Angiotensinogen: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin I: A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.Angiotensins: Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Angiotensin III: A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.TetrazolesHypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Saralasin: An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.1-Sarcosine-8-Isoleucine Angiotensin II: An ANGIOTENSIN II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Biphenyl CompoundsVasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Mestranol: The 3-methyl ether of ETHINYL ESTRADIOL. It must be demethylated to be biologically active. It is used as the estrogen component of many combination ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Polymorphism, Genetic: The regular and simultaneous occurrence in a single interbreeding population of two or more discontinuous genotypes. The concept includes differences in genotypes ranging in size from a single nucleotide site (POLYMORPHISM, SINGLE NUCLEOTIDE) to large nucleotide sequences visible at a chromosomal level.Subfornical Organ: A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.Kidney Tubules, Proximal: The renal tubule portion that extends from the BOWMAN CAPSULE in the KIDNEY CORTEX into the KIDNEY MEDULLA. The proximal tubule consists of a convoluted proximal segment in the cortex, and a distal straight segment descending into the medulla where it forms the U-shaped LOOP OF HENLE.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Lisinopril: One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Nephrectomy: Excision of kidney.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Rats, Transgenic: Laboratory rats that have been produced from a genetically manipulated rat EGG or rat EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN. They contain genes from another species.Genotype: The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.Methyltestosterone: A synthetic hormone used for androgen replacement therapy and as an hormonal antineoplastic agent (ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS, HORMONAL).Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Angiotensin Amide: The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.Chymases: A family of neutral serine proteases with CHYMOTRYPSIN-like activity. Chymases are primarily found in the SECRETORY GRANULES of MAST CELLS and are released during mast cell degranulation.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Hydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Drinking: The consumption of liquids.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Aldosterone Synthase: A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 18-hydroxylation of steroids in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-specific flavoprotein. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11B2 gene, is important in the conversion of CORTICOSTERONE to 18-hydroxycorticosterone and the subsequent conversion to ALDOSTERONE.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Eosinophil Major Basic Protein: One of several basic proteins released from EOSINOPHIL cytoplasmic granules. Eosinophil major basic protein is a 14-kDa cytotoxic peptide with a pI of 10.9. In addition to its direct cytotoxic effects, it stimulates the release of variety of INFLAMMATION MEDIATORS.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Teprotide: A synthetic nonapeptide (Pyr-Trp-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gln-Ile-Pro-Pro) which is identical to the peptide from the venom of the snake, Bothrops jararaca. It inhibits kininase II and ANGIOTENSIN I and has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.Enalaprilat: The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Adrenal Glands: A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Glomerulonephritis, IGA: A chronic form of glomerulonephritis characterized by deposits of predominantly IMMUNOGLOBULIN A in the mesangial area (GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM). Deposits of COMPLEMENT C3 and IMMUNOGLOBULIN G are also often found. Clinical features may progress from asymptomatic HEMATURIA to END-STAGE KIDNEY DISEASE.Kidney Cortex: The outer zone of the KIDNEY, beneath the capsule, consisting of KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL; and KIDNEY TUBULES, PROXIMAL.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Mice, Inbred C57BLGene Frequency: The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Radioimmunoassay: Classic quantitative assay for detection of antigen-antibody reactions using a radioactively labeled substance (radioligand) either directly or indirectly to measure the binding of the unlabeled substance to a specific antibody or other receptor system. Non-immunogenic substances (e.g., haptens) can be measured if coupled to larger carrier proteins (e.g., bovine gamma-globulin or human serum albumin) capable of inducing antibody formation.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Dihydralazine: 1,4-Dihydrazinophthalazine. An antihypertensive agent with actions and uses similar to those of HYDRALAZINE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p354)Telemetry: Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Dexamethasone: An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Kidney Glomerulus: A cluster of convoluted capillaries beginning at each nephric tubule in the kidney and held together by connective tissue.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Water Deprivation: The withholding of water in a structured experimental situation.Mesangial Cells: Smooth muscle-like cells adhering to the wall of the small blood vessels of the KIDNEY at the glomerulus and along the vascular pole of the glomerulus in the JUXTAGLOMERULAR APPARATUS. They are myofibroblasts with contractile and phagocytic properties. These cells and their MESANGIAL EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX constitute the GLOMERULAR MESANGIUM.Perindopril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is used in patients with hypertension and heart failure.Promoter Regions, Genetic: DNA sequences which are recognized (directly or indirectly) and bound by a DNA-dependent RNA polymerase during the initiation of transcription. Highly conserved sequences within the promoter include the Pribnow box in bacteria and the TATA BOX in eukaryotes.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Hypertension, Malignant: A condition of markedly elevated BLOOD PRESSURE with DIASTOLIC PRESSURE usually greater than 120 mm Hg. Malignant hypertension is characterized by widespread vascular damage, PAPILLEDEMA, retinopathy, HYPERTENSIVE ENCEPHALOPATHY, and renal dysfunction.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Low Density Lipoprotein Receptor-Related Protein-2: An LDL-RECEPTOR RELATED PROTEIN found in the neuroepithelium and in proximal tubular cells of the kidney. It is considered a multiligand receptor in that it binds to a variety of ligands with relatively high affinity and may function in mediating the uptake and lysosomal degradation of macromolecules such as: LIPOPROTEINS; ENDOPEPTIDASES; and PROTEASE INHIBITORS.American Native Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continents of the Americas.Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Rats, Zucker: Two populations of Zucker rats have been cited in research--the "fatty" or obese and the lean. The "fatty" rat (Rattus norvegicus) appeared as a spontaneous mutant. The obese condition appears to be due to a single recessive gene.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Injections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Blotting, Western: Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.Activity Cycles: Bouts of physical irritability or movement alternating with periods of quiescence. It includes biochemical activity and hormonal activity which may be cellular. These cycles are shorter than 24 hours and include sleep-wakefulness cycles and the periodic activation of the digestive system.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Mesylates: Organic salts or esters of methanesulfonic acid.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction: A variation of the PCR technique in which cDNA is made from RNA via reverse transcription. The resultant cDNA is then amplified using standard PCR protocols.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Blood Vessels: Any of the tubular vessels conveying the blood (arteries, arterioles, capillaries, venules, and veins).Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).NADPH Oxidase: A flavoprotein enzyme that catalyzes the univalent reduction of OXYGEN using NADPH as an electron donor to create SUPEROXIDE ANION. The enzyme is dependent on a variety of CYTOCHROMES. Defects in the production of superoxide ions by enzymes such as NADPH oxidase result in GRANULOMATOUS DISEASE, CHRONIC.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Rats, Inbred Dahl: Inbred rats derived from Sprague-Dawley rats and used for the study of salt-dependent hypertension. Salt-sensitive and salt-resistant strains have been selectively bred to show the opposite genetically determined blood pressure responses to excess sodium chloride ingestion.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Haplotypes: The genetic constitution of individuals with respect to one member of a pair of allelic genes, or sets of genes that are closely linked and tend to be inherited together such as those of the MAJOR HISTOCOMPATIBILITY COMPLEX.Reactive Oxygen Species: Molecules or ions formed by the incomplete one-electron reduction of oxygen. These reactive oxygen intermediates include SINGLET OXYGEN; SUPEROXIDES; PEROXIDES; HYDROXYL RADICAL; and HYPOCHLOROUS ACID. They contribute to the microbicidal activity of PHAGOCYTES, regulation of signal transduction and gene expression, and the oxidative damage to NUCLEIC ACIDS; PROTEINS; and LIPIDS.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Organ Size: The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.Opossums: New World marsupials of the family Didelphidae. Opossums are omnivorous, largely nocturnal and arboreal MAMMALS, grow to about three feet in length, including the scaly prehensile tail, and have an abdominal pouch in which the young are carried at birth.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.Autoradiography: The making of a radiograph of an object or tissue by recording on a photographic plate the radiation emitted by radioactive material within the object. (Dorland, 27th ed)Ramipril: A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.Hypertension, Renovascular: Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.Oligonucleotides, Antisense: Short fragments of DNA or RNA that are used to alter the function of target RNAs or DNAs to which they hybridize.Renal Artery: A branch of the abdominal aorta which supplies the kidneys, adrenal glands and ureters.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Nephrons: The functional units of the kidney, consisting of the glomerulus and the attached tubule.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Perfusion: Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular: Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.Cilazapril: One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors) used for hypertension. It is a prodrug that is hydrolyzed after absorption to its main metabolite cilazaprilat.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Brain Chemistry: Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Glutamyl Aminopeptidase: A ZINC-dependent membrane-bound aminopeptidase that catalyzes the N-terminal peptide cleavage of GLUTAMATE (and to a lesser extent ASPARTATE). The enzyme appears to play a role in the catabolic pathway of the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM.Antisense Elements (Genetics): Nucleic acids which hybridize to complementary sequences in other target nucleic acids causing the function of the latter to be affected.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Up-Regulation: A positive regulatory effect on physiological processes at the molecular, cellular, or systemic level. At the molecular level, the major regulatory sites include membrane receptors, genes (GENE EXPRESSION REGULATION), mRNAs (RNA, MESSENGER), and proteins.Molecular Probes: A group of atoms or molecules attached to other molecules or cellular structures and used in studying the properties of these molecules and structures. Radioactive DNA or RNA sequences are used in MOLECULAR GENETICS to detect the presence of a complementary sequence by NUCLEIC ACID HYBRIDIZATION.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.CreatinineVascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Kallikreins: Proteolytic enzymes from the serine endopeptidase family found in normal blood and urine. Specifically, Kallikreins are potent vasodilators and hypotensives and increase vascular permeability and affect smooth muscle. They act as infertility agents in men. Three forms are recognized, PLASMA KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.34), TISSUE KALLIKREIN (EC 3.4.21.35), and PROSTATE-SPECIFIC ANTIGEN (EC 3.4.21.77).Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Genetic Linkage: The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.Liver Neoplasms, Experimental: Experimentally induced tumors of the LIVER.Sheep: Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Solitary Nucleus: GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Organ Specificity: Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Heart Ventricles: The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.ThiazepinesNitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Enzyme Activation: Conversion of an inactive form of an enzyme to one possessing metabolic activity. It includes 1, activation by ions (activators); 2, activation by cofactors (coenzymes); and 3, conversion of an enzyme precursor (proenzyme or zymogen) to an active enzyme.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.Amides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Genetic Predisposition to Disease: A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Infusion Pumps, Implantable: Implanted fluid propulsion systems with self-contained power source for providing long-term controlled-rate delivery of drugs such as chemotherapeutic agents or analgesics. Delivery rate may be externally controlled or osmotically or peristatically controlled with the aid of transcutaneous monitoring.Heterogeneous-Nuclear Ribonucleoprotein K: A heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein found in the CELL NUCLEUS and the CYTOPLASM. Heterogeneous-nuclear ribonucleoprotein K has been implicated in the regulation of gene expression at nearly all levels: GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION; mRNA processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL), mRNA transport, mRNA stability, and translation (TRANSLATION, GENETIC). The hnRNP protein has a strong affinity for polypyrimidine-rich RNA and for single-stranded polypyrimidine-rich DNA. Multiple hnRNP K protein isoforms exist due to alternative splicing and display different nucleic-acid-binding properties.Phenylephrine: An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.Zona Glomerulosa: The narrow subcapsular outer zone of the adrenal cortex. This zone produces a series of enzymes that convert PREGNENOLONE to ALDOSTERONE. The final steps involve three successive oxidations by CYTOCHROME P-450 CYP11B2.Isoproterenol: Isopropyl analog of EPINEPHRINE; beta-sympathomimetic that acts on the heart, bronchi, skeletal muscle, alimentary tract, etc. It is used mainly as bronchodilator and heart stimulant.Myocytes, Cardiac: Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Kinins: A generic term used to describe a group of polypeptides with related chemical structures and pharmacological properties that are widely distributed in nature. These peptides are AUTACOIDS that act locally to produce pain, vasodilatation, increased vascular permeability, and the synthesis of prostaglandins. Thus, they comprise a subset of the large number of mediators that contribute to the inflammatory response. (From Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacologic Basis of Therapeutics, 8th ed, p588)Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Hypotension: Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.Serine Proteinase Inhibitors: Exogenous or endogenous compounds which inhibit SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES.
"A redox switch in angiotensinogen modulates angiotensin release". Nature. 468 (7320): 108-11. doi:10.1038/nature09505. PMC ...
Sethi AA, Nordestgaard BG, Tybjaerg-Hansen A (July 2003). "Angiotensinogen gene polymorphism, plasma angiotensinogen, and risk ... Kumar R, Singh VP, Baker KM (July 2007). "The intracellular renin-angiotensin system: a new paradigm". Trends in Endocrinology ... Tanimoto K, Sugiyama F, Goto Y, Ishida J, Takimoto E, Yagami K, Fukamizu A, Murakami K (December 1994). "Angiotensinogen- ... Jeunemaitre X, Gimenez-Roqueplo AP, Célérier J, Corvol P (1999). "Angiotensinogen variants and human hypertension". Current ...
Renin, a proteolytic enzyme, cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II. In the case of ... Trials have shown a short term benefit in the use of ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists, nifedipine, and ... this is because sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone axis of the kidneys compensate for the ...
It cleaves angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is in turn converted by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) to angiotensin ... Binding to this pocket prevents the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. Aliskiren is also available as combination ... Angiotensin II has both direct and indirect effects on blood pressure. It directly causes arterial smooth muscle to contract, ... Angiotensin II also stimulates the production of aldosterone from the adrenal cortex, which causes the tubules of the kidneys ...
... the enzyme renin converts angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which will then be converted to angiotensin II. Angiotensin II ...
Renin converts the inactive angiotensinogen into angiotensin I, which is converted to angiotensin II (AII) by angiotensin ... Fosinoprilat competitively binds to ACE, preventing ACE from binding to and converting angiotensin I to angiotensin II. ... Fosinopril is an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor used for the treatment of hypertension and some types of chronic ... Pilote L, Abrahamowicz M, Eisenberg M, Humphries K, Behlouli H, Tu JV (May 2008). "Effect of different angiotensin-converting- ...
Kushiki, K; Yamada H (2001). "Upregulation of Immunoreactive Angiotensin II Release and Angiotensinogen mRNA Expression by High ... Angiotensin II binds to AT1 receptors, increases contraction of vascular smooth muscle, and stimulates aldosterone resulting in ... Forasartan is a competitive and reversible ARB that competes with the angiotensin II binding site on AT1 and relaxes vascular ... McMahon, EG; Yang PC (1997). "Effects of SC-52458, an Angiotensin AT1 Receptor Antagonist, in the Dog". American Journal of ...
... namely the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. This leads to a totality in absence of Angiotensin II based on the ... This leads to the product angiotensin I (Ang I) which is a decapeptide. Ang I is broken down by the angiotensin-converting ... Ferrario, C. M.; Iyer, S. N. (1998). "Angiotensin-(1-7): A bioactive fragment of the renin-angiotensin system". Regulatory ... design Angiotensin Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Beta blocker Circulatory system Discovery and development of angiotensin ...
The protein catalyzes the final step in the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin IV (AT4) and is also a receptor for ... 1985). "In vitro degradation of angiotensin II (A-II) by human placental subcellular fractions, pregnancy sera and purified ...
Binding of renin to this receptor induces the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I. This protein is associated with ... 2007). "Slowly progressive, angiotensin II-independent glomerulosclerosis in human (pro)renin receptor-transgenic rats". J. Am ... angiotensin II-independent mechanisms". Kidney Int. 69 (1): 105-13. doi:10.1038/sj.ki.5000011. PMID 16374430. Otsuki T, Ota T, ... "Pivotal role of the renin/prorenin receptor in angiotensin II production and cellular responses to renin". J. Clin. Invest. 109 ...
Angiotensin II originates from plasmatic angiotensin I after the conversion of angiotensinogen by renin produced by the ... Angiotensin II originates from plasmatic angiotensin I after the conversion of angiotensinogen by renin produced by the ... cells provides a platform for the production of a recurrent Ca2+ channels signal that can be controlled by angiotensin II and ... cells provides a platform for the production of a recurrent Ca2+ channels signal that can be controlled by angiotensin II and ...
"Effect of Renin-Angiotensin System Blockade on the Expression of the Angiotensinogen Gene and Induction of Hypertrophy in Rat ... "Effect of renin-angiotensin system blockade on the expression of the angiotensinogen gene and induction of hypertrophy in rat ... "RAS blockade decreases blood pressure and proteinuria in transgenic mice over-expressing rat angiotensinogen gene in the kidney ... "Reactive oxygen species blockade and action of insulin on expression of angiotensinogen gene in proximal tubular cells". ...
... including angiotensin, atrial natriuretic peptide, endothelin and relaxin. The role of the SFO in angiotensin regulation is ... participates in the control of body fluid homeostasis by regulating angiotensinogen gene transcription in the rat subfornical ... As stated above, angiotensin receptors (AT1) have been shown to be upregulated due to water deprivation. These AT1 receptors ... For example, it was seen that water deprivation in rats led to an upregulation of the mRNA that codes for angiotensin II ...
Renin is secreted by renal juxtaglomerular cells and catalyses the conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin I which is ... Angiotensin II induces hypertension and REN therefore requires tight expression control. REN-SRE is thought to act by ... the rate-limiting step in the production of angiotensin II. ...
... to produce angiotensin I, but not active on natural angiotensinogen This enzyme is present in submandibular glands of male mice ...
... it acts as a protease to convert angiotensinogen to angiotensin I, which is converted by angiotensin converting enzyme, to ... angiotensin II, which, in turn, stimulates aldosterone release. Increased aldosterone levels results in salt and water ...
This leads to renin secretion that causes the angiotensinogen conversion to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I then proceeds to the ... lung where it is converted to angiotensin II via angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE).[medical citation needed] In most people ...
... enzyme that converts angiotensinogen 1 to angiotensin 2, a precursor to aldosterone Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system HPA ...
It performs this function by breaking down (hydrolysing) angiotensinogen, secreted from the liver, into the peptide angiotensin ... The activity of local renin-angiotensin systems and alternative pathways of angiotensin II formation may make an important ... This cleavage produces angiotensin II, the most vasoactive peptide. Angiotensin II is a potent constrictor of all blood vessels ... Angiotensin II also causes the adrenal glands to release aldosterone, which stimulates the epithelial cells of the kidneys to ...
... angiotensin I, which is then converted to its active form, angiotensin II, by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), which is ... Renin cleaves the zymogen angiotensinogen, always present in plasma as a result of constitutive production in the liver, into a ... Angiotensin II exerts system wide effects, triggering aldosterone release from the adrenal cortex, direct vasoconstriction, and ...
Plasma renin then carries out the conversion of angiotensinogen, released by the liver, to angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is ... The decapeptide is known as angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is then converted to an octapeptide, angiotensin II by angiotensin- ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, can be used to prevent angiotensin II from ... It is believed that angiotensin I may have some minor activity, but angiotensin II is the major bio-active product. Angiotensin ...
... activates the renin-angiotensin system by cleaving angiotensinogen, produced by the liver, to yield angiotensin I, which ... angiotensinogen secreted from the liver into the peptide angiotensin I. Angiotensin I is further cleaved in the lungs by ... Renin can bind to ATP6AP2, which results in a fourfold increase in the conversion of angiotensinogen to angiotensin I over that ... endothelial-bound angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) into angiotensin II, the most vasoactive peptide. Angiotensin II is a ...
... derived prohormone angiotensinogen by proteolytic cleavage of all but its first ten amino acid residues known as angiotensin I ... ACE (Angiotensin converting enzyme) then removes a further two residues, converting angiotensin I into angiotensin II. ACE is ... The conversion of the inactive angiotensin I to the potent angiotensin II was thought to take place in the plasma. However, in ... The inactivation of bradykinin and the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II in the lungs was thought to be caused by ...
Angiotensinogen, when converted to angiotensin causes vasoconstriction and release of aldosterone, in effect increasing blood ...
... a hydrazine derivative Angiotensinogen, a protein which is processed to angiotensin O-6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a ...
... α-2-globulin called angiotensinogen. This decapeptide is known as angiotensin I.[51] It has no known biological activity. ... cleaves a further two amino acids from angiotensin I to form an octapeptide known as angiotensin II. Angiotensin II is a ... The angiotensin II-stimulated aldosterone released from the zona glomerulosa of the adrenal glands has an effect on ... Angiotensin II also acts on the smooth muscle in the walls of the arterioles causing these small diameter vessels to constrict ...
... renin cleaves circulating angiotensinogen to angiotensin I (ATI), which is subsequently cleaved to angiotensin II (ATII) by ... Principally, ACE inhibitors inhibit the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), an important component of the renin-angiotensin- ... Perindopril is a non sulfhydryl prodrug that belongs to the class of ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor. The drug is ... ACE inhibitors bind and inhibit the activity of angiotensin converting enzyme. This results in relaxation of blood vessels, ...
Angiotensinogen and ACE mRNAs have been detected in normal cardiac tissue.10 11 12 13 Angiotensinogen mRNA is increased during ... Prorenin, Renin, Angiotensinogen, and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Normal and Failing Human Hearts. Evidence for Renin ... Prorenin, Renin, Angiotensinogen, and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Normal and Failing Human Hearts ... Prorenin, Renin, Angiotensinogen, and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme in Normal and Failing Human Hearts ...
Renin-Angiotensin System. Continuous Activation of Renin-Angiotensin System Impairs Cognitive Function in Renin/Angiotensinogen ... Localization of angiotensin-converting enzyme, angiotensin II, angiotensin II receptor subtypes, and vasopressin in the mouse ... Continuous Activation of Renin-Angiotensin System Impairs Cognitive Function in Renin/Angiotensinogen Transgenic Mice ... Continuous Activation of Renin-Angiotensin System Impairs Cognitive Function in Renin/Angiotensinogen Transgenic Mice ...
Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) hydrolyzes angiotensin-(1-10) (angiotensin I) to yield angiotensin-(1-8) (angiotensin II) ( ... Renin cleaves angiotensinogen to yield a decapaptide, angiotensin I (angiotensin-1, angiotensin-(1-10)). Circulating renin can ... Cathepsin G hydrolyzes angiotensin-(1-10) (angiotensin I) to yield angiotensin-(1-8) (angiotensin II) (Reilly et al. 1982, Owen ... Chymase hydrolyzes angiotensin-(1-10) (angiotensin) to yield angiotensin-(1-8) (angiotensin II) at a higher rate than does ...
Association of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion and Angiotensinogen T235 Polymorphisms with Risk of Essential ... Association of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion and Angiotensinogen T235 Polymorphisms with Risk of Essential ... Association of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Insertion/Deletion and Angiotensinogen T235 Polymorphisms with Risk of Essential ... TT genotype of angiotensinogen polymorphism is a potential risk factor for hypertension in Egyptian subjects. ...
... but limited data are available on associations between angiotensin type 1 receptor (AGT1R) and angiotensinogen (AGT) genotypes ... Increased activation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) may be important in promoting coronary heart disease (CHD) and renal ... Genetic polymorphisms of angiotensin-2 type 1 receptor and angiotensinogen and risk of renal dysfunction and coronary heart ... Wong TY, et al: Lack of association of angiotensin-converting enzyme (DD/II) and angiotensinogen M235T gene polymorphism with ...
Metabolism of Angiotensinogen to Angiotensins (Rattus norvegicus) * Renin hydrolyzes Angiotensinogen to Angiotensin-(1-10) ( ...
Solution for describe the endocrine system of angiotensinogen , angiotensin 1 , angiotensin 2 ... BiologyQ&A Librarydescribe the endocrine system of angiotensinogen , angiotensin 1 , angiotensin 2 ... The rennin-angiotensin system (RAS) is a multistep pathway that maintains blood pressure and secrets aldosterone in the adrenal ...
Angiotensin I (CAS# 11128-99-7) is formed by the action of renin on angiotensinogen. Renin cleaves the peptide bond between the ... Angiotensin IIIEdit. Asp , Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe. Angiotensin III has 40% of the pressor activity of angiotensin II, but ... Angiotensin IIEdit. Asp-Arg-Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe. Angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II (AII) through removal of two ... Angiotensin IVEdit. Arg , Val-Tyr-Ile-His-Pro-Phe. Angiotensin IV is a hexapeptide that, like angiotensin III, has some lesser ...
Compare Angiotensinogen ELISA Kits from leading suppliers on Biocompare. View specifications, prices, citations, reviews, and ... Angiotensinogen ELISA Kits. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) is a widely used application for detecting and ...
Plasma renin then carries out the conversion of angiotensinogen, released by the liver, to angiotensin I.[2] Angiotensin I is ... The decapeptide is known as angiotensin I.. *Angiotensin I is then converted to an octapeptide, angiotensin II by angiotensin- ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists, also known as angiotensin receptor blockers, can be used to prevent angiotensin II from ... It is believed that angiotensin I may have some minor activity, but angiotensin II is the major bio-active product. Angiotensin ...
The angiotensin II receptors, (AGTR1) and (AGTR2), are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ... The AT4 receptor is activated by the angiotensin II metabolite angiotensin IV, and may play a role in regulation of the CNS ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonist. References[edit]. *^ de Gasparo M, Catt KJ, Inagami T, Wright JW, Unger T (2000). " ...
Determination of Angiotensinogen and Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Genotypes. High-molecular weight DNA was isolated from ... it is likely that the plasma level of angiotensinogen can influence angiotensin I production in circulating blood and ... the TT genotype of the angiotensinogen gene has been reported to be associated with a higher plasma level of angiotensinogen ... and genotype of the angiotensinogen gene (P=.2239, coefficient=−11.033 [TT=0, TM+MM=1]). The genotype of the angiotensinogen ...
Relationship between polymorphism in the angiotensinogen, angiotensin-converting enzyme or angiotensin II receptor and renal ... ACE and angiotensinogen (AGT), as well as for angiotensin II receptors type 1 (AT1R) and type 2 (AT2R) DNA cloning allowed also ... such as angiotensinogen (AGT) and the angiotensin II type I receptor (AT1R), have been reported, and over most recent years a ... such as angiotensinogen and angiotensin II type 1 receptor, were less extensively discussed. Actually, the review was not ...
Gene polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensinogen and risk of idiopathic ischemic stroke Irma Isordia- ... Gene polymorphisms of angiotensin-converting enzyme and angiotensinogen and risk of idiopathic ischemic stroke Irma Isordia- ... The influence of Angiotensin converting enzyme and angiotensinogen gene polymorphisms on hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Luo R, Li ... Association of angiotensin-converting enzyme insertion/deletion (ACE I/D) and angiotensinogen (AGT M235T) polymorphisms with ...
1993) Metabolism of prorenin, renin, angiotensinogen, and the angiotensins by tissues. in The Renin-Angiotensin System, eds ... angiotensin converting enzyme. Ang I. angiotensin I. Ang II. angiotensin II. ANOVA. analysis of variance. ANP. atrial ... angiotensinogen, ACE and angiotensin peptides, and tissue levels of angiotensin and bradykinin peptides were measured in rats ... Plasma renin, angiotensinogen, ACE and angiotensin peptides.. For pooled vehicle-treated rats from experiments 1 and 2, plasma ...
Angiotensin II. Angiotensinogen. Antihypertensive Agents. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor ... Angiotensin II Antagonism of TGF-Beta 1: A Candesartan Dose - TGF-Beta 1 Response Relationship Study. ... Angiotensin II Antagonism of TGF-Beta 1. This study has been completed. ... The purpose of this study is to determine whether a treatment for diabetic nephropathy, the angiotensin receptor blocker ...
Angiotensinogen. Anti-Arrhythmia Agents. Antihypertensive Agents. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor ... current treatment with clonidine, beta blockers, angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, or angiotensin II receptor ... Role of Sympathetic Overactivity and Angiotensin II in PTSD and CV (ANG-P). The safety and scientific validity of this study is ... Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Role of Sympathetic Overactivity and Angiotensin II. ...
Angiotensin II. Angiotensinogen. Antihypertensive Agents. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Angiotensin Receptor ... GISSI-AF - Use of Valsartan an Angiotensin II AT1-Receptor Blocker in the Prevention of Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence. The ... Randomized, Prospective, Parallel Group, Placebo-Controlled, Multi-Center Study on the Use of Valsartan an Angiotensin II AT1- ... an angiotensin II AT1-receptor blocker, in the prevention of atrial fibrillation recurrence. J Cardiovasc Med (Hagerstown). ...
Angiotensin II. Angiotensinogen. Vasoconstrictor Agents. Serine Proteinase Inhibitors. Protease Inhibitors. Enzyme Inhibitors. ... Drug: Angiotensin II Infusion Angiotensin II (Bachem) will be infused at 0.3 ng/kg/min for 30 minutes, then 1.0 ng/kg/min for ... Drug: Angiotensin II Infusion Angiotensin II (Bachem) will be infused at 0.3 ng/kg/min for 30 minutes, then 1.0 ng/kg/min for ... Antihypertensive use, including angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor blocker use, diuretics, ...
Moreover, alterations in the expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme-1, angiotensin-converting enzyme-2, and angiotensin- ... An accumulating body of evidence has shown that the renin-angiotensin system is involved in the fertility problems observed in ... However, as a pseudogene in humans, further studies are needed to explore whether the abnormal angiotensin-converting enzyme-3 ... In this review, the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzymes and fertile ability is summarized, and a new procedure ...
AGT: angiotensinogen. *AGTR1: angiotensin II receptor type 1. *AGXT: alanine--glyoxylate and serine--pyruvate aminotransferase ...
Association of Polymorphisms in the Genes of Angiotensinogen and Angiotensin Receptors With Risk for Basal Cell Carcinoma.. ... Other factors of this system include angiotensinogen (AGT) and angiotensin receptors AGTR1, AGTR2. We investigated the possible ... an important factor of the renin-angiotensin system which produces vasoconstrictor angiotensin II. ... Basal cell carcinoma (BCC) has been genetically associated with an increased expression of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE ...
Angiotensinogen is a 452-amino-acid protein thats secreted by the liver (and has several functions all by itself). Its first ... As shown, it is capable of clipping both angiotensin-I and angiotensin-II down further, to even small peptides (angiotensin 1-9 ... which is why you have people mixing angiotensin peptide, angiotensin converting enzymes, and angiotensin receptors all together ... Make more angiotensin II. One of things needed to make more angiotensin II would be to make more ACE2 receptors. And with more ...
Nonstandard abbreviations used: arterial blood pressure (BP); angiotensinogen (AGT); renin-angiotensin system (RAS); transgenic ... Hypertension, serum angiotensinogen, and molecular variants of the angiotensinogen gene among Nigerians. Circulation. 1997. 95: ... The mice have increased sensitivity to dietary salt and increased plasma levels of angiotensinogen, angiotensin II, and ... as equivalent amounts of angiotensin I (38). Plasma angiotensin II levels were measured by HPLC coupled with RIA (38). Plasma ...
  • For this purpose, we used chimeric double transgenic (Tg) mice of the human renin (hRN) and human angiotensinogen (hANG) genes. (ahajournals.org)
  • Genes encoding components of the renin-angiotensin system are attractive candidates for the genetic basis of cardiovascular diseases. (ahajournals.org)
  • Common structural organization of the angiotensinogen and the α- 1 -antitrypsin genes . (springer.com)
  • Molecular genetic and transgenic studies have begun to implicate some of the genes encoding components of the renin-angiotensin system in the development of cardiovascular diseases. (nii.ac.jp)
  • This vascular disease occurs due to the abnormal functioning of the arterial pressure related to the central nervous system, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, endothelial dysfunction, genes and even due to certain environmental factors. (buzzle.com)
  • Four of these genes (angiotensinogen, GLUT-1, ID-1, and MKP-1) have been implicated in enhancement of glucose availability, which could plausibly serve a neuroprotective role during acute hypoglycemia but, if persistent, could also cause glucose-sensing mechanisms to overestimate plasma glucose levels, potentially causing hypoglycemia-induced counterregulatory failure. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In this review, the relationship between angiotensin-converting enzymes and fertile ability is summarized, and a new procedure for the treatment of infertility is discussed. (mdpi.com)
  • Twenty years ago, along with his colleague Dr Penny Stein, Prof. Robin Carrell from the Department of Haematology at the Cambridge Institute for Medical Research (CIMR) embarked on a study of angiotensinogen, the "black sheep" of the serpin family since it is not known to inhibit other enzymes, unlike the rest of its family. (diamond.ac.uk)
  • Studies have shown that despite adequate ACE inhibition, angiotensin II levels eventually return to nearly normal levels, because the chymase enzymes are an alternate pathway for angiotensin conversion. (aafp.org)