additives Series 28)708. Erythorbic acid and its sodium salt (WHO Food Additives Series 28)

In animals given 1 mg ascorbic acid, liver aniline hydroxylase and acid phosphatase activities were significantly different ... aniline hydroxylase and acid phosphatase, and serum alkaline phosphatase, as well as liver cytochrome P450 content, were ... Liver aniline hydroxylase, cytochrome P450 and acid phosphatase, and serum alkaline phosphatase showed significant differences ... maintaining normal levels of hepatic aniline hydroxylase and acid phosphatase in animals receiving marginal amounts (1 mg daily ...
more infohttp://inchem.org/documents/jecfa/jecmono/v28je03.htm

Studies on the Mechanism of Stimulation of Microsomal H2O2 Formation and Benzo(a)pyrene Hydroxylaton by Substrates and Flavone ...Studies on the Mechanism of Stimulation of Microsomal H2O2 Formation and Benzo(a)pyrene Hydroxylaton by Substrates and Flavone ...

M.W. Anders, Acetone enhancement of microsomal aniline para-hydroxylase activity, Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 126: 269-275 (1968). ... M.-T. Huang, R.L. Chang, and A.H. Conney, Studies on the mechanism of microsomal benzo(a)pyrene hydroxylase activity by 7,8- ... F.J. Wiebel, J.C. Leutz, L. Diamond and H.V. Gelboin, Aryl hydrocarbon (benzo(a)pyrene) hydroxylase in microsomes from rat ... F.J. Wiebel and H.V. Gelboin, Aryl hydrocarbon (benzo(a)pyrene) hydroxylases in liver from rats of different age, sex and ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4757-0674-1_11

US5077199A - Ready to use liquid reagent for determining the glucose content in blood 
        - Google PatentsUS5077199A - Ready to use liquid reagent for determining the glucose content in blood - Google Patents

Changes in certain kinetic properties of hepatic microsomal aniline hydroxylase and ethylmorphine demethylase associated with ...
more infohttps://patents.google.com/patent/US5077199A/en

738. Clofentezine (Pesticide residues in food: 1986 evaluations Part II Toxicology)738. Clofentezine (Pesticide residues in food: 1986 evaluations Part II Toxicology)

Twenty-four hours after the final dose, their livers were examined for aniline hydroxylase activity, for levels of cytochromes ... cytochrome b5 and in the activity of aniline hydroxylase were found. In a subsequent study it was discovered that the effect ... prior to examination of their livers for aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase activities, for levels of cytochromes ...
more infohttp://www.inchem.org/documents/jmpr/jmpmono/v86pr04.htm

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The enzyme activities (aniline hydroxylase) in hepatic and renal microsomes were elevated about 2-3-fold by feeding with a high ... measurement of the activity of aniline hydroxylase, 2) immunoblot analysis for P450IIE protein, and 3) Northern blot analysis ...
more infohttp://molpharm.aspetjournals.org/content/41/3/474

Anti-cancer effects of Phyllanthus urinaria and relevant mechanisms. - Printable VersionAnti-cancer effects of Phyllanthus urinaria and relevant mechanisms. - Printable Version

The extract inhibited aniline hydroxylase, a P-450 enzyme. The concentration required for 50% inhibition (IC(50)) was found to ...
more infohttp://medcapsules.com/forum/printthread.php?tid=3296

2,6-dimethylheptan-4-one - Registration Dossier - ECHA2,6-dimethylheptan-4-one - Registration Dossier - ECHA

MIBK induced significant increases in hepatocellular cytochrome P-450 content and the hepatic activities of aniline hydroxylase ...
more infohttps://www.echa.europa.eu/web/guest/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/2026/7/2/1

2,6-dimethylheptan-4-one - Registration Dossier - ECHA2,6-dimethylheptan-4-one - Registration Dossier - ECHA

MIBK induced significant increases in hepatocellular cytochrome P-450 content and the hepatic activities of aniline hydroxylase ...
more infohttps://echa.europa.eu/registration-dossier/-/registered-dossier/2026/7/2/1

Plus itPlus it

Similarly, in a parallel group of rats that did not receive DMBA, the activities of aniline hydroxylase, aminopyrine N- ...
more infohttp://cancerres.aacrjournals.org/content/45/1/61

Benzphetamine | definition of benzphetamine by Medical dictionaryBenzphetamine | definition of benzphetamine by Medical dictionary

... aniline hydroxylase (AH), acetanilide hydroxylase (AAH), benzphetamine demethylase (BD), aminopyrine demethylase (APD), N.. ...
more infohttps://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/benzphetamine

Spectrum Laboratories : Chemical Fact Sheet - Cas #
959988  CASRN 959-98-8Spectrum Laboratories : Chemical Fact Sheet - Cas # 959988 CASRN 959-98-8

R38] Dose dependent increased activities of aminopyrine-N-demethylase and aniline hydroxylase in endosulfan treated rats ...
more infohttp://www.speclab.com/compound/c959988.htm

1 - Daily forex transaction volume1 - Daily forex transaction volume

81mg, niacin 3. Aniline hydroxylase is increased in both males and females with alloxan diabetes. ...
more infohttp://forexindustryinsider.com/daily-forex-transaction-volume.html

Induction of CYP1A2 by Phenobarbital in the Livers of Aryl Hydrocarbon-Responsive and -Nonresponsive Mice | Drug Metabolism &...Induction of CYP1A2 by Phenobarbital in the Livers of Aryl Hydrocarbon-Responsive and -Nonresponsive Mice | Drug Metabolism &...

1974) Effects of lyophilization and storage of rat liver microsomes on activity of aniline hydroxylase, contents of cytochrome ... 1989) Proline-dependent expression of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase in C57BL/6 mouse hepatocytes in primary culture. Cancer Res ... 1975) Genetic expression of aryl hydrocarbon hydroxylase by 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin: Evidence for a receptor ... b5 and cytochrome P-450 and aniline-induced P-450 difference spectrum. Jpn J Pharmacol 24:195-203. ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/27/3/379?ijkey=9fc90da30eff73c7a3881e87d2bb1dd1028e3674&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Effects of Zineb on Hepatic Microsomal Systems in Rats and Mice | Springer for Research & DevelopmentEffects of Zineb on Hepatic Microsomal Systems in Rats and Mice | Springer for Research & Development

... as well as an inhibition of aniline hydroxylase in rats and a slight increase of this enzymatic activity in mice. The effects ...
more infohttps://rd.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-642-71248-7_64

Energy Metabolism Assay kit Solarbio Life Science - Solarbio.comEnergy Metabolism Assay kit Solarbio Life Science - Solarbio.com

Aniline -4 hydroxylase(AH) Assay Kit. *Catalog : BC2740. *Detection method : Colormetric. *Detection instrument : ...
more infohttp://www.solarbio.net/category-155-b0.html

Modulation of Drug Metabolism by Food Restiction by Paul Kupen Su"Modulation of Drug Metabolism by Food Restiction" by Paul Kupen Su

p-chloro-methly-aniline(PCMA)N- demethylase and p-nitrophenol UDP-glucuronyl transferase activities were unaltered by the feed ... cytochrome P-450 content and the in vitro activities of microsomal aniline hydroxylase. ... cytochrome P-450 content and the in vitro activities of microsomal aniline hydroxylase. p-chloro-methly-aniline(PCMA)N- ...
more infohttp://trace.tennessee.edu/utk_graddiss/3785/

Biotransformation of Parathion in Human Liver: Participation of CYP3A4 and its Inactivation during Microsomal Parathion...Biotransformation of Parathion in Human Liver: Participation of CYP3A4 and its Inactivation during Microsomal Parathion...

Aniline 4-hydroxylase activity was monitored by the formation of 4-aminophenol as described elsewhere (Murray and Ryan, 1982). ... This is not unlike the situation with rat liver CYP2C13, which is a steroid 6β-hydroxylase in its purified state, but does not ... 1988) In vitro inhibition of tolbutamide hydroxylase activity of human liver microsomes by azoles, sulphonamides and quinolines ... It is also evident from figure 3 that aniline 4-hydroxylation was refractory to inhibition by parathion. ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/280/2/966?ijkey=4fc647d9702b88d19f7375efc71323815e761d34&keytype2=tf_ipsecsha

Role of drug metabolizing enzymes and glutathione system in development of drug resistance in Plasmodium yoeliiRole of drug metabolizing enzymes and glutathione system in development of drug resistance in Plasmodium yoelii

Aniline Hydroxylase (AH) is another member of phase I group of drug metabolizing enzymes. During infection in Swiss mice of the ... The assays were of different drug metabolizing enzymes which included cytochrome P450, aniline hydroxylase, aminopyrine-N- ...
more infohttp://dkr.cdri.res.in/xmlui/handle/123456789/1255
  • The enzyme activities (aniline hydroxylase) in hepatic and renal microsomes were elevated about 2-3-fold by feeding with a high fat diet for 3 days. (aspetjournals.org)
  • In the present study, the effects of a high fat diet on P450IIE induction and the relationship between ketone body concentration and P450IIE induction were studied by the following: 1) measurement of the activity of aniline hydroxylase, 2) immunoblot analysis for P450IIE protein, and 3) Northern blot analysis for P450IIE mRNA. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Cytochrome P-450 content and the activities of cytochrome c reductase, aniline hydroxylase, pentobarbital hydroxylase and glucose 6-phosphatase in hepatic microsomes were significantly decreased in the bypassed rats compared to both control groups when the results were expressed per milligram of microsomal protein. (elsevier.com)