AnguillaAir Sacs: Thin-walled sacs or spaces which function as a part of the respiratory system in birds, fishes, insects, and mammals.Eels: Common name for an order (Anguilliformes) of voracious, elongate, snakelike teleost fishes.Dracunculoidea: A superfamily of nematodes of the suborder CAMALLANINA. Its organisms possess a poorly developed buccal cavity and a rudimentary esophagus and intestine.Spirurida Infections: Infections with nematodes of the order SPIRURIDA.Gills: Paired respiratory organs of fishes and some amphibians that are analogous to lungs. They are richly supplied with blood vessels by which oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged directly with the environment.Fish Diseases: Diseases of freshwater, marine, hatchery or aquarium fish. This term includes diseases of both teleosts (true fish) and elasmobranchs (sharks, rays and skates).Secernentea: A subclass of nematodes characterized by numerous caudal papillae and an excretory system possessing lateral canals.Secernentea Infections: Infections with nematodes of the subclass SECERNENTEA.Aquaculture: Cultivation of natural faunal resources of water. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Travel: Aspects of health and disease related to travel.Travel Medicine: Multidisciplinary field focusing on prevention of infectious diseases and patient safety during international TRAVEL. Key element of patient's pre-travel visit to the physician is a health risk assessment.Fisheries: Places for cultivation and harvesting of fish, particularly in sea waters. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Forestry: The science of developing, caring for, or cultivating forests.Endangered Species: An animal or plant species in danger of extinction. Causes can include human activity, changing climate, or change in predator/prey ratios.Golf: A game whose object is to sink a ball into each of 9 or 18 successive holes on a golf course using as few strokes as possible.Designer Drugs: Drugs designed and synthesized, often for illegal street use, by modification of existing drug structures (e.g., amphetamines). Of special interest are MPTP (a reverse ester of meperidine), MDA (3,4-methylenedioxyamphetamine), and MDMA (3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine). Many drugs act on the aminergic system, the physiologically active biogenic amines.Paratyphoid Fever: A prolonged febrile illness commonly caused by several Paratyphi serotypes of SALMONELLA ENTERICA. It is similar to TYPHOID FEVER but less severe.Typhoid Fever: An acute systemic febrile infection caused by SALMONELLA TYPHI, a serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA.Salmonella paratyphi A: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA that causes mild PARATYPHOID FEVER in humans.Salmonella typhi: A serotype of SALMONELLA ENTERICA which is the etiologic agent of TYPHOID FEVER.Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage: Bleeding in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Typhoid-Paratyphoid Vaccines: Vaccines used to prevent TYPHOID FEVER and/or PARATYPHOID FEVER which are caused by various species of SALMONELLA. Attenuated, subunit, and inactivated forms of the vaccines exist.Goats: Any of numerous agile, hollow-horned RUMINANTS of the genus Capra, in the family Bovidae, closely related to the SHEEP.Seafood: Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.Goat Diseases: Diseases of the domestic or wild goat of the genus Capra.Antigua and Barbuda: Islands in the Lesser Antilles, within the Leeward Islands. ANTIGUA, BARBUDA, and Redonda, an uninhabited island, constitute the independent state of ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA. The capital is St. Johns.Saint Kitts and Nevis: An independent federation of the Leeward Islands in the West Indies, consisting of Saint Christopher, Nevis, and Sombrero. Its capital is Basseterre. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493, settled by the British in 1625, the first of the Leeward Islands to be colonized by them. It was held jointly by the French and English 1628-1713, but returned to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. It was held by the French 1782-83. Under the British for the next 200 years, it gained its independence in 1983. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1045; Embassy, telephone 202-686-2636)Barbados: An island in the Lesser Antilles in the West Indies. It is chiefly of coral formation with no good harbors and only small streams. It was probably discovered by the Portuguese in the sixteenth century. The name was given by 16th-century Spanish explorers from barbados, the plural for "bearded", with reference to the beard-like leaves or trails of moss on the trees that grew there in abundance. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p116 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p49)Indians, South American: Individual members of South American ethnic groups with historic ancestral origins in Asia.RestaurantsLatin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Longevity: The normal length of time of an organism's life.Gene Expression Profiling: The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.Hydrozoa: A class in the phylum CNIDARIA which alternates between polyp and medusa forms during their life cycle. There are over 2700 species in five orders.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Hermaphroditic Organisms: Animals and plants which have, as their normal mode of reproduction, both male and female sex organs in the same individual.Penis: The external reproductive organ of males. It is composed of a mass of erectile tissue enclosed in three cylindrical fibrous compartments. Two of the three compartments, the corpus cavernosa, are placed side-by-side along the upper part of the organ. The third compartment below, the corpus spongiosum, houses the urethra.Turbellaria: A class of free-living freshwater flatworms of North America.Gastropoda: A class in the phylum MOLLUSCA comprised of SNAILS and slugs. The former have coiled external shells and the latter usually lack shells.Edwardsiella tarda: A species of EDWARDSIELLA distinguished by its hydrogen sulfide production. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Edwardsiella ictaluri: A species of EDWARDSIELLA distinguished by its nonmotility. (From Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology, 9th ed)Enterobacteriaceae Infections: Infections with bacteria of the family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE.Octopodiformes: A superorder in the class CEPHALOPODA, consisting of the orders Octopoda (octopus) with over 200 species and Vampyromorpha with a single species. The latter is a phylogenetic relic but holds the key to the origins of Octopoda.Brachyura: An infraorder of chiefly marine, largely carnivorous CRUSTACEA, in the order DECAPODA, including the genera Cancer, Uca, and Callinectes.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Journal Impact Factor: A quantitative measure of the frequency on average with which articles in a journal have been cited in a given period of time.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Multiple Sclerosis: An autoimmune disorder mainly affecting young adults and characterized by destruction of myelin in the central nervous system. Pathologic findings include multiple sharply demarcated areas of demyelination throughout the white matter of the central nervous system. Clinical manifestations include visual loss, extra-ocular movement disorders, paresthesias, loss of sensation, weakness, dysarthria, spasticity, ataxia, and bladder dysfunction. The usual pattern is one of recurrent attacks followed by partial recovery (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, RELAPSING-REMITTING), but acute fulminating and chronic progressive forms (see MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, CHRONIC PROGRESSIVE) also occur. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p903)Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.

Natural mass infection by heterophyid metacercariae in aquacultured Japanese eel in Taiwan. (1/191)

A natural mass infection of heterophyid metacercariae in aquacultured Japanese eel Anguilla japonica in Taiwan was observed. Of the 28,000 adult eels in 2 ponds, about 25,000 (90%) showed swollen, cloudy and white eyes. Although morbidity was about 90%, there was no mortality among the affected eels. Histopathological sections showed edema and hemorrhage of the eye. Numerous metacercariae were observed in the muscle tissues around the eyeball, the subcutaneous tissue and even in the cartilage. Of the 6 eels digested with artificial gastric juice, all were found to contain metacercariae in their muscle tissues. The average number of metacercariae recovered from the 6 eels was 1219, with a range of 50 to 3762. These metacercariae, when fed orally to immunodeficient (scid) mice, developed into adult worms which were identified as Procerovum cheni Hsu 1950. The naturally infected eels were transferred to a new pond without snails and their eye lesions were not apparent anymore after 2 wk. In a follow-up investigation, 19 of 20 apparently healthy eels in a nearby aquaculture farm were found to harbour metacercariae in their muscles. However, the number of the metacercariae ranged from 1 to 14, with an average of 4.21. This is the first report of heterophyid metacercariae causing mass morbidity in aquacultured eels.  (+info)

Differentiation of Helicobacter pylori isolates based on lectin binding of cell extracts in an agglutination assay. (2/191)

Plant and animal lectins with various carbohydrate specificities were used to type 35 Irish clinical isolates of Helicobacter pylori and the type strain NCTC 11637 in a microtiter plate assay. Initially, a panel of eight lectins with the indicated primary specificities were used: Anguilla anguilla (AAA), Lotus tetragonolobus (Lotus A), and Ulex europaeus I (UEA I), specific for alpha-L-fucose; Solanum tuberosum (STA) and Triticum vulgaris (WGA), specific for beta-N-acetylglucosamine; Glycine max (SBA), specific for beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; Erythrina cristagali (ECA), specific for beta-galactose and beta-N-acetylgalactosamine; and Lens culinaris (LCA), specific for alpha-mannose and alpha-glucose. Three of the lectins (SBA, STA, and LCA) were not useful in aiding in strain discrimination. An optimized panel of five lectins (AAA, ECA, Lotus A, UEA I, and WGA) grouped all 36 strains tested into eight lectin reaction patterns. For optimal typing, pretreatment by washing bacteria with a low-pH buffer to allow protein release, followed by proteolytic degradation to eliminate autoagglutination, was used. Lectin types of treated samples were stable and reproducible. No strain proved to be untypeable by this system. Electrophoretic and immunoblotting analyses of lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) indicated that the lectins interact primarily, but not solely, with the O side chain of H. pylori LPS.  (+info)

Pharmacokinetic and depletion studies of sarafloxacin after oral administration to eel (Anguilla anguilla). (3/191)

The pharmacokinetics of sarafloxacin applied by oral gavage at a dose of 15 mg/kg b.w. was studied in eel (Anguilla anguilla) at water temperature of 24 degrees C. Sarafloxacin levels were determined using high performance liquid chromatography with a quantitation limit of 0.07 microg/ml or gram. The time to peak plasma concentration, Tmax, was 12 hr and peak concentration, Cmax, was 2.64 microg/ml. The absorption rate constant (k(a)) was 0.23 hr(-1) (r=0.996). The drug disposition curve after Tmax was fitted to a two-compartment open model. The distribution rate constant (alpha) was 0.085 hr(-1) (r=0.972), and the half-life (t(1,2alpha)) was 8.15 hr. The elimination rate constant (beta) was 0.023 hr(-1) (r=0.909), and the half-life (t(1/2beta)) was 30.13 hr. The estimated area under the curve, AUC, was 56.7 The peak concentrations of drug in liver, kidney, muscle, and skin were 13.39 (12 hr), 5.53 (12 hr), 1.82 (24 hr), and 0.78 microg/g (40 hr), respectively. The time for sarafloxacin mean levels to fall below detectable limits in the plasma, muscle, and skin were 7 days but for the liver and kidney were 14 days.  (+info)

Gill lamellar pillar cell necrosis, a new birnavirus disease in Japanese eels. (4/191)

Since the late 1980s, a birnaviral gill disease has been occurring in Japanese eels Anguilla japonica reared in warmwater ponds in western regions in Japan. Diseased eels mostly displayed marked formations of aneurysmal hematomas within gill lamellae and high mortalities. Histological examination revealed necrosis of pillar cells and subsequent aggregation of erythrocytes inside the lamellar capillaries, and proliferation of interlamellar epithelia onto the lamellae. Gastric gland cells were also necrotized. Electron microscopy revealed birnavirus infection in lamellar pillar cells. The causative birnavirus was isolated and cultured in fish cell lines and was found to be related to an infectious pancreatic necrosis virus (IPNV) Sp serotype by neutralization tests. The viral pathogenicity was confirmed by the results of histopathological examinations and infectivity experiments.  (+info)

Chloride cell subtypes in the gill epithelium of Japanese eel Anguilla japonica. (5/191)

The purpose of the present study was to characterize chloride cell subtypes in the fish gill and to monitor the kinetic change of cell division in the gill epithelia during seawater adaptation. Employing a three-step Percoll gradient method, the gill chloride cells and nonchloride cell population were isolated. The isolated cells were studied using multiparameter flow cytometry, recording the changes in 1) cell size, 2) cellular granularity, and 3) cell autofluorescence. Two chloride cell subtypes were identified in the freshwater eels. Within 2-4 days after entering seawater, new subtypes of transitory chloride cell, with bigger cell size and more intense mitochondria autofluorescence, appeared. After full adaptation, two major seawater chloride cell subtypes were again discerned; their sizes were the largest and their mitochondria autofluorescence was the highest. In the second part of the experiment, cell cycle analysis demonstrated a progressive increase in the percentage of gill cells entering the DNA synthesis phase during seawater adaptation, where a small population of mitotic cells was identified in the nonchloride cell population but not in chloride cells. We hypothesize that the mitotic cells identified are stem cells, which will ultimately differentiate into seawater chloride cells. Our results confirm the existence of heterogeneity of chloride cells. Individual subtypes could be isolated in high purity for further studies to elucidate their respective function in mediating ion transport.  (+info)

cDNA cloning of a novel androgen receptor subtype. (6/191)

There has been general acceptance that only one type of androgen receptor (AR) exists in an individual. This contrasts with other members of the nuclear receptor superfamily where multiple forms have been reported (e.g. estrogen receptor alpha/beta, thyroid hormone receptor alpha/beta, etc.). We have previously identified 11-ketotestosterone (a potent androgen in teleosts) as the spermatogenesis-inducing hormone of the Japanese eel and have cloned its receptor (eAR1) cDNA from eel testis. Here we report on the cloning of a cDNA encoding a second type of AR (eAR2) from the eel testis and the functional characterization of the encoded protein. This cDNA contains a complete open reading frame encoding 797 amino acid residues. The amino acid sequence of eAR2 shows high homology with other ARs, including eAR1, in the DNA-binding (98-88%) and ligand-binding (59-85%) domains, whereas the other domains show low homology (<35%). In transient transfection assays of mammalian cells, the eAR2 protein displayed androgen-dependent activation of transcription from the androgen-responsive murine mammary tumor virus promoter. Tissue distribution of its mRNA was different from that of eAR1. We conclude that eAR2 is a novel AR in the eel, which we suggest should be named eel ARbeta to distinguish it from eAR1 (eARalpha).  (+info)

Recombinant human insulin-like growth factor I stimulates all stages of 11-ketotestosterone-induced spermatogenesis in the Japanese eel, Anguilla japonica, in vitro. (7/191)

In this study, we examined the in vitro effects of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) in the presence or absence of 11-ketotestosterone (11-KT: the spermatogenesis-inducing hormone) on the proliferation of Japanese eel (Anguilla japonica) testicular germ cells. Initially, a short-term culture (15 days) of testicular tissue with only type A and early type B spermatogonia (preproliferated spermatogonia) was carried out in Leibovitz-15 growth medium supplemented with different concentrations of recombinant human IGF (rhIGF)-I or -II in the presence or absence of 10 ng/ml of 11-KT. Late type B spermatogonia (proliferated spermatogonia) were observed in treatments of 100 ng/ml of both rhIGF-I and -II in combination with 11-KT, indicating the onset and progression of spermatogenesis. In all tested rhIGF-I concentrations (except 0.1 ng/ml) supplemented with 11-KT, late type B spermatogonia were detected in at least one individual. Then, we proceeded with an in vitro 45-day culture of testicular tissue with 100 ng/ml of rhIGF-I in the presence or absence of 10 ng/ml of 11-KT to test the long-term effects of rhIGF-I on the spermatogenetic cycle. The presence of all types of germ cells, including spermatozoa, in the testis cultured with the admixture of the two hormones indicated that the germ cells underwent complete spermatogenesis whereas no germ cell proliferation was observed when the rhIGF-I was applied alone. These results suggest that IGF-I in the presence of 11-KT plays an essential role in the onset, progress, and regulation of spermatogenesis in the testis of the Japanese eel.  (+info)

Contents of several inorganic substances in European eel infected and uninfected by Anguillicola crassus (Nematoda). (8/191)

The content of 5 macroelements and 5 microelements were analyzed using the atomic absorption method in muscle samples of European eels infected and uninfected by Anguillicola crasus. The mean contents of these substances in infected eels were statistically highly significantly lower in Ca, P, Fe, Mn, but only statistically significantly lower in Na, Mg, Zn and Cu as compared to uninfected fishes. These differences are discussed in relation to hematophagus feeding and pathogenity of the parasite.  (+info)

  • In the present study, we investigated the effects of salinity on the gene expressions as well as enzymatic activities of MnSOD and Cu/ZnSOD in gill, intestine, kidney, liver and muscle tissues of the marbled eel Anguilla marmorata . (
  • Further evaluations of Mocness-hauls (multiple opening/closing net) in 1979 and of a 1 day haul in 1981 reveal that small 0-group Anguilla larvae, 5.0 mm body length and longer, perform a more distinct diel vertical migration with increasing size. (
  • Nemacheilus anguilla is a species of ray-finned fish in the genus Nemacheilus which is endemic to the Western Ghats in southern India. (
  • The nineteen species and six subspecies in this family are all in the genus Anguilla . (
  • and implications for the evolution of oceanic migration in the genus Anguilla . (
  • No genome sequencing have been conducted for any anguillid species so far and all the species within the genus Anguilla are still poorly characterized at the molecular level. (
  • To examine the environmental factors controlling the inshore recruitment dynamics of Anguilla japonica in the Oyodo River, Miyazaki Prefecture, Kyushu, glass eel samplings were carried out using fyke nets during winter (November-March) of 1994-2014. (
  • Edeline E, Lambert P, Rigaud C, Elie P (2006) Effects of body condition and water temperature on Anguilla anguilla glass eel migratory behavior. (
  • in 1980, Anguilla was finally allowed to secede from Saint Kitts and Nevis and become a separate British Crown colony (now a British overseas territory). (
  • this arrangement was formally recognized in 1980, with Anguilla becoming a separate British dependency. (
  • Anguilla became a separate British dependency (now termed a British overseas territory ) in 1980. (
  • After several years of negotiations Anguilla became a separate British Dependent territory on the 19th December 1980. (
  • The Anguilla Revolution of l967 had several leaders but it was Ronald Webster's determination and guts coupled with the resolve of the Anguillian people, which saw the struggle through to a successful conclusion with Anguilla's achievement of formal and legal separation from the State of St. Kitt~Nevis-Anguilla on l9 th December 1980. (
  • This investigation was conducted to determine apparent digestibility coefficients of available plant and animal meals for the juvenile Australian short-finned eel (Anguilla australis australis Richardson). (
  • THE VALLEY, ANGUILLA --(Marketwired - November 07, 2016) - As the US Presidential election finally comes to a close, we have a sure-fire therapy for anxious voters seeking a much needed respite from the stress of the past 18 months -- Anguilla is the antidote! (
  • The house is about a five-minute drive to the white-sand beach at Shoal Bay East and is within walking of Island Harbour, a "picturesque fishing village" known for "beach bars and more elegant restaurants," as well as an ice-cream shop that rents kayaks, said Scott Hauser, the owner of Anguilla Properties Sotheby's International Realty, which has the listing. (
  • Anguilla has rebuilt considerably since Hurricane Irma hit in September 2017. (
  • Anguilla, a British overseas territory with 15,000 residents, "has rebounded very nicely" since Hurricane Irma made landfall last year, but some infrastructure problems remain, Mr. Hauser said. (
  • When Hurricane Irma shattered islands across the Caribbean, one of the hardest hit was Anguilla, where residents in need of food, water, fuel and electricity received the first major delivery of aid from Britain six days after the storm hit. (
  • Anguilla (pronounced /æŋˈɡwɪlə/ ang- GWIL -ə ) is a British overseas territory in the Caribbean , one of the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles . (
  • The Caribbean British Overseas Territory of Anguilla is one of the most northerly of the Leeward Islands in the Lesser Antilles, The territory includes the main island of Anguilla and several smaller islands and cays that do not have permanent populations. (
  • This Mediterranean-style house , known as Villa Amarilla, was built by its owners in 2008 on a rocky foreshore of the 35-square-mile Caribbean island of Anguilla. (
  • Hailing from the tiny Caribbean island of Anguilla, Proctor, 26, grew up with access to only a single sand box attached to a wonky piece of rubber that signified a run-up. (
  • The Scout Association of Anguilla operates as a branch of the United Kingdom Scout Association, due to Anguilla's status as a British Overseas Territory of the United Kingdom. (
  • The entire island is gearing up for Anguilla 50 - a celebration of the 50th anniversary of Anguilla's secession from the Federation of St. Kitts & Nevis -- a bloodless revolution -- when the island decided to chart its own path to prosperity as a British Overseas Territory. (
  • Its large rooms display many artifacts that illustrate the history of Anguilla. (
  • citation needed] Girlguiding Anguilla (formerly Anguilla Girl Guide Association) is a Guiding organization in Anguilla, founded in 1933. (
  • Explore the underwater world of the Anguilla waters with Scuba Shack, the island's only PADI Dive Resort. (
  • Dusk falls over the biggest private employer in Anguilla, the Four Seasons resort. (
  • Anguilla welcomed a new luxury hotel brand to the island, with the October 20 debut of The Four Seasons Resort & Residences Anguilla . (
  • The earliest Amerindian artifacts found on Anguilla have been dated to around 1300 BC, and remains of settlements date from 600 AD. (
  • Further evaluations of Mocness-hauls (multiple opening/closing net) in 1979 and of a 1 day haul in 1981 reveal that small 0-group Anguilla larvae, 5.0 mm body length and longer, perform a more distinct diel vertical migration with increasing size. (
  • Anguilla is famed for the finest food in the Caribbean, and with the best flight connections just happening to go via Paris, it seemed a shame. (
  • Anguilla is famed for the finest food in the Caribbean, and with the best flight connections just happening to go via Paris, it seemed a shame not to combine these two delectable destinations into one culinary cracker of an itinerary. (
  • The name Anguilla is an anglicised or latinate form of earlier Spanish anguila meaning "eel" in reference to the island's shape. (
  • In 2006 they moved to Anguilla, and last year they opened Veya , the island's current buzzed-about restaurant, which serves inventive dishes (they've coined it "cuisine of the sun") like vanilla-cured duck breast with guavaberry sauce and grilled crayfish with ginger beurre blanc. (
  • anguilla ), probably chosen because of the island's eel-like shape. (
  • The territory consists of the main island of Anguilla, approximately 16 miles (26 km) long by 3 miles (4.8 km) wide at its widest point, together with a number of much smaller islands and cays with no permanent population. (
  • As of July 31, however, visitors from regions with active cases of less than 0.2% of their population can travel to Anguilla, though they must follow protocols and quarantine rules. (
  • In this early colonial period, however, Anguilla sometimes served as a place of refuge and recent scholarship focused on Anguilla has placed greater significance on other Europeans and creoles migrating from St. Christopher, Barbados, Nevis and Antigua. (
  • Body size in Amblyrhiza inundata (Rodentia, Caviomorpha), an extinct megafaunal rodent from the Anguilla Bank, West Indies : estimates and implications. (