Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN RECEPTORS. Many drugs in this class specifically target the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Receptors, Angiotensin: Cell surface proteins that bind ANGIOTENSINS and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells.Angiotensin II: An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.Losartan: An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.TetrazolesAngiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 1: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in a variety of adult tissues including the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM, the KIDNEY, the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM and the NERVOUS SYSTEM. Activation of the type 1 angiotensin receptor causes VASOCONSTRICTION and sodium retention.Biphenyl CompoundsAngiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Imidazoles: Compounds containing 1,3-diazole, a five membered aromatic ring containing two nitrogen atoms separated by one of the carbons. Chemically reduced ones include IMIDAZOLINES and IMIDAZOLIDINES. Distinguish from 1,2-diazole (PYRAZOLES).Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2: An angiotensin receptor subtype that is expressed at high levels in fetal tissues. Many effects of the angiotensin type 2 receptor such as VASODILATION and sodium loss are the opposite of that of the ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Angiotensin I: A decapeptide that is cleaved from precursor angiotensinogen by RENIN. Angiotensin I has limited biological activity. It is converted to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Angiotensin III: A heptapeptide formed from ANGIOTENSIN II after the removal of an amino acid at the N-terminal by AMINOPEPTIDASE A. Angiotensin III has the same efficacy as ANGIOTENSIN II in promoting ALDOSTERONE secretion and modifying renal blood flow, but less vasopressor activity (about 40%).Benzimidazoles: Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein: A ligand that binds to but fails to activate the INTERLEUKIN 1 RECEPTOR. It plays an inhibitory role in the regulation of INFLAMMATION and FEVER. Several isoforms of the protein exist due to multiple ALTERNATIVE SPLICING of its mRNA.Angiotensin II Type 2 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize the ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 2 RECEPTOR.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Angiotensins: Oligopeptides which are important in the regulation of blood pressure (VASOCONSTRICTION) and fluid homeostasis via the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. These include angiotensins derived naturally from precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, and those synthesized.Neurokinin-1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of NEUROKININ-1 RECEPTORS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.1-Sarcosine-8-Isoleucine Angiotensin II: An ANGIOTENSIN II analog which acts as a highly specific inhibitor of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Saralasin: An octapeptide analog of angiotensin II (bovine) with amino acids 1 and 8 replaced with sarcosine and alanine, respectively. It is a highly specific competitive inhibitor of angiotensin II that is used in the diagnosis of HYPERTENSION.Benzoates: Derivatives of BENZOIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxybenzene structure.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A: A peptidyl-dipeptidase that catalyzes the release of a C-terminal dipeptide, -Xaa-*-Xbb-Xcc, when neither Xaa nor Xbb is Pro. It is a Cl(-)-dependent, zinc glycoprotein that is generally membrane-bound and active at neutral pH. It may also have endopeptidase activity on some substrates. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.15.1.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.Pyridines: Compounds with a six membered aromatic ring containing NITROGEN. The saturated version is PIPERIDINES.Purinergic P1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P1 RECEPTORS.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Histamine H2 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H2 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine. Their clinically most important action is the inhibition of acid secretion in the treatment of gastrointestinal ulcers. Smooth muscle may also be affected. Some drugs in this class have strong effects in the central nervous system, but these actions are not well understood.Piperidines: A family of hexahydropyridines.Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.Serotonin 5-HT3 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT3 RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Excitatory Amino Acid Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate excitatory amino acid receptors, thereby blocking the actions of agonists.Dopamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate DOPAMINE RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of dopamine or exogenous agonists. Many drugs used in the treatment of psychotic disorders (ANTIPSYCHOTIC AGENTS) are dopamine antagonists, although their therapeutic effects may be due to long-term adjustments of the brain rather than to the acute effects of blocking dopamine receptors. Dopamine antagonists have been used for several other clinical purposes including as ANTIEMETICS, in the treatment of Tourette syndrome, and for hiccup. Dopamine receptor blockade is associated with NEUROLEPTIC MALIGNANT SYNDROME.Serotonin 5-HT2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN 5-HT2 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more specific 5-HT2 receptor subtypes.Hormone Antagonists: Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.Adenosine A2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A2 RECEPTORS.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Fumarates: Compounds based on fumaric acid.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Lisinopril: One of the ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS (ACE inhibitors), orally active, that has been used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure.Receptors, Endothelin: Cell surface proteins that bind ENDOTHELINS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells.Adenosine A1 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of ADENOSINE A1 RECEPTORS.Enalapril: An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Bradykinin: A nonapeptide messenger that is enzymatically produced from KALLIDIN in the blood where it is a potent but short-lived agent of arteriolar dilation and increased capillary permeability. Bradykinin is also released from MAST CELLS during asthma attacks, from gut walls as a gastrointestinal vasodilator, from damaged tissues as a pain signal, and may be a neurotransmitter.Purinergic P2 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2 RECEPTORS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Benzazepines: Compounds with BENZENE fused to AZEPINES.Proteinuria: The presence of proteins in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Narcotic Antagonists: Agents inhibiting the effect of narcotics on the central nervous system.Histamine H1 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate histamine H1 receptors, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine. Included here are the classical antihistaminics that antagonize or prevent the action of histamine mainly in immediate hypersensitivity. They act in the bronchi, capillaries, and some other smooth muscles, and are used to prevent or allay motion sickness, seasonal rhinitis, and allergic dermatitis and to induce somnolence. The effects of blocking central nervous system H1 receptors are not as well understood.Amlodipine: A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)Angiotensinogen: An alpha-globulin of about 453 amino acids, depending on the species. It is produced by the liver and secreted into blood circulation. Angiotensinogen is the inactive precursor of natural angiotensins. Upon successive enzyme cleavages, angiotensinogen yields angiotensin I, II, and III with amino acids numbered at 10, 8, and 7, respectively.Rats, Inbred SHR: A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Muscarinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous ACETYLCHOLINE or exogenous agonists. Muscarinic antagonists have widespread effects including actions on the iris and ciliary muscle of the eye, the heart and blood vessels, secretions of the respiratory tract, GI system, and salivary glands, GI motility, urinary bladder tone, and the central nervous system.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Receptor, Endothelin A: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It has a high affinity for ENDOTHELIN-1 and ENDOTHELIN-2.Ramipril: A long-acting angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is a prodrug that is transformed in the liver to its active metabolite ramiprilat.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.GABA-A Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-A RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-A RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Serotonin Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate serotonin receptors, thereby blocking the actions of serotonin or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Histamine Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate histamine receptors, thereby blocking the actions of histamine or histamine agonists. Classical antihistaminics block the histamine H1 receptors only.GABA Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and GABA RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Sialoglycoproteins: Glycoproteins which contain sialic acid as one of their carbohydrates. They are often found on or in the cell or tissue membranes and participate in a variety of biological activities.Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Rats, Inbred WKY: A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Leukotriene Antagonists: A class of drugs designed to prevent leukotriene synthesis or activity by blocking binding at the receptor level.3-Mercaptopropionic Acid: An inhibitor of glutamate decarboxylase. It decreases the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID concentration in the brain, thereby causing convulsions.Receptors, Serotonin: Cell-surface proteins that bind SEROTONIN and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. Several types of serotonin receptors have been recognized which differ in their pharmacology, molecular biology, and mode of action.Receptors, N-Methyl-D-Aspartate: A class of ionotropic glutamate receptors characterized by affinity for N-methyl-D-aspartate. NMDA receptors have an allosteric binding site for glycine which must be occupied for the channel to open efficiently and a site within the channel itself to which magnesium ions bind in a voltage-dependent manner. The positive voltage dependence of channel conductance and the high permeability of the conducting channel to calcium ions (as well as to monovalent cations) are important in excitotoxicity and neuronal plasticity.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Serotonin 5-HT1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN 5-HT1 RECEPTOR AGONISTS. Included under this heading are antagonists for one or more of the specific 5-HT1 receptor subtypes.Dizocilpine Maleate: A potent noncompetitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE) used mainly as a research tool. The drug has been considered for the wide variety of neurodegenerative conditions or disorders in which NMDA receptors may play an important role. Its use has been primarily limited to animal and tissue experiments because of its psychotropic effects.Receptors, Bradykinin: Cell surface receptors that bind BRADYKININ and related KININS with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. The identified receptor types (B-1 and B-2, or BK-1 and BK-2) recognize endogenous KALLIDIN; t-kinins; and certain bradykinin fragments as well as bradykinin itself.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Endothelin-1: A 21-amino acid peptide produced in a variety of tissues including endothelial and vascular smooth-muscle cells, neurons and astrocytes in the central nervous system, and endometrial cells. It acts as a modulator of vasomotor tone, cell proliferation, and hormone production. (N Eng J Med 1995;333(6):356-63)Myocardium: The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Receptors, Interleukin-1: Cell surface receptors that are specific for INTERLEUKIN-1. Included under this heading are signaling receptors, non-signaling receptors and accessory proteins required for receptor signaling. Signaling from interleukin-1 receptors occurs via interaction with SIGNAL TRANSDUCING ADAPTOR PROTEINS such as MYELOID DIFFERENTIATION FACTOR 88.AcrylatesAmides: Organic compounds containing the -CO-NH2 radical. Amides are derived from acids by replacement of -OH by -NH2 or from ammonia by the replacement of H by an acyl group. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Adrenergic alpha-1 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-1 RECEPTORS.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Kidney Diseases: Pathological processes of the KIDNEY or its component tissues.Diabetic Nephropathies: KIDNEY injuries associated with diabetes mellitus and affecting KIDNEY GLOMERULUS; ARTERIOLES; KIDNEY TUBULES; and the interstitium. Clinical signs include persistent PROTEINURIA, from microalbuminuria progressing to ALBUMINURIA of greater than 300 mg/24 h, leading to reduced GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE and END-STAGE RENAL DISEASE.Radioligand Assay: Quantitative determination of receptor (binding) proteins in body fluids or tissue using radioactively labeled binding reagents (e.g., antibodies, intracellular receptors, plasma binders).Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Renal Circulation: The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Indoles: Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Enalaprilat: The active metabolite of ENALAPRIL and a potent intravenously administered angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor. It is an effective agent for the treatment of essential hypertension and has beneficial hemodynamic effects in heart failure. The drug produces renal vasodilation with an increase in sodium excretion.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Sulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Heart Rate: The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Xanthines: Purine bases found in body tissues and fluids and in some plants.Hydralazine: A direct-acting vasodilator that is used as an antihypertensive agent.Cardiovascular Agents: Agents that affect the rate or intensity of cardiac contraction, blood vessel diameter, or blood volume.Peptides, Cyclic: Peptides whose amino and carboxy ends are linked together with a peptide bond forming a circular chain. Some of them are ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS. Some of them are biosynthesized non-ribosomally (PEPTIDE BIOSYNTHESIS, NON-RIBOSOMAL).Nicotinic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to nicotinic cholinergic receptors (RECEPTORS, NICOTINIC) and block the actions of acetylcholine or cholinergic agonists. Nicotinic antagonists block synaptic transmission at autonomic ganglia, the skeletal neuromuscular junction, and at central nervous system nicotinic synapses.Mice, Inbred C57BLInjections, Intraventricular: Injections into the cerebral ventricles.Hypertension, Renal: Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.Pyrazoles: Azoles of two nitrogens at the 1,2 positions, next to each other, in contrast with IMIDAZOLES in which they are at the 1,3 positions.Adrenergic alpha-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC ALPHA-2 RECEPTORS.Serotonin Receptor Agonists: Endogenous compounds and drugs that bind to and activate SEROTONIN RECEPTORS. Many serotonin receptor agonists are used as ANTIDEPRESSANTS; ANXIOLYTICS; and in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.Histamine H3 Antagonists: Drugs that selectively bind to but do not activate HISTAMINE H3 RECEPTORS. They have been used to correct SLEEP WAKE DISORDERS and MEMORY DISORDERS.Aorta: The main trunk of the systemic arteries.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Receptor, Bradykinin B2: A constitutively expressed subtype of bradykinin receptor that may play a role in the acute phase of the inflammatory and pain response. It has high specificity for intact forms of BRADYKININ and KALLIDIN. The receptor is coupled to G-PROTEIN, GQ-G11 ALPHA FAMILY and G-PROTEIN, GI-GO ALPHA FAMILY signaling proteins.Substance P: An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.Receptor, Endothelin B: A subtype of endothelin receptor found predominantly in the KIDNEY. It may play a role in reducing systemic ENDOTHELIN levels.Sympathetic Nervous System: The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.Enzyme Inhibitors: Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.Endothelins: 21-Amino-acid peptides produced by vascular endothelial cells and functioning as potent vasoconstrictors. The endothelin family consists of three members, ENDOTHELIN-1; ENDOTHELIN-2; and ENDOTHELIN-3. All three peptides contain 21 amino acids, but vary in amino acid composition. The three peptides produce vasoconstrictor and pressor responses in various parts of the body. However, the quantitative profiles of the pharmacological activities are considerably different among the three isopeptides.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Receptors, Vasopressin: Specific molecular sites or proteins on or in cells to which VASOPRESSINS bind or interact in order to modify the function of the cells. Two types of vasopressin receptor exist, the V1 receptor in the vascular smooth muscle and the V2 receptor in the kidneys. The V1 receptor can be subdivided into V1a and V1b (formerly V3) receptors.Azepines: Seven membered heterocyclic rings containing a NITROGEN atom.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.PyrrolidinesGABA-B Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate GABA-B RECEPTORS thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous GABA-B RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Adrenergic alpha-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate alpha-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of endogenous or exogenous adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic alpha-antagonists are used in the treatment of hypertension, vasospasm, peripheral vascular disease, shock, and pheochromocytoma.Cimetidine: A histamine congener, it competitively inhibits HISTAMINE binding to HISTAMINE H2 RECEPTORS. Cimetidine has a range of pharmacological actions. It inhibits GASTRIC ACID secretion, as well as PEPSIN and GASTRIN output.Adenosine A3 Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that selectively bind to and block the activation of ADENOSINE A3 RECEPTORS.Receptors, Thromboxane: Cell surface proteins that bind THROMBOXANES with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Some thromboxane receptors act via the inositol phosphate and diacylglycerol second messenger systems.Receptors, Neurokinin-1: A class of cell surface receptors for TACHYKININS with a preference for SUBSTANCE P. Neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptors have been cloned and are members of the G protein coupled receptor superfamily. They are found on many cell types including central and peripheral neurons, smooth muscle cells, acinar cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Purinergic P2X Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that bind to and block the stimulation of PURINERGIC P2X RECEPTORS. Included under this heading are antagonists for specific P2X receptor subtypes.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Devazepide: A derivative of benzodiazepine that acts on the cholecystokinin A (CCKA) receptor to antagonize CCK-8's (SINCALIDE) physiological and behavioral effects, such as pancreatic stimulation and inhibition of feeding.Receptors, Cholecystokinin: Cell surface proteins that bind cholecystokinin (CCK) with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Cholecystokinin receptors are activated by GASTRIN as well as by CCK-4; CCK-8; and CCK-33. Activation of these receptors evokes secretion of AMYLASE by pancreatic acinar cells, acid and PEPSIN by stomach mucosal cells, and contraction of the PYLORUS and GALLBLADDER. The role of the widespread CCK receptors in the central nervous system is not well understood.Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.QuinoxalinesNeurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester: A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.Cardiomegaly: Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.Ketanserin: A selective serotonin receptor antagonist with weak adrenergic receptor blocking properties. The drug is effective in lowering blood pressure in essential hypertension. It also inhibits platelet aggregation. It is well tolerated and is particularly effective in older patients.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.PiperazinesAdenosine: A nucleoside that is composed of ADENINE and D-RIBOSE. Adenosine or adenosine derivatives play many important biological roles in addition to being components of DNA and RNA. Adenosine itself is a neurotransmitter.Heart: The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.Albuminuria: The presence of albumin in the urine, an indicator of KIDNEY DISEASES.Serotonin 5-HT4 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate SEROTONIN 5-HT4 RECEPTORS, thereby blocking the actions of SEROTONIN or SEROTONIN RECEPTOR AGONISTS.Receptor, Cannabinoid, CB1: A subclass of cannabinoid receptor found primarily on central and peripheral NEURONS where it may play a role modulating NEUROTRANSMITTER release.2-Amino-5-phosphonovalerate: The D-enantiomer is a potent and specific antagonist of NMDA glutamate receptors (RECEPTORS, N-METHYL-D-ASPARTATE). The L form is inactive at NMDA receptors but may affect the AP4 (2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate; APB) excitatory amino acid receptors.Fibrosis: Any pathological condition where fibrous connective tissue invades any organ, usually as a consequence of inflammation or other injury.ThiophenesAdrenergic Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. Adrenergic antagonists block the actions of the endogenous adrenergic transmitters EPINEPHRINE and NOREPINEPHRINE.Receptors, Dopamine D2: A subfamily of G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS that bind the neurotransmitter DOPAMINE and modulate its effects. D2-class receptor genes contain INTRONS, and the receptors inhibit ADENYLYL CYCLASES.Hypertrophy: General increase in bulk of a part or organ due to CELL ENLARGEMENT and accumulation of FLUIDS AND SECRETIONS, not due to tumor formation, nor to an increase in the number of cells (HYPERPLASIA).Arginine Vasopressin: The predominant form of mammalian antidiuretic hormone. It is a nonapeptide containing an ARGININE at residue 8 and two disulfide-linked cysteines at residues of 1 and 6. Arg-vasopressin is used to treat DIABETES INSIPIDUS or to improve vasomotor tone and BLOOD PRESSURE.Histamine: An amine derived by enzymatic decarboxylation of HISTIDINE. It is a powerful stimulant of gastric secretion, a constrictor of bronchial smooth muscle, a vasodilator, and also a centrally acting neurotransmitter.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Naltrexone: Derivative of noroxymorphone that is the N-cyclopropylmethyl congener of NALOXONE. It is a narcotic antagonist that is effective orally, longer lasting and more potent than naloxone, and has been proposed for the treatment of heroin addiction. The FDA has approved naltrexone for the treatment of alcohol dependence.Famotidine: A competitive histamine H2-receptor antagonist. Its main pharmacodynamic effect is the inhibition of gastric secretion.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Receptors, Neurokinin-2: A class of cell surface receptors for tachykinins that prefers neurokinin A; (NKA, substance K, neurokinin alpha, neuromedin L), neuropeptide K; (NPK); or neuropeptide gamma over other tachykinins. Neurokinin-2 (NK-2) receptors have been cloned and are similar to other G-protein coupled receptors.Vascular Resistance: The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.Sodium Chloride, Dietary: Sodium chloride used in foods.Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists: Compounds that inhibit or block the activity of CANNABINOID RECEPTORS.Arteries: The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of ADRENERGIC BETA-2 RECEPTORS.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.PhenylpropionatesNaloxone: A specific opiate antagonist that has no agonist activity. It is a competitive antagonist at mu, delta, and kappa opioid receptors.QuinolinesAngiotensin Amide: The octapeptide amide of bovine angiotensin II used to increase blood pressure by vasoconstriction.Receptors, G-Protein-Coupled: The largest family of cell surface receptors involved in SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. They share a common structure and signal through HETEROTRIMERIC G-PROTEINS.Bicuculline: An isoquinoline alkaloid obtained from Dicentra cucullaria and other plants. It is a competitive antagonist for GABA-A receptors.Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.QuinuclidinesSodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.BenzodiazepinonesMedulla Oblongata: The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.

Irbesartan reduces QT dispersion in hypertensive individuals. (1/1416)

Angiotensin type 1 receptor antagonists have direct effects on the autonomic nervous system and myocardium. Because of this, we hypothesized that irbesartan would reduce QT dispersion to a greater degree than amlodipine, a highly selective vasodilator. To test this, we gathered electrocardiographic (ECG) data from a multinational, multicenter, randomized, double-blind parallel group study that compared the antihypertensive efficacy of irbesartan and amlodipine in elderly subjects with mild to moderate hypertension. Subjects were treated for 6 months with either drug. Hydrochlorothiazide and atenolol were added after 12 weeks if blood pressure (BP) remained uncontrolled. ECGs were obtained before randomization and at 6 months. A total of 188 subjects (118 with baseline ECGs) were randomized. We analyzed 104 subjects who had complete ECGs at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Baseline characteristics between treatments were similar, apart from a slight imbalance in diastolic BP (irbesartan [n=53] versus amlodipine [n=51], 99.2 [SD 3. 6] versus 100.8 [3.8] mm Hg; P=0.03). There were no significant differences in BP normalization (diastolic BP <90 mm Hg) between treatments at 6 months (irbesartan versus amlodipine, 80% versus 88%; P=0.378). We found a significant reduction in QT indexes in the irbesartan group (QTc dispersion mean, -11.4 [34.5] milliseconds, P=0.02; QTc max, -12.8 [35.5] milliseconds, P=0.01), and QTc dispersion did not correlate with the change in BP. The reduction in QT indexes with amlodipine (QTc dispersion, -9.7 [35.4] milliseconds, P=0.06; QTc max, -8.6 [33.2] milliseconds, P=0.07) did not quite reach statistical significance, but there was a correlation between the change in QT indexes and changes in systolic BP. In conclusion, irbesartan improved QT dispersion, and this effect may be important in preventing sudden cardiac death in at-risk hypertensive subjects.  (+info)

Angiotensin receptor subtype 1 mediates angiotensin II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced cyclic AMP production in preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells. (2/1416)

In a previous study, we found that angiotensin (Ang) II enhances beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured preglomerular microvascular smooth muscle cells (PMVSMCs) obtained from spontaneously hypertensive rats. The purpose of the present investigation was to identify the Ang receptor subtypes that mediate this effect. In our first study, we compared the ability of Ang II, Ang III, Ang (3-8), and Ang (1-7) to increase cAMP production in isoproterenol (1 microM)-treated PMVSMCs. Each peptide was tested at 0.1, 1, 10, 100, and 1000 nM. Both Ang II and Ang III increased intracellular (EC50s, 1 and 11 nM, respectively) and extracellular (EC50s, 2 and 14 nM, respectively) cAMP levels in a concentration-dependent fashion. In contrast, Ang (3-8) and Ang (1-7) did not enhance either intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels at any concentration tested. In our second study, we examined the ability of L 158809 [a selective Ang receptor subtype 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist] to inhibit Ang II (100 nM) and Ang III (100 nM) enhancement of isoproterenol (1 microM)-induced cAMP production in PMVSMCs. L 158809 (10 nM) abolished or nearly abolished (p <.001) Ang II and Ang III enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular and extracellular cAMP levels. In contrast, PD 123319 (300 nM; a selective AT2 receptor antagonist) did not significantly alter Ang II enhancement of isoproterenol-induced intracellular or extracellular cAMP levels. We conclude that AT1 receptors, but not AT2, Ang (3-8), nor Ang (1-7) receptors mediate Ang II and Ang III enhancement of beta-adrenoceptor-induced cAMP production in cultured PMVSMCs.  (+info)

Blocking angiotensin II ameliorates proteinuria and glomerular lesions in progressive mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis. (3/1416)

BACKGROUND: The renin-angiotensin system is thought to be involved in the progression of glomerulonephritis (GN) into end-stage renal failure (ESRF) because of the observed renoprotective effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). However, ACEIs have pharmacological effects other than ACE inhibition that may help lower blood pressure and preserve glomerular structure. We previously reported a new animal model of progressive glomerulosclerosis induced by a single intravenous injection of an anti-Thy-1 monoclonal antibody, MoAb 1-22-3, in uninephrectomized rats. Using this new model of progressive GN, we examined the hypothesis that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of angiotensin II (Ang II) on the production of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) and extracellular matrix components. METHODS: We studied the effect of an ACEI (cilazapril) and an Ang II type 1 receptor antagonist (candesartan) on the clinical features and morphological lesions in the rat model previously reported. After 10 weeks of treatment with equihypotensive doses of cilazapril, cilazapril plus Hoe 140 (a bradykinin receptor B2 antagonist), candesartan, and hydralazine, we examined systolic blood pressure, urinary protein excretion, creatinine clearance, the glomerulosclerosis index, and the tubulointerstitial lesion index. We performed a semiquantitative evaluation of glomerular immunostaining for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III by immunofluorescence study and of these cortical mRNA levels by Northern blot analysis. RESULTS: Untreated rats developed massive proteinuria, renal dysfunction, and severe glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury, whereas uninephrectomized control rats did not. There was a significant increase in the levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III in untreated rats. Cilazapril and candesartan prevented massive proteinuria, increased creatinine clearance, and ameliorated glomerular and tubulointerstitial injury. These drugs also reduced levels of glomerular protein and cortical mRNA for TGF-beta and collagen types I and III. Hoe 140 failed to blunt the renoprotective effect of cilazapril. Hydralazine did not exhibit a renoprotective effect. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that ACEIs prevent the progression to ESRF by modulating the effects of Ang II via Ang II type 1 receptor on the production of TGF-beta and collagen types I and III, as well as on intrarenal hemodynamics, but not by either increasing bradykinin activity or reducing blood pressure in this rat model of mesangial proliferative GN.  (+info)

Addition of angiotensin II receptor blockade to maximal angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition improves exercise capacity in patients with severe congestive heart failure. (4/1416)

BACKGROUND: Incomplete suppression of the renin-angiotensin system during long-term ACE inhibition may contribute to symptomatic deterioration in patients with severe congestive heart failure (CHF). Combined angiotensin II type I (AT1) receptor blockade and ACE inhibition more completely suppresses the activated renin-angiotensin system than either intervention alone in sodium-depleted normal individuals. Whether AT1 receptor blockade with losartan improves exercise capacity in patients with severe CHF already treated with ACE inhibitors is unknown. METHODS AND RESULTS: Thirty-three patients with severe CHF despite treatment with maximally recommended or tolerated doses of ACE inhibitors were randomized 1:1 to receive 50 mg/d losartan or placebo for 6 months in addition to standard therapy in a multicenter, double-blind trial. Peak aerobic capacity (V(O2)) during symptom-limited treadmill exercise and NYHA functional class were determined at baseline and after 3 and 6 months of double-blind therapy. Peak V(O2) at baseline and after 3 and 6 months were 13.5+/-0.6, 15.1+/-1.0, and 15.7+/-1.1 mL. kg-1. min-1, respectively, in patients receiving losartan and 14.1+/-0.6, 14.3+/-0.9, and 13.6+/-1.1 mL. kg-1. min-1, respectively, in patients receiving placebo (P<0.02 for treatment group-by-time interaction). Functional class improved by at least one NYHA class in 9 of 16 patients receiving losartan and 1 of 17 patients receiving placebo. CONCLUSIONS: Losartan enhances peak exercise capacity and alleviates symptoms in patients with CHF who are severely symptomatic despite treatment with maximally recommended or tolerated doses of ACE inhibitors.  (+info)

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor (AT1) antagonists: either or both for primary renal disease? (5/1416)

At the present time we cannot assume that the proven benefits of ACEI on renal disease will be reproduced by using AT1-ra. With potentially differing modes of activity of these drugs, they cannot be seen as interchangeable and ACEI should remain the drug of choice in patients with progressive renal disease unless they are not tolerated. It is possible that AT1-ra may offer additional advantages in some patients or that synergy exists between the two agents, but this view will remain entirely speculative unless proper trials are conducted. Despite the results of the ELITE study [22], the uncertainty regarding the use AT1-ra in cardiovascular disease mirrors that of renal disease. This issue is obviously of relevance to the nephrologist in view of the spectrum of cardiac disease that accompanies chronic renal failure, such as left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac failure, which provide multiple indications for manipulation of RAS. Despite their renoprotective effect, previous studies on ACEI [3,4] have not shown an overall reduction in mortality and this issue needs to be addressed in addition to renoprotection in studies comparing AT1-ra and ACEI.  (+info)

Effects of AT1 receptor blockade after myocardial infarct on myocardial fibrosis, stiffness, and contractility. (6/1416)

Angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) receptor blockade attenuates myocardial fibrosis after myocardial infarction (MI). However, whether inhibition of fibrosis by AT1 receptor blockade influences myocardial stiffness and contractility is unknown. We measured left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics, papillary muscle function, and myocardial stiffness and fibrosis in rats randomized to losartan or placebo 1 day after MI and treated subsequently for 8 wk. Losartan decreased LV and right ventricular weights as well as mean aortic and LV systolic pressures in sham and MI rats. LV end-diastolic pressure increased after MI and was decreased with losartan. Maximal developed tension and peak rate of tension rise and decline were decreased in MI vs. sham rats. Interstitial fibrosis developed after MI and was prevented in losartan-treated MI rats. The development of abnormal myocardial stiffness after MI was prevented by losartan. After MI, AT1 receptor blockade prevents an abnormal increase in myocardial collagen content. This effect was associated with a normalization of passive myocardial stiffness.  (+info)

Resetting of exaggerated tubuloglomerular feedback activity in acutely volume-expanded young SHR. (7/1416)

One purpose of the present study was to evaluate the ability of 7-wk-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) to reset tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) activity in response to acute volume expansion (VE). Second, we evaluated the contribution of ANG II, via its action on AT1 receptors, to TGF control of glomerular function during VE. TGF was assessed by micropuncture methods and proximal tubular stop-flow pressure (SFP) determinations in SHR, Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), and Sprague-Dawley rats (SD). During euvolemia SHR exhibited enhanced TGF activity. In the same animals acute VE was achieved by infusion of saline (5 ml. h-1. 100 g body wt-1). VE led to resetting of TGF in all three strains. Maximal SFP responses, elicited by a 30-40 nl/min loop of Henle perfusion rate, decreased from 19 to 12 mmHg in SHR and, on average, from 11 to 5 mmHg in WKY and SD (P < 0.001). Tubular flow rate producing a half-maximal response (turning point) shifted to higher flow rates during VE, from 12 to 14 nl/min in SHR and from 15 to 19 nl/min in WKY. Administration of the AT1 receptor blocker candesartan (0.05 mg/kg iv) during sustained VE decreased TGF-mediated reductions in SFP in SHR and slightly increased the turning point in WKY. Nevertheless, other parameters of TGF activity were unaffected by AT1 receptor blockade. In conclusion, young SHR possess the ability to reset TGF activity in response to VE to a degree similar to compensatory adjustments in WKY. However, TGF remains enhanced in SHR during VE. ANG II and its action on AT1 receptors are in part responsible for the exaggerated SFP responses in young SHR during VE.  (+info)

Renal and hemodynamic effects of losartan in conscious dogs during controlled mechanical ventilation. (8/1416)

In 12 conscious dogs, we investigated whether the angiotensin II-receptor antagonist losartan increases renal sodium excretion and urine volume during controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) with positive end-expiratory pressure. In four experimental protocols, the dogs were extracellular volume (ECV) expanded (electrolyte solution, 0.5 ml. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not and received losartan (100 micrograms. kg-1. min-1 iv) or not. They breathed spontaneously during the 1st and 4th hour and received CMV with positive end-expiratory pressure (mean airway pressure 20 cmH2O) during the 2nd and 3rd hours. In the expansion group, dogs with losartan excreted approximately 18% more sodium (69 +/- 7 vs. 38 +/- 5 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and 15% more urine during the 2 h of CMV because of a higher glomerular filtration rate (5.3 +/- 0.3 vs. 4.5 +/- 0.2 ml. min-1. kg-1) and the tubular effects of losartan. In the group without expansion, sodium excretion (2.0 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.6 +/- 1.0 micromol. min-1. kg-1) and glomerular filtration rate (3.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 3.8 +/- 0.4 ml. min-1. kg-1) did not change, and urine volume decreased similarly in both groups during CMV. Plasma vasopressin and aldosterone increased in both groups, and plasma renin activity increased from 4.9 +/- 0.7 to 7.8 +/- 1.3 ng ANG I. ml-1. h-1 during CMV in nonexpanded dogs without losartan. Mean arterial pressure decreased by 10 mmHg in nonexpanded dogs with losartan. In conclusion, losartan increases sodium excretion and urine volume during CMV if the ECV is expanded. If the ECV is not expanded, a decrease in mean arterial blood pressure and/or an increase in aldosterone and vasopressin during CMV attenuates the renal effects of losartan.  (+info)

*Candesartan

As with other angiotensin II receptor antagonists, candesartan is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. Results from the ... Jul-Aug 1993). "Pilot study of a new angiotensin II receptor antagonist, TCV-116: effects of a single oral dose on blood ... Candesartan (rINN) /ˌkændɪˈsɑːrtən/ is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used mainly for the treatment of hypertension. The ... 1992). "Hypotensive activity of TCV-116, a newly developed angiotensin II receptor antagonist, in spontaneously hypertensive ...

*Angiotensin II receptor blocker

... s (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists , AT1 receptor antagonists or ... These substances are AT1-receptor antagonists; that is, they block the activation of angiotensin II AT1 receptors. Blockage of ... They block the activation of AT1 receptors, preventing the binding of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used ... The issue of whether angiotensin II receptor antagonists slightly increase the risk of myocardial infarction (MI or heart ...

*Angiotensin II receptor type 1

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists are drugs indicated for hypertension, diabetic nephropathy and congestive heart failure. ... Angiotensin II receptor type 1 or AT1 receptor is the best characterized angiotensin receptor. It has vasopressor effects and ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ... Saavedra JM, Benicky J, Zhou J (2007). "Mechanisms of the Anti-Ischemic Effect of Angiotensin II AT( 1 ) Receptor Antagonists ...

*Angiotensin II receptor

... antagonist de Gasparo M, Catt KJ, Inagami T, Wright JW, Unger T (2000). "International union of ... The angiotensin II receptors, (AGTR1) and (AGTR2), are a class of G protein-coupled receptors with angiotensin II as their ... The angiotensin receptor is activated by the vasoconstricting peptide angiotensin II. The activated receptor in turn couples to ... The AT4 receptor is activated by the angiotensin II metabolite angiotensin IV, and may play a role in regulation of the CNS ...

*Discovery and development of angiotensin receptor blockers

The angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), also called angiotensin (AT1) receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of ... 1995), "Synthesis and angiotensin II receptor antagonist activity of C-linked pyrimidine derivatives" (PDF), European Journal ... Two more angiotensin receptors have been described, AT3 and AT4, but their role is still unknown. AT1 receptors are mainly ... Burnier, M.; Brunner, H.R. (2000), "Angiotensin II receptor antagonists" (PDF), Lancet, 355 (9204): 637-645, doi:10.1016/S0140- ...

*Bezold-Jarisch reflex

Sever, P. S.; Hughes, A. (June 2001). "Angiotensin receptor antagonists and vaso-vagal attacks due to sensitisation of the ... angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonists and serotonin agonists may also elicit the reflex. Vasodepressor syncope or ... However, pressure receptors in the wall and trabeculae of the underfilled left ventricle may then sense stimuli, activating ... presumably by stimulating ventricular receptors. It is possible that these chemical stimuli activate the same stretch-sensitive ...

*Irbesartan

Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR, Berl T, Pohl MA, Lewis JB, Ritz E, Atkins RC, Rohde R, ... As with all angiotensin II receptor antagonists, irbesartan is indicated for the treatment of hypertension. It may also delay ... Irbesartan (INN) /ɜːrbəˈsɑːrtən/ is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used mainly for the treatment of hypertension. It was ... 2001). "Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 ...

*Telmisartan

... (INN) /tɛlmɪˈsɑːrtən/ is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (angiotensin receptor blocker, ARB) used in the ... Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker that shows high affinity for the angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1), with a ... Side effects are similar to other angiotensin II receptor antagonists and include tachycardia and bradycardia (fast or slow ... "Identification of Telmisartan as a Unique Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist with Selective PPAR -Modulating Activity". ...

*Losartan

It is in the angiotensin II receptor antagonist family of medication and works by blocking angiotensin II. Losartan was ... competitive angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) antagonist, reducing the end organ responses to angiotensin II. Losartan ... As with all angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1) antagonists, losartan is used to treatment hypertension. It may also delay ... Losartan and other angiotensin-receptor antagonists exhibit fetal toxicity and should be avoided during pregnancy, particularly ...

*Tasosartan

... is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. It was withdrawn from FDA review by the manufacturer after phase III ... ISBN 0-12-369417-5. Dina R, Jafari M (July 2000). "Angiotensin II-receptor antagonists: an overview". Am J Health Syst Pharm. ...

*Antihypertensive drug

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists work by antagonizing the activation of angiotensin receptors. azilsartan candesartan ... On the other hand, β-blockers, diuretics, ACE inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone receptor antagonists ... Aldosterone receptor antagonists: eplerenone spironolactone Aldosterone receptor antagonists are not recommended as first-line ... However, ACE inhibitors (and angiotensin II receptor antagonists) should not be a first-line treatment for black hypertensives ...

*Andrew Stewart Coats

... angiotensin receptor antagonist in heart failure), and SENIORS (management of heart failure in the elderly). He has published ...

*Amlodipine

Olmesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and blocks part of the RAAS pathway. Amlodipine/perindopril if using ... Amlodipine/valsartan or amlodipine/valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide, where valsartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. The ... Amlodipine/telmisartan, where telmisartan is an Angiotensin II receptor antagonist. ... Amlodipine has additionally been found to act as an antagonist of the mineralocorticoid receptor, or as an ...

*Calcium channel blocker

ACE inhibitor Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Nitrate Tfelt-Hansen, P; Tfelt-Hansen, J (2009). "Verapamil for cluster ... Calcium channel blockers (CCB), calcium channel antagonists or calcium antagonists are several medications that disrupt the ... The lower levels of vasopressin from the consumption of alcohol have been linked to ethanol acting as an antagonist to voltage- ... Calcium Channel Antagonists". Poisoning & drug overdose (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill Medical. ISBN 0071668330. "calcium channel ...

*History of hypertension

February 1996). "Nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists: the next generation in antihypertensive therapy". J. Med. Chem ... More recently angiotensin receptor blockers and renin inhibitors have also been introduced as antihypertensive agents. Esunge ... Black JW, Crowther AF, Shanks RG, Smith LH, Dornhorst AC (May 1964). "A new adrenergic beta receptor antagonist". Lancet. 1 ( ... The renin-angiotensin system was known to play an important role in blood pressure regulation, and angiotensin converting ...

*Valsartan

It is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (commonly called an ARB, or angiotensin receptor blocker), that is selective for ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Discovery and development of angiotensin receptor blockers Valsartan/hydrochlorothiazide ... The drug binds to angiotensin type I receptors (AT1), working as an antagonist. This mechanism of action is different than that ... As valsartan acts at the receptor, it can provide more complete angiotensin II antagonism since angiotensin II is generated by ...

*Renin inhibitor

... design Angiotensin Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Beta blocker Circulatory system Discovery and development of angiotensin ... and similar to angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Ang II also functions within the RAAS as a negative feedback to suppress ... This can be problematic for ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonist therapy since increased PRA could partially ... A reduction in Ang II levels or blockade of angiotensin receptors will suppress the feedback loop and lead to increased plasma ...

*Forasartan

... , otherwise known as the compound SC-52458, is a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB, AT1 receptor ... "an Orally Active Angiotensin II-Receptor Antagonist: Inhibition of Blood Pressure Response to Angiotensin II Challenges and ... McMahon, EG; Yang PC (1997). "Effects of SC-52458, an Angiotensin AT1 Receptor Antagonist, in the Dog". American Journal of ... Usune, S; Furukawa T (1996). "Effects of SC-52458, a New Nonpeptide Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist, on Increase in ...

*Olmesartan

In studies of angiotensin II receptor antagonists such as olmesartan, patients with unilateral or bilateral renal artery ... Olmesartan medoxomil is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist which is used for the treatment of high blood pressure. It was ... "An update on non-peptide angiotensin receptor antagonists and related RAAS modulators", Life Sci., 81 (8): 615-39, doi:10.1016/ ... "Olmesartan is More Effective Than Other Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists in Reducing Proteinuria in Patients With Chronic ...

*ACE inhibitor

Angiotensin II receptor antagonist Discovery and development of angiotensin receptor blockers Loop diuretic, also used to treat ... angiotensin II receptor antagonists may be useful because they act to prevent the action of angiotensin II at the AT1 receptor ... "Pregnancy Outcome Following Exposure to Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors or Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists: A ... The combination therapy of angiotensin II receptor antagonists with ACE inhibitors may be superior to either agent alone. This ...

*Management of heart failure

Angiotensin II receptor antagonist therapy (also referred to as AT1-antagonists or angiotensin receptor blockers), particularly ... other than ACE inhibitors or angiotensin II receptor antagonists, with proven survival benefits. This combination appears to be ... "Angiotensin receptor blockers for heart failure". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 4 (23): CD003040. doi:10.1002/ ... 2001). "A randomized trial of the angiotensin-recepto blocker valsartan in chronic heart failure". N Engl J Med. 345 (23): 1667 ...

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... is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used for the treatment of high blood pressure. It is marketed in the United ... As with other angiotensin II receptor antagonists, eprosartan is generally better tolerated than enalapril (an ACE inhibitor), ... First, it blocks the binding of angiotensin II to AT1 receptors in vascular smooth muscle, causing vascular dilatation. Second ... Discovery and development of angiotensin receptor blockers Anon., 2006, Abbott Laboratories: Kos Pharmaceuticals a wise buy, ...

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Those who cannot tolerate ACE inhibitors may be treated with an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Statin therapy has been ... Aldosterone antagonists (spironolactone or eplerenone) may be used if there is evidence of left ventricular dysfunction after ... In very high-risk scenarios, inhibitors of the platelet glycoprotein αIIbβ3a receptor such as eptifibatide or tirofiban may be ...

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The meta-analysis by Etminan and colleagues addresses an interesting question. Do angiotensin II receptor antagonists, similar to β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (1, 2), reduce the frequency of headaches in patients with hypertension? The pooled results show a reduction in headache frequency with angiotensin II receptor antagonists. The findings should be interpreted with caution, however, because headache was not the primary outcome in any of the individual studies; the angiotensin II receptor antagonists chosen were not standardized; doses were not equivalent; and the definitions and types of headaches were not specified. Did the patients in these studies have tension headaches, migraine headaches, nasosinus headaches, or cluster headaches? Meta-analysis of secondary study endpoints should be considered hypothesis-generating, and the authors rightly call for a clinical trial to confirm the findings of this meta-analysis. The mechanism of ...
Consistent with our previous results,11 we confirmed that pressure overload induced morphological changes of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, coronary arterial thickening, and perivascular fibrosis in mice. Of interest, coronary arterial thickening and perivascular fibrosis were exaggerated in Agtr2− mice compared with Agtr2+ mice, whereas cardiomyocyte hypertrophy developed similarly in the 2 strains. Using in vivo transfer of the AT2 receptor gene into the balloon-injured rat carotid artery6 and cuff placement around the femoral artery in Agtr2+ and Agtr2− mice, we have also shown that the AT2 receptor can inhibit VSMC growth in vivo.14 In vitro cell culture studies also suggest that the AT2 receptor exerts growth-inhibitory effects on various cells.7-10. In contrast, Senbonmatsu et al15 recently observed that targeted deletion of the mouse AT2 receptor prevented left ventricular hypertrophy (assessed by echocardiography) resulting from pressure overload, implying that the AT2 receptor is a ...
Effects of combined administration of ACE inhibitor and angiotensin II receptor antagonist are prevented by a high NaCl intake Journal Articles Refereed ...
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Table of Contents: Angiotensin receptor antagonists were developed during the 1970th and 80th. In Germany there are seven labeled substances: losartan, valsartan, eprosartan, irbesartan, candesartan, telmisartan, olmesartan. They are all used for hypertension, some have additional indications like diabetic nephropathy or heart failure. In Europe there is no registration for children and adolescents younger than 18 years. In USA losartan and valsartan are labeled for children 6 years and older with primary hypertension. The most important clinical effects of the angiotensin receptor antagonists are lowering of systolic and diastolic blood pressure, antiproteinuric effects and amelioration of left ventricular hypertrophy. This article explores the efficacy and safety of angiotensin receptor antagonists in children and adolescents by means of a systematic review according to the standards of the Cochrane Collaboration. Beyond that a registry for children and adolescents with renal diseases in ...
36 Consistent with this hypothesis it appears that the beneficial effects of AT2R activation are more pronounced in the FVB/N strain, whereas the C57BL/6 strain seems to be associated with more deleterious effects of AT2R activation. 3). In this context it is important to note that ATBP - also known as ATIP and MTSG, since it was cloned independently by three different groups - mediates antiproliferative effects. 9,46 Interestingly, a high level of PLZF expression was especially observed in the heart by Northern blotting,5 which, considering that PLZF might be regulated depending on the genetic background and the (patho)physiological state, could explain the discrepancies in AT2R function observed in this organ. Csikos T, Balmforth AJ, Grojec M et al. Angiotensin AT2 receptor degradation is prevented by ligand occupation. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 1998; 243:142-7. 7. Zhang J, Pratt RE. The AT2 receptor selectively associates with Gialpha2 and Gialpha3 in the rat fetus. J Biol Chem 1996; ...
Generally, the carrier can be anhydrous or aqueous. It can thus comprise an aqueous phase and/or a fatty phase. Thus, in one preferred embodiment of the present invention, the compositions comprise a fatty phase, in particular made of fatty bodies liquid at 25 °C, such as oils from animal, vegetable, mineral or synthetic origin, either volatile or not, fatty bodies solid at 25 °C such as waxes from animal, vegetable, mineral or synthetic origin; of pasty fatty bodies; of gums; and the mixtures thereof. The volatile oils are generally oils having, at 25 °C, a saturating vapor tension at least equal to 0.5 millibar (50 Pa). Fatty phase components include, but are not restricted to: cyclic volatile silicones having 3 to 8 silicon atoms, preferably 4 to 6, cyclocopolymers of the dimethylsiloxane/methylalkylsiloxane type, linear volatile silicones with 2 to 9 silicon atoms, hydrocarbon volatile oils, such as isoparaffins and, more particularly, isododecane and fluorinated oils, ...
The heart is a beating muscle that pumps blood to the body through a network of arteries. The force of the blood is constantly putting pressure on the...
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... OLMESARTAN, This medicine is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used to treat high blood pressure. It may also be used to other conditions as determined by your doctor.
Benicar - Benicar is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). It keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow.
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This study is a multicenter placebo-controlled double-blind randomized clinical trial. The design scheme is depicted in Figure 1. (see below). At the time of screening, all pentoxifylline-naïve participants must have been receiving angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) per day for no less than 8 weeks and have stable renal function with serum creatinine elevation , 25% in the preceding 8 weeks. For patients taking maximal dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) for more than 8 weeks, randomization will be started after recruitment. For patients taking submaximal, fixed dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB)for ≥ 8 weeks, with good BP(blood pressure), i.e., ≤ 130/80 mmHg, randomization can also be started after recruitment. However, for patients taking submaximal dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) with suboptimal BP, i.e., ?130/80 mmHg, patients can be recruited but will not be randomized until the dose of angiotensin receptor blockers(ARB) has been fixed for ≥ 8 weeks, or a ...
PubMed journal article Beyond ONTARGET: angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition and angiotensin II receptor blockade in combination, a lesser evil in some? were found in PRIME PubMed. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone or iPad.
Angiotensin Receptor Blocker Angiotensin receptor blocker such as losartan, candensartan and valsartan are useful in treating patient with congestive heart failure and hypertension. Angiotensin receptor blocker will act by binding and blocking angioten
The study aims to investigate the effect of acute angiotensin receptor blockade on insulin action/insulin resistance and expressions of selected adipocytokines in subcutaneous adipose tissue in insulin-resistant subjects with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls.. Hypothesis: Changes in adipocytokine concentrations and/or expressions and different reactions to acute in vivo induced hyperinsulinemia and angiotensin receptor blockade will be found in patients with type 2 diabetes compared to healthy subjects. A significant relationships between insulin sensitivity and selected adipokines and intracellular fat content and high energy phosphates in soleus muscle will be documented in healthy individuals, while no significant relation will be found in patients with type 2 diabetes. ...
Learn about the drug Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs). Includes generic and brand name examples, dosage, how the drug works, why it is used and side effects.
Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) act as antagonists of the AngiotensinII Type1 receptor (AT2R1) [Swiss-Prot:P30556], and were designed to treat moderate hypertension. Although ARBs have been marketed for nearly a decade, their mode of action is not fully understood, and debate still rages whether Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors (ACEI) or ARBs are superior at reducing ultimate mortality due to cardiovascular dysfunction.. An editorial in the New England Journal of Medicine concluded [1]:. "in two recently reported clinical trials in which the investigators were allowed to increase the dose of Losartan gradually to 100 mg per day, there was a significant reduction in the incidence of heart failure among high-risk patients; this finding raises the important question of whether higher doses of Losartan might have been more effective in reducing the rates of cardiovascular events" Yet in-vitro studies [2] have shown that the ARBs produce an efficient and total blockade of the Angiotensin ...
BACKGROUND: Few studies have directly compared the renoprotective effects of angiotensin II-receptor blockers and angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitors in persons with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this prospective, multicenter, double-blind, five-year study, we randomly assigned 250 subjects with type 2 diabetes and early nephropathy to receive either the angiotensin II-receptor blocker telmisartan (80 mg daily, in 120 subjects) or the ACE inhibitor enalapril (20 mg daily, in 130 subjects). The primary end point was the change in the glomerular filtration rate (determined by measuring the plasma clearance of iohexol) between the baseline value and the last available value during the five-year treatment period. Secondary end points included the annual changes in the glomerular filtration rate, serum creatinine level, urinary albumin excretion, and blood pressure, the rates of end-stage renal disease and cardiovascular events, and the rate of death from all causes. RESULTS: After five ...
In this systematic review, we identified a significantly increased risk of hyperkalaemia among people prescribed aliskiren (Rasilez; Novartis Pharmaceuticals, Switzerland) in combination with an ACE inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker compared with those prescribed monotherapy using aliskiren, an ACE inhibitor, or angiotensin receptor blocker. This risk was about 50% greater in those prescribed combination therapy than among those receiving ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blocker monotherapy, and was about 70% greater in those prescribed combination therapy than among those receiving aliskiren monotherapy. We found no evidence of a significant difference in the risk of acute kidney injury between the study groups.. To date, no published systematic reviews or meta-analyses have evaluated the safety of combination therapy with aliskiren and ACE inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers. Previously published pooled analyses of the safety of aliskiren have provided discordant ...
Angiotensin receptor blocker shield blood vessels from angiotensin II, which result in relaxed blood vessels and thus lower blood pressure.
The more recent advent of specific angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers (ARBs) provides the treating physician with a much more focused and specific pharmacological means of inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system.. These agents act at the AT1R.42,43⇓ In theory, the action of non-ACE-generated angiotensin II should be blocked by these agents and obviously not by ACE inhibitors. The effect of angiotensin II at other ATRs should also be unaffected (and, indeed, enhanced by the reflex increase in angiotensin II after AT1R blockade). The other ATR identified in humans, the AT2R, is postulated to have potentially desirable actions, eg, induction of nitric oxide release.44 Conversely, as ACE equates to kininase II (which degrades bradykinin), ACE inhibitors may have a greater effect on bradykinin metabolism than ARBs. Whatever the theoretical pharmacological merits of these 2 therapies, the ELITE-2 study did not confirm its hypothesis that the AT1R blocker losartan was superior to ...
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of acute pancreatitis in a patient receiving a combination formulation of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ). CASE SUMMARY: A 33-year-old white woman developed acute pancreatitis 10 days after starting irbesartan 30
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The early blood pressure and hemodynamic effects of the converting enzyme inhibitor (CEI), captopril, were compared in 23 hypertensive patients with those of a specific angiotensin II antagonist (AA), [Sar1, Thr8] A II. AA reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP) greater than 10 mm Hg only in seven of 23 patients vs 15 of 23 who responded to CEI (p less than 0.02). With both drugs, changes in MAP were not associated with significant changes in cardiac output (p greater than 0.10 for both drugs), but correlated with changes in systemic resistance (TPR); r = 0.84, p less than 0.001 for AA and r = 0.71, p less than 0.001 for CEI. Changes in TPR and MAP correlated significantly and inversely with log plasma renin activity in both instances; for AA, r = 0.829 and for CEI, r = -0.737; p less than 0.001 for both. The slopes of the two regression lines were not significantly different but the intercepts were +8.47 mm Hg for AA vs -10.17 mm Hg for CEI (p less than 0.001). This quantitative difference in ...
Telmisartan is an orally active nonpeptide angiotensin II antagonist that acts on the AT1 receptor subtype. New studies suggest that telmisartan may also have PPARγ agonistic properties that could potentially confer beneficial metabolic effects. This observation is currently being explored in clinical trials. Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II). Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, with effects that include vasoconstriction, stimulation of synthesis and release of aldosterone, cardiac stimulation, and renal reabsorption of sodium. Telmisartan works by blocking the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone secretory effects of angiotensin II ...
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Recent studies have revealed significant contributory functions of RAS in the pathophysiology of AD. Activation of RAS in the AD brain was reported by some groups.9-11 These findings support the attractive hypothesis that inhibition of the brain RAS could be a new therapeutic strategy for AD.12 Indeed, a recent study showed that treatment with brain-penetrating ACE inhibitors slowed the rate of cognitive decline in AD patients in comparison with other antihypertensive medication.21 However, some in vitro studies have suggested that ACE could play an important role in the metabolism of Aβ,22,23 demonstrating that ACE degraded Aβ and ACE inhibition increased Aβ levels. On the other hand, as treatment of Tg2576 mice with an ACE inhibitor promoted Aβ deposition,24 treatment with ACE inhibitors might be a risk factor for AD. This effect of ACE inhibition on Aβ metabolism should be carefully considered, especially in relation to long-term treatment with ACE inhibitors. Additional studies are ...
Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (sometimes called an ARB blocker). Losartan is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) in adults and children who are at least 6 years old. It is also used to lower the risk of stroke in certain people with heart disease. Losartan is also used to slow long-term...
Losartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Losartan keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow. Losartan is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension) in adults and children who are at least 6 years old. It is also used to lower the risk of stroke in certain...
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Teva-Telmisartan: Telmisartan belongs to a class of medications known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists. These medications reduce blood pressure by blocking the actions of a chemical (angiotensin II) that causes blood vessels to constrict or tighten. It is used to treat mild to moderate high blood pressure.
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The increasing burden on health care providers from chronic kidney disease (CKD) is due to the escalating prevalence of obesity, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. The gradual decline in kidney function in the presence of these risk factors is also as
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Congestive heart failure medications in development are discussed with focus on LCZ696 a novel heart failure medication from Novartis that has shown promise. LCZ696 is an angiotensin receptor antagonist and neprilysin inhibitor (ARNI).
The Food and Drugs Administration has completed a safety review of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) after they were linked with an increased risk of cancer.. This review of 31 randomised clinical trials involving almost 156,000 participants, of whom 84,461 were treated with an ARB, found no increased risk. The review analysed the data for new cancer cases, cancer-related death, breast cancer, lung cancer and prostate cancer. There was no increase in risk for any of these outcomes.. Action: Clinicians and patients can be reassured by this safety review. It is important to note that the overall evidence still places ARBs are still second line to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs). ...
Losartan K Kaken is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. A list of US medications equivalent to Losartan K Kaken is available on the Drugs.com website.
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Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists (or blockers) are a newer class of antihypertensive agents. These drugs are selective for angiotensin II (type 1 receptor); unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, they do not inhibit bradykinin metabolism or enhance prostaglandin synthesis. Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are well tolerated. Cough occurs much less often with these agents than with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, and they do not adversely affect lipid profiles or cause rebound hypertension after discontinuation. Clinical trials indicate that angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are effective and safe in the treatment of hypertension. Their use in congestive heart failure and renal disease is under investigation.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Discontinuation of Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Chronic Kidney Disease. AU - Qiao, Yao. AU - Shin, Jung Im. AU - Sang, Yingying. AU - Inker, Lesley A.. AU - Secora, Alex. AU - Luo, Shengyuan. AU - Coresh, Josef. AU - Alexander, G. Caleb. AU - Jackson, John W.. AU - Chang, Alex R.. AU - Grams, Morgan E.. PY - 2019/11/1. Y1 - 2019/11/1. N2 - Objective: To assess the patterns of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) discontinuation in the setting of chronic kidney disease (CKD) progression in real-world clinical practice. Patients and Methods: We identified incident ACE-I/ARB users with a baseline estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥15 mL/min/1.73 m2 and without end-stage renal disease in the Geisinger Health System between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2015. We investigated the associations of CKD stage, hospitalizations with and without acute kidney injury (AKI), serum ...
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The thesis structure: 148 pages of computer-writing which include: introduction, literature review, materials and methods, 2 chapters with the results of own researches, general conclusions, practical recommendations, bibliography which includes 163 sources, annexes, 33 tables and 42 figures. 12 scientific articles on the basis of the work are published. Domain of application: pharmacology, clinical pharmacology. Aim and objectives: to study the clinical and pharmacological aspects of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor lisinopril, angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan and their combination in the treatment of chronic heart failure of II-IV functional classes. Objectives. determine the evolution of clinical, hemodynamic and morpho-functional parameters of the heart of patients with ischemic CHF during complex treatment with losartan; to assess the efficacy of treatment with lisinopril complex of patients with ischemic CHF after development of clinical symptoms and morpho-functional ...
2017 The Author. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. Background. Although statins, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are generally well tolerated, the impact of these therapies individually or in combination on the change in neurocognitive function in persons with human immunodeficiency virus infection is unknown. Methods. The study included participants in the AIDS Clinical Trials Group Longitudinal Linked Randomized Trials cohort participants not receiving a statin or ACEI/ARB within 30 days of first neurologic assessment (baseline), with assessments by NPZ-3 (z score of averaged Trailmaking A and B tests and digit symbol test [DST]) from ≥2 measurements. Marginal structural models estimated the causal effect of statin or ACEI/ARB initiation on neurocognitive function; initial constant slope was assumed during the first year of treatment and a second constant slope thereafter. Results. Of ...
Both angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) reduce angiotensin action. Angiotensin, a powerful hormone, has many actions, the most important of which is constriction of small blood vessels, leading to a rise in blood pressure and therefore in the pressure of blood within the glomerular capillaries in the kidneys. Lowering this pressure may well be the mechanism by which these drugs tend to slow progression of kidney failure.. The effects of ACEIs differ from those of ARBs in several important respects. It is even conceivable that taking drugs from both classes is more effective than taking just one or the other alone. Unfortunately, side-to-side comparisons of these two classes of drugs have not been performed, because the drug industry has no interest in such trials. These drugs are also effective in reducing urinary protein excretion in the nephrotic syndrome, and they also slow progression of chronic renal failure even when added to a ...
Two recent trials of angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) were performed in children 0-5 years of age. Data from the published reports of these trials together with additional information from the sponsoring drug companies were obtained. Three deaths occurred in the 183 (1.6%) hypertensive children participating in the two trials. At least two of these deaths occurred in children known to be susceptible to drugs acting on the renin-angiotensin system, that is, children with ongoing nephrotic syndrome and acute gastroenteritis. Clinicians who prescribe ARBs in preschool children need to be aware of the risk of drug toxicity especially in children susceptible to intravascular dehydration. Clinicians should consider discontinuing the drugs in the presence of acute diarrhoea.. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers in Myocardial Infarction. AU - Kostis, John. PY - 2019/7/1. Y1 - 2019/7/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85065221731&partnerID=8YFLogxK. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85065221731&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248419841636. DO - https://doi.org/10.1177/1074248419841636. M3 - Letter. C2 - 31035789. VL - 24. JO - Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. JF - Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics. SN - 1074-2484. IS - 4. ER - ...
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Angiotensin receptor blockers for the reduction of proteinuria in diabetic patients with overt nephropathy: results from the AMADEO study Prasad Bichu1, Ravi Nistala1, Asma Khan2, James R Sowers2, Adam Whaley-Connell11Divisions of Nephrology and Endocrinology; 2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Missouri-Columbia School of Medicine, Columbia Missouri, USAAbstract: Diabetic kidney disease is characterized by persistent albuminuria (>300 mg/dl or >200 μg/min) that is confirmed on at least 2 occasions 3 to 6 months apart, with a progressive decline in the glomerular filtration rate (GFR), elevated arterial blood pressure, and an increased risk for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Diabetic kidney disease is the leading cause of end stage renal disease (ESRD) prompting investigators to evaluate mechanisms by which to slow disease progression. One such mechanism is to block the activity of angiotensin II at the receptor site and agents that follow this mechanism are referred to as
Initial studies suggested that angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and (possibly) aldosterone antagonists might either prevent new onset and recurrent atrial fibrillation (AF) or reduce the rate of ma
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Choice of angiotensin receptor blocker affects mortality in heart failure - analysis of 5823 patients in the swedish heart failure registry in EUROPEAN HEART JOURNAL, vol 31, issue , pp 848-848 ...
Losartan is a 4-chloro-5-hydroxymethylimidazole derivative that is a potent and highly selective angiotensin II receptor antagonist. Losartan is metabolized in vivo in rats, monkeys, and humans to a carboxylic acid derivative E3174 that is pharmacologically more active than the parent compound. We have investigated the mechanism of this biotransformation in human liver preparations. The oxidation of both losartan and the putative aldehyde intermediate E3179 was catalyzed by the microsomal fraction, required both NADPH and molecular oxygen, and was inhibited by SKF 525-A, implicating cytochrome P450 (CYP). When incubations with each substrate were performed under an atmosphere of 18O2, the extent of 18O incorporation into the carboxylic acid product was consistent with a mechanism for losartan oxidation involving an aldehyde intermediate. To substantiate the involvement of CYP in these reactions, incubations with losartan and the aldehyde E3179 were performed in the presence of isoform-selective ...
It is well-known that cardiac hypertrophy and arterial and renal dysfunction are serious complications of hypertension. Therefore, we investigated the chronic effects of 606A (2-propyl-3-[2′(1,I,H,/I,-tetrazole-5-yl)biphenyl-4-yl]methyl-5-acetyl-4, 5, 6, 7-tetrahydro imidazo[4, 5-,I,c,/I,]pyridine-4-carboxylic acid disodium salt), a novel AT,SUB,1,/SUB,-receptor antagonist, on these complications of hypertension in stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) using Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) as the control. After 8 weeks treatment from 16 weeks of age with 606A by a subcutaneously implanted osmotic pump, cardiac function, cardiac weight, acetylcholine-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in the isolated aorta and renal function were estimated. Furthermore, wall thickness of the left ventricle was studied morphologically. We found that 606A (0.3 mg, 1 mg and 3 mg/head/day) dose-dependently lowered blood pressure without any effects on heart rate in SHRSP. Long-term treatments with 606A ...
Telmisartan is an orally active nonpeptide angiotensin II antagonist that acts on the AT1 receptor subtype. New studies suggest that telmisartan may also have PPARγ agonistic properties that could potentially confer beneficial metabolic effects. This observation is currently being explored in clinical trials. Angiotensin II is formed from angiotensin I in a reaction catalyzed by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE, kininase II). Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, with effects that include vasoconstriction, stimulation of synthesis and release of aldosterone, cardiac stimulation, and renal reabsorption of sodium. Telmisartan works by blocking the vasoconstrictor and aldosterone secretory effects of angiotensin II ...
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, specifically angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), have confirmed renoprotective benefits in patients with proteinuria and hypertension. However, it remains controversial whether these agents are beneficial to kidney recipients. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of ACEI/ARB treatment on patient and allograft survival after kidney transplant. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible articles from before May 2016, and we included 24 articles (9 randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and 15 cohort studies with 54,096 patients), in which patient or graft survival was compared between an ACEI/ARB treatment arm and a control arm ...
Ibresartan is available in 75, 150 and 300 mg tablets generically and under the trade name Avapro. 5mg/150mg and 12. Avalide If you think of using the irbesartan , remember it is a blood pressure medication. Buy Tetracycline Topical Irbesartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist which works by relaxing …. 5 mg of hydrochlorothiazide. The catalog displays all strengths and sizes along with the description, imprint code, NDC and …. Contrary to Sanderss assertions, the "intrinsic-value" test 2 for taxable sales is simply a variant of the "investment-theory" test advanced by the state at trial Videos in the series are filmed inside two Airstream trailers at Bottletree, avalide tab 150mg an Avondale concert venue. It belongs to a class of drugs called angiotensin receptor blockers ( Avalide Tab 150mg ARBs ) which also includes valsartan ( Diovan ), losartan ( Cozaar ), and candesartan ( Atacand ) Irbesartan is the generic form of the brand-name drug Avapro, which is used to treat high blood ...
Patients with type 2 diabetes frequently have to be treated with more than one drug. Effects of oral antidiabetic drugs depend on the extent of drug absorption from the gut lumen, on metabolism of the drug in the liver, and on the extent of its excretion into bile and urine (21). In general, modification of all these processes by a second, concomitantly administered drug can alter the effects of oral antidiabetic drugs (21).. Recently, it was recognized that a broad variety of drugs, including many cardiovascular drugs such as statins and angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, is transported through biological membranes via specific transport proteins (15,22-24). For example, the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein, which translocates its substrates from the inside of the cell to the outside (e.g., from the hepatocyte into bile) is a major determinant of drug effects (1). If P-glycoprotein-mediated drug excretion is inhibited by a second, concomitantly administered compound, drug plasma ...
Abstract:. Candesartan is potent antihypertensive drug of class angiotensin II receptor antagonist. But it exhibits poor water solubility and extensive first pass metabolism. Present research deals with development of candesartan buccal film. Optimisation of buccal film was done by design expert. Optimised concentration range selected for development of trial batches of candesaratanbuccal films. Mucoadhesivebuccal films of candesartan were prepared by solvent casting technique using chitosan, HPMC, gelatin and EDTA as permeation enhancer. Prepared buccal films evaluated for various pharmaceutical parameters, stability studies, in-vitro and ex-vivo evaluation parameters performed. In-vitroangiotensin II receptor antagonist studies were also performed. Results showed improved bioavaibility of candesartan through buccal films.. ...
International Scholarly Research Notices is a peer-reviewed, Open Access journal covering a wide range of subjects in science, technology, and medicine. The journals Editorial Board as well as its Table of Contents are divided into 108 subject areas that are covered within the journals scope.
2,177例の参加者を対象とした4件のRCTが選択基準を満たした。これらのうち、3件はACEiをプラセボと比較し、1件はACEiをARBと比較していた。2件の研究は全体的に低バイアスリスクであり、他の2件のバイアスリスクは中等度から高度と考えられた。質が低~中等度のエビデンス(1,906例の患者を対象とした2件の研究による)では、ステージ3のCKD患者における総死亡(RR 1.80、95%CI 0.17~19.27、P = 0.63)および心血管系イベント(RR 0.87、95%CI 0.66~1.14、P = 0.31)に対しACEiによる影響はないと示唆された。総死亡では、結果にかなりの異質性を認めた。1件の研究(質評価:バイアス低リスク)では、ACEi投与を受けたeGFR , 45 mL/min/1.74 m2の患者において、プラセボに比べて末期腎疾患リスクに差はみられなかった(RR 1.00、95%CI 0.09~1.11、P = ...
The guidelines above are for the general population, but seniors health needs and benchmarks differ from those of younger individuals in many ways. While 130/80 mmHg is the generic threshold for beginning BP medications, there have been many disagreements among medical professionals regarding the threshold for older adults. Age, frailty and other comorbidities like diabetes and chronic kidney disease complicate this matter even further.. The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) issued guidelines in 2013 recommending that individuals over age 60 aim for a reading below 150/90 mmHg. The JNC 8 recommendation for patients of any age with diabetes or chronic kidney disease is to aim for BP readings below 140/90 mmHg. These are not hard and fast rules, though, because each seniors health needs are unique.. "The JNC 8 guidelines support what we geriatricians have believed for quite some time: many older adults are taking too much BP medication," says Dr. Leslie Kernisan, M.D., M.P.H. In addition ...
The angiotensin receptors are seven-membrane G-protein-coupled receptors. They mediate the cardiovascular and other effects of angiotensin II which is a bioactive peptide of the renin-angiotensin system.. ...
benicar side effects medication. Benicar is used for treating high blood pressure, alone or with other medicines. It may also be used for other conditions.. benicar savings card. Do not take double dose. If you miss a dose you should take it as soon as you remember about your missing. If it is the time for the next dose you should continue your regular dosing schedule.. benicar generic version. If you overdose Benicar and you dont feel good you should visit your doctor or health care provider immediately.. how much does benicar 20 mg cost. Store your medicine at room temperature between 15 and 30 degrees C (59 and 86 degrees F) away from moisture and heat. Throw away any unused medicine after the expiration date. Keep out of the reach of children and in a container that small children cannot open.. benicar hct uses. Benicar is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist. It works by inhibiting the action of a chemical transmitter (angiotensin II) and allowing the blood vessels to dilate (widen) and ...
Cozaar is in a group of drugs called angiotensin II receptor antagonists. It keeps blood vessels from narrowing, which lowers blood pressure and improves blood flow. Cozaar is used to treat high blood pressure (hypertension). It is also used to lower the risk of stroke in certain people with heart disease. It is used to slow long-term kidney damage in people with type 2 diabetes who also have high blood pressure and protein in the urine (proteinuria). It may be used alone or in combination with a diuretic ...
Cheng J, Zhang W, Zhang X, et al. Effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin II receptor blockers on all-cause mortality, cardiovascular deaths, and cardiovascular events in patients with diabetes mellitus: a meta-analysis. JAMA Intern Med. 2014;174:773-85. 24687000 ...
Olvance Contain Olmesartan as active ingredient. It belong to the group of drug called angiotensin II receptor antagonists.Olmesartan keep blood vessel from narrowing & lower blood pressure and improve blood flow.
Information about this combination antihypertension medication, including a diuretic and an angiotensin II receptor antagonist, used to treat hypertension or high blood pressure. ...
Buy Telmisartan (CAS 144701-48-4), a selective angiotensin II (AT1) antagonist. Join researchers using high quality Telmisartan from Abcam and achieve your…
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Patients with underlying cardiovascular diseases appear to have an increased risk for adverse outcomes with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are dominated by respiratory symptoms, some patients also may have severe cardiovascular damage. Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors have been shown to be the entry point into human cells for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. In a few experimental studies with animal models, both angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) have been shown to upregulate ACE2 expression in the heart. Though these have not been shown in human studies, or in the setting of COVID-19, such potential upregulation of ACE2 by ACE inhibitors or ARBs has resulted in a speculation of potential increased risk for COVID-19 infection in patients with background treatment of these medications.. ACE2 is a homolog of angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE). ACE2 negatively ...
However, those that fell into the 65 to 80 year old category saw a marked increase in prescriptions, 8.7% of these people were given long term prescriptions for benzos. losartan con hidroclorotiazida precio chile. prescripcion de losartan. onde comprar losartana. precio losartan 50 mg. All have been femur my supplies from generics-online pharmacy and at least half a dozen daughter. precio de losartan potasico 50 mg. comprar losartan. losartan 50 mg prezzo. Thank you for some other magnificent article. losartan generika nebenwirkungen. losartan 50 preis. losartan 25 mg precio. ...
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Study flow chart. Grey boxes represent study population eligible for stratified analysis (n=139). AAR, area-at-risk; ARBs, angiotensin II receptor blockers; FIS
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) inhibitors and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers (ARBs) alone or in combination have similar effects on cardiovascular and renal outcomes in patients with...
You have mild CKD insofar as your GFR is concerned. Regarding the protein levels in your urine, could you kindly post the units of both measurements as each lab uses different expressions for albuminuria and creatinine around the world, and I want to be sure what we are referring to. If your urinary protein is elevated, but only mildly so, then again, this would fall under the mild CKD category. The priority moving forward would be maintaining a blood pressure of less than 140/90 as an absolute maximum and some authorities would recommend even lower, 130/80. As well, it would be important to maintain urinary proteins in a low range with adequate BP control and possible use of ACE inhibitors or Angiotensin Receptor blockers. Once I know the precise urinary protein measurements, I will have a better handle on the degree to which this is the case at present ...
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ATLANTA -- Two strategies aimed at preventing cardiovascular events in high-risk patients -- use of an angiotensin receptor blocker or a short-acting insulin secretagogue for five years -- failed to r
LOSARTAN ACTAVISõhukese polümeerikattega tablett (100mg) Pakendi infoleht: teave kasutajale Losartan Actavis, 25 mg õhukese polümeerikattega
Migliore farmacia Per ordinare Hyzaar Losartan nessuna prescrizione. Hyzaar Generico è usato nel trattamento dell ipertensione. Viene usato per ridurre il rischio di infarto in pazienti affetti da ipertensione. ...
Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs), also known as angiotensin II receptor antagonists , AT1 receptor antagonists or sartans, are a group of pharmaceuticals that modulate the renin-angiotensin system. Their main uses are in the treatment of hypertension (high blood pressure), diabetic nephropathy (kidney damage due to diabetes) and congestive heart failure. They block the activation of AT1 receptors, preventing the binding of angiotensin II. Angiotensin II receptor blockers are used primarily for the treatment of hypertension where the patient is intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy. They do not inhibit the breakdown of bradykinin or other kinins, and are thus only rarely associated with the persistent dry cough and/or angioedema that limit ACE inhibitor therapy.[citation needed] More recently, they have been used for the treatment of heart failure in patients intolerant of ACE inhibitor therapy, in particular candesartan. Irbesartan and losartan have trial data showing benefit in ...
Angiotensin II receptor blockade reduces new-onset atrial fibrillation and subsequent stroke compared to atenolol: The Losartan Intervention for End point reduction in hypertension (LIFE) study Academic Article ...
Angiotensin receptor blocker definition at Dictionary.com, a free online dictionary with pronunciation, synonyms and translation. Look it up now!
Forasartan, otherwise known as the compound SC-52458, is a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist (ARB, AT1 receptor blocker). Forasartan is indicated for the treatment of hypertension and, similar to other ARBs, it protects the kidneys from kidney blood vessel damage caused by increased kidney blood pressure by blocking renin-angiotensin system activation. Forasartan is administered in the active oral form which means that it must go through first pass metabolism in the liver. The dose administered ranges between 150 mg-200 mg daily. Increasing to more than 200 mg daily does not offer significantly greater AT1 receptor inhibition. Forasartan is absorbed quickly in the GI, and within an hour it becomes significantly biologically active. Peak plasma concentrations of the drug are reached within one hour. Negative side effects of Forasartan are similar to other ARBs, and include hypotension and hyperkalemia. There are no drug interactions identified with forasartan. Angiotensin II binds to ...
Reduce the impact of angiotensin II receptor blocker drugs recalls on your patients by switching them from ARB to other appropriate drug therapies.
Role of oxidative modifications in atherosclerosis. 1381-1478, ISSN: 1522-1210 Suguro, T. et al. (2007). Increased human urotensin II levels are correlated with carotid atherosclerosis in essential hypertension. J. 211-217, ISSN: 0895-7061 Susic, D. et al. (2004). Cardiovascular and renal effects of a collagen cross link breaker (ALT 711) in adult and aged spontaneously hypertensive rats. 328-333, ISSN: 0895-7061 Timmermans, PB, et al. The discovery of a new class of highly specific nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists. 2010). In clinical studies, the antihypertensive effect of cilnidipine has been demonstrated in hypertensive patients, and also in patients with severe hypertension or with complications such as chronic kidney disease, cerebrovascular disease and diabetes. Cilnidipine has been reported to improve some hypertensive conditions closely associated with sympathetic nerve activation such as morning hypertension, nocturnal hypertension, white-coat phenomenon, mental stress and ...
Besides its vasoconstrictor role, Ang II acts as a growth-promoting agent. It induces growth (hypertrophy and/or hyperplasia) in many cultured cell types and in vivo.1,2,11-13⇓⇓⇓⇓ Like most of the known physiological effects of Ang II, evidence up to the present has suggested that these trophic effects are mediated by AT1 receptors. Indeed, until recently, it was believed that vascular Ang II receptors were exclusively of the AT1 subtype. However, the adult rat aorta expresses a small but significant amount of AT2 receptors as well.14 In aorta of fetal and young rats, the proportion of AT2 receptors is higher; this predominance of AT2 receptors is reversed during development.14,15⇓ In 2-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats, 81% of angiotensin receptors in the aorta are of the AT2 subtype; in 8-week-old rats, this is reduced to 28%, with a predominance of AT1 (71%).14 In 6-to 8-week-old SHR and WKY rats, renal resistance vessels display 20% of Ang II binding sites with affinity to PD123319.16 ...
The topic for this report was nominated in a public process. With input from technical experts, the Scientific Resource Center (SRC) for the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) Effective Health Care Program drafted the initial key questions and, after approval from AHRQ, posted them to a public Web site. The public was invited to comment on these questions. After reviewing the public commentary, the SRC drafted final key questions and submitted them to AHRQ for approval.
Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists work in a similar way to ACE inhibitors. But instead of stopping the production of angiotensin II, they block its action. This allows the blood vessels to expand, improving blood flow and reducing blood pressure. Angiotensin II is a very potent chemical that causes muscles surrounding blood vessels to contract, thereby narrowing blood vessels. This narrowing increases the pressure within the vessels and can cause high blood pressure (hypertension). Angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) are medications that block the action of angiotensin II by preventing angiotensin II from binding to angiotensin II receptors on blood vessels. As a result, blood vessels enlarge (dilate) and blood pressure is reduced. Reduced blood pressure makes it easier for the heart to pump blood and can improve heart failure. In addition, the progression of kidney disease due to high blood pressure or diabetes is slowed. ARBs have effects that are similar to angiotensin converting enzyme ...
Renin-angiotensin system inhibitors, specifically angiotensin II converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) and angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARB), have confirmed renoprotective benefits in patients with proteinuria and hypertension. However, it remains controversial whether these agents are beneficial to kidney recipients. We conducted this meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of ACEI/ARB treatment on patient and allograft survival after kidney transplant. The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library databases were searched for eligible articles from before May 2016, and we included 24 articles (9 randomised controlled trials [RCTs] and 15 cohort studies with 54,096 patients), in which patient or graft survival was compared between an ACEI/ARB treatment arm and a control arm ...
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This investigation was performed to study the renin-angiotensin system in the human fetoplacental circulation. Full-term placentas from uncomplicated pregnancies were studied within 30 min of delivery. The umbilical artery and vein to a single placental cotyledon were cannulated and the artery perfused with RPMI media (0.764 ml/min). Angiotensin II caused a dose-dependent increase in perfusion pressure that was blunted by the administration of the competitive angiotensin II receptor antagonist saralasin. The properties of human placental angiotensin II receptors were further defined in binding studies performed on a crude membrane fraction of placental cotyledons. In experiments performed at 22 degrees C, saturable binding reached steady state at 30 min and was linear with protein concentration. Scatchard analysis of binding data indicated a single class of high-affinity binding sites. The potency order to competitive binding of analogues and antagonists of angiotensin II was [Ile5]angiotensin ...
Angiotensin II exerts positive inotropic and chronotropic effects on the mammalian heart by binding to specific membrane receptors. Recently, two subtypes of angiotensin II receptors (AT1 and AT2) have been distinguished by using the nonpeptide antagonists losartan (previously known as DuP 753) and PD123177. To evaluate the tissue distribution and subtypes of angiotensin II receptors in rat heart, we performed a 125I-[Sar1,Ile8]angiotensin II in situ binding assay on tissue sections obtained from adult Sprague-Dawley rats (10 and 14 weeks old). Binding specificity was verified by competition with unlabeled [Sar1]angiotensin II. Distribution of AT1 and AT2 receptors was determined by competition with losartan and PD123177, respectively, and the density of the receptors was quantified by emulsion autoradiography. Angiotensin II receptors were widely distributed throughout the heart, with each receptor subtype accounting for approximately 50% of the specific binding. Binding density was comparable ...
No carcinogenicity studies have been conducted with the combination of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide. There was no evidence of carcinogenicity when candesartan cilexetil was orally administered to mice and rats for up to 104 weeks at doses up to 100 and 1,000 mg/kg/day, respectively. Rats received the drug by gavage whereas mice received the drug by dietary administration. These (maximally-tolerated) doses of candesartan cilexetil provided systemic exposures to candesartan (AUCs) that were, in mice, approximately 7 times and, in rats, more than 70 times the exposure in man at the maximum recommended daily human dose (32 mg). Two-year feeding studies in mice and rats conducted under the auspices of the National Toxicology Program (NTP) uncovered no evidence of a carcinogenic potential of hydrochlorothiazide in female mice (at doses of up to approximately 600 mg/kg/day) or in male and female rats (at doses of up to approximately 100 mg/kg/day). The NTP, however, found equivocal ...
I read the article by Yang JH,et al with great interest, in which the authors compared 1-year prognostic impacts of angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) in patients with ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) with preserved left ventricular systolic function who underwent primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) [1]. I believe it would be appreciated if authors discuss the long-term survival benefit of ARBs before concluding that ARBs are as beneficial as ACEIs in STEMI patients with preserved left ventricular systolic function after PCI.. Although ARBs could be an alternative to ACEIs, a recent observational study using inverse probability of treatment weighting and propensity score matching methods revealed that patients treated with ACEIs had significantly lower long-term mortality compared with those treated with ARBs from 2 to 5 years after acute myocardial infarction [2]. This study also demonstrated that crude ...
Looking for online definition of Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in the Medical Dictionary? Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor explanation free. What is Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor? Meaning of Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor medical term. What does Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor mean?
A renin-Angiotensin System inhibitor and a Calcium channel blocker is a widely used combination for high risk hypertensive. With the advent of Fixed Dose Combination Pill of Telmisartan Amlodipine treatment regime will simplify.. [email protected] Despite the well documented benefits conferred by adequate control of hypertension, the majority of hypertensive patients display suboptimal control and few patients achieve blood pressure (BP) levels,140/90 mmHg. As a consequence, combination therapy will be required in the majority of patients to achieve target BP. Fixed-dose combinations of antihypertensives not only simplify treatment regimens, contributing to enhanced patient adherence, they provide superior BP-lowering efficacy and an improved tolerability profile.. Fixed-dose combinations have become the strategy of choice in high-risk patients or those with stage 2-3 hypertension. The combination of a renin-angiotensin system inhibitor (RASI) with a calcium channel blocker (CCB) is a first-line ...
Angiotensin II blockade with sarcosine1-alanine8-angiotensin II (saralasin, P-113) was done in 40 studies of 20 hypertensive patients. Eleven of 12 patients with a depressor response to angiotensin II blockade had significant renovascular or renal disease, and nine of 10 had renal vein renin measurements that lateralized to the abnormal kidney. In contrast, none of the patients without a depressor response had renovascular abnormalities. Plasma renin activity was usually high in responders to saralasin (18 ng/ml · h) when compared with nonresponders (0.5 ng/ml · h). In these studies a correlation between the fall in blood pressure and the rise in plasma renin activity during angiotensin II blockade was observed while renin was unchanged in the absence of depressor responses. In two renovascular renin-dependent hypertensive patients, treatment with diuretics induced severe hyperreninemia and a rise in blood pressure that was reversed by sodium loading. ...

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... with angiotensin II hydrochlorothiazide receptor hydrochlorothiazide antagonists, including. Bottles of NDC /12.5 mg Tablet - ... Telmisartan selectively binds the AT1 receptor. Angiotensin II is the principal pressor agent of the renin-angiotensin system, ... Description Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets are a combination of an angiotensin II receptor antagonist (AT1 subtype ... and aldosterone-secreting effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking the binding of angiotensin II to the AT1 receptor ...
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AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE - amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsule  - Prescription (RX...AMLODIPINE BESYLATE AND BENAZEPRIL HYDROCHLORIDE - amlodipine besylate and benazepril hydrochloride capsule - Prescription (RX...

Angiotensin II could presumably serve as a specific antagonist-antidote to benazepril, but angiotensin II is essentially ... with the calcium channel receptor is characterized by a gradual rate of association and dissociation with the receptor binding ... ACE is a peptidyl dipeptidase that catalyzes the conversion of angiotensin I to the vasoconstrictor substance angiotensin II. ... Amlodipine is a dihydropyridine calcium antagonist (calcium ion antagonist or slow channel blocker) that inhibits the ...
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Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists to Prevent  Sudden Death in Heart Failure: Does the Dose Matter?Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists to Prevent Sudden Death in Heart Failure: Does the Dose Matter?

Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists to Prevent Sudden Death in Heart Failure: Does the Dose Matter?. Pietro Francia,1 Francesca ... Pietro Francia, Francesca Palano, Giuliano Tocci, et al., "Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists to Prevent Sudden Death in Heart ...
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Effects of AT1 and AT2 Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists in Angiotensin II-Infused Rats | HypertensionEffects of AT1 and AT2 Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists in Angiotensin II-Infused Rats | Hypertension

Angiotensin II receptors and angiotensin II receptor antagonists. Pharmacol Rev. 1993; 25 : 205 -251. ... Effects of AT1 and AT2 Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists in Angiotensin II-Infused Rats. Jin S. Li, Rhian M. Touyz, Ernesto L. ... Angiotensin II receptor subtypes and growth. In Saavedra JM, Timmermans PBMWM, eds. Angiotensin/Receptors. New York: Plenum ... Effects of AT1 and AT2 Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists in Angiotensin II-Infused Rats ...
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Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist on Prohibiting Cardiovascular Events on Hemodialysis Patients - Full Text View -...Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist on Prohibiting Cardiovascular Events on Hemodialysis Patients - Full Text View -...

Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists. Antihypertensive Agents. Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers. Molecular Mechanisms of ... Effects of Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist on Prohibiting Cardiovascular Events on Hemodialysis Patients. The safety and ... Although angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) are effective for patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease in reducing ... Suzuki H, Kanno Y, Sugahara S, Ikeda N, Shoda J, Takenaka T, Inoue T, Araki R. Effect of angiotensin receptor blockers on ...
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Practical recommendations for the use of ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aldosterone antagonists and angiotensin receptor...Practical recommendations for the use of ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aldosterone antagonists and angiotensin receptor...

Recent trials have now shown that treatment with beta-blockers, aldosterone antagonists and angiotensin receptor blockers also ... Practical recommendations for the use of ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, aldosterone antagonists and angiotensin receptor ... Adrenergic beta-Antagonists/therapeutic use*. *Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists*. *Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/ ...
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Pharmacological properties of angiotensin II receptor antagonists.  - PubMed - NCBIPharmacological properties of angiotensin II receptor antagonists. - PubMed - NCBI

Pharmacological properties of angiotensin II receptor antagonists.. Timmermans PB1.. Author information. 1. Tularik Inc, South ... receptor antagonists has provided the opportunity to obtain the benefits of selectively blocking the renin-angiotensin- ... Losartan was the first, but by no means remained the only, AT1 receptor antagonist. Numerous other sartans have emerged in ... Among the current AT1 receptor antagonists, the rank order of the relative binding affinities (highest affinity = 1) is: ...
more infohttps://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10579749?dopt=Abstract

Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists | Blausen MedicalAngiotensin II Receptor Antagonists | Blausen Medical

... "angiotensin II receptor antagonists" may be prescribed. By attaching to AT1 receptors on smooth muscle cells lining the blood ... The end result is that angiotensin II receptor antagonists prevent blood vessels from narrowing, thereby keeping a normal blood ... There are several different brands of angiotensin II receptor antagonists. As with all medications, adverse effects may develop ... In order to cause vessel narrowing, angiotensin II binds to proteins, called AT1 receptors, on the surface of smooth muscles ...
more infohttps://blausen.com/en/video/angiotensin-ii-receptor-antagonists/

Sabinet | Effects of a PPAR -gamma receptor agonist and an angiotensin receptor antagonist on aortic contractile responses to...Sabinet | Effects of a PPAR -gamma receptor agonist and an angiotensin receptor antagonist on aortic contractile responses to...

Concomitant use of PPAR-gamma agonists, thiazolidinediones, and angiotensin receptor blockers may be effective treatment for ... gamma receptor agonist and an angiotensin receptor antagonist on aortic contractile responses to alpha receptor agonists in ... Concomitant use of PPAR-gamma agonists, thiazolidinediones, and angiotensin receptor blockers may be effective treatment for ...
more infohttp://journals.co.za/content/cardio1/27/3/EJC191153

Angiotensin-II Receptor Antagonists: Their Place in Therapy - American Family PhysicianAngiotensin-II Receptor Antagonists: Their Place in Therapy - American Family Physician

Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are well tolerated. Cough occurs much less often with these agents than with angiotensin- ... Clinical trials indicate that angiotensin-II receptor antagonists are effective and safe in the treatment of hypertension. ... These drugs are selective for angiotensin II (type 1 receptor); unlike angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, they do not ... Angiotensin-II receptor antagonists (or blockers) are a newer class of antihypertensive agents. ...
more infohttp://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0601/p3140.html

Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Hypertension - - American Family PhysicianAngiotensin II Receptor Antagonists in the Treatment of Hypertension - - American Family Physician

When data from ongoing trials become available, angiotensin II receptor antagonists may prove to be a good choice for initial ... At this time, the place for the newest class of antihypertensive drugs, the angiotensin II receptor antagonists, remains ... Currently, they are considered reasonable alternatives for patients who have a compelling need for an angiotensin-converting ... Angiotensin II antagonists block all of the known actions of angiotensin II, acting on the cell receptors identified as the AT1 ...
more infohttps://www.aafp.org/afp/1999/0915/p1185.html

PD 123319 ditrifluoroacetate | Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist | MedChemExpressPD 123319 ditrifluoroacetate | Angiotensin Receptor Antagonist | MedChemExpress

... selective AT2 angiotensin II receptor antagonist with IC50 of 34 nM. - Mechanism of Action & Protocol. ... No effect of angiotensin II AT(2)-receptor antagonist PD 123319 on cerebral blood flow autoregulation. J Renin Angiotensin ... No effect of angiotensin II AT(2)-receptor antagonist PD 123319 on cerebral blood flow autoregulation. J Renin Angiotensin ... PD 123319 (ditrifluoroacetate) is a potent, selective AT2 angiotensin II receptor antagonist with IC50 of 34 nM. ...
more infohttps://www.medchemexpress.com/PD-123319-ditrifluoroacetate.html

ACE Inhibitor or Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Diabetic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats |...ACE Inhibitor or Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Diabetic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats |...

ACE Inhibitor or Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Diabetic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats. ... ACE Inhibitor or Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Diabetic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats ... ACE Inhibitor or Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Diabetic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats ... ACE Inhibitor or Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist Attenuates Diabetic Neuropathy in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats ...
more infohttp://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/55/2/341

ATC C09C: Anti-hypertensive. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs, sartans)  and breastfeeding. Which are compatible?ATC C09C: Anti-hypertensive. Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs, sartans) and breastfeeding. Which are compatible?

Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs, sartans) by level of risk according e-lactancia.org ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists (ARBs, sartans). *ATC C02(A-K): Anti-hypertensive Anti Alpha-adrenergics, Vasodilators & ...
more infohttp://e-lactancia.org/breastfeeding/atc-c09c-anti-hypertensive-angiotensin-ii-receptor-antagonists-arbs-sartans/group/

References Losartan potassium, non-peptide angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonistReferences Losartan potassium, non-peptide angiotensin II AT1 receptor antagonist

... receptor antagonist (ab120997) has been cited in 4 publications. Find out more about the references ... Oliveira PA et al. Angiotensin II type 1/adenosine A 2A receptor oligomers: a novel target for tardive dyskinesia. Sci Rep 7: ... Ageeva LV et al. Data supporting that adipose-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells express angiotensin II receptors in situ ... Agonists, activators, antagonists and inhibitors. Lysates. Multiplex Assays. By research area. Cancer. Cardiovascular. Cell ...
more infohttps://www.abcam.com/losartan-potassium-non-peptide-angiotensin-ii-at1-receptor-antagonist-ab120997-references.html

Angiotensin converting enzyme genotype influences the response to the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan in patients...Angiotensin converting enzyme genotype influences the response to the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan in patients...

To examine whether the response to the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan varies depending on the angiotensin ... Angiotensin converting enzyme genotype influences the response to the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan in patients ... To examine whether the response to the angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan varies depending on the angiotensin ... 0/Antihypertensive Agents; 0/Receptors, Angiotensin; 114798-26-4/Losartan; EC 3.4.15.1/Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A ...
more infohttp://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Angiotensin-converting-enzyme-genotype-influences/15080371.html

Candesartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist, Suppresses Pancreatic Inflammation and Fibrosis in Rats | Journal of...Candesartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist, Suppresses Pancreatic Inflammation and Fibrosis in Rats | Journal of...

Candesartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist, Suppresses Pancreatic Inflammation and Fibrosis in Rats. Tamaki Yamada, ... Candesartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist, Suppresses Pancreatic Inflammation and Fibrosis in Rats. Tamaki Yamada, ... Candesartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist, Suppresses Pancreatic Inflammation and Fibrosis in Rats. Tamaki Yamada, ... Candesartan, an Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonist, Suppresses Pancreatic Inflammation and Fibrosis in Rats ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/early/2003/08/27/jpet.103.053322

Current Guidelines for Using Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II-Receptor Antagonists in Chronic Kidney...Current Guidelines for Using Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II-Receptor Antagonists in Chronic Kidney...

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin IIâ€"receptor antagonists are recommended for patients with chronic ... Current Guidelines for Using Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II-Receptor Antagonists in Chronic Kidney ... Current Guidelines for Using Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors and Angiotensin II-Receptor Antagonists in Chronic Kidney ... The authors found that current guidelines for the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin IIâ€"receptor ...
more infohttps://annals.org/aim/article-abstract/744503/current-guidelines-using-angiotensin-converting-enzyme-inhibitors-angiotensin-ii-receptor

Structure-Activity Relationship of the Agonist-Antagonist Transition on the Type 1 Angiotensin II Receptor; the Search for...Structure-Activity Relationship of the Agonist-Antagonist Transition on the Type 1 Angiotensin II Receptor; the Search for...

... antagonists have been mostly reported to behave in a more or less competitive fashion. Thus, reinforcing the view of ... Angiotensin II Receptors and Angiotensin II Receptor Antagonists, Pharmacological Reviews 45 (1993) 205-247.PubMedGoogle ... Structure-Activity Relationship of the Agonist-Antagonist Transition on the Type 1 Angiotensin II Receptor; the Search for ... 1996) Structure-Activity Relationship of the Agonist-Antagonist Transition on the Type 1 Angiotensin II Receptor; the Search ...
more infohttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4899-1376-0_14

Dilated Cardiomyopathy Medication: ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs), Cardiovascular, Others, Aldosterone...Dilated Cardiomyopathy Medication: ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs), Cardiovascular, Others, Aldosterone...

... angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta-blockers, aldosterone antagonists, cardiac glycosides, diuretics, nitrates, vasodilators ... Angiotensin II Receptor Blockers (ARBs). Class Summary. Angiotensin receptor blockers are as effective as ACE inhibitors in the ... blocks the vasoconstrictor effects of angiotensin II by selectively blocking binding of angiotensin II to the AT-1 receptor in ... Enalapril prevents conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II, a potent vasoconstrictor, resulting in increased levels of ...
more infohttps://emedicine.medscape.com/article/152696-medication

Disposition of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist L-158,809 in rats and rhesus monkeys. | Drug Metabolism & DispositionDisposition of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist L-158,809 in rats and rhesus monkeys. | Drug Metabolism & Disposition

Disposition of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist L-158,809 in rats and rhesus monkeys.. A E Colletti and P A Krieter ... Disposition of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist L-158,809 in rats and rhesus monkeys.. A E Colletti and P A Krieter ... Disposition of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist L-158,809 in rats and rhesus monkeys.. A E Colletti and P A Krieter ... The disposition of the angiotensin II receptor antagonist L-158,809 was studied in male rats and female rhesus monkeys. Rats ...
more infohttp://dmd.aspetjournals.org/content/22/2/183

Interaction of nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists with the urate transporter in rat renal brush-border membranes. |...Interaction of nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists with the urate transporter in rat renal brush-border membranes. |...

Interaction of nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists with the urate transporter in rat renal brush-border membranes.. ... Interaction of nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists with the urate transporter in rat renal brush-border membranes.. ... Interaction of nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists with the urate transporter in rat renal brush-border membranes.. ... Interaction of nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonists with the urate transporter in rat renal brush-border membranes. ...
more infohttp://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/276/1/125

CiNii 論文 - 
 		
 		
 			
 		 	
 		 		
 		 			A Novel Angiotensin II-Receptor Antagonist, 606A, Induces Regression of Cardiac...CiNii 論文 - A Novel Angiotensin II-Receptor Antagonist, 606A, Induces Regression of Cardiac...

Effects of losartan, a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist, on cardiac hypertrophy and the tissue angiotensin II ... Significance of angiotensin II receptor blockers with high affinity to angiotensin II type 1 receptors for vascular protection ... A Novel Angiotensin II-Receptor Antagonist, 606A, Induces Regression of Cardiac Hypertrophy, Augments Endothelium-Dependent ... Proximal nephron and renal effects of DuP753, a nonpeptide angiotensin II receptor antagonist XIE MH. ...
more infohttp://ci.nii.ac.jp/naid/10008191538

2002 - Review: Angiotensin II receptor antagonists prevent headache in patients with
         mild-to-moderate hypertension |...2002 - Review: Angiotensin II receptor antagonists prevent headache in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension |...

Do angiotensin II receptor antagonists, similar to β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme ... Angiotensin II receptor antagonists vs placebo for preventing headache*. Outcome. Weighted event rates. RRR (95% CI). NNT (CI) ... Review: Angiotensin II receptor antagonists prevent headache in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension PDF. ACP J Club. ... I will use angiotensin II receptor antagonists as needed for hypertension control and hope that the hypothesis of this study is ...
more infohttp://acpjc.org/Content/138/1/issue/ACPJC-2003-138-1-012.htm

The angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan reduces blood pressure but not renal injury in obese Zucker rats. | American...The angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan reduces blood pressure but not renal injury in obese Zucker rats. | American...

The angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan reduces blood pressure but not renal injury in obese Zucker rats.. G S Crary, S ... The angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan reduces blood pressure but not renal injury in obese Zucker rats. ... The angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan reduces blood pressure but not renal injury in obese Zucker rats. ... The angiotensin II receptor antagonist losartan reduces blood pressure but not renal injury in obese Zucker rats. ...
more infohttps://jasn.asnjournals.org/content/6/4/1295
  • We believe to possess the necessary tools (enlarged but planar aromatic side-chains in position 8) in order to explore the concept of inverse agonism on the mammalian AT1 receptor. (springer.com)
  • AT 2 receptors are found in many tissues, including those of the adrenal medulla, uterus, ovary and other brain regions, but they are not known to be related to cardiovascular homeostasis. (aafp.org)
  • This concept presents the receptor as a dynamic structure capable of undergoing a conformational change between a biologically active and an inactive form. (springer.com)
  • These receptors are widespread in organs and tissues but are found predominately in vascular and myocardial tissue, the liver, the adrenal cortex (i.e., the zona glomerulosa tissue, which secretes aldosterone) and some areas of the brain. (aafp.org)
  • Modulation of angiotensin II binding affinity by allosteric interaction of polyvinyl sulfate with an intracellular domain of the DuP-753-sensitive angiotensin II receptor of bovine adrenal glomerulosa. (medchemexpress.com)
  • AT1 receptors are mainly found in the heart, adrenal glands, brain, liver and kidneys. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the adult, AT2 receptors are present only at low levels and are mostly found in the heart, adrenal glands, uterus, ovaries, kidneys and brain. (wikipedia.org)
  • Currently, they are considered reasonable alternatives for patients who have a compelling need for an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor but develop a cough while taking this medication. (aafp.org)
  • Thus, reinforcing the view of competitive analogues being compounds which can reversibly bind without producing any biological response to the receptor as well as competing with an agonist (e.g. (springer.com)
  • All peptidic Ang analogues bind to the same locus on the AT1 receptor but non-peptidic AT1 binding compounds (e.g. (springer.com)
  • Before that attempts had been made to develop useful Ang II receptor antagonists and initially, the main focus was on angiotensin peptide analogues. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two compounds, S-8307 and S-8308, were later found to be highly specific and promising non-peptide Ang II receptor antagonists but using molecular modeling it was seen that their structures would have to mimic more closely the pharmacophore of Ang II. (wikipedia.org)