Aniline Hydroxylase: A drug-metabolizing, cytochrome P-450 enzyme which catalyzes the hydroxylation of aniline to hydroxyaniline in the presence of reduced flavoprotein and molecular oxygen. EC 1.14.14.-.Aminopyrine N-DemethylaseAniline CompoundsNitroanisole O-Demethylase: Oxidative enzyme which transforms p-nitroanisole into p-nitrophenol.Mixed Function Oxygenases: Widely distributed enzymes that carry out oxidation-reduction reactions in which one atom of the oxygen molecule is incorporated into the organic substrate; the other oxygen atom is reduced and combined with hydrogen ions to form water. They are also known as monooxygenases or hydroxylases. These reactions require two substrates as reductants for each of the two oxygen atoms. There are different classes of monooxygenases depending on the type of hydrogen-providing cosubstrate (COENZYMES) required in the mixed-function oxidation.Microsomes, Liver: Closed vesicles of fragmented endoplasmic reticulum created when liver cells or tissue are disrupted by homogenization. They may be smooth or rough.Cytochrome P-450 Enzyme System: A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Phenylalanine Hydroxylase: An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the formation of L-TYROSINE, dihydrobiopterin, and water from L-PHENYLALANINE, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen. Deficiency of this enzyme may cause PHENYLKETONURIAS and PHENYLKETONURIA, MATERNAL. EC 1.14.16.1.Steroid 21-Hydroxylase: An adrenal microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 21-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP21 gene, converts progesterones to precursors of adrenal steroid hormones (CORTICOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE). Defects in CYP21 cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL).Aniline Mustard: Alkylating anti-neoplastic agent.ToluidinesTryptophan Hydroxylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydroxylation of TRYPTOPHAN to 5-HYDROXYTRYPTOPHAN in the presence of NADPH and molecular oxygen. It is important in the biosynthesis of SEROTONIN.Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase: An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-tyrosine, tetrahydrobiopterin, and oxygen to 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine, dihydrobiopterin, and water. EC 1.14.16.2.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Liver Diseases, Alcoholic: Liver diseases associated with ALCOHOLISM. It usually refers to the coexistence of two or more subentities, i.e., ALCOHOLIC FATTY LIVER; ALCOHOLIC HEPATITIS; and ALCOHOLIC CIRRHOSIS.Ethanol: A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Liver Cirrhosis, Alcoholic: FIBROSIS of the hepatic parenchyma due to chronic excess ALCOHOL DRINKING.Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Polyurethanes: A group of thermoplastic or thermosetting polymers containing polyisocyanate. They are used as ELASTOMERS, as coatings, as fibers and as foams.Odors: The volatile portions of substances perceptible by the sense of smell. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Blood Chemical Analysis: An examination of chemicals in the blood.Amines: A group of compounds derived from ammonia by substituting organic radicals for the hydrogens. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Smell: The ability to detect scents or odors, such as the function of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS.Acanthaceae: A plant family of the order Lamiales. It is characterized by simple leaves in opposite pairs, cystoliths (enlarged cells containing crystals of calcium carbonate), and bilaterally symmetrical and bisexual flowers that are usually crowded together. The common name for Ruellia of wild petunia is easily confused with PETUNIA.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 1.11.1.9.Superoxide Dismutase: An oxidoreductase that catalyzes the reaction between superoxide anions and hydrogen to yield molecular oxygen and hydrogen peroxide. The enzyme protects the cell against dangerous levels of superoxide. EC 1.15.1.1.Chondrus: A genus of RED ALGAE, in the family Gigartinaceae. The species Chondrus crispus is a source of CARRAGEENAN.Wound Healing: Restoration of integrity to traumatized tissue.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Theobromine: 3,7-Dimethylxanthine. The principle alkaloid in Theobroma cacao (the cacao bean) and other plants. A xanthine alkaloid that is used as a bronchodilator and as a vasodilator. It has a weaker diuretic activity than THEOPHYLLINE and is also a less powerful stimulant of smooth muscle. It has practically no stimulant effect on the central nervous system. It was formerly used as a diuretic and in the treatment of angina pectoris and hypertension. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, pp1318-9)Dextrorphan: Dextro form of levorphanol. It acts as a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist, among other effects, and has been proposed as a neuroprotective agent. It is also a metabolite of DEXTROMETHORPHAN.Chemical Industry: The aggregate enterprise of manufacturing and technically producing chemicals. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length: Variation occurring within a species in the presence or length of DNA fragment generated by a specific endonuclease at a specific site in the genome. Such variations are generated by mutations that create or abolish recognition sites for these enzymes or change the length of the fragment.Tacrine: A cholinesterase inhibitor that crosses the blood-brain barrier. Tacrine has been used to counter the effects of muscle relaxants, as a respiratory stimulant, and in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease and other central nervous system disorders.Chlorzoxazone: A centrally acting central muscle relaxant with sedative properties. It is claimed to inhibit muscle spasm by exerting an effect primarily at the level of the spinal cord and subcortical areas of the brain. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoea, 30th ed, p1202)Aminophenols: Phenols substituted in any position by an amino group.Selenium: An element with the atomic symbol Se, atomic number 34, and atomic weight 78.96. It is an essential micronutrient for mammals and other animals but is toxic in large amounts. Selenium protects intracellular structures against oxidative damage. It is an essential component of GLUTATHIONE PEROXIDASE.9,10-Dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene: 7,12-Dimethylbenzanthracene. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon found in tobacco smoke that is a potent carcinogen.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Mammary Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced mammary neoplasms in animals to provide a model for studying human BREAST NEOPLASMS.Benz(a)Anthracenes: Four fused benzyl rings with three linear and one angular, that can be viewed as a benzyl-phenanthrenes. Compare with NAPHTHACENES which are four linear rings.Mammary Glands, Animal: MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.Ketone Bodies: The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.Ketosis: A condition characterized by an abnormally elevated concentration of KETONE BODIES in the blood (acetonemia) or urine (acetonuria). It is a sign of DIABETES COMPLICATION, starvation, alcoholism or a mitochondrial metabolic disturbance (e.g., MAPLE SYRUP URINE DISEASE).Acetoacetates: Salts and derivatives of acetoacetic acid.Phenobarbital: A barbituric acid derivative that acts as a nonselective central nervous system depressant. It potentiates GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID action on GABA-A RECEPTORS, and modulates chloride currents through receptor channels. It also inhibits glutamate induced depolarizations.Cytochrome P-450 CYP3A: A cytochrome P-450 suptype that has specificity for a broad variety of lipophilic compounds, including STEROIDS; FATTY ACIDS; and XENOBIOTICS. This enzyme has clinical significance due to its ability to metabolize a diverse array of clinically important drugs such as CYCLOSPORINE; VERAPAMIL; and MIDAZOLAM. This enzyme also catalyzes the N-demethylation of ERYTHROMYCIN.HydrocarbonsCytochrome P-450 CYP1A1: A liver microsomal cytochrome P-450 monooxygenase capable of biotransforming xenobiotics such as polycyclic hydrocarbons and halogenated aromatic hydrocarbons into carcinogenic or mutagenic compounds. They have been found in mammals and fish. This enzyme, encoded by CYP1A1 gene, can be measured by using ethoxyresorufin as a substrate for the ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity.Aryl Hydrocarbon Hydroxylases: A large group of cytochrome P-450 (heme-thiolate) monooxygenases that complex with NAD(P)H-FLAVIN OXIDOREDUCTASE in numerous mixed-function oxidations of aromatic compounds. They catalyze hydroxylation of a broad spectrum of substrates and are important in the metabolism of steroids, drugs, and toxins such as PHENOBARBITAL, carcinogens, and insecticides.Receptors, Aryl Hydrocarbon: Cytoplasmic proteins that bind certain aryl hydrocarbons, translocate to the nucleus, and activate transcription of particular DNA segments. AH receptors are identified by their high-affinity binding to several carcinogenic or teratogenic environmental chemicals including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in cigarette smoke and smog, heterocyclic amines found in cooked foods, and halogenated hydrocarbons including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls. No endogenous ligand has been identified, but an unknown natural messenger with a role in cell differentiation and development is suspected.

NO contribution to lipopolysaccharide-induced hepatic damage in galactosamine-sensitized mice. (1/47)

To investigate the role of nitric oxide (NO) in hepatitis-induced endotoxemia, we injected mice intraperitoneally with 250 mg/kg galactosamine (GalN) and 1 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide (LPS) separately and in combination. NO synthesis increased in a dose-dependent manner with LPS. NO generation at 5 hr after administration of LPS was greater than that at 24 hr. Enhancement of NO generation was demonstrated in mice administered GalN and LPS in combination. A nitrosyl-heme signal in 10,000 g supernatant of liver homogenate, due to cytochrome P450 (P450) combining with NO, NO-P450, was detected at more than ten hr and even more after administration of LPS by electron spin resonance (ESR) measurements at 77 degrees K. The strongest NO-P450 signal and most extreme elevation of aspartate oxoglutarate aminotransferase (AST), alanine oxoglutarate aminotransferase (ALT), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in serum and of lysosomal enzyme activity in plasma were observed in the GalN + LPS group. Their potency was greater than in the 10 mg/kg LPS group, which was even greater than in the LPS 1 mg/kg group. The aniline hydroxylase activity was inversely proportional to NO-P450 signal intensity. It appears that NO might contribute to LPS-induced hepatic damage in GalN-sensitized mice through degeneration and inactivation of liver microsomal enzymes by binding P450 active sites.  (+info)

Studies on the cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated metabolic properties of miocamycin: evaluation of the possibility of a metabolic intermediate complex formation with CYP, and identification of the human CYP isoforms. (2/47)

Some macrolide antibiotics cause clinical drug interactions, resulting in altered metabolism of concomitantly administered drugs, via the formation of a metabolic intermediate (MI) complex with cytochrome P450 (CYP), or competitive inhibition of CYP. In this study, the possibility of MI complex formation by miocamycin (MOM) was assessed first. CYP contents and activities in rat liver microsomes were not affected and there were no detectable MI complexes after administration of MOM for either 3 or 10 days to rats. Furthermore, MOM did not form MI complexes in vitro even with microsomes from humans or dexamethasone-pretreated rats. Second, in vitro studies were conducted to identify the human CYP isoforms involved in four 14-hydroxylation reactions in the MOM metabolic pathway. The results showed that it was most likely CYP3A4 involved in the hydroxylations: 1) each hydroxylation in human liver microsomes from 10 different donors strongly correlated with testosterone 6 beta-hydroxylation; 2) each hydroxylation was essentially inhibited by ketoconazole and troleandomycin; 3) only cDNA-expressed CYP3A4 and CYP3A5 catalyzed the hydroxylations, and the activities of CYP3A5 were below 5% of those of CYP3A4; and 4) the apparent K(M) values obtained with native human liver microsomes were comparable with those obtained with cDNA-expressed CYP3A4. In conclusion, MOM is not an inhibitor of CYP via the formation of an MI complex. Moreover, CYP3A4 is mainly responsible for catalyzing the hydroxylation of MOM metabolites. Because CYP3A4 is the most abundant form of CYP in the liver and intestine, this isoform probably accounts for the majority of drug-MOM interactions observed in clinical practice.  (+info)

Studies on the evaluation of the toxicity of various salts of lead, manganese, platinum, and palladium. (3/47)

Preliminary studies have been conducted on various parameters in order to assess the possible and relative toxicities of a number of metallic salts. Upon oral administration in lethal-dose experiments, two soluble Pt4+ salts were more toxic than the other salts tested. Following intraperiotneal injection in lethal-dose experiments, PbCl2 was less toxic than several of the soluble or partially soluble salts of Pt4+, Pd2+, and Mn2+. An intake of a total of approximately 250 mg of Pt4+ per rat in the drinking fluid over a 30-day interval did not affect the activities of aniline hydroxylase and aminopyrine demethylase in rat liver microsomes. In rats receiving soluble Pt4+ salts in the drinking fluid, the highest concentration of Pt was found in the kidney and an appreciiable concentration was found in the liver.  (+info)

Dietary saturated fatty acids reverse inflammatory and fibrotic changes in rat liver despite continued ethanol administration. (4/47)

We investigated the potential of dietary saturated fatty acids to reverse alcoholic liver injury despite continued administration of alcohol. Five groups (six rats/group) of male Wistar rats were studied. Rats in groups 1 and 2 were fed a fish oil-ethanol diet for 8 and 6 weeks, respectively. Rats in groups 3 and 4 were fed fish oil and ethanol for 6 weeks before being switched to isocaloric diets containing ethanol with palm oil (group 3) or medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs, group 4) for 2 weeks. Rats in group 5 were fed fish oil and dextrose for 8 weeks. Liver samples were analyzed for histopathology, lipid peroxidation, nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation, and mRNAs for cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha). Endotoxin in plasma was determined. The most severe inflammation and fibrosis were detected in groups 1 and 2, as were the highest levels of endotoxin, lipid peroxidation, activation of NF-kappaB, and mRNAs for Cox-2 and TNF-alpha. After the rats were switched to palm oil or MCT, there was marked histological improvement with decreased levels of endotoxin and lipid peroxidation, absence of NF-kappaB activation, and reduced expression of TNF-alpha and Cox-2. A diet enriched in saturated fatty acids effectively reverses alcohol-induced necrosis, inflammation, and fibrosis despite continued alcohol consumption. The therapeutic effects of saturated fatty acids may be explained, at least in part, by reduced endotoxemia and lipid peroxidation, which in turn result in decreased activation of NF-kappaB and reduced levels of TNF-alpha and Cox-2.  (+info)

Hepatic microsomal enzyme induction in rats fed varietal cauliflower leaves. (5/47)

Leaves from a standard, insect-susceptible cauliflower variety and an insect-resistant strain were formulated at either 10 or 25% into semipurified diets for male and female weanling rats. After 3 weeks, relative liver weights, microsomal protein, cytochrome P-450, and activities of hepatic microsomal aminopyrine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, p-nitroanisole O-demethylase, and N-methylaniline N-demethylase were determined. Growth, feed intake, and feed efficiency of male rats were not affected by the inclusion of the dried cauliflower leaf in the diet. However, female rats exhibited a depressed feed intake and increased feed efficiency with cauliflower leaf supplemental diets. Relative liver weights increased with increasing percentage of cauliflower leaves in the diet. Hepatic microsomal enzyme response to cauliflower leaf supplementation of the diet was greater in males than in females. Only aniline hydroxylase activity remained unchanged by the test diets. Male rats showed significant increases in N- and O-demethylation with both the 10 and 25% cauliflower diets, and increased values for microsomal protein and cytochrome P-450 at the 25% supplemental level. Female rats did not show significant hepatic microsomal induction from cauliflower leaf consumption at the 10% level. However, cytochrome P-450 and the metabolism of aminopyrine and p-nitroanisole were enhanced by consumption of cauliflower leaves at 25% of their diet. None of the parameters tested in this study evidenced a difference between the two cauliflower cultivars fed to either sex.  (+info)

Differential mutagenicities of triamino benzenes against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 in the presence of S9 fractions from polychlorinated biphenyls-, phenobarbital- or 3-methylcholanthrene-pretreated rats, hamsters and mice. (6/47)

Mutagenicity of 6 aminobenzene derivatives against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 was studied in the presence of various S9 fractions. S9, which has been prepared form the livers of rats, hamsters and mice after pretreatment with different types of inducers; polychlorinated biphenyls, phenobarbital and 3-methylcholanthrene, was used as the methabolic activating enzyme in this mutation assay. The S9 fractions from 3-methylcholanthrene-treated rats and mice are most useful for mutation induction by the all aminobenzenes used. The mutagenic activity of the compounds was clearly correlated to 3-methylcholanthrene-induced cytochrome P-450. However, any significant correlation between aniline hydroxylase activity and the mutagenesis was not observed.  (+info)

The differential effects of chemical carcinogens on vitamin A status and on microsomal drug metabolism in normal and vitamin A-deficient rats. (7/47)

Male Sprague-Dawley rats were maintained on a vitamin A-deficient diet for 5 weeks. Although serum and hepatic levels of vitamin A were significantly lower at this time, no outward signs of vitamin A deficiency were present. Hepatic microsomal levels of cytochrome P-450 in the vitamin A-deficient animals were 70% that of the control animals. Of the three microsomal enzymes studied, ethylmorphine N-demethylase, aniline hydroxylase, and aminopyrine N-demethylase, only the last one was adversely affected by vitamin A deficiency. 3-Methylcholanthrene, phenobarbital, and 2-acetylaminofluorene had a greater inductive effect and cytochrome P-450 in vitamin A-deficient rats. 4-Dimethylaminoazobenzene treatment decreased in the level of cytochrome P-450 in control rats more than in deficieny rats. The hepatic concentration of vitamin A was significantly reduced in control rats that were given injections of 3-methylcholanthrene, 2-acetylaminofluorene, or phenobarbital. Benzo(a)pyrene and 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene had less effect.  (+info)

Difference between effects of chlorpromazine and perphenazine on microsomal phospholipids and enzyme activities in rat liver. (8/47)

The effects of acute administration of chlorpromazine (CPZ) and perphenazine (PPZ) on hepatic microsomal phospholipids (PLs) and enzyme activities in the male rat were examined in order to elucidate the relationship between individual PLs and drug-metabolizing activity. Cytochrome P-450 and aniline (AN) hydroxylation activity were initially decreased in CPZ-treated rats, but cytochrome P-450 subsequently recovered to a level not significantly different from the control and AN hydroxylation was markedly increased, while in PPZ-treated rats, they remained depressed. CPZ increased the activities of glycerophosphate acyltransferase (GPA) and choline phosphotransferase (CPT), while PPZ increased the activities of phosphatidate cytidylyltransferase (PCT), phosphatidate phosphohydrolase (PPH) and CPT. Concurrently, CPZ raised microsomal phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE), phosphatidylserine-inositol (PSI) and sphingomyelin (SM), while PPZ increased PC and PE, but did not affect the levels of PSI and SM. Acyl components of phospholipids were also modified. CPZ significantly decreased the ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids, particularly in the PC and PE fractions, while the effect of PPZ was only slight. The results imply that an increase of AN hydroxylation activity may involve the incorporation of unsaturated fatty acids into enzyme-associated PC and PE.  (+info)

Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P450 (P450IIE) is reported to be induced by ketosis. In the present study, the effects of a high fat diet on P450IIE induction and the relationship between ketone body concentration and P450IIE induction were studied by the following: 1) measurement of the activity of aniline hydroxylase, 2) immunoblot analysis for P450IIE protein, and 3) Northern blot analysis for P450IIE mRNA. The enzyme activities (aniline hydroxylase) in hepatic and renal microsomes were elevated about 2-3-fold by feeding with a high fat diet for 3 days. The increases in enzyme activities were also accompanied by 3-fold increases in immunoreactive P450IIE protein and its mRNA. In contrast, no differences were observed for the catalytic activities of N-alkoxyresorufin dealkylases or the amounts of immunoreactive P450IA and P450IIC, indicating a specific induction of P450IIE by high fat feeding. Furthermore, the increases in the levels of P450IIE mRNA correlated positively (r = 0.73) with plasma ...
Unscramble aniline, Unscramble letters aniline, Point value for aniline, Word Decoder for aniline, Word generator using the letters aniline, Word Solver aniline, Possible Scrabble words with aniline, Anagram of aniline
... Other names PhenylamineAminobenzeneBenzenamine Identifiers CAS number 62-53-3 SMILES NC1=CC=CC=C1 Properties Molecular formula C6H7N Molar mass
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N-benzyl-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)aniline,hydrochloride chemical properties, What are the chemical properties of N-benzyl-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)aniline,hydrochloride 2508-72-7, What are the physical properties of N-benzyl-N-(4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-2-ylmethyl)aniline,hydrochloride ect.
Aniline, phenylamine or aminobenzene is an organic compound with the formula C6H5NH2. Consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amino group, aniline is the prototypical aromatic amine. Being a precursor to many industrial chemicals, its main use is in the manufacture of precursors to polyurethane. Like most volatile amines, it possesses the somewhat unpleasant odour of rotten fish. It ignites readily, burning with a smoky flame characteristic of aromatic compounds. Aniline is colorless, but it slowly oxidizes and resinifies in air, giving a red-brown tint to aged samples.
Latest China HS Code & tariff for n dimethyl aniline - Tariff & duty, regulations & restrictions, landed cost calculator, customs data for n dimethyl aniline in ETCN. China customs statistics trade data.
Aniline Compounds are organic compounds, consisting of a phenyl group attached to an amine group, with a molecular formula (C6H5NH2)
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N-cyclopropyl-2-nitro-5-[4-(4-phenyl-1,3-thiazol-2-yl)piperazin-1-yl]aniline; CAS Number: ; find Princeton BioMolecular Research, Inc.-PRIH93ED878D MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich
Product Name: 2,8-diiododibenzofuranFormula: C12H6OI2Weight: 419.98344SMILES: IC1=CC2C3=C(C=CC(I)=C3)OC=2C=C1CAS NO: 127-48-0 Product: Trimethadione &
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Vapor-Liquid Equilibria in the System of Toluene/Aniline, Aniline/Naphthalene, and Naphthalene/Quinoline. AU - Lee, Chang-Ha. AU - Chen, Quen. AU - Mohamed, Rahoma S.. AU - Holder, Gerald D.. PY - 1992/4/1. Y1 - 1992/4/1. N2 - Vapor-liquid equilibria for the aniline/naphthalene, toluene/aniline, and naphthalene/quinoline systems have been determined at 0-1500 kPa and 490-623 K by using a static equilibrium cell. The data can be accurately correlated with the modified Peng-Roblnson equation of state by using density-dependent mixing rules. The binary interaction parameters and correction factors for the equation of state are reported at each isotherm. The presence of coal-derived solids in these binary systems did not influence any of the binary bubble pressures.. AB - Vapor-liquid equilibria for the aniline/naphthalene, toluene/aniline, and naphthalene/quinoline systems have been determined at 0-1500 kPa and 490-623 K by using a static equilibrium cell. The data can be accurately ...
D611 - 12(2016) Standard Test Methods for Aniline Point and Mixed Aniline Point of Petroleum Products and Hydrocarbon Solvents , aniline point, aromatics, mixed aniline point,,
Phenytoin is extensively bound to plasma proteins and is prone to competitive displacement. Phenytoin is metabolized by hepatic cytochrome P450 enzymes CYP2C9 and CYP2C19, and is particularly susceptible to inhibitory drug interactions because it is subject to saturable metabolism. Inhibition of metabolism may produce significant increases in circulating phenytoin concentrations and enhance the risk of drug toxicity. Monitoring of phenytoin serum levels is recommended when a drug interaction is suspected.. Phenytoin is a potent inducer of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes. ...
34. Indigofera galegoides Candolle, Prodr. 2: 225. 1825. 假大青蓝 jia da qing lan Indigofera finlaysoniana Graham ex Ridley; I. mansuensis Hayata; I. uncinata Roxburgh.. Shrubs or shrublets, 1-2 m tall. Young branches angular, with appressed white or grayish brown medifixed symmetri-cally 2-branched trichomes, glabrescent. Stipules linear, 3-4 mm. Leaves ca. 20 cm, 11-25-foliolate; petiole and rachis with appressed white mixed brownish gray medifixed trichomes; petiole 1.5-3 cm; rachis adaxially grooved; stipels subulate, 0.5-1 mm; petiolules ca. 2 mm, with brown trichomes; leaflet blades opposite or subopposite, oblong to oblanceolate-oblong, 2-4 × 0.7-1.6 cm, membranous, both surfaces with appressed brown and white medifixed trichomes, midvein abaxially prominent and adaxially impressed, secondary veins 11 on each side of midvein, base broadly cuneate to rounded, apex rounded to acute and mucronate. Racemes 5-12 cm, densely flowered; peduncle and rachis with appressed white medifixed ...
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Earlier we demonstrated that meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), a specific inhibitor of arginine mono-ADP-ribosylation blocks proliferation and differentiation of chick skeletal myogenic cells in...
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CH421 Experiment 2 Nitration of Aniline: a three-step protecting group strategy to prepare p-nitroaniline Reading: Organic Chemistry by John McMurry, 8e, Chapter Techniques: recrystallization,
Consider a binary mixture of cyclohexane (BP ) and benzene (BP ) at . This mixture presents a minimum-boiling azeotrope. It is possible to break this azeotrope using aniline. The vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) behavior of the ternary mixture is described by a modified form of Raoults law with activity coefficients predicted by the Wilson model [1]. This Demonstration plots the pseudo-binary phase;
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Researchers are searching for ways to prevent the coronavirus from attaching to DPP-4 receptors, blocking it from invading and replicating within host cells.. 0 Comments. ...
The development of several hepatic microsomal drug-metabolizing enzyme activities in rats was studied in relation to its androgen dependence during the neonatal period. Rats with their androgen deprived during the neonatal period (female rats and male rats castrated at birth) respond less to androgen treatment at adulthood for the metabolism of aminopyrine, ethylmorphine and hexobarbital as compared to rats exposed to neonatal androgen (male rats, male rats castrated at birth but neonatally treated with androgen and male rats castrated at the age of 20 days). This difference in the degree of hepatic responsiveness, however, varied with the substrates: ethylmorphine N-demethylase activity was affected the most whereas aminopyrine N-demethylase and hexobarbital oxidase activities were only marginally affected. Furthermore, these differences in responsiveness seem to be a delayed event, since hepatic aminopyrine N-demethylase activity in rats castrated at birth did respond to androgen stimulation ...
The cytokine-mediated suppression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes by inflammatory disease and the relief of this suppression by successful disease treatment have recently become an issue in the development of drug interaction labels for new biological products. This study examined the effects of the inflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6) on drug-metabolizing enzymes in human hepatocyte culture and the abrogation of these effects by a monoclonal antibody directed against IL-6. Treatment of human hepatocytes with IL-6 (n = 9 donors) revealed pan-suppression of mRNA of 10 major cytochrome P450 isoenzymes, but with EC50 values that differed by isoenzyme. Some EC50 values were above the range of clinically relevant serum concentrations of IL-6. Marker activities for CYP1A2 and CYP3A4 enzyme were similarly suppressed by IL-6 in both freshly isolated and cryopreserved hepatocytes. IL-6 suppressed induction of CYP1A2 enzyme activity by omeprazole and CYP3A4 enzyme activity by rifampicin but ...
DNA Demethylase Activity/Inhibition Assay Kit is use for measuring DNA demethylase activity/inhibition. (KA0677) - Products - Abnova
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Shikonin, a naphthoquinone pigment abundant in the root of the Chinese herb Lithospermum erythrorhizon, has been widely used to treat inflammatory diseases for thousands of years. Whether shikonin changes drug metabolism remains unclear. AIM OF THE STUDY: We investigated whether shikonin modulates the expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the possible mechanisms of this action. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary hepatocytes isolated from Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with 0-2 μM shikonin and the protein and mRNA levels of drug-metabolizing enzymes and transporters as well as the activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) were determined ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Intermediates in the reaction of aniline with formaldehyde catalyzed by acids. AU - Bochkarev, V. V.. AU - Soroka, L. S.. PY - 2000/5/1. Y1 - 2000/5/1. N2 - The relative stabilities and reactivities of possible intermediates in the reaction of aniline with formaldehyde under conditions of acid catalysis were estimated by the semiempirical MNDO method. According to the calculation results, protonated N-(hydroxymethyl)aniline and ortho-, meta-, and paraσ-complexes are formed through the ion-dipole complex. Further transformations of these intermediates, which determine the structure of the final products, depend on the possibility of proton abstraction from the σ-complexes with formation of a quinonimine structure, as well as on the lability of the hydroxymethyl group in the protonated amino alcohol.. AB - The relative stabilities and reactivities of possible intermediates in the reaction of aniline with formaldehyde under conditions of acid catalysis were estimated by the ...
The theoretical approach to the study of aniline polymerization mechanism has been based on the MNDO-PM3 semi-empirical quantum chemical computations of the heat of formation of aniline dimer and trimer intermediates. The oxidation in aqueous medium without added acid is analyzed. The aniline nitrenium cation is proposed to be the reactive electrophilic species generated by the oxidation of aniline with a two-electron oxidant, ammonium peroxydisulfate, in the initiation phase. 4-Aminodiphenylamine and its fully oxidized form, N-phenyl-1,4-benzoquinonediimine, are the main dimeric products. 2-Aminodiphenylamine and its fully oxidized form, N-phenyl-1,2-benzoquinonediimine, are the most important side products of aniline dimerization. The influence of protonation on the oxidizability of aniline and reaction intermediates was studied. The dominant aniline oligomers have been shown to be linear as well as branched. The importance of reactivity difference between fully oxidized aniline oligomers ...
Benzphetamine is a stimulant that is similar to an amphetamine. Benzphetamine is an appetite suppressant that affects the central nervous system. Benzphetamine is used together with diet and exercise to treat obesity (overweight). Benzphetamine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
To start, 25 to 50 mg once a day. Usually taken in midmorning or midafternoon. The dose can be increased up to 150 mg per day, taken in 3 doses, if necessary and if the patient can tolerate this dosage without severe side effects. The magnitude of the increased weight loss associated with benzphetamine is a fraction of a pound a week, with the weight loss greatest in the first weeks of therapy ...
This site lists all substances and their properties which are reported on in the indexed Landolt-Börnstein volumes. In total, 160 000 organic and inorganic compounds are described by names, molecular structures, chemical abstract numbers and other identifiers. Properties are directly linked to the full documents at Springerlink. Landolt-Börnstein citations are given as "Vol. LB-Group/Volume Chapter: number [, page]: document title" and have a hyperlink to the full-text of the document containing the substance. The short identifier of the LB volume leads to a complete denotation of the reference with a direct link to the respective volume. For several compounds crosslinks to some derivatives are provided, e.g. isotope-marked compounds, hydrates and hydrochlorides. For benzenamine (aniline) for example there is a direct link to the related compounds benzenamine-d7 and aniline hydrochloride/hydrobromide/hydroiodide. Additionally, EINECS numbers (European Inventory of Existing Commercial Chemical ...
Zhejiang Weihua Chemical Co.,Ltd. is specialized in technology development, chemical manufacturer and trading. Our main products are benzotrifluoride series, total capacity is about 18000mt per year. Including p-chlorobenzotrifluoride is 10000mt annually, 3,4-Dichlorobenzotrifluoride 3000mt annually, etc.
HOPA = Hemalaun, Orange G, Phosphormolybdenic acid, Aniline blue Cell nuclei are stained with hemalaun or Weigerts iron-hematoxylin and then counterstained with a dye mixture of orange-phosphormolybden with aniline blue.. ...
Synonyms for anilide in Free Thesaurus. Antonyms for anilide. 3 synonyms for aniline: aminobenzine, aniline oil, phenylamine. What are synonyms for anilide?
Signs of the Side-chain Spin Couplings in Furans. II. 2-Methyl- and 3-Methylfuran, 2-Furfurylidenemalononitrile, and N-(2-Furfurylidene)aniline.. Rodmar, S ren; Fors n, Sture; Gestblom, Bo; Gronowitz, Salo; Hoffman, Ragnar A. ...
Trimethadione anticonvulsant drug molecule. Used in treatment of seizures. Atoms are represented as spheres with conventional colour coding: hydrogen (white), carbon (black), oxygen (red), nitrogen (blue). - Stock Image F011/3640
Rph1 and Gis1 are two related yeast zinc finger proteins that function as downstream effectors in the Ras/PKA, TOR and Sch9 nutrient signaling pathways. Both proteins also contain JmjC histone demethylase domains, but only Rph1 is known to be an active enzyme, demethylating lysine 36 of histone H3. We have studied to what extent the demethylase activity of Rph1 contributes to its role in nutrient signaling by performing gene expression microarray experiments on a yeast strain containing a catalytically inactive allele of RPH1. We find that the enzymatic activity of Rph1 is not essential for its role in growth phase dependent gene regulation. However, the ability of Rph1 to both activate and repress transcription is partially impaired in the active site mutant, indicating that the demethylase activity may enhance its function in vivo. Consistent with this, we find that the Rph1 mutation and a deletion of the histone H3 methylase Set2 affect the same target genes in opposite directions. Genes that ...
Induction of cytochrome P-450-dependent monooxygenases with phenobarbital (PB) or other hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme inducers in the rat is associated with enhanced cocaine hepatotoxicity both in vivo and in cultured rat hepatocytes. To demonstrate whether the major PB-inducible P-450 subfamily (P-450IIB) could be involved in the metabolic activation of cocaine, rates of cocaine N-demethylation (the first step of cocaine bioactivation) and the rate of irreversible (covalent) binding of tritiated cocaine to hepatic microsomal proteins (a measure for the overall bioactivation) were determined in microsomes from saline or PB-pretreated rats. PB pretreatment augmented Vmax (6-fold), but not KM, of cocaine N-demethylation. Similarly, the rate of irreversible protein binding was 3-fold increased in microsomes from PB-pretreated rats as compared with those from saline controls. Addition of benzphetamine, a substrate of P-450IIB, markedly inhibited cocaine irreversible binding. In addition, various ...
Title:Molecular Mechanism of Aniline Induced Spleen Toxicity and Neuron Toxicity in Experimental Rat Exposure: A Review. VOLUME: 17 ISSUE: 3. Author(s):Pouran Makhdoumi, Hooshyar Hossini*, Ghulam Md Ashraf * and Mojtaba Limoee. Affiliation:Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah, King Fahd Medical Research Center, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Research Center for Environmental Determinants of Health (RCEDH), School of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah. Keywords:Aniline, oxidative stress, neurotoxicity, spleen toxicity, neurology, pharmacology.. Abstract:Aniline exposure leads to neuron and spleen toxicity specifically and makes diverse neurological effects and sarcoma that is defined by splenomegaly, ...
2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)aniline hydrochloride 89279-16-3 NMR spectrum, 2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)aniline hydrochloride H-NMR spectral analysis, 2-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)aniline hydrochloride C-NMR spectral analysis ect.
... (rINN/USAN; codenamed SKI-606, marketed under the trade name Bosulif) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor undergoing research for use in the treatment of cancer. Originally synthesized by Wyeth, it is being developed by Pfizer. Bosutinib received US FDA and EU European Medicines Agency approval on September 4, 2012 and 27 March 2013 respectively for the treatment of adult patients with Philadelphia chromosome-positive (Ph+) chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) with resistance, or intolerance to prior therapy. Adverse effects by incidence:Very common (>10% frequency): Diarrhoea (~82%) Nausea Myelosuppression Vomiting (~37%) Abdominal pain Raised ALT Raised AST Rash Arthralgia (joint pain) Fever Oedema Fatigue Cough Headache Reduced appetite Respiratory tract infection Common (1-10% frequency): Drug hypersensitivity Dehydration Hyperkalaemia (high blood potassium) Hypophosphataemia (low blood phosphate) Dizziness Dysgeusia (distorted sense of taste) Pericardial effusion Pleural effusion QT ...
The drugs cinacalcet and etelcalcetide are allosteric modifiers of the calcium-sensing receptor.[14] They are classified as a calcimimetics, binding to the calcium-sensing receptor and decreasing parathyroid hormone release. Calcilytic drugs, which block CaSR, produce increased bone density in animal studies and have been researched for the treatment of osteoporosis. Unfortunately clinical trial results in humans have proved disappointing, with sustained changes in bone density not observed despite the drug being well tolerated.[15][16] More recent research has shown the CaSR receptor to be involved in numerous other conditions including Alzheimer's disease, asthma and some forms of cancer,[17][18][19][19][20] and calcilytic drugs are being researched as potential treatments for these. Recently it has been shown that biomimetic bone like apatite inhibits formation of bone through endochondral ossification pathway via hyperstimulation of extracellular calcium sensing receptor[21]. ...
... (FMO3), also known as dimethylaniline monooxygenase [N-oxide-forming] 3 and trimethylamine monooxygenase, is a flavoprotein enzyme (EC 1.14.13.148) that in humans is encoded by the FMO3 gene. This enzyme catalyzes the following chemical reaction: N,N,N-trimethylamine + NADPH + H+ + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } N,N,N-trimethylamine N-oxide + NADP+ + H2O FMO3 is the main flavin-containing monooxygenase isoenzyme that is expressed in the liver of adult humans. The human FMO3 enzyme catalyzes several types of reactions, including: the N-oxygenation of primary, secondary, and tertiary amines; the S-oxygenation of nucleophilic sulfur-containing compounds; and the 6-methylhydroxylation of DMXAA. FMO3 is the primary enzyme in humans which catalyzes the N-oxidation of trimethylamine into trimethylamine N-oxide; FMO1 also N-oxygenates trimethylamine, but to a much lesser extent than FMO3. Genetic deficiencies of the FMO3 enzyme cause primary ...
... also known as azoreductase (EC 1.7.1.6) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction: N,N-dimethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine + aniline + NADP+ ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene + NADPH + H+ The 3 substrates of this enzyme are N,N-dimethyl-1,4-phenylenediamine, aniline, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate ion, whereas its 3 products are 4-(dimethylamino)azobenzene, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate, and hydrogen ion. This enzyme belongs to the family of oxidoreductases, specifically those acting on other nitrogenous compounds as donors with NAD+ or NADP+ as acceptor. The reaction catalyzed by this enzyme proceeds via a ping-pong mechanism by using 2 equivalents of NAD(P)H to reduce one equivalent of the azo compound substrate (for example methyl red where Ar = p-dimethylaniline and Ar' = o-benzoic acid) into two equivalents of aniline product: Ar-N=N-Ar' + 2(NAD(P)H + H+) ⇌ ...
In the late 19th century, derivatives of aniline such as acetanilide and phenacetin emerged as analgesic drugs, with their cardiac-suppressive side effects often countered with caffeine.[26] During the first decade of the 20th century, while trying to modify synthetic dyes to treat African sleeping sickness, Paul Ehrlich - who had coined the term chemotherapy for his magic bullet approach to medicine - failed and switched to modifying Béchamp's atoxyl, the first organic arsenical drug, and serendipitously obtained a treatment for syphilis - salvarsan - the first successful chemotherapy agent. Salvarsan's targeted microorganism, not yet recognized as a bacterium, was still thought to be a parasite, and medical bacteriologists, believing that bacteria were not susceptible to the chemotherapeutic approach, overlooked Alexander Fleming's report in 1928 on the effects of penicillin.[27]. In 1932, Bayer sought medical applications of its dyes. Gerhard Domagk identified as an antibacterial a red ...
The Pittsburgh drug trials of 1985 were the catalyst for a Major League Baseball-related cocaine scandal. Several concurrent and former members of the Pittsburgh Pirates - Dale Berra, Lee Lacy, Lee Mazzilli, John Milner, Dave Parker, and Rod Scurry - and other notable major league players - Willie Aikens, Vida Blue, Enos Cabell, Keith Hernandez, Jeffrey Leonard, Tim Raines, and Lonnie Smith - were called before a Pittsburgh grand jury. Their testimony led to the drug trials, which made national headlines in September 1985. Eleven players were officially suspended, but all the suspensions were commuted in exchange for fines, drug testing, and community service. The Pittsburgh drug trials are considered one of baseball's biggest all-time scandals, albeit one that was "behind the scenes" and did not affect play on the field. The players were granted immunity in exchange for their testimony. Ex-Pirate John Milner talked about getting amphetamines from Hall of Famers Willie Mays and Willie Stargell. ...
Several jurisdictions have implemented analogue law controls of fentanyl analogues in an attempt to pre-emptively ban novel derivatives before they appear on the market. One representative example is the New Zealand provisions enacted in 1988 in response to the first wave of fentanyl derivatives. This bans a set of structures as follows; "Fentanyl analogues, in which the N-[1-(2-phenethyl)-4-piperidyl]aniline nucleus has additional radicals, either alone or in combination, attached as follows: (a) an acetyl, propionyl, butenoyl or butanoyl radical, attached to the aniline nitrogen atom: (b) 1 or more alkyl radicals, with up to 10 carbon atoms in total, attached to the ethyl moiety: (c) any combination of up to 5 alkyl radicals and/or alkoxy radicals (each with up to 6 carbon atoms, including cyclic radicals) and/or halogen radicals, attached to each of the benzene rings."[12]. A more recent and somewhat broader example was introduced into US Federal legislation in 2018, ...
... è un album live dei The Doors registrato alla Pittsburgh Civic Arena il 2 maggio 1970, costituito dalle canzoni eseguite durante l'intero concerto. L'unica variante dell'album è costituita da Someday Soon eseguita molto raramente dai Doors all'epoca durante i concerti (la canzone è presente solo in un altro concerto) quello di Seattle del 5 giugno 1970 presente nella raccolta The Doors Box Set del 1997 e in Essential Rarities e da una particolare versione medley di When the Music's Over che comprende versi presi da Break on Through (To the Other Side), da Push Push e da The Soft Parade. L'album è stato accolto con molto entusiasmo dai fan della band. ...
The human gene VKORC1 encodes for the enzyme, Vitamin K epOxide Reductase Complex (VKORC) subunit 1. This enzymatic protein complex is responsible for reducing vitamin K 2,3-epoxide to its active form, which is important for effective clotting. In humans, mutations in this gene can be associated with deficiencies in vitamin-K-dependent clotting factors. The VKORC1 protein is a key enzyme in the vitamin K cycle. VKORC1 is a 163 amino acid integral membrane protein associated with the endoplasmic reticulum and VKORC1 mRNA is broadly expressed in many different tissues. VKORC1 is involved in the vitamin K cycle by reduction of vitamin K epoxide to vitamin K, which is the rate-limiting step in the physiological process of vitamin K recycling. The availability of reduced vitamin K is of importance for activation vitamin K 2,3-epoxide. The reduction of vitamin K epoxide is then responsible for the carboxylation of glutamic acid residues in some blood-clotting proteins, including factor VII, factor IX, ...
Genetic polymorphism (mainly CYP2C19*2, CYP2C19*3 and CYP2C19*17) exists for CYP2C19 expression, with approximately 3-5% of European and 15-20% of Asian populations being poor metabolizers with no CYP2C19 function.[12][13] This may reduce the efficacy of clopidogrel (Plavix). The basis for this reduced effect of clopidogrel in patients who have a gene of reduced activity may seem somewhat paradoxical, but can be understood as follows. Clopidogrel is administered as a "prodrug;" that is, a drug that is inactive when taken, and then depends on the action of an enzyme in the body in order to be activated. In patients who have a gene of reduced activity, clopidogrel may not be metabolized to its active form and therefore not achieve pharmacological effect in the body. In patients with an abnormal CYP2C19 variant certain benzodiazepines should be avoided, such as diazepam (Valium), lorazepam (Ativan), oxazepam (Serax), and temazepam (Restoril).[14] On the basis of their ability to metabolize ...
Cytochrome P450 2A6 (abbreviated CYP2A6) is a member of the cytochrome P450 mixed-function oxidase system, which is involved in the metabolism of xenobiotics in the body. CYP2A6 is the primary enzyme responsible for the oxidation of nicotine and cotinine. It is also involved in the metabolism of several pharmaceuticals, carcinogens, and a number of coumarin-type alkaloids. CYP2A6 is the only enzyme in the human body that appreciably catalyzes the 7-hydroxylation of coumarin, such that the formation of the product of this reaction, 7-hydroxycoumarin, is used as a probe for CYP2A6 activity. The CYP2A6 gene is part of a large cluster of cytochrome P450 genes from the CYP2A, CYP2B and CYP2F subfamilies on chromosome 19q. The gene was formerly referred to as CYP2A3; however, it has been renamed CYP2A6. Click on genes, proteins and metabolites below to link to respective articles. [[File: [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] [[ ]] ...
... s, also termed cytochrome P450 ω-hydroxylases, CYP450 omega hydroxylases, CYP450 ω-hydroxylases, CYP omega hydroxylase, CYP ω-hydroxylases, fatty acid omega hydroxylases, cytochrome P450 monooxygenases, and fatty acid monooxygenases, are a set of cytochrome P450-containing enzymes that catalyze the addition of a hydroxyl residue to a fatty acid Substrate (chemistry). The CYP omega hydroxylases are often referred to as monoxygenases; however, the monooxygenases are CYP450 enzymes that add a hydroxyl group to a wide range of xenobiotic (e.g. drugs, industrial toxins) and naturally occurring endobiotic (e.g. cholesterol) substrates, most of which are not fatty acids. The CYP450 omega hydroxylases are accordingly better viewed as a subset of monooxygenases that have the ability to hydroxylate fatty acids. While once regarded as functioning mainly in the catabolism of dietary ...
Katapodis, A.G., Ping, D. and May, S.W. (1990). „A novel enzyme from bovine neurointermediate pituitary catalyzes dealkylation of α-hydroxyglycine derivatives, thereby functioning sequentially with peptidylglycine α-amidating monooxygenase in peptide amidation". Biochemistry. 29: 6115-6120. PMID 2207061 ...
  • Collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase α subunit 2 (P4HA2), an enzyme hydroxylating proline residues in -X-Pro-Gly- sequences, is a potential therapeutic target for the disorders associated with increased collagen deposition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Expression of P4HA2 was silenced by shRNAs, and its activity was inhibited by 1, 4-DPCA, a prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitor. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Collagen biosynthesis is a multistep process that involves several post-transcription modification enzymes, and one of the most important members of these enzymes is collagen prolyl-4-hydroxylase [ 16 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Prolyl 4-Hydroxylase: Substrate Isosteres in Which an (E)- or (Z)-Alkene Replaces the Prolyl Peptide Bond. (harvard.edu)
  • As for endogenous substances, our results indicated that human CYP1A2, but not dog CYP1A2, is responsible for melatonin 6-hydroxylase, 9- cis -retinal oxidase, and estradiol 2-hydroxylase activity. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Because 4-hydroxyproline residues formed in this reaction are essential for triple helix formation and stabilization of collagen [ 22 - 24 ], inhibiting the prolyl-4-hydroxylases activity efficiently blocks collagen synthesis and deposition. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We report that a non-haem iron hydroxylase catalyst [Fe(PDP)] can also be diverted to catalytic, mixed hydroxylase/desaturase activity with aliphatic C-H bonds. (nature.com)
  • Effect of divalent metal ions on the microsomal generic viagra without subscription aniline hydroxylase system of rainbow trout. (cialisrrq.com)